WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive modelling scheme

  1. Attitude determination using an adaptive multiple model filtering Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Quang; Ray, Surendra N.

    1995-05-01

    Attitude determination has been considered as a permanent topic of active research and perhaps remaining as a forever-lasting interest for spacecraft system designers. Its role is to provide a reference for controls such as pointing the directional antennas or solar panels, stabilizing the spacecraft or maneuvering the spacecraft to a new orbit. Least Square Estimation (LSE) technique was utilized to provide attitude determination for the Nimbus 6 and G. Despite its poor performance (estimation accuracy consideration), LSE was considered as an effective and practical approach to meet the urgent need and requirement back in the 70's. One reason for this poor performance associated with the LSE scheme is the lack of dynamic filtering or 'compensation'. In other words, the scheme is based totally on the measurements and no attempts were made to model the dynamic equations of motion of the spacecraft. We propose an adaptive filtering approach which employs a bank of Kalman filters to perform robust attitude estimation. The proposed approach, whose architecture is depicted, is essentially based on the latest proof on the interactive multiple model design framework to handle the unknown of the system noise characteristics or statistics. The concept fundamentally employs a bank of Kalman filter or submodel, instead of using fixed values for the system noise statistics for each submodel (per operating condition) as the traditional multiple model approach does, we use an on-line dynamic system noise identifier to 'identify' the system noise level (statistics) and update the filter noise statistics using 'live' information from the sensor model. The advanced noise identifier, whose architecture is also shown, is implemented using an advanced system identifier. To insure the robust performance for the proposed advanced system identifier, it is also further reinforced by a learning system which is implemented (in the outer loop) using neural networks to identify other unknown

  2. Scheme of adaptive polarization filtering based on Kalman model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Lizhong; Qi Haiming; Qiao Xiaolin; Meng Xiande

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of adaptive polarization filtering algorithm in order to suppress the angle cheating interference for the active guidance radar is presented. The polarization characteristic of the interference is dynamically tracked by using Kalman estimator under variable environments with time. The polarization filter parameters are designed according to the polarization characteristic of the interference, and the polarization filtering is finished in the target cell. The system scheme of adaptive polarization filter is studied and the tracking performance of polarization filter and improvement of angle measurement precision are simulated. The research results demonstrate this technology can effectively suppress the angle cheating interference in guidance radar and is feasible in engineering.

  3. Robust DTC-SVM Method for Matrix Converter Drives with Model Reference Adaptive Control Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo Beum; Huh, Sunghoi; Sim, Kyung-Hun;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust DTC-SVM control system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a matrix converter with variable structure - model reference adaptive control scheme (VS-MRAC). It is possible to combine the advantages of matrix converters with the advantages of the DTC...

  4. Acceleration of the chemistry solver for modeling DI engine combustion using dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Liang, Long; Ge, Hai-Wen; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2010-03-01

    Acceleration of the chemistry solver for engine combustion is of much interest due to the fact that in practical engine simulations extensive computational time is spent solving the fuel oxidation and emission formation chemistry. A dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) scheme based on a directed relation graph error propagation (DRGEP) method has been applied to study homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine combustion with detailed chemistry (over 500 species) previously using an R-value-based breadth-first search (RBFS) algorithm, which significantly reduced computational times (by as much as 30-fold). The present paper extends the use of this on-the-fly kinetic mechanism reduction scheme to model combustion in direct-injection (DI) engines. It was found that the DAC scheme becomes less efficient when applied to DI engine simulations using a kinetic mechanism of relatively small size and the accuracy of the original DAC scheme decreases for conventional non-premixed combustion engine. The present study also focuses on determination of search-initiating species, involvement of the NOx chemistry, selection of a proper error tolerance, as well as treatment of the interaction of chemical heat release and the fuel spray. Both the DAC schemes were integrated into the ERC KIVA-3v2 code, and simulations were conducted to compare the two schemes. In general, the present DAC scheme has better efficiency and similar accuracy compared to the previous DAC scheme. The efficiency depends on the size of the chemical kinetics mechanism used and the engine operating conditions. For cases using a small n-heptane kinetic mechanism of 34 species, 30% of the computational time is saved, and 50% for a larger n-heptane kinetic mechanism of 61 species. The paper also demonstrates that by combining the present DAC scheme with an adaptive multi-grid chemistry (AMC) solver, it is feasible to simulate a direct-injection engine using a detailed n-heptane mechanism with 543 species

  5. General solution to diagonal model matching control of multiple-output-delay systems and its applications in adaptive scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingmin Jia

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the model matching problem of multiple-output-delay systems in which the reference model is assigned to a diagonal transfer function matrix.A new model matching controller structure is first developed,and then,it is shown that the controller is feasible if and only if the sets of Diophantine equations have common solutions.The obtained controller allows a parametric representation,which shows that an adaptive scheme can be used to tolerate parameter variations in the plants.The resulting adaptive law can guarantee the global stability of the closed-loop systems and the convergence of the output error.

