WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive optics demonstrator

  1. Joint optimization of phase diversity and adaptive optics : Demonstration of potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkiakoski, V.; Keller, C.U.; Doelman, N.; Fraanje, P.R.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    We study different possibilities to use adaptive optics (AO) and phase diversity (PD) together in a jointly optimized system. The potential of the joint system is demonstrated through numerical simulations. We find that the most significant benefits are obtained from the improved deconvolution of

  2. Demonstration of a vectorial optical field generator with adaptive close loop control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Kong, Lingjiang; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a vectorial optical field generator (VOF-Gen) with an adaptive close loop control. The close loop control capability is illustrated with the calibration of polarization modulation of the system. To calibrate the polarization ratio modulation, we generate 45° linearly polarized beam and make it propagate through a linear analyzer whose transmission axis is orthogonal to the incident beam. For the retardation calibration, circularly polarized beam is employed and a circular polarization analyzer with the opposite chirality is placed in front of the CCD as the detector. In both cases, the close loop control automatically changes the value of the corresponding calibration parameters in the pre-set ranges to generate the phase patterns applied to the spatial light modulators and records the intensity distribution of the output beam by the CCD camera. The optimized calibration parameters are determined corresponding to the minimum total intensity in each case. Several typical kinds of vectorial optical beams are created with and without the obtained calibration parameters, and the full Stokes parameter measurements are carried out to quantitatively analyze the polarization distribution of the generated beams. The comparisons among these results clearly show that the obtained calibration parameters could remarkably improve the accuracy of the polarization modulation of the VOF-Gen, especially for generating elliptically polarized beam with large ellipticity, indicating the significance of the presented close loop in enhancing the performance of the VOF-Gen.

  3. Experimental demonstration of single-mode fiber coupling over relatively strong turbulence with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao

    2015-10-10

    High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.

  4. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  5. DYNAMISM OF DOT SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION DEMONSTRATED WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Godara, Pooja; Zhang, Tianjiao; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the natural history of dot subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) in age-related macular degeneration, using high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Six eyes of four patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration were studied at baseline and 1 year later. Individual dot SDD within the central 30° retina were examined with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. A total of 269 solitary SDD were identified at baseline. Over 12.25 ± 1.18 months, all 35 Stage 1 SDD progressed to advanced stages. Eighteen (60%) Stage 2 lesions progressed to Stage 3 and 12 (40%) remained at Stage 2. Of 204 Stage 3 SDD, 12 (6.4%) disappeared and the rest remained. Twelve new SDD were identified, including 6 (50%) at Stage 1, 2 (16.7%) at Stage 2, and 4 (33.3%) at Stage 3. The mean percentage of the retina affected by dot SDD, measured by the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, increased in 5/6 eyes (from 2.31% to 5.08% in the most changed eye) and decreased slightly in 1/6 eye (from 10.67% to 10.54%). Dynamism, the absolute value of the areas affected by new and regressed lesions, ranged from 0.7% to 9.3%. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy reveals that dot SDD, like drusen, are dynamic.

  6. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  8. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  9. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  10. Solar Adaptive Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  11. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  12. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  13. Science with Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandner, Wolfgang; ESO Workshop

    2005-01-01

    The field of Adaptive Optics (AO) for astronomy has matured in recent years, and diffraction-limited image resolution in the near-infrared is now routinely achieved by ground-based 8 to 10m class telescopes. This book presents the proceedings of the ESO Workshop on Science with Adaptive Optics held in the fall of 2003. The book provides an overview on AO instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction strategies, and covers observations of the sun, solar system objects, circumstellar disks, substellar companions, HII regions, starburst environments, late-type stars, the galactic center, active galaxies, and quasars. The contributions present a vivid picture of the multitude of science topics being addressed by AO in observational astronomy.

  14. Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L

    2015-11-01

    This review starts with a brief history and description of adaptive optics (AO) technology, followed by a showcase of the latest capabilities of AO systems for imaging the human retina and an extensive review of the literature on where AO is being used clinically. The review concludes with a discussion on future directions and guidance on usage and interpretation of images from AO systems for the eye.

  15. Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L.

    2015-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history and description of adaptive optics (AO) technology, followed by a showcase of the latest capabilities of AO systems for imaging the human retina and an extensive review of the literature on where AO is being used clinically. The review concludes with a discussion on future directions and guidance on usage and interpretation of images from AO systems for the eye.

  16. Center for Adaptive Optics | Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optics Software The Center for Adaptive Optics acts as a clearing house for distributing Software to Institutes it gives specialists in Adaptive Optics a place to distribute their software. All software is shared on an "as-is" basis and the users should consult with the software authors with any

  17. Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai

    2017-02-01

    Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.

  18. Accuracies Of Optical Processors For Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of accuracies and requirements concerning accuracies of optical linear-algebra processors (OLAP's) in adaptive-optics imaging systems. Much faster than digital electronic processor and eliminate some residual distortion. Question whether errors introduced by analog processing of OLAP overcome advantage of greater speed. Paper addresses issue by presenting estimate of accuracy required in general OLAP that yields smaller average residual aberration of wave front than digital electronic processor computing at given speed.

  19. Maritime adaptive optics beam control

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    The Navy is interested in developing systems for horizontal, near ocean surface, high-energy laser propagation through the atmosphere. Laser propagation in the maritime environment requires adaptive optics control of aberrations caused by atmospheric distortion. In this research, a multichannel transverse adaptive filter is formulated in Matlab's Simulink environment and compared to a complex lattice filter that has previously been implemented in large system simulations. The adaptive fil...

  20. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  1. Adaptive Optics, LLLFT Interferometry, Astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    We propose to build a three telescope Michelson optical interferometer equipped with wavefront compensation technology as a demonstration and test bed for high resolution Deep Space Surveillance (DSS) and Astronomy...

  2. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    pt. 1. Wavefront correctors and control. Liquid crystal lenses for correction of presbyopia (Invited Paper) / Guoqiang Li and Nasser Peyghambarian. Converging and diverging liquid crystal lenses (oral paper) / Andrew X. Kirby, Philip J. W. Hands, and Gordon D. Love. Liquid lens technology for miniature imaging systems: status of the technology, performance of existing products and future trends (invited paper) / Bruno Berge. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer deformable mirrors for high energy laser applications (oral paper) / S. R. Restaino ... [et al.]. Tiny multilayer deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Tatiana Cherezova ... [et al.]. Performance analysis of piezoelectric deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Oleg Soloviev, Mikhail Loktev and Gleb Vdovin. Deformable membrane mirror with high actuator density and distributed control (oral paper) / Roger Hamelinck ... [et al.]. Characterization and closed-loop demonstration of a novel electrostatic membrane mirror using COTS membranes (oral paper) / David Dayton ... [et al.]. Electrostatic micro-deformable mirror based on polymer materials (oral paper) / Frederic Zamkotsian ... [et al.]. Recent progress in CMOS integrated MEMS A0 mirror development (oral paper) / A. Gehner ... [et al.]. Compact large-stroke piston-tip-tilt actuator and mirror (oral paper) / W. Noell ... [et al.]. MEMS deformable mirrors for high performance AO applications (oral paper) / Paul Bierden, Thomas Bifano and Steven Cornelissen. A versatile interferometric test-rig for the investigation and evaluation of ophthalmic AO systems (poster paper) / Steve Gruppetta, Jiang Jian Zhong and Luis Diaz-Santana. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics (poster paper) / Thomas Farrell and Chris Dainty. Deformable mirrors based on transversal piezoeffect (poster paper) / Gleb Vdovin, Mikhail Loktev and Oleg Soloviev. Low-cost spatial light modulators for ophthalmic applications (poster paper) / Vincente Durán ... [et al.]. Latest MEMS DM developments and the path ahead

  3. Advancing High Contrast Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, M.; Poyneer, L.; GPI Team

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing challenge has been to directly image faint extrasolar planets adjacent to their host suns, which may be ~1-10 million times brighter than the planet. Several extreme AO systems designed for high-contrast observations have been tested at this point, including SPHERE, Magellan AO, PALM-3000, Project 1640, NICI, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI, Macintosh et al. 2014). The GPI is the world's most advanced high-contrast adaptive optics system on an 8-meter telescope for detecting and characterizing planets outside of our solar system. GPI will detect a previously unstudied population of young analogs to the giant planets of our solar system and help determine how planetary systems form. GPI employs a 44x44 woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 1 kHz. The controller uses Fourier-based reconstruction and modal gains optimized from system telemetry (Poyneer et al. 2005, 2007). GPI has an apodized Lyot coronal graph to suppress diffraction and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for obtaining planetary spectra. This paper discusses current performance limitations and presents the necessary instrumental modifications and sensitivity calculations for scenarios related to high-contrast observations of non-sidereal targets.

  4. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to provide localized, real-time monitoring of material regression rates in various applications has the potential to provide a new stream of data for development testing of various components and systems, as well as serving as a monitoring tool in flight applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the regression of a combusting solid fuel surface, the ablation of the throat in a chemical rocket or the heat shield of an aeroshell, and the monitoring of erosion in long-life plasma thrusters. The rate of regression in the first application is very fast, while the second and third are increasingly slower. A recent fundamental sensor development effort has led to a novel regression, erosion, and ablation sensor technology (REAST). The REAST sensor allows for measurement of real-time surface erosion rates at a discrete surface location. The sensor is optical, using two different, co-located fiber-optics to perform the regression measurement. The disparate optical transmission properties of the two fiber-optics makes it possible to measure the regression rate by monitoring the relative light attenuation through the fibers. As the fibers regress along with the parent material in which they are embedded, the relative light intensities through the two fibers changes, providing a measure of the regression rate. The optical nature of the system makes it relatively easy to use in a variety of harsh, high temperature environments, and it is also unaffected by the presence of electric and magnetic fields. In addition, the sensor could be used to perform optical spectroscopy on the light emitted by a process and collected by fibers, giving localized measurements of various properties. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of material regression rates is useful in addressing a variety of physical issues in various applications. An in-situ measurement allows for real-time data regarding the erosion rates, providing a quick method for

  5. Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Fredrick A; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Bower, Andrew J; Xu, Yang; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    In many optical imaging applications, it is necessary to correct for aberrations to obtain high quality images. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides access to the amplitude and phase of the backscattered optical field for three-dimensional (3D) imaging samples. Computational adaptive optics (CAO) modifies the phase of the OCT data in the spatial frequency domain to correct optical aberrations without using a deformable mirror, as is commonly done in hardware-based adaptive optics (AO). This provides improvement of image quality throughout the 3D volume, enabling imaging across greater depth ranges and in highly aberrated samples. However, the CAO aberration correction has a complicated relation to the imaging pupil and is not a direct measurement of the pupil aberrations. Here we present new methods for recovering the wavefront aberrations directly from the OCT data without the use of hardware adaptive optics. This enables both computational measurement and correction of optical aberrations.

  6. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Battu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  7. Experimental Demonstrations of Optical Neural Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ken; Brady, David; Psaltis, Demetri

    1988-01-01

    We describe two experiments in optical neural computing. In the first a closed optical feedback loop is used to implement auto-associative image recall. In the second a perceptron-like learning algorithm is implemented with photorefractive holography.

  8. Optical implementations of associative networks with versatile adaptive learning capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Lippincott, W L; Lee, J N

    1987-12-01

    Optical associative, parallel-processing architectures are being developed using a multimodule approach, where a number of smaller, adaptive, associative modules are nonlinearly interconnected and cascaded under the guidance of a variety of organizational principles to structure larger architectures for solving specific problems. A number of novel optical implementations with versatile adaptive learning capabilities are presented for the individual associative modules, including holographic configurations and five specific electrooptic configurations. The practical issues involved in real optical architectures are analyzed, and actual laboratory optical implementations of associative modules based on Hebbian and Widrow-Hoff learning rules are discussed, including successful experimental demonstrations of their operation.

  9. A fiber-optic polarimetric demonstration kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Dimitrova, T L; Ivanov, G

    2012-01-01

    A simple and multifunctional fiber-optic polarimetric kit on the basis of highly birefringent single-mode fibers is presented. The fiber-optic polarimetric kit allows us to perform the following laboratory exercises: (i) fiber excitation and the measurement of numerical aperture, (ii) polarization preservation and (iii) obtain polarization-sensitive fiberized interferometers.

  10. Demonstrating optical aberrations in the laboratory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available THE TANGENTIAL AND SAGITTAL FOCI DO NOT COINCIDE AND THE SYSTEM APPEARS TO HAVE 2 POINTS OF FOCUS SAGITTAL PLANE TANGENTIAL PLANE TANGENTIAL IMAGE OPTICAL AXIS OBJECT POINT SAGITTAL IMAGE ASTIGMATISM © CSIR 2008 www....csir.co.za ASTIGMATISM ARISES WHEN THE TANGENTIAL AND SAGITTAL FOCI DO NOT COINCIDE AND THE SYSTEM APPEARS TO HAVE 2 POINTS OF FOCUS SAGITTAL PLANE TANGENTIAL PLANE TANGENTIAL IMAGE OPTICAL AXIS OBJECT POINT SAGITTAL IMAGE FOCAL PLANE COMA IMAGE A B θ COMA...

  11. A Miniaturized Adaptive Optic Device for Optical Telecommunications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To advance the state-of-the-art uplink laser communication technology, new adaptive optic beam compensation techniques are needed for removing various time-varying...

  12. Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Gyunam; Jeong, Junhee; Park, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Through-focus optical microscopy (TSOM) with nanometer-scale lateral and vertical sensitivity levels matching those of scanning electron microscopy has been demonstrated to be useful both for 3D inspections and metrology assessments. In 2014, funded by two private companies (Nextin/Samsung Electronics) and the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT), a research team from four universities in South Korea set out to investigate core technologies for developing in-line TSOM inspection and metrology tools, with the respective teams focusing on optics implementation, defect inspection, computer simulation and high-speed metrology matching. We initially confirmed the reported validity of the TSOM operation through a computer simulation, after which we implemented the TSOM operation by throughfocus scanning of existing UV (355nm) and IR (800nm) inspection tools. These tools have an identical sampling distance of 150 nm but have different resolving distances (310 and 810 nm, respectively). We initially experienced some improvement in the defect inspection sensitivity level over TSV (through-silicon via) samples with 6.6 μm diameters. However, during the experiment, we noted sensitivity and instability issues when attempting to acquire TSOM images. As TSOM 3D information is indirectly extracted by differentiating a target TSOM image from reference TSOM images, any instability or mismatch in imaging conditions can result in measurement errors. As a remedy to such a situation, we proposed the application of adaptive optics to the TSOM operation and developed a closed-loop system with a tip/tilt mirror and a Shack-Hartmann sensor on an optical bench. We were able to keep the plane position within in RMS 0.4 pixel by actively compensating for any position instability which arose during the TSOM scanning process along the optical axis. Currently, we are also developing another TSOM tool with a deformable mirror instead of a tip/tilt mirror, in which case we

  13. Experimental demonstration of all-optical CDMA using bipolar codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tasshi

    1999-10-01

    Fiber optic networks capable of supporting a large pool of subscribers, many simultaneous users, and high data rates are receiving heightened interest as solutions to a growing communications need. The experiments reported in this study constitute the first experimental demonstration of a novel bipolar equivalent code-division multiple-access (CDMA) scheme. The sophisticated encoding increases noise tolerance, provides user security, and enables network flexibility. The scheme is based on an established bipolar radio frequency (RF) technique adapted to the unipolar optical domain. Whereas the phase of an RF signal can be readily detected, the high carrier frequency ( ~ 200 THz at 1.5 μm) of an optical wave necessitates that optical signals be detected and processed solely by intensity. Asynchronous operation makes the CDMA scheme data rate independent, while all-optical implementation avoids the bandwidth limitations imposed by electrical processing. A proof-of-principle experiment was conducted by spectrally encoding an erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) using a diffraction grating and an amplitude mask. The optical properties of the system were measured and the bipolar correlation of codes was verified. The practical implementation of the scheme was investigated by the design, construction, and operation of a fiber-based testbed. Correlation measurements performed with modulated signals confirmed that the scheme can recover a binary information symbol while rejecting multiple access interference. A theoretical analysis of the optical correlation process was conducted, which identified key optical parameters important to future implementations. The theory of excess noise associated with the photodetection of a thermal source was considered, followed by noise measurements of a light bulb and the erbium-doped SFS used for spectral encoding. Finally, the ability of the proposed scheme to effectively transmit data was investigated. Signal-to- noise

  14. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor ‘beacon’ can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains. PMID:21934779

  15. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helin, T; Yudytskiy, M

    2013-01-01

    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem, a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domains. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate-gradient-based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simulation tool OCTOPUS of European Southern Observatory. (paper)

  16. Liquid lens: advances in adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Shawn Patrick

    2010-12-01

    'Liquid lens' technologies promise significant advancements in machine vision and optical communications systems. Adaptations for machine vision, human vision correction, and optical communications are used to exemplify the versatile nature of this technology. Utilization of liquid lens elements allows the cost effective implementation of optical velocity measurement. The project consists of a custom image processor, camera, and interface. The images are passed into customized pattern recognition and optical character recognition algorithms. A single camera would be used for both speed detection and object recognition.

  17. Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Julie; Paques, Michel; Krivosic, Valérie; Dupas, Bénédicte; Couturier, Aude; Kulcsar, Caroline; Tadayoni, Ramin; Massin, Pascale; Gaudric, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To explore the anatomic correlation of the retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. Retrospective nonconsecutive observational case series. A retrospective review of the multimodal imaging charts of 6 patients with focal alteration of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics was performed. Retinal diseases included acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (n = 1), and macular telangiectasia type 2 (n = 4). High-resolution retinal images were obtained using a flood-illumination adaptive optics camera. Images were recorded using standard imaging modalities: color and red-free fundus camera photography; infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. On OCT, in the marginal zone of the lesions, a disappearance of the interdigitation zone was observed, while the ellipsoid zone was preserved. Image recording demonstrated that such attenuation of the interdigitation zone co-localized with the disappearance of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. In 1 case, the restoration of the interdigitation zone paralleled that of the cone mosaic after a 2-month follow-up. Our results suggest that the interdigitation zone could contribute substantially to the reflectance of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. The absence of cones on adaptive optics images does not necessarily mean photoreceptor cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Coming of Age of Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    3-metre telescope in California, as well as the development of an advanced visible-light AO system for satellite reconnaissance and astronomy on Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii. On the scientific side, an overview of the adaptive optics observations that have been carried out with ESO's Come-On-Plus AO system at the 3.6-metre telescope on La Silla during the first 4 years of operation was given by Pierre Lena (Paris Observatory) and forcefully illustrated the power of adaptive optics techniques in astronomy. Impressive recent results were also presented by Bernhard Brandl and collaborators (Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching) on the starburst cluster R136, that is located at the centre of the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This was especially interesting, because the scientific results were obtained by combining high-resolution optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope with diffraction-limited infrared images from the Come-On-Plus system. Without either one of these data sources, the exciting, final results could not have been obtained. They include a very thorough characterization of the stellar types in this extremely young cluster whose age is apparently only a few million years, as well as a detailed description of its dynamical state. This demonstrates once again that, far from being competitors, ground-based AO facilities and space instruments are highly complementary. This perhaps provides an insight into the direction modern astronomy is developing. Adaptive Optics at ESO It is now more than five years since the first AO system, developed in collaboration with institutes in France, was installed at the 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla. Since then, much experience has been gained and the state-of the-art ADONIS/Come-On-Plus AO instrumental constellation is now regularly used by visiting astronomers. It employs a flexible silicon-mirror that is supported by 52 computer-controlled supports. The mirror changes its shape one

  19. Adaptive optical microscope for brain imaging in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The optical heterogeneity of biological tissue imposes a major limitation to acquire detailed structural and functional information deep in the biological specimens using conventional microscopes. To restore optimal imaging performance, we developed an adaptive optical microscope based on direct wavefront sensing technique. This microscope can reliably measure and correct biological samples induced aberration. We demonstrated its performance and application in structural and functional brain imaging in various animal models, including fruit fly, zebrafish and mouse.

  20. AN OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968

    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE LIBRARY SYSTEMS WHICH UTILIZE OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION INPUT HAS CENTERED AROUND OPTICAL PAGE READERS AND DOCUMENT READERS. THE STATE-OF-THE-ART OF BOTH THESE OPTICAL SCANNERS IS SUCH THAT BOTH ARE ACCEPTABLE FOR LIBRARY INPUT PREPARATION. A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT UTILIZING THE TWO TYPES OF READERS, SINCE…

  1. Terahertz adaptive optics with a deformable mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Mathilde; Sauvage, Jean-François; Perrin, Mathias; Abraham, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    We report on the wavefront correction of a terahertz (THz) beam using adaptive optics, which requires both a wavefront sensor that is able to sense the optical aberrations, as well as a wavefront corrector. The wavefront sensor relies on a direct 2D electro-optic imaging system composed of a ZnTe crystal and a CMOS camera. By measuring the phase variation of the THz electric field in the crystal, we were able to minimize the geometrical aberrations of the beam, thanks to the action of a deformable mirror. This phase control will open the route to THz adaptive optics in order to optimize the THz beam quality for both practical and fundamental applications.

  2. Demonstrating Heisenberg-limited unambiguous phase estimation without adaptive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, B L; Wiseman, H M; Pryde, G J; Berry, D W; Bartlett, S D; Mitchell, M W

    2009-01-01

    We derive, and experimentally demonstrate, an interferometric scheme for unambiguous phase estimation with precision scaling at the Heisenberg limit that does not require adaptive measurements. That is, with no prior knowledge of the phase, we can obtain an estimate of the phase with a standard deviation that is only a small constant factor larger than the minimum physically allowed value. Our scheme resolves the phase ambiguity that exists when multiple passes through a phase shift, or NOON states, are used to obtain improved phase resolution. Like a recently introduced adaptive technique (Higgins et al 2007 Nature 450 393), our experiment uses multiple applications of the phase shift on single photons. By not requiring adaptive measurements, but rather using a predetermined measurement sequence, the present scheme is both conceptually simpler and significantly easier to implement. Additionally, we demonstrate a simplified adaptive scheme that also surpasses the standard quantum limit for single passes.

  3. Micromirror Arrays for Adaptive Optics; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The long-range goal of this project is to develop the optical and mechanical design of a micromirror array for adaptive optics that will meet the following criteria: flat mirror surface ((lambda)/20), high fill factor ( and gt; 95%), large stroke (5-10(micro)m), and pixel size(approx)-200(micro)m. This will be accomplished by optimizing the mirror surface and actuators independently and then combining them using bonding technologies that are currently being developed

  4. Generation of optical vortices with an adaptive helical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Devinder Pal

    2011-04-01

    Generation of optical vortices using a new design of adaptive helical mirror (AHM) is reported. The new AHM is a reflective device that can generate an optical vortex of any desired topological charge, both positive and negative, within its breakdown limits. The most fascinating feature of the AHM is that the topological charge of the optical vortex generated with it can be changed in real time by varying the excitation voltage. Generation of optical vortices up to topological charge 4 has been demonstrated. The presence of a vortex in the optical field generated with the AHM is confirmed by producing both fork and spiral fringes in an interferometric setup. Various design improvements to further enhance the performance of the reported AHM are discussed. Some of the important applications of AHM are also listed. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  5. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  6. The TMT Adaptive Optics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbroek, Brent

    2011-09-01

    We provide an overview of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) AO program, with an emphasis upon the progress made since the first AO4ELT conference held in 2009. The first light facility AO system for TMT is the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS), which will provide diffraction-limited performance in the J, H, and K bands over 18-30 arc sec diameter fields with 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole. This is accomplished with order 60x60 wavefront sensing and correction, two deformable mirrors conjugate to ranges of 0 and 11.2 km, 6 sodium laser guide stars in an asterism with a diameter of 70 arc sec, and three low order (tip/tilt or tip/tilt focus), infra-red natural guide star (NGS) wavefront sensors deployable within a 2 arc minute diameter patrol field. The first light LGS asterism is generated by the Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF), which initially incorporates 6 20-25W class laser systems mounted to the telescope elevation journal, a mirror-based beam transfer optics system, and a 0.4m diameter laser launch telescope located behind the TMT secondary mirror. Future plans for additional AO capabilities include a mid infra-red AO (MIRAO) system to support science instruments in the 4-20 micron range, a ground-layer AO (GLAO) system for wide-field spectroscopy, a multi-object AO (MOAO) system for multi-object integral field unit spectroscopy, and extreme AO (ExAO) for high contrast imaging. Significant progress has been made in developing the first-light AO architecture since 2009. This includes the adoption of a new NFIRAOS opto-mechanical design consisting of two off-axis parabola (OAP) relays in series, which eliminates field distortion and also significantly simplifies the designs of the LGS wavefront sensors, optical source simulators, and turbulence generator subsystem. The design of the LGSF has also been interated, and has been simplfied by the relocation of the (smaller, gravity invarient) laser systems to the telescope elevation journal

  7. Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Cuihong; Fan Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the αth fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

  8. Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu

    2011-01-01

    A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other. PMID:21698035

  9. Brillouin micro-spectroscopy through aberrations via sensorless adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrei, Eitan; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2018-04-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is a powerful optical technique for non-contact viscoelastic characterizations which has recently found applications in three-dimensional mapping of biological samples. Brillouin spectroscopy performances are rapidly degraded by optical aberrations and have therefore been limited to homogenous transparent samples. In this work, we developed an adaptive optics (AO) configuration designed for Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to engineer the incident wavefront and correct for aberrations. Our configuration does not require direct wavefront sensing and the injection of a "guide-star"; hence, it can be implemented without the need for sample pre-treatment. We used our AO-Brillouin spectrometer in aberrated phantoms and biological samples and obtained improved precision and resolution of Brillouin spectral analysis; we demonstrated 2.5-fold enhancement in Brillouin signal strength and 1.4-fold improvement in axial resolution because of the correction of optical aberrations.

  10. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  11. Multifocal multiphoton microscopy with adaptive optical correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Simao; Poland, Simon; Krstajic, Nikola; Li, David; Monypenny, James; Walker, Richard; Tyndall, David; Ng, Tony; Henderson, Robert; Ameer-Beg, Simon

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a well established approach for measuring dynamic signalling events inside living cells, including detection of protein-protein interactions. The improvement in optical penetration of infrared light compared with linear excitation due to Rayleigh scattering and low absorption have provided imaging depths of up to 1mm in brain tissue but significant image degradation occurs as samples distort (aberrate) the infrared excitation beam. Multiphoton time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) FLIM is a method for obtaining functional, high resolution images of biological structures. In order to achieve good statistical accuracy TCSPC typically requires long acquisition times. We report the development of a multifocal multiphoton microscope (MMM), titled MegaFLI. Beam parallelization performed via a 3D Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), increases TCSPC count rate proportional to the number of beamlets produced. A weighted 3D GS algorithm is employed to improve homogeneity. An added benefit is the implementation of flexible and adaptive optical correction. Adaptive optics performed by means of Zernike polynomials are used to correct for system induced aberrations. Here we present results with significant improvement in throughput obtained using a novel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) 1024 pixel single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array, opening the way to truly high-throughput FLIM.

  12. The Durham Adaptive Optics Simulation Platform (DASP): Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Basden, Alastair; Bharmal, Nazim; Jenkins, David; Morris, Timothy; Osborn, James; Jia, Peng; Staykov, Lazar

    2018-01-01

    The Durham Adaptive Optics Simulation Platform (DASP) is a Monte-Carlo modelling tool used for the simulation of astronomical and solar adaptive optics systems. In recent years, this tool has been used to predict the expected performance of the forthcoming extremely large telescope adaptive optics systems, and has seen the addition of several modules with new features, including Fresnel optics propagation and extended object wavefront sensing. Here, we provide an overview of the features of D...

  13. Demonstration of optical computing logics based on binary decision diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyun; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi

    2012-01-16

    Optical circuits are low power consumption and fast speed alternatives for the current information processing based on transistor circuits. However, because of no transistor function available in optics, the architecture for optical computing should be chosen that optics prefers. One of which is Binary Decision Diagram (BDD), where signal is processed by sending an optical signal from the root through a serial of switching nodes to the leaf (terminal). Speed of optical computing is limited by either transmission time of optical signals from the root to the leaf or switching time of a node. We have designed and experimentally demonstrated 1-bit and 2-bit adders based on the BDD architecture. The switching nodes are silicon ring resonators with a modulation depth of 10 dB and the states are changed by the plasma dispersion effect. The quality, Q of the rings designed is 1500, which allows fast transmission of signal, e.g., 1.3 ps calculated by a photon escaping time. A total processing time is thus analyzed to be ~9 ps for a 2-bit adder and would scales linearly with the number of bit. It is two orders of magnitude faster than the conventional CMOS circuitry, ~ns scale of delay. The presented results show the potential of fast speed optical computing circuits.

  14. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  15. Lithographic manufacturing of adaptive optics components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. Phillip; Jean, Madison; Johnson, Lee; Gatlin, Ridley; Bronson, Ryan; Milster, Tom; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Adaptive optics systems and their laboratory test environments call for a number of unusual optical components. Examples include lenslet arrays, pyramids, and Kolmogorov phase screens. Because of their specialized application, the availability of these parts is generally limited, with high cost and long lead time, which can also significantly drive optical system design. These concerns can be alleviated by a fast and inexpensive method of optical fabrication. To that end, we are exploring direct-write lithographic techniques to manufacture three different custom elements. We report results from a number of prototype devices including 1, 2, and 3 wave Multiple Order Diffractive (MOD) lenslet arrays with 0.75 mm pitch and phase screens with near Kolmogorov structure functions with a Fried length r0 around 1 mm. We also discuss plans to expand our research to include a diffractive pyramid that is smaller, lighter, and more easily manufactured than glass versions presently used in pyramid wavefront sensors. We describe how these components can be produced within the limited dynamic range of the lithographic process, and with a rapid prototyping and manufacturing cycle. We discuss exploratory manufacturing methods, including replication, and potential observing techniques enabled by the ready availability of custom components.

  16. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope design with adaptive optics

    OpenAIRE

    Laut, SP; Jones, SM; Olivier, SS; Werner, JS

    2005-01-01

    A design for a high-resolution scanning instrument is presented for in vivo imaging of the human eye at the cellular scale. This system combines adaptive optics technology with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) to image structures with high lateral (∼2 μm) resolution. In this system, the ocular wavefront aberrations that reduce the resolution of conventional SLOs are detected by a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, and compensated with two deformable mirrors in a closed-loop for dynamic cor...

  17. Task performance in astronomical adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, J. C.; Caucci, Luca

    2006-06-01

    In objective or task-based assessment of image quality, figures of merit are defined by the performance of some specific observer on some task of scientific interest. This methodology is well established in medical imaging but is just beginning to be applied in astronomy. In this paper we survey the theory needed to understand the performance of ideal or ideal-linear (Hotelling) observers on detection tasks with adaptive-optical data. The theory is illustrated by discussing its application to detection of exoplanets from a sequence of short-exposure images.

  18. Adaptive optics and laser guide stars at Lick observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    For the past several years LLNL has been developing adaptive optics systems for correction of both atmospheric turbulence effects and thermal distortions in optics for high-power lasers. Our early work focused on adaptive optics for beam control in laser isotope separation and ground-based free electron lasers. We are currently developing innovative adaptive optics and laser systems for sodium laser guide star applications at the University of California`s Lick and Keck Observeratories. This talk will describe our adaptive optics technology and some of its applications in high-resolution imaging and beam control.

  19. Demonstration of theoretical and experimental simulations in fiber optics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tianfu; Wang, Xiaolin; Shi, Jianhua; Lei, Bing; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Hu, Haojun

    2017-08-01

    "Fiber optics" course plays a supporting effect in the curriculum frame of optics and photonics at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Moreover, the course can be treated as compulsory for students specialized in the fiber-related field, such as fiber communication, fiber sensing and fiber light source. The corresponding content in fiber optics requires the knowledge of geometrical and physical optics as background, including basic optical theory and fiber components in practice. Thus, to help the students comprehend the relatively abundant and complex content, it is necessary to investigate novel teaching method assistant the classic lectures. In this paper, we introduce the multidimensional pattern in fiber-optics teaching involving theoretical and laboratory simulations. First, the theoretical simulations is demonstrated based on the self-developed software named "FB tool" which can be installed in both smart phone with Android operating system and personal computer. FB tool covers the fundamental calculations relating to transverse modes, fiber lasers and nonlinearities and so on. By comparing the calculation results with other commercial software like COMSOL, SFTool shows high accuracy with high speed. Then the laboratory simulations are designed including fiber coupling, Erbium doped fiber amplifiers, fiber components and so on. The simulations not only supports students understand basic knowledge in the course, but also provides opportunities to develop creative projects in fiber optics.

  20. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  1. Experimental demonstration of illusion optics with ``external cloaking'' effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Guochang; Li, Fang; Fang, Guangyou

    2011-08-01

    A metamaterial "illusion optics" with "complementary medium" and "restoring medium" is designed by using inductor-capacitor (L-C) network medium. The unprecedented effects of "external cloaking" and "transforming one object to appear as another" are demonstrated experimentally. We also demonstrate that the non-resonant nature of the L-C network decreases the sensitivity of the "external cloaking" effect to the variation of the frequency and results in an acceptable bandwidth of the whole device.

  2. Optics Demonstration with Student Eyeglasses Using the Inquiry Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    A favorite qualitative optics demonstration I perform in introductory physics classes makes use of students' eyeglasses to introduce converging and diverging lenses. Taking on the persona of a magician, I walk to the back of the classroom and approach a student wearing glasses. The top part of Fig. 1 shows a glasses-wearing student who is…

  3. Object-oriented Matlab adaptive optics toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, R.; Correia, C.

    2014-08-01

    Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics (OOMAO) is a Matlab toolbox dedicated to Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. OOMAO is based on a small set of classes representing the source, atmosphere, telescope, wavefront sensor, Deformable Mirror (DM) and an imager of an AO system. This simple set of classes allows simulating Natural Guide Star (NGS) and Laser Guide Star (LGS) Single Conjugate AO (SCAO) and tomography AO systems on telescopes up to the size of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). The discrete phase screens that make the atmosphere model can be of infinite size, useful for modeling system performance on large time scales. OOMAO comes with its own parametric influence function model to emulate different types of DMs. The cone effect, altitude thickness and intensity profile of LGSs are also reproduced. Both modal and zonal modeling approach are implemented. OOMAO has also an extensive library of theoretical expressions to evaluate the statistical properties of turbulence wavefronts. The main design characteristics of the OOMAO toolbox are object-oriented modularity, vectorized code and transparent parallel computing. OOMAO has been used to simulate and to design the Multi-Object AO prototype Raven at the Subaru telescope and the Laser Tomography AO system of the Giant Magellan Telescope. In this paper, a Laser Tomography AO system on an ELT is simulated with OOMAO. In the first part, we set-up the class parameters and we link the instantiated objects to create the source optical path. Then we build the tomographic reconstructor and write the script for the pseudo-open-loop controller.

  4. Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optics for microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Na; Milkie, Daniel E.; Betzig, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Inhomogeneous optical properties of biological samples make it difficult to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in depth. Correcting the sample-induced optical aberrations needs adaptive optics (AO). However, the direct wavefront-sensing approach commonly used in astronomy is not suitable for most biological samples due to their strong scattering of light. We developed an image-based AO approach that is insensitive to sample scattering. By comparing images of the sample taken with different segments of the pupil illuminated, local tilt in the wavefront is measured from image shift. The aberrated wavefront is then obtained either by measuring the local phase directly using interference or with phase reconstruction algorithms similar to those used in astronomical AO. We implemented this pupil-segmentation-based approach in a two-photon fluorescence microscope and demonstrated that diffraction-limited resolution can be recovered from nonbiological and biological samples.

  5. Experimental demonstration of SCMA-OFDM for passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bangjiang; Tang, Xuan; Shen, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Min; Lin, Chun; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2017-12-01

    We introduces a novel architecture for next generation passive optical network (PON) based on the employment of sparse code multiple access (SCMA) combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation, in which the binary data is directly encoded to multi-dimensional codewords and then spread over OFDM subcarriers. The feasibility of SCMA-OFDM-PON is verified with experimental demonstration. We show that the SCMA-OFDM offers 150% overloading gain in the number of optical network units compared with the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access.

  6. Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G; Graf, Benedikt W; Ahmad, Adeel; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2012-05-08

    Aberrations in optical microscopy reduce image resolution and contrast, and can limit imaging depth when focusing into biological samples. Static correction of aberrations may be achieved through appropriate lens design, but this approach does not offer the flexibility of simultaneously correcting aberrations for all imaging depths, nor the adaptability to correct for sample-specific aberrations for high-quality tomographic optical imaging. Incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) methods have demonstrated considerable improvement in optical image contrast and resolution in noninterferometric microscopy techniques, as well as in optical coherence tomography. Here we present a method to correct aberrations in a tomogram rather than the beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on Fourier optics principles, we correct aberrations of a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials. When used in conjunction with the computed imaging method interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy, this computational AO enables object reconstruction (within the single scattering limit) with ideal focal-plane resolution at all depths. Tomographic reconstructions of tissue phantoms containing subresolution titanium-dioxide particles and of ex vivo rat lung tissue demonstrate aberration correction in datasets acquired with a highly astigmatic illumination beam. These results also demonstrate that imaging with an aberrated astigmatic beam provides the advantage of a more uniform depth-dependent signal compared to imaging with a standard gaussian beam. With further work, computational AO could enable the replacement of complicated and expensive optical hardware components with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer, making high-resolution 3D interferometric tomography accessible to a wider group of users and nonspecialists.

  7. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, John; Tremsina, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ("Medipix2") with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256 x 256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest.

  8. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, John; McPhate, Jason; Tremsin, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan

    2005-01-01

    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ('Medipix2') with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256x256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7x7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest

  9. Experimental Adaptive Digital Performance Monitoring for Optical DP-QPSK Coherent Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zhang, Xu; Zibar, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We report on a successful experimental demonstration of a digital optical performance monitoring (OPM) yielding satisfactory estimation accuracy along with adaptive impairment equalization. No observable penalty is measured when equalizer is driven by monitoring module.......We report on a successful experimental demonstration of a digital optical performance monitoring (OPM) yielding satisfactory estimation accuracy along with adaptive impairment equalization. No observable penalty is measured when equalizer is driven by monitoring module....

  10. Adaptive Optical System for Retina Imaging Approaches Clinic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, N.; Zhang, Y.; Rao, X.; Wang, C.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, W.; Jiang, C.

    We presented "A small adaptive optical system on table for human retinal imaging" at the 3rd Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine. In this system, a 19 element small deformable mirror was used as wavefront correction element. High resolution images of photo receptors and capillaries of human retina were obtained. In recent two years, at the base of this system a new adaptive optical system for human retina imaging has been developed. The wavefront correction element is a newly developed 37 element deformable mirror. Some modifications have been adopted for easy operation. Experiments for different imaging wavelengths and axial positions were conducted. Mosaic pictures of photoreceptors and capillaries were obtained. 100 normal and abnormal eyes of different ages have been inspected.The first report in the world concerning the most detailed capillary distribution images cover ±3° by ± 3° field around the fovea has been demonstrated. Some preliminary very early diagnosis experiment has been tried in laboratory. This system is being planned to move to the hospital for clinic experiments.

  11. Practical guidelines for implementing adaptive optics in fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Dean; Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel

    2018-02-01

    In life sciences, interest in the microscopic imaging of increasingly complex three dimensional samples, such as cell spheroids, zebrafish embryos, and in vivo applications in small animals, is growing quickly. Due to the increasing complexity of samples, more and more life scientists are considering the implementation of adaptive optics in their experimental setups. While several approaches to adaptive optics in microscopy have been reported, it is often difficult and confusing for the microscopist to choose from the array of techniques and equipment. In this poster presentation we offer a small guide to adaptive optics providing general guidelines for successful adaptive optics implementation.

  12. Receding-horizon adaptive contyrol of aero-optical wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesch, J.; Gibson, S.; Verhaegen, M.

    2013-01-01

    A new method for adaptive prediction and correction of wavefront errors in adaptive optics (AO) is introduced. The new method is based on receding-horizon control design and an adaptive lattice filter. Experimental results presented illustrate the capability of the new adaptive controller to predict

  13. Adaptive optics imaging of inherited retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Michalis; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Patterson, Emily J; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-11-15

    Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy allows for non-invasive retinal phenotyping on a microscopic scale, thereby helping to improve our understanding of retinal diseases. An increasing number of natural history studies and ongoing/planned interventional clinical trials exploit AO ophthalmoscopy both for participant selection, stratification and monitoring treatment safety and efficacy. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of AO ophthalmoscopy, recent developments and its application to a broad range of inherited retinal diseases, including Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa and achromatopsia. Finally, we describe the impact of this in vivo microscopic imaging on our understanding of disease pathogenesis, clinical trial design and outcome metrics, while recognising the limitation of the small cohorts reported to date. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  15. Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

  16. Robust adaptive optics systems for vision science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. A.; de Castro, A.; Sawides, L.; Luo, T.; Sapoznik, K.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is of growing importance for understanding the impact of retinal and systemic diseases on the retina. While AO retinal imaging in healthy eyes is now routine, AO imaging in older eyes and eyes with optical changes to the anterior eye can be difficult and requires a control and an imaging system that is resilient when there is scattering and occlusion from the cornea and lens, as well as in the presence of irregular and small pupils. Our AO retinal imaging system combines evaluation of local image quality of the pupil, with spatially programmable detection. The wavefront control system uses a woofer tweeter approach, combining an electromagnetic mirror and a MEMS mirror and a single Shack Hartmann sensor. The SH sensor samples an 8 mm exit pupil and the subject is aligned to a region within this larger system pupil using a chin and forehead rest. A spot quality metric is calculated in real time for each lenslet. Individual lenslets that do not meet the quality metric are eliminated from the processing. Mirror shapes are smoothed outside the region of wavefront control when pupils are small. The system allows imaging even with smaller irregular pupils, however because the depth of field increases under these conditions, sectioning performance decreases. A retinal conjugate micromirror array selectively directs mid-range scatter to additional detectors. This improves detection of retinal capillaries even when the confocal image has poorer image quality that includes both photoreceptors and blood vessels.

  17. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D E; Hart, N W; Hofer, H J

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer et al., 2012). Here we describe a simple strategy employing a longer wavelength (980nm) beacon that, in conjunction with appropriate restriction on timing and placement, allowed us to perform psychophysics when dark adapted without altering visual perception. The method was verified by comparing detection and color appearance of foveally presented small spot stimuli with and without the wavefront beacon present in 5 subjects. As an important caution, we found that significant perceptual interference can occur even with a subliminal beacon when additional measures are not taken to limit exposure. Consequently, the lack of perceptual interference should be verified for a given system, and not assumed based on invisibility of the beacon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental demonstration of conformal phased array antenna via transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Juan; Yang, Juxing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhiya; Fu, Guang; Hao, Yang

    2018-02-28

    Transformation Optics has been proven a versatile technique for designing novel electromagnetic devices and it has much wider applicability in many subject areas related to general wave equations. Among them, quasi-conformal transformation optics (QCTO) can be applied to minimize anisotropy of transformed media and has opened up the possibility to the design of broadband antennas with arbitrary geometries. In this work, a wide-angle scanning conformal phased array based on all-dielectric QCTO lens is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Excited by the same current distribution as such in a conventional planar array, the conformal system in presence of QCTO lens can preserve the same radiation characteristics of a planar array with wide-angle beam-scanning and low side lobe level (SLL). Laplace's equation subject to Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual and physical spaces. The isotropic lens with graded refractive index is realized by all-dielectric holey structure after an effective parameter approximation. The measurements of the fabricated system agree well with the simulated results, which demonstrate its excellent wide-angle beam scanning performance. Such demonstration paves the way to a robust but efficient array synthesis, as well as multi-beam and beam forming realization of conformal arrays via transformation optics.

  19. Experimental demonstration of adaptive digital monitoring and compensation of chromatic dispersion for coherent DP-QPSK receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zhang, Xu; Zibar, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical performance monitoring (OPM) algorithm for inservice monitoring of chromatic dispersion (CD) in coherent transport networks. Dispersion accumulated in 40 Gbit/s QPSK signal after 80 km of fiber transmission is successfu...... drives an adaptive digital CD equalizer. © 2011 Optical Society of America.......We experimentally demonstrate a digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical performance monitoring (OPM) algorithm for inservice monitoring of chromatic dispersion (CD) in coherent transport networks. Dispersion accumulated in 40 Gbit/s QPSK signal after 80 km of fiber transmission...

  20. Conjugate adaptive optics with remote focusing in multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Lam, Tuwin; Zhu, Bingzhao; Li, Qinggele; Reinig, Marc R.; Kubby, Joel

    2018-02-01

    The small correction volume for conventional wavefront shaping methods limits their application in biological imaging through scattering media. In this paper, we take advantage of conjugate adaptive optics (CAO) and remote focusing (CAORF) to achieve three-dimensional (3D) scanning through a scattering layer with a single correction. Our results show that the proposed system can provide 10 times wider axial field of view compared with a conventional conjugate AO system when 16,384 segments are used on a spatial light modulator. We demonstrate two-photon imaging with CAORF through mouse skull. The fluorescent microspheres embedded under the scattering layers can be clearly observed after applying the correction.

  1. Adaptive optics improves multiphoton super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yicong; Winter, Peter; Shroff, Hari

    2018-02-01

    Three dimensional (3D) fluorescence microscopy has been essential for biological studies. It allows interrogation of structure and function at spatial scales spanning the macromolecular, cellular, and tissue levels. Critical factors to consider in 3D microscopy include spatial resolution, signal-to-noise (SNR), signal-to-background (SBR), and temporal resolution. Maintaining high quality imaging becomes progressively more difficult at increasing depth (where optical aberrations, induced by inhomogeneities of refractive index in the sample, degrade resolution and SNR), and in thick or densely labeled samples (where out-of-focus background can swamp the valuable, in-focus-signal from each plane). In this report, we introduce our new instrumentation to address these problems. A multiphoton structured illumination microscope was simply modified to integrate an adpative optics system for optical aberrations correction. Firstly, the optical aberrations are determined using direct wavefront sensing with a nonlinear guide star and subsequently corrected using a deformable mirror, restoring super-resolution information. We demonstrate the flexibility of our adaptive optics approach on a variety of semi-transparent samples, including bead phantoms, cultured cells in collagen gels and biological tissues. The performance of our super-resolution microscope is improved in all of these samples, as peak intensity is increased (up to 40-fold) and resolution recovered (up to 176+/-10 nm laterally and 729+/-39 nm axially) at depths up to 250 μm from the coverslip surface.

  2. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-02-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  3. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  4. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  5. Sub-Airy Confocal Adaptive Optics Scanning Ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredar, Nripun; Fagbemi, Oladipo E; Dubra, Alfredo

    2018-04-01

    To demonstrate the viability of improving transverse image resolution in reflectance scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy using sub-Airy disk confocal detection. The foveal cone mosaic was imaged in five human subjects free of known eye disease using two custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs) in reflectance with 7.75 and 4.30 mm pupil diameters. Confocal pinholes of 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 Airy disk diameters (ADDs) were used in a retinal conjugate plane before the light detector. Average cone photoreceptor intensity profile width and power spectrum were calculated for the resulting images. Detected energy using a model eye was recorded for each pinhole size. The cone photoreceptor mosaic is better resolved with decreasing confocal pinhole size, with the high spatial frequency content of the images enhanced in both the large- and small-pupil AOSLOs. The average cone intensity profile width was reduced by ∼15% with the use of a 0.5 ADD pinhole when compared to a 1.0 ADD, with an accompanying reduction in signal greater than a factor of four. The use of sub-Airy disk confocal pinhole detection without increasing retinal light exposure results in a substantial improvement in image resolution at the cost of larger than predicted signal reduction. Improvement in transverse resolution using sub-Airy disk confocal detection is a practical and low-cost approach that is applicable to all point- and line-scanning ophthalmoscopes, including optical coherence tomographers.

  6. Linear zonal atmospheric prediction for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick C.; Rhoadarmer, Troy A.; Coy, Hanna A.; Angel, J. Roger P.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael

    2000-07-01

    We compare linear zonal predictors of atmospheric turbulence for adaptive optics. Zonal prediction has the possible advantage of being able to interpret and utilize wind-velocity information from the wavefront sensor better than modal prediction. For simulated open-loop atmospheric data for a 2- meter 16-subaperture AO telescope with 5 millisecond prediction and a lookback of 4 slope-vectors, we find that Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule training of linear nets and Back- Propagation training of non-linear multilayer neural networks is quite slow, getting stuck on plateaus or in local minima. Recursive Least Squares training of linear predictors is two orders of magnitude faster and it also converges to the solution with global minimum error. We have successfully implemented Amari's Adaptive Natural Gradient Learning (ANGL) technique for a linear zonal predictor, which premultiplies the Delta-Rule gradients with a matrix that orthogonalizes the parameter space and speeds up the training by two orders of magnitude, like the Recursive Least Squares predictor. This shows that the simple Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule's slow convergence is not a fluke. In the case of bright guidestars, the ANGL, RLS, and standard matrix-inversion least-squares (MILS) algorithms all converge to the same global minimum linear total phase error (approximately 0.18 rad2), which is only approximately 5% higher than the spatial phase error (approximately 0.17 rad2), and is approximately 33% lower than the total 'naive' phase error without prediction (approximately 0.27 rad2). ANGL can, in principle, also be extended to make non-linear neural network training feasible for these large networks, with the potential to lower the predictor error below the linear predictor error. We will soon scale our linear work to the approximately 108-subaperture MMT AO system, both with simulations and real wavefront sensor data from prime focus.