  6. An adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme for efficient state-parameter estimation of reactive contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Reactive contaminant transport models are used by hydrologists to simulate and study the migration and fate of industrial waste in subsurface aquifers. Accurate transport modeling of such waste requires clear understanding of the system\\'s parameters, such as sorption and biodegradation. In this study, we present an efficient sequential data assimilation scheme that computes accurate estimates of aquifer contamination and spatially variable sorption coefficients. This assimilation scheme is based on a hybrid formulation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and optimal interpolation (OI) in which solute concentration measurements are assimilated via a recursive dual estimation of sorption coefficients and contaminant state variables. This hybrid EnKF-OI scheme is used to mitigate background covariance limitations due to ensemble under-sampling and neglected model errors. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which cobalt-60, a radioactive contaminant, is leached in a saturated heterogeneous clayey sandstone zone. Assimilation experiments are investigated under different settings and sources of model and observational errors. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid EnKF-OI scheme successfully recovers both the contaminant and the sorption rate and reduces their uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses also suggest that the adaptive hybrid scheme remains effective with small ensembles, allowing to reduce the ensemble size by up to 80% with respect to the standard EnKF scheme. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Novel Link Adaptation Schemes for OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Ming; CAI Peng; XU Yue-shan; ZHANG Ping

    2003-01-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the most promising technique supporting the high data rate transmission. The combination of the link adaptation and OFDM can further increase the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we put forward two link adaptation schemes for OFDM system which have the advantages of both flexibility and practicability. Both of the two novel link adaptation schemes are based on the iterative mechanism to allocate the bit and power to subcarriers according to their channel gains and noisy levels which are assumed to be already known at the transmitter. The candidate modulation modes are determined freely before the link adaptation schemes are performed. The distinction between the two novel link adaptation schemes is that in the novel scheme A, the modulation mode is upgraded to the neighboring higher-order mode, while in the novel scheme B the modulation is upgraded to the genuine optimal mode. Therefore, the novel scheme A has the advantage of lower complexity and the novel scheme B has the advantage of higher spectral efficiency.

  8. A Multi-Moment Bulkwater Ice Microphysics Scheme with Consideration of the Adaptive Growth Habit and Apparent Density for Pristine Ice in the WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T. C.; Chen, J. P.; Dearden, C.

    2014-12-01

    The wide variety of ice crystal shapes and growth habits makes it a complicated issue in cloud models. This study developed the bulk ice adaptive habit parameterization based on the theoretical approach of Chen and Lamb (1994) and introduced a 6-class hydrometeors double-moment (mass and number) bulk microphysics scheme with gamma-type size distribution function. Both the proposed schemes have been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) model forming a new multi-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Two new moments of ice crystal shape and volume are included for tracking pristine ice's adaptive habit and apparent density. A closure technique is developed to solve the time evolution of the bulk moments. For the verification of the bulk ice habit parameterization, some parcel-type (zero-dimension) calculations were conducted and compared with binned numerical calculations. The results showed that: a flexible size spectrum is important in numerical accuracy, the ice shape can significantly enhance the diffusional growth, and it is important to consider the memory of growth habit (adaptive growth) under varying environmental conditions. Also, the derived results with the 3-moment method were much closer to the binned calculations. A field campaign of DIAMET was selected to simulate in the WRF model for real-case studies. The simulations were performed with the traditional spherical ice and the new adaptive shape schemes to evaluate the effect of crystal habits. Some main features of narrow rain band, as well as the embedded precipitation cells, in the cold front case were well captured by the model. Furthermore, the simulations produced a good agreement in the microphysics against the aircraft observations in ice particle number concentration, ice crystal aspect ratio, and deposition heating rate especially within the temperature region of ice secondary multiplication production.