  7. Optical Verification Laboratory Demonstration System for High Security Identification Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram

    1997-01-01

    Document fraud including unauthorized duplication of identification cards and credit cards is a serious problem facing the government, banks, businesses, and consumers. In addition, counterfeit products such as computer chips, and compact discs, are arriving on our shores in great numbers. With the rapid advances in computers, CCD technology, image processing hardware and software, printers, scanners, and copiers, it is becoming increasingly easy to reproduce pictures, logos, symbols, paper currency, or patterns. These problems have stimulated an interest in research, development and publications in security technology. Some ID cards, credit cards and passports currently use holograms as a security measure to thwart copying. The holograms are inspected by the human eye. In theory, the hologram cannot be reproduced by an unauthorized person using commercially-available optical components; in practice, however, technology has advanced to the point where the holographic image can be acquired from a credit card-photographed or captured with by a CCD camera-and a new hologram synthesized using commercially-available optical components or hologram-producing equipment. Therefore, a pattern that can be read by a conventional light source and a CCD camera can be reproduced. An optical security and anti-copying device that provides significant security improvements over existing security technology was demonstrated. The system can be applied for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other IDs so that they cannot easily be reproduced. We have used a new scheme of complex phase/amplitude patterns that cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity-sensitive detector such as a CCD camera. A random phase mask is bonded to a primary identification pattern which could also be phase encoded. The pattern could be a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. The proposed optical processing device is designed to identify both the random phase mask and the

  8. Preliminary field demonstration of a fiber-optic TCE sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, S.M.; Langry, K.; Roe, J.; Colston, B.W. Jr.; Daley, P.F.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1991-02-01

    We have developed a differential-absorption fiber-optic sensor for use in groundwater and vadose zone monitoring of certain volatile organochlorines. The principle of detection is a quantitative, irreversible chemical reaction that forms visible light-absorbing products. The sensor has been evaluated against gas chromatographic (GC) standard measurements and has demonstrated accuracy and sensitivity sufficient for the environmental monitoring of trace levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform. This sensor is currently under evaluation in monitoring well and vadose zone applications. In this paper, we describe the principles of the existing single measurement sensor technology and show preliminary field-test results. 3 refs., 8 figs

  9. Last results of MADRAS, a space active optics demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the MADRAS project (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) is to highlight the interest of Active Optics for the next generation of space telescope and instrumentation. Wave-front errors in future space telescopes will mainly come from thermal dilatation and zero gravity, inducing large lightweight primary mirrors deformation. To compensate for these effects, a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror has been designed to be inserted in a pupil relay. Within the project, such a system has been optimized, integrated and experimentally characterized. The system is designed considering wave-front errors expected in 3m-class primary mirrors, and taking into account space constraints such as compactness, low weight, low power consumption and mechanical strength. Finite Element Analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to reach a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated test-bed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated mirror performance in representative conditions. The test set up is made of three main parts: a telescope aberrations generator, a correction loop with the MADRAS mirror and a Shack-Hartman wave-front sensor, and PSF imaging. In addition, Fizeau interferometry monitors the optical surface shape. We have developed and characterized an active optics system with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements. All the conducted tests tend to demonstrate the efficiency of such a system for a real-time, in situ wave-front. It would allow a significant improvement for future space telescopes optical performance while relaxing the specifications on the others components.

  10. Adaptive phase measurements in linear optical quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph, T C; Lund, A P; Wiseman, H M

    2005-01-01

    Photon counting induces an effective non-linear optical phase shift in certain states derived by linear optics from single photons. Although this non-linearity is non-deterministic, it is sufficient in principle to allow scalable linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The most obvious way to encode a qubit optically is as a superposition of the vacuum and a single photon in one mode-so-called 'single-rail' logic. Until now this approach was thought to be prohibitively expensive (in resources) compared to 'dual-rail' logic where a qubit is stored by a photon across two modes. Here we attack this problem with real-time feedback control, which can realize a quantum-limited phase measurement on a single mode, as has been recently demonstrated experimentally. We show that with this added measurement resource, the resource requirements for single-rail LOQC are not substantially different from those of dual-rail LOQC. In particular, with adaptive phase measurements an arbitrary qubit state α vertical bar 0>+β vertical bar 1> can be prepared deterministically

  11. TESTING THE APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPH ON THE LABORATORY FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS EXTREME ADAPTIVE OPTICS TESTBED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Soummer, Remi; Macintosh, Bruce; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    We present testbed results of the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO). These results are part of the validation and tests of the coronagraph and of the Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The apodizer component is manufactured with a halftone technique using black chrome microdots on glass. Testing this APLC (like any other coronagraph) requires extremely good wavefront correction, which is obtained to the 1 nm rms level using the microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) technology, on the ExAO visible testbed of the LAO at the University of Santa Cruz. We used an APLC coronagraph without central obstruction, both with a reference super-polished flat mirror and with the MEMS to obtain one of the first images of a dark zone in a coronagraphic image with classical adaptive optics using a MEMS deformable mirror (without involving dark hole algorithms). This was done as a complementary test to the GPI coronagraph testbed at American Museum of Natural History, which studied the coronagraph itself without wavefront correction. Because we needed a full aperture, the coronagraph design is very different from the GPI design. We also tested a coronagraph with central obstruction similar to that of GPI. We investigated the performance of the APLC coronagraph and more particularly the effect of the apodizer profile accuracy on the contrast. Finally, we compared the resulting contrast to predictions made with a wavefront propagation model of the testbed to understand the effects of phase and amplitude errors on the final contrast.

  12. Custom CCD for adaptive optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Mark; Arsenault, Robin; Baade, Dietrich; Balard, Philippe; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Denney, Sandy; Feautrier, Philippe; Fusco, Thierry; Gach, Jean-Luc; Diaz Garcia, José Javier; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Jorden, Paul; Kasper, Markus; Meyer, Manfred; Pool, Peter; Reyes, Javier; Skegg, Michael; Stadler, Eric; Suske, Wolfgang; Wheeler, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    ESO and JRA2 OPTICON have funded e2v technologies to develop a compact packaged Peltier cooled 24 μm square 240x240 pixels split frame transfer 8-output back-illuminated L3Vision CCD3, L3Vision CCD for Adaptive Optic Wave Front Sensor (AO WFS) applications. The device is designed to achieve sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1,500 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e-/pixel/frame. The development has many unique features. To obtain high frame rates, multi-output EMCCD gain registers and metal buttressing of row clock lines are used. The baseline device is built in standard silicon. In addition, a split wafer run has enabled two speculative variants to be built; deep depletion silicon devices to improve red response and devices with an electronic shutter to extend use to Rayleigh and Pulsed Laser Guide Star applications. These are all firsts for L3Vision CCDs. The designs of the CCD and Peltier package have passed their reviews and fabrication has begun. This paper will describe the progress to date, the requirements and the design of the CCD and compact Peltier package, technology trade-offs, schedule and proposed test plan. High readout speed, low noise and compactness (requirement to fit in confined spaces) provide special challenges to ESO's AO variant of its NGC, New General detector Controller to drive this CCD. This paper will describe progress made on the design of the controller to meet these special needs.

  13. Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuhang; Lu, Weichao; Sun, Bin; Hong, Yang; Qu, Fengzhong; Han, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system, with a gross bit rate of 33.691 Mb/s over a 2-m water channel using low-cost blue light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and 10-MHz PIN photodiodes. The system is capable of realizing robust data transmission within a relatively large reception area, leading to relaxed alignment requirement for UWOC. In addition, we have compared the system performance of repetition coding OFDM (RC-OFDM), Alamouti-OFDM and multiple-input single-output OFDM (MISO-OFDM) in turbid water. Results show that the Alamouti-OFDM UWOC is more resistant to delay than the RC-OFDM-based system.

  14. Research on the adaptive optical control technology based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Xue, Qiao; Zeng, Fa; Zhao, Junpu; Zheng, Kuixing; Su, Jingqin; Dai, Wanjun

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive optics is a real-time compensation technique using high speed support system for wavefront errors caused by atmospheric turbulence. However, the randomness and instantaneity of atmospheric changing introduce great difficulties to the design of adaptive optical systems. A large number of complex real-time operations lead to large delay, which is an insurmountable problem. To solve this problem, hardware operation and parallel processing strategy are proposed, and a high-speed adaptive optical control system based on DSP is developed. The hardware counter is used to check the system. The results show that the system can complete a closed loop control in 7.1ms, and improve the controlling bandwidth of the adaptive optical system. Using this system, the wavefront measurement and closed loop experiment are carried out, and obtain the good results.

  15. Piezoelectric deformable mirror for intra-cavity laser adaptive optics.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a deformable mirror to be used in conjunction with diffractive optical elements inside a laser cavity. A prototype piezoelectric unimorph adaptive mirror was developed to correct for time dependent phase...

  16. Solar adaptive optics: specificities, lessons learned, and open alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, I.; Marino, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Montoya, L.; Tallon, M.

    2016-07-01

    First on sky adaptive optics experiments were performed on the Dunn Solar Telescope on 1979, with a shearing interferometer and limited success. Those early solar adaptive optics efforts forced to custom-develop many components, such as Deformable Mirrors and WaveFront Sensors, which were not available at that time. Later on, the development of the correlation Shack-Hartmann marked a breakthrough in solar adaptive optics. Since then, successful Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics instruments have been developed for many solar telescopes, i.e. the National Solar Observatory, the Vacuum Tower Telescope and the Swedish Solar Telescope. Success with the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for GREGOR and the New Solar Telescope has proved to be more difficult to attain. Such systems have a complexity not only related to the number of degrees of freedom, but also related to the specificities of the Sun, used as reference, and the sensing method. The wavefront sensing is performed using correlations on images with a field of view of 10", averaging wavefront information from different sky directions, affecting the sensing and sampling of high altitude turbulence. Also due to the low elevation at which solar observations are performed we have to include generalized fitting error and anisoplanatism, as described by Ragazzoni and Rigaut, as non-negligible error sources in the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics error budget. For the development of the next generation Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope and the European Solar Telescope we still need to study and understand these issues, to predict realistically the quality of the achievable reconstruction. To improve their designs other open issues have to be assessed, i.e. possible alternative sensing methods to avoid the intrinsic anisoplanatism of the wide field correlation Shack-Hartmann, new parameters to estimate the performance of an adaptive optics solar system, alternatives to

  17. Using computer-assisted demonstrations of optical phenomena in an undergraduate optics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, John T.; Cobb, Stephen H.; Beyer, Louis M.

    1995-10-01

    A set of computer programs has been developed for the visual presentation of introductory optical phenomena. These computer simulations were created to serve a dual purpose: as demonstration aids in an NSF-sponsored Optics Demonstration Laboratory, and as teaching aids in undergraduate geometrical and physical optics courses. In the field of diffractive optics, simulations include the calculation of intensity patterns for unobscured and obscured apertures in both rectangular and circular geometries. These patterns can be compared to those measured in the laboratory with a CCD camera. A program for calculating the diffraction pattern for a two-dimensional aperture of arbitrary shape has also been developed. These programs, when coordinated with homework assignments, allow students to compare their theoretical derivations with a correct numerical solution for the same problem. In the field of geometrical optics, a ray-trace program appropriate for gradient-index fibers with cylindrical symmetry has been developed. This program enables the student to study the focusing properties of such fibers, and to predict how such properties depend on the index profile and on the length of the optical fiber. Examples of these programs will be presented, along with a report on the success of these programs as a vehicle for imparting a conceptual understanding of the physical principles involved.

  18. Experimental demonstrations of all-optical networking functions for WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, Deniz

    The deployment of optical networks will enable high capacity links between users but will introduce the problems associated with transporting and managing more channels. Many network functions should be implemented in optical domain; main reasons are: to avoid electronic processing bottlenecks, to achieve data-format and data-rate independence, to provide reliable and cost efficient control and management information, to simultaneously process multiple wavelength channel operation for wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical networks. The following novel experimental demonstrations of network functions in the optical domain are presented: Variable-bit-rate recognition of the header information in a data packet. The technique is reconfigurable for different header sequences and uses optical correlators as look-up tables. The header is processed and a signal is sent to the switch for a series of incoming data packets at 155 Mb/s, 622 Mb/s, and 2.5 Gb/s in a reconfigurable network. Simultaneous optical time-slot-interchange and wavelength conversion of the bits in a 2.5-Gb/s data stream to achieve a reconfigurable time/wavelength switch. The technique uses difference-frequency-generation (DFG) for wavelength conversion and fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) as wavelength-dependent optical time buffers. The WDM header recognition module simultaneously recognizing two header bits on each of two 2.5-Gbit/s WDM packet streams. The module is tunable to enable reconfigurable look-up tables. Simultaneous and independent label swapping and wavelength conversion of two WDM channels for a multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) network. Demonstration of label swapping of distinct 8-bit-long labels for two WDM data channels is presented. Two-dimensional code conversion module for an optical code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) local area network (LAN) system. Simultaneous wavelength conversion and time shifting is achieved to enable flexible code conversion and increase code re

  19. Adaptive Forward Error Correction for Energy Efficient Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel scheme for on the fly code rate adjustment for forward error correcting (FEC) codes on optical links. The proposed scheme makes it possible to adjust the code rate independently for each optical frame. This allows for seamless rate adaption based on the link state...

  20. SILDENAFIL CITRATE INDUCED RETINAL TOXICITY-ELECTRORETINOGRAM, OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY, AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS FINDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoga, Fatoumata; Gentile, Ronald C; Chui, Toco Y P; Freund, K Bailey; Fell, Millie; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Rosen, Richard B

    2018-02-27

    To report a case of persistent retinal toxicity associated with a high dose of sildenafil citrate intake. Single retrospective case report. A 31-year-old white man with no medical history presented with complaints of bilateral multicolored photopsias and erythropsia (red-tinted vision), shortly after taking sildenafil citrate-purchased through the internet. Patient was found to have cone photoreceptor damage, demonstrated using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, and adaptive optics imaging. The patient's symptoms and the photoreceptor structural changes persisted for several months. Sildenafil citrate is a widely used erectile dysfunction medication that is typically associated with transient visual symptoms in normal dosage. At high dosage, sildenafil citrate can lead to persistent retinal toxicity in certain individuals.

  1. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  2. Analysis technique for controlling system wavefront error with active/adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Victor L.; Michels, Gregory J.

    2017-08-01

    The ultimate goal of an active mirror system is to control system level wavefront error (WFE). In the past, the use of this technique was limited by the difficulty of obtaining a linear optics model. In this paper, an automated method for controlling system level WFE using a linear optics model is presented. An error estimate is included in the analysis output for both surface error disturbance fitting and actuator influence function fitting. To control adaptive optics, the technique has been extended to write system WFE in state space matrix form. The technique is demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.

  3. Fiber-optic Sensor Demonstrator (FSD) integration with PROBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  4. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  5. Digital adaptive optics for achieving space-invariant lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical interferometric imaging technique that provides reflectivity profiles of the sample structures with high axial resolution. The high axial resolution is due to the use of low coherence (broad-band) light source. However, the lateral resolution in OCT depends on the numerical aperture (NA) of the focusing/imaging optics and it is affected by defocus and other higher order optical aberrations induced by the imperfect optics, or by the sample itself.Hardware based adaptive optics (AO) has been successfully combined with OCT to achieve high lateral resolution in combination with high axial resolution provided by OCT. AO, which conventionally uses Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and deformable mirror for wavefront sensing and correction respectively, can compensate for optical aberration and can enable diffraction-limited resolution in OCT. Visualization of cone photoreceptors in 3-D has been successfully demonstrated using AO-OCT. However, OCT being an interferometric imaging technique can provide access to phase information.This phase information can be exploited by digital adaptive optics (DAO) techniques to correct optical aberration in the post-processing step to obtain diffraction-limited space invariant lateral resolution throughout the image volume. Thus, the need for hardware based AO can be eliminated, which in turn can reduce the system complexity and economical cost. In the first paper of this thesis, a novel DAO method based on sub-aperture correlation is presented which is the digital equivalent of SH WFS. The advantage of this method is that it is non-iterative in nature and it does not require a priori knowledge of any system parameters such wavelength, focal length, NA or detector pixel size. For experimental proof, a FF SS OCT system was used and the sample consisted of resolution test target and a plastic plate that introduced random optical aberration. Experimental results show that

  6. Precision spectral manipulation: A demonstration using a coherent optical memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparkes, B. M.; Cairns, C.; Hosseini, M.; Higginbottom, D.; Campbell, G. T.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    The ability to coherently spectrally manipulate quantum information has the potential to improve qubit rates across quantum channels and find applications in optical quantum computing. Here we present experiments that use a multi-element solenoid combined with the three-level gradient echo memory scheme to perform precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses. If applied in a quantum information network, these operations would enable frequency-based multiplexing of qubits.

  7. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Ni; Kang, Jie; He, Yi; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO) and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography) and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherenc...

  8. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  9. Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuxin; Ryan, Jason; Hansen, Paul; Cheng, Yao-Te; Lu, Tsung-Ju; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2014-06-11

    Optical tweezers have been widely used to manipulate biological and colloidal material, but the diffraction limit of far-field optics makes focused beams unsuitable for manipulating nanoscale objects with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of light. While plasmonic structures have recently been successful in trapping nanoscale objects with high positioning accuracy, using such structures for manipulation over longer range has remained a significant challenge. In this work, we introduce a conveyor belt design based on a novel plasmonic structure, the resonant C-shaped engraving (CSE). We show how long-range manipulation is made possible by means of handoff between neighboring CSEs, and we present a simple technique for controlling handoff by rotating the polarization of laser illumination. We experimentally demonstrate handoff between a pair of CSEs for polystyrene spheres 200, 390, and 500 nm in diameter. We then extend this technique and demonstrate controlled particle transport down a 4.5 μm long "nano-optical conveyor belt."

  10. Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....

  11. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    This Ph.D. thesis presents methods for enhancing the optical functionality of transparent glass panes by introduction of invisible nanoscale surface structures, such as gratings and planar photonic cyrstals. In this way the primary functionality of the glass - transparancy - may be enhanced...... been designed, fabricated and analyzed. First a solar harvesting method, based on nanoscale gratings which are imprinted in a thin-film which is deposited on the window pane is discussed. Free-space light which is incident onto a window is coupled to guided modes in the thin-film or the substrate...

  12. Optical components of adaptive systems for improving laser beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhov, Yuri I.; Atuchin, Victor V.; Kudryashov, Aleksis V.; Starikov, Fedor A.

    2008-10-01

    The short overview is given of optical equipment developed within the ISTC activity for adaptive systems of new generation allowing for correction of high-power laser beams carrying optical vortices onto the phase surface. They are the kinoform many-level optical elements of new generation, namely, special spiral phase plates and ordered rasters of microlenses, i.e. lenslet arrays, as well as the wide-aperture Hartmann-Shack sensors and bimorph deformable piezoceramics- based mirrors with various grids of control elements.

  13. An adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Byrd, J.L.; Feldman, M.; Kartz, M.A.; Toeppen, J.S.; Wonterghem, B. Van; Winters, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Using adaptive optics the authors have obtained nearly diffraction-limited 5 kJ, 3 nsec output pulses at 1.053 microm from the Beamlet demonstration system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The peak Strehl ratio was improved from 0.009 to 0.50, as estimated from measured wavefront errors. They have also measured the relaxation of the thermally induced aberrations in the main beam line over a period of 4.5 hours. Peak-to-valley aberrations range from 6.8 waves at 1.053 microm within 30 minutes after a full system shot to 3.9 waves after 4.5 hours. The adaptive optics system must have enough range to correct accumulated thermal aberrations from several shots in addition to the immediate shot-induced error. Accumulated wavefront errors in the beam line will affect both the design of the adaptive optics system for NIF and the performance of that system

  14. MOSE: A Demonstrator for an Automatic Operational System for the Optical Turbulence Forecast for ESO Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, F.; Turchi, A.; Fini, L.

    2017-09-01

    "Most of the observations performed with new-generation ground-based telescopes are employing the Service Mode. To optimize the flexible-scheduling of scientific programs and instruments, the optical turbulence (OT) forecast is a must, particularly when observations are supported by adaptive optics (AO) and Interferometry. Reliable OT forecast are crucial to optimize the usage of AO and interferometric facilities which is not possible when using only optical measurements. Numerical techniques are the best placed to achieve such a goal. The MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites), co-funded by ESO, aimed at proving the feasibility of the forecast of (1) all the classical atmospheric parameters (such as temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity) and (2) the optical turbulence i.e. the CN 2 profiles and all the main integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN 2 (the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. The proposed technique is based on the use of a non-hydrostatic atmospheric meso-scale model and a dedicated code for the optical turbulence. The final goal of the project aimed at implementing an automatic system for the operational forecasts of the aforementioned parameters to support the astronomical observations above the two sites. MOSE Phase A and B have been completed and a set of dedicated papers have been published on the topic. Model performances have been extensively quantified with several dedicated figures of merit and we proved that our tool is able to provide reliable forecasts of optical turbulence and atmospheric parameters with very satisfactory score of success. This should guarantee us to make a step ahead in the framework of the Service Mode of new generation telescopes. A conceptual design as well as an operational plan of the automatic system has been submitted to ESO as integral part of the feasibility study. We completed a negotiation with

  15. Computational adaptive optics for broadband interferometric tomography of tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Mulligan, Jeffrey A.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) can shape aberrated optical wavefronts to physically restore the constructive interference needed for high-resolution imaging. With access to the complex optical field, however, many functions of optical hardware can be achieved computationally, including focusing and the compensation of optical aberrations to restore the constructive interference required for diffraction-limited imaging performance. Holography, which employs interferometric detection of the complex optical field, was developed based on this connection between hardware and computational image formation, although this link has only recently been exploited for 3D tomographic imaging in scattering biological tissues. This talk will present the underlying imaging science behind computational image formation with optical coherence tomography (OCT) -- a beam-scanned version of broadband digital holography. Analogous to hardware AO (HAO), we demonstrate computational adaptive optics (CAO) and optimization of the computed pupil correction in 'sensorless mode' (Zernike polynomial corrections with feedback from image metrics) or with the use of 'guide-stars' in the sample. We discuss the concept of an 'isotomic volume' as the volumetric extension of the 'isoplanatic patch' introduced in astronomical AO. Recent CAO results and ongoing work is highlighted to point to the potential biomedical impact of computed broadband interferometric tomography. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HAO vs. CAO for the effective shaping of optical wavefronts, and highlight opportunities for hybrid approaches that synergistically combine the unique advantages of hardware and computational methods for rapid volumetric tomography with cellular resolution.

  16. Design and realization of adaptive optical principle system without wavefront sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Niu, Chaojun; Guo, Yaxing; Han, Xiang'e.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we focus on the performance improvement of the free space optical communication system and carry out the research on wavefront-sensorless adaptive optics. We use a phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) as the wavefront corrector. The optical intensity distribution of the distorted wavefront is detected by a CCD. We develop a wavefront controller based on ARM and a software based on the Linux operating system. The wavefront controller can control the CCD camera and the wavefront corrector. There being two SLMs in the experimental system, one simulates atmospheric turbulence and the other is used to compensate the wavefront distortion. The experimental results show that the performance quality metric (the total gray value of 25 pixels) increases from 3037 to 4863 after 200 iterations. Besides, it is demonstrated that our wavefront-sensorless adaptive optics system based on SPGD algorithm has a good performance in compensating wavefront distortion.

  17. Demonstration of Optically Controlled re-Routing in a Photonic Crystal Three-Port Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Combrié, S.; Heuck, Mikkel; Xavier, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of optically controlled re-routing of a signal in a photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structure with 3 ports. This represents a key functionality of integrated all-optical signal processing circuits....

  18. Precision Spectral Manipulation: A Demonstration Using a Coherent Optical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Sparkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to coherently spectrally manipulate quantum information has the potential to improve qubit rates across quantum channels and find applications in optical quantum computing. In this paper, we present experiments that use a multielement solenoid combined with the three-level gradient echo memory scheme to perform precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses. These operations include separate bandwidth and frequency manipulation with precision down to tens of kHz, spectral filtering of up to three separate frequency components, as well as time-delayed interference between pulses with both the same, and different, frequencies. If applied in a quantum information network, these operations would enable frequency-based multiplexing of qubits.

  19. Optic nerve injury demonstrated by MRI with STIR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Uemura, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokuyama, T.; Satoh, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied nine patients with optic nerve injury associated with closed head trauma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences on 11 occasions from 4 days to 14 years after the injury: three studies were within 17 days and eight over 4 months to 14 years. MRI revealed abnormal high signal in 10 of the 11 injured nerves. MRI 4 days after the injury showed no abnormality. (orig.)

  20. A Status Report on the Thirty Meter Telescope Adaptive Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We provide an update on the recent development of the adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) since mid-2011. The first light AO facility for TMT consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). This order 60 × 60 ...

  1. Experimental demonstration of remote, passive acousto-optic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Lynn; Blackmon, Fletcher

    2004-12-01

    Passively detecting underwater sound from the air can allow aircraft and surface vessels to monitor the underwater acoustic environment. Experimental research into an optical hydrophone is being conducted for remote, aerial detection of underwater sound. A laser beam is directed onto the water surface to measure the velocity of the vibrations occurring as the underwater acoustic signal reaches the water surface. The acoustically generated surface vibrations modulate the phase of the laser beam. Sound detection occurs when the laser is reflected back towards the sensor. Therefore, laser alignment on the specularly reflecting water surface is critical. As the water surface moves, the laser beam is reflected away from the photodetector and no signal is obtained. One option to mitigate this problem is to continually steer the laser onto a spot on the water surface that provides a direct back-reflection. Results are presented from a laboratory test that investigates the feasibility of the acousto-optic sensor detection on hydrostatic and hydrodynamic surfaces using a laser Doppler vibrometer in combination with a laser-based, surface normal glint tracker for remotely detecting underwater sound. This paper outlines the acousto-optic sensor and tracker concepts and presents experimental results comparing sensor operation under various sea surface conditions.

  2. Demonstration of the frequency modulation of optical signals with a high frequency deviation parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamray, A V; Kozlov, A S; Il'ichev, I V; Petrov, M P

    2008-01-01

    A new type of an integrated optical modulator for the frequency coding of optical signals is developed and fabricated. The modulator operation is based on the original technology of the electric control of a Bragg grating. The frequency modulation of an optical signal with the frequency deviation of 25 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. The modular was used to transfer the ASCII code through an optical fibre. (optical communication)

  3. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  4. Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language

  5. Simulated annealing in adaptive optics for imaging the eye retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zommer, S.; Adler, J.; Lipson, S. G.; Ribak, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Adaptive optics is a method designed to correct deformed images in real time. Once the distorted wavefront is known, a deformable mirror is used to compensate the aberrations and return the wavefront to a plane wave. This study concentrates on methods that omit wave front sensing from the reconstruction process. Such methods use stochastic algorithms to find the extremum of a certain sharpness function, thereby correcting the image without any information on the wavefront. Theoretical work [l] has shown that the optical problem can be mapped onto a model for crystal roughening. The main algorithm applied is simulated annealing. We present a first hardware realization of this algorithm in an adaptive optics system designed to image the retina of the human eye

  6. Experimental demonstration of IDMA-OFDM for passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bangjiang; Tang, Xuan; Li, Yiwei; Zhang, Min; Lin, Chun; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2017-11-01

    We present interleave division multiple access (IDMA) scheme combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for passive optical network, which offers improved transmission performance and good chromatic dispersion tolerance. The interleavers are employed to separate different users and the generated chips are modulated on OFDM subcarriers. The feasibility of IDMA-OFDM-PON is experimentally verified with a bitrate of 3.3 Gb/s per user. Compared with OFDMA, IDMA-OFDM offers 8 and 6 dB gains in term of receiver sensitivity in the cases of 2 and 4 users, respectively.

  7. Analysis and Design of Adaptive OCDMA Passive Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Mohammad; Pakravan, Mohammad Reza

    2017-07-01

    OCDMA systems can support multiple classes of service by differentiating code parameters, power level and diversity order. In this paper, we analyze BER performance of a multi-class 1D/2D OCDMA system and propose a new approximation method that can be used to generate accurate estimation of system BER using a simple mathematical form. The proposed approximation provides insight into proper system level analysis, system level design and sensitivity of system performance to the factors such as code parameters, power level and diversity order. Considering code design, code cardinality and system performance constraints, two design problems are defined and their optimal solutions are provided. We then propose an adaptive OCDMA-PON that adaptively shares unused resources of inactive users among active ones to improve upstream system performance. Using the approximated BER expression and defined design problems, two adaptive code allocation algorithms for the adaptive OCDMA-PON are presented and their performances are evaluated by simulation. Simulation results show that the adaptive code allocation algorithms can increase average transmission rate or decrease average optical power consumption of ONUs for dynamic traffic patterns. According to the simulation results, for an adaptive OCDMA-PON with BER value of 1e-7 and user activity probability of 0.5, transmission rate (optical power consumption) can be increased (decreased) by a factor of 2.25 (0.27) compared to fixed code assignment.

  8. Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Bartłomiej; Takara, Hidehiko; Tsukishima, Yukio; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Yonenaga, Kazushige; Jinno, Masahiko

    2010-10-11

    We describe experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE) architecture. We employ optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation format and bandwidth-variable optical cross-connects (OXC) to generate, transmit and receive optical paths with bandwidths of up to 1 Tb/s. We experimentally demonstrate elastic optical path setup and spectrally-efficient transmission of multiple channels with bit rates ranging from 40 to 140 Gb/s between six nodes of a mesh network. We show dynamic bandwidth scalability for optical paths with bit rates of 40 to 440 Gb/s. Moreover, we demonstrate multihop transmission of a 1 Tb/s optical path over 400 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF). Finally, we investigate the filtering properties and the required guard band width for spectrally-efficient allocation of optical paths in SLICE.

  9. Support structures for optical components in the Laser Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finucane, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The laser system in the Laser Demonstration Facility is mounted on an array of 108 support columns. This milestone report describes the design, analyses, testing, fabrication, installation, and performance characteristics of these supports

  10. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buis, E.J.; Berkhout, G.C.G.; Love, G.D.; Kirby, A.K.; Taylor, J.M.; Hannemann, S.; Collon, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (10 10 p/cm 2 ). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  11. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buis, E.J., E-mail: ernst-jan.buis@tno.nl [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Berkhout, G.C.G. [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huygens Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Love, G.D.; Kirby, A.K.; Taylor, J.M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hannemann, S.; Collon, M.J. [cosine Research BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (10{sup 10}p/cm{sup 2}). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  12. Demonstration of Single-Mode Multicore Fiber Transport Network with Crosstalk-Aware In-Service Optical Path Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, Takafumi; Pulverer, Klaus; Häbel, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    transport network testbed and demonstrate an XT-aware traffic engineering scenario. With the help of a software-defined network (SDN) controller, the modulation format and optical path route are adaptively changed based on the monitored XT values by using programmable devices such as a real-time transponder......-capacity transmission, because inter-core crosstalk (XT) could be the main limiting factor for MCF transmission. In a real MCF network, the inter-core XT in a particular core is likely to change continuously as the optical paths in the adjacent cores are dynamically assigned to match the dynamic nature of the data...

  13. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of ...

  14. Segmented bimorph mirrors for adaptive optics: morphing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaits, Renaud; Alaluf, David; Belloni, Edoardo; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Preumont, André

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a light weight segmented bimorph mirror for adaptive optics. It focuses on the morphing strategy and addresses the ill-conditioning of the Jacobian of the segments, which are partly outside the optical pupil. Two options are discussed, one based on truncating the singular values and one called damped least squares, which minimizes a combined measure of the sensor error and the voltage vector. A comparison of various configurations of segmented mirrors was conducted; it is shown that segmentation sharply increases the natural frequency of the system with limited deterioration of the image quality.

  15. Application of optical processing to adaptive phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C. W.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the applicability of optical processing to Adaptive Phased Array Radar (APAR) data processing will be summarized. Subjects that are covered include: (1) new iterative Fourier transform based technique to determine the array antenna weight vector such that the resulting antenna pattern has nulls at desired locations; (2) obtaining the solution of the optimal Wiener weight vector by both iterative and direct methods on two laboratory Optical Linear Algebra Processing (OLAP) systems; and (3) an investigation of the effects of errors present in OLAP systems on the solution vectors.

  16. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T O; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In this study we show, for the first time, contrast-based NS-AO ophthalmoscopy for full-frame in vivo imaging of human and animal eyes. We suggest a robust image quality metric that could be used for any imaging modality, and test its performance against other metrics using (physical) model eyes.

  17. Optical properties of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cells investigated with adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin

    Human vision starts when photoreceptors collect and respond to light. Photoreceptors do not function in isolation though, but share close interdependence with neighboring photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These cellular interactions are essential for normal function of the photoreceptor-RPE complex, but methods to assess these in the living human eye are limited. One approach that has gained increased promise is high-resolution retinal imaging that has undergone tremendous technological advances over the last two decades to probe the living retina at the cellular level. Pivotal in these advances has been adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that together allow unprecedented spatial resolution of retinal structures in all three dimensions. Using these high-resolution systems, cone photoreceptor are now routinely imaged in healthy and diseased retina enabling fundamental structural properties of cones to be studied such as cell spacing, packing arrangement, and alignment. Other important cell properties, however, have remained elusive to investigation as even better imaging performance is required and thus has resulted in an incomplete understanding of how cells in the photoreceptor-RPE complex interact with light. To address this technical bottleneck, we expanded the imaging capability of AO-OCT to detect and quantify more accurately and completely the optical properties of cone photoreceptor and RPE cells at the cellular level in the living human retina. The first objective of this thesis was development of a new AO-OCT method that is more precise and sensitive, thus enabling a more detailed view of the 3D optical signature of the photoreceptor-RPE complex than was previously possible (Chapter 2). Using this new system, the second objective was quantifying the waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptor inner and outer segments across the macula (Chapter 3). The third objective extended the AO

  18. Extended use of two crossed Babinet compensators for wavefront sensing in adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lancelot; Kumar Saxena, Ajay

    2010-12-01

    An extended use of two crossed Babinet compensators as a wavefront sensor for adaptive optics applications is proposed. This method is based on the lateral shearing interferometry technique in two directions. A single record of the fringes in a pupil plane provides the information about the wavefront. The theoretical simulations based on this approach for various atmospheric conditions and other errors of optical surfaces are provided for better understanding of this method. Derivation of the results from a laboratory experiment using simulated atmospheric conditions demonstrates the steps involved in data analysis and wavefront evaluation. It is shown that this method has a higher degree of freedom in terms of subapertures and on the choice of detectors, and can be suitably adopted for real-time wavefront sensing for adaptive optics.

  19. Optical power allocation for adaptive transmissions in wavelength-division multiplexing free space optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attracting increasing attention in recent years, the Free Space Optics (FSO technology has been recognized as a cost-effective wireless access technology for multi-Gigabit rate wireless networks. Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO provides a new approach to support various bandwidth-intensive wireless services in an optical wireless link. In an RoFSO system using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM, it is possible to concurrently transmit multiple data streams consisting of various wireless services at very high rate. In this paper, we investigate the problem of optical power allocation under power budget and eye safety constraints for adaptive WDM transmission in RoFSO networks. We develop power allocation schemes for adaptive WDM transmissions to combat the effect of weather turbulence on RoFSO links. Simulation results show that WDM RoFSO can support high data rates even over long distance or under bad weather conditions with an adequate system design.

  20. Laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren; Kupke, Renate; Rudy, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the adaptive optics system at the Shane telescope (ShaneAO) along with research and development efforts on the technology and algorithms for that will advance AO into wider application for astronomy. Diffraction-limited imaging and spectroscopy from ground based large aperture telescopes will open up the opportunity for unprecedented science advancement. The AO challenges we are targeting are correction down to visible science wavelengths, which demands high-order wa...

  1. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  2. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  3. Adaptive optics correction into single mode fiber for a low Earth orbiting space to ground optical communication link using the OPALS downlink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Malcolm W; Morris, Jeffery F; Kovalik, Joseph M; Andrews, Kenneth S; Abrahamson, Matthew J; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-12-28

    An adaptive optics (AO) testbed was integrated to the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) ground station telescope at the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) as part of the free space laser communications experiment with the flight system on board the International Space Station (ISS). Atmospheric turbulence induced aberrations on the optical downlink were adaptively corrected during an overflight of the ISS so that the transmitted laser signal could be efficiently coupled into a single mode fiber continuously. A stable output Strehl ratio of around 0.6 was demonstrated along with the recovery of a 50 Mbps encoded high definition (HD) video transmission from the ISS at the output of the single mode fiber. This proof of concept demonstration validates multi-Gbps optical downlinks from fast slewing low-Earth orbiting (LEO) spacecraft to ground assets in a manner that potentially allows seamless space to ground connectivity for future high data-rates network.

  4. Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Conedera, Veronique; Granier, Hugues; Liotard, Arnaud; Lanzoni, Patrick; Salvagnac, Ludovic; Fabre, Norbert; Camon, Henri

    2007-02-01

    Future adaptive optics (AO) systems require deformable mirrors with very challenging parameters, up to 250 000 actuators and inter-actuator spacing around 500 μm. MOEMS-based devices are promising for the development of a complete generation of new deformable mirrors. Our micro-deformable mirror (MDM) is based on an array of electrostatic actuators with attachments to a continuous mirror on top. The originality of our approach lies in the elaboration of layers made of polymer materials. Mirror layers and active actuators have been demonstrated. Based on the design of this actuator and our polymer process, realization of a complete polymer-MDM has been done using two process flows: the first involves exclusively polymer materials while the second uses SU8 polymer for structural layers and SiO II and sol-gel for sacrificial layers. The latest shows a better capability in order to produce completely released structures. The electrostatic force provides a non-linear actuation, while AO systems are based on linear matrices operations. Then, we have developed a dedicated 14-bit electronics in order to "linearize" the actuation, using a calibration and a sixth-order polynomial fitting strategy. The response is nearly perfect over our 3×3 MDM prototype with a standard deviation of 3.5 nm; the influence function of the central actuator has been measured. First evaluation on the cross non-linarities has also been studied on OKO mirror and a simple look-up table is sufficient for determining the location of each actuator whatever the locations of the neighbor actuators. Electrostatic MDM are particularly well suited for open-loop AO applications.

  5. Adaptive Optics Observations of Exoplanets, Brown Dwarfs, and Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Sasha

    2012-04-01

    The current direct observations of brown dwarfs and exoplanets have been obtained using instruments not specifically designed for overcoming the large contrast ratio between the host star and any wide-separation faint companions. However, we are about to witness the birth of several new dedicated observing platforms specifically geared towards high contrast imaging of these objects. The Gemini Planet Imager, VLT-SPHERE, Subaru HiCIAO, and Project 1640 at the Palomar 5m telescope will return images of numerous exoplanets and brown dwarfs over hundreds of observing nights in the next five years. Along with diffraction-limited coronagraphs and high-order adaptive optics, these instruments also will return spectral and polarimetric information on any discovered targets, giving clues to their atmospheric compositions and characteristics. Such spectral characterization will be key to forming a detailed theory of comparative exoplanetary science which will be widely applicable to both exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Further, the prevalence of aperture masking interferometry in the field of high contrast imaging is also allowing observers to sense massive, young planets at solar system scales (~3-30 AU)- separations out of reach to conventional direct imaging techniques. Such observations can provide snapshots at the earliest phases of planet formation-information essential for constraining formation mechanisms as well as evolutionary models of planetary mass companions. As a demonstration of the power of this technique, I briefly review recent aperture masking observations of the HR 8799 system. Moreover, all of the aforementioned techniques are already extremely adept at detecting low-mass stellar companions to their target stars, and I present some recent highlights.

  6. Coherent optical adaptive technique improves the spatial resolution of STED microscopy in thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Yang, Yanlong; Tan, Yu; Chen, Xun; Li, Yang; Qu, Junle; Ye, Tong

    2018-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) is one of far-field optical microscopy techniques that can provide sub-diffraction spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the STED microscopy is determined by the specially engineered beam profile of the depletion beam and its power. However, the beam profile of the depletion beam may be distorted due to aberrations of optical systems and inhomogeneity of specimens’ optical properties, resulting in a compromised spatial resolution. The situation gets deteriorated when thick samples are imaged. In the worst case, the sever distortion of the depletion beam profile may cause complete loss of the super resolution effect no matter how much depletion power is applied to specimens. Previously several adaptive optics approaches have been explored to compensate aberrations of systems and specimens. However, it is hard to correct the complicated high-order optical aberrations of specimens. In this report, we demonstrate that the complicated distorted wavefront from a thick phantom sample can be measured by using the coherent optical adaptive technique (COAT). The full correction can effectively maintain and improve the spatial resolution in imaging thick samples. PMID:29400356

  7. Night myopia studied with an adaptive optics visual analyzer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Artal

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called "night myopia" has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. METHODS: We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m(2 to the lowest luminance of 22 × 10(-6 cd/m(2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. RESULTS: We found large inter-subject variability and an average of -0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors.

  8. Experimental Demonstration of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Recurrence in a Modulationally Unstable Optical Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Simaeys, G.; Emplit, Ph.; Haelterman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Through a detailed spectral analysis of the propagation of square-shaped laser pulses in optical fibers, we provide the experimental demonstration of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon in modulationally unstable optical waves ruled by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

  9. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy – or rather nanoscopy – to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. PMID:26124194

  10. Six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Bezruk, M N; Kamshilin, A A; Kulchin, Yurii N

    2012-06-30

    We have proposed and analysed a scheme for the multiplexing of orthogonal dynamic holograms in photorefractive crystals which ensures almost zero cross talk between the holographic channels upon phase demodulation. A six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer was built, and the detection limit for small phase fluctuations in the channels of the interferometer was determined to be 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} rad W{sup 1/2} Hz{sup -1/2}. The channel multiplexing capacity of the interferometer was estimated. The formation of 70 channels such that their optical fields completely overlap in the crystal reduces the relative detection limit in the working channel by just 10 %. We found conditions under which the maximum cross talk between the channels was within the intrinsic noise level in the channels (-47 dB).

  11. Adaptive optics system for the IRSOL solar observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelli, Renzo; Bucher, Roberto; Rossini, Leopoldo; Bianda, Michele; Balemi, Silvano

    2010-07-01

    We present a low cost adaptive optics system developed for the solar observatory at Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), Switzerland. The Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor is based on a Dalsa CCD camera with 256 pixels × 256 pixels working at 1kHz. The wavefront compensation is obtained by a deformable mirror with 37 actuators and a Tip-Tilt mirror. A real time control software has been developed on a RTAI-Linux PC. Scicos/Scilab based software has been realized for an online analysis of the system behavior. The software is completely open source.

  12. Optimal model-based sensorless adaptive optics for epifluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Wilding, Dean; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We report on a universal sample-independent sensorless adaptive optics method, based on modal optimization of the second moment of the fluorescence emission from a point-like excitation. Our method employs a sample-independent precalibration, performed only once for the particular system, to establish the direct relation between the image quality and the aberration. The method is potentially applicable to any form of microscopy with epifluorescence detection, including the practically important case of incoherent fluorescence emission from a three dimensional object, through minor hardware modifications. We have applied the technique successfully to a widefield epifluorescence microscope and to a multiaperture confocal microscope.

  13. High resolution observations using adaptive optics: Achievements and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, K.; Rimmele, T.

    2008-06-01

    Over the last few years, several interesting observations were obtained with the help of solar Adaptive Optics (AO). In this paper, few observations made using the solar AO are enlightened and briefly discussed. A list of disadvantages with the current AO system are presented. With telescopes larger than 1.5 m expected during the next decade, there is a need to develop the existing AO technologies for large aperture telescopes. Some aspects of this development are highlighted. Finally, the recent AO developments in India are also presented.

  14. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye's optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss.

  15. High-speed optical feeder-link system using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori; Hayano, Yutaka; Klaus, Werner

    1997-05-01

    We propose a satellite laser communication system between a ground station and a geostationary satellite, named high- speed optical feeder link system. It is based on the application of (a) high-speed optical devices, which have been developed for ground-based high-speed fiber-optic communications, and (b) the adaptive optics which compensates wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulences using a real time feedback control. A link budget study shows that a system with 10-Gbps bit-rate are available assuming the state-of-the-art device performance of the Er-doped fiber amplifier. We further discuss preliminary measurement results of the atmospheric turbulence at the telescope site in Tokyo, and present current study on the design of the key components for the feeder-link laser transceiver.

  16. Demonstration of an optical phased array using electro-optic polymer phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshikuni; Motoyama, Yasushi; Tanaka, Katsu; Machida, Kenji; Yamada, Toshiki; Otomo, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We have been investigating an optical phased array (OPA) using electro-optic (EO) polymers in phase shifters to achieve ultrafast optical beam steering. In this paper, we describe the basic structures of the OPA using EO polymer phase shifters and show the beam steering capability of the OPA. The designed OPA has a multimode interference (MMI) beam splitter and 8-channel polymer waveguides with EO polymer phase shifters. We compare 1 × 8 MMI and cascaded 1 × 2 MMI beam splitters numerically and experimentally, and then obtain uniform intensity outputs from the 1 × 8 beam splitter. We fabricate the EO polymer OPA with a 1 × 8 MMI beam splitter to prevent intensity dispersion due to radiation loss in bending waveguides. We also evaluate the optical beam steering capability of the fabricated OPA and found a 2.7° deflection of far-field patterns when applying a voltage difference of 25 V in adjacent phase shifters.

  17. A New (?) Physiological Effect in a Demonstration Experiment in Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, S.

    2018-01-01

    A surprising phenomenology from a traditional demonstration experiment in Geometrical Optics reveals here an interesting matter of discussion and analysis. Hence, the main focus of this paper is to observe and discuss such an innovative phenomenology.

  18. Demonstration of the spatial separation of the entangled quantum sidebands of an optical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, E.H.; Milford, G.N.; Robilliard, C.; Ralph, T.C.; Gloeckl, O.; Andersen, U.L.; Lorenz, S.; Leuchs, G.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum optics experiments on 'bright' beams are based on the spectral analysis of field fluctuations and typically probe correlations between radio-frequency sideband modes. However, the extra degree of freedom represented by this dual-mode picture is generally ignored. We demonstrate the experimental operation of a device which can be used to separate the quantum sidebands of an optical field. We use this device to explicitly demonstrate the quantum entanglement between the sidebands of a squeezed beam

  19. Advanced Modulation Formats in Cognitive Optical Networks: EU project CHRON Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Klonidis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate real-time path establishment and switching of coherent modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM) within an optical network driven by cognitive algorithms. Cognition aims at autonomous configuration optimization to satisfy quality of transmission requirements.......We demonstrate real-time path establishment and switching of coherent modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM) within an optical network driven by cognitive algorithms. Cognition aims at autonomous configuration optimization to satisfy quality of transmission requirements....

  20. Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth.

  1. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  2. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF FOVEAL SPARING IN GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY SECONDARY TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querques, Giuseppe; Kamami-Levy, Cynthia; Georges, Anouk; Pedinielli, Alexandre; Capuano, Vittorio; Blanco-Garavito, Rocio; Poulon, Fanny; Souied, Eric H

    2016-02-01

    To describe adaptive optics (AO) imaging of foveal sparing in geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Flood-illumination AO infrared (IR) fundus images were obtained in four consecutive patients with GA using an AO retinal camera (rtx1; Imagine Eyes). Adaptive optics IR images were overlaid with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence images to allow direct correlation of en face AO features with areas of foveal sparing. Adaptive optics appearance of GA and foveal sparing, preservation of functional photoreceptors, and cone densities in areas of foveal sparing were investigated. In 5 eyes of 4 patients (all female; mean age 74.2 ± 11.9 years), a total of 5 images, sized 4° × 4°, of foveal sparing visualized on confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence were investigated by AO imaging. En face AO images revealed GA as regions of inhomogeneous hyperreflectivity with irregularly dispersed hyporeflective clumps. By direct comparison with adjacent regions of GA, foveal sparing appeared as well-demarcated areas of reduced reflectivity with less hyporeflective clumps (mean 14.2 vs. 3.2; P = 0.03). Of note, in these areas, en face AO IR images revealed cone photoreceptors as hyperreflective dots over the background reflectivity (mean cone density 3,271 ± 1,109 cones per square millimeter). Microperimetry demonstrated residual function in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence. Adaptive optics allows the appreciation of differences in reflectivity between regions of GA and foveal sparing. Preservation of functional cone photoreceptors was demonstrated on en face AO IR images in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence.

  3. Overview of deformable mirror technologies for adaptive optics and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    From the ardent bucklers used during the Syracuse battle to set fire to Romans’ ships to more contemporary piezoelectric deformable mirrors widely used in astronomy, from very large voice coil deformable mirrors considered in future Extremely Large Telescopes to very small and compact ones embedded in Multi Object Adaptive Optics systems, this paper aims at giving an overview of Deformable Mirror technology for Adaptive Optics and Astronomy. First the main drivers for the design of Deformable Mirrors are recalled, not only related to atmospheric aberration compensation but also to environmental conditions or mechanical constraints. Then the different technologies available today for the manufacturing of Deformable Mirrors will be described, pros and cons analyzed. A review of the Companies and Institutes with capabilities in delivering Deformable Mirrors to astronomers will be presented, as well as lessons learned from the past 25 years of technological development and operation on sky. In conclusion, perspective will be tentatively drawn for what regards the future of Deformable Mirror technology for Astronomy.

  4. Photometric Calibration of the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Sarah Anne; Rodrigo Carrasco Damele, Eleazar; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is an instrument available on the Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, utilizing the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). In order to allow users to easily perform photometry with this instrument and to monitor any changes in the instrument in the future, we seek to set up a process for performing photometric calibration with standard star observations taken across the time of the instrument’s operation. We construct a Python-based pipeline that includes IRAF wrappers for reduction and combines the AstroPy photutils package and original Python scripts with the IRAF apphot and photcal packages to carry out photometry and linear regression fitting. Using the pipeline, we examine standard star observations made with GSAOI on 68 nights between 2013 and 2015 in order to determine the nightly photometric zero points in the J, H, Kshort, and K bands. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, processed using the Gemini IRAF and gemini_python packages, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  5. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Buchhold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD. The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels, the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force. This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  6. Clinical manifestations of optic pit maculopathy as demonstrated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu JH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan H Tzu, Harry W Flynn Jr, Audina M Berrocal, William E Smiddy, Timothy G Murray, Yale L FisherDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the characteristic features, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, clinical course, and outcome of treatment if given for patients with optic disc pit maculopathy.Methods: We investigated a consecutive series of patients with a diagnosis of optic pit maculopathy treated between 2001 and 2012 at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Patients were divided into two main groups, ie, patients who were observed without surgery and patients who received surgical intervention. The main outcome measures were presenting and final visual acuity, and changes in SD-OCT imaging were recorded. Other data including age, gender, eye, age of onset, length of follow-up, location of optic pit, and location of fluid by OCT were also recorded.Results: On OCT, 67% (12/18 of the eyes showed schisis-like cavities, 22% (4/18 had only subretinal fluid, and 17% (3/18 had only a schisis-like cavity without subretinal fluid. In the patients managed by observation, visual acuity was ≥20/200 in 6/8 eyes initially and 6/8 eyes at last follow-up. Ten of 18 patients received either focal laser, surgery or both. Six of 10 eyes undergoing surgery had initial visual acuity ≥ 20/200, and 8 of 10 eyes undergoing surgery had a visual acuity of ≥20/200 at last follow-up.Conclusion: In this study, many eyes were observed and remained stable during follow-up. In eyes with reduced vision, surgical intervention produced variable outcomes, and persistent intraretinal/subretinal fluid was a common occurrence.Keywords: optic pit maculopathy, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

  7. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in combination with en-face optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felberer, F.

    2014-01-01

    The human retina is a most important tissue and plays a fundamental role for the vision. Diseases of the eye affect the normal retinal function which, if untreated, may lead to vision loss or ultimately to blindness. Thus, in vivo diagnostic tools that provide detailed information on the retinal status are required in order to improve diagnosis and treatment. In recent years, several new optical imaging methods of the human retina have been developed and now represent the key part in a standard ophthalmic examination process. One of these technologies is optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides images of the retina noninvasively and with a high axial resolution. However, imperfections of the eye's optics cause aberrations of the wavefront of the imaging light, thus limiting the transverse resolution of such systems. Improvements in the resolution of retinal images are necessary to resolve individual cells (e.g. photoreceptors) which may provide new opportunities in retinal diagnostics and therapy control. Adaptive optics (AO), a technology known from astronomy, may be used to increase image resolution. Aberrations of the imaging light are measured and corrected, resulting in an increase of lateral resolution up to the diffraction limit. Within this thesis, AO was combined with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) that enables high resolution imaging of the retina. Measurements on healthy subjects demonstrated the ability of the system to resolve foveal cones (the smallest cone photoreceptors within the retina) and even rod photoreceptors. However, the depth resolution of the system remained limited compared to OCT instruments. Thus, in a second step, the instrument was extended to a combined AO-SLO/OCT system. The OCT system is based on transversal scanning (TS)-OCT which records en-face images of the retina and incorporates a high-speed axial eye tracking device. Together with transverse motion correction based on the AO-SLO images, the system

  8. Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics performance improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Xiaofang; Song, Jie

    2015-08-01

    In order to overcome the effect of the atmospheric anisoplanatism, Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO), which was developed based on turbulence correction by means of several deformable mirrors (DMs) conjugated to different altitude and by which the limit of a small corrected FOV that is achievable with AO is overcome and a wider FOV is able to be corrected, has been widely used to widen the field-of-view (FOV) of a solar telescope. With the assistance of the multi-threaded Adaptive Optics Simulator (MAOS), we can make a 3D reconstruction of the distorted wavefront. The correction is applied by one or more DMs. This technique benefits from information about atmospheric turbulence at different layers, which can be used to reconstruct the wavefront extremely well. In MAOS, the sensors are either simulated as idealized wavefront gradient sensors, tip-tilt sensors based on the best Zernike fit, or a WFS using physical optics and incorporating user specified pixel characteristics and a matched filter pixel processing algorithm. Only considering the atmospheric anisoplanatism, we focus on how the performance of a solar MCAO system is related to the numbers of DMs and their conjugate heights. We theoretically quantify the performance of the tomographic solar MCAO system. The results indicate that the tomographic AO system can improve the average Strehl ratio of a solar telescope by only employing one or two DMs conjugated to the optimum altitude. And the S.R. has a significant increase when more deformable mirrors are used. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of DM conjugate altitude on the correction achievable by the MCAO system, and present the optimum DM conjugate altitudes.

  9. Control algorithms and applications of the wavefront sensorless adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Yuanshen; Yang, Huizhen

    2017-10-01

    Compared with the conventional adaptive optics (AO) system, the wavefront sensorless (WFSless) AO system need not to measure the wavefront and reconstruct it. It is simpler than the conventional AO in system architecture and can be applied to the complex conditions. Based on the analysis of principle and system model of the WFSless AO system, wavefront correction methods of the WFSless AO system were divided into two categories: model-free-based and model-based control algorithms. The WFSless AO system based on model-free-based control algorithms commonly considers the performance metric as a function of the control parameters and then uses certain control algorithm to improve the performance metric. The model-based control algorithms include modal control algorithms, nonlinear control algorithms and control algorithms based on geometrical optics. Based on the brief description of above typical control algorithms, hybrid methods combining the model-free-based control algorithm with the model-based control algorithm were generalized. Additionally, characteristics of various control algorithms were compared and analyzed. We also discussed the extensive applications of WFSless AO system in free space optical communication (FSO), retinal imaging in the human eye, confocal microscope, coherent beam combination (CBC) techniques and extended objects.

  10. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  11. Statistical learning methods for aero-optic wavefront prediction and adaptive-optic latency compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. Robert

    Since the early 1970's research in airborne laser systems has been the subject of continued interest. Airborne laser applications depend on being able to propagate a near diffraction-limited laser beam from an airborne platform. Turbulent air flowing over the aircraft produces density fluctuations through which the beam must propagate. Because the index of refraction of the air is directly related to the density, the turbulent flow imposes aberrations on the beam passing through it. This problem is referred to as Aero-Optics. Aero-Optics is recognized as a major technical issue that needs to be solved before airborne optical systems can become routinely fielded. This dissertation research specifically addresses an approach to mitigating the deleterious effects imposed on an airborne optical system by aero-optics. A promising technology is adaptive optics: a feedback control method that measures optical aberrations and imprints the conjugate aberrations onto an outgoing beam. The challenge is that it is a computationally-difficult problem, since aero-optic disturbances are on the order of kilohertz for practical applications. High control loop frequencies and high disturbance frequencies mean that adaptive-optic systems are sensitive to latency in sensors, mirrors, amplifiers, and computation. These latencies build up to result in a dramatic reduction in the system's effective bandwidth. This work presents two variations of an algorithm that uses model reduction and data-driven predictors to estimate the evolution of measured wavefronts over a short temporal horizon and thus compensate for feedback latency. The efficacy of the two methods are compared in this research, and evaluated against similar algorithms that have been previously developed. The best version achieved over 75% disturbance rejection in simulation in the most optically active flow region in the wake of a turret, considerably outperforming conventional approaches. The algorithm is shown to be

  12. Adaptive optics stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (AO-STORM) by particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F; Zhang, Yiwen; Shen, Ping; Kner, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) can achieve resolutions of better than 20nm imaging single fluorescently labeled cells. However, when optical aberrations induced by larger biological samples degrade the point spread function (PSF), the localization accuracy and number of localizations are both reduced, destroying the resolution of STORM. Adaptive optics (AO) can be used to correct the wavefront, restoring the high resolution of STORM. A challenge for AO-STORM microscopy is the development of robust optimization algorithms which can efficiently correct the wavefront from stochastic raw STORM images. Here we present the implementation of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach with a Fourier metric for real-time correction of wavefront aberrations during STORM acquisition. We apply our approach to imaging boutons 100 μm deep inside the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila melanogaster larvae achieving a resolution of 146 nm.

  13. Binary stars observed with adaptive optics at the starfire optical range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Jack D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, RDSAM, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In reviewing observations taken of binary stars used as calibration objects for non-astronomical purposes with adaptive optics on the 3.5 m Starfire Optical Range telescope over the past 2 years, one-fifth of them were found to be off-orbit. In order to understand such a high number of discrepant position angles and separations, all previous observations in the Washington Double Star Catalog for these rogue binaries were obtained from the Naval Observatory. Adding our observations to these yields new orbits for all, resolving the discrepancies. We have detected both components of γ Gem for the first time, and we have shown that 7 Cam is an optical pair, not physically bound.

  14. Research on Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm by Improved Expectation Maximization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Dongming; Su, Wei; Yang, Jinhua; Jiang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    To improve the effect of adaptive optics images’ restoration, we put forward a deconvolution algorithm improved by the EM algorithm which joints multiframe adaptive optics images based on expectation-maximization theory. Firstly, we need to make a mathematical model for the degenerate multiframe adaptive optics images. The function model is deduced for the points that spread with time based on phase error. The AO images are denoised using the image power spectral density and support constrain...

  15. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  16. The adaptation of methods in multilayer optics for the calculation of specular neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, J.

    1988-10-01

    The adaptation of standard methods in multilayer optics to the calculation of specular neutron reflection is described. Their application is illustrated with examples which include a glass optical flat and a deuterated Langmuir-Blodgett film. (author)

  17. Design of an optimized adaptive optics system with a photo-controlled deformable mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Jelínková, H.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 13 (2016), s. 1422-1425 ISSN 1041-1135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adaptive optics * closed loop systems * deformable mirror Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  18. Clinical manifestations of optic pit maculopathy as demonstrated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzu, Jonathan H; Flynn, Harry W; Berrocal, Audina M; Smiddy, William E; Murray, Timothy G; Fisher, Yale L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the characteristic features, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), clinical course, and outcome of treatment if given for patients with optic disc pit maculopathy. We investigated a consecutive series of patients with a diagnosis of optic pit maculopathy treated between 2001 and 2012 at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Patients were divided into two main groups, ie, patients who were observed without surgery and patients who received surgical intervention. The main outcome measures were presenting and final visual acuity, and changes in SD-OCT imaging were recorded. Other data including age, gender, eye, age of onset, length of follow-up, location of optic pit, and location of fluid by OCT were also recorded. On OCT, 67% (12/18) of the eyes showed schisis-like cavities, 22% (4/18) had only subretinal fluid, and 17% (3/18) had only a schisis-like cavity without subretinal fluid. In the patients managed by observation, visual acuity was ≥20/200 in 6/8 eyes initially and 6/8 eyes at last follow-up. Ten of 18 patients received either focal laser, surgery or both. Six of 10 eyes undergoing surgery had initial visual acuity ≥ 20/200, and 8 of 10 eyes undergoing surgery had a visual acuity of ≥20/200 at last follow-up. In this study, many eyes were observed and remained stable during follow-up. In eyes with reduced vision, surgical intervention produced variable outcomes, and persistent intraretinal/subretinal fluid was a common occurrence.

  19. Experimental demonstration of time- and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Li, Juhao; Tang, Ruizhi; Hu, Tao; Yu, Jinyi; Mo, Qi; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan; Li, Zhengbin

    2017-07-01

    A time- and mode-division multiplexed passive optical network (TMDM-PON) architecture is proposed, in which each optical network unit (ONU) communicates with the optical line terminal (OLT) independently utilizing both different time slots and switched optical linearly polarized (LP) spatial modes. Combination of a mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEUX) and a simple N × 1 optical switch is employed to select the specific LP mode in each ONU. A mode-insensitive power splitter is used for signal broadcast/combination between OLT and ONUs. We theoretically propose a dynamic mode and time slot assignment scheme for TMDM-PON based on inter-ONU priority rating, in which the time delay and packet loss ratio's variation tendency are investigated by simulation. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate 2-mode TMDM-PON transmission over 10 km FMF with 10-Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) signal and direct detection.

  20. Demonstration of an 8 × 25-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huo, Li; Li, Yunbo; Wang, Lei; Li, Han; Jiang, Xiangyu; Chen, Xin; Lou, Caiyun

    2017-11-01

    An 8 × 25-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) system is demonstrated experimentally. The optical pulse source is based on optical frequency comb (OFC) generation and pulse shaping, which can generate nearly chirp-free 25-GHz 1.6-ps optical Gaussian pulse. The eightfold optical time-division demultiplexer consists of a single-driven dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) and a Mamyshev reshaper. Error-free demultiplexing of 8 × 25-Gb/s back-to-back (B2B) signal with a power penalty of 4.1 dB to 4.4 dB at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-9 is achieved to confirm the performance of the proposed system.

  1. Broadband demonstrations of true-time delay using linear sideband chirped programming and optical coherent transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, R.R.; Barber, Z.W.; Fischer, J.A.; Tian, M.; Babbitt, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Linear sideband chirped (LSC) programming is introduced as a means of configuring spatial-spectral holographic gratings for optical coherent transient processors. Similar to linear frequency chirped programming, LSC programming allows the use of broadband integrated electro-optic phase modulators to produce chirps instead of using elaborate broadband chirped lasers. This approach has several advantages including the ability to use a stabilized laser for the optical carrier as well as stable, reproducible chirped optical signals when the modulator is driven digitally. Using LSC programming, we experimentally demonstrate broadband true-time delay as a proof of principle for the optical control of phased array radars. Here both cw phase modulated and binary phase shift keyed probe signals are true-time delayed with bandwidths of 1 GHz and delay resolutions better than 60 ps

  2. Experimental demonstration of a cognitive quality of transmission estimator for optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Aguado, Juan Carlos; Borkowski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    small and not optimized underlying knowledge base, it achieves between 79% and 98.7% successful classifications based on the error vector magnitude (EVM) parameter, and approximately 100% when the classification is based on the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR).......The impact of physical layer impairments in optical network design and operation has received significant attention in the last years, thereby requiring estimation techniques to predict the quality of transmission (QoT) of optical connections before being established. In this paper, we report...... on the experimental demonstration of a case-based reasoning (CBR) technique to predict whether optical channels fulfill QoT requirements, thus supporting impairment-aware networking. The validation of the cognitive QoT estimator is performed in a WDM 80 Gb/s PDM-QPSK testbed, and we demonstrate that even with a very...

  3. The effects of wallerian degeneration of the optic radiations demonstrated by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M.; Forester, M.; D' Incerti, L.; Farina, L. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Ist. Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta, Milan (Italy)); Pareyson, D. (Dept. of Neurology, Ist. Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta, Milan (Italy))

    1992-08-01

    The effects of wallerian degeneration can be demonstrated by MRI as abnormal signal along the course of the degenerate fibres; they have previously been reported in the corticospinal tract. We report two cases of wallerian degeneration of the right optic radiations due to lesions of the right lateral geniculate body. The anatomy and the MRI visibility of the normal optic radiations are briefly discussed. (orig.).

  4. Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification by optical-field-induced ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Katsumi; Nagata, Yutaka; Kubodera, Shoichi; Obara, Minoru; Tashiro, Hideo; Toyoda, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated the amplification of the 13.5-nm Lyman-α transition in hydrogen-like Li + ions, using a novel optical-field-induced ionization. A small-signal gain coefficient of 20 cm -1 was obtained. The use of preformed Li + plasma as an initial laser medium plays important roles for the production of suitable plasma conditions for an optical-field-induced ionization x-ray laser. (author)

  5. The effects of wallerian degeneration of the optic radiations demonstrated by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M.; Forester, M.; D'Incerti, L.; Farina, L.; Pareyson, D.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of wallerian degeneration can be demonstrated by MRI as abnormal signal along the course of the degenerate fibres; they have previously been reported in the corticospinal tract. We report two cases of wallerian degeneration of the right optic radiations due to lesions of the right lateral geniculate body. The anatomy and the MRI visibility of the normal optic radiations are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  6. Curved sensors for compact high-resolution wide-field designs: prototype demonstration and optical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambion, Bertrand; Gaschet, Christophe; Behaghel, Thibault; Vandeneynde, Aurélie; Caplet, Stéphane; Gétin, Stéphane; Henry, David; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfried; Lombardo, Simona; Ferrari, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Over the recent years, a huge interest has grown for curved electronics, particularly for opto-electronics systems. Curved sensors help the correction of off-axis aberrations, such as Petzval Field Curvature, astigmatism, and bring significant optical and size benefits for imaging systems. In this paper, we first describe advantages of curved sensor and associated packaging process applied on a 1/1.8'' format 1.3Mpx global shutter CMOS sensor (Teledyne EV76C560) into its standard ceramic package with a spherical radius of curvature Rc=65mm and 55mm. The mechanical limits of the die are discussed (Finite Element Modelling and experimental), and electro-optical performances are investigated. Then, based on the monocentric optical architecture, we proposed a new design, compact and with a high resolution, developed specifically for a curved image sensor including optical optimization, tolerances, assembly and optical tests. Finally, a functional prototype is presented through a benchmark approach and compared to an existing standard optical system with same performances and a x2.5 reduction of length. The finality of this work was a functional prototype demonstration on the CEA-LETI during Photonics West 2018 conference. All these experiments and optical results demonstrate the feasibility and high performances of systems with curved sensors.

  7. Experimental demonstration of optical stealth transmission over wavelength-division multiplexing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Tang, Yeteng; Chen, Dalei

    2016-08-10

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical stealth transmission system over a 200 GHz-grid wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) network. The stealth signal is processed by spectral broadening, temporal spreading, and power equalizing. The public signal is suppressed by multiband notch filtering at the stealth channel receiver. The interaction between the public and stealth channels is investigated in terms of public-signal-to-stealth-signal ratio, data rate, notch-filter bandwidth, and public channel number. The stealth signal can transmit over 80 km single-mode fiber with no error. Our experimental results verify the feasibility of optical steganography used over the existing WDM-based optical network.

  8. Artificial guide stars for adaptive optics using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Brown, Anthony M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Clark, P.; Massey, R.

    2018-06-01

    Astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to increase effective telescope resolution. However, they cannot be used to observe the whole sky since one or more natural guide stars of sufficient brightness must be found within the telescope field of view for the AO system to work. Even when laser guide stars are used, natural guide stars are still required to provide a constant position reference. Here, we introduce a technique to overcome this problem by using rotary unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a platform from which to produce artificial guide stars. We describe the concept that relies on the UAV being able to measure its precise relative position. We investigate the AO performance improvements that can be achieved, which in the cases presented here can improve the Strehl ratio by a factor of at least 2 for a 8 m class telescope. We also discuss improvements to this technique, which is relevant to both astronomical and solar AO systems.

  9. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2014-08-20

    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  10. Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Marcos A; Le Mignant, David; Macintosh, Bruce A

    2004-10-10

    The adaptive-optics (AO) system at the W. M. Keck Observatory is characterized. We calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near-infrared imaging camera. The measurement noise and bandwidth errors are obtained by modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids. Results of sky performance tests are presented: The AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of as much as 0.37 at 1.58 microm when a bright guide star is used and of 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star. The images are consistent with the predicted wave-front error based on our error budget estimates.

  11. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Dubra, Alfredo; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Sharma, Robin; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Correction of the eye’s monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve the resolution of in vivo mouse retinal images [Biss et al., Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659 (2007) and Alt et al., Proc. SPIE 7550, 755019 (2010)], but previous attempts have been limited by poor spot quality in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). Recent advances in mouse eye wavefront sensing using an adjustable focus beacon with an annular beam profile have improved the wavefront sensor spot quality [Geng et al., Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717 (2011)], and we have incorporated them into a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The performance of the instrument was tested on the living mouse eye, and images of multiple retinal structures, including the photoreceptor mosaic, nerve fiber bundles, fine capillaries and fluorescently labeled ganglion cells were obtained. The in vivo transverse and axial resolutions of the fluorescence channel of the AOSLO were estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the line and point spread functions (LSF and PSF), and were found to be better than 0.79 μm ± 0.03 μm (STD)(45% wider than the diffraction limit) and 10.8 μm ± 0.7 μm (STD)(two times the diffraction limit), respectively. The axial positional accuracy was estimated to be 0.36 μm. This resolution and positional accuracy has allowed us to classify many ganglion cell types, such as bistratified ganglion cells, in vivo. PMID:22574260

  12. Recent results and future plans for a 45 actuator adaptive x-ray optics experiment at the advanced light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai F., E-mail: brejnholt1@llnl.gov; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Hill, Randal M.; Pardini, Tommaso; Hagler, Lisle; Jackson, Jessie; Jeon, Jae; McCarville, Thomas J.; Palmer, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Celestre, Richard [Advanced Light Source - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Brooks, Audrey D. [Northrop Grumman - AOA Xinetics Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We report on the current status of the Adaptive X-ray Optics project run by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL is collaborating with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to demonstrate a near real-time adaptive X-ray optic. To this end, a custom-built 45 cm long deformable mirror has been installed at ALS beamline 5.3.1 (end station 2) for a two-year period that started in September 2014. We will outline general aspects of the instrument, present results from a recent experimental campaign and touch on future plans for the project.

  13. 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Wittrock, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    This book treats the development and application of adaptive optics for industry and medicine. The contributions describe recently developed components for adaptive-optics systems such as deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, and mirror drivers as well as complete adaptive optical systems and their applications in industry and medicine. Applications range from laser-beam forming and adaptive aberration correction for high-power lasers to retinal imaging in ophthalmology. The contributions are based on presentations made at the 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine which took place in Münster, Germany, in October 2003. This highly successful series of workshops on adaptive optics started in 1997 and continues with the 5th workshop in Beijing in 2005.

  14. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO

  15. Electro-optic control of photographic imaging quality through ‘Smart Glass’ windows in optics demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Paulins, Paulis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental setup allowing the modeling of conditions in optical devices and in the eye at various degrees of scattering such as cataract pathology in human eyes is presented. The scattering in cells of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) and ‘Smart Glass’ windows is used in the modeling experiments. Both applications are used as optical obstacles placed in different positions of the optical information flow pathway either directly on the stimuli demonstration computer screen or mounted directly after the image-formation lens of a digital camera. The degree of scattering is changed continuously by applying an AC voltage of up to 30–80 V to the PDLC cell. The setup uses a camera with 14 bit depth and a 24 mm focal length lens. Light-emitting diodes and diode-pumped solid-state lasers emitting radiation of different wavelengths are used as portable small-divergence light sources in the experiments. Image formation, optical system point spread function, modulation transfer functions, and system resolution limits are determined for such sample optical systems in student optics and optometry experimental exercises. (paper)

  16. Electro-optic control of photographic imaging quality through ‘Smart Glass’ windows in optics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Paulins, Paulis

    2017-09-01

    An experimental setup allowing the modeling of conditions in optical devices and in the eye at various degrees of scattering such as cataract pathology in human eyes is presented. The scattering in cells of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) and ‘Smart Glass’ windows is used in the modeling experiments. Both applications are used as optical obstacles placed in different positions of the optical information flow pathway either directly on the stimuli demonstration computer screen or mounted directly after the image-formation lens of a digital camera. The degree of scattering is changed continuously by applying an AC voltage of up to 30-80 V to the PDLC cell. The setup uses a camera with 14 bit depth and a 24 mm focal length lens. Light-emitting diodes and diode-pumped solid-state lasers emitting radiation of different wavelengths are used as portable small-divergence light sources in the experiments. Image formation, optical system point spread function, modulation transfer functions, and system resolution limits are determined for such sample optical systems in student optics and optometry experimental exercises.

  17. Acute Solar Retinopathy Imaged With Adaptive Optics, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chris Y; Jansen, Michael E; Andrade, Jorge; Chui, Toco Y P; Do, Anna T; Rosen, Richard B; Deobhakta, Avnish

    2018-01-01

    Solar retinopathy is a rare form of retinal injury that occurs after direct sungazing. To enhance understanding of the structural changes that occur in solar retinopathy by obtaining high-resolution in vivo en face images. Case report of a young adult woman who presented to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary with symptoms of acute solar retinopathy after viewing the solar eclipse on August 21, 2017. Results of comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, microperimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy, OCT angiography, and en face OCT. The patient was examined after viewing the solar eclipse. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS. The patient was left-eye dominant. Spectral-domain OCT images were consistent with mild and severe acute solar retinopathy in the right and left eye, respectively. Microperimetry was normal in the right eye but showed paracentral decreased retinal sensitivity in the left eye with a central absolute scotoma. Adaptive optics images of the right eye showed a small region of nonwaveguiding photoreceptors, while images of the left eye showed a large area of abnormal and nonwaveguiding photoreceptors. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were normal in both eyes. En face OCT images of the right eye showed a small circular hyperreflective area, with central hyporeflectivity in the outer retina of the right eye. The left eye showed a hyperreflective lesion that intensified in area from inner to middle retina and became mostly hyporeflective in the outer retina. The shape of the lesion on adaptive optics and en face OCT images of the left eye corresponded to the shape of the scotoma drawn by the patient on Amsler grid. Acute solar retinopathy can present with foveal cone photoreceptor mosaic disturbances on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging. Corresponding reflectivity changes can be seen on en face OCT, especially

  18. Experimental demonstration of software defined data center optical networks with Tbps end-to-end tunability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hui; Wang, Huitao; Ge, Chao

    2015-10-01

    The end-to-end tunability is important to provision elastic channel for the burst traffic of data center optical networks. Then, how to complete the end-to-end tunability based on elastic optical networks? Software defined networking (SDN) based end-to-end tunability solution is proposed for software defined data center optical networks, and the protocol extension and implementation procedure are designed accordingly. For the first time, the flexible grid all optical networks with Tbps end-to-end tunable transport and switch system have been online demonstrated for data center interconnection, which are controlled by OpenDayLight (ODL) based controller. The performance of the end-to-end tunable transport and switch system has been evaluated with wavelength number tuning, bit rate tuning, and transmit power tuning procedure.

  19. Optical design considerations when imaging the fundus with an adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Campbell, Melanie C. W.; Kisilak, Marsha L.; Boyd, Shelley R.

    2008-06-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) technology has been used in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (CSLO) which are analogous to confocal scanning laser microscopes (CSLM) with advantages of real-time imaging, increased image contrast, a resistance to image degradation by scattered light, and improved optical sectioning. With AO, the instrumenteye system can have low enough aberrations for the optical quality to be limited primarily by diffraction. Diffraction-limited, high resolution imaging would be beneficial in the understanding and early detection of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. However, to maintain diffraction-limited imaging, sufficient pixel sampling over the field of view is required, resulting in the need for increased data acquisition rates for larger fields. Imaging over smaller fields may be a disadvantage with clinical subjects because of fixation instability and the need to examine larger areas of the retina. Reduction in field size also reduces the amount of light sampled per pixel, increasing photon noise. For these reasons, we considered an instrument design with a larger field of view. When choosing scanners to be used in an AOCSLO, the ideal frame rate should be above the flicker fusion rate for the human observer and would also allow user control of targets projected onto the retina. In our AOCSLO design, we have studied the tradeoffs between field size, frame rate and factors affecting resolution. We will outline optical approaches to overcome some of these tradeoffs and still allow detection of the earliest changes in the fundus in diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Demonstration of optical vortex propagation in on-chip rectangular dielectric waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Chipouline, Arkadi; Sokolovskii, Grigorii S.

    2017-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light provides an additional degree of freedom for multiplexing the data streams in optical communications, increasing further the channel capacity [1]. Applications of OAM for both classical data transmission [2] and quantum information [3] have been demonstrated...

  1. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. Furthermore, an update of current research situation in AO-SLO is made based on different fundus structures as photoreceptors (cones and rods, fundus vessels, retinal pigment epithelium layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and lamina cribrosa. Finally, this review indicates possible research directions of AO-SLO in future.

  2. Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems presents a novel design of wavefront correctors based on magnetic fluid deformable mirrors (MFDM) as well as corresponding control algorithms. The presented wavefront correctors are characterized by their linear, dynamic response. Various mirror surface shape control algorithms are presented along with experimental evaluations of the performance of the resulting adaptive optics systems. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used in various fields of application to enhance the performance of optical systems, such as imaging, laser, free space optical communication systems, etc. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, professors, engineers, scientists and researchers working on the design of adaptive optics systems and their various emerging fields of application. Zhizheng Wu is an associate professor at Shanghai University, China. Azhar Iqbal is a research associate at the University of Toronto, Canada. Foue...

  3. Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for a high contrast imaging coronagraph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Bing; Ren Deqing; Zhang Xi

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive optics (AO) system based on a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of a stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of the SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of the SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by an experimental system featured with a 140-actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shark wavefront sensor. Then the SPGD based AO is applied to a liquid crystal array (LCA) based coronagraph to improve the contrast. The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask of any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10 -3 to 10 -4.5 at an angular distance of 2λ/D after being corrected by SPGD based AO.

  4. Holographic line field en-face OCT with digital adaptive optics in the retina in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginner, Laurin; Schmoll, Tilman; Kumar, Abhishek; Salas, Matthias; Pricoupenko, Nastassia; Wurster, Lara M; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a high-resolution line field en-face time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using an off-axis holography configuration. Line field en-face OCT produces high speed en-face images at rates of up to 100 Hz. The high frame rate favors good phase stability across the lateral field-of-view which is indispensable for digital adaptive optics (DAO). Human retinal structures are acquired in-vivo with a broadband light source at 840 nm, and line rates of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. Structures of different retinal layers, such as photoreceptors, capillaries, and nerve fibers are visualized with high resolution of 2.8 µm and 5.5 µm in lateral directions. Subaperture based DAO is successfully applied to increase the visibility of cone-photoreceptors and nerve fibers. Furthermore, en-face Doppler OCT maps are generated based on calculating the differential phase shifts between recorded lines.

  5. Adaptive Electronic Dispersion Compensator for Chromatic and Polarization-Mode Dispersions in Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koc Ut-Va

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely-used LMS algorithm for coefficient updates in adaptive (feedforward/decision-feedback equalizers is found to be suboptimal for ASE-dominant systems but various coefficient-dithering approaches suffer from slow adaptation rate without guarantee of convergence. In view of the non-Gaussian nature of optical noise after the square-law optoelectronic conversion, we propose to apply the higher-order least-mean 2 th-order (LMN algorithms resulting in OSNR penalty which is 1.5–2 dB less than that of LMS. Furthermore, combined with adjustable slicer threshold control, the proposed equalizer structures are demonstrated through extensive Monte Carlo simulations to achieve better performance.

  6. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  7. Experimental demonstration of large capacity WSDM optical access network with multicore fibers and advanced modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Borui; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Lei; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Shuang; Shum, Perry Ping

    2015-05-04

    Towards the next generation optical access network supporting large capacity data transmission to enormous number of users covering a wider area, we proposed a hybrid wavelength-space division multiplexing (WSDM) optical access network architecture utilizing multicore fibers with advanced modulation formats. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrated a WSDM optical access network with duplex transmission using our developed and fabricated multicore (7-core) fibers with 58.7km distance. As a cost-effective modulation scheme for access network, the optical OFDM-QPSK signal has been intensity modulated on the downstream transmission in the optical line terminal (OLT) and it was directly detected in the optical network unit (ONU) after MCF transmission. 10 wavelengths with 25GHz channel spacing from an optical comb generator are employed and each wavelength is loaded with 5Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signal. After amplification, power splitting, and fan-in multiplexer, 10-wavelength downstream signal was injected into six outer layer cores simultaneously and the aggregation downstream capacity reaches 300 Gb/s. -16 dBm sensitivity has been achieved for 3.8 × 10-3 bit error ratio (BER) with 7% Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit for all wavelengths in every core. Upstream signal from ONU side has also been generated and the bidirectional transmission in the same core causes negligible performance degradation to the downstream signal. As a universal platform for wired/wireless data access, our proposed architecture provides additional dimension for high speed mobile signal transmission and we hence demonstrated an upstream delivery of 20Gb/s per wavelength with QPSK modulation formats using the inner core of MCF emulating a mobile backhaul service. The IQ modulated data was coherently detected in the OLT side. -19 dBm sensitivity has been achieved under the FEC limit and more than 18 dB power budget is guaranteed.

  8. Large-field-of-view imaging by multi-pupil adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Kong, Lingjie; Zhou, Yifeng; Cui, Meng

    2017-06-01

    Adaptive optics can correct for optical aberrations. We developed multi-pupil adaptive optics (MPAO), which enables simultaneous wavefront correction over a field of view of 450 × 450 μm 2 and expands the correction area to nine times that of conventional methods. MPAO's ability to perform spatially independent wavefront control further enables 3D nonplanar imaging. We applied MPAO to in vivo structural and functional imaging in the mouse brain.

  9. The Hands-On Optics Project: a demonstration of module 3-magnificent magnifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance E.

    2014-07-01

    The Hands-On Optics project offers an example of a set of instructional modules that foster active prolonged engagement. Developed by SPIE, OSA, and NOAO through funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the modules were originally designed for afterschool settings and museums. However, because they were based on national standards in mathematics, science, and technology, they were easily adapted for use in classrooms. The philosophy and implementation strategies of the six modules will be described as well as lessons learned in training educators. The modules were implementing with the help of optics industry professionals who served as expert volunteers to assist educators. A key element of the modules was that they were developed around an understanding of optics misconceptions and used culminating activities in each module as a form of authentic assessment. Thus student achievement could be measured by evaluating the actual product created by each student in applying key concepts, tools, and applications together at the end of each module. The program used a progression of disciplinary core concepts to build an integrated sequence and crosscutting ideas and practices to infuse the principles of the modern electro-optical field into the modules. Whenever possible, students were encouraged to experiment and to create, and to pursue inquiry-based approaches. The result was a program that had high appeal to regular as well as gifted students.

  10. Experimental demonstration of free-space optical vortex transmutation with polygonal lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2012-08-01

    Vortex transmutation was predicted to take place when vortices interact with systems possessing discrete rotational symmetries of finite order [Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 123901 (2005)]. Here we report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of vortex transmutation. We show that in free space, by simply inserting polygonal lenses into the optical path, the central vorticity of a coaxially incident optical vortex can be changed following the modular transmutation rule. We generate the wavefront at the exit face of the lenses with computer generated holograms and measure the output vorticity using the interference patterns at the focal plane. The results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  11. Novel adaptive fiber-optics collimator for coherent beam combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Pengfei; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2014-12-15

    In this manuscript, we experimentally validate a novel design of adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC), which utilizes two levers to enlarge the movable range of the fiber end cap. The enlargement of the range makes the new AFOC possible to compensate the end-cap/tilt aberration in fiber laser beam combining system. The new AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers was fabricated and the performance of the new AFOC was tested carefully, including its control range, frequency response and control accuracy. Coherent beam combination (CBC) of two 5-W fiber amplifiers array with simultaneously end-cap/tilt control and phase-locking control was implemented successfully with the novel AFOC. Experimental results show that the average normalized power in the bucket (PIB) value increases from 0.311 to 0.934 with active phasing and tilt aberration compensation simultaneously, and with both controls on, the fringe contrast improves to more than 82% from 0% for the case with both control off. This work presents a promising structure for tilt aberration control in high power CBC system.

  12. Nanomechanical characterization of adaptive optics components in microprojectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Manuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Compact microprojectors are being developed for information display in mobile electronic devices. A key component of the microprojector is the green laser package, which consists of an adaptive optics component with a drive mechanism. A crucial concern is the mechanical wear of key drive mechanism components, such as the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) driving rod, the Zn alloy body and the stainless steel friction plate, after prolonged operation. Since friction and wear are dependent on the mechanical properties, nanoindentation experiments were conducted on these drive mechanism components using a depth-sensing nanoindenter at room and elevated temperatures up to 100 °C. The hardness and elastic modulus of all the materials studied decrease at increasing test temperatures. From plasticity index analysis, a correlation between the tendency for plastic deformation and the mechanical properties was obtained. Nanoscratch studies were also conducted in order to simulate wear, as well as examine the scratch resistance and deformation modes of these materials, where it was found that the CFRP rod exhibited the highest scratch resistance. The CFRP rod undergoes mostly brittle deformation, while the Zn alloy body and friction plate undergo plastic deformation.

  13. Control code for laboratory adaptive optics teaching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Moonseob; Luder, Ryan; Sanchez, Lucas; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    By sensing and compensating wavefront aberration, adaptive optics (AO) systems have proven themselves crucial in large astronomical telescopes, retinal imaging, and holographic coherent imaging. Commercial AO systems for laboratory use are now available in the market. One such is the ThorLabs AO kit built around a Boston Micromachines deformable mirror. However, there are limitations in applying these systems to research and pedagogical projects since the software is written with limited flexibility. In this paper, we describe a MATLAB-based software suite to interface with the ThorLabs AO kit by using the MATLAB Engine API and Visual Studio. The software is designed to offer complete access to the wavefront sensor data, through the various levels of processing, to the command signals to the deformable mirror and fast steering mirror. In this way, through a MATLAB GUI, an operator can experiment with every aspect of the AO system's functioning. This is particularly valuable for tests of new control algorithms as well as to support student engagement in an academic environment. We plan to make the code freely available to the community.

  14. Sensorless adaptive optics for isoSTED nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, Jacopo; Hao, Xiang; Allgeyer, Edward S.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Rittscher, Jens; Booth, Martin J.

    2018-02-01

    The presence of aberrations is a major concern when using fluorescence microscopy to image deep inside tissue. Aberrations due to refractive index mismatch and heterogeneity of the specimen under investigation cause severe reduction in the amount of fluorescence emission that is collected by the microscope. Furthermore, aberrations adversely affect the resolution, leading to loss of fine detail in the acquired images. These phenomena are particularly troublesome for super-resolution microscopy techniques such as isotropic stimulated-emission-depletion microscopy (isoSTED), which relies on accurate control of the shape and co-alignment of multiple excitation and depletion foci to operate as expected and to achieve the super-resolution effect. Aberrations can be suppressed by implementing sensorless adaptive optics techniques, whereby aberration correction is achieved by maximising a certain image quality metric. In confocal microscopy for example, one can employ the total image brightness as an image quality metric. Aberration correction is subsequently achieved by iteratively changing the settings of a wavefront corrector device until the metric is maximised. This simplistic approach has limited applicability to isoSTED microscopy where, due to the complex interplay between the excitation and depletion foci, maximising the total image brightness can lead to introducing aberrations in the depletion foci. In this work we first consider the effects that different aberration modes have on isoSTED microscopes. We then propose an iterative, wavelet-based aberration correction algorithm and evaluate its benefits.

  15. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  16. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  17. Retinal, optic nerve and chiasmal function following radiation therapy demonstrated by visual evoked response testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, A.B.; Constine, L.S.; Smith, D.; Palisca, M.; Ojomo, K.; Muhs, A.

    1997-01-01

    after RT, VER demonstrated conduction delay and a right prechiasmal deficit representing radiation retinopathy involving the macula OD and superior retina OS. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated capillary dropout and microvascular abnormalities. The patient with optic neuropathy received 45 Gy to the optic nerves at 5 years of age. Ten years following therapy, at which time visual acuity remained normal, VER demonstrated substantial conduction delay with optic neuropathy of a demyelinating type. Both patients demonstrated signs of improvement by VER testing over the next 2.5 and 2 years respectively. The first patient showed signs of clinical improvement as well. No other patient had VER or clinical abnormalities which could be attributed to radiation injury. Conclusion: Following conventional radiation doses and fractionation, the visual system remains clinically unaffected in most patients. In patients who manifest injury, recovery of neuronal transmission can occur. As suggested by VER testing and fluorescein angiography, capillary dropout occurring at a prolonged time interval after RT may play a role in the pathogenesis of RT injury. There was no evidence for ischemic events at the arteriolar level in either the retina or optic nerve following the RT doses administered. The infrequency of RT damage precluded determination of a critical injurious dose to the optic nerve or retina, but doses up to 50-60 Gy using 1.5 - 1.8 Gy fractions were tolerated by most patients. A more closely controlled study with pre- and post-RT assessments of visual function including pattern VER and long term follow-up is needed to determine the limits of safe radiation exposure and the mechanisms of damage

  18. Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Zhu, Long; Liu, Jun; Du, Cheng; Mo, Qi; Wang, Jian

    2015-11-16

    Mode-division multiplexing passive optical network (MDM-PON) is a promising scheme for next-generation access networks to further increase fiber transmission capacity. In this paper, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept experiment of hybrid mode-division multiplexing (MDM) and time-division multiplexing (TDM) PON architecture by exploiting orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. Bidirectional transmissions with 2.5-Gbaud 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) downstream and 2-Gbaud on-off keying (OOK) upstream are demonstrated in the experiment. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for downstream and upstream transmissions at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10(-3) are less than 2.0 dB and 3.0 dB, respectively.

  19. Experimental demonstration of spatially coherent beam combining using optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Takashi; Sueda, Keiichi; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2010-07-05

    We experimentally demonstrated coherent beam combining using optical parametric amplification with a nonlinear crystal pumped by random-phased multiple-beam array of the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at 10-Hz repetition rate. In the proof-of-principle experiment, the phase jump between two pump beams was precisely controlled by a motorized actuator. For the demonstration of multiple-beam combining a random phase plate was used to create random-phased beamlets as a pump pulse. Far-field patterns of the pump, the signal, and the idler indicated that the spatially coherent signal beams were obtained on both cases. This approach allows scaling of the intensity of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification up to the exa-watt level while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality.

  20. THE INNER KILOPARSEC OF Mrk 273 WITH KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Vivian; Sanders, David; Kewley, Lisa [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Medling, Anne; Max, Claire [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Iwasawa, Kazushi [ICREA and Institut del Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Evans, Aaron [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fazio, Giovanni, E-mail: vivianu@ucr.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    There is X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic evidence that the late-stage ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Mrk 273 hosts a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, the exact location of the AGN and the nature of the nucleus have been difficult to determine due to dust obscuration and the limited wavelength coverage of available high-resolution data. Here we present near-infrared integral-field spectra and images of the nuclear region of Mrk 273 taken with OSIRIS and NIRC2 on the Keck II Telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics. We observe three spatially resolved components, and analyze the nuclear molecular and ionized gas emission lines and their kinematics. We confirm the presence of the hard X-ray AGN in the southwest nucleus. In the north nucleus, we find a strongly rotating gas disk whose kinematics indicate a central black hole of mass 1.04 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}. The H{sub 2} emission line shows an increase in velocity dispersion along the minor axis in both directions, and an increased flux with negative velocities in the southeast direction; this provides direct evidence for a collimated molecular outflow along the axis of rotation of the disk. The third spatially distinct component appears to the southeast, 640 and 750 pc from the north and southwest nuclei, respectively. This component is faint in continuum emission but shows several strong emission line features, including [Si VI] 1.964 μm which traces an extended coronal-line region. The geometry of the [Si VI] emission combined with shock models and energy arguments suggest that [Si VI] in the southeast component must be at least partly ionized by the SW AGN or a putative AGN in the northern disk, either through photoionization or through shock-heating from strong AGN- and circumnuclear-starburst-driven outflows. This lends support to a scenario in which Mrk 273 may be a dual AGN system.

  1. Laboratory demonstration of an optical vortex mask coronagraph using photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, N.; Baba, N.; Ise, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Oka, K.

    2010-10-01

    Photonic crystal, artificial periodic nanostructure, is an attractive device for constructing focal-plane phase-mask coronagraphs such as segmented phase masks (four-quadrant, eight-octant, and 4N-segmented ones) and an optical vortex mask (OVM), because of its extremely small manufacturing defect. Recently, speckle-noise limited contrast has been demonstrated for two monochromatic lasers by using the eight-octant phase-mask made of the photonic crystal (Murakami et al. 2010, ApJ, 714, 772). We applied the photonic-crystal device to the OVM coronagraph. The OVM is more advantageous over the segmented phase masks because it does not have discontinuities other than a central singular point and provides a full on-sky field of view. For generating an achromatic optical vortex, we manufactured an axially-symmetric half-wave plate (ASHWP). It is expected that a size of the manufacturing defect due to the central singularity is an order of several hundreds nanometers. The ASHWP is placed between two circular polarizers for modulating a Pancharatnam phase. A continuous spiral phase modulation is then implemented achromatically. We carried out preliminary laboratory demonstration of the OVM coronagraph using two monochromatic lasers as a model star (wavelengths of 532 nm and 633 nm). We report a principle of the achromatic optical-vortex generation, and results of the laboratory demonstration of the OVM coronagraph.

  2. Adaptive optics plug-and-play setup for high-resolution microscopes with multi-actuator adaptive lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalla, M.; Pozzi, P.; Verhaegen, Michelle; Bijlsma, Hielke; Verstraete, Hans; Bonora, S.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) has revealed as a very promising technique for high-resolution microscopy, where the presence of optical aberrations can easily compromise the image quality. Typical AO systems however, are almost impossible to implement on commercial microscopes. We propose a simple approach by using a Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens (MAL) that can be inserted right after the objective and works in conjunction with an image optimization software allowing for a wavefront sensorless correction. We presented the results obtained on several commercial microscopes among which a confocal microscope, a fluorescence microscope, a light sheet microscope and a multiphoton microscope.

  3. Demonstration of a high speed hybrid electrical and optical sensing system for next generation launcher applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; O'Dowd, John A.; Honniball, Arthur; Bessler, Vivian; Farnan, Martin; O'Connor, Peter; Melicher, Milos; Gleeson, Danny

    2017-09-01

    The Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) has a goal of developing various launch vehicle system concepts and identifying the technologies required for the design of Europe's Next-Generation Launcher (NGL) while maintaining competitiveness on the commercial market. Avionics fiber optic sensing technology was investigated as part of the FLPP programme. Here we demonstrate and evaluate a high speed hybrid electrical/optical data acquisition system based on commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology capable of acquiring data from traditional electrical sensors and optical Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The proposed system consists of the KAM-500 data acquisition system developed by Curtis-Wright and the I4 tunable laser based fiber optic sensor interrogator developed by FAZ Technology. The key objective was to demonstrate the capability of the hybrid system to acquire data from traditional electrical sensors used in launcher applications e.g. strain, temperature and pressure in combination with optical FBG sensors, as well as data delivery to spacecraft avionics systems. The KAM-500 was configured as the main acquisition unit (MAU) and provided a 1 kHz sampling clock to the I4 interrogator that was configured as the secondary acquisition unit (SAU) to synchronize the data acquisition sample rate between both systems. The SAU acquired data from an array of optical FBG sensors, while the MAU data acquisition system acquired data from the electrical sensors. Data acquired from the optical sensors was processed by the FAZ I4 interrogation system and then encapsulated into UDP/IP packets and transferred to the KAM-500. The KAM-500 encapsulated the optical sensor data together with the data acquired from electrical sensors and transmitted the data over MIL-STD-1553 and Ethernet data interface. The temperature measurements resulted in the optical and electrical sensors performing on a par with each other, with all

  4. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang

    2018-01-18

    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  5. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics observations of the Orion Trapezium Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr-Gotzens, M G; Kolb, J; Marchetti, E; Sterzik, M F; Ivanov, V D; Nuernberger, D; Koehler, R; Bouy, H; MartIn, E L; Huelamo, N; Navascues, D Barrado y

    2008-01-01

    We obtained very deep and high spatial resolution near-infrared images of the Orion Trapezium Cluster using the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) instrument at the VLT. The goal of these observations has been to search for objects at the very low-mass end of the IMF down to the planetary-mass regime. Three fields in the innermost dense part of the Trapezium Cluster, with a total area of 3.5 sq.arcmin have been surveyed at 1.65μm and 2.2μm. Several new candidate planetary mass objects with potential masses Jup have been detected based on their photometry and on their location in the colour-magnitude diagram. The performance of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics correction is excellent over a large field-of-view of ∼ 1'. The final data has a spatial resolution of Jup ), however, must await future confirmation by spectroscopic and/or photometric observations.

  6. MAD ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF HIGH-LUMINOSITY QUASARS: A PILOT PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuzzo, E. [Osservatorio di Radioastronomia, INAF, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Falomo, R.; Paiano, S.; Baruffolo, A.; Farinato, J.; Moretti, A.; Ragazzoni, R. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Treves, A. [Università dell’Insubria (Como) (Italy); Uslenghi, M. [INAF-IASF, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Arcidiacono, C.; Diolaiti, E.; Lombini, M. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, INAF, Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Brast, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46, I-40126, Bologna (Italy); Donaldson, R.; Kolb, J.; Marchetti, E.; Tordo, S., E-mail: liuzzo@ira.inaf.it [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    We present near-IR images of five luminous quasars at z ∼ 2 and one at z ∼ 4 obtained with an experimental adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. The observations are part of a program aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of multi-conjugated adaptive optics imaging combined with the use of natural guide stars for high spatial resolution studies on large telescopes. The observations were mostly obtained under poor seeing conditions but in two cases. In spite of these nonoptimal conditions, the resulting images of point sources have cores of FWHM ∼ 0.2 arcsec. We are able to characterize the host galaxy properties for two sources and set stringent upper limits to the galaxy luminosity for the others. We also report on the expected capabilities for investigating the host galaxies of distant quasars with AO systems coupled with future Extremely Large Telescopes. Detailed simulations show that it will be possible to characterize compact (2–3 kpc) quasar host galaxies for quasi-stellar objects at z = 2 with nucleus K -magnitude spanning from 15 to 20 (corresponding to absolute magnitude −31 to −26) and host galaxies that are 4 mag fainter than their nuclei.