  9. Robust adaptive fuzzy control scheme for nonlinear system with uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjun ZHANG; Huaguang ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive fuzzy control scheme for a class of nonlinear system with uncertainty is proposed. First, using prior knowledge about the plant we obtain a fuzzy model, which is called the generalized fuzzy hyperbolic model (GFHM). Secondly, for the case that the states of the system are not available an observer is designed and a robust adaptive fuzzy output feedback control scheme is developed. The overall control system guarantees that the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of origin and that all signals involved are uniformly bounded. The main advantages of the proposed control scheme are that the human knowledge about the plant under control can be used to design the controller and only one parameter in the adaptive mechanism needs to be on-line adjusted.

  10. A systematic approach for the accurate non-invasive estimation of blood glucose utilizing a novel light-tissue interaction adaptive modelling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media

  11. A cross-layer adaptive transmission scheme over correlated fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Junfeng; QIU Jing; CHENG Shiduan

    2007-01-01

    Conventional adaptive transmission schemes perform poorly in wireless correlated slow-fading channels.A cross-layer adaptive transmission scheme combined with selective repeat automatic repeat request(SR-ARQ)is proposed.We apply a multi-state Markov system model for analyzing the performance of systems and optimizing the selection of modulation levels and packet sizes in correlated fading channels,which is also described by a finite-state Markov chain.A general closed-form expression of the average throughput for our suggested scheme is presented.Numerical results show that our adaptive scheme combined with SR-ARQ can obtain good performance in correlated fading channels.

  12. Effect of spatial configuration of an extended nonlinear Kierstead-Slobodkin reaction-transport model with adaptive numerical scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Kolade M; Patidar, Kailash C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the numerical simulations of an extended nonlinear form of Kierstead-Slobodkin reaction-transport system in one and two dimensions. We employ the popular fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta (ETDRK4) schemes proposed by Cox and Matthew (J Comput Phys 176:430-455, 2002), that was modified by Kassam and Trefethen (SIAM J Sci Comput 26:1214-1233, 2005), for the time integration of spatially discretized partial differential equations. We demonstrate the supremacy of ETDRK4 over the existing exponential time differencing integrators that are of standard approaches and provide timings and error comparison. Numerical results obtained in this paper have granted further insight to the question 'What is the minimal size of the spatial domain so that the population persists?' posed by Kierstead and Slobodkin (J Mar Res 12:141-147, 1953), with a conclusive remark that the population size increases with the size of the domain. In attempt to examine the biological wave phenomena of the solutions, we present the numerical results in both one- and two-dimensional space, which have interesting ecological implications. Initial data and parameter values were chosen to mimic some existing patterns. PMID:27064984

  13. Synchronization of general complex networks via adaptive control schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ping He; Chun-Guo Jing; Chang-Zhong Chen; Tao Fan; Hassan Saberi Nik

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the synchronization problem of general complex networks is investigated by using adaptive control schemes. Time-delay coupling, derivative coupling, nonlinear coupling etc. exist universally in real-world complex networks. The adaptive synchronization scheme is designed for the complex network with multiple class of coupling terms. A criterion guaranteeing synchronization of such complex networks is established by employing the Lyapunov stability theorem and adaptive control schemes. Finally, an illustrative example with numerical simulation is given to show the feasibility and efficiency of theoretical results.

  14. Adaptive actuator failure compensation and disturbance rejection scheme for spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelian Yao; Gang Tao; Ruiyun Qi

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive actuator failure compensation scheme is proposed for attitude tracking control of spacecraft with unknown disturbances and uncertain actuator failures. A new feature of this adaptive control scheme is the adaptation of the failure pattern parameter estimates, as wel as the failure signal parameter es-timates, for direct adaptive actuator failure compensation. Based on an adaptive backstepping control design, the estimates of the disturbance parameters are used to solve the disturbance rejection problem. The unknown disturbances are compensated completely with the stability of the whole closed-loop system. The scheme is not only able to accommodate uncertain actuator failures, but also robust against unknown external disturbances. Simulation results verify the desired adaptive actuator failure compensation perfor-mance.

  15. Adaptive SPC monitoring scheme for DOE-based APC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Liang; Pan Ershun; Xi Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    Automatic process control (APC) based on design of experiment (DOE) is a cost-efficient approach for variation reduction. The process changes both in mean and variance owing to online parameter adjustment make it hard to apply traditional SPC charts in such DOE-based APC applied process. An adaptive SPC scheme is developed, which can better track the process transitions and achieve the possible SPC run cost reduction when the process is stable. The control law of SPC parameters is designed by fully utilizing the estimation properties of the process model instead of traditionally using the data collected from the production line. An example is provided to illustrate the proposed adaptive SPC design approach.