  7. MAD Adaptive Optics Imaging of High-luminosity Quasars: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, E.; Falomo, R.; Paiano, S.; Treves, A.; Uslenghi, M.; Arcidiacono, C.; Baruffolo, A.; Diolaiti, E.; Farinato, J.; Lombini, M.; Moretti, A.; Ragazzoni, R.; Brast, R.; Donaldson, R.; Kolb, J.; Marchetti, E.; Tordo, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present near-IR images of five luminous quasars at z ˜ 2 and one at z ˜ 4 obtained with an experimental adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. The observations are part of a program aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of multi-conjugated adaptive optics imaging combined with the use of natural guide stars for high spatial resolution studies on large telescopes. The observations were mostly obtained under poor seeing conditions but in two cases. In spite of these nonoptimal conditions, the resulting images of point sources have cores of FWHM ˜ 0.2 arcsec. We are able to characterize the host galaxy properties for two sources and set stringent upper limits to the galaxy luminosity for the others. We also report on the expected capabilities for investigating the host galaxies of distant quasars with AO systems coupled with future Extremely Large Telescopes. Detailed simulations show that it will be possible to characterize compact (2-3 kpc) quasar host galaxies for quasi-stellar objects at z = 2 with nucleus K-magnitude spanning from 15 to 20 (corresponding to absolute magnitude -31 to -26) and host galaxies that are 4 mag fainter than their nuclei.

  8. Adaptive optics fundus images of cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojo N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Tojo, Tomoko Nakamura, Chiharu Fuchizawa, Toshihiko Oiwake, Atsushi HayashiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa using an adaptive optics fundus camera and to investigate any correlations between cone photoreceptor density and findings on optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence.Methods: We examined two patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa who underwent ophthalmological examination, including measurement of visual acuity, and gathering of electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic, fundus autofluorescent, and adaptive optics fundus images. The cone photoreceptors in the adaptive optics images of the two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and five healthy subjects were analyzed.Results: An abnormal parafoveal ring of high-density fundus autofluorescence was observed in the macula in both patients. The border of the ring corresponded to the border of the external limiting membrane and the inner segment and outer segment line in the optical coherence tomographic images. Cone photoreceptors at the abnormal parafoveal ring were blurred and decreased in the adaptive optics images. The blurred area corresponded to the abnormal parafoveal ring in the fundus autofluorescence images. Cone densities were low at the blurred areas and at the nasal and temporal retina along a line from the fovea compared with those of healthy controls. The results for cone spacing and Voronoi domains in the macula corresponded with those for the cone densities.Conclusion: Cone densities were heavily decreased in the macula, especially at the parafoveal ring on high-density fundus autofluorescence in both patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Adaptive optics images enabled us to observe in vivo changes in the cone photoreceptors of

  9. Phase Diversity Wavefront Sensing for Control of Space Based Adaptive Optics Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schgallis, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Phase Diversity Wavefront Sensing (PD WFS) is a wavefront reconstruction technique used in adaptive optics, which takes advantage of the curvature conjugating analog physical properties of a deformable mirror (MMDM or Bi-morph...

  10. Adaptive Optics Simulation for the World's Largest Telescope on Multicore Architectures with Multiple GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem; Gratadour, Damien; Charara, Ali; Gendron, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a high performance comprehensive implementation of a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) simulation on multicore architectures with hardware accelerators in the context of computational astronomy. This implementation will be used

  11. IMAGING WITH MULTIMODAL ADAPTIVE-OPTICS OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Leanne T; Legarreta, Andrew D; Legarreta, John E; Nadler, Zach; Gallagher, Denise; Hammer, Daniel X; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the location of pathological changes in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with the use of multimodal adaptive optics (AO) imaging. A 5-year observational case study of a 24-year-old female with recurrent MEWDS. Full examination included history, Snellen chart visual acuity, pupil assessment, intraocular pressures, slit lamp evaluation, dilated fundoscopic exam, imaging with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography. Three distinct acute episodes of MEWDS occurred during the period of follow-up. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive-optics imaging showed disturbance in the photoreceptor outer segments (PR OS) in the posterior pole with each flare. The degree of disturbance at the photoreceptor level corresponded to size and extent of the visual field changes. All findings were transient with delineation of the photoreceptor recovery from the outer edges of the lesion inward. Hyperautofluorescence was seen during acute flares. Increase in choroidal thickness did occur with each active flare but resolved. Although changes in the choroid and RPE can be observed in MEWDS, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and multimodal adaptive optics imaging localized the visually significant changes seen in this disease at the level of the photoreceptors. These transient retinal changes specifically occur at the level of the inner segment ellipsoid and OS/RPE line. En face optical coherence tomography imaging provides a detailed, yet noninvasive method for following the convalescence of MEWDS and provides insight into the structural and functional relationship of this transient inflammatory retinal disease.

  12. Fiber-optic sensor demonstrator (FSD) for the monitoring of spacecraft subsystems on ESA's PROBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Zou, Jing; Mohammed, Najeeb; Haddad, Emile; Jamroz, Wes; Ricci, Francesco; Lamorie, Joshua; Edwards, Eric; McKenzie, Iain; Vuilleumier, Pierrik

    2017-11-01

    MPB Communications (MPBC) is developing solutions to the monitoring requirements of spacecraft based on its fiber-laser and Fiber Bragg Grating expertise. This is cumulating in the Fiber Sensor Demonstrator for ESA's Proba-2 that is scheduled for launch in 2007. The advantages of the MPBC approach include a central interrogation system that can be used to control a variety of different fiber-optic sensors including temperature, pressure, actuator status, and propellant leakage. This paper reviews the design and ground qualification of the FSD system in preparation for integration with Proba-2. The FSD will provide monitoring for various Proba-2 subsystems, including a hybrid propulsion system. Some of the challenges associated with using fiber-optics in space are discussed.

  13. Experimental demonstration of polar coded IM/DD optical OFDM for short reach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiafei; Xiao, Shilin; Liu, Ling; Bi, Meihua; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yunhao; Hu, Weisheng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel polar coded intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system for short reach system. A method of evaluating the channel signal noise ratio (SNR) is proposed for soft-demodulation. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the conventional case, ∼9.5 dB net coding gain (NCG) at the bit error rate (BER) of 1E-3 can be achieved after 40-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission. Based on the experimental result, (512,256) polar code with low complexity and satisfactory BER performance meets the requirement of low latency in short reach system, which is a promising candidate for latency-stringent short reach optical system.

  14. Lessons Learned During Cryogenic Optical Testing of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James; Reardon, Patrick; Geary, Joseph; Robinson, Brian; Stahl, Philip; Eng, Ron; Kegley, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Optical testing in a cryogenic environment presents a host of challenges above and beyond those encountered during room temperature testing. The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs) are 1.4 m diameter, ultra light-weight (mA2), off-axis parabolic segments. They are required to have 250 nm PV & 50 nm RMS surface figure error or less at 35 K. An optical testing system, consisting of an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI), a diffractive null corrector (DNC), and an Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), was used to measure the surface figure & radius-of-curvature of these mirrors at the operational temperature within the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Ah4SD program was designed to improve the technology related to the design, fabrication, & testing of such mirrors in support of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This paper will describe the lessons learned during preparation & cryogenic testing of the AMSDs.

  15. Experimental demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/S incoherent two-dimensional optical code division multiple access system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesk, I.; Baby, V.; Bres, C.-S.; Xu, L.; Rand, D.; Prucnal, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrated error-free operation of 4 simultaneous users in a fast frequency-hopping time-spreading optical code division multiple access system operating at 2.5 Gbit/s a Star architecture. Effective power penalty was ≤0.5dB. Novel optical code division multiple access receiver based on Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer was demonstrated to eliminate multiple access interference (Authors)

  16. Phenotypic diversity in autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy elucidated by adaptive optics retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongxin; Rossi, Ethan A; Stone, Edwin; Latchney, Lisa; Williams, David; Dubra, Alfredo; Chung, Mina

    2018-01-01

    Several genes causing autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy (AD-CRD) have been identified. However, the mechanisms by which genetic mutations lead to cellular loss in human disease remain poorly understood. Here we combine genotyping with high-resolution adaptive optics retinal imaging to elucidate the retinal phenotype at a cellular level in patients with AD-CRD harbouring a defect in the GUCA1A gene. Nine affected members of a four-generation AD-CRD pedigree and three unaffected first-degree relatives underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, fundus examination, Goldmann perimetry, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and electroretinography. Genome-wide scan followed by bidirectional sequencing was performed on all affected participants. High-resolution imaging using a custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was performed for selected participants. Clinical evaluations showed a range of disease severity from normal fundus appearance in teenaged patients to pronounced macular atrophy in older patients. Molecular genetic testing showed a mutation in in GUCA1A segregating with disease. AOSLO imaging revealed that of the two teenage patients with mild disease, one had severe disruption of the photoreceptor mosaic while the other had a normal cone mosaic. AOSLO imaging demonstrated variability in the pattern of cone and rod cell loss between two teenage cousins with early AD-CRD, who had similar clinical features and had the identical disease-causing mutation in GUCA1A . This finding suggests that a mutation in GUCA1A does not lead to the same degree of AD-CRD in all patients. Modifying factors may mitigate or augment disease severity, leading to different retinal cellular phenotypes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Multipoint dynamically reconfigure adaptive distributed fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FAESense) system for condition based maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Prohaska, John; Kempen, Connie; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes preliminary results obtained under a Navy SBIR contract by Redondo Optics Inc. (ROI), in collaboration with Northwestern University towards the development and demonstration of a next generation, stand-alone and fully integrated, dynamically reconfigurable, adaptive fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FAESense™) system for the in-situ unattended detection and localization of shock events, impact damage, cracks, voids, and delaminations in new and aging critical infrastructures found in ships, submarines, aircraft, and in next generation weapon systems. ROI's FAESense™ system is based on the integration of proven state-of-the-art technologies: 1) distributed array of in-line fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) sensors sensitive to strain, vibration, and acoustic emissions, 2) adaptive spectral demodulation of FBG sensor dynamic signals using two-wave mixing interferometry on photorefractive semiconductors, and 3) integration of all the sensor system passive and active optoelectronic components within a 0.5-cm x 1-cm photonic integrated circuit microchip. The adaptive TWM demodulation methodology allows the measurement of dynamic high frequnency acoustic emission events, while compensating for passive quasi-static strain and temperature drifts. It features a compact, low power, environmentally robust 1-inch x 1-inch x 4-inch small form factor (SFF) package with no moving parts. The FAESense™ interrogation system is microprocessor-controlled using high data rate signal processing electronics for the FBG sensors calibration, temperature compensation and the detection and analysis of acoustic emission signals. Its miniaturized package, low power operation, state-of-the-art data communications, and low cost makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of applications in naval and maritime industries, aerospace, civil structures, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications.

  18. Demonstration of Femtosecond-Phase Stabilization in 2 km Optical Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.W.; Wilcox, R.; Byrd, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term phase drifts of less than a femtosecond per hour have been demonstrated in a 2 km length of single-mode optical fiber, stabilized interferometrically at 1530 nm. Recent improvements include a wide-band phase detector that reduces the possibility of fringe jumping due to fast external perturbations of the fiber and locking of the master CW laser wavelength to an atomic absorption line. Mode-locked lasers may be synchronized using two wavelengths of the comb, multiplexed over one fiber, each wavelength individually interferometrically stabilized

  19. Low-cost nonlinear optics experiment for undergraduate instructional laboratory and lecture demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchiello, Rozane de F.; Pereira, Luiz A. A.; Gómez, Sergio L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a simple and affordable experiment on the thermal lens effect, suitable for an undergraduate educational laboratory or as a tabletop demonstration in a lecture on nonlinear optics. Such an experiment exploits the formation of a lens in an absorbing medium illuminated by a laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. As an absorber, we use a commercial soy sauce, which exhibits a strong thermal lensing effect. Additionally, we show how to measure the radius of a Gaussian beam using the knife-edge method, and how to estimate the focal length of the induced thermal lens.

  20. Experimental demonstration of optical data links using a hybrid CAP/QAM modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J L; Ingham, J D; Cheng, Q; Cunningham, D G; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2014-03-15

    The first known experimental demonstrations of a 10  Gb/s hybrid CAP-2/QAM-2 and a 20  Gb/s hybrid CAP-4/QAM-4 transmitter/receiver-based optical data link are performed. Successful transmission over 4.3 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF) is achieved, with a link power penalty ∼0.4  dBo for CAP-2/QAM-2 and ∼1.5  dBo for CAP-4/QAM-4 at BER=10(-9).

  1. An automated algorithm for photoreceptors counting in adaptive optics retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yudong; Yun, Dai

    2012-10-01

    Eyes are important organs of humans that detect light and form spatial and color vision. Knowing the exact number of cones in retinal image has great importance in helping us understand the mechanism of eyes' function and the pathology of some eye disease. In order to analyze data in real time and process large-scale data, an automated algorithm is designed to label cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics (AO) retinal images. Images acquired by the flood-illuminated AO system are taken to test the efficiency of this algorithm. We labeled these images both automatically and manually, and compared the results of the two methods. A 94.1% to 96.5% agreement rate between the two methods is achieved in this experiment, which demonstrated the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm.

  2. Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Rha, Jungtae; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Miller, Donald T.

    2005-06-01

    Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) can axially resolve and detect reflections from individual cells, there are no reports of imaging cells in the living human retina using OCT. To supplement the axial resolution and sensitivity of OCT with the necessary lateral resolution and speed, we developed a novel spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) camera based on a free-space parallel illumination architecture and equipped with adaptive optics (AO). Conventional flood illumination, also with AO, was integrated into the camera and provided confirmation of the focus position in the retina with an accuracy of ±10.3 μm. Short bursts of narrow B-scans (100x560 μm) of the living retina were subsequently acquired at 500 Hz during dynamic compensation (up to 14 Hz) that successfully corrected the most significant ocular aberrations across a dilated 6 mm pupil. Camera sensitivity (up to 94 dB) was sufficient for observing reflections from essentially all neural layers of the retina. Signal-to-noise of the detected reflection from the photoreceptor layer was highly sensitive to the level of cular aberrations and defocus with changes of 11.4 and 13.1 dB (single pass) observed when the ocular aberrations (astigmatism, 3rd order and higher) were corrected and when the focus was shifted by 200 μm (0.54 diopters) in the retina, respectively. The 3D resolution of the B-scans (3.0x3.0x5.7 μm) is the highest reported to date in the living human eye and was sufficient to observe the interface between the inner and outer segments of individual photoreceptor cells, resolved in both lateral and axial dimensions. However, high contrast speckle, which is intrinsic to OCT, was present throughout the AO parallel SD-OCT B-scans and obstructed correlating retinal reflections to cell-sized retinal structures.

  3. High-Resolution Adaptive Optics Test-Bed for Vision Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, S.C.; Thomspon, C.A.; Olivier, S.S.; Bauman, B.J.; Barnes, T.; Werner, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the design and implementation of a low-cost, high-resolution adaptive optics test-bed for vision research. It is well known that high-order aberrations in the human eye reduce optical resolution and limit visual acuity. However, the effects of aberration-free eyesight on vision are only now beginning to be studied using adaptive optics to sense and correct the aberrations in the eye. We are developing a high-resolution adaptive optics system for this purpose using a Hamamatsu Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator. Phase-wrapping is used to extend the effective stroke of the device, and the wavefront sensing and wavefront correction are done at different wavelengths. Issues associated with these techniques will be discussed

  4. Investigation on adaptive optics performance from propagation channel characterization with the small optical transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Cyril; Védrenne, Nicolas; Velluet, Marie Therese; Michau, Vincent; Artaud, Geraldine; Samain, Etienne; Toyoshima, Morio

    2016-11-01

    In order to address the high throughput requested for both downlink and uplink satellite to ground laser links, adaptive optics (AO) has become a key technology. While maturing, application of this technology for satellite to ground telecommunication, however, faces difficulties, such as higher bandwidth and optimal operation for a wide variety of atmospheric conditions (daytime and nighttime) with potentially low elevations that might severely affect wavefront sensing because of scintillation. To address these specificities, an accurate understanding of the origin of the perturbations is required, as well as operational validation of AO on real laser links. We report here on a low Earth orbiting (LEO) microsatellite to ground downlink with AO correction. We discuss propagation channel characterization based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (WFS) measurements. Fine modeling of the propagation channel is proposed based on multi-Gaussian model of turbulence profile. This model is then used to estimate the AO performance and validate the experimental results. While AO performance is limited by the experimental set-up, it proves to comply with expected performance and further interesting information on propagation channel is extracted. These results shall help dimensioning and operating AO systems for LEO to ground downlinks.

  5. Adaptive optics fundus images of cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomoko; Fuchizawa, Chiharu; Oiwake, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa using an adaptive optics fundus camera and to investigate any correlations between cone photoreceptor density and findings on optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. We examined two patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa who underwent ophthalmological examination, including measurement of visual acuity, and gathering of electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic, fundus autofluorescent, and adaptive optics fundus images. The cone photoreceptors in the adaptive optics images of the two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and five healthy subjects were analyzed. An abnormal parafoveal ring of high-density fundus autofluorescence was observed in the macula in both patients. The border of the ring corresponded to the border of the external limiting membrane and the inner segment and outer segment line in the optical coherence tomographic images. Cone photoreceptors at the abnormal parafoveal ring were blurred and decreased in the adaptive optics images. The blurred area corresponded to the abnormal parafoveal ring in the fundus autofluorescence images. Cone densities were low at the blurred areas and at the nasal and temporal retina along a line from the fovea compared with those of healthy controls. The results for cone spacing and Voronoi domains in the macula corresponded with those for the cone densities. Cone densities were heavily decreased in the macula, especially at the parafoveal ring on high-density fundus autofluorescence in both patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Adaptive optics images enabled us to observe in vivo changes in the cone photoreceptors of patients with retinitis pigmentosa, which corresponded to changes in the optical coherence tomographic and fundus autofluorescence images.

  6. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding......-stop characteristic. We give geometrical parameters necessary for realizing functioning nanoantennas. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.......In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding...... light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations...

  7. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe in a High-Temperature Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The capability to provide localized, real-time monitoring of material regression rates in various applications has the potential to provide a new stream of data for development testing of various components and systems, as well as serving as a monitoring tool in flight applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the regression of a combusting solid fuel surface, the ablation of the throat in a chemical rocket or the heat shield of an aeroshell, and the monitoring of erosion in long-life plasma thrusters. The rate of regression in the first application is very fast, while the second and third are increasingly slower. A recent fundamental sensor development effort has led to a novel regression, erosion, and ablation sensor technology (REAST). The REAST sensor allows for measurement of real-time surface erosion rates at a discrete surface location. The sensor is optical, using two different, co-located fiber-optics to perform the regression measurement. The disparate optical transmission properties of the two fiber-optics makes it possible to measure the regression rate by monitoring the relative light attenuation through the fibers. As the fibers regress along with the parent material in which they are embedded, the relative light intensities through the two fibers changes, providing a measure of the regression rate. The optical nature of the system makes it relatively easy to use in a variety of harsh, high temperature environments, and it is also unaffected by the presence of electric and magnetic fields. In addition, the sensor could be used to perform optical spectroscopy on the light emitted by a process and collected by fibers, giving localized measurements of various properties. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of material regression rates is useful in addressing a variety of physical issues in various applications. An in-situ measurement allows for real-time data regarding the erosion rates, providing a quick method for

  8. Optic flow improves adaptability of spatiotemporal characteristics during split-belt locomotor adaptation with tactile stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Eikema, Diderik Jan A.; Chien, Jung Hung; Stergiou, Nicholas; Myers, Sara A.; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mukherjee, Mukul

    2015-01-01

    Human locomotor adaptation requires feedback and feed-forward control processes to maintain an appropriate walking pattern. Adaptation may require the use of visual and proprioceptive input to decode altered movement dynamics and generate an appropriate response. After a person transfers from an extreme sensory environment and back, as astronauts do when they return from spaceflight, the prolonged period required for re-adaptation can pose a significant burden. In our previous paper, we showe...

  9. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-06-01

    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery.

  10. Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, T.B.; Jacobs, B.C.; Franson, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main requirements in linear optics quantum computing is the ability to perform single-qubit operations that are controlled by classical information fed forward from the output of single-photon detectors. These operations correspond to predetermined combinations of phase corrections and bit flips that are applied to the postselected output modes of nondeterministic quantum logic devices. Corrections of this kind are required in order to obtain the correct logical output for certain detection events, and their use can increase the overall success probability of the devices. In this paper, we report on the experimental demonstration of the use of this type of feed-forward system to increase the probability of success of a simple nondeterministic quantum logic operation from approximately (1/4) to (1/2). This logic operation involves the use of one target qubit and one ancilla qubit which, in this experiment, are derived from a parametric down-conversion photon pair. Classical information describing the detection of the ancilla photon is fed forward in real time and used to alter the quantum state of the output photon. A fiber-optic delay line is used to store the output photon until a polarization-dependent phase shift can be applied using a high-speed Pockels cell

  11. Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P; Cense, Barry; Jonnal, Ravi S; Wang, Qiang; Lee, Sangyeol; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T

    2011-08-15

    Early detection of axonal tissue loss in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is critical for effective treatment and management of diseases such as glaucoma. This study aims to evaluate the capability of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics (UHR-AO-OCT) for imaging the RNFL axonal bundles (RNFBs) with 3×3×3μm(3) resolution in the eye. We used a research-grade UHR-AO-OCT system to acquire 3°×3° volumes in four normal subjects and one subject with an arcuate retinal nerve fiber layer defect (n=5; 29-62years). Cross section (B-scans) and en face (C-scan) slices extracted from the volumes were used to assess visibility and size distribution of individual RNFBs. In one subject, we reimaged the same RNFBs twice over a 7month interval and compared bundle width and thickness between the two imaging sessions. Lastly we compared images of an arcuate RNFL defect acquired with UHR-AO-OCT and commercial OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis). Individual RNFBs were distinguishable in all subjects at 3° retinal eccentricity in both cross-sectional and en face views (width: 30-50μm, thickness: 10-15μm). At 6° retinal eccentricity, RNFBs were distinguishable in three of the five subjects in both views (width: 30-45μm, thickness: 20-40μm). Width and thickness RNFB measurements taken 7months apart were strongly correlated (p<0.0005). Mean difference and standard deviation of the differences between the two measurement sessions were -0.1±4.0μm (width) and 0.3±1.5μm (thickness). UHR-AO-OCT outperformed commercial OCT in terms of clarity of the microscopic retina. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of RNFB cross section reported in the living human eye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microstructural abnormalities in MEWDS demonstrated by ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, My Hanh T; Witkin, Andre J; Reichel, Elias; Ko, Tony H; Fujimoto, James G; Schuman, Joel S; Duker, Jay S

    2007-01-01

    Histopathological studies of acute multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) have not been reported because of the transient and benign nature of the disease. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT), capable of high resolution in vivo imaging, offers a unique opportunity to visualize retinal microstructure in the disease. UHR-OCT images of the maculae of five patients with MEWDS were obtained and analyzed. Diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, examination, visual field testing, and angiography. UHR-OCT revealed disturbances in the photoreceptor inner/outer segment junction (IS/OS) in each of the five patients (six eyes) with MEWDS. In addition, thinning of the outer nuclear layer was seen in the case of recurrent MEWDS, suggesting that repeated episodes of MEWDS may result in photoreceptor atrophy. Subtle disruptions of the photoreceptor IS/OS are demonstrated in all eyes affected by MEWDS. UHR-OCT may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and monitoring of MEWDS.

  13. An investigation of the influence of reconceptualization of demonstrative experimental activities of optics in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Lúcio Prados Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze the influence that the use of demonstrative experiments can bring to the learning of optics. It is assumed that the development of experimental activities, when reconceptualized according to Hodson proposal, tends to contribute to the generation of cognitive conflicts when compared to traditional didactic experience. Justifications are given for an analysis of changes under a Piagetian bias, reconciled with Hodson proposal. The methodology used to structure the topics presentations was quasi-experimental, contrasting an experimental group with a control group. The measuring of the effectiveness of the suggested working method was made from a quantitative analysis, which identified some of the topics discussed had better results in learning, being more tied to the experiments carried out.

  14. Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography based on adaptive 2D dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongli; Fu, Shujun; Zhang, Caiming; Zhai, Lin

    2018-05-01

    As a high-resolution biomedical imaging modality, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in medical sciences. However, OCT images often suffer from speckle noise, which can mask some important image information, and thus reduce the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. Taking full advantage of nonlocal self-similarity and adaptive 2D-dictionary-based sparse representation, in this work, a speckle noise reduction algorithm is proposed for despeckling OCT images. To reduce speckle noise while preserving local image features, similar nonlocal patches are first extracted from the noisy image and put into groups using a gamma- distribution-based block matching method. An adaptive 2D dictionary is then learned for each patch group. Unlike traditional vector-based sparse coding, we express each image patch by the linear combination of a few matrices. This image-to-matrix method can exploit the local correlation between pixels. Since each image patch might belong to several groups, the despeckled OCT image is finally obtained by aggregating all filtered image patches. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over other state-of-the-art despeckling methods, in terms of objective metrics and visual inspection.

  15. Automated Photoreceptor Cell Identification on Nonconfocal Adaptive Optics Images Using Multiscale Circular Voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfei; Jung, HaeWon; Dubra, Alfredo; Tam, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) has enabled quantification of the photoreceptor mosaic in the living human eye using metrics such as cell density and average spacing. These rely on the identification of individual cells. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach for computer-aided identification of cone photoreceptors on nonconfocal split detection AOSLO images. Algorithms for identification of cone photoreceptors were developed, based on multiscale circular voting (MSCV) in combination with a priori knowledge that split detection images resemble Nomarski differential interference contrast images, in which dark and bright regions are present on the two sides of each cell. The proposed algorithm locates dark and bright region pairs, iteratively refining the identification across multiple scales. Identification accuracy was assessed in data from 10 subjects by comparing automated identifications with manual labeling, followed by computation of density and spacing metrics for comparison to histology and published data. There was good agreement between manual and automated cone identifications with overall recall, precision, and F1 score of 92.9%, 90.8%, and 91.8%, respectively. On average, computed density and spacing values using automated identification were within 10.7% and 11.2% of the expected histology values across eccentricities ranging from 0.5 to 6.2 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between MSCV-based and histology-based density measurements (P = 0.96, Kolmogorov-Smirnov 2-sample test). MSCV can accurately detect cone photoreceptors on split detection images across a range of eccentricities, enabling quick, objective estimation of photoreceptor mosaic metrics, which will be important for future clinical trials utilizing adaptive optics.

  16. Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Wu, Xian; Chen, Lin

    2014-07-28

    In this paper, a FPGAs-based real-time adaptively modulated 256/64/16QAM-encoded base-band OFDM transceiver with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz is successfully developed, and experimentally demonstrated in a simple intensity-modulated direct-detection optical communication system. Experimental results show that it is feasible to transmit a raw signal bit rate of 7.19Gbps adaptively modulated real-time optical OFDM signal over 20km and 50km single mode fibers (SMFs). The performance comparison between real-time and off-line digital signal processing is performed, and the results show that there is a negligible power penalty. In addition, to obtain the best transmission performance, direct-current (DC) bias voltage for MZM and launch power into optical fiber links are explored in the real-time optical OFDM systems.

  17. Adaptive digital back-propagation for optical communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.-Y.; Napoli, A.; Spinnler, B.; Sleiffer, V.A.J.M.; Rafique, D.; Kuschnerov, M.; Bohn, M.; Schmauss, B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive digital back-propagation method (A-DBP) to selfdetermine unknown fiber nonlinear coefficient gamma. Performance is experimentally verified with 10224-Gb/s POLMUX-16QAM over 656km. Optimal DBP performance, without knowledge of gamma, is obtained by A-DBP.

  18. Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broadband wireless access networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras, M.A.; Grosskopf, G.; Vidal, B.; Herrera Llorente, J.; Martinez, J.M.; Sanchis, P.; Polo, V.; Corral, J.L.; Marceaux, A.; Galière, J.; Lopez, J.; Enard, A.; Valard, J.-L.; Parillaud, O.; Estèbe, E.; Vodjdani, N.; Choi, M.-S.; Besten, den J.H.; Soares, F.M.; Smit, M.K.; Marti, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a 3-bit optical beamforming architecture based in 2×2 optical switches and dispersive media is proposed and demonstrated. The performance of this photonic beamformer is experimentally demonstrated at 42.7 GHz in both transmission and reception modes. The progress achieved for

  19. Spiders in Motion: Demonstrating Adaptation, Structure-Function Relationships, and Trade-Offs in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlin, Melissa S.; McLeer, Dorothy F.; Danielson-Francois, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary history and structural considerations constrain all aspects of animal physiology. Constraints on invertebrate locomotion are especially straightforward for students to observe and understand. In this exercise, students use spiders to investigate the concepts of adaptation, structure-function relationships, and trade-offs. Students…

  20. Radio over fiber link with adaptive order n‐QAM optical phase modulated OFDM and digital coherent detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Borkowski, Robert; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Successful digital coherent demodulation of asynchronous optical phase‐modulated adaptive order QAM (4, 16, and 64) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals is achieved by a single reconfigurable digital receiver after 78 km of optical deployed fiber transmission....

  1. Sky coverage modeling for the whole sky for laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianqi; Andersen, David; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2012-06-01

    The scientific productivity of laser guide star adaptive optics systems strongly depends on the sky coverage, which describes the probability of finding natural guide stars for the tip/tilt wavefront sensor(s) to achieve a certain performance. Knowledge of the sky coverage is also important for astronomers planning their observations. In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute the sky coverage for the laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics system, the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), being designed for the Thirty Meter Telescope project. We show that NFIRAOS can achieve more than 70% sky coverage over most of the accessible sky with the requirement of 191 nm total rms wavefront.

  2. Comparative Study of Neural Network Frameworks for the Next Generation of Adaptive Optics Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Santos, Jesús Daniel; Martínez-Zarzuela, Mario; Basden, Alistair G; Osborn, James; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; De Cos Juez, Francisco Javier

    2017-06-02

    Many of the next generation of adaptive optics systems on large and extremely large telescopes require tomographic techniques in order to correct for atmospheric turbulence over a large field of view. Multi-object adaptive optics is one such technique. In this paper, different implementations of a tomographic reconstructor based on a machine learning architecture named "CARMEN" are presented. Basic concepts of adaptive optics are introduced first, with a short explanation of three different control systems used on real telescopes and the sensors utilised. The operation of the reconstructor, along with the three neural network frameworks used, and the developed CUDA code are detailed. Changes to the size of the reconstructor influence the training and execution time of the neural network. The native CUDA code turns out to be the best choice for all the systems, although some of the other frameworks offer good performance under certain circumstances.

  3. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements in Support of Adaptive Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    microthermal 2 Cn measurements is also included. In the near future we anticipate completion of the in-depth study of the radar Cn2 applications in the form...temperature fluctuations necessary to use (2) are measured using standard microthermal temperature-resistance sensors and very sensitive - 12...panel is optical Cn computed from microthermal 2measurements of CT assuming negligible water vapor contribution. The middle panel depicts the

  4. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B,; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of both portable and fixed gas monitors onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Devices range from rack-mounted mass spectrometers to hand-held electrochemical sensors. An optical Multi-Gas Monitor has been developed as an ISS Technology Demonstration to evaluate long-term continuous measurement of 4 gases. Based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy, this technology offers unprecedented selectivity, concentration range, precision, and calibration stability. The monitor utilizes the combination of high performance laser absorption spectroscopy with a rugged optical path length enhancement cell that is nearly impossible to misalign. The enhancement cell serves simultaneously as the measurement sampling cell for multiple laser channels operating within a common measurement volume. Four laser diode based detection channels allow quantitative determination of ISS cabin concentrations of water vapor (humidity), carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen. Each channel utilizes a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) at a different wavelength. In addition to measuring major air constituents in their relevant ranges, the multiple gas monitor provides real time quantitative gaseous ammonia measurements between 5 and 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm). A small ventilation fan draws air with no pumps or valves into the enclosure in which analysis occurs. Power draw is only about 3 W from USB sources when installed in Nanoracks or when connected to 28V source from any EXPRESS rack interface. Internal battery power can run the sensor for over 20 hours during portable operation. The sensor is controlled digitally with an FPGA/microcontroller architecture that stores data internally while displaying running average measurements on an LCD screen and interfacing with the rack or laptop via USB. Design, construction and certification of the Multi-Gas Monitor were a joint effort between Vista Photonics, Nanoracks and NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC

  5. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  6. Adaptive optics for reduced threshold energy in femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in water based eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Krueger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmic microsurgery tissue dissection is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses to create an optical breakdown. For vitreo-retinal applications the irradiance distribution in the focal volume is distorted by the anterior components of the eye causing a raised threshold energy for breakdown. In this work, an adaptive optics system enables spatial beam shaping for compensation of aberrations and investigation of wave front influence on optical breakdown. An eye model was designed to allow for aberration correction as well as detection of optical breakdown. The eye model consists of an achromatic lens for modeling the eye's refractive power, a water chamber for modeling the tissue properties, and a PTFE sample for modeling the retina's scattering properties. Aberration correction was performed using a deformable mirror in combination with a Hartmann-Shack-sensor. The influence of an adaptive optics aberration correction on the pulse energy required for photodisruption was investigated using transmission measurements for determination of the breakdown threshold and video imaging of the focal region for study of the gas bubble dynamics. The threshold energy is considerably reduced when correcting for the aberrations of the system and the model eye. Also, a raise in irradiance at constant pulse energy was shown for the aberration corrected case. The reduced pulse energy lowers the potential risk of collateral damage which is especially important for retinal safety. This offers new possibilities for vitreo-retinal surgery using femtosecond laser pulses.

  7. Benefit of adaptive FEC in shared backup path protected elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Dai, Hua; Wang, Chao; Li, Yongcheng; Bose, Sanjay K; Shen, Gangxiang

    2015-07-27

    We apply an adaptive forward error correction (FEC) allocation strategy to an Elastic Optical Network (EON) operated with shared backup path protection (SBPP). To maximize the protected network capacity that can be carried, an Integer Linear Programing (ILP) model and a spectrum window plane (SWP)-based heuristic algorithm are developed. Simulation results show that the FEC coding overhead required by the adaptive FEC scheme is significantly lower than that needed by a fixed FEC allocation strategy resulting in higher network capacity for the adaptive strategy. The adaptive FEC allocation strategy can also significantly outperform the fixed FEC allocation strategy both in terms of the spare capacity redundancy and the average FEC coding overhead needed per optical channel. The proposed heuristic algorithm is efficient and not only performs closer to the ILP model but also does much better than the shortest-path algorithm.

  8. NAOMI: a low-order adaptive optics system for the VLT interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonté, Frédéric Yves J.; Alonso, Jaime; Aller-Carpentier, Emmanuel; Andolfato, Luigi; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Cortes, Angela; Delplancke-Strobele, Françoise; Donaldson, Rob; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Dupuy, Christophe; Egner, Sebastian E.; Huber, Stefan; Hubin, Norbert; Kirchbauer, Jean-Paul; Le Louarn, Miska; Lilley, Paul; Jolley, Paul; Martis, Alessandro; Paufique, Jérôme; Pasquini, Luca; Quentin, Jutta; Ridings, Robert; Reyes, Javier; Shchkaturov, Pavel; Suarez, Marcos; Phan Duc, Thanh; Valdes, Guillermo; Woillez, Julien; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Rochat, Sylvain; Vérinaud, Christophe; Moulin, Thibaut; Delboulbé, Alain; Michaud, Laurence; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Roux, Alain; Maurel, Didier; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The New Adaptive Optics Module for Interferometry (NAOMI) will be developed for and installed at the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) at ESO Paranal. The goal of the project is to equip all four ATs with a low-order Shack- Hartmann adaptive optics system operating in the visible. By improving the wavefront quality delivered by the ATs for guide stars brighter than R = 13 mag, NAOMI will make the existing interferometer performance less dependent on the seeing conditions. Fed with higher and more stable Strehl, the fringe tracker(s) will achieve the fringe stability necessary to reach the full performance of the second-generation instruments GRAVITY and MATISSE.

  9. Modeling update for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star dual-conjugate adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the modeling efforts undertaken in the past couple of years to derive wavefront error (WFE) performance estimates for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility laser guide star (LGS) dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The estimates describe the expected performance of NFIRAOS as a function of seeing on Mauna Kea, zenith angle, and galactic latitude (GL). They have been developed through a combination of integrated AO simulations, side analyses, allocations, lab and lidar experiments.

  10. The fundus photo has met its match: optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy are here to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica I W

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 25 years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy have revolutionised our ability to non-invasively observe the living retina. The purpose of this review is to highlight the techniques and human clinical applications of recent advances in OCT and adaptive optics scanning laser/light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) ophthalmic imaging. Optical coherence tomography retinal and optic nerve head (ONH) imaging technology allows high resolution in the axial direction resulting in cross-sectional visualisation of retinal and ONH lamination. Complementary AO ophthalmoscopy gives high resolution in the transverse direction resulting in en face visualisation of retinal cell mosaics. Innovative detection schemes applied to OCT and AOSLO technologies (such as spectral domain OCT, OCT angiography, confocal and non-confocal AOSLO, fluorescence, and AO-OCT) have enabled high contrast between retinal and ONH structures in three dimensions and have allowed in vivo retinal imaging to approach that of histological quality. In addition, both OCT and AOSLO have shown the capability to detect retinal reflectance changes in response to visual stimuli, paving the way for future studies to investigate objective biomarkers of visual function at the cellular level. Increasingly, these imaging techniques are being applied to clinical studies of the normal and diseased visual system. Optical coherence tomography and AOSLO technologies are capable of elucidating the structure and function of the retina and ONH noninvasively with unprecedented resolution and contrast. The techniques have proven their worth in both basic science and clinical applications and each will continue to be utilised in future studies for many years to come. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Pre-processing, registration and selection of adaptive optics corrected retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Gomathy; Devaney, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the aim is to demonstrate enhanced processing of sequences of fundus images obtained using a commercial AO flood illumination system. The purpose of the work is to (1) correct for uneven illumination at the retina (2) automatically select the best quality images and (3) precisely register the best images. Adaptive optics corrected retinal images are pre-processed to correct uneven illumination using different methods; subtracting or dividing by the average filtered image, homomorphic filtering and a wavelet based approach. These images are evaluated to measure the image quality using various parameters, including sharpness, variance, power spectrum kurtosis and contrast. We have carried out the registration in two stages; a coarse stage using cross-correlation followed by fine registration using two approaches; parabolic interpolation on the peak of the cross-correlation and maximum-likelihood estimation. The angle of rotation of the images is measured using a combination of peak tracking and Procrustes transformation. We have found that a wavelet approach (Daubechies 4 wavelet at 6th level decomposition) provides good illumination correction with clear improvement in image sharpness and contrast. The assessment of image quality using a 'Designer metric' works well when compared to visual evaluation, although it is highly correlated with other metrics. In image registration, sub-pixel translation measured using parabolic interpolation on the peak of the cross-correlation function and maximum-likelihood estimation are found to give very similar results (RMS difference 0.047 pixels). We have confirmed that correcting rotation of the images provides a significant improvement, especially at the edges of the image. We observed that selecting the better quality frames (e.g. best 75% images) for image registration gives improved resolution, at the expense of poorer signal-to-noise. The sharpness map of the registered and de-rotated images shows increased

  12. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindorf, Lars; Glückstad, Jesper

    2013-03-01

    In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations that the nanoantenna can be made to operate in a bandstop mode around its resonant wavelength where there is a very high evanescent strong electrical probing field close to the antennas, and additionally the fluorescence or Raman excitations will be be unpolluted by stray light from the WOW due to the band-stop characteristic. We give geometrical parameters necessary for realizing functioning nanoantennas.

  13. Characterization and Design of Digital Pointing Subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racho, C.; Portillo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory-based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision bearn pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The. design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the, system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the. required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure. to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  14. Development and demonstration of optical polarization controller; Hikari henpa seigyo sochi no kaihatsu to jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurono, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    If fiber transmission light can be controlled in a stabilized polarization state, realization of coherent optical communication is anticipated. In the case of adopting it to OPGW, however, it is necessary to compensate high speed polarization variation caused by lightning strike. But this was difficult in the conventional method. Accordingly, a high speed polarization control method was proposed which uses an electric effect of lithium niobate (LN) crystals. In the study, a polarization control unit was manufactured based on the method proposed and the performance was demonstrated. As a result of measuring output light with input light changed in every state of polarization, the object horizontal polarization component obtained a stabilized light intensity at {+-}0.1dB, and a light intensity of the component slipped out of the horizontal polarization was suppressed under -20dB. To cope with the polarization variation by lightning strike, it is necessary to make the control delay 10{mu}sec or below, and improvement in processing unit, etc. may make it possible since LN crystals respond below 1{mu}sec. High speed control of the infinitely continuing arbitrary polarization variation became possible. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  15. Demonstrations of Wave Optics (Interference and Diffraction of Light) for Large Audiences Using a Laser and a Multimedia Projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new technique for performing most well-known demonstrations of wave optics. Demonstrations which are normally very hard to show to more than a few people can be presented easily to very large audiences with excellent visibility for everyone. The proposed setup is easy to put together and use and can be very useful for…

  16. A first demonstration of audio-frequency optical coherence elastography of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Sampson, David D.

    2008-12-01

    Optical elastography is aimed at using the visco-elastic properties of soft tissue as a contrast mechanism, and could be particularly suitable for high-resolution differentiation of tumour from surrounding normal tissue. We present a new approach to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the kilohertz frequency range that is based on optical coherence tomography. We describe the approach and present the first in vivo optical coherence elastography measurements in human skin at audio excitation frequencies.

  17. Mariner-Venus-Mercury optical navigation demonstration - Results and implications for future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, C. H., Jr.; Ohtakay, H.

    1975-01-01

    Optical navigation uses spacecraft television pictures of a target body against a known star background in a process which relates the spacecraft trajectory to the target body. This technology was used in the Mariner-Venus-Mercury mission, with the optical data processed in near-real-time, simulating a mission critical environment. Optical data error sources were identified, and a star location error analysis was carried out. Several methods for selecting limb crossing coordinates were used, and a limb smear compensation was introduced. Omission of planetary aberration corrections was the source of large optical residuals.

  18. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 ?m) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ?0.06?, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August,

  19. Development of a scalable generic platform for adaptive optics real time control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Avinash; Burse, Mahesh P.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Parihar, Padmakar

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of the present project is to explore the viability of an adaptive optics control system based exclusively on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), making strong use of their parallel processing capability. In an Adaptive Optics (AO) system, the generation of the Deformable Mirror (DM) control voltages from the Wavefront Sensor (WFS) measurements is usually through the multiplication of the wavefront slopes with a predetermined reconstructor matrix. The ability to access several hundred hard multipliers and memories concurrently in an FPGA allows performance far beyond that of a modern CPU or GPU for tasks with a well-defined structure such as Adaptive Optics control. The target of the current project is to generate a signal for a real time wavefront correction, from the signals coming from a Wavefront Sensor, wherein the system would be flexible to accommodate all the current Wavefront Sensing techniques and also the different methods which are used for wavefront compensation. The system should also accommodate for different data transmission protocols (like Ethernet, USB, IEEE 1394 etc.) for transmitting data to and from the FPGA device, thus providing a more flexible platform for Adaptive Optics control. Preliminary simulation results for the formulation of the platform, and a design of a fully scalable slope computer is presented.

  20. Comparison between iterative wavefront control algorithm and direct gradient wavefront control algorithm for adaptive optics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Sheng-Yi; Liu Wen-Jin; Chen Shan-Qiu; Dong Li-Zhi; Yang Ping; Xu Bing

    2015-01-01

    Among all kinds of wavefront control algorithms in adaptive optics systems, the direct gradient wavefront control algorithm is the most widespread and common method. This control algorithm obtains the actuator voltages directly from wavefront slopes through pre-measuring the relational matrix between deformable mirror actuators and Hartmann wavefront sensor with perfect real-time characteristic and stability. However, with increasing the number of sub-apertures in wavefront sensor and deformable mirror actuators of adaptive optics systems, the matrix operation in direct gradient algorithm takes too much time, which becomes a major factor influencing control effect of adaptive optics systems. In this paper we apply an iterative wavefront control algorithm to high-resolution adaptive optics systems, in which the voltages of each actuator are obtained through iteration arithmetic, which gains great advantage in calculation and storage. For AO system with thousands of actuators, the computational complexity estimate is about O(n 2 ) ∼ O(n 3 ) in direct gradient wavefront control algorithm, while the computational complexity estimate in iterative wavefront control algorithm is about O(n) ∼ (O(n) 3/2 ), in which n is the number of actuators of AO system. And the more the numbers of sub-apertures and deformable mirror actuators, the more significant advantage the iterative wavefront control algorithm exhibits. (paper)

  1. Addition of Adapted Optics towards obtaining a quantitative detection of diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust, Brian; Obregon, Isidro; Tsin, Andrew; Sardar, Dhiraj

    2009-04-01

    An adaptive optics system was assembled for correcting the aberrated wavefront of light reflected from the retina. The adaptive optics setup includes a superluminous diode light source, Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, deformable mirror, and imaging CCD camera. Aberrations found in the reflected wavefront are caused by changes in the index of refraction along the light path as the beam travels through the cornea, lens, and vitreous humour. The Hartmann-Shack sensor allows for detection of aberrations in the wavefront, which may then be corrected with the deformable mirror. It has been shown that there is a change in the polarization of light reflected from neovascularizations in the retina due to certain diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy. The adaptive optics system was assembled towards the goal of obtaining a quantitative measure of onset and progression of this ailment, as one does not currently exist. The study was done to show that the addition of adaptive optics results in a more accurate detection of neovascularization in the retina by measuring the expected changes in polarization of the corrected wavefront of reflected light.

  2. A pilot study on slit lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography imaging of trabeculectomy filtering blebs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Wesseling, P.; Keunen, J.E.E.; Klevering, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our study aims to identify anatomical characteristics of glaucoma filtering blebs by means of slit lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT) and to identify new parameters for the functional prognosis of the filter in the early post-operative period. METHODS: Patients with

  3. Adaptive optics in spinning disk microscopy: improved contrast and brightness by a simple and fast method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisier, V; Clouvel, G; Jasaitis, A; Dimitrov, A; Piolot, T; Salamero, J

    2015-09-01

    Multiconfocal microscopy gives a good compromise between fast imaging and reasonable resolution. However, the low intensity of live fluorescent emitters is a major limitation to this technique. Aberrations induced by the optical setup, especially the mismatch of the refractive index and the biological sample itself, distort the point spread function and further reduce the amount of detected photons. Altogether, this leads to impaired image quality, preventing accurate analysis of molecular processes in biological samples and imaging deep in the sample. The amount of detected fluorescence can be improved with adaptive optics. Here, we used a compact adaptive optics module (adaptive optics box for sectioning optical microscopy), which was specifically designed for spinning disk confocal microscopy. The module overcomes undesired anomalies by correcting for most of the aberrations in confocal imaging. Existing aberration detection methods require prior illumination, which bleaches the sample. To avoid multiple exposures of the sample, we established an experimental model describing the depth dependence of major aberrations. This model allows us to correct for those aberrations when performing a z-stack, gradually increasing the amplitude of the correction with depth. It does not require illumination of the sample for aberration detection, thus minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. With this model, we improved both signal-to-background ratio and image contrast. Here, we present comparative studies on a variety of biological samples. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-06-01

    The apposition compound eye of a nocturnal bee, the halictid Megalopta genalis, is described for the first time. Compared to the compound eye of the worker honeybee Apis mellifera and the diurnal halictid bee Lasioglossum leucozonium, the eye of M. genalis shows specific retinal and optical adaptations for vision in dim light. The major anatomical adaptations within the eye of the nocturnal bee are (1) nearly twofold larger ommatidial facets and (2) a 4-5 times wider rhabdom diameter than found in the diurnal bees studied. Optically, the apposition eye of M. genalis is 27 times more sensitive to light than the eyes of the diurnal bees. This increased optical sensitivity represents a clear optical adaptation to low light intensities. Although this unique nocturnal apposition eye has a greatly improved ability to catch light, a 27-fold increase in sensitivity alone cannot account for nocturnal vision at light intensities that are 8 log units dimmer than during daytime. New evidence suggests that additional neuronal spatial summation within the first optic ganglion, the lamina, is involved.

  5. Cone and Rod Loss in Stargardt Disease Revealed by Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongxin; Rossi, Ethan A.; Latchney, Lisa; Bessette, Angela; Stone, Edwin; Hunter, Jennifer J.; Williams, David R.; Chung, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Importance Stargardt disease (STGD1) is characterized by macular atrophy and flecks in the retinal pigment epithelium. The causative ABCA4 gene encodes a protein localizing to photoreceptor outer segments. The pathologic steps by which ABCA4 mutations lead to clinically detectable retinal pigment epithelium changes remain unclear. We investigated early STGD1 using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Observations Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging of 2 brothers with early STGD1 and their unaffected parents was compared with conventional imaging. Cone and rod spacing were increased in both patients (P optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy reveals increased cone and rod spacing in areas that appear normal in conventional images, suggesting that photoreceptor loss precedes clinically detectable retinal pigment epithelial disease in STGD1. PMID:26247787

  6. Underwater wireless optical MIMO system with spatial modulation and adaptive power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiping; Tao, Linwei; Niu, Yilong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of underwater wireless optical multiple-input multiple-output communication system combining spatial modulation (SM-UOMIMO) with flag dual amplitude pulse position modulation (FDAPPM). Channel impulse response for coastal and harbor ocean water links are obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Moreover, we obtain the closed-form and upper bound average bit error rate (BER) expressions for receiver diversity including optical combining, equal gain combining and selected combining. And a novel adaptive power allocation algorithm (PAA) is proposed to minimize the average BER of SM-UOMIMO system. Our numeric results indicate an excellent match between the analytical results and numerical simulations, which confirms the accuracy of our derived expressions. Furthermore, the results show that adaptive PAA outperforms conventional fixed factor PAA and equal PAA obviously. Multiple-input single-output system with adaptive PAA obtains even better BER performance than MIMO one, at the same time reducing receiver complexity effectively.

  7. Underwater wireless optical communications: From system-level demonstrations to channel modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2018-01-09

    In this paper, we discuss about recent experimental advances in underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) over various underwater channel water types using different modulation schemes as well as modelling and describing the statistical properties of turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels using laser beam intensity fluctuations measurements.

  8. 15 Gbit/s indoor optical wireless systems employing fast adaptation and imaging reception in a realistic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, Fuad E.

    2016-03-01

    Optical wireless systems are promising candidates for next-generation indoor communication networks. Optical wireless technology offers freedom from spectrum regulations and, compared to current radio-frequency networks, higher data rates and increased security. This paper presents a fast adaptation method for multibeam angle and delay adaptation systems and a new spot-diffusing geometry, and also considers restrictions needed for complying with eye safety regulations. The fast adaptation algorithm reduces the computational load required to reconfigure the transmitter in the case of transmitter and/or receiver mobility. The beam clustering approach enables the transmitter to assign power to spots within the pixel's field of view (FOV) and increases the number of such spots. Thus, if the power per spot is restricted to comply with eye safety standards, the new approach, in which more spots are visible within the FOV of the pixel, leads to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulation results demonstrate that the techniques proposed in this paper lead to SNR improvements that enable reliable operation at data rates as high as 15 Gbit/s. These results are based on simulation and not on actual measurements or experiments.

  9. Use of focus measure operators for characterization of flood illumination adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Caneiro, David; Sampson, Danuta M; Chew, Avenell L; Collins, Michael J; Chen, Fred K

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive optics flood illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO) allows imaging of the cone photoreceptor in the living human retina. However, clinical interpretation of the AO-FIO image remains challenging due to suboptimal quality arising from residual uncorrected wavefront aberrations and rapid eye motion. An objective method of assessing image quality is necessary to determine whether an AO-FIO image is suitable for grading and diagnostic purpose. In this work, we explore the use of focus measure operators as a surrogate measure of AO-FIO image quality. A set of operators are tested on data sets acquired at different focal depths and different retinal locations from healthy volunteers. Our results demonstrate differences in focus measure operator performance in quantifying AO-FIO image quality. Further, we discuss the potential application of the selected focus operators in (i) selection of the best quality AO-FIO image from a series of images collected at the same retinal location and (ii) assessment of longitudinal changes in the diseased retina. Focus function could be incorporated into real-time AO-FIO image processing and provide an initial automated quality assessment during image acquisition or reading center grading.

  10. The Chandra Deep Field South as a test case for Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluri, E.; Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bergomi, M.; Greggio, D.; Biondi, F.; Dima, M.; Magrin, D.; Farinato, J.

    2017-04-01

    The era of the next generation of giant telescopes requires not only the advent of new technologies but also the development of novel methods, in order to exploit fully the extraordinary potential they are built for. Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (GMCAO) pursues this approach, with the goal of achieving good performance over a field of view of a few arcmin and an increase in sky coverage. In this article, we show the gain offered by this technique to an astrophysical application, such as the photometric survey strategy applied to the Chandra Deep Field South as a case study. We simulated a close-to-real observation of a 500 × 500 arcsec2 extragalactic deep field with a 40-m class telescope that implements GMCAO. We analysed mock K-band images of 6000 high-redshift (up to z = 2.75) galaxies therein as if they were real to recover the initial input parameters. We attained 94.5 per cent completeness for source detection with SEXTRACTOR. We also measured the morphological parameters of all the sources with the two-dimensional fitting tools GALFIT. The agreement we found between recovered and intrinsic parameters demonstrates GMCAO as a reliable approach to assist extremely large telescope (ELT) observations of extragalactic interest.

  11. PALM-3000: EXOPLANET ADAPTIVE OPTICS FOR THE 5 m HALE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Baranec, Christoph; Hale, David; Zolkower, Jeffry; Henning, John; Croner, Ernest; McKenna, Dan; Hildebrandt, Sergi; Milburn, Jennifer [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 11-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Roberts, Jennifer; Burruss, Rick; Truong, Tuan; Guiwits, Stephen; Angione, John; Trinh, Thang; Shelton, J. Christopher; Palmer, Dean; Troy, Mitchell; Tesch, Jonathan, E-mail: rgd@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We describe and report first results from PALM-3000, the second-generation astronomical adaptive optics (AO) facility for the 5.1 m Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 has been engineered for high-contrast imaging and emission spectroscopy of brown dwarfs and large planetary mass bodies at near-infrared wavelengths around bright stars, but also supports general natural guide star use to V ≈ 17. Using its unique 66 × 66 actuator deformable mirror, PALM-3000 has thus far demonstrated residual wavefront errors of 141 nm rms under ∼1'' seeing conditions. PALM-3000 can provide phase conjugation correction over a 6.''4 × 6.''4 working region at λ = 2.2 μm, or full electric field (amplitude and phase) correction over approximately one-half of this field. With optimized back-end instrumentation, PALM-3000 is designed to enable 10{sup –7} contrast at 1'' angular separation, including post-observation speckle suppression processing. While continued optimization of the AO system is ongoing, we have already successfully commissioned five back-end instruments and begun a major exoplanet characterization survey, Project 1640.

  12. Testing for a slope-based decoupling algorithm in a woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Liu, WenJin; Yang, KangJian; He, Xin; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that using two or more deformable mirrors (DMs) can improve the compensation ability of an adaptive optics (AO) system. However, to keep the stability of an AO system, the correlation between the multiple DMs must be suppressed during the correction. In this paper, we proposed a slope-based decoupling algorithm to simultaneous control the multiple DMs. In order to examine the validity and practicality of this algorithm, a typical woofer-tweeter (W-T) AO system was set up. For the W-T system, a theory model was simulated and the results indicated in theory that the algorithm we presented can selectively make woofer and tweeter correct different spatial frequency aberration and suppress the cross coupling between the dual DMs. At the same time, the experimental results for the W-T AO system were consistent with the results of the simulation, which demonstrated in practice that this algorithm is practical for the AO system with dual DMs.

  13. A High-resolution Multi-wavelength Simultaneous Imaging System with Solar Adaptive Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Changhui; Zhu, Lei; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Xuejun; Zhang, Lanqiang; Bao, Hua; Kong, Lin; Guo, Youming; Zhong, Libo; Ma, Xue’an; Li, Mei; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Fan, Xinlong; Chen, Donghong; Feng, Zhongyi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Zhiyong, E-mail: gunaiting@ioe.ac.cn [The Key Laboratory on Adaptive Optics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 350, Shuangliu, Chengdu 610209, Sichuan (China)

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution multi-wavelength simultaneous imaging system from visible to near-infrared bands with a solar adaptive optics system, in which seven imaging channels, including the G band (430.5 nm), the Na i line (589 nm), the H α line (656.3 nm), the TiO band (705.7 nm), the Ca ii IR line (854.2 nm), the He i line (1083 nm), and the Fe i line (1565.3 nm), are chosen, is developed to image the solar atmosphere from the photosphere layer to the chromosphere layer. To our knowledge, this is the solar high-resolution imaging system with the widest spectral coverage. This system was demonstrated at the 1 m New Vaccum Solar Telescope and the on-sky high-resolution observational results were acquired. In this paper, we will illustrate the design and performance of the imaging system. The calibration and the data reduction of the system are also presented.

  14. Extreme Computing for Extreme Adaptive Optics: the Key to Finding Life Outside our Solar System

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem; Sukkari, Dalal; Guyon, Olivier; Keyes, David E.

    2018-01-01

    The real-time correction of telescopic images in the search for exoplanets is highly sensitive to atmospheric aberrations. The pseudo- inverse algorithm is an efficient mathematical method to filter out these turbulences. We introduce a new partial singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm based on QR-based Diagonally Weighted Halley (QDWH) iteration for the pseudo-inverse method of adaptive optics. The QDWH partial SVD algorithm selectively calculates the most significant singular values and their corresponding singular vectors. We develop a high performance implementation and demonstrate the numerical robustness of the QDWH-based partial SVD method. We also perform a benchmarking campaign on various generations of GPU hardware accelerators and compare against the state-of-the-art SVD implementation SGESDD from the MAGMA library. Numerical accuracy and performance results are reported using synthetic and real observational datasets from the Subaru telescope. Our implementation outperforms SGESDD by up to fivefold and fourfold performance speedups on ill-conditioned synthetic matrices and real observational datasets, respectively. The pseudo-inverse simulation code will be deployed on-sky for the Subaru telescope during observation nights scheduled early 2018.

  15. Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.; Myara, M.; Troussellier, L.; Régnier, E.; Burov, E.; Gilard, O.; Sottom, M.; Signoret, P.

    2017-11-01

    Optical technology developed for ground and submarine telecommunications is becoming of strong interest for next generation satellites. In addition to inter-satellite laser communications and LIDAR's, new applications are being considered such as on-board distribution and processing of microwave signals, fiber sensors or gyroscopes as well. Whereas common optical / optoelectronic components are known to be weakly sensitive to radiations, the essential optical amplifiers are strongly degraded in such an environment because of the RIA (Radio-Induced-Absorption) experienced by the Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) itself [1-3]. This degradation is mainly caused by the presence of co-doping ions, such as Aluminium or Germanium, inserted in the fibre to assist the inclusion of the Erbium ions in the silica matrix or to provide to the optical fibre its guiding properties.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of a Cognitive Optical Network for Reduction of Restoration Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kachris, Christoforos; Klonidis, Dimitris; Francescon, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation and performance evaluation of a cognitive heterogeneous optical network testbed. The testbed integrates the CMP, the data plane and the cognitive system and reduces by 48% the link restoration time.......This paper presents the implementation and performance evaluation of a cognitive heterogeneous optical network testbed. The testbed integrates the CMP, the data plane and the cognitive system and reduces by 48% the link restoration time....

  17. First demonstration of single-mode MCF transport network with crosstalk-aware in-service optical channel control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulverer, K.; Tanaka, T.; Häbel, U.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the first crosstalk-aware traffic engineering as a use case in a multicore fibre transport network. With the help of a software-defined network controller, modulation format and channel route are adaptively changed using programmable devices with XT monitors.......We demonstrate the first crosstalk-aware traffic engineering as a use case in a multicore fibre transport network. With the help of a software-defined network controller, modulation format and channel route are adaptively changed using programmable devices with XT monitors....

  18. Adaptive Optics Facility: control strategy and first on-sky results of the acquisition sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.; Kolb, J.; Oberti, S.; Paufique, J.; La Penna, P.; Hackenberg, W.; Kuntschner, H.; Argomedo, J.; Kiekebusch, M.; Donaldson, R.; Suarez, M.; Arsenault, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility is an ESO project aiming at converting Yepun, one of the four 8m telescopes in Paranal, into an adaptive telescope. This is done by replacing the current conventional secondary mirror of Yepun by a Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and attaching four Laser Guide Star (LGS) Units to its centerpiece. In the meantime, two Adaptive Optics (AO) modules have been developed incorporating each four LGS WaveFront Sensors (WFS) and one tip-tilt sensor used to control the DSM at 1 kHz frame rate. The four LGS Units and one AO module (GRAAL) have already been assembled on Yepun. Besides the technological challenge itself, one critical area of AOF is the AO control strategy and its link with the telescope control, including Active Optics used to shape M1. Another challenge is the request to minimize the overhead due to AOF during the acquisition phase of the observation. This paper presents the control strategy of the AOF. The current control of the telescope is first recalled, and then the way the AO control makes the link with the Active Optics is detailed. Lab results are used to illustrate the expected performance. Finally, the overall AOF acquisition sequence is presented as well as first results obtained on sky with GRAAL.

  19. Experimental Demonstration of Mixed Formats and Bit Rates Signal Allocation for Spectrum-flexible Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Karinou, Fotini; Angelou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    We report on an extensive experimental study for adaptive allocation of 16-QAM and QPSK signals inside spectrum flexible heterogeneous superchannel. Physical-layer performance parameters are extracted for use in resource allocation mechanisms of future flexible networks....

  20. Demonstration of the use of ADAPT to derive predictive maintenance algorithms for the KSC central heat plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Avco Data Analysis and Prediction Techniques (ADAPT) were employed to determine laws capable of detecting failures in a heat plant up to three days in advance of the occurrence of the failure. The projected performance of algorithms yielded a detection probability of 90% with false alarm rates of the order of 1 per year for a sample rate of 1 per day with each detection, followed by 3 hourly samplings. This performance was verified on 173 independent test cases. The program also demonstrated diagnostic algorithms and the ability to predict the time of failure to approximately plus or minus 8 hours up to three days in advance of the failure. The ADAPT programs produce simple algorithms which have a unique possibility of a relatively low cost updating procedure. The algorithms were implemented on general purpose computers at Kennedy Space Flight Center and tested against current data.

  1. Fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave and free-space-optics architecture with an adaptive diversity combining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yuming; Xu, Mu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Yu, Jianjun; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2016-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave (MMW) and free-space-optics (FSO) architecture using an adaptive combining technique. Both 60 GHz MMW and FSO links are demonstrated and fully integrated with optical fibers in a scalable and cost-effective backhaul system setup. Joint signal processing with an adaptive diversity combining technique (ADCT) is utilized at the receiver side based on a maximum ratio combining algorithm. Mobile backhaul transportation of 4-Gb/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation frequency-division multiplexing (QAM-OFDM) data is experimentally demonstrated and tested under various weather conditions synthesized in the lab. Performance improvement in terms of reduced error vector magnitude (EVM) and enhanced link reliability are validated under fog, rain, and turbulence conditions.

  2. Modeling a space-based quantum link that includes an adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, Alexander W.; Hodson, Douglas D.; Mailloux, Logan O.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum Key Distribution uses optical pulses to generate shared random bit strings between two locations. If a high percentage of the optical pulses are comprised of single photons, then the statistical nature of light and information theory can be used to generate secure shared random bit strings which can then be converted to keys for encryption systems. When these keys are incorporated along with symmetric encryption techniques such as a one-time pad, then this method of key generation and encryption is resistant to future advances in quantum computing which will significantly degrade the effectiveness of current asymmetric key sharing techniques. This research first reviews the transition of Quantum Key Distribution free-space experiments from the laboratory environment to field experiments, and finally, ongoing space experiments. Next, a propagation model for an optical pulse from low-earth orbit to ground and the effects of turbulence on the transmitted optical pulse is described. An Adaptive Optics system is modeled to correct for the aberrations caused by the atmosphere. The long-term point spread function of the completed low-earth orbit to ground optical system is explored in the results section. Finally, the impact of this optical system and its point spread function on an overall quantum key distribution system as well as the future work necessary to show this impact is described.

  3. Simulating the performance of adaptive optics techniques on FSO communications through the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Noelia; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis Fernando; Sodnik, Zoran

    2017-08-01

    The Optical Ground Station (OGS), installed in the Teide Observatory since 1995, was built as part of ESA efforts in the research field of satellite optical communications to test laser telecommunication terminals on board of satellites in Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Orbit. As far as one side of the link is settled on the Earth, the laser beam (either on the uplink or on the downlink) has to bear with the atmospheric turbulence. Within the framework of designing an Adaptive Optics system to improve the performance of the Free-Space Optical Communications at the OGS, turbulence conditions regarding uplink and downlink have been simulated within the OOMAO (Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics) Toolbox as well as the possible utilization of a Laser Guide Star to measure the wavefront in this context. Simulations have been carried out by reducing available atmospheric profiles regarding both night-time and day-time measurements and by having into account possible seasonal changes. An AO proposal to reduce atmospheric aberrations and, therefore, ameliorate FSO links performance is presented and analysed in this paper

  4. Nonlinear adaptive optics: aberration correction in three photon fluorescence microscopy for mouse brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinefeld, David; Paudel, Hari P.; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Mengran; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Xu, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is a well-established technique for deep-tissue imaging with subcellular resolution. Three-photon microscopy (3PM) when combined with long wavelength excitation was shown to allow deeper imaging than two-photon microscopy (2PM) in biological tissues, such as mouse brain, because out-of-focus background light can be further reduced due to the higher order nonlinear excitation. As was demonstrated in 2PM systems, imaging depth and resolution can be improved by aberration correction using adaptive optics (AO) techniques which are based on shaping the scanning beam using a spatial light modulator (SLM). In this way, it is possible to compensate for tissue low order aberration and to some extent, to compensate for tissue scattering. Here, we present a 3PM AO microscopy system for brain imaging. Soliton self-frequency shift is used to create a femtosecond source at 1675 nm and a microelectromechanical (MEMS) SLM serves as the wavefront shaping device. We perturb the 1020 segment SLM using a modified nonlinear version of three-point phase shifting interferometry. The nonlinearity of the fluorescence signal used for feedback ensures that the signal is increasing when the spot size decreases, allowing compensation of phase errors in an iterative optimization process without direct phase measurement. We compare the performance for different orders of nonlinear feedback, showing an exponential growth in signal improvement as the nonlinear order increases. We demonstrate the impact of the method by applying the 3PM AO system for in-vivo mouse brain imaging, showing improvement in signal at 1-mm depth inside the brain.

  5. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  6. The CHARA array adaptive optics I: common-path optical and mechanical design, and preliminary on-sky results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiao; Sturmann, Laszlo; Monnier, John D.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Judit; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Ireland, Michael J.; Turner, Nils H.; McAlister, Harold A.

    2014-07-01

    The CHARA array is an optical interferometer with six 1-meter diameter telescopes, providing baselines from 33 to 331 meters. With sub-milliarcsecond angular resolution, its versatile visible and near infrared combiners offer a unique angle of studying nearby stellar systems by spatially resolving their detailed structures. To improve the sensitivity and scientific throughput, the CHARA array was funded by NSF-ATI in 2011 to install adaptive optics (AO) systems on all six telescopes. The initial grant covers Phase I of the AO systems, which includes on-telescope Wavefront Sensors (WFS) and non-common-path (NCP) error correction. Meanwhile we are seeking funding for Phase II which will add large Deformable Mirrors on telescopes to close the full AO loop. The corrections of NCP error and static aberrations in the optical system beyond the WFS are described in the second paper of this series. This paper describes the design of the common-path optical system and the on-telescope WFS, and shows the on-sky commissioning results.

  7. Adaptive Electronic Dispersion Compensator for Chromatic and Polarization-Mode Dispersions in Optical Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Koc Ut-Va

    2005-01-01

    The widely-used LMS algorithm for coefficient updates in adaptive (feedforward/decision-feedback) equalizers is found to be suboptimal for ASE-dominant systems but various coefficient-dithering approaches suffer from slow adaptation rate without guarantee of convergence. In view of the non-Gaussian nature of optical noise after the square-law optoelectronic conversion, we propose to apply the higher-order least-mean 2 th-order (LMN) algorithms resulting in OSNR penalty which is 1.5–2 d...

  8. Ion-optical studies for a range adaptation method in ion beam therapy using a static wedge degrader combined with magnetic beam deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, Naved; Saito, Nami; Bert, Christoph; Franczak, Bernhard; Steidl, Peter; Durante, Marco; Schardt, Dieter; Rietzel, Eike

    2010-01-01

    Fast radiological range adaptation of the ion beam is essential when target motion is mitigated by beam tracking using scanned ion beams for dose delivery. Electromagnetically controlled deflection of a well-focused ion beam on a small static wedge degrader positioned between two dipole magnets, inside the beam delivery system, has been considered as a fast range adaptation method. The principle of the range adaptation method was tested in experiments and Monte Carlo simulations for the therapy beam line at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ions Research. Based on the simulations, ion optical settings of beam deflection and realignment of the adapted beam were experimentally applied to the beam line, and additional tuning was manually performed. Different degrader shapes were employed for the energy adaptation. Measured and simulated beam profiles, i.e. lateral distribution and range in water at isocentre, were analysed and compared with the therapy beam values for beam scanning. Deflected beam positions of up to ±28 mm on degrader were performed which resulted in a range adaptation of up to ±15 mm water equivalence (WE). The maximum deviation between the measured adapted range from the nominal range adaptation was below 0.4 mm WE. In experiments, the width of the adapted beam at the isocentre was adjustable between 5 and 11 mm full width at half maximum. The results demonstrate the feasibility/proof of the proposed range adaptation method for beam tracking from the beam quality point of view.

  9. Demonstration of full 4×4 Mueller polarimetry through an optical fiber for endoscopic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Sandeep; Vizet, Jérémy; Deby, Stanislas; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Boito, Paola; Verdier, Mireille; De Martino, Antonello; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2015-02-09

    A novel technique to measure the full 4 × 4 Mueller matrix of a sample through an optical fiber is proposed, opening the way for endoscopic applications of Mueller polarimetry for biomedical diagnosis. The technique is based on two subsequent Mueller matrices measurements: one for characterizing the fiber only, and another for the assembly of fiber and sample. From this differential measurement, we proved theoretically that the polarimetric properties of the sample can be deduced. The proof of principle was experimentally validated by measuring various polarimetric parameters of known optical components. Images of manufactured and biological samples acquired by using this approach are also presented.

  10. ALOHA—Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis - From experimental demonstrations to a MIR instrument proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, L.; Darré, P.; Szemendera, L.; Gomes, J. T.; Baudoin, R.; Ceus, D.; Brustlein, S.; Delage, L.; Grossard, L.; Reynaud, F.

    2018-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis (ALOHA) project dedicated to investigate a new method for high resolution imaging in mid infrared astronomy. This proposal aims to use a non-linear frequency conversion process to shift the thermal infrared radiation to a shorter wavelength domain compatible with proven technology such as guided optics and detectors. After a description of the principle, we summarise the evolution of our study from the high flux seminal experiments to the latest results in the photon counting regime.

  11. Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Parravano, Mariacristina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Ducoli, Pietro; Stirpe, Mario; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    To illustrate a noninvasive method to analyze the retinal capillary lumen caliber in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Adaptive optics imaging of the retinal capillaries were acquired in two parafoveal regions of interest in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and unaffected controls. Measures of the retinal capillary lumen caliber were quantified using an algorithm written in Matlab by an independent observer in a masked manner. Comparison of the adaptive optics images with red-free and color wide fundus retinography images was also assessed. Eight eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (eight patients, study group), no macular edema, and preserved visual acuity and eight control eyes (eight healthy volunteers; control group) were analyzed. The repeatability of capillary lumen caliber measurements was 0.22 μm (3.5%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.12 and 0.31 μm in the study group. It was 0.30 μm (4.1%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.16 and 0.43 μm in the control group. The average capillary lumen caliber was significantly narrower in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (6.27 ± 1.63 μm) than in the control eyes (7.31 ± 1.59 μm, P = 0.002). The authors demonstrated a noninvasive method to analyze, with micrometric scale of resolution, the lumen of retinal capillaries. The parafoveal capillaries were narrower in patients with Type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy than in healthy subjects, showing the potential capability of adaptive optics imaging to detect pathologic variations of the retinal microvascular structures in vaso-occlusive diseases.

  12. First demonstration of single-mode MCF transport network with crosstalk-aware in-service optical channel control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulverer, K.; Tanaka, T.; Häbel, U.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the first crosstalk-aware traffic engineering as a use case in a multicore fibre transport network. With the help of a software-defined network controller, modulation format and channel route are adaptively changed using programmable devices with XT monitors....

  13. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain.

  14. Numerical analysis of modal tomography for solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Bing; Ren Deqing; Zhang Xi

    2012-01-01

    Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) can considerably extend the corrected field of view with respect to classical adaptive optics, which will benefit solar observation in many aspects. In solar MCAO, the Sun structure is utilized to provide multiple guide stars and a modal tomography approach is adopted to implement three-dimensional wavefront restorations. The principle of modal tomography is briefly reviewed and a numerical simulation model is built with three equivalent turbulent layers and a different number of guide stars. Our simulation results show that at least six guide stars are required for an accurate wavefront reconstruction in the case of three layers, and only three guide stars are needed in the two layer case. Finally, eigenmode analysis results are given to reveal the singular modes that cannot be precisely retrieved in the tomography process.

  15. Differential Polarization Nonlinear Optical Microscopy with Adaptive Optics Controlled Multiplexed Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginijus Barzda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red, which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Multidimensional Switching Nodes for All-Optical Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros; Da Ros, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    architecture allows for scaling in different dimensions while at the same time providing support for connections with different granularity. The ring topology reduces the number of different physical links required, leading to simplified cabling and easier link management, while optical bypass holds...

  17. Integration of adaptive optics into highEnergy laser modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    contain hundreds of actuators with high control bandwidths and low hysteresis, all of which are ideal parameters for accurate reconstruction of higher... Available : https://web.archive.org/web/20110111093235/http: //csis.org/blog/missile-defense-umbrella [10] C. Kopp, “ High energy laser directed energy...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS INTEGRATION OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS INTO HIGH ENERGY LASER MODELING AND SIMULATION by Donald Puent

  18. Comparison between iterative wavefront control algorithm and direct gradient wavefront control algorithm for adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Yi; Liu, Wen-Jin; Chen, Shan-Qiu; Dong, Li-Zhi; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Among all kinds of wavefront control algorithms in adaptive optics systems, the direct gradient wavefront control algorithm is the most widespread and common method. This control algorithm obtains the actuator voltages directly from wavefront slopes through pre-measuring the relational matrix between deformable mirror actuators and Hartmann wavefront sensor with perfect real-time characteristic and stability. However, with increasing the number of sub-apertures in wavefront sensor and deformable mirror actuators of adaptive optics systems, the matrix operation in direct gradient algorithm takes too much time, which becomes a major factor influencing control effect of adaptive optics systems. In this paper we apply an iterative wavefront control algorithm to high-resolution adaptive optics systems, in which the voltages of each actuator are obtained through iteration arithmetic, which gains great advantage in calculation and storage. For AO system with thousands of actuators, the computational complexity estimate is about O(n2) ˜ O(n3) in direct gradient wavefront control algorithm, while the computational complexity estimate in iterative wavefront control algorithm is about O(n) ˜ (O(n)3/2), in which n is the number of actuators of AO system. And the more the numbers of sub-apertures and deformable mirror actuators, the more significant advantage the iterative wavefront control algorithm exhibits. Project supported by the National Key Scientific and Research Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. ZDYZ2013-2), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11173008), and the Sichuan Provincial Outstanding Youth Academic Technology Leaders Program, China (Grant No. 2012JQ0012).

  19. Compact akinetic swept source optical coherence tomography angiography at 1060 nm supporting a wide field of view and adaptive optics imaging modes of the posterior eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Matthias; Augustin, Marco; Felberer, Franz; Wartak, Andreas; Laslandes, Marie; Ginner, Laurin; Niederleithner, Michael; Ensher, Jason; Minneman, Michael P; Leitgeb, Rainer A; Drexler, Wolfgang; Levecq, Xavier; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Imaging of the human retina with high resolution is an essential step towards improved diagnosis and treatment control. In this paper, we introduce a compact, clinically user-friendly instrument based on swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). A key feature of the system is the realization of two different operation modes. The first operation mode is similar to conventional OCT imaging and provides large field of view (FoV) images (up to 45° × 30°) of the human retina and choroid with standard resolution. The second operation mode enables it to optically zoom into regions of interest with high transverse resolution using adaptive optics (AO). The FoV of this second operation mode (AO-OCT mode) is 3.0° × 2.8° and enables the visualization of individual retinal cells such as cone photoreceptors or choriocapillaris. The OCT engine is based on an akinetic swept source at 1060 nm and provides an A-scan rate of 200 kHz. Structural as well as angiographic information can be retrieved from the retina and choroid in both operational modes. The capabilities of the prototype are demonstrated in healthy and diseased eyes.

  20. Volumetric imaging of rod and cone photoreceptor structure with a combined adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography-scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Gray, Elaine M.; Choi, Stacey S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Finn, Susanna C.; Greiner, Cherry; Werner, John S.; Doble, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    We have designed and implemented a dual-mode adaptive optics (AO) imaging system that combines spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) for in vivo imaging of the human retina. The system simultaneously acquires SLO frames and OCT B-scans at 60 Hz with an OCT volume acquisition time of 4.2 s. Transverse eye motion measured from the SLO is used to register the OCT B-scans to generate three-dimensional (3-D) volumes. Key optical design considerations include: minimizing system aberrations through the use of off-axis relay telescopes, conjugate pupil plane requirements, and the use of dichroic beam splitters to separate and recombine the OCT and SLO beams around the nonshared horizontal scanning mirrors. To demonstrate system performance, AO-OCT-SLO images and measurements are taken from three normal human subjects ranging in retinal eccentricity from the fovea out to 15-deg temporal and 20-deg superior. Also presented are en face OCT projections generated from the registered 3-D volumes. The ability to acquire high-resolution 3-D images of the human retina in the midperiphery and beyond has clinical importance in diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy.

  1. Research on Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm by Improved Expectation Maximization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the effect of adaptive optics images’ restoration, we put forward a deconvolution algorithm improved by the EM algorithm which joints multiframe adaptive optics images based on expectation-maximization theory. Firstly, we need to make a mathematical model for the degenerate multiframe adaptive optics images. The function model is deduced for the points that spread with time based on phase error. The AO images are denoised using the image power spectral density and support constraint. Secondly, the EM algorithm is improved by combining the AO imaging system parameters and regularization technique. A cost function for the joint-deconvolution multiframe AO images is given, and the optimization model for their parameter estimations is built. Lastly, the image-restoration experiments on both analog images and the real AO are performed to verify the recovery effect of our algorithm. The experimental results show that comparing with the Wiener-IBD or RL-IBD algorithm, our iterations decrease 14.3% and well improve the estimation accuracy. The model distinguishes the PSF of the AO images and recovers the observed target images clearly.

  2. Multiconjugate adaptive optics applied to an anatomically accurate human eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedggood, P A; Ashman, R; Smith, G; Metha, A B

    2006-09-04

    Aberrations of both astronomical telescopes and the human eye can be successfully corrected with conventional adaptive optics. This produces diffraction-limited imagery over a limited field of view called the isoplanatic patch. A new technique, known as multiconjugate adaptive optics, has been developed recently in astronomy to increase the size of this patch. The key is to model atmospheric turbulence as several flat, discrete layers. A human eye, however, has several curved, aspheric surfaces and a gradient index lens, complicating the task of correcting aberrations over a wide field of view. Here we utilize a computer model to determine the degree to which this technology may be applied to generate high resolution, wide-field retinal images, and discuss the considerations necessary for optimal use with the eye. The Liou and Brennan schematic eye simulates the aspheric surfaces and gradient index lens of real human eyes. We show that the size of the isoplanatic patch of the human eye is significantly increased through multiconjugate adaptive optics.

  3. Multiconjugate adaptive optics applied to an anatomically accurate human eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedggood, P. A.; Ashman, R.; Smith, G.; Metha, A. B.

    2006-09-01

    Aberrations of both astronomical telescopes and the human eye can be successfully corrected with conventional adaptive optics. This produces diffraction-limited imagery over a limited field of view called the isoplanatic patch. A new technique, known as multiconjugate adaptive optics, has been developed recently in astronomy to increase the size of this patch. The key is to model atmospheric turbulence as several flat, discrete layers. A human eye, however, has several curved, aspheric surfaces and a gradient index lens, complicating the task of correcting aberrations over a wide field of view. Here we utilize a computer model to determine the degree to which this technology may be applied to generate high resolution, wide-field retinal images, and discuss the considerations necessary for optimal use with the eye. The Liou and Brennan schematic eye simulates the aspheric surfaces and gradient index lens of real human eyes. We show that the size of the isoplanatic patch of the human eye is significantly increased through multiconjugate adaptive optics.

  4. Demonstration of intradyne BPSK optical free-space transmission in representative atmospheric turbulence conditions for geostationary uplink channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surof, Janis; Poliak, Juraj; Calvo, Ramon Mata

    2017-06-01

    Binary phase-shift keying optical transmission in the C-band with coherent intradyne reception is demonstrated over a long-range (10.45 km) link through the atmosphere. The link emulates representative channel conditions for geostationary optical feeder uplinks in satellite communications. The digital signal processing used in recovering the transmitted data and the performed measurements are described. Finally, the bit error rate results for 10 Gbit/s, 20 Gbit/s, and 30 Gbit/s of the outdoor experiments are presented and compared with back-to-back measurements and theory.

  5. Do kinematic metrics of walking balance adapt to perturbed optical flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jessica D; Franz, Jason R

    2017-08-01

    Visual (i.e., optical flow) perturbations can be used to study balance control and balance deficits. However, it remains unclear whether walking balance control adapts to such perturbations over time. Our purpose was to investigate the propensity for visuomotor adaptation in walking balance control using prolonged exposure to optical flow perturbations. Ten subjects (age: 25.4±3.8years) walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched virtual hallway with and without continuous mediolateral optical flow perturbations of three different amplitudes. Each of three perturbation trials consisted of 8min of prolonged exposure followed by 1min of unperturbed walking. Using 3D motion capture, we analyzed changes in foot placement kinematics and mediolateral sacrum motion. At their onset, perturbations elicited wider and shorter steps, alluding to a more cautious, general anticipatory balance control strategy. As perturbations continued, foot placement tended toward values seen during unperturbed walking while step width variability and mediolateral sacrum motion concurrently increased. Our findings suggest that subjects progressively shifted from a general anticipatory balance control strategy to a reactive, task-specific strategy using step-to-step adjustments. Prolonged exposure to optical flow perturbations may have clinical utility to reinforce reactive, task-specific balance control through training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Retinal axial focusing and multi-layer imaging with a liquid crystal adaptive optics camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui-Xue; Zheng Xian-Liang; Li Da-Yu; Hu Li-Fa; Cao Zhao-Liang; Mu Quan-Quan; Xuan Li; Xia Ming-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the help of adaptive optics (AO) technology, cellular level imaging of living human retina can be achieved. Aiming to reduce distressing feelings and to avoid potential drug induced diseases, we attempted to image retina with dilated pupil and froze accommodation without drugs. An optimized liquid crystal adaptive optics camera was adopted for retinal imaging. A novel eye stared system was used for stimulating accommodation and fixating imaging area. Illumination sources and imaging camera kept linkage for focusing and imaging different layers. Four subjects with diverse degree of myopia were imaged. Based on the optical properties of the human eye, the eye stared system reduced the defocus to less than the typical ocular depth of focus. In this way, the illumination light can be projected on certain retina layer precisely. Since that the defocus had been compensated by the eye stared system, the adopted 512 × 512 liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) corrector provided the crucial spatial fidelity to fully compensate high-order aberrations. The Strehl ratio of a subject with −8 diopter myopia was improved to 0.78, which was nearly close to diffraction-limited imaging. By finely adjusting the axial displacement of illumination sources and imaging camera, cone photoreceptors, blood vessels and nerve fiber layer were clearly imaged successfully. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Ship detection for high resolution optical imagery with adaptive target filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hongbin

    2015-10-01

    Ship detection is important due to both its civil and military use. In this paper, we propose a novel ship detection method, Adaptive Target Filter (ATF), for high resolution optical imagery. The proposed framework can be grouped into two stages, where in the first stage, a test image is densely divided into different detection windows and each window is transformed to a feature vector in its feature space. The Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is accumulated as a basic feature descriptor. In the second stage, the proposed ATF highlights all the ship regions and suppresses the undesired backgrounds adaptively. Each detection window is assigned a score, which represents the degree of the window belonging to a certain ship category. The ATF can be adaptively obtained by the weighted Logistic Regression (WLR) according to the distribution of backgrounds and targets of the input image. The main innovation of our method is that we only need to collect positive training samples to build the filter, while the negative training samples are adaptively generated by the input image. This is different to other classification method such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression (LR), which need to collect both positive and negative training samples. The experimental result on 1-m high resolution optical images shows the proposed method achieves a desired ship detection performance with higher quality and robustness than other methods, e.g., SVM and LR.

  8. Frequency Adaptive Control Technique for Periodic Runout and Wobble Cancellation in Optical Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Pien Yang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodic disturbance occurs in various applications on the control of the rotational mechanical systems. For optical disk drives, the spirally shaped tracks are usually not perfectly circular and the assembly of the disk and spindle motor is unavoidably eccentric. The resulting periodic disturbance is, therefore, synchronous with the disk rotation, and becomes particularly noticeable for the track following and focusing servo system. This paper applies a novel adaptive controller, namely Frequency Adaptive Control Technique (FACT, for rejecting the periodic runout and wobble effects in the optical disk drive with dual actuators. The control objective is to attenuate adaptively the specific frequency contents of periodic disturbances without amplifying its rest harmonics. FACT is implemented in a plug-in manner and provides a suitable framework for periodic disturbance rejection in the cases where the fundamental frequencies of the disturbance are alterable. It is shown that the convergence property of parameters in the proposed adaptive algorithm is exponentially stable. It is applicable to both the spindle modes of constant linear velocity (CLV and constant angular velocity (CAV for various operation speeds. The experiments showed that the proposed FACT has successful improvement on the tracking and focusing performance of the CD-ROM, and is extended to various compact disk drives.

  9. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams and demonstration with Rb atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xueping; Jayich, Andrew; Campbell, Wesley

    2017-04-01

    Ultracold samples of molecules are desirable for a variety of applications, such as many-body physics, precision measurement and quantum information science. However, the pursuit of ultracold molecules has achieved limited success: spontaneous emission into many different dark states makes it hard to optically decelerate molecules to trappable speed. We propose to address this problem with a general optical deceleration technique that exploits a pump-dump pulse pair from a mode-locked laser. A molecular beam is first excited by a counter-propagating ``pump'' pulse. The molecular beam is then driven back to the initial ground state by a co-propagating ``dump'' pulse via stimulated emission. The delay between the pump and dump pulse is set to be shorter than the excited state lifetimes in order to limit decays to dark states. We report progress benchmarking this stimulated force by accelerating a cold sample of neutral Rb atoms.

  10. Experimental demonstration of optical transport, sorting and self-arrangement using a “tractor beam"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzobohatý, Oto; Karásek, Vítězslav; Šiler, Martin; Chvátal, Lukáš; Čižmár, T.; Zemánek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), s. 123-127 ISSN 1749-4885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0348; GA ČR GPP205/11/P294; GA MŠk LH12018; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : theoretical determination * radiation force * tweezers * binding Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 29.958, year: 2013

  11. Increasing the field of view of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Pircher, Michael

    2017-11-01

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) set-up with two deformable mirrors (DM) is presented. It allows high resolution imaging of the retina on a 4°×4° field of view (FoV), considering a 7 mm pupil diameter at the entrance of the eye. Imaging on such a FoV, which is larger compared to classical AO-SLO instruments, is allowed by the use of the two DMs. The first DM is located in a plane that is conjugated to the pupil of the eye and corrects for aberrations that are constant in the FoV. The second DM is conjugated to a plane that is located ∼0.7 mm anterior to the retina. This DM corrects for anisoplanatism effects within the FoV. The control of the DMs is performed by combining the classical AO technique, using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor, and sensorless AO, which uses a criterion characterizing the image quality. The retinas of four healthy volunteers were imaged in-vivo with the developed instrument. In order to assess the performance of the set-up and to demonstrate the benefits of the 2 DM configuration, the acquired images were compared with images taken in conventional conditions, on a smaller FoV and with only one DM. Moreover, an image of a larger patch of the retina was obtained by stitching of 9 images acquired with a 4°×4° FoV, resulting in a total FoV of 10°×10°. Finally, different retinal layers were imaged by shifting the focal plane.

  12. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali; Ltaief, Hatem; Gratadour, Damien; Keyes, David E.; Sevin, Arnaud; Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Gendron, Eric; Morel, Carine; Vidal, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used

  13. Demonstration of a Rocket-Borne Fiber-Optic Measurement System: The FOVS Experiment of REXUS 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, M. R.; Benes, N.; Grubler, T.; Plamauer, S.; Koch, A. W.

    2015-09-01

    As an in-flight experiment in the REXUS 15 programme, the “Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensing Experiment (FOVS)” aimed at the application of so-called fiber Bragg grating sensors. Fiber Bragg gratings are optical gratings inscribed into the core of an optical fiber. They allow for entirely optical measurements of temperatures, mechanical strain and of deduced quantities, such as vibration. Due to their properties - mechanical robustness, high dynamic range etc. - fiber Bragg gratings are particularly suited for withstanding the harsh environmental conditions in a rocket vehicle (very high and very low temperatures, intense vibrations, presence of flammable propellants, etc.). Measurement systems based on fiber Bragg gratings have the potential to contribute to emerging technologies in the commercial launcher segment. Particularly, large sets of measurement data can be acquired with minor mass contribution. This can be applied to techniques such as structural health monitoring, active vibration damping, and actuator monitoring, enabling lighter structures without compromising on reliability. The FOVS experiment demonstrated a fiber-optic vibration and temperature measurement system in an actual flight, and evaluated its benefits compared to conventional electrical sensing in the challenging launcher environment. As a side product, measurements regarding the environmental conditions on the REXUS platform have been acquired.

  14. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah; Ragheb, Amr; Fathallah, Habib; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  15. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-12-19

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  16. Demonstration of biased membrane static figure mapping by optical beam subpixel centroid shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Fabrizio, E-mail: fpinto@jazanu.edu.sa [Laboratory for Quantum Vacuum Applications, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, Gizan 45142 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-10

    The measurement of Casimir forces by means of condenser microphones has been shown to be quite promising since its early introduction almost half-a-century ago. However, unlike the remarkable progress achieved in characterizing the vibrating membrane in the dynamical case, the accurate determination of the membrane static figure under electrostatic bias remains a challenge. In this paper, we discuss our first data obtained by measuring the centroid shift of an optical beam with subpixel accuracy by charge coupled device (CCD) and by an extensive analysis of noise sources present in the experimental setup.

  17. Demonstration of glass-based photonic interposer for mid-board-optical engines and electrical-optical circuit board (EOCB) integration strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H.; Neitz, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.

    2018-02-01

    Due to its optical transparency and superior dielectric properties glass is regarded as a promising candidate for advanced applications as active photonic interposer for mid-board-optics and optical PCB waveguide integration. The concepts for multi-mode and single-mode photonic system integration are discussed and related demonstration project results will be presented. A hybrid integrated photonic glass body interposer with integrated optical lenses for multi-mode data communication wavelength of 850 nm have been realized. The paper summarizes process developments which allow cost efficient metallization of TGV. Electro-optical elements like photodiodes and VCSELs can be directly flip-chip mounted on the glass substrate according to the desired lens positions. Furthermore results for a silicon photonic based single-mode active interposer integration onto a single mode glass made EOCB will be compared in terms of packaging challenges. The board level integration strategy for both of these technological approaches and general next generation board level integration concepts for photonic interposer will be introductorily discussed.

  18. Flight demonstration of aircraft fuselage and bulkhead monitoring using optical fiber distributed sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Tamayama, Masato; Kasai, Tokio; Arizono, Hitoshi; Murayama, Hideaki; Shiotsubo, Katsuya

    2018-02-01

    We have developed an optical fiber distributed sensing system based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) that uses long-length fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). This technique obtains strain data not as a point data from an FBG but as a distributed profile within the FBG. This system can measure the strain distribution profile with an adjustable high spatial resolution of the mm or sub-mm order in real-time. In this study, we applied this OFDR-FBG technique to a flying test bed that is a mid-sized jet passenger aircraft. We conducted flight tests and monitored the structural responses of a fuselage stringer and the bulkhead of the flying test bed during flights. The strain distribution variations were successfully monitored for various events including taxiing, takeoff, landing and several other maneuvers. The monitoring was effective not only for measuring the strain amplitude applied to the individual structural parts but also for understanding the characteristics of the structural responses in accordance with the flight maneuvers. We studied the correlations between various maneuvers and strains to explore the relationship between the operation and condition of aircraft.

  19. Experimental demonstration of invisible electromagnetic impedance matching cylindrical transformation optics cloak shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingji; Wang, Changxian; Cheng, Xiaodong; Gong, Congcheng; Song, Weili; Yuan, Xujin; Fang, Daining

    2018-04-01

    The realization of an ideal invisible cloak implementing transformation optics is still missing. An impedance matching concept is implanted into transformation optics cloak to generate an impedance matching cloak (IMC) shell. In this work, it is proved that impedance matching structure reduces the cloaking structure’s disturbance to a propagating electromagnetic field and improves its invisibility measured by scattering field intensity. Such a cylindrical IMC shell is designed, fabricated with proposed rounded rectangular split-ring-resonators (RR-SRRs), and experimental measurements show the total scattering field of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) cylinder surrounded by an IMC shell is improved greatly compared to the PEC cylinder showing electromagnetic wave front ripple suppression and a considerable scattering shrinking effect. IMC shell backward scattering field is suppressed down to 7.29%, compared to the previous value of 86.7% due to its impedance matching character, and overall scattering field intensity shrinking is down to 19.3% compared to the previously realized value of 56.4%. Sideward scattering field recorded in the experiment also has a remarkable improvement compared to the PEC cylinder. The impedance matching concept might enlighten the realization of an ideal cloak and other novel electromagnetic cloaking and shielding structures.

  20. Demonstration of a mid-infrared NO molecular Faraday optical filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuijun; Feng, Yutao; Li, Juan; Yu, Guangbao; Liu, Linmei; Xiong, Yuanhui; Li, Faquan

    2017-12-11

    A molecular Faraday optical filter (MFOF) working in the mid-infrared region is realized for the first time. NO molecule was used as the working material of the MFOF for potential applications in atmospheric remote sensing and combustion diagnosis. We develop a complete theory to describe the performance of MFOF by taking both Zeeman absorption and Faraday rotation into account. We also record the Faraday rotation transmission (FRT) signal using a quantum cascade laser over the range of 1,820 cm -1 to 1,922 cm -1 and calibrate it by using a 101.6 mm long solid germanium etalon with a free spectral range of 0.012 cm -1 . Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data is achieved. The NO-MFOF's transmission characteristics as a function of magnetic field and pressure are studied in detail. Both Comb-like FRT spectrum and single branch transmission spectrum are obtained by changing the magnetic field. The diversity of FRT spectrum expands the range of potential applications in infrared optical remote sensing. This filtering method can also be extended to the lines of other paramagnetic molecules.

  1. Improved fixation quality provided by a Bessel beacon in an adaptive optics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Andrew J; Daly, Elizabeth M; Dainty, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    We investigate whether a structured probe beam that creates the beacon for use in a retinal imaging adaptive optics system can provide useful side effects. In particular we investigate whether a Bessel beam that is seen by the subject as a set of concentric rings has a dampening effect on fixation variations of the subject under observation. This calming effect would allow longer periods of observation, particularly for patients with abnormal fixation. An experimental adaptive optics system developed for retinal imaging is used to monitor the fluctuations in aberrations for artificial and human subjects. The probe beam is alternated between a traditional beacon and one provided by a Bessel beam created by SLM. Time-frequency analysis is used to indicate the differences in power and time variation during fixation depending on whether the Bessel beam or the traditional beacon is employed. Comparison is made with the response for an artificial eye to discount systemic variations. Significant evidence is accrued to indicate the reduced fluctuations in fixation when the Bessel beam is employed to create the beacon. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Modulation transfer function estimation of optical lens system by adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to estimate MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  3. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  4. Performance demonstration of a single-frequency optically-pumped cesium beam frequency standard for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, S.; Haldimann, M.; Ruffieux, R.; Thomann, P.; Berthoud, P.

    2017-11-01

    Observatoire de Neuchâtel (ON) is developing a compact optically-pumped cesium beam frequency standard in the frame of an ESA-ARTES 5 project. The simplest optical scheme, which is based on a single optical frequency for both preparation and detection processes of atoms, has been chosen to fulfill reliability constraints of space applications. With our laboratory demonstrator operated at 852 nm (D2 line), we have measured a frequency stability of σy=2.74x10-12 τ -1/2, which is compliant with the Galileo requirement. The atomic resonator is fully compliant to be operated with a single diode laser at 894 nm (D1 line). Sensitivity measurements of the clock signal to the microwave power and to the optical pumping power are also presented. Present performance limitations are discussed and further improvements are proposed in order to reach our ultimate frequency stability goal of σy=1x10-12 τ -1/2. The clock driving software is also briefly described.

  5. Adaptive Sensor Optimization and Cognitive Image Processing Using Autonomous Optical Neuroprocessors; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMERON, STEWART M.

    2001-01-01

    Measurement and signal intelligence demands has created new requirements for information management and interoperability as they affect surveillance and situational awareness. Integration of on-board autonomous learning and adaptive control structures within a remote sensing platform architecture would substantially improve the utility of intelligence collection by facilitating real-time optimization of measurement parameters for variable field conditions. A problem faced by conventional digital implementations of intelligent systems is the conflict between a distributed parallel structure on a sequential serial interface functionally degrading bandwidth and response time. In contrast, optically designed networks exhibit the massive parallelism and interconnect density needed to perform complex cognitive functions within a dynamic asynchronous environment. Recently, all-optical self-organizing neural networks exhibiting emergent collective behavior which mimic perception, recognition, association, and contemplative learning have been realized using photorefractive holography in combination with sensory systems for feature maps, threshold decomposition, image enhancement, and nonlinear matched filters. Such hybrid information processors depart from the classical computational paradigm based on analytic rules-based algorithms and instead utilize unsupervised generalization and perceptron-like exploratory or improvisational behaviors to evolve toward optimized solutions. These systems are robust to instrumental systematics or corrupting noise and can enrich knowledge structures by allowing competition between multiple hypotheses. This property enables them to rapidly adapt or self-compensate for dynamic or imprecise conditions which would be unstable using conventional linear control models. By incorporating an intelligent optical neuroprocessor in the back plane of an imaging sensor, a broad class of high-level cognitive image analysis problems including geometric

  6. Optical imaging of metabolic adaptability in metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Lisa; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2018-02-01

    Accurate methods for determining metastatic risk from the primary tumor are crucial for patient survival. Cell metabolism could potentially be used as a marker of metastatic risk. Optical imaging of the endogenous fluorescent molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) provides a non-destructive and label-free method for determining cell metabolism. The optical redox ratio (FAD/FAD+NADH) is sensitive to the balance between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We have previously established that hypoxia-reoxygenation stress leads to metastatic potential-dependent changes in optical redox ratio. The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in optical redox ratio in breast cancer cells in response to different periods of hypoxic stress as well various levels of hypoxia to establish an optimal protocol. We measured the optical redox ratio of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells under normoxic conditions and after exposure to 30, 60, and 120 minutes of 0.5% O2. This was followed by an hour of reoxygenation. We found an increase in the optical redox ratio following reoxygenation from hypoxia for all durations. Statistically significant differences were observed at 60 and 120 minutes (p˂0.01) compared with normoxia, implying an ability to adapt to OXPHOS after reoxygenation. The switch to OXPHOS has been shown to be a key promoter of cell invasion. We will present our results from these investigations in human breast cancer cells as well as non-metastatic breast cancer cells exposed to various levels of hypoxia.