  16. Adaptive Image Transmission Scheme over Wavelet-Based OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOXinying; YUANDongfeng; ZHANGHaixia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive image transmission scheme is proposed over Wavelet-based OFDM (WOFDM) system with Unequal error protection (UEP) by the design of non-uniform signal constellation in MLC. Two different data division schemes: byte-based and bitbased, are analyzed and compared. Different bits are protected unequally according to their different contribution to the image quality in bit-based data division scheme, which causes UEP combined with this scheme more powerful than that with byte-based scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that image transmission by UEP with bit-based data division scheme presents much higher PSNR values and surprisingly better image quality. Furthermore, by considering the tradeoff of complexity and BER performance, Haar wavelet with the shortest compactly supported filter length is the most suitable one among orthogonal Daubechies wavelet series in our proposed system.

  17. An Improved Scalar Costa Scheme Based on Watson Perceptual Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Kai-yue; CHEN Jian-bo; ZHOU Yi

    2008-01-01

    An improved scalar Costa scheme (SCS) was proposed by using improved Watson perceptual model to adaptively decide quantization step size and scaling factor. The improved scheme equals to embed hiding data based on an actual image. In order to withstand amplitude scaling attack, the Watson perceptual model was redefined, and the improved scheme using the new definition can insure quantization step size in decoder that is proportional to amplitude scaling attack factor. The performance of the improved scheme outperforms that of SCS with fixed quantization step size. The improved scheme combines information theory and visual model.

  18. Chaos Synchronization in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky Chemical Reaction by Adaptive Control Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Yan-Ni(李艳妮); CHEN,Lan(陈兰); CAI,Zun-Sheng(蔡遵生); ZHAO,Xue-Zhuang(赵学庄)

    2002-01-01

    The adaptive synchronization scheme proposed by John and Amritkar was employed into the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) 4-variable-Montanator model system. By the parameter adjustment, chaos synchronization has been obtained. Through calculating thetransient time, the optimal combination of the stiffness constant and damping constant was obtained. Furthermore, the relationships among the transient time, conditional Lyapunov exponents, the stiffness constant and damping constant were discussed. Also, the BZ system with the adaptive synchronization scheme might be used for the communication purposes.

  19. Adaptable Iterative and Recursive Kalman Filter Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear filters are often very computationally expensive and usually not suitable for real-time applications. Real-time navigation algorithms are typically based on linear estimators, such as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and, to a much lesser extent, the unscented Kalman filter. The Iterated Kalman filter (IKF) and the Recursive Update Filter (RUF) are two algorithms that reduce the consequences of the linearization assumption of the EKF by performing N updates for each new measurement, where N is the number of recursions, a tuning parameter. This paper introduces an adaptable RUF algorithm to calculate N on the go, a similar technique can be used for the IKF as well.

  20. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2013-06-01

    We propose three adaptive transmission techniques aiming to maximize the capacity of a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) secondary system under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network. In the first scheme, namely the best antenna selection (BAS) scheme, the antenna maximizing the capacity of the secondary link is used for transmission. We then propose an orthogonal space time bloc code (OSTBC) transmission scheme using the Alamouti scheme with transmit antenna selection (TAS), namely the TAS/STBC scheme. The performance improvement offered by this scheme comes at the expense of an increased complexity and delay when compared to the BAS scheme. As a compromise between these schemes, we propose a hybrid scheme using BAS when only one antenna verifies the interference condition and TAS/STBC when two or more antennas are illegible for communication. We first derive closed-form expressions of the statistics of the received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at the secondary receiver (SR). These results are then used to analyze the performance of the proposed techniques in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of transmit antennas, and the average bit error rate (BER). This performance is then illustrated via selected numerical examples. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Adaptive Noise Reduction Scheme for Salt and Pepper

    CERN Document Server

    Gebreyohannes, Tina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new adaptive noise reduction scheme for images corrupted by impulse noise is presented. The proposed scheme efficiently identifies and reduces salt and pepper noise. MAG (Mean Absolute Gradient) is used to identify pixels which are most likely corrupted by salt and pepper noise that are candidates for further median based noise reduction processing. Directional filtering is then applied after noise reduction to achieve a good tradeoff between detail preservation and noise removal. The proposed scheme can remove salt and pepper noise with noise density as high as 90% and produce better result in terms of qualitative and quantitative measures of images.

  2. Semantic HyperMultimedia Adaptation Schemes and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bieliková, Mária; Mylonas, Phivos; Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more users are witnessing the impact of Hypermedia/Multimedia as well as the penetration of social applications in their life. Parallel to the evolution of the Internet and Web, several Hypermedia/Multimedia schemes and technologies bring semantic-based intelligent, personalized and adaptive services to the end users. More and more techniques are applied in media systems in order to be user/group-centric, adapting to different content and context features of a single or a community user. In respect to all the above, researchers need to explore and study the plethora of challenges that emergent personalisation and adaptation technologies bring to the new era. This edited volume aims to increase the awareness of researchers in this area. All contributions provide an in-depth investigation on research and deployment issues, regarding already introduced schemes and applications in Semantic Hyper/Multimedia and Social Media Adaptation. Moreover, the authors provide survey-based articles, so as p...

  3. Adaptive Mesh Redistibution Method Based on Godunov's Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Azarenok, Boris N.; Ivanenko, Sergey A.; Tang, Tao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a detailed description for an efficent adaptive mesh redistribution algorithm based on the Godunov's scheme is presented. After each mesh iteration a second-order finite-volume flow solver is used to update the flow parameters at the new time level directly without using interpolation. Numerical experiments are perfomed to demonstrate the efficency and robustness of the proposed adaptive mesh algorithm in one and two dimensions.

  4. Adaptive IMEX schemes for high-order unstructured methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Brian C.; Nadarajah, Siva

    2015-01-01

    We present an adaptive implicit-explicit (IMEX) method for use with high-order unstructured schemes. The proposed method makes use of the Gerschgorin theorem to conservatively estimate the influence of each individual degree of freedom on the spectral radius of the discretization. This information is used to split the system into implicit and explicit regions, adapting to unsteady features in the flow. We dynamically repartition the domain to balance the number of implicit and explicit elements per core. As a consequence, we are able to achieve an even load balance for each implicit/explicit stage of the IMEX scheme. We investigate linear advection-diffusion, isentropic vortex advection, unsteady laminar flow over an SD7003 airfoil, and turbulent flow over a circular cylinder. Results show that the proposed method consistently yields a stable discretization, and maintains the theoretical order of accuracy of the high-order spatial schemes.

  5. Low color distortion adaptive dimming scheme for power efficient LCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyoungsik; Song, Eun-Ji

    2013-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the color compensation algorithm to reduce the color distortion caused by mismatches between the reference gamma value of a dimming algorithm and the display gamma values of an LCD panel in a low power adaptive dimming scheme. In 2010, we presented the YrYgYb algorithm, which used the display gamma values extracted from the luminance data of red, green, and blue sub-pixels, Yr, Yg, and Yb, with the simulation results. It was based on the ideal panel model where the color coordinates were maintained at the fixed values over the gray levels. Whereas, this work introduces an XrYgZb color compensation algorithm which obtains the display gamma values of red, green, and blue from the different tri-stimulus data of Xr, Yg, and Zb, to obtain further reduction on the color distortion. Both simulation and measurement results ensure that a XrYgZb algorithm outperforms a previous YrYgYb algorithm. In simulation which has been conducted at the practical model derived from the measured data, the XrYgZb scheme achieves lower maximum and average color difference values of 3.7743 and 0.6230 over 24 test picture images, compared to 4.864 and 0.7156 in the YrYgYb one. In measurement of a 19-inch LCD panel, the XrYgZb method also accomplishes smaller color difference values of 1.444072 and 5.588195 over 49 combinations of red, green, and blue data, compared to 1.50578 and 6.00403 of the YrYgYb at the backlight dimming ratios of 0.85 and 0.4.

  6. Power adaptation for joint switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2012-09-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using transmit power adaptation, switched transmit diversity, and adaptive modulation in order to improve the performance of existing switching efficient schemes (SES) and bandwidth efficient schemes (BES). Taking advantage of the channel reciprocity principle, we assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the interference link is available to the secondary transmitter. This information is then used by the secondary transmitter to adapt its transmit power, modulation constellation size, and used transmit branch. The goal of this joint adaptation is to minimize the average number of switched branches and the average system delay given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. We analyze the proposed scheme in terms of the average number of branch switching, average delay, and we provide a closed-form expression of the average bit error rate (BER). We demonstrate through numerical examples that the proposed scheme provides a compromise between the SES and the BES schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiangguang; Ji, Kefeng; Zhou, Shilin; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way. PMID:27563902