  7. Super-resolution pupil filtering for visual performance enhancement using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Dai, Yun; Zhao, Junlei; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2018-05-01

    Ocular aberration correction can significantly improve visual function of the human eye. However, even under ideal aberration correction conditions, pupil diffraction restricts the resolution of retinal images. Pupil filtering is a simple super-resolution (SR) method that can overcome this diffraction barrier. In this study, a 145-element piezoelectric deformable mirror was used as a pupil phase filter because of its programmability and high fitting accuracy. Continuous phase-only filters were designed based on Zernike polynomial series and fitted through closed-loop adaptive optics. SR results were validated using double-pass point spread function images. Contrast sensitivity was further assessed to verify the SR effect on visual function. An F-test was conducted for nested models to statistically compare different CSFs. These results indicated CSFs for the proposed SR filter were significantly higher than the diffraction correction (p vision optical correction of the human eye.

  8. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer J.; Masella, Benjamin; Dubra, Alfredo; Sharma, Robin; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect optics of the eye, high required light levels, and eye motion. Although the specific fluorophores are as yet unknown, strong in vivo intrinsic fluorescence allowed images of the cone mosaic. Imaging intact ex vivo retina revealed that the strongest two-photon excited fluorescence signal comes from the cone inner segments. The fluorescence response increased following light stimulation, which could provide a functional measure of the effects of light on photoreceptors. PMID:21326644

  9. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  10. Adaptive Optics System with Deformable Composite Mirror and High Speed, Ultra-Compact Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Knowles, G. J.; Shea, B. G.

    2006-06-01

    We report development of a novel adaptive optics system for optical astronomy. Key components are very thin Deformable Mirrors (DM) made of fiber reinforced polymer resins, subminiature PMN-PT actuators, and low power, high bandwidth electronics drive system with compact packaging and minimal wiring. By using specific formulations of fibers, resins, and laminate construction, we are able to fabricate mirror face sheets that are thin (2 KHz. By utilizing QorTek’s proprietary synthetic impendence power supply technology, all the power, control, and signal extraction for many hundreds to 1000s of actuators and sensors can be implemented on a single matrix controller printed circuit board co-mounted with the DM. The matrix controller, in turn requires only a single serial bus interface, thereby obviating the need for massive wiring harnesses. The technology can be scaled up to multi-meter aperture DMs with >100K actuators.

  11. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  12. Delay-aware adaptive sleep mechanism for green wireless-optical broadband access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruyan; Liang, Alei; Wu, Dapeng; Wu, Dalei

    2017-07-01

    Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Network (WOBAN) is capacity-high, reliable, flexible, and ubiquitous, as it takes full advantage of the merits from both optical communication and wireless communication technologies. Similar to other access networks, the high energy consumption poses a great challenge for building up WOBANs. To shot this problem, we can make some load-light Optical Network Units (ONUs) sleep to reduce the energy consumption. Such operation, however, causes the increased packet delay. Jointly considering the energy consumption and transmission delay, we propose a delay-aware adaptive sleep mechanism. Specifically, we develop a new analytical method to evaluate the transmission delay and queuing delay over the optical part, instead of adopting M/M/1 queuing model. Meanwhile, we also analyze the access delay and queuing delay of the wireless part. Based on such developed delay models, we mathematically derive ONU's optimal sleep time. In addition, we provide numerous simulation results to show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.

  13. Inexpensive demonstration set for teaching geometrical optics made by 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlíček, Karel; Ryston, Matěj

    2018-03-01

    Good sets for teaching geometric optics are relatively expensive to buy and difficult to make on your own, which often forces teachers to use less than ideal instruments and methods. This is a great shame, since this is a visually appealing topic that can motivate students. For this reason, we have designed a set that is relatively cheap, easy to use and can therefore (in some cases) remedy this situation. Our set is manufactured using 3D printing technology, which limits its users to those that have access to it; however, 3D printing technology is becoming more and more accessible every day (even in schools). On the other hand, 3D printing allows us to let the machines do the majority of the manufacturing work, making the process of building the set almost as simple as ‘download and press print’. This article presents this set, what it consists of, how it is done and where can you find all the necessary files and instructions.

  14. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  15. AMA- and RWE- Based Adaptive Kalman Filter for Denoising Fiber Optic Gyroscope Drift Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongliu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ming; Song, Shunguang

    2015-10-23

    An improved double-factor adaptive Kalman filter called AMA-RWE-DFAKF is proposed to denoise fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) drift signal in both static and dynamic conditions. The first factor is Kalman gain updated by random weighting estimation (RWE) of the covariance matrix of innovation sequence at any time to ensure the lowest noise level of output, but the inertia of KF response increases in dynamic condition. To decrease the inertia, the second factor is the covariance matrix of predicted state vector adjusted by RWE only when discontinuities are detected by adaptive moving average (AMA).The AMA-RWE-DFAKF is applied for denoising FOG static and dynamic signals, its performance is compared with conventional KF (CKF), RWE-based adaptive KF with gain correction (RWE-AKFG), AMA- and RWE- based dual mode adaptive KF (AMA-RWE-DMAKF). Results of Allan variance on static signal and root mean square error (RMSE) on dynamic signal show that this proposed algorithm outperforms all the considered methods in denoising FOG signal.

  16. Experimental demonstration of 30 Gb/s direct-detection optical OFDM transmission with blind symbol synchronisation using virtual subcarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouziane, R; Milder, P A; Erkılınç, S; Galdino, L; Kilmurray, S; Thomsen, B C; Bayvel, P; Killey, R I

    2014-02-24

    The paper investigates the performance of a blind symbol synchronisation technique for optical OFDM systems based on virtual subcarriers. The test-bed includes a real-time 16-QAM OFDM transmitter operating at a net data rate of 30.65 Gb/s using a single OFDM band with a single FPGA-DAC subsystem and demonstrates transmission over 23.3 km SSMF with direct detection at a BER of 10(-3). By comparing the performance of the proposed synchronisation scheme with that of the Schmidl and Cox algorithm, it was found that the two approaches achieve similar performance for large numbers of averaging symbols, but the performance of the proposed scheme degrades as the number of averaging symbols is reduced. The proposed technique has lower complexity and bandwidth overhead as it does not rely on training sequences. Consequently, it is suitable for implementation in high speed optical OFDM transceivers.

  17. Optical interconnects for in-plane high-speed signal distribution at 10 Gb/s: Analysis and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    With decreasing transistor size, increasing chip speed, and larger numbers of processors in a system, the performance of a module/system is being limited by the off-chip and off-module bandwidth-distance products. Optical links have moved from fiber-based long distance communications to the cabinet level of 1m--100m, and recently to the backplane-level (10cm--1m). Board-level inter-chip parallel optical interconnects have been demonstrated recently by researchers from Intel, IBM, Fujitsu, NTT and a few research groups in universities. However, the board-level signal/clock distribution function using optical interconnects, the lightwave circuits, the system design, a practically convenient integration scheme committed to the implementation of a system prototype have not been explored or carefully investigated. In this dissertation, the development of a board-level 1 x 4 optical-to-electrical signal distribution at 10Gb/s is presented. In contrast to other prototypes demonstrating board-level parallel optical interconnects that have been drawing much attention for the past decade, the optical link design for the high-speed signal broadcasting is even more complicated and the pitch between receivers could be varying as opposed to fixed-pitch design that has been widely-used in the parallel optical interconnects. New challenges for the board-level high-speed signal broadcasting include, but are not limited to, a new optical link design, a lightwave circuit as a distribution network, and a novel integration scheme that can be a complete radical departure from the traditional assembly method. One of the key building blocks in the lightwave circuit is the distribution network in which a 1 x 4 multimode interference (MMI) splitter is employed. MMI devices operating at high data rates are important in board-level optical interconnects and need to be characterized in the application of board-level signal broadcasting. To determine the speed limitations of MMI devices, the

  18. First-time demonstration of measuring concrete prestress levels with metal packaged fibre optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeeman, I.; Fusiek, G.; Perry, M.; Johnston, M.; Saafi, M.; Niewczas, P.; Walsh, M.; Khan, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the first large-scale demonstration of metal packaged fibre Bragg grating sensors developed to monitor prestress levels in prestressed concrete. To validate the technology, strain and temperature sensors were mounted on steel prestressing strands in concrete beams and stressed up to 60% of the ultimate tensile strength of the strand. We discuss the methods and calibration procedures used to fabricate and attach the temperature and strain sensors. The use of induction brazing for packaging the fibre Bragg gratings and welding the sensors to prestressing strands eliminates the use of epoxy, making the technique suitable for high-stress monitoring in an irradiated, harsh industrial environment. Initial results based on the first week of data after stressing the beams show the strain sensors are able to monitor prestress levels in ambient conditions.

  19. Demonstration of holographic smart card system using the optical memory technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JungHoi; Choi, JaeKwang; An, JunWon; Kim, Nam; Lee, KwonYeon; Jeon, SeckHee

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the holographic smart card system using digital holographic memory technique that uses reference beam encrypted by the random phase mask to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the stored digital page. The input data that include document data, a picture of face, and a fingerprint for identification is encoded digitally and then coupled with the reference beam modulated by a random phase mask. Therefore, this proposed system can execute recording in the order of MB~GB and readout all personal information from just one card without any additional database system. Also, recorded digital holograms can't be reconstructed without a phase key and can't be copied by using computers, scanners, or photography.

  20. Robust Multi-Frame Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Poisson Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive optics (AO system provides real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. However, an AO image is usually of poor contrast because of the nature of the imaging process, meaning that the image contains information coming from both out-of-focus and in-focus planes of the object, which also brings about a loss in quality. In this paper, we present a robust multi-frame adaptive optics image restoration algorithm via maximum likelihood estimation. Our proposed algorithm uses a maximum likelihood method with image regularization as the basic principle, and constructs the joint log likelihood function for multi-frame AO images based on a Poisson distribution model. To begin with, a frame selection method based on image variance is applied to the observed multi-frame AO images to select images with better quality to improve the convergence of a blind deconvolution algorithm. Then, by combining the imaging conditions and the AO system properties, a point spread function estimation model is built. Finally, we develop our iterative solutions for AO image restoration addressing the joint deconvolution issue. We conduct a number of experiments to evaluate the performances of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm produces accurate AO image restoration results and outperforms the current state-of-the-art blind deconvolution methods.

  1. Ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic performance under closed-loop predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Jared R.; Guyon, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the exoplanet Proxima b highlights the potential for the coming generation of giant segmented mirror telescopes (GSMTs) to characterize terrestrial-potentially habitable-planets orbiting nearby stars with direct imaging. This will require continued development and implementation of optimized adaptive optics systems feeding coronagraphs on the GSMTs. Such development should proceed with an understanding of the fundamental limits imposed by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we seek to address this question with a semianalytic framework for calculating the postcoronagraph contrast in a closed-loop adaptive optics system. We do this starting with the temporal power spectra of the Fourier basis calculated assuming frozen flow turbulence, and then apply closed-loop transfer functions. We include the benefits of a simple predictive controller, which we show could provide over a factor of 1400 gain in raw point spread function contrast at 1 λ/D on bright stars, and more than a factor of 30 gain on an I=7.5 mag star such as Proxima. More sophisticated predictive control can be expected to improve this even further. Assuming a photon-noise limited observing technique such as high-dispersion coronagraphy, these gains in raw contrast will decrease integration times by the same large factors. Predictive control of atmospheric turbulence should therefore be seen as one of the key technologies that will enable ground-based telescopes to characterize terrestrial planets.

  2. Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu; Norris, Jennifer L.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Williams, David R.; Carroll, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The rod photoreceptors are implicated in a number of devastating retinal diseases. However, routine imaging of these cells has remained elusive, even with the advent of adaptive optics imaging. Here, we present the first in vivo images of the contiguous rod photoreceptor mosaic in nine healthy human subjects. The images were collected with three different confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopes at two different institutions, using 680 and 775 nm superluminescent diodes for illumination. Estimates of photoreceptor density and rod:cone ratios in the 5°–15° retinal eccentricity range are consistent with histological findings, confirming our ability to resolve the rod mosaic by averaging multiple registered images, without the need for additional image processing. In one subject, we were able to identify the emergence of the first rods at approximately 190 μm from the foveal center, in agreement with previous histological studies. The rod and cone photoreceptor mosaics appear in focus at different retinal depths, with the rod mosaic best focus (i.e., brightest and sharpest) being at least 10 μm shallower than the cones at retinal eccentricities larger than 8°. This study represents an important step in bringing high-resolution imaging to bear on the study of rod disorders. PMID:21750765

  3. Robustness study of the pseudo open-loop controller for multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatrou, Piotr; Gilles, Luc

    2005-02-20

    Robustness of the recently proposed "pseudo open-loop control" algorithm against various system errors has been investigated for the representative example of the Gemini-South 8-m telescope multiconjugate adaptive-optics system. The existing model to represent the adaptive-optics system with pseudo open-loop control has been modified to account for misalignments, noise and calibration errors in deformable mirrors, and wave-front sensors. Comparison with the conventional least-squares control model has been done. We show with the aid of both transfer-function pole-placement analysis and Monte Carlo simulations that POLC remains remarkably stable and robust against very large levels of system errors and outperforms in this respect least-squares control. Approximate stability margins as well as performance metrics such as Strehl ratios and rms wave-front residuals averaged over a 1-arc min field of view have been computed for different types and levels of system errors to quantify the expected performance degradation.

  4. Multi-GPU Development of a Neural Networks Based Reconstructor for Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González-Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrations introduced by the atmospheric turbulence in large telescopes are compensated using adaptive optics systems, where the use of deformable mirrors and multiple sensors relies on complex control systems. Recently, the development of larger scales of telescopes as the E-ELT or TMT has created a computational challenge due to the increasing complexity of the new adaptive optics systems. The Complex Atmospheric Reconstructor based on Machine Learning (CARMEN is an algorithm based on artificial neural networks, designed to compensate the atmospheric turbulence. During recent years, the use of GPUs has been proved to be a great solution to speed up the learning process of neural networks, and different frameworks have been created to ease their development. The implementation of CARMEN in different Multi-GPU frameworks is presented in this paper, along with its development in a language originally developed for GPU, like CUDA. This implementation offers the best response for all the presented cases, although its advantage of using more than one GPU occurs only in large networks.

  5. Rate adaptive multilevel coded modulation with high coding gain in intensity modulation direct detection optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yongjun; Rao, Lan; Ullah, Rahat; Zhao, Feng; Li, Deng'ao

    2018-02-01

    A rate-adaptive multilevel coded modulation (RA-MLC) scheme based on fixed code length and a corresponding decoding scheme is proposed. RA-MLC scheme combines the multilevel coded and modulation technology with the binary linear block code at the transmitter. Bits division, coding, optional interleaving, and modulation are carried out by the preset rule, then transmitted through standard single mode fiber span equal to 100 km. The receiver improves the accuracy of decoding by means of soft information passing through different layers, which enhances the performance. Simulations are carried out in an intensity modulation-direct detection optical communication system using MATLAB®. Results show that the RA-MLC scheme can achieve bit error rate of 1E-5 when optical signal-to-noise ratio is 20.7 dB. It also reduced the number of decoders by 72% and realized 22 rate adaptation without significantly increasing the computing time. The coding gain is increased by 7.3 dB at BER=1E-3.

  6. Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the modeling effort undertaken to derive the wavefront error (WFE) budget for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility, laser guide star (LGS), dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The budget describes the expected performance of NFIRAOS at zenith, and has been decomposed into (i) first-order turbulence compensation terms (120 nm on-axis), (ii) opto-mechanical implementation errors (84 nm), (iii) AO component errors and higher-order effects (74 nm) and (iv) tip/tilt (TT) wavefront errors at 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole (61 nm) with natural guide star (NGS) tip/tilt/focus/astigmatism (TTFA) sensing in J band. A contingency of about 66 nm now exists to meet the observatory requirement document (ORD) total on-axis wavefront error of 187 nm, mainly on account of reduced TT errors due to updated windshake modeling and a low read-noise NGS wavefront sensor (WFS) detector. A detailed breakdown of each of these top-level terms is presented, together with a discussion on its evaluation using a mix of high-order zonal and low-order modal Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Tree-based solvers for adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH - I: gravity and optical depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, R.; Walch, S.; Dinnbier, F.; Whitworth, A.

    2018-04-01

    We describe an OctTree algorithm for the MPI parallel, adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH, which can be used to calculate the gas self-gravity, and also the angle-averaged local optical depth, for treating ambient diffuse radiation. The algorithm communicates to the different processors only those parts of the tree that are needed to perform the tree-walk locally. The advantage of this approach is a relatively low memory requirement, important in particular for the optical depth calculation, which needs to process information from many different directions. This feature also enables a general tree-based radiation transport algorithm that will be described in a subsequent paper, and delivers excellent scaling up to at least 1500 cores. Boundary conditions for gravity can be either isolated or periodic, and they can be specified in each direction independently, using a newly developed generalization of the Ewald method. The gravity calculation can be accelerated with the adaptive block update technique by partially re-using the solution from the previous time-step. Comparison with the FLASH internal multigrid gravity solver shows that tree-based methods provide a competitive alternative, particularly for problems with isolated or mixed boundary conditions. We evaluate several multipole acceptance criteria (MACs) and identify a relatively simple approximate partial error MAC which provides high accuracy at low computational cost. The optical depth estimates are found to agree very well with those of the RADMC-3D radiation transport code, with the tree-solver being much faster. Our algorithm is available in the standard release of the FLASH code in version 4.0 and later.

  8. Multimodal adaptive optics for depth-enhanced high-resolution ophthalmic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Mujat, Mircea; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Lue, Niyom; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The development represents the first ever high performance AO system constructed that combines AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 μm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. The system is designed to operate on a broad clinical population with a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration that allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction. The system also includes a wide field line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation; an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of rotational eye motion; and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation to the subject of stimuli and other visual cues. The system was tested in a limited number of human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. The system was able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 μm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve targets deep into the choroid. In addition to instrument hardware development, analysis algorithms were developed for efficient information extraction from clinical imaging sessions, with functionality including automated image registration, photoreceptor counting, strip and montage stitching, and segmentation. The system provides clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help

  9. Computational hydrodynamics and optical performance of inductively-coupled plasma adaptive lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, M.; Urzay, J., E-mail: jurzay@stanford.edu; Mani, A. [Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3024 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This study addresses the optical performance of a plasma adaptive lens for aero-optical applications by using both axisymmetric and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Plasma adaptive lenses are based on the effects of free electrons on the phase velocity of incident light, which, in theory, can be used as a phase-conjugation mechanism. A closed cylindrical chamber filled with Argon plasma is used as a model lens into which a beam of light is launched. The plasma is sustained by applying a radio-frequency electric current through a coil that envelops the chamber. Four different operating conditions, ranging from low to high powers and induction frequencies, are employed in the simulations. The numerical simulations reveal complex hydrodynamic phenomena related to buoyant and electromagnetic laminar transport, which generate, respectively, large recirculating cells and wall-normal compression stresses in the form of local stagnation-point flows. In the axisymmetric simulations, the plasma motion is coupled with near-wall axial striations in the electron-density field, some of which propagate in the form of low-frequency traveling disturbances adjacent to vortical quadrupoles that are reminiscent of Taylor-Görtler flow structures in centrifugally unstable flows. Although the refractive-index fields obtained from axisymmetric simulations lead to smooth beam wavefronts, they are found to be unstable to azimuthal disturbances in three of the four three-dimensional cases considered. The azimuthal striations are optically detrimental, since they produce high-order angular aberrations that account for most of the beam wavefront error. A fourth case is computed at high input power and high induction frequency, which displays the best optical properties among all the three-dimensional simulations considered. In particular, the increase in induction frequency prevents local thermalization and leads to an axisymmetric distribution of electrons even after introduction of

  10. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN MACULAR EDEMA AND CIRCULATORY STATUS IN EYES WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION: An Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yuto; Muraoka, Yuki; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Murakami, Tomoaki; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Arichika, Shigeta; Takahashi, Ayako; Miwa, Yuko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2017-10-01

    To investigate associations between parafoveal microcirculatory status and foveal pathomorphology in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Ten consecutive patients (10 eyes) with acute retinal vein occlusion were enrolled, 9 eyes of which received intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections. Foveal morphologic changes were examined via optical coherence tomography (OCT), and parafoveal circulatory status was assessed via adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). The mean parafoveal aggregated erythrocyte velocity (AEV) measured by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion was 0.99 ± 0.43 mm/second at baseline, which was significantly lower than that of age-matched healthy subjects (1.41 ± 0.28 mm/second, P = 0.042). The longitudinal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy examinations of each patient showed that parafoveal AEV was strongly inversely correlated with optical coherence tomography-measured central foveal thickness (CFT) over the entire observation period. Using parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness measurements obtained at the first and second examinations, we investigated associations between differences in parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness, which were significantly and highly correlated (r = -0.84, P = 0.002). Using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion macular edema, we could quantitatively evaluate the parafoveal AEV. A reduction or an increase in parafoveal AEV may be a clinical marker for the resolution or development/progression of macular edema respectively.

  11. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  12. Implantable collamer lens and femtosecond laser for myopia: comparison using an adaptive optics visual simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Pérez-Vives

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare optical and visual quality of implantable collamer lens (ICL implantation and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (F-LASIK for myopia. Methods: The CRX1 adaptive optics visual simulator (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France was used to simulate the wavefront aberration pattern after the two surgical procedures for -3-diopter (D and -6-D myopia. Visual acuity at different contrasts and contrast sensitivities at 10, 20, and 25 cycles/degree (cpd were measured for 3-mm and 5-mm pupils. The modulation transfer function (MTF and point spread function (PSF were calculated for 5-mm pupils. Results: F-LASIK MTF was worse than ICL MTF, which was close to diffraction-limited MTF. ICL cases showed less spread out of PSF than F-LASIK cases. ICL cases showed better visual acuity values than F-LASIK cases for all pupils, contrasts, and myopic treatments (p0.05. For -6-D myopia, however, statistically significant differences in contrast sensitivities were found for both pupils for all evaluated spatial frequencies (p<0.05. Contrast sensitivities were better after ICL implantation than after F-LASIK. Conclusions: ICL implantation and F-LASIK provide good optical and visual quality, although the former provides better outcomes of MTF, PSF, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity, especially for cases with large refractive errors and pupil sizes. These outcomes are related to the F-LASIK producing larger high-order aberrations.

  13. Results of a Long-Term Demonstration of an Optical Multi-Gas Monitor on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Previously at SAMAP we reported on the development of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based instruments for measuring small gas molecules in real time. TDLS technology has matured rapidly over the last 5 years as a result of advances in low power diode lasers as well as better detection schemes. In collaboration with two small businesses Vista Photonics, Inc. and Nanoracks LLC, NASA developed a 4 gas TDLS based monitor for an experimental demonstration of the technology on the International Space Station (ISS). Vista invented and constructed the core TDLS sensor. Nanoracks designed and built the enclosure, and certified the integrated monitor as a payload. The device, which measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor, is called the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM). MGM measures the 4 gases every few seconds and records a 30 second moving average of the concentrations. The relatively small unit draws only 2.5W. MGM was calibrated at NASA-Johnson Space Center in July 2013 and launched to ISS on a Soyuz vehicle in November 2013. Installation and activation of MGM occurred in February 2014, and the unit has been operating nearly continuously ever since in the Japanese Experiment Module. Data is downlinked from ISS about once per week. Oxygen and carbon dioxide data is compared with that from the central Major Constituents Analyzer. Water vapor data is compared with dew point measurements made by sensors in the Columbus module. The ammonia channel was tested by the crew using a commercial ammonia inhalant. MGM is remarkably stable to date. Results of 18 months of operation are presented and future applications including combustion product monitoring are discussed.

  14. Multisensory and Modality-Specific Influences on Adaptation to Optical Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calzolari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs, as related to the sensory modality of the target. Visual, auditory, and multisensory – audio-visual – targets in the adaptation phase were used, while participants wore prisms displacing the visual field rightward by 10°. Proprioceptive, visual, visual-proprioceptive, auditory-proprioceptive straight-ahead shifts were measured. Pointing to auditory and to audio-visual targets in the adaptation phase produces proprioceptive, visual-proprioceptive, and auditory-proprioceptive AEs, as the typical visual targets did. This finding reveals that cross-modal plasticity effects involve both the auditory and the visual modality, and their interactions (Experiment 1. Even a shortened PA phase, requiring only 24 pointings to visual and audio-visual targets (Experiment 2, is sufficient to bring about AEs, as compared to the standard 92-pointings procedure. Finally, pointings to auditory targets cause AEs, although PA with a reduced number of pointings (24 to auditory targets brings about smaller AEs, as compared to the 92-pointings procedure (Experiment 3. Together, results from the three experiments extend to the auditory modality the sensorimotor plasticity underlying the typical AEs produced by PA to visual targets. Importantly, PA to auditory targets appears characterized by less accurate pointings and error correction, suggesting that the auditory component of the PA process may be less central to the building up of the AEs, than the sensorimotor pointing activity per se. These

  15. An Adaptive Damping Network Designed for Strapdown Fiber Optic Gyrocompass System for Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strapdown fiber optic gyrocompass (strapdown FOGC system for ships primarily works on external horizontal damping and undamping statuses. When there are large sea condition changes, the system will switch frequently between the external horizontal damping status and the undamping status. This means that the system is always in an adjustment status and influences the dynamic accuracy of the system. Aiming at the limitations of the conventional damping method, a new design idea is proposed, where the adaptive control method is used to design the horizontal damping network of the strapdown FOGC system. According to the size of acceleration, the parameters of the damping network are changed to make the system error caused by the ship’s maneuvering to a minimum. Furthermore, the jump in damping coefficient was transformed into gradual change to make a smooth system status switch. The adaptive damping network was applied for strapdown FOGC under the static and dynamic condition, and its performance was compared with the conventional damping, and undamping means. Experimental results showed that the adaptive damping network was effective in improving the dynamic performance of the strapdown FOGC.

  16. Robo-AO KP: A new era in robotic adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Duev, Dmitry; Ziegler, Carl; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.; Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Tanner, Angelle M.; Zhang, Celia; Ray, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Robo-AO is the first and only fully automated adaptive optics laser guide star AO instrument. It was developed as an instrument for 1-3m robotic telescopes, in order to take advantage of their availability to pursue large survey programs and target of opportunity observations that aren't possible with other AO systems. Robo-AO is currently the most efficient AO system in existence, and it can achieve an observation rate of 20+ science targets per hour. In more than three years of operations at Palomar Observatory, it has been quite successful, producing technology that is being adapted by other AO systems and robotic telescope projects, as well as several high impact scientific publications. Now, Robo-AO has been selected to take over operation of the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope. This will give Robo-AO KP the opportunity to pursue multiple science programs consisting of several thousand targets each during the three years it will be on the telescope. One-sixth of the observing time will be allocated to the US community through the NOAO TAC process. This presentation will discuss the process adapting Robo-AO to the KPNO 2.1m telescope, the plans for integration and initial operations, and the science operations and programs to be pursued.

  17. Higher performance and lower cost optical DPSK receiver

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To demonstrate (benchtop experiment) a DPSK receiver with a free-space interferometer, showing that fiber-optic coupling, associated adaptive optics, and optical...

  18. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Ayşe Gözde; Sabuncu, Metin; Ünal, Sena; Önal, Banu; Ulusoy, Mübin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany) after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs), allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply), and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (pmarginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442) and after (p=0.00001466) cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively). The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after cementation.

  19. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Pluto-Charon and the Discovery of a Moon aroun d the Asteroid 45 Eugenia: The Potential of Adaptive Optics in Planetary Astrono my

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, L. M.; Merline, W. J.; Tholen, D.; Owen, T.; Roddier, F.; Dumas, C.

    1999-12-01

    We outline two separate projects which highlight the power of adaptive optics (AO) to aid planetary research. The first project utilized AO to resolve the Pluto-Charon system by producing 0.15" FWHM images. We used the University of Hawaii AO system (Roddier et al. PASP 103, 131,1991) at CFHT to obtain deep (20 min) narrow band images in/out the molecular bands of water and methane ices. Our images confirm that the variation of Pluto's albedo is mainly governed by the presence of methane ice over its surface, resulting in a lower albedo at 2.26 um than at 2.02 um. Our observations confirm also that Charon is mostly covered with water-ice (Buie et al. NATURE 329, 522,1987). See Tholen et al. (ICARUS submitted) for more details on these AO results. In another application of AO, we discovered a moon around asteroid 45 Eugenia by use of the PUEO AO facility at CFHT (Rigaut et al. PASP 110, 152, 1998). With PUEO we preformed a search for asteroidal satellites among two dozen asteroids, achieving moderate Strehl ratios (35%) and FWHM of about 0.12" at H band. During this survey, we detected a faint close companion to 45 Eugenia. The satellite was 6.14 magnitudes (at 1.65 um) fainter and located at most 0.75" from Eugenia. Without the ability of AO (to sharpen the contrast and increase the resolution to 0.1"), the detection of this companion would have been impossible with ground based-telescopes. The companion was found to be in a 1200 km circular orbit with a period of 4.7 days. A more detailed discussion of this new satellite is given by Merline et al. in this volume. Adaptive optics is entering a powerful new age as all the major ground based large telescopes are developing facility AO systems. Planetary astronomy is particularly well posed to take advantage of the diffraction-limited, near-IR images (0.050" FWHM) that will become commonplace at all 8 m facilities in the near future (It is already occurring on the KECK and GEMINI-North telescopes). In particular, we

  20. Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joseph; Neitz, Maureen; Hofer, Heidi; Neitz, Jay; Williams, David R

    2004-06-01

    There is enormous variation in the X-linked L/M (long/middle wavelength sensitive) gene array underlying "normal" color vision in humans. This variability has been shown to underlie individual variation in color matching behavior. Recently, red-green color blindness has also been shown to be associated with distinctly different genotypes. This has opened the possibility that there may be important phenotypic differences within classically defined groups of color blind individuals. Here, adaptive optics retinal imaging has revealed a mechanism for producing dichromatic color vision in which the expression of a mutant cone photopigment gene leads to the loss of the entire corresponding class of cone photoreceptor cells. Previously, the theory that common forms of inherited color blindness could be caused by the loss of photoreceptor cells had been discounted. We confirm that remarkably, this loss of one-third of the cones does not impair any aspect of vision other than color.

  1. Layer-oriented multigrid wavefront reconstruction algorithms for multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Vogel, Curtis R.

    2003-02-01

    Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems with 104-105 degrees of freedom have been proposed for future giant telescopes. Using standard matrix methods to compute, optimize, and implement wavefront control algorithms for these systems is impractical, since the number of calculations required to compute and apply the reconstruction matrix scales respectively with the cube and the square of the number of AO degrees of freedom. In this paper, we develop an iterative sparse matrix implementation of minimum variance wavefront reconstruction for telescope diameters up to 32m with more than 104 actuators. The basic approach is the preconditioned conjugate gradient method, using a multigrid preconditioner incorporating a layer-oriented (block) symmetric Gauss-Seidel iterative smoothing operator. We present open-loop numerical simulation results to illustrate algorithm convergence.

  2. Compensation for the orbital angular momentum of a vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere by adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chu, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Feng, Xiaoxing; Fan, ChengYu; Qiao, Chunhong

    2018-01-01

    A method which can be used to compensate for a distorted orbital angular momentum and wavefront of a beam in atmospheric turbulence, simultaneously, has been proposed. To confirm the validity of the method, an experimental setup for up-link propagation of a vortex beam in a turbulent atmosphere has been simulated. Simulation results show that both of the distorted orbital angular momentum and the distorted wavefront of a beam due to turbulence can be compensated by an adaptive optics system with the help of a cooperative beacon at satellite. However, when the number of the lenslet of wavefront sensor (WFS) and the actuators of the deform mirror (DM) is small, satisfactory results cannot be obtained.

  3. Fast-adaptive fiber-optic sensor for ultra-small vibration and deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, R V; Girolamo, S Di; Kulchin, Y N; Launay, J C; Kamshilin, A A

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive fiber-optic interferometer measuring system based on a dynamic hologram recorded in photorefractive CdTe crystal without applying an external electric field is developed. Vectorial mixing of two waves with different polarizations in the anisotropic diffraction geometry allows for the realization of linear regime of phase demodulation at the diffusion hologram. High sensitivity of the interferometer is achieved due to recording of the hologram in reflection geometry at high spatial frequencies in a crystal with sufficient concentration of photorefractive centers. The sensitivity obtained makes possible a broadband detection of ultra-small vibrations with amplitude of less then 0.1 nm. High cut-off frequency of the interferometer achieved using low-power light sources due to fast response of CdTe crystal allows one to eliminate temperature fluctuations and other industrial noises

  4. Adaptive matching of the iota ring linear optics for space charge compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, A. [Fermilab; Bruhwiler, D. L. [RadiaSoft, Boulder; Cook, N. [RadiaSoft, Boulder; Hall, C. [RadiaSoft, Boulder

    2016-10-09

    Many present and future accelerators must operate with high intensity beams when distortions induced by space charge forces are among major limiting factors. Betatron tune depression of above approximately 0.1 per cell leads to significant distortions of linear optics. Many aspects of machine operation depend on proper relations between lattice functions and phase advances, and can be i proved with proper treatment of space charge effects. We implement an adaptive algorithm for linear lattice re matching with full account of space charge in the linear approximation for the case of Fermilab’s IOTA ring. The method is based on a search for initial second moments that give closed solution and, at the same predefined set of goals for emittances, beta functions, dispersions and phase advances at and between points of interest. Iterative singular value decomposition based technique is used to search for optimum by varying wide array of model parameters

  5. Preconditioned conjugate gradient wave-front reconstructors for multiconjugate adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Vogel, Curtis R.

    2003-09-01

    Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems with 104-105 degrees of freedom have been proposed for future giant telescopes. Using standard matrix methods to compute, optimize, and implement wave-front control algorithms for these systems is impractical, since the number of calculations required to compute and apply the reconstruction matrix scales respectively with the cube and the square of the number of adaptive optics degrees of freedom. We develop scalable open-loop iterative sparse matrix implementations of minimum variance wave-front reconstruction for telescope diameters up to 32 m with more than 104 actuators. The basic approach is the preconditioned conjugate gradient method with an efficient preconditioner, whose block structure is defined by the atmospheric turbulent layers very much like the layer-oriented MCAO algorithms of current interest. Two cost-effective preconditioners are investigated: a multigrid solver and a simpler block symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BSGS) sweep. Both options require off-line sparse Cholesky factorizations of the diagonal blocks of the matrix system. The cost to precompute these factors scales approximately as the three-halves power of the number of estimated phase grid points per atmospheric layer, and their average update rate is typically of the order of 10-2 Hz, i.e., 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than the typical 103 Hz temporal sampling rate. All other computations scale almost linearly with the total number of estimated phase grid points. We present numerical simulation results to illustrate algorithm convergence. Convergence rates of both preconditioners are similar, regardless of measurement noise level, indicating that the layer-oriented BSGS sweep is as effective as the more elaborated multiresolution preconditioner.

  6. Towards an automatic wind speed and direction profiler for Wide Field adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, G.; Turchi, A.; Masciadri, E.; Guesalaga, A.; Neichel, B.

    2018-05-01

    Wide Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) systems are among the most sophisticated adaptive optics (AO) systems available today on large telescopes. Knowledge of the vertical spatio-temporal distribution of wind speed (WS) and direction (WD) is fundamental to optimize the performance of such systems. Previous studies already proved that the Gemini Multi-Conjugated AO system (GeMS) is able to retrieve measurements of the WS and WD stratification using the SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) technique and to store measurements in the telemetry data. In order to assess the reliability of these estimates and of the SLODAR technique applied to such complex AO systems, in this study we compared WS and WD values retrieved from GeMS with those obtained with the atmospheric model Meso-NH on a rich statistical sample of nights. It has previously been proved that the latter technique provided excellent agreement with a large sample of radiosoundings, both in statistical terms and on individual flights. It can be considered, therefore, as an independent reference. The excellent agreement between GeMS measurements and the model that we find in this study proves the robustness of the SLODAR approach. To bypass the complex procedures necessary to achieve automatic measurements of the wind with GeMS, we propose a simple automatic method to monitor nightly WS and WD using Meso-NH model estimates. Such a method can be applied to whatever present or new-generation facilities are supported by WFAO systems. The interest of this study is, therefore, well beyond the optimization of GeMS performance.

  7. Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lombardo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of various technical factors on the variation of cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images. METHODS: Adaptive optics images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained in fifteen healthy subjects. The cone density and Voronoi diagrams were assessed in sampling windows of 320×320 µm, 160×160 µm and 64×64 µm at 1.5 degree temporal and superior eccentricity from the preferred locus of fixation (PRL. The technical factors that have been analyzed included the sampling window size, the corrected retinal magnification factor (RMFcorr, the conversion from radial to linear distance from the PRL, the displacement between the PRL and foveal center and the manual checking of cone identification algorithm. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions. RESULTS: The cone density declined with decreasing sampling area and data between areas of different size showed low agreement. A high agreement was found between sampling areas of the same size when comparing density calculated with or without using individual RMFcorr. The agreement between cone density measured at radial and linear distances from the PRL and between data referred to the PRL or the foveal center was moderate. The percentage of Voronoi tiles with hexagonal packing arrangement was comparable between sampling areas of different size. The boundary effect, presence of any retinal vessels, and the manual selection of cones missed by the automated identification algorithm were identified as the factors influencing variation of cone packing arrangements in Voronoi diagrams. CONCLUSIONS: The sampling window size is the main technical factor that influences variation of cone density. Clear identification of each cone in the image and the use of a large buffer zone are necessary to minimize factors influencing variation of Voronoi

  8. Preconditioned conjugate gradient wave-front reconstructors for multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Vogel, Curtis R

    2003-09-10

    Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems with 10(4)-10(5) degrees of freedom have been proposed for future giant telescopes. Using standard matrix methods to compute, optimize, and implement wavefront control algorithms for these systems is impractical, since the number of calculations required to compute and apply the reconstruction matrix scales respectively with the cube and the square of the number of adaptive optics degrees of freedom. We develop scalable open-loop iterative sparse matrix implementations of minimum variance wave-front reconstruction for telescope diameters up to 32 m with more than 10(4) actuators. The basic approach is the preconditioned conjugate gradient method with an efficient preconditioner, whose block structure is defined by the atmospheric turbulent layers very much like the layer-oriented MCAO algorithms of current interest. Two cost-effective preconditioners are investigated: a multigrid solver and a simpler block symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BSGS) sweep. Both options require off-line sparse Cholesky factorizations of the diagonal blocks of the matrix system. The cost to precompute these factors scales approximately as the three-halves power of the number of estimated phase grid points per atmospheric layer, and their average update rate is typically of the order of 10(-2) Hz, i.e., 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than the typical 10(3) Hz temporal sampling rate. All other computations scale almost linearly with the total number of estimated phase grid points. We present numerical simulation results to illustrate algorithm convergence. Convergence rates of both preconditioners are similar, regardless of measurement noise level, indicating that the layer-oriented BSGS sweep is as effective as the more elaborated multiresolution preconditioner.

  9. Noninvasive near infrared autofluorescence imaging of retinal pigment epithelial cells in the human retina using adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Jung, HaeWon; Liu, Jianfei; Droettboom, Michael; Tam, Johnny

    2017-10-01

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells contain intrinsic fluorophores that can be visualized using infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). Although IRAF is routinely utilized in the clinic for visualizing retinal health and disease, currently, it is not possible to discern cellular details using IRAF due to limits in resolution. We demonstrate that the combination of adaptive optics (AO) with IRAF (AO-IRAF) enables higher-resolution imaging of the IRAF signal, revealing the RPE mosaic in the living human eye. Quantitative analysis of visualized RPE cells in 10 healthy subjects across various eccentricities demonstrates the possibility for in vivo density measurements of RPE cells, which range from 6505 to 5388 cells/mm 2 for the areas measured (peaking at the fovea). We also identified cone photoreceptors in relation to underlying RPE cells, and found that RPE cells support on average up to 18.74 cone photoreceptors in the fovea down to an average of 1.03 cone photoreceptors per RPE cell at an eccentricity of 6 mm. Clinical application of AO-IRAF to a patient with retinitis pigmentosa illustrates the potential for AO-IRAF imaging to become a valuable complementary approach to the current landscape of high resolution imaging modalities.

  10. Develop techniques for ion implantation of PLZT [lead-lanthanum-zirconate-titanate] for adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishko, C.R.; Brimhall, J.L.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Stahl, K.A.; Toburen, L.H.

    1987-09-01

    Research was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop high photosensitivity adaptive optical elements utilizing ion implanted lanthanum-doped lead-zirconate-titanate (PLZT). One centimeter square samples were prepared by implanting ferroelectric and anti-ferroelectric PLZT with a variety of species or combinations of species. These included Ne, O, Ni, Ne/Cr, Ne/Al, Ne/Ni, Ne/O, and Ni/O, at a variety of energies and fluences. An indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode coating was designed to give a balance of high conductivity and optical transmission at near uv to near ir wavelengths. Samples were characterized for photosensitivity; implanted layer thickness, index of refraction, and density; electrode (ITO) conductivity; and in some cases, residual stress curvature. Thin film anti-ferroelectric PLZT was deposited in a preliminary experiment. The structure was amorphous with x-ray diffraction showing the beginnings of a structure at substrate temperatures of approximately 550 0 C. This report summarizes the research and provides a sampling of the data taken during the report period

  11. Effective distance adaptation traffic dispatching in software defined IP over optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiwei; Li, Hui; Liu, Yuze; Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hongfa; Lin, Yi

    2017-10-01

    The rapid growth of IP traffic has contributed to the wide deployment of optical devices (ROADM/OXC, etc.). Meanwhile, with the emergence and application of high-performance network services such as ultra-high video transmission, people are increasingly becoming more and more particular about the quality of service (QoS) of network. However, the pass-band shape of WSSs which is utilized in the ROADM/OXC is not ideal, causing narrowing of spectrum. Spectral narrowing can lead to signal impairment. Therefore, guard-bands need to be inserted between adjacent paths. In order to minimize the bandwidth waste due to guard bands, we propose an effective distance-adaptation traffic dispatching algorithm in IP over optical network based on SDON architecture. We use virtualization technology to set up virtual resources direct links by extracting part of the resources on paths which meet certain specific constraints. We also assign different bandwidth to each IP request based on path length. There is no need for guard-bands between the adjacent paths on the virtual link, which can effectively reduce the number of guard-bands and save the spectrum.

  12. Cone structure imaged with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Duncan, Jacque L; Syed, Reema; Menghini, Moreno; Roorda, Austin J

    2013-11-15

    To evaluate cone spacing using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in eyes with nonneovascular AMD, and to correlate progression of AOSLO-derived cone measures with standard measures of macular structure. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were obtained over 12 to 21 months from seven patients with AMD including four eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) and four eyes with drusen. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were overlaid with color, infrared, and autofluorescence fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images to allow direct correlation of cone parameters with macular structure. Cone spacing was measured for each visit in selected regions including areas over drusen (n = 29), at GA margins (n = 14), and regions without drusen or GA (n = 13) and compared with normal, age-similar values. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging revealed continuous cone mosaics up to the GA edge and overlying drusen, although reduced cone reflectivity often resulted in hyporeflective AOSLO signals at these locations. Baseline cone spacing measures were normal in 13/13 unaffected regions, 26/28 drusen regions, and 12/14 GA margin regions. Although standard clinical measures showed progression of GA in all study eyes, cone spacing remained within normal ranges in most drusen regions and all GA margin regions. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy provides adequate resolution for quantitative measurement of cone spacing at the margin of GA and over drusen in eyes with AMD. Although cone spacing was often normal at baseline and remained normal over time, these regions showed focal areas of decreased cone reflectivity. These findings may provide insight into the pathophysiology of AMD progression. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00254605).

  13. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  14. Errors in the estimation method for the rejection of vibrations in adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    In recent years the problem of the mechanical vibrations impact in adaptive optics (AO) systems has been renewed. These signals are damped sinusoidal signals and have deleterious effect on the system. One of software solutions to reject the vibrations is an adaptive method called AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) where the procedure has three steps: estimation of perturbation parameters, estimation of the frequency response of the plant, update the reference signal to reject/minimalize the vibration. In the first step a very important problem is the estimation method. A very accurate and fast (below 10 ms) estimation method of these three parameters has been presented in several publications in recent years. The method is based on using the spectrum interpolation and MSD time windows and it can be used to estimate multifrequency signals. In this paper the estimation method is used in the AVC method to increase the system performance. There are several parameters that affect the accuracy of obtained results, e.g. CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, b - number of ADC bits, γ - damping ratio of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value for systematic error is approximately 10^-10 Hz/Hz for N = 2048 and CiR = 0.1. This paper presents equations that can used to estimate maximum systematic errors for given values of H, CiR and N before the start of the estimation process.

  15. Removing damped sinusoidal vibrations in adaptive optics systems using a DFT-based estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    The problem of a vibrations rejection in adaptive optics systems is still present in publications. These undesirable signals emerge because of shaking the system structure, the tracking process, etc., and they usually are damped sinusoidal signals. There are some mechanical solutions to reduce the signals but they are not very effective. One of software solutions are very popular adaptive methods. An AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) method has been presented and developed in recent years. The method is based on the estimation of three vibrations parameters and values of frequency, amplitude and phase are essential to produce and adjust a proper signal to reduce or eliminate vibrations signals. This paper presents a fast (below 10 ms) and accurate estimation method of frequency, amplitude and phase of a multifrequency signal that can be used in the AVC method to increase the AO system performance. The method accuracy depends on several parameters: CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, THD, b - number of A/D converter bits in a real time system, γ - the damping ratio of the tested signal, φ - the phase of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value of systematic error for γ = 0.1%, CiR = 1.1 and N = 32 is approximately 10^-4 Hz/Hz. This paper focuses on systematic errors of and effect of the signal phase and values of γ on the results.

  16. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  17. Refined adaptive optics simulation with wide field of view for the E-ELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebbo, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Refined simulation tools for wide field AO systems (such as MOAO, MCAO or LTAO) on ELTs present new challenges. Increasing the number of degrees of freedom (scales as the square of the telescope diameter) makes the standard simulation's codes useless due to the huge number of operations to be performed at each step of the Adaptive Optics (AO) loop process. This computational burden requires new approaches in the computation of the DM voltages from WFS data. The classical matrix inversion and the matrix vector multiplication have to be replaced by a cleverer iterative resolution of the Least Square or Minimum Mean Square Error criterion (based on sparse matrices approaches). Moreover, for this new generation of AO systems, concepts themselves will become more complex: data fusion coming from multiple Laser and Natural Guide Stars (LGS / NGS) will have to be optimized, mirrors covering all the field of view associated to dedicated mirrors inside the scientific instrument itself will have to be coupled using split or integrated tomography schemes, differential pupil or/and field rotations will have to be considered, etc. All these new entries should be carefully simulated, analysed and quantified in terms of performance before any implementation in AO systems. For those reasons I developed, in collaboration with the ONERA, a full simulation code, based on iterative solution of linear systems with many parameters (use of sparse matrices). On this basis, I introduced new concepts of filtering and data fusion (LGS / NGS) to effectively manage modes such as tip, tilt and defocus in the entire process of tomographic reconstruction. The code will also eventually help to develop and test complex control laws (Multi-DM and multi-field) who have to manage a combination of adaptive telescope and post-focal instrument including dedicated deformable mirrors. The first application of this simulation tool has been studied in the framework of the EAGLE multi-object spectrograph

  18. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  19. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi?GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali; Ltaief, Hatem; Gratadour, Damien; Keyes, David E.; Sevin, Arnaud; Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Gendron, Eric; Morel, Carine; Vidal, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    European Extreme Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a high priority project in ground based astronomy that aims at constructing the largest telescope ever built. MOSAIC is an instrument proposed for E-ELT using Multi- Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique for astronomical telescopes, which compensates for effects of atmospheric turbulence on image quality, and operates on patches across a large FoV.

  20. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi?GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-05-04

    European Extreme Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a high priority project in ground based astronomy that aims at constructing the largest telescope ever built. MOSAIC is an instrument proposed for E-ELT using Multi- Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique for astronomical telescopes, which compensates for effects of atmospheric turbulence on image quality, and operates on patches across a large FoV.

  1. H2-optimal control of an adaptive optics system : Part I, data-driven modeling of the wavefront disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, K.; Verhaegen, M.; Doelman, N.