  8. An Adaptive Lossless Data Compression Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gana Kolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an important consideration in the design and deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs since sensor nodes are typically powered by batteries with limited capacity. Since the communication unit on a wireless sensor node is the major power consumer, data compression is one of possible techniques that can help reduce the amount of data exchanged between wireless sensor nodes resulting in power saving. However, wireless sensor networks possess significant limitations in communication, processing, storage, bandwidth, and power. Thus, any data compression scheme proposed for WSNs must be lightweight. In this paper, we present an adaptive lossless data compression (ALDC algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Our proposed ALDC scheme performs compression losslessly using multiple code options. Adaptive compression schemes allow compression to dynamically adjust to a changing source. The data sequence to be compressed is partitioned into blocks, and the optimal compression scheme is applied for each block. Using various real-world sensor datasets we demonstrate the merits of our proposed compression algorithm in comparison with other recently proposed lossless compression algorithms for WSNs.

  9. A Model of Hierarchical Key Assignment Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhigang; ZHAO Jing; XU Maozhi

    2006-01-01

    A model of the hierarchical key assignment scheme is approached in this paper, which can be used with any cryptography algorithm. Besides, the optimal dynamic control property of a hierarchical key assignment scheme will be defined in this paper. Also, our scheme model will meet this property.

  10. A NOVEL LINK ADAPTATION SCHEME TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE OF IEEE 802.11G WIRELESS LAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel link adaptation scheme using linear Auto Regressive (AR) model channel estimation algorithm to enhance the performance of auto rate selection mechanism in IEEE 802.11g is proposed. This scheme can overcome the low efficiency caused by time interval between the time when Received Signal Strength (RSS) is measured and the time when rate is selected. The best rate is selected based on data payload length, frame retry count and the estimated RSS, which is estimated from recorded RSSs. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme enhances mean throughput performance up to 7%, in saturation state,and up to 24% in finite load state compared with those non-estimation schemes, performance enhancements in average drop rate and average number of transmission attempts per data frame delivery also validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. On Optimization Control Parameters in an Adaptive Error-Control Scheme in Satellite Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Vojinović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for optimization of control parameters of an adaptive GBN scheme in error-prone satellite channel. Method is based on the channel model with three state, where channel have the variable noise level.

  12. Towards Adaptive High-Resolution Images Retrieval Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgli, A.; Sebai, H.; Bouteldja, S.; Oukil, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, content-based image-retrieval techniques constitute powerful tools for archiving and mining of large remote sensing image databases. High spatial resolution images are complex and differ widely in their content, even in the same category. All images are more or less textured and structured. During the last decade, different approaches for the retrieval of this type of images have been proposed. They differ mainly in the type of features extracted. As these features are supposed to efficiently represent the query image, they should be adapted to all kind of images contained in the database. However, if the image to recognize is somewhat or very structured, a shape feature will be somewhat or very effective. While if the image is composed of a single texture, a parameter reflecting the texture of the image will reveal more efficient. This yields to use adaptive schemes. For this purpose, we propose to investigate this idea to adapt the retrieval scheme to image nature. This is achieved by making some preliminary analysis so that indexing stage becomes supervised. First results obtained show that by this way, simple methods can give equal performances to those obtained using complex methods such as the ones based on the creation of bag of visual word using SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) descriptors and those based on multi scale features extraction using wavelets and steerable pyramids.

  13. Adaptive spatially dependent weighting scheme for tomosynthesis reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levakhina, Yulia; Duschka, Robert; Vogt, Florian; Barkhausen, JOErg; Buzug, Thorsten M.

    2012-03-01

    Digital Tomosynthesis (DT) is an x-ray limited-angle imaging technique. An accurate image reconstruction in tomosynthesis is a challenging task due to the violation of the tomographic sufficiency conditions. A classical "shift-and-add" algorithm (or simple backprojection) suffers from blurring artifacts, produced by structures located above and below the plane of interest. The artifact problem becomes even more prominent in the presence of materials and tissues with a high x-ray attenuation, such as bones, microcalcifications or metal. The focus of the current work is on reduction of ghosting artifacts produced by bones in the musculoskeletal tomosynthesis. A novel dissimilarity concept and a modified backprojection with an adaptive spatially dependent weighting scheme (ωBP) are proposed. Simulated data of software phantom, a structured hardware phantom and a human hand raw-data acquired with a Siemens Mammomat Inspiration tomosynthesis system were reconstructed