    2005-01-01

    Even though the wavefront distortion introduced by atmospheric turbulence is a dynamic process, its temporal evolution is usually neglected in the adaptive optics (AO) control design. Most AO control systems consider only the spatial correlation in a separate wavefront reconstruction step. By

  2. GLAS: engineering a common-user Rayleigh laser guide star for adaptive optics on the William Herschel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Gordon; Abrams, Don Carlos; Apostolakos, Nikolaos; Bassom, Richard; Blackburn, Colin; Blanken, Maarten; Cano Infantes, Diego; Chopping, Alan; Dee, Kevin; Dipper, Nigel; Elswijk, Eddy; Enthoven, Bernard; Gregory, Thomas; ter Horst, Rik; Humphreys, Ron; Idserda, Jan; Jolley, Paul; Kuindersma, Sjouke; McDermid, Richard; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard; Pico, Sergio; Pragt, Johan; Rees, Simon; Rey, Jürg; Reyes, Marcos; Rutten, René; Schoenmaker, Ton; Skvarc, Jure; Tromp, Niels; Tulloch, Simon; Veninga, Auke

    2006-06-01

    The GLAS (Ground-layer Laser Adaptive-optics System) project is to construct a common-user Rayleigh laser beacon that will work in conjunction with the existing NAOMI adaptive optics system, instruments (near IR imager INGRID, optical integral field spectrograph OASIS, coronagraph OSCA) and infrastructure at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on La Palma. The laser guide star system will increase sky coverage available to high-order adaptive optics from ~1% to approaching 100% and will be optimized for scientific exploitation of the OASIS integral-field spectrograph at optical wavelengths. Additionally GLAS will be used in on-sky experiments for the application of laser beacons to ELTs. This paper describes the full range of engineering of the project ranging through the laser launch system, wavefront sensors, computer control, mechanisms, diagnostics, CCD detectors and the safety system. GLAS is a fully funded project, with final design completed and all equipment ordered, including the laser. Integration has started on the WHT and first light is expected summer 2006.

  3. Application of fluidic lens technology to an adaptive holographic optical element see-through autophoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancy, Carl H.

    A device for performing an objective eye exam has been developed to automatically determine ophthalmic prescriptions. The closed loop fluidic auto-phoropter has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested for the automatic measurement and correction of a patient's prescriptions. The adaptive phoropter is designed through the combination of a spherical-powered fluidic lens and two cylindrical fluidic lenses that are orientated 45o relative to each other. In addition, the system incorporates Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing technology to identify the eye's wavefront error and corresponding prescription. Using the wavefront error information, the fluidic auto-phoropter nulls the eye's lower order wavefront error by applying the appropriate volumes to the fluidic lenses. The combination of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor the fluidic auto-phoropter allows for the identification and control of spherical refractive error, as well as cylinder error and axis; thus, creating a truly automated refractometer and corrective system. The fluidic auto-phoropter is capable of correcting defocus error ranging from -20D to 20D and astigmatism from -10D to 10D. The transmissive see-through design allows for the observation of natural scenes through the system at varying object planes with no additional imaging optics in the patient's line of sight. In this research, two generations of the fluidic auto-phoropter are designed and tested; the first generation uses traditional glass optics for the measurement channel. The second generation of the fluidic auto-phoropter takes advantage of the progress in the development of holographic optical elements (HOEs) to replace all the traditional glass optics. The addition of the HOEs has enabled the development of a more compact, inexpensive and easily reproducible system without compromising its performance. Additionally, the fluidic lenses were tested during a National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) parabolic flight campaign, to

  4. Performance analysis of an optical self-interference cancellation system with a directly modulated laser-based demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinghong; Zhang, Yunhao; Huang, Lin; Xiao, Shilin

    2018-02-20

    In this paper, two main performance indices of the optical self-interference cancellation (OSIC) system are theoretically analyzed: cancellation bandwidth and depth. Delay deviation is investigated to be the determining factor of cancellation bandwidth, based on which the bandwidth advantage of the OSIC system over electrical schemes is also proven theoretically. Cancellation depth in the narrowband is mostly influenced by attenuation and delay-adjusting deviation, while in the broadband case, the performance is mostly limited by frequency-dependent amplitude and phase mismatch. The cancellation performance analysis is suitable for most linear modulation-demodulation OSIC systems, including the directly modulated laser (DML)-based OSIC system verified experimentally in this paper. The cancellation model is well demonstrated by the agreement between experimental cancellation results and predicted performance. For over-the-air demonstration with the employment of antennas, broadband cancellation within 450 MHz bandwidth of 22 dB and 25 dB is achieved at 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz, respectively. In addition, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals are employed to show in-band full-duplex transmission with good performance by the DML-based OSIC system, with successful suppression of self-interference and recovery of the signal of interest.

  5. A mechanical model of stereocilia that demonstrates a shift in the high-sensitivity region due to the interplay of a negative stiffness and an adaptation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changwon; Park, Sukyung

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia are the basic sensory units of nature's inertial sensors and are highly sensitive over broad dynamic ranges, which is a major challenge in the design of conventional engineering sensors. The high sensitivity that is maintained by stereocilia was hypothesized to exist due to a combination of adaptation and negative stiffness mechanisms, which shift the region of highest sensitivity toward the active operation range of the stereocilia bundle. To examine the adaptation hypothesis in terms of its potential applicability to future applications regarding the design of inertial sensors, we developed a mechanical mimicry of the interplay between negative stiffness and the adaptation of the stereocilia that produces spontaneous oscillation of the hair bundle. The mechanical model consists of an inverted pendulum and a fixed T-bar that mimic the interaction of two adjacent stereocilia. To focus on the interaction of one gating spring and the corresponding adaptation motor without the effect of coupling from the other gating springs attached to the neighboring stereocilia, we fixed one bar that contains the adaptation motor. To emulate the negative resistance of the tip-link due to the transient stiffness softening by the gating ion channel, a magnet pair was attached to the top of the inverted pendulum and the fixed T-bar. Readjustment of the tip-link tension by the ‘slipping down and climbing up’ motion of the adaptation molecular motors was demonstrated by the side-to-side movement of the magnet by a step motor. The negative stiffness region was observed near the equilibrium position and shifted with the activation of the adaptation motor. The temporal demonstration of the stiffness shift was measured as a spontaneous oscillation. The results showed that the interplay between the negative stiffness and the adaptation mechanism was mechanically produced by the combination of a repulsive force and its continuous readjustment and is better understood through a

  6. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large mirrors.It is shown that the most effective method to deal with the influence of distorting factors on the image quality in the telescope is the minimization (through selecting the place to mount a telescope and choosing the rational optical scheme, creating materials and new technologies, improving a design, unloading the mirrors, mounting choice, etc., and then the adaptive compensation of remaining distortions.It should be noted that a domestic concept to design large-sized telescopes allows us to use, in our opinion, the most efficient ways to do this. It means to abandon the creation of "an absolutely rigid and well-ordered" design, providing the passively aligned state telescope optics under operating conditions. The design must just have such a level of residual deformations that their effect can be efficiently compensated by the adaptive system using the segmented elements of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a corrector.It has been found that in the transmission optical systems to deliver laser power to a remote object, it is necessary not only to overcome the distorting effect of factors inherent in optical information systems, but, additionally, find a way to overcome a number of new difficulties. The main ones have been identified to be as follows:• the influence of laser radiation on the structure components and the propagation medium and, as a consequence, the opposite effect of the structure components and the propagation

  7. WE-G-BRF-01: Adaptation to Intrafraction Tumor Deformation During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: First Proof-Of-Principle Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Y; OBrien, R; Shieh, C; Booth, J; Keall, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intrafraction tumor deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy and cannot be adapted to by current motion management techniques. This study simulated intrafractional treatment adaptation to tumor deformations using a dynamic Multi-Leaf Collimator (DMLC) tracking system during Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for the first time. Methods: The DMLC tracking system was developed to adapt to the intrafraction tumor deformation by warping the planned beam aperture guided by the calculated deformation vector field (DVF) obtained from deformable image registration (DIR) at the time of treatment delivery. Seven single phantom deformation images up to 10.4 mm deformation and eight tumor system phantom deformation images up to 21.5 mm deformation were acquired and used in tracking simulation. The intrafraction adaptation was simulated at the DMLC tracking software platform, which was able to communicate with the image registration software, reshape the instantaneous IMRT field aperture and log the delivered MLC fields.The deformation adaptation accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the reference aperture. The incremental deformations were arbitrarily determined to take place equally over the delivery interval. The geometric target coverage of delivery with deformation adaptation was compared against the delivery without adaptation. Results: Intrafraction deformation adaptation during dynamic IMRT plan delivery was simulated for single and system deformable phantoms. For the two particular delivery situations, over the treatment course, deformation adaptation improved the target coverage by 89% for single target deformation and 79% for tumor system deformation compared with no-tracking delivery. Conclusion: This work demonstrated the principle of real-time tumor deformation tracking using a DMLC. This is the first step towards the development of an

  8. Improved laser-based triangulation sensor with enhanced range and resolution through adaptive optics-based active beam control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Syed Azer; Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Mazhar, Mohsin Ali; Niazi, Haris Khan; Nawab, Rahma

    2017-07-20

    Various existing target ranging techniques are limited in terms of the dynamic range of operation and measurement resolution. These limitations arise as a result of a particular measurement methodology, the finite processing capability of the hardware components deployed within the sensor module, and the medium through which the target is viewed. Generally, improving the sensor range adversely affects its resolution and vice versa. Often, a distance sensor is designed for an optimal range/resolution setting depending on its intended application. Optical triangulation is broadly classified as a spatial-signal-processing-based ranging technique and measures target distance from the location of the reflected spot on a position sensitive detector (PSD). In most triangulation sensors that use lasers as a light source, beam divergence-which severely affects sensor measurement range-is often ignored in calculations. In this paper, we first discuss in detail the limitations to ranging imposed by beam divergence, which, in effect, sets the sensor dynamic range. Next, we show how the resolution of laser-based triangulation sensors is limited by the interpixel pitch of a finite-sized PSD. In this paper, through the use of tunable focus lenses (TFLs), we propose a novel design of a triangulation-based optical rangefinder that improves both the sensor resolution and its dynamic range through adaptive electronic control of beam propagation parameters. We present the theory and operation of the proposed sensor and clearly demonstrate a range and resolution improvement with the use of TFLs. Experimental results in support of our claims are shown to be in strong agreement with theory.

  9. The Laser Guide Star System for Adaptive Optics at Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, Y.; Saito, Y.; Ito, M.; Saito, N.; Akagawa, K.; Takazawa, A.; Ito, M.; Wada, S.; Takami, H.; Iye, M.

    We report on the current status of developing the new laser guide star (LGS) system for the Subaru adaptive optics (AO) system. We have three major subsystems: the laser unit, the relay optical fiber and the laser launching telescope. A 4W-class all-solid-state 589nm laser has been developed as a light source for sodium laser guide star. We use two mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers operated at the wavelength of 1064nm and 1319nm to generate sum-frequency conversion into 589nm. The side-LD pumped configuration is used for the mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers. We have carefully considered the thermal lens effect in the cavity to achieve a high beam quality with TEM00; M2 = 1.06. The mode-locked frequency is selected at 143 MHz. We obtained the output powers of 16.5 W and 5.0 W at 1064nm and 1319 nm. Sum frequency generated by mixing two synchronized Nd:YAG mode-locked pulsed beams is precisely tuned to the sodium D2 line by thermal control of the etalon in the 1064nm Nd:YAG laser by observing the maximum fluorescence intensity of heated sodium vapor cell. The maximum output power at 589.159 nm reaches to 4.6 W using a PPMgOSLT crystal as a nonlinear optical crystal. And the output power can be maintained within a stability of +/- 1.2% for more than 3 days without optical damage. We developed a single-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to relay the laser beam from laser clean room, in which the laser unit is located on the Nasmyth platform, to the laser launching telescope mounted behind the secondary mirror of Subaru Telescope. The photonic crystal fiber has solid pure silica core with the mode field diameter of 14 micron, which is relatively larger than that of the conventional step-index type single mode fiber. The length of the PCF is 35m and transmission loss due to the pure silica is 10dB/km at 589nm, which means PCF transmits 92% of the laser beam. We have preliminary achieved 75% throughput in total. Small mode-locked pulse width in time allows us to transmit the high

  10. GMTIFS: the adaptive optics beam steering mirror for the GMT integral-field spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J.; Bloxham, G.; Boz, R.; Bundy, D.; Espeland, B.; Fordham, B.; Hart, J.; Herrald, N.; Nielsen, J.; Sharp, R.; Vaccarella, A.; Vest, C.; Young, P. J.

    2016-07-01

    To achieve the high adaptive optics sky coverage necessary to allow the GMT Integral-Field Spectrograph (GMTIFS) to access key scientific targets, the on-instrument adaptive-optics wavefront-sensing (OIWFS) system must patrol the full 180 arcsecond diameter guide field passed to the instrument. The OIWFS uses a diffraction limited guide star as the fundamental pointing reference for the instrument. During an observation the offset between the science target and the guide star will change due to sources such as flexure, differential refraction and non-sidereal tracking rates. GMTIFS uses a beam steering mirror to set the initial offset between science target and guide star and also to correct for changes in offset. In order to reduce image motion from beam steering errors to those comparable to the AO system in the most stringent case, the beam steering mirror is set a requirement of less than 1 milliarcsecond RMS. This corresponds to a dynamic range for both actuators and sensors of better than 1/180,000. The GMTIFS beam steering mirror uses piezo-walk actuators and a combination of eddy current sensors and interferometric sensors to achieve this dynamic range and control. While the sensors are rated for cryogenic operation, the actuators are not. We report on the results of prototype testing of single actuators, with the sensors, on the bench and in a cryogenic environment. Specific failures of the system are explained and suspected reasons for them. A modified test jig is used to investigate the option of heating the actuator and we report the improved results. In addition to individual component testing, we built and tested a complete beam steering mirror assembly. Testing was conducted with a point source microscope, however controlling environmental conditions to less than 1 micron was challenging. The assembly testing investigated acquisition accuracy and if there was any un-sensed hysteresis in the system. Finally we present the revised beam steering mirror

  11. The Last Gasps of VY Canis Majoris: Aperture Synthesis and Adaptive Optics Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, J. D.; Tuthill, P. G.; Lopez, B.; Cruzalebes, P.; Danchi, W. C.; Haniff, C. A.

    1999-02-01

    We present new observations of the red supergiant VY CMa at 1.25, 1.65, 2.26, 3.08, and 4.8 μm. Two complementary observational techniques were utilized: nonredundant aperture masking on the 10 m Keck I telescope, yielding images of the innermost regions at unprecedented resolution, and adaptive optics imaging on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla, attaining an extremely high (~105) peak-to-noise dynamic range over a wide field. For the first time the inner dust shell has been resolved in the near-infrared to reveal a one-sided extension of circumstellar emission within 0.1" (~15 R*) of the star. The line-of-sight optical depths of the circumstellar dust shell at 1.65, 2.26, and 3.08 μm have been estimated to be 1.86+/-0.42, 0.85+/-0.20, and 0.44+/-0.11, respectively. These new results allow the bolometric luminosity of VY CMa to be estimated independent of the dust shell geometry, yielding L*~2×105 Lsolar. A variety of dust condensations, including a large scattering plume and a bow-shaped dust feature, were observed in the faint, extended nebula up to 4" from the central source. While the origin of the nebulous plume remains uncertain, a geometrical model is developed assuming the plume is produced by radially driven dust grains forming at a rotating flow insertion point with a rotational period between 1200 and 4200 yr, which is perhaps the stellar rotational period or the orbital period of an unseen companion.

  12. Dual-conjugate adaptive optics for wide-field high-resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaung, Jörgen; Knutsson, Per; Popovic, Zoran; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    2009-03-16

    We present analysis and preliminary laboratory testing of a real-time dual-conjugate adaptive optics (DCAO) instrument for ophthalmology that will enable wide-field high resolution imaging of the retina in vivo. The setup comprises five retinal guide stars (GS) and two deformable mirrors (DM), one conjugate to the pupil and one conjugate to a plane close to the retina. The DCAO instrument has a closed-loop wavefront sensing wavelength of 834 nm and an imaging wavelength of 575 nm. It incorporates an array of collimator lenses to spatially filter the light from all guide stars using one adjustable iris, and images the Hartmann patterns of multiple reference sources on a single detector. Zemax simulations were performed at 834 nm and 575 nm with the Navarro 99 and the Liou- Brennan eye models. Two correction alternatives were evaluated; conventional single conjugate AO (SCAO, using one GS and a pupil DM) and DCAO (using multiple GS and two DM). Zemax simulations at 575 nm based on the Navarro 99 eye model show that the diameter of the corrected field of view for diffraction-limited imaging (Strehl >or= 0.8) increases from 1.5 deg with SCAO to 6.5 deg using DCAO. The increase for the less stringent condition of a wavefront error of 1 rad or less (Strehl >or= 0.37) is from 3 deg with SCAO to approximately 7.4 deg using DCAO. Corresponding results for the Liou-Brennan eye model are 3.1 deg (SCAO) and 8.2 deg (DCAO) for Strehl >or= 0.8, and 4.8 deg (SCAO) and 9.6 deg (DCAO) for Strehl >or= 0.37. Potential gain in corrected field of view with DCAO is confirmed both by laboratory experiments on a model eye and by preliminary in vivo imaging of a human eye. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  13. ELT-scale Adaptive Optics real-time control with thes Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David R.; Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a solution to the increased computational demands of Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) scale adaptive optics (AO) real-time control with the Intel Xeon Phi Knights Landing (KNL) Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. The computational demands of an AO real-time controller (RTC) scale with the fourth power of telescope diameter and so the next generation ELTs require orders of magnitude more processing power for the RTC pipeline than existing systems. The Xeon Phi contains a large number (≥64) of low power x86 CPU cores and high bandwidth memory integrated into a single socketed server CPU package. The increased parallelism and memory bandwidth are crucial to providing the performance for reconstructing wavefronts with the required precision for ELT scale AO. Here, we demonstrate that the Xeon Phi KNL is capable of performing ELT scale single conjugate AO real-time control computation at over 1.0kHz with less than 20μs RMS jitter. We have also shown that with a wavefront sensor camera attached the KNL can process the real-time control loop at up to 966Hz, the maximum frame-rate of the camera, with jitter remaining below 20μs RMS. Future studies will involve exploring the use of a cluster of Xeon Phis for the real-time control of the MCAO and MOAO regimes of AO. We find that the Xeon Phi is highly suitable for ELT AO real time control.

  14. Real-time wavefront processors for the next generation of adaptive optics systems: a design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tuan; Brack, Gary L.; Troy, Mitchell; Trinh, Thang; Shi, Fang; Dekany, Richard G.

    2003-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems currently under investigation will require at least two orders of magitude increase in the number of actuators, which in turn translates to effectively a 104 increase in compute latency. Since the performance of an AO system invariably improves as the compute latency decreases, it is important to study how today's computer systems will scale to address this expected increase in actuator utilization. This paper answers this question by characterizing the performance of a single deformable mirror (DM) Shack-Hartmann natural guide star AO system implemented on the present-generation digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320C6701 from Texas Instruments. We derive the compute latency of such a system in terms of a few basic parameters, such as the number of DM actuators, the number of data channels used to read out the camera pixels, the number of DSPs, the available memory bandwidth, as well as the inter-processor communication (IPC) bandwidth and the pixel transfer rate. We show how the results would scale for future systems that utilizes multiple DMs and guide stars. We demonstrate that the principal performance bottleneck of such a system is the available memory bandwidth of the processors and to lesser extent the IPC bandwidth. This paper concludes with suggestions for mitigating this bottleneck.

  15. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  16. eXtragalactic astronomy: the X-games of adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivier

    2000-07-01

    Observing active nuclei, Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies, starburst and merging galaxies, is both a challenge and a requirement for adaptive optics. It is a requirement, because models needed to explain the high infrared flux and the physics of these monsters need constraints that come, in part, from the fine details gleaned on high angular resolution images, and it is a challenge because, being distant, these objects are usually faint in apparent visual magnitude, meaning that the wavefront sensors have to operate in a photon starved regime. Many observations have been controversial in the past, and it is always difficult to tell an artifact such as astigmatism from an inner bar. The importance of observing the point spread function is therefore even more crucial than on bright objects, as PSF reconstruction methods 'a la Veran' break down when the photon noise dominates the statistics of the wave front, or when locking the loop on extended objects. Yet, while some cases have been controversial, some very clear and profound results have been obtained in the extragalactic domain, such as the detection of host galaxy to quasars and star formation studies. It turns out that the fundamental prerequisite to such success stories is a stable, well understood and well calibrated PSF.

  17. REFERENCE-LESS DETECTION, ASTROMETRY, AND PHOTOMETRY OF FAINT COMPANIONS WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladysz, Szymon; Christou, Julian C.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a complete framework for the detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions from a sequence of adaptive optics (AO) corrected short exposures. The algorithms exploit the difference in statistics between the on-axis and off-axis intensity of the AO point-spread function (PSF) to differentiate real sources from speckles. We validate the new approach and illustrate its performance using moderate Strehl ratio data obtained with the natural guide star AO system on the Lick Observatory's 3 m Shane Telescope. We obtain almost a 2 mag gain in achievable contrast by using our detection method compared to 5σ detectability in long exposures. We also present a first guide to expected accuracy of differential photometry and astrometry with the new techniques. Our approach performs better than PSF-fitting in general and especially so for close companions, which are located within the uncompensated seeing (speckle) halo. All three proposed algorithms are self-calibrating, i.e., they do not require observation of a calibration star. One of the advantages of this approach is improved observing efficiency.

  18. Stroke saturation on a MEMS deformable mirror for woofer-tweeter adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzinski, Katie; Macintosh, Bruce; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren

    2009-03-30

    High-contrast imaging of extrasolar planet candidates around a main-sequence star has recently been realized from the ground using current adaptive optics (AO) systems. Advancing such observations will be a task for the Gemini Planet Imager, an upcoming "extreme" AO instrument. High-order "tweeter" and low-order "woofer" deformable mirrors (DMs) will supply a >90%-Strehl correction, a specialized coronagraph will suppress the stellar flux, and any planets can then be imaged in the "dark hole" region. Residual wavefront error scatters light into the DM-controlled dark hole, making planets difficult to image above the noise. It is crucial in this regard that the high-density tweeter, a micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) DM, have sufficient stroke to deform to the shapes required by atmospheric turbulence. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the rate and circumstance of saturation, i.e. stroke insufficiency. A 1024-actuator 1.5-microm-stroke MEMS device was empirically tested with software Kolmogorov-turbulence screens of r(0) =10-15 cm. The MEMS when solitary suffered saturation approximately 4% of the time. Simulating a woofer DM with approximately 5-10 actuators across a 5-m primary mitigated MEMS saturation occurrence to a fraction of a percent. While no adjacent actuators were saturated at opposing positions, mid-to-high-spatial-frequency stroke did saturate more frequently than expected, implying that correlations through the influence functions are important. Analytical models underpredict the stroke requirements, so empirical studies are important.

  19. Can we use adaptive optics for UHR spectroscopy with PEPSI at the LBT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Germano G.; Pallavicini, Roberto; Spano, Paolo; Andersen, Michael; Woche, Manfred F.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the potential of using adaptive optics (AO) in the V, R, and I bands to reach ultra-high resolution (UHR, R >= 200,000) in echelle spectrographs at 8-10m telescopes. In particular, we investigate the possibility of implementing an UHR mode for the fiber-fed spectrograph PEPSI (Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectrographic Instrument) being developed for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). By simulating the performances of the advanced AO system that will be available at first light at the LBT, and by using first-order estimates of the spectrograph performances, we calculate the total efficiency and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of PEPSI in the AO mode for stars of different magnitudes, different fiber core sizes, and different fractions of incident light diverted to the wavefront sensor. We conclude that AO can provide a significant advantage, of up to a factor ~2 in the V, R and I bands, for stars brighter than mR ~ 12 - 13. However, if these stars are observed at UHR in non-AO mode, slit losses caused by the need to use a very narrow slit can be compensated more effectively by the use of image slicers.

  20. Design of a Compact, Bimorph Deformable Mirror-Based Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Deng, Guohua; Wei, Ling; Li, Xiqi; Yang, Jinsheng; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) using a bimorph mirror. The simulated AOSLO system achieves diffraction-limited criterion through all the raster scanning fields (6.4 mm pupil, 3° × 3° on pupil). The bimorph mirror-based AOSLO corrected ocular aberrations in model eyes to less than 0.1 μm RMS wavefront error with a closed-loop bandwidth of a few Hz. Facilitated with a bimorph mirror at a stroke of ±15 μm with 35 elements and an aperture of 20 mm, the new AOSLO system has a size only half that of the first-generation AOSLO system. The significant increase in stroke allows for large ocular aberrations such as defocus in the range of ±600° and astigmatism in the range of ±200°, thereby fully exploiting the AO correcting capabilities for diseased human eyes in the future.

  1. Reducing adaptive optics latency using Xeon Phi many-core processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David; Basden, Alastair; Dipper, Nigel; Schwartz, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) for astronomy will rely heavily on the performance of their adaptive optics (AO) systems. Real-time control is at the heart of the critical technologies that will enable telescopes to deliver the best possible science and will require a very significant extrapolation from current AO hardware existing for 4-10 m telescopes. Investigating novel real-time computing architectures and testing their eligibility against anticipated challenges is one of the main priorities of technology development for the ELTs. This paper investigates the suitability of the Intel Xeon Phi, which is a commercial off-the-shelf hardware accelerator. We focus on wavefront reconstruction performance, implementing a straightforward matrix-vector multiplication (MVM) algorithm. We present benchmarking results of the Xeon Phi on a real-time Linux platform, both as a standalone processor and integrated into an existing real-time controller (RTC). Performance of single and multiple Xeon Phis are investigated. We show that this technology has the potential of greatly reducing the mean latency and variations in execution time (jitter) of large AO systems. We present both a detailed performance analysis of the Xeon Phi for a typical E-ELT first-light instrument along with a more general approach that enables us to extend to any AO system size. We show that systematic and detailed performance analysis is an essential part of testing novel real-time control hardware to guarantee optimal science results.

  2. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pipa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit and SS (semisubmersible platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs adaptive filter.

  3. Modeling astronomical adaptive optics performance with temporally filtered Wiener reconstruction of slope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carlos M.; Bond, Charlotte Z.; Sauvage, Jean-François; Fusco, Thierry; Conan, Rodolphe; Wizinowich, Peter L.

    2017-10-01

    We build on a long-standing tradition in astronomical adaptive optics (AO) of specifying performance metrics and error budgets using linear systems modeling in the spatial-frequency domain. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive tool for the calculation of error budgets in terms of residual temporally filtered phase power spectral densities and variances. In addition, the fast simulation of AO-corrected point spread functions (PSFs) provided by this method can be used as inputs for simulations of science observations with next-generation instruments and telescopes, in particular to predict post-coronagraphic contrast improvements for planet finder systems. We extend the previous results and propose the synthesis of a distributed Kalman filter to mitigate both aniso-servo-lag and aliasing errors whilst minimizing the overall residual variance. We discuss applications to (i) analytic AO-corrected PSF modeling in the spatial-frequency domain, (ii) post-coronagraphic contrast enhancement, (iii) filter optimization for real-time wavefront reconstruction, and (iv) PSF reconstruction from system telemetry. Under perfect knowledge of wind velocities, we show that $\\sim$60 nm rms error reduction can be achieved with the distributed Kalman filter embodying anti- aliasing reconstructors on 10 m class high-order AO systems, leading to contrast improvement factors of up to three orders of magnitude at few ${\\lambda}/D$ separations ($\\sim1-5{\\lambda}/D$) for a 0 magnitude star and reaching close to one order of magnitude for a 12 magnitude star.

  4. Axial length and cone density as assessed with adaptive optics in myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Dabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the variations in cone mosaic in myopia and its correlation with axial length (AL. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-five healthy myopic volunteers underwent assessment of photoreceptors using adaptive optics retinal camera at 2° and 3° from the foveal center in four quadrants superior, inferior, temporal and nasal. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 (IBM. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to study the relation between cone density and AL, quadrant around the fovea and eccentricity from the fovea. Results: The mean cone density was significantly lower as the eccentricity increased from 2° from the fovea to 3° (18,560 ± 5455-16,404 ± 4494/mm 2 respectively. There was also a statistically significant difference between four quadrants around the fovea. The correlation of cone density and spacing with AL showed that there was a significant inverse relation of AL with the cone density. Conclusion: In myopic patients with good visual acuity cone density around the fovea depends on the quadrant, distance from the fovea as well as the AL. The strength of the relation of AL with cone density depends on the quadrant and distance.

  5. The PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system for Palomar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Antonin H.; Dekany, Richard G.; Angione, John R.; Baranec, Christoph; Britton, Matthew C.; Bui, Khanh; Burruss, Rick S.; Cromer, John L.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Henning, John R.; Hickey, Jeff; McKenna, Daniel L.; Moore, Anna M.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Troy, Mitchell; Truong, Tuan N.; Velur, Viswa

    2008-07-01

    Deployed as a multi-user shared facility on the 5.1 meter Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory, the PALM-3000 highorder upgrade to the successful Palomar Adaptive Optics System will deliver extreme AO correction in the near-infrared, and diffraction-limited images down to visible wavelengths, using both natural and sodium laser guide stars. Wavefront control will be provided by two deformable mirrors, a 3368 active actuator woofer and 349 active actuator tweeter, controlled at up to 3 kHz using an innovative wavefront processor based on a cluster of 17 graphics processing units. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with selectable pupil sampling will provide high-order wavefront sensing, while an infrared tip/tilt sensor and visible truth wavefront sensor will provide low-order LGS control. Four back-end instruments are planned at first light: the PHARO near-infrared camera/spectrograph, the SWIFT visible light integral field spectrograph, Project 1640, a near-infrared coronagraphic integral field spectrograph, and 888Cam, a high-resolution visible light imager.

  6. PENETRATING THE HOMUNCULUS-NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGES OF ETA CARINAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artigau, Etienne; Martin, John C.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Chesneau, Olivier; Smith, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared adaptive optics imaging with the Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) and NaCO reveal what appears to be a three-winged or lobed pattern, the 'butterfly nebula', outlined by bright Brγ and H 2 emission and light scattered by dust. In contrast, the [Fe II] emission does not follow the outline of the wings, but shows an extended bipolar distribution which is tracing the Little Homunculus ejected in η Car's second or lesser eruption in the 1890s. Proper motions measured from the combined NICI and NaCO images together with radial velocities show that the knots and filaments that define the bright rims of the butterfly were ejected at two different epochs corresponding approximately to the great eruption and the second eruption. Most of the material is spatially distributed 10 0 -20 0 above and below the equatorial plane apparently behind the Little Homunculus and the larger SE lobe. The equatorial debris either has a wide opening angle or the clumps were ejected at different latitudes relative to the plane. The butterfly is not a coherent physical structure or equatorial torus but spatially separate clumps and filaments ejected at different times, and now 2000-4000 AU from the star.

  7. Enhanced optical alignment of a digital micro mirror device through Bayesian adaptive exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Wynne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the use of Digital Micro Mirror Devices (DMDs becomes more prevalent in optics research, the ability to precisely locate the Fourier “footprint” of an image beam at the Fourier plane becomes a pressing need. In this approach, Bayesian adaptive exploration techniques were employed to characterize the size and position of the beam on a DMD located at the Fourier plane. It couples a Bayesian inference engine with an inquiry engine to implement the search. The inquiry engine explores the DMD by engaging mirrors and recording light intensity values based on the maximization of the expected information gain. Using the data collected from this exploration, the Bayesian inference engine updates the posterior probability describing the beam’s characteristics. The process is iterated until the beam is located to within the desired precision. This methodology not only locates the center and radius of the beam with remarkable precision but accomplishes the task in far less time than a brute force search. The employed approach has applications to system alignment for both Fourier processing and coded aperture design.

  8. Adaptive Optics Simulation for the World's Largest Telescope on Multicore Architectures with Multiple GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2016-06-02

    We present a high performance comprehensive implementation of a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) simulation on multicore architectures with hardware accelerators in the context of computational astronomy. This implementation will be used as an operational testbed for simulating the de- sign of new instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), the world\\'s biggest eye and one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. The simulation corresponds to a multi-step multi-stage pro- cedure, which is fed, near real-time, by system and turbulence data coming from the telescope environment. Based on the PLASMA library powered by the OmpSs dynamic runtime system, our implementation relies on a task-based programming model to permit an asynchronous out-of-order execution. Using modern multicore architectures associated with the enormous computing power of GPUS, the resulting data-driven compute-intensive simulation of the entire MOAO application, composed of the tomographic reconstructor and the observing sequence, is capable of coping with the aforementioned real-time challenge and stands as a reference implementation for the computational astronomy community.

  9. Enhanced optical alignment of a digital micro mirror device through Bayesian adaptive exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Kevin B.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Petruccelli, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    As the use of Digital Micro Mirror Devices (DMDs) becomes more prevalent in optics research, the ability to precisely locate the Fourier "footprint" of an image beam at the Fourier plane becomes a pressing need. In this approach, Bayesian adaptive exploration techniques were employed to characterize the size and position of the beam on a DMD located at the Fourier plane. It couples a Bayesian inference engine with an inquiry engine to implement the search. The inquiry engine explores the DMD by engaging mirrors and recording light intensity values based on the maximization of the expected information gain. Using the data collected from this exploration, the Bayesian inference engine updates the posterior probability describing the beam's characteristics. The process is iterated until the beam is located to within the desired precision. This methodology not only locates the center and radius of the beam with remarkable precision but accomplishes the task in far less time than a brute force search. The employed approach has applications to system alignment for both Fourier processing and coded aperture design.

  10. ABISM: an interactive image quality assessment tool for adaptive optics instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.; Tourneboeuf, Martin

    2016-07-01

    ABISM (Automatic Background Interactive Strehl Meter) is a interactive tool to evaluate the image quality of astronomical images. It works on seeing-limited point spread functions (PSF) but was developed in particular for diffraction-limited PSF produced by adaptive optics (AO) systems. In the VLT service mode (SM) operations framework, ABISM is designed to help support astronomers or telescope and instruments operators (TIOs) to quickly measure the Strehl ratio (SR) during or right after an observing block (OB) to evaluate whether it meets the requirements/predictions or whether is has to be repeated and will remain in the SM queue. It's a Python-based tool with a graphical user interface (GUI) that can be used with little AO knowledge. The night astronomer (NA) or Telescope and Instrument Operator (TIO) can launch ABISM in one click and the program is able to read keywords from the FITS header to avoid mistakes. A significant effort was also put to make ABISM as robust (and forgiven) with a high rate of repeatability. As a matter of fact, ABISM is able to automatically correct for bad pixels, eliminate stellar neighbours and estimate/fit properly the background, etc.

  11. Simulated human eye retina adaptive optics imaging system based on a liquid crystal on silicon device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Baoguang; Cao Zhaoliang; Mu Quanquan; Hu Lifa; Li Chao; Xuan Li

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain a clear image of the retina of model eye, an adaptive optics system used to correct the wave-front error is introduced in this paper. The spatial light modulator that we use here is a liquid crystal on a silicon device instead of a conversional deformable mirror. A paper with carbon granule is used to simulate the retina of human eye. The pupil size of the model eye is adjustable (3-7 mm). A Shack–Hartman wave-front sensor is used to detect the wave-front aberration. With this construction, a value of peak-to-valley is achieved to be 0.086 λ, where λ is wavelength. The modulation transfer functions before and after corrections are compared. And the resolution of this system after correction (691p/m) is very close to the dirraction limit resolution. The carbon granule on the white paper which has a size of 4.7 μm is seen clearly. The size of the retina cell is between 4 and 10 mu;m. So this system has an ability to image the human eye's retina. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  12. Rapid and highly integrated FPGA-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Pin; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) programmed on LabVIEW can be highly integrated into customized applications such as adaptive optics system (AOS) for performing real-time wavefront measurement. Further, a Camera Link frame grabber embedded with FPGA is adopted to enhance the sensor speed reacting to variation considering its advantage of the highest data transmission bandwidth. Instead of waiting for a frame image to be captured by the FPGA, the Shack-Hartmann algorithm are implemented in parallel processing blocks design and let the image data transmission synchronize with the wavefront reconstruction. On the other hand, we design a mechanism to control the deformable mirror in the same FPGA and verify the Shack-Hartmann sensor speed by controlling the frequency of the deformable mirror dynamic surface deformation. Currently, this FPGAbead SHWS design can achieve a 266 Hz cyclic speed limited by the camera frame rate as well as leaves 40% logic slices for additionally flexible design.

  13. Simpler Adaptive Optics using a Single Device for Processing and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovaro, A.; Bennet, F.; Rye, D.; D'Orgeville, C.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    The management of low Earth orbit is becoming more urgent as satellite and debris densities climb, in order to avoid a Kessler syndrome. A key part of this management is to precisely measure the orbit of both active satellites and debris. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Australian National University have been developing an adaptive optics (AO) system to image and range orbiting objects. The AO system provides atmospheric correction for imaging and laser ranging, allowing for the detection of smaller angular targets and drastically increasing the number of detectable objects. AO systems are by nature very complex and high cost systems, often costing millions of dollars and taking years to design. It is not unusual for AO systems to comprise multiple servers, digital signal processors (DSP) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), with dedicated tasks such as wavefront sensor data processing or wavefront reconstruction. While this multi-platform approach has been necessary in AO systems to date due to computation and latency requirements, this may no longer be the case for those with less demanding processing needs. In recent years, large strides have been made in FPGA and microcontroller technology, with todays devices having clock speeds in excess of 200 MHz whilst using a 1kHz) with low latency (general AO applications, such as in 1-3 m telescopes for space surveillance, or even for amateur astronomy.

  14. PHISICS/RELAP5-3D Adaptive Time-Step Method Demonstrated for the HTTR LOFC#1 Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Robin Ivey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Balestra, Paolo [Univ. of Rome (Italy); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A collaborative effort between Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as part of the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group is underway to model the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) loss of forced cooling (LOFC) transient that was performed in December 2010. The coupled version of RELAP5-3D, a thermal fluids code, and PHISICS, a neutronics code, were used to model the transient. The focus of this report is to summarize the changes made to the PHISICS-RELAP5-3D code for implementing an adaptive time step methodology into the code for the first time, and to test it using the full HTTR PHISICS/RELAP5-3D model developed by JAEA and INL and the LOFC simulation. Various adaptive schemes are available based on flux or power convergence criteria that allow significantly larger time steps to be taken by the neutronics module. The report includes a description of the HTTR and the associated PHISICS/RELAP5-3D model test results as well as the University of Rome sub-contractor report documenting the adaptive time step theory and methodology implemented in PHISICS/RELAP5-3D. Two versions of the HTTR model were tested using 8 and 26 energy groups. It was found that most of the new adaptive methods lead to significant improvements in the LOFC simulation time required without significant accuracy penalties in the prediction of the fission power and the fuel temperature. In the best performing 8 group model scenarios, a LOFC simulation of 20 hours could be completed in real-time, or even less than real-time, compared with the previous version of the code that completed the same transient 3-8 times slower than real-time. A few of the user choice combinations between the methodologies available and the tolerance settings did however result in unacceptably high errors or insignificant gains in simulation time. The study is concluded with recommendations on which methods to use for this HTTR model. An important caveat is that these findings

  15. Lipidomic Adaptations in White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Response to Exercise Demonstrate Molecular Species-Specific Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis J. May

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise improves whole-body metabolic health through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue, but the effects of exercise training on the lipidome of white adipose tissue (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT are unknown. Here, we utilize MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics to determine the molecular signatures of exercise-induced adaptations to subcutaneous WAT (scWAT and BAT. Three weeks of exercise training decrease specific molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA, phosphatidylcholines (PC, phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, and phosphatidylserines (PS in scWAT and increase specific molecular species of PC and PE in BAT. Exercise also decreases most triacylglycerols (TAGs in scWAT and BAT. In summary, exercise-induced changes to the scWAT and BAT lipidome are highly specific to certain molecular lipid species, indicating that changes in tissue lipid content reflect selective remodeling in scWAT and BAT of both phospholipids and glycerol lipids in response to exercise training, thus providing a comprehensive resource for future studies of lipid metabolism pathways.

  16. Experimental demonstration of novel source-free ONUs in bidirectional RF up-converted optical OFDM-PON utilizing polarization multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Chen, Chen; Feng, Yuan; Qiu, Kun

    2012-03-12

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel cost-effective optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system, wherein all optical network units (ONUs) are source-free not only in the optical domain but also in the electric domain, by utilizing polarization multiplexing (PolMUX) in the downlink transmission. Two pure optical bands with a frequency interval of 10 GHz and downlink up-converted 10 GHz OFDM signal are carried in two orthogonal states of polarization (SOPs), respectively. 10 GHz radio frequency (RF) source can be generated by a heterodyne of two pure optical bands after polarization beam splitting in each ONU, therefore it can be used to down-convert the downlink OFDM signal and up-convert the uplink OFDM signal. In the whole bidirectional up-converted OFDM-PON system, only one single RF source is employed in the optical line terminal (OLT). Experimental results successfully verify the feasibility of our proposed cost-effective optical OFDM-PON system.

  17. Implementation and on-sky results of an optimal wavefront controller for the MMT NGS adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Keith B.; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

    2010-07-01

    The MMT observatory has recently implemented and tested an optimal wavefront controller for the NGS adaptive optics system. Open loop atmospheric data collected at the telescope is used as the input to a MATLAB based analytical model. The model uses nonlinear constrained minimization to determine controller gains and optimize the system performance. The real-time controller performing the adaptive optics close loop operation is implemented on a dedicated high performance PC based quad core server. The controller algorithm is written in C and uses the GNU scientific library for linear algebra. Tests at the MMT confirmed the optimal controller significantly reduced the residual RMS wavefront compared with the previous controller. Significant reductions in image FWHM and increased peak intensities were obtained in J, H and K-bands. The optimal PID controller is now operating as the baseline wavefront controller for the MMT NGS-AO system.

  18. Fast optimal wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics using the Fourier domain preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Curtis R; Yang, Qiang

    2006-08-21

    We present two different implementations of the Fourier domain preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm (FD-PCG) to efficiently solve the large structured linear systems that arise in optimal volume turbulence estimation, or tomography, for multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO). We describe how to deal with several critical technical issues, including the cone coordinate transformation problem and sensor subaperture grid spacing. We also extend the FD-PCG approach to handle the deformable mirror fitting problem for MCAO.

  19. Gender equity issues in astronomy: facts, fiction, and what the adaptive optics community can do to close the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orgeville, Céline; Rigaut, François; Maddison, Sarah; Masciadri, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Gender equality in modern societies is a topic that never fails to raise passion and controversy, in spite of the large body of research material and studies currently available to inform the general public and scientists alike. This paper brings the gender equity and equality discussion on the Adaptive Optics community doorstep. Its aim is threefold: (1) Raising awareness about the gender gap in science and astronomy in general, and in Adaptive Optics in particular; (2) Providing a snapshot of real and/or perceived causes for the gender gap existing in science and engineering; and (3) Presenting a range of practical solutions which have been or are being implemented at various institutions in order to bridge this gap and increase female participation at all levels of the scientific enterprise. Actual data will be presented to support aim (1), including existing gender data in science, engineering and astronomy, as well as original data specific to the Adaptive Optics community to be gathered in time for presentation at this conference. (2) will explore the often complex causes converging to explain gender equity issues that are deeply rooted in our male-dominated culture, including: conscious and unconscious gender biases in perceptions and attitudes, worklife balance, n-body problem, fewer numbers of female leaders and role models, etc. Finally, (3) will offer examples of conscious and pro-active gender equity measures which are helping to bring the female to male ratio closer to its desirable 50/50 target in science and astronomy.

  20. Adaptive grazing incidence optics for the next generation of x-ray observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, C.; Pearson, D.; Plinta, A.; Metro, B.; Lintz, E.; Shropshire, D.; Danner, R.

    2010-09-01

    Advances in X-ray astronomy require high spatial resolution and large collecting area. Unfortunately, X-ray telescopes with grazing incidence mirrors require hundreds of concentric mirror pairs to obtain the necessary collecting area, and these mirrors must be thin shells packed tightly together... They must also be light enough to be placed in orbit with existing launch vehicles, and able to be fabricated by the thousands for an affordable cost. The current state of the art in X-ray observatories is represented by NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory with 0.5 arc-second resolution, but only 400 cm2 of collecting area, and by ESA's XMM-Newton observatory with 4,300 cm2 of collecting area but only 15 arc-second resolution. The joint NASA/ESA/JAXA International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with {15,000 cm2 of collecting area and 5 arc-second resolution which is currently in the early study phase, is pushing the limits of passive mirror technology. The Generation-X mission is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 period. As currently conceived, Gen-X would be a follow-on to IXO with a collecting area >= 50 m2, a 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution. Gen-X would be launched in {2030 with a heavy lift Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Active figure control will be necessary to meet the challenging requirements of the Gen-X optics. In this paper we present our adaptive grazing incidence mirror design and the results from laboratory tests of a prototype mirror.

  1. The ARGOS laser system: green light for ground layer adaptive optics at the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Gässler, Wolfgang; Esposito, Simone; Barl, Lothar; Borelli, Jose; Daysenroth, Matthias; Gemperlein, Hans; Kulas, Martin; Ziegleder, Julian

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development of the laser system of ARGOS, the multiple laser guide star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system uses a total of six high powered, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers frequency-doubled to a wavelength of 532 nm to generate a set of three guide stars above each of the LBT telescopes. The position of each of the LGS constellations on sky as well as the relative position of the individual laser guide stars within this constellation is controlled by a set of steerable mirrors and a fast tip-tilt mirror within the laser system. The entire opto-mechanical system is housed in two hermetically sealed and thermally controlled enclosures on the SX and DX side of the LBT telescope. The laser beams are propagated through two refractive launch telescopes which focus the beams at an altitude of 12 km, creating a constellation of laser guide stars around a 4 arcminute diameter circle by means of Rayleigh scattering. In addition to the GLAO Rayleigh beacon system, ARGOS has also been designed for a possible future upgrade with a hybrid sodium laser - Rayleigh beacon combination, enabling diffraction limited operation. The ARGOS laser system was successfully installed at the LBT in April 2013. Extensive functional tests have been carried out and have verified the operation of the systems according to specifications. The alignment of the laser system with respect to the launch telescope was carried out during two more runs in June and October 2013, followed by the first propagation of laser light on sky in November 2013.

  2. On the power and offset allocation for rate adaptation of spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we consider resource allocation method in the visible light communication. It is challenging to achieve high data rate due to the limited bandwidth of the optical sources. In order to increase the spectral efficiency, we design a suitable multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system utilizing spatial multiplexing based on singular value decomposition and adaptive modulation. More specifically, after explaining why the conventional allocation method in radio frequency MIMO channels cannot be applied directly to the optical intensity channels, we theoretically derive a power allocation method for an arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas for optical wireless MIMO systems. Based on three key constraints: the nonnegativity of the intensity-modulated signal, the aggregate optical power budget, and the bit error rate requirement, we propose a novel method to allocate the optical power, the offset value, and the modulation size. Based on some selected simulation results, we show that our proposed allocation method gives a better spectral efficiency at the expense of an increased computational complexity in comparison to a simple method that allocates the optical power equally among all the data streams. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. On the power and offset allocation for rate adaptation of spatial multiplexing in optical wireless MIMO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Ko, Youngchai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider resource allocation method in the visible light communication. It is challenging to achieve high data rate due to the limited bandwidth of the optical sources. In order to increase the spectral efficiency, we design a suitable multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system utilizing spatial multiplexing based on singular value decomposition and adaptive modulation. More specifically, after explaining why the conventional allocation method in radio frequency MIMO channels cannot be applied directly to the optical intensity channels, we theoretically derive a power allocation method for an arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas for optical wireless MIMO systems. Based on three key constraints: the nonnegativity of the intensity-modulated signal, the aggregate optical power budget, and the bit error rate requirement, we propose a novel method to allocate the optical power, the offset value, and the modulation size. Based on some selected simulation results, we show that our proposed allocation method gives a better spectral efficiency at the expense of an increased computational complexity in comparison to a simple method that allocates the optical power equally among all the data streams. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Demonstration of tunable microwave photonic notch filters using slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel scheme based on slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers, to implement a microwave photonic notch filter with ~100% fractional tuning range at a microwave frequency of 30 GHz....

  5. Opto-mechanical design of ShaneAO: the adaptive optics system for the 3-meter Shane Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, C.; Cabak, J.; Gavel, D.; Kupke, R.; Dillon, D.; Gates, E.; Deich, W.; Ward, J.; Cowley, D.; Pfister, T.; Saylor, M.

    2014-07-01

    A Cassegrain mounted adaptive optics instrument presents unique challenges for opto-mechanical design. The flexure and temperature tolerances for stability are tighter than those of seeing limited instruments. This criteria requires particular attention to material properties and mounting techniques. This paper addresses the mechanical designs developed to meet the optical functional requirements. One of the key considerations was to have gravitational deformations, which vary with telescope orientation, stay within the optical error budget, or ensure that we can compensate with a steering mirror by maintaining predictable elastic behavior. Here we look at several cases where deformation is predicted with finite element analysis and Hertzian deformation analysis and also tested. Techniques used to address thermal deformation compensation without the use of low CTE materials will also be discussed.

  6. High-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Arakawa, Naoko; Oshima, Susumu; Shibata, Naohisa; Hanebuchi, Masaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2012-01-01

    To conduct high-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). AO-SLO images were obtained in 20 normal eyes at multiple locations in the posterior polar area and a circular path with a 3-4-mm diameter around the optic disc. For each eye, images focused on the RNFL were recorded and a montage of AO-SLO images was created. AO-SLO images for all eyes showed many hyperreflective bundles in the RNFL. Hyperreflective bundles above or below the fovea were seen in an arch from the temporal periphery on either side of a horizontal dividing line to the optic disc. The dark lines among the hyperreflective bundles were narrower around the optic disc compared with those in the temporal raphe. The hyperreflective bundles corresponded with the direction of the striations on SLO red-free images. The resolution and contrast of the bundles were much higher in AO-SLO images than in red-free fundus photography or SLO red-free images. The mean hyperreflective bundle width around the optic disc had a double-humped shape; the bundles at the temporal and nasal sides of the optic disc were narrower than those above and below the optic disc (Poptical coherence tomography correlated with the hyperreflective bundle widths on AO-SLO (Pfiber bundles and Müller cell septa. The widths of the nerve fiber bundles appear to be proportional to the RNFL thickness at equivalent distances from the optic disc.

  7. Demonstration of free-space optical communication for long-range data links between balloons on Project Loon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris; Keyes, Edward; Belt, Todd; Bowen, Oliver; Brinkley, Devin; Csonka, Paul; Eglington, Michael; Kazmierski, Andrei; Kim, Nam-hyong; Moody, John; Tu, Thanh; Vermeer, William

    2017-02-01

    Internet connectivity is limited and in some cases non-existent for a significant part of the world's population. Project Loon aims to address this with a network of high-altitude balloons traveling in the stratosphere, at an altitude of approximately 20 km. The balloons navigate by using the stratified wind layers at different altitudes, adjusting the balloon's altitude to catch winds in a desired direction. Data transfer is achieved by 1) uplinking a signal from an Internet-connected ground station to a balloon terminal, 2) crosslinking the signal through the balloon network to reach the geographic area of the users, and 3) downlinking the signal directly to the end-users' phones or other LTE-enabled devices. We describe Loon's progress on utilizing free-space optical communications (FSOC) for the inter-balloon crosslinks. FSOC, offering high data rates and long communication ranges, is well-suited for communication between high-altitude platforms. A stratospheric link is sufficiently high to be above weather events (clouds, fog, rain, etc.), and the impact of atmospheric turbulence is significantly weaker than at ground level. In addition, being in the stratosphere as opposed to space helps avoid the typical challenges faced by space-based systems, namely operation in a vacuum environment with significant radiation. Finally, the angular pointing disturbances introduced by a floating balloon-based platform are notably less than any propelled platform, which simplifies the disturbance rejection requirements on the FSOC system. We summarize results from Project Loon's early-phase experimental inter-balloon links at 20 km altitude, demonstrating full duplex 130 Mbps throughput at distances in excess of 100 km over the course of several-day flights. The terminals utilize a monostatic design, with dual wavelengths for communication and a dedicated wide-angle beacon for pointing, acquisition, and tracking. We summarize the constraints on the terminal design, and the

  8. THE PALOMAR/KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS SURVEY OF YOUNG SOLAR ANALOGS: EVIDENCE FOR A UNIVERSAL COMPANION MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metchev, Stanimir A.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from an adaptive optics survey for substellar and stellar companions to Sun-like stars. The survey targeted 266 F5-K5 stars in the 3 Myr-3 Gyr age range with distances of 10-190 pc. Results from the survey include the discovery of two brown dwarf companions (HD 49197B and HD 203030B), 24 new stellar binaries, and a triple system. We infer that the frequency of 0.012-0.072 M sun brown dwarfs in 28-1590 AU orbits around young solar analogs is 3.2 +3.1 -2.7 % (2σ limits). The result demonstrates that the deficiency of substellar companions at wide orbital separations from Sun-like stars is less pronounced than in the radial velocity 'brown dwarf desert'. We infer that the mass distribution of companions in 28-1590 AU orbits around solar-mass stars follows a continuous dN/dM 2 ∝ M -0.4 2 relation over the 0.01-1.0 M sun secondary mass range. While this functional form is similar to that for isolated objects less than 0.1 M sun , over the entire 0.01-1.0 M sun range, the mass functions of companions and of isolated objects differ significantly. Based on this conclusion and on similar results from other direct imaging and radial velocity companion surveys in the literature, we argue that the companion mass function follows the same universal form over the entire range between 0 and 1590 AU in orbital semimajor axis and ∼ 0.01-20 M sun in companion mass. In this context, the relative dearth of substellar versus stellar secondaries at all orbital separations arises naturally from the inferred form of the companion mass function.

  9. Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM): A multidisciplinary optical microscope design for large field of view and high resolution imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potsaid, B.; Bellouard, Y.J.; Wen, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    From micro-assembly to biological observation, the optical microscope remains one of the most important tools for observing below the threshold of the naked human eye. However, in its conventional form, it suffers from a trade-off between resolution and field of view. This paper presents a new

  10. First field demonstration of cloud datacenter workflow automation employing dynamic optical transport network resources under OpenStack and OpenFlow orchestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyrkowiec, Thomas; Autenrieth, Achim; Gunning, Paul; Wright, Paul; Lord, Andrew; Elbers, Jörg-Peter; Lumb, Alan

    2014-02-10

    For the first time, we demonstrate the orchestration of elastic datacenter and inter-datacenter transport network resources using a combination of OpenStack and OpenFlow. Programmatic control allows a datacenter operator to dynamically request optical lightpaths from a transport network operator to accommodate rapid changes of inter-datacenter workflows.

  11. Adaptive optics imaging of healthy and abnormal regions of retinal nerve fiber bundles of patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Monica F; Chui, Toco Y P; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Hood, Donald C

    2015-01-08

    To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage of the macula, especially the structural changes seen between relatively healthy and clearly abnormal (AB) retinal regions, using an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). Adaptive optics SLO images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) vertical line scans were obtained on one eye of seven glaucoma patients, with relatively deep local arcuate defects on the 10-2 visual field test in one (six eyes) or both hemifields (one eye). Based on the OCT images, the retinal nerve fiber (RNF) layer was divided into two regions: (1) within normal limits (WNL), relative RNF layer thickness within mean control values ±2 SD; and (2) AB, relative thickness less than -2 SD value. As seen on AO-SLO, the pattern of AB RNF bundles near the border of the WNL and AB regions differed across eyes. There were normal-appearing bundles in the WNL region of all eyes and AB-appearing bundles near the border with the AB region. This region with AB bundles ranged in extent from a few bundles to the entire AB region in the case of one eye. All other eyes had a large AB region without bundles. However, in two of these eyes, a few bundles were seen within this region of otherwise missing bundles. The AO-SLO images revealed details of glaucomatous damage that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with current OCT technology. Adaptive optics SLO may prove useful in following progression in clinical trials, or in disease management, if AO-SLO becomes widely available and easy to use. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakorn Preechaburana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm2. In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices.

  13. Three-State Locally Adaptive Texture Preserving Filter for Radar and Optical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko T. Astola

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Textural features are one of the most important types of useful information contained in images. In practice, these features are commonly masked by noise. Relatively little attention has been paid to texture preserving properties of noise attenuation methods. This stimulates solving the following tasks: (1 to analyze the texture preservation properties of various filters; and (2 to design image processing methods capable to preserve texture features well and to effectively reduce noise. This paper deals with examining texture feature preserving properties of different filters. The study is performed for a set of texture samples and different noise variances. The locally adaptive three-state schemes are proposed for which texture is considered as a particular class. For “detection” of texture regions, several classifiers are proposed and analyzed. As shown, an appropriate trade-off of the designed filter properties is provided. This is demonstrated quantitatively for artificial test images and is confirmed visually for real-life images.

  14. Optic Nerve Stimulation System with Adaptive Wireless Powering and Data Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To treat retinal degenerative diseases, a transcorneal electrical stimulation-based system is proposed, which consists of an eye implant and an external component. The eye implant is wirelessly powered and controlled by the external component to generate the required bi-polar current pattern for transcorneal stimulation with an amplitude range of 5 μA to 320 μA, a frequency range of 10 Hz to 160 Hz and a duty ratio range of 2.5% to 20%. Power delivery control includes power boosting in preparation for stimulation, and normal power regulation that adapts to both coupling and load variations. Only one pair of coils is used for both the power link and the bi-directional data link. Except for the secondary coil, the eye implant is fully integrated on chip and is fabricated using UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation, Hsinchu, Taiwan 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process with a size of 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm. The secondary coil is fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB with a diameter of only 4.4 mm. After coating with biocompatible silicone, the whole implant has dimensions of 6 mm in diameter with a thickness of less than 1 mm. The whole device can be put onto the sclera and beneath the eye’s conjunctiva. System functionality and electrical performance are demonstrated with measurement results.

  15. The Dimensions and Pole of Asteroid (21) Lutetia from Adaptive Optics Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, A.; Merline, W.; Carry, B.

    2009-09-01

    In a campaign to study the Rosetta mission target, asteroid (21) Lutetia, we obtained 81 images on December 2, 2008, at 2.12 microns with adaptive optics (AO) on the Keck-II 10 m telescope. From these nearly consecutive images obtained over a quarter of rotation, we have determined the asteroid's triaxial ellipsoid diameters to be 132x101x76 km, with formal uncertainties of 1 km for the equatorial dimensions, and 31 km for the shortest axis. This latter uncertainty occurs because the observations were made at the relatively high sub-Earth latitude of -69 degrees. From these observations we determine that Lutetia's pole lies at 2000.0 coordinates of RA=48, Dec=+9, or Ecliptic coordinates of [49;-8], with a formal uncertainty radius of 3 deg. (The other possible pole is eliminated by considering its lightcurve history.) The rotational pole derived for the lightcurve inversion model (available at http://astro.troja.mff.cuni.cz/ projects/asteroids3D/web.php), is only 5 deg from ours, but comparing our images to the lightcurve inversion model we find that Lutetia is more pointed than the model. Our technique of deriving the dimensions of asteroids from AO images has been calibrated against Pluto and 4 satellites of Saturn with precise diameters, and we find that any systematic errors can be no more than 1-3%. We acknowledge the assistance of other team members Christophe Dumas (ESO), Peter Tamblyn (SwRI), and Clark Chapman (SwRI). We also thank Hal Weaver (JHU/APL) as the lead for our collaboration with the Rosetta mission. We are grateful for telescope time made available to us by S. Kulkarni and M. Busch (Cal Tech) for a portion of our overall Lutetia effort. We also thank our collaborators on Team Keck, the Keck science staff, for making possible some of the Lutetia observations and for their participation. Additional Lutetia observations were acquired at Gemini North under NOAO time allocation.

  16. Laser Guidestar Satellite for Ground-based Adaptive Optics Imaging of Geosynchronous Satellites and Astronomical Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, W. A.; Cahoy, K.; Males, J.; Carlton, A.; Yoon, H.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time observation and monitoring of geostationary (GEO) satellites with ground-based imaging systems would be an attractive alternative to fielding high cost, long lead, space-based imagers, but ground-based observations are inherently limited by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to help ground telescopes achieve diffraction-limited seeing. AO systems have historically relied on the use of bright natural guide stars or laser guide stars projected on a layer of the upper atmosphere by ground laser systems. There are several challenges with this approach such as the sidereal motion of GEO objects relative to natural guide stars and limitations of ground-based laser guide stars; they cannot be used to correct tip-tilt, they are not point sources, and have finite angular sizes when detected at the receiver. There is a difference between the wavefront error measured using the guide star compared with the target due to cone effect, which also makes it difficult to use a distributed aperture system with a larger baseline to improve resolution. Inspired by previous concepts proposed by A.H. Greenaway, we present using a space-based laser guide starprojected from a satellite orbiting the Earth. We show that a nanosatellite-based guide star system meets the needs for imaging GEO objects using a low power laser even from 36,000 km altitude. Satellite guide star (SGS) systemswould be well above atmospheric turbulence and could provide a small angular size reference source. CubeSatsoffer inexpensive, frequent access to space at a fraction of the cost of traditional systems, and are now being deployed to geostationary orbits and on interplanetary trajectories. The fundamental CubeSat bus unit of 10 cm cubed can be combined in multiple units and offers a common form factor allowing for easy integration as secondary payloads on traditional launches and rapid testing of new technologies on-orbit. We describe a 6U CubeSat SGS measuring 10 cm x 20 cm x

  17. A convergent blind deconvolution method for post-adaptive-optics astronomical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato, M; Camera, A La; Bertero, M; Bonettini, S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a blind deconvolution method which applies to data perturbed by Poisson noise. The objective function is a generalized Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence, depending on both the unknown object and unknown point spread function (PSF), without the addition of regularization terms; constrained minimization, with suitable convex constraints on both unknowns, is considered. The problem is non-convex and we propose to solve it by means of an inexact alternating minimization method, whose global convergence to stationary points of the objective function has been recently proved in a general setting. The method is iterative and each iteration, also called outer iteration, consists of alternating an update of the object and the PSF by means of a fixed number of iterations, also called inner iterations, of the scaled gradient projection (SGP) method. Therefore, the method is similar to other proposed methods based on the Richardson–Lucy (RL) algorithm, with SGP replacing RL. The use of SGP has two advantages: first, it allows one to prove global convergence of the blind method; secondly, it allows the introduction of different constraints on the object and the PSF. The specific constraint on the PSF, besides non-negativity and normalization, is an upper bound derived from the so-called Strehl ratio (SR), which is the ratio between the peak value of an aberrated versus a perfect wavefront. Therefore, a typical application, but not a unique one, is to the imaging of modern telescopes equipped with adaptive optics systems for the partial correction of the aberrations due to atmospheric turbulence. In the paper, we describe in detail the algorithm and we recall the results leading to its convergence. Moreover, we illustrate its effectiveness by means of numerical experiments whose results indicate that the method, pushed to convergence, is very promising in the reconstruction of non-dense stellar clusters. The case of more complex astronomical targets

  18. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A MASSIVE GALAXY ASSOCIATED WITH A METAL-RICH ABSORBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Mark R.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Gharanfoli, Soheila; Takamiya, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    The damped and sub-damped Lyα absorption (DLA and sub-DLA) line systems in quasar spectra are believed to be produced by intervening galaxies. However, the connection of quasar absorbers to galaxies is not well-understood, since attempts to image the absorbing galaxies have often failed. While most DLAs appear to be metal poor, a population of metal-rich absorbers, mostly sub-DLAs, has been discovered in recent studies. Here we report high-resolution K-band imaging with the Keck laser guide star adaptive optics (LGSAO) system of the field of quasar SDSSJ1323-0021 in search of the galaxy producing the z = 0.72 sub-DLA absorber. With a metallicity of 2-4 times the solar level, this absorber is one of the most metal-rich systems found to date. Our data show a large bright galaxy with an angular separation of only 1.''25 from the quasar, well-resolved from the quasar at the high resolution of our data. The galaxy has a magnitude of K = 17.6-17.9, which corresponds to a luminosity of ∼3-6 L*. Morphologically, the galaxy is fitted with a model with an effective radius, enclosing half of the total light, of R e = 4 kpc and a bulge-to-total ratio of 0.4-1.0, indicating a substantial bulge stellar population. Based on the mass-metallicity relation of nearby galaxies, the absorber galaxy appears to have a stellar mass of ∼>10 11 M sun . Given the small impact parameter (9.0 kpc at the absorber redshift), this massive galaxy appears to be responsible for the metal-rich sub-DLA. The absorber galaxy is consistent with the metallicity-luminosity relation observed for nearby galaxies, but is near the upper end of metallicity. Our study marks the first application of LGSAO for the study of the structure of galaxies producing distant quasar absorbers. Finally, this study offers the first example of a massive galaxy with a substantial bulge producing a metal-rich absorber.

  19. An adaptive optics multiplicity census of young stars in Upper Scorpius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafrenière, David [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Jayawardhana, Ray; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Brandeker, Alexis [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Janson, Markus, E-mail: david@astro.umontreal.ca [Astrophysics Research Center, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    We present the results of a multiplicity survey of 91 stars spanning masses of ∼0.2-10 M {sub ☉} in the Upper Scorpius star-forming region, based on adaptive optics imaging with the Gemini North telescope. Our observations identified 29 binaries, 5 triples, and no higher order multiples. The corresponding raw multiplicity frequency is 0.37 ± 0.05. In the regime where our observations are complete—companion separations of 0.''1-5'' (∼15-800 AU) with magnitude limits ranging from K < 9.3 at 0.''1 to K < 15.8 at 5''—the multiplicity frequency is 0.27{sub −0.04}{sup +0.05}. For similar separations, the multiplicity frequency in Upper Scorpius is comparable to that in other dispersed star-forming regions, but is a factor of two to three higher than in denser star-forming regions or in the field. Our sample displays a constant multiplicity frequency as a function of stellar mass. Among our sample of binaries, we find that both wider (>100 AU) and higher-mass systems tend to have companions with lower companion-to-primary mass ratios. Three of the companions identified in our survey are unambiguously substellar and have estimated masses below 0.04 M {sub ☉} (two of them are new discoveries from this survey—1RXS J160929.1–210524b and HIP 78530B—although we have reported them separately in earlier papers). These three companions have projected orbital separations of 300-900 AU. Based on a statistical analysis factoring in sensitivity limits, we calculate an occurrence rate of 5-40 M {sub Jup} companions of ∼4.0% for orbital separations of 250-1000 AU, compared to <1.8% at smaller separations, suggesting that such companions are more frequent on wider orbits.

  20. New neighbours. III. 21 new companions to nearby dwarfs, discovered with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzit, J.-L.; Ségransan, D.; Forveille, T.; Udry, S.; Delfosse, X.; Mayor, M.; Perrier, C.; Hainaut, M.-C.; Roddier, C.; Roddier, F.; Martín, E. L.

    2004-10-01

    We present some results of a CFHT adaptive optics search for companions to nearby dwarfs. We identify 21 new components in solar neighbourhood systems, of which 13 were found while surveying a volume-limited sample of M dwarfs within 12 pc. We are obtaining complete observations for this subsample, to derive unbiased multiplicity statistics for the very-low-mass disk population. Additionally, we resolve for the first time 6 known spectroscopic or astrometric binaries, for a total of 27 newly resolved companions. A significant fraction of the new binaries has favourable parameters for accurate mass determinations. The newly resolved companion of Gl 120.1C was thought to have a spectroscopic minimum mass in the brown-dwarf range (Duquennoy & Mayor \\cite{duquennoy91}), and it contributed to the statistical evidence that a few percent of solar-type stars might have close-in brown-dwarf companions. We find that Gl 120.1C actually is an unrecognised double-lined spectroscopic pair. Its radial-velocity amplitude had therefore been strongly underestimated by Duquennoy & Mayor (\\cite{duquennoy91}), and it does not truly belong to their sample of single-lined systems with minimum spectroscopic mass below the substellar limit. We also present the first direct detection of Gl 494B, an astrometric brown-dwarf candidate. Its luminosity straddles the substellar limit, and it is a brown dwarf if its age is less than ˜300 Myr. A few more years of observations will ascertain its mass and status from first principles. Based on observations made at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France and the University of Hawaii. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The

  1. Two fiber optics communication adapters apply to the control system of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dan; Zhang Shuocheng; Jing Lan; Zhang Wei; Ma Yunhai

    2006-01-01

    The authors introduced two kinds of fiber adapters that apply to the engineering HIRFL-CSR. Including design of two adapters, operational principle, and hardware construction, field of application. How to control equipment which have the standard RS232 or RS485 interface at long distance by two adapters. Replace the RS485 bus with the fiber and the 485-Fiber Adapter, solved the problem of communication disturb. The requirements of control in the national great science engineering HIRFL-CSR are fulfilled. (authors)

  2. Neural mechanisms underlying spatial realignment during adaptation to optical wedge prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Heidi L; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Gavrilescu, Maria; Strudwick, Mark W; Loftus, Andrea; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-07-01

    Visuomotor adaptation to a shift in visual input produced by prismatic lenses is an example of dynamic sensory-motor plasticity within the brain. Prism adaptation is readily induced in healthy individuals, and is thought to reflect the brain's ability to compensate for drifts in spatial calibration between different sensory systems. The neural correlate of this form of functional plasticity is largely unknown, although current models predict the involvement of parieto-cerebellar circuits. Recent studies that have employed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions associated with prism adaptation have discovered patterns of parietal and cerebellar modulation as participants corrected their visuomotor errors during the early part of adaptation. However, the role of these regions in the later stage of adaptation, when 'spatial realignment' or true adaptation is predicted to occur, remains unclear. Here, we used fMRI to quantify the distinctive patterns of parieto-cerebellar activity as visuomotor adaptation develops. We directly contrasted activation patterns during the initial error correction phase of visuomotor adaptation with that during the later spatial realignment phase, and found significant recruitment of the parieto-cerebellar network--with activations in the right inferior parietal lobe and the right posterior cerebellum. These findings provide the first evidence of both cerebellar and parietal involvement during the spatial realignment phase of prism adaptation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Demonstration of Cascaded In-Line Single-Pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers in Recirculating Loop Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Ozolins, Oskars; An, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The performance of cascaded single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) is experimentally studied for the first time using recirculating loop transmission with 80-km dispersion managed spans. Error-free performance has been achieved over 320 km for 40-Gbit/s CSRZ-OOK and CSRZ...

  4. Demonstration and optimisation of an ultrafast all-optical AND logic gate using four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaghi, M; Nosratpour, A; Das, N K

    2013-01-01

    We have proposed an all-optical AND logic gate based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) integrated with an optical filter. In the scheme proposed, the preferred logical function can be performed without using a continuous-wave (cw) signal. The modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MNLSE) is used for the modelling wave propagation in a SOA. The MNLSE takes into account all nonlinear effects relevant to pico- and sub-picosecond pulse durations and is solved by the finite-difference beam-propagation method (FD-BPM). Based on the simulation results, the optimal output signal with a 40-fJ energy can be obtained at a bit rate of 50 Gb s -1 . In the simulations, besides the nonlinearities included in the model, the pattern effect of the signals propagating in the SOA medium and the effect of the input signal bit rate are extensively investigated to optimise the system performance. (optical logic elements)

  5. Experimental demonstration of an OpenFlow based software-defined optical network employing packet, fixed and flexible DWDM grid technologies on an international multi-domain testbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channegowda, M; Nejabati, R; Rashidi Fard, M; Peng, S; Amaya, N; Zervas, G; Simeonidou, D; Vilalta, R; Casellas, R; Martínez, R; Muñoz, R; Liu, L; Tsuritani, T; Morita, I; Autenrieth, A; Elbers, J P; Kostecki, P; Kaczmarek, P

    2013-03-11

    Software defined networking (SDN) and flexible grid optical transport technology are two key technologies that allow network operators to customize their infrastructure based on application requirements and therefore minimizing the extra capital and operational costs required for hosting new applications. In this paper, for the first time we report on design, implementation & demonstration of a novel OpenFlow based SDN unified control plane allowing seamless operation across heterogeneous state-of-the-art optical and packet transport domains. We verify and experimentally evaluate OpenFlow protocol extensions for flexible DWDM grid transport technology along with its integration with fixed DWDM grid and layer-2 packet switching.

  6. Statistical properties of single-mode fiber coupling of satellite-to-ground laser links partially corrected by adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuet, Lucien; Védrenne, Nicolas; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Artaud, Geraldine; Rissons, Angelique; Lacan, Jerome

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of satellite-to-ground laser downlinks, an analytical model describing the variations of the instantaneous coupled flux into a single-mode fiber after correction of the incoming wavefront by partial adaptive optics (AO) is presented. Expressions for the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function as well as for the average fading duration and fading duration distribution of the corrected coupled flux are given. These results are of prime interest for the computation of metrics related to coded transmissions over correlated channels, and they are confronted by end-to-end wave-optics simulations in the case of a geosynchronous satellite (GEO)-to-ground and a low earth orbit satellite (LEO)-to-ground scenario. Eventually, the impact of different AO performances on the aforementioned fading duration distribution is analytically investigated for both scenarios.

  7. Results from a portable Adaptive Optics system on the 1 meter telescope at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Sergio R.; Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Payne, Don M.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Martinez, Ty; DiVittorio, Michael; Mozurkewich, David; Friedman, Jeffrey

    2003-02-01

    In this paper we present results using a compact, portable adaptive optics system. The system was developed as a joint venture between the Naval Research Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory, and two small, New Mexico based-businesses. The system has a footprint of 18x24x18 inches and weighs less than 100 lbs. Key hardware design characteristics enable portability, easy mounting, and stable alignment. The system also enables quick calibration procedures, stable performance, and automatic adaptability to various pupil configurations. The system was tested during an engineering run in late July 2002 at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station one-meter telescope. Weather prevented extensive testing and the seeing during the run was marginal but a sufficient opportunity was provided for proof-of-concept, initial characterization of closed loop performance, and to start addressing some of the most pressing engineering and scientific issues.

  8. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M K ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency

  9. woptic: Optical conductivity with Wannier functions and adaptive k-mesh refinement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Assmann, E.; Wissgott, P.; Kuneš, Jan; Toschi, A.; Blaha, P.; Held, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 202, May (2016), s. 1-11 ISSN 0010-4655 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optical spectra * Wannier orbital Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.936, year: 2016

  10. NASA Laser Communications with Adaptive Optics and Linear Mode Photon Counting, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this effort, the Optical Sciences Company (tOSC) and Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) will team to provide NASA with a long range laser communications system for...

  11. Adaptively loaded IM/DD optical OFDM based on set-partitioned QAM formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Chen, Lian-Kuan

    2017-04-17

    We investigate the constellation design and symbol error rate (SER) of set-partitioned (SP) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) formats. Based on the SER analysis, we derive the adaptive bit and power loading algorithm for SP QAM based intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM/DD) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). We experimentally show that the proposed system significantly outperforms the conventional adaptively-loaded IM/DD OFDM and can increase the data rate from 36 Gbit/s to 42 Gbit/s in the presence of severe dispersion-induced spectral nulls after 40-km single-mode fiber. It is also shown that the adaptive algorithm greatly enhances the tolerance to fiber nonlinearity and allows for more power budget.

  12. Adaptive elimination of optical fiber transmission noise in fiber ocean bottom seismic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiuwen; Hu, Zhengliang; Cao, Chunyan; Dong, Hongsheng

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a pressure and acceleration insensitive reference Interferometer is used to obtain laser and public noise introduced by transmission fiber and laser. By using direct subtraction and adaptive filtering, this paper attempts to eliminate and estimation the transmission noise of sensing probe. This paper compares the noise suppression effect of four methods, including the direct subtraction (DS), the least mean square error adaptive elimination (LMS), the normalized least mean square error adaptive elimination (NLMS) and the least square (RLS) adaptive filtering. The experimental results show that the noise reduction effect of RLS and NLMS are almost the same, better than LMS and DS, which can reach 8dB (@100Hz). But considering the workload, RLS is not conducive to the real-time operating system. When it comes to the same treatment effect, the practicability of NLMS is higher than RLS. The noise reduction effect of LMS is slightly worse than that of RLS and NLMS, about 6dB (@100Hz), but its computational complexity is small, which is beneficial to the real time system implementation. It can also be seen that the DS method has the least amount of computational complexity, but the noise suppression effect is worse than that of the adaptive filter due to the difference of the noise amplitude between the RI and the SI, only 4dB (@100Hz) can be reached. The adaptive filter can basically eliminate the influence of the transmission noise, and the simulation signal of the sensor is kept intact.

  13. Fiber optic adaptation of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN for in-line measurements in PUREX process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerck, J.; Kraemer, K.; Koenig, W.

    1990-02-01

    The multicomponent version of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN was adapted by radiation resistant quartz glass optical fibers to in-line flow cells in the aqueous and organic bypass stream of an uranium laboratory extraction column. A combined photometric/electrolytical conductivity measurement allows this modified process instrument to be used as uranium/plutonium in-line monitor in radioactive process streams. By applying a high performance 100 W quartz halogen lamp and suitable light focussing optics the light intensity, attenuated by coupling losses, could be increased to the desired level even when 1000 μm-single strand fibers (2x18 m) were used to transmit the light. In a series of calibration experiments the U(VI)- and U(IV)-extinction coefficients were determined as a function of nitric acid molarity (for U(VI) also in TBP/kerosene). Furthermore the validity of Lambert-Beer's law was examined for both oxidation states at different optical path lengths and nitric acid/electrolytical conductivity calibration functions between 0-100 g/l U(VI) and 0-4 mol/l HNO 3 were set up. (orig./EF) [de

  14. Modeling satellite-Earth quantum channel downlinks with adaptive-optics coupling to single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruneisen, Mark T.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Sickmiller, Brett A.

    2017-12-01

    The efficient coupling of photons from a free-space quantum channel into a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) has important implications for quantum network concepts involving SMF interfaces to quantum detectors, atomic systems, integrated photonics, and direct coupling to a fiber network. Propagation through atmospheric turbulence, however, leads to wavefront errors that degrade mode matching with SMFs. In a free-space quantum channel, this leads to photon losses in proportion to the severity of the aberration. This is particularly problematic for satellite-Earth quantum channels, where atmospheric turbulence can lead to significant wavefront errors. This report considers propagation from low-Earth orbit to a terrestrial ground station and evaluates the efficiency with which photons couple either through a circular field stop or into an SMF situated in the focal plane of the optical receiver. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on the quantum channel are calculated numerically and quantified through the quantum bit error rate and secure key generation rates in a decoy-state BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations include the statistical nature of Kolmogorov turbulence, sky radiance, and an adaptive-optics system under closed-loop control.

  15. HIGH-REDSHIFT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: A MORPHOLOGY-SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION CONNECTION REVEALED BY KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R - [24]>14, i.e., f ν (24 μm)/f ν (R) ∼> 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 ± 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L IR > 10 12-14 ) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest-frame optical morphologies, we obtained high-spatial resolution (0.''05-0.''1) Keck Adaptive Optics K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including small exponential disks (eight of 15), small ellipticals (four of 15), and unresolved sources (two of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal-to-noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of AGN activity. Thus, central AGN light may be biasing the morphologies of the more luminous DOGs to higher concentration. Conversely, more diffuse DOGs tend to show an SED shape suggestive of star formation. Two of 15 in the sample show multiple resolved components with separations of ∼1 kpc, circumstantial evidence for ongoing mergers.

  16. Hermod: optical payload technology demonstrator flying on PROBA-V: overview of the payload development, testing and results after 1 year in orbit exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, S.; Blasco, J.; Henriksen, V.; Samuelsson, H.; Navasquillo, O.; Grimsgaard, M.; Mellab, K.

    2017-11-01

    Proba-V is the third mission of ESA's Programme for In-orbit Technology Demonstration (IOD), based on a small, high performance satellite platform and a compact payload. Besides, the main satellite instrument aiming at Vegetation imaging, Proba-V embarks five technological payloads providing early flight opportunities for novel instruments and space technologies. Successfully launched by the ESA VEGA launcher in May 2013, it has now completed its commissioning and the full calibration of platform, main instrument and additional payloads and is, since last October, fully operational. The High dEnsity space foRM cOnnector Demonstration or HERMOD is the last payload selected to fly on Proba-V. The payload objective is to validate through an actual launch and in orbit high-density optical fibre cable assembly, cumulate space heritage for fibre optics transmission and evaluate possible degradation induced by the space environment compared to on-ground tests. The future applications of this technology are for intrasatellite optical communications in view of mass reduction, the electrical grounding simplification and to increase the transmission rate. The project has been supported under an ESA GSTP contract. T&G Elektro (Norway) developed and tested the different optical cable assembly to be validated in the payload. The electrooptic modules, control, power and mechanical interfaces have been developed by DAS Photonics (Spain). The payload contains four optical channels to be studied through the experiment, two assemblies with MTP/PC connectors and two assemblies with MPO/APC connectors. Optical data is transmitted in the four independent channels using two optoelectronic conversion modules (SIOS) working at 100Mbps including 2 full duplex channels each. A FPGA is used to generate, receive and compare the different binary patterns. The number of errors (if any) and Bit Error Rate (BER) is sent to the satellite TM interface. HERMOD successfully went through all mechanical

  17. Diffractive generalized phase contrast for adaptive phase imaging and optical security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) when the input phase modulation is implemented using diffractive gratings. In GPC applications for patterned illumination, the use of a dynamic diffractive optical element for encoding the GPC input phase allows for onthe- fly optimiza...... security applications and can be used to create phasebased information channels for enhanced information security....

  18. SOFTWARE FOR SIMULATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF THE OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artioukhina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Programs for calculation and analysis of optical systems of any class are provides. The most effective was to combine the programs into a complex with the general system of mathematical models. A characteristic feature is to unify the exchange of information between these programs and software systems Opal and Zemax.

  19. Impact of design-parameters on the optical performance of a highpower adaptive mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Nijkerk, M.D.; Smeltink, J.A.; Dool, T.C. van den; Zwet, E.J. van; Baars, G.E. van

    2017-01-01

    TNO is developing a High Power Adaptive Mirror (HPAM) to be used in the CO2 laser beam path of an Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) light source for next-generation lithography. In this paper we report on a developed methodology, and the necessary simulation tools, to assess the performance and associated

  20. Motion adaptation leads to parsimonious encoding of natural optic flow by blowfly motion vision system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitwerth, J.; Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    Neurons sensitive to visual motion change their response properties during prolonged motion stimulation. These changes have been interpreted as adaptive and were concluded, for instance, to adjust the sensitivity of the visual motion pathway to velocity changes or to increase the reliability of

  1. Optical UWB pulse generator using an N tap microwave photonic filter and phase inversion adaptable to different pulse modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-30

    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally an optical architecture for flexible Ultra-Wideband pulse generation. It is based on an N-tap reconfigurable microwave photonic filter fed by a laser array by using phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. Since a large number of positive and negative coefficients can be easily implemented, UWB pulses fitted to the FCC mask requirements can be generated. As an example, a four tap pulse generator is experimentally demonstrated which complies with the FCC regulation. The proposed pulse generator allows different pulse modulation formats since the amplitude, polarity and time delay of generated pulse is controlled.

  2. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  3. Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X; Vahala, K; Li, J; Diddams, S; Ycas, G; Plavchan, P; Leifer, S; Sandhu, J; Vasisht, G; Chen, P; Gao, P; Gagne, J; Furlan, E; Bottom, M; Martin, E C; Fitzgerald, M P; Doppmann, G; Beichman, C

    2016-01-27

    An important technique for discovering and characterizing planets beyond our solar system relies upon measurement of weak Doppler shifts in the spectra of host stars induced by the influence of orbiting planets. A recent advance has been the introduction of optical frequency combs as frequency references. Frequency combs produce a series of equally spaced reference frequencies and they offer extreme accuracy and spectral grasp that can potentially revolutionize exoplanet detection. Here we demonstrate a laser frequency comb using an alternate comb generation method based on electro-optical modulation, with the comb centre wavelength stabilized to a molecular or atomic reference. In contrast to mode-locked combs, the line spacing is readily resolvable using typical astronomical grating spectrographs. Built using commercial off-the-shelf components, the instrument is relatively simple and reliable. Proof of concept experiments operated at near-infrared wavelengths were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Keck-II telescope.

  4. Experimental demonstration of bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Li, Yajie; Wang, Xinbo; Chen, Bowen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    A hierarchical software-defined networking (SDN) control architecture is designed for multi-domain optical networks with the Open Daylight (ODL) controller. The OpenFlow-based Control Virtual Network Interface (CVNI) protocol is deployed between the network orchestrator and the domain controllers. Then, a dynamic bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning solution is proposed based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks (SD-MDON). Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLG)-disjoint routing schemes are adopted to separate each tenant for reliability. The SD-MDON testbed is built based on the proposed hierarchical control architecture. Then the proposed time scheduling-based BoD (Ts-BoD) solution is experimentally demonstrated on the testbed. The performance of the Ts-BoD solution is evaluated with respect to blocking probability, resource utilization, and lightpath setup latency.

  5. Demonstration and Methodology of Structural Monitoring of Stringer Runs out Composite Areas by Embedded Optical Fiber Sensors and Connectors Integrated during Production in a Composite Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel Giraldo, Carlos; Zúñiga Sagredo, Juan; Sánchez Gómez, José; Corredera, Pedro

    2017-07-21

    Embedding optical fibers sensors into composite structures for Structural Health Monitoring purposes is not just one of the most attractive solutions contributing to smart structures, but also the optimum integration approach that insures maximum protection and integrity of the fibers. Nevertheless this intended integration level still remains an industrial challenge since today there is no mature integration process in composite plants matching all necessary requirements. This article describes the process developed to integrate optical fiber sensors in the Production cycle of a test specimen. The sensors, Bragg gratings, were integrated into the laminate during automatic tape lay-up and also by a secondary bonding process, both in the Airbus Composite Plant. The test specimen, completely representative of the root joint of the lower wing cover of a real aircraft, is comprised of a structural skin panel with the associated stringer run out. The ingress-egress was achieved through the precise design and integration of miniaturized optical connectors compatible with the manufacturing conditions and operational test requirements. After production, the specimen was trimmed, assembled and bolted to metallic plates to represent the real triform and buttstrap, and eventually installed into the structural test rig. The interrogation of the sensors proves the effectiveness of the integration process; the analysis of the strain results demonstrate the good correlation between fiber sensors and electrical gauges in those locations where they are installed nearby, and the curvature and load transfer analysis in the bolted stringer run out area enable demonstration of the consistency of the fiber sensors measurements. In conclusion, this work presents strong evidence of the performance of embedded optical sensors for structural health monitoring purposes, where in addition and most importantly, the fibers were integrated in a real production environment and the ingress

  6. Channel modelling for free-space optical inter-HAP links using adaptive ARQ transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Giggenbach, D.; Kirstädter, A.

    2014-10-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have seen significant developments in recent years due to growing need for very high data rates and tap-proof communication. The operation of an FSO link is suited to diverse variety of applications such as satellites, High Altitude Platforms (HAPs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), aircrafts, ground stations and other areas involving both civil and military situations. FSO communication systems face challenges due to different effects of the atmospheric channel. FSO channel primarily suffers from scintillation effects due to Index of Refraction Turbulence (IRT). In addition, acquisition and pointing becomes more difficult because of the high directivity of the transmitted beam: Miss-pointing of the transmitted beam and tracking errors at the receiver generate additional fading of the optical signal. High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) are quasi-stationary vehicles operating in the stratosphere. The slowly varying but precisely determined time-of-flight of the Inter-HAP channel adds to its characteristics. To propose a suitable ARQ scheme, proper theoretical understanding of the optical atmospheric propagation and modeling of a specific scenario FSO channel is required. In this paper, a bi-directional symmetrical Inter-HAP link has been selected and modeled. The Inter-HAP channel model is then investigated via simulations in terms of optical scintillation induced by IRT and in presence of pointing error. The performance characteristic of the model is then quantified in terms of fading statistics from which the Packet Error Probability (PEP) is calculated. Based on the PEP characteristics, we propose suitable ARQ schemes.

  7. Adaptive restoration of a partially coherent blurred image using an all-optical feedback interferometer with a liquid-crystal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Barnes, Thomas H

    2002-02-01

    A liquid-crystal adaptive optics system using all-optical feedback interferometry is applied to partially coherent imaging through a phase disturbance. A theoretical analysis based on the propagation of the cross-spectral density shows that the blurred image due to the phase disturbance can be restored, in principle, irrespective of the state of coherence of the light illuminating the object. Experimental verification of the theory has been performed for two cases when the object to be imaged is illuminated by spatially coherent light originating from a He-Ne laser and by spatially incoherent white light from a halogen lamp. We observed in both cases that images blurred by the phase disturbance were successfully restored, in agreement with the theory, immediately after the adaptive optics system was activated. The origin of the deviation of the experimental results from the theory, together with the effect of the feedback misalignment inherent in our optical arrangement, is also discussed.

  8. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  9. Large deflection angle, high-power adaptive fiber optics collimator with preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.

  10. Correlation Wave-Front Sensing Algorithms for Shack-Hartmann-Based Adaptive Optics using a Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poynee, L A

    2003-01-01

    Shack-Hartmann based Adaptive Optics system with a point-source reference normally use a wave-front sensing algorithm that estimates the centroid (center of mass) of the point-source image 'spot' to determine the wave-front slope. The centroiding algorithm suffers for several weaknesses. For a small number of pixels, the algorithm gain is dependent on spot size. The use of many pixels on the detector leads to significant propagation of read noise. Finally, background light or spot halo aberrations can skew results. In this paper an alternative algorithm that suffers from none of these problems is proposed: correlation of the spot with a ideal reference spot. The correlation method is derived and a theoretical analysis evaluates its performance in comparison with centroiding. Both simulation and data from real AO systems are used to illustrate the results. The correlation algorithm is more robust than centroiding, but requires more computation

  11. Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) real-time controller preliminary architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Dan; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) is the first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A critical component of NFIRAOS is the Real-Time Controller (RTC) subsystem which provides real-time wavefront correction by processing wavefront information to compute Deformable Mirror (DM) and Tip/Tilt Stage (TTS) commands. The National Research Council of Canada - Herzberg (NRC-H), in conjunction with TMT, has developed a preliminary design for the NFIRAOS RTC. The preliminary architecture for the RTC is comprised of several Linux-based servers. These servers are assigned various roles including: the High-Order Processing (HOP) servers, the Wavefront Corrector Controller (WCC) server, the Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server, the Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server, and additional testing and spare servers. There are up to six HOP servers that accept high-order wavefront pixels, and perform parallelized pixel processing and wavefront reconstruction to produce wavefront corrector error vectors. The WCC server performs low-order mode processing, and synchronizes and aggregates the high-order wavefront corrector error vectors from the HOP servers to generate wavefront corrector commands. The Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server is the RTC interface to TMT and other subsystems. The TED server receives all external commands and dispatches them to the rest of the RTC servers and is responsible for aggregating several offloading and telemetry values that are reported to other subsystems within NFIRAOS and TMT. The TED server also provides the engineering GUIs and real-time displays. The Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server contains fault tolerant data storage that receives and stores telemetry data, including data for Point-Spread Function Reconstruction (PSFR).

  12. Social Science at the Center for Adaptive Optics: Synergistic Systems of Program Evaluation, Applied Research, Educational Assessment, and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, B. K.; Hunter, L.; Shaw, J. M.; Metevier, A. J.; Raschke, L.; Espinoza, E.; Geaney, E. R.; Reyes, G.; Rothman, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction of four elements of social science as they have evolved in concert with the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program (CfAO PDP). We hope these examples persuade early-career scientists and engineers to include social science activities as they develop grant proposals and carry out their research. To frame our discussion we use a metaphor from astronomy. At the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), the CfAO PDP and the Educational Partnership Center (EPC) are two young stars in the process of forming a solar system. Together, they are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust made up of program evaluation, applied research, educational assessment, and pedagogy. An idea from the 2001 PDP intensive workshops program evaluation developed into the Assessing Scientific Inquiry and Leadership Skills (AScILS) applied research project. In iterative cycles, AScILS researchers participated in subsequent PDP intensive workshops, teaching social science while piloting AScILS measurement strategies. Subsequent "orbits" of the PDP program evaluation gathered ideas from the applied research and pedagogy. The denser regions of this disk of social science are in the process of forming new protoplanets as tools for research and teaching are developed. These tools include problem-solving exercises or simulations of adaptive optics explanations and scientific reasoning; rubrics to evaluate the scientific reasoning simulation responses, knowledge regarding inclusive science education, and student explanations of science/engineering inquiry investigations; and a scientific reasoning curriculum. Another applied research project is forming with the design of a study regarding how to assess engineering explanations. To illustrate the mutual shaping of the cross-disciplinary, intergenerational group of educational researchers and their projects, the paper ends with a description of the professional trajectories of some of the

  13. High performance pseudo-analytical simulation of multi-object adaptive optics over multi-GPU systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Gendron, É ric; Gratadour, Damien; Keyes, David E.; Ltaief, Hatem; Sevin, Arnaud; Vidal, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) is a novel adaptive optics (AO) technique dedicated to the special case of wide-field multi-object spectrographs (MOS). It applies dedicated wavefront corrections to numerous independent tiny patches spread over a large field of view (FOV). The control of each deformable mirror (DM) is done individually using a tomographic reconstruction of the phase based on measurements from a number of wavefront sensors (WFS) pointing at natural and artificial guide stars in the field. The output of this study helps the design of a new instrument called MOSAIC, a multi-object spectrograph proposed for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). We have developed a novel hybrid pseudo-analytical simulation scheme that allows us to accurately simulate in detail the tomographic problem. The main challenge resides in the computation of the tomographic reconstructor, which involves pseudo-inversion of a large dense symmetric matrix. The pseudo-inverse is computed using an eigenvalue decomposition, based on the divide and conquer algorithm, on multicore systems with multi-GPUs. Thanks to a new symmetric matrix-vector product (SYMV) multi-GPU kernel, our overall implementation scores significant speedups over standard numerical libraries on multicore, like Intel MKL, and up to 60% speedups over the standard MAGMA implementation on 8 Kepler K20c GPUs. At 40,000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale tomographic AO matrix solver submitted to computation, to date, to our knowledge and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  14. Noiseless imaging detector for adaptive optics with kHz frame rates

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J V; Mikulec, Bettina; Tremsin, A; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O H W; CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation AO wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused MCP read out by four multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN (â€ワMedipix2”) with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 512 x 512 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting) and can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 nanoseconds. When used in a Shack-Hartman style wavefront sensor, it should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest. A three year development effort for this detector technology has just been funded as part of the...

  15. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF VY CANIS MAJORIS AT 2-5 μm WITH LBT/LMIRCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Humphreys, Roberta M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Nelson, Matthew J.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya, E-mail: shenoy@astro.umn.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the K{sub s} , L', and M bands (2.15-4.8 μm) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope. The peculiar ''Southwest Clump'' previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 μm appears prominently in all three filters. We find its brightness is due almost entirely to scattering, with the contribution of thermal emission limited to at most 25%. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass for this single feature of 5 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} to 2.5 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed gas-to-dust ratio. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high-mass-loss events.

  16. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF VY CANIS MAJORIS AT 2-5 μm WITH LBT/LMIRCam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Marengo, Massimo; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Nelson, Matthew J.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the K s , L', and M bands (2.15-4.8 μm) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope. The peculiar ''Southwest Clump'' previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 μm appears prominently in all three filters. We find its brightness is due almost entirely to scattering, with the contribution of thermal emission limited to at most 25%. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass for this single feature of 5 × 10 –3 M ☉ to 2.5 × 10 –2 M ☉ depending on the assumed gas-to-dust ratio. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high-mass-loss events

  17. Adaptive Optics Imaging of VY Canis Majoris at 2-5 μm with LBT/LMIRCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Marengo, Massimo; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Nelson, Matthew J.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya

    2013-10-01

    We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the Ks , L', and M bands (2.15-4.8 μm) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope. The peculiar "Southwest Clump" previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 μm appears prominently in all three filters. We find its brightness is due almost entirely to scattering, with the contribution of thermal emission limited to at most 25%. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass for this single feature of 5 × 10-3 M ⊙ to 2.5 × 10-2 M ⊙ depending on the assumed gas-to-dust ratio. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high-mass-loss events. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  18. Adaptation and focusing of optode configurations for fluorescence optical tomography by experimental design methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, Manuel; Clason, Christian; Scharfetter, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence tomography excites a fluorophore inside a sample by light sources on the surface. From boundary measurements of the fluorescent light, the distribution of the fluorophore is reconstructed. The optode placement determines the quality of the reconstructions in terms of, e.g., resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio. We address the adaptation of the measurement setup. The redundancy of the measurements is chosen as a quality criterion for the optodes and is computed from the Jacobian of the mathematical formulation of light propagation. The algorithm finds a subset with minimum redundancy in the measurements from a feasible pool of optodes. This allows biasing the design in order to favor reconstruction results inside a given region. Two different variations of the algorithm, based on geometric and arithmetic averaging, are compared. Both deliver similar optode configurations. The arithmetic averaging is slightly more stable, whereas the geometric averaging approach shows a better conditioning of the sensitivity matrix and mathematically corresponds more closely with entropy optimization. Adapted illumination and detector patterns are presented for an initial set of 96 optodes placed on a cylinder with focusing on different regions. Examples for the attenuation of fluorophore signals from regions outside the focus are given.

  19. The wire optical test: a thorough analytical study in and out of caustic surface, and advantages of a dynamical adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Ortega-Vidals, Paula

    2018-03-01

    Among the best known non-interferometric optical tests are the wire test, the Foucault test and Ronchi test with a low frequency grating. Since the wire test is the seed to understand the other ones, the aim of the present work is to do a thorough study of this test for a lens with symmetry of revolution and to do this study for any configuration of the object and detection planes where both planes could intersect: two, one or no branches of the caustic region (including the marginal and paraxial foci). To this end, we calculated the vectorial representation for the caustic region, and we found the analytical expression for the pattern; we report that the analytical pattern explicitly depends on the magnitude of a branch of the caustic. With the analytical pattern we computed a set of simulations of a dynamical adaptation of the optical wire test. From those simulations, we have done a thorough analysis of the topological structure of the pattern; so we explain how the multiple image formation process and the image collapse process take place for each configuration, in particular, when both the wire and the detection planes are placed inside the caustic region, which has not been studied before. For the first time, we remark that not only the intersections of the object and detection planes with the caustic are important in the change of pattern topology; but also the projection of the intersection between the caustic and the object plane mapped onto the detection plane; and the virtual projection of the intersection between the caustic and the detection plane mapped onto the object plane. We present that for the new configurations of the optical system, the wire image is curves of the Tschirnhausen’s cubic, the piriform and the deformed eight-curve types.

  20. High-resolution imaging of retinal nerve fiber bundles in glaucoma using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Yoshida, Sachiko; Akagi, Tadamichi; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Nonaka, Atsushi; Hanebuchi, Masaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2013-05-01

    To detect pathologic changes in retinal nerve fiber bundles in glaucomatous eyes seen on images obtained by adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO SLO). Prospective cross-sectional study. Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with open-angle glaucoma and 21 normal eyes of 21 volunteer subjects underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, visual field testing using a Humphrey Field Analyzer, fundus photography, red-free SLO imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and imaging with an original prototype AO SLO system. The AO SLO images showed many hyperreflective bundles suggesting nerve fiber bundles. In glaucomatous eyes, the nerve fiber bundles were narrower than in normal eyes, and the nerve fiber layer thickness was correlated with the nerve fiber bundle widths on AO SLO (P fiber layer defect area on fundus photography, the nerve fiber bundles on AO SLO were narrower compared with those in normal eyes (P optic disc, the nerve fiber bundle width was significantly lower, even in areas without nerve fiber layer defect, in eyes with glaucomatous eyes compared with normal eyes (P = .026). The mean deviations of each cluster in visual field testing were correlated with the corresponding nerve fiber bundle widths (P = .017). AO SLO images showed reduced nerve fiber bundle widths both in clinically normal and abnormal areas of glaucomatous eyes, and these abnormalities were associated with visual field defects, suggesting that AO SLO may be useful for detecting early nerve fiber bundle abnormalities associated with loss of visual function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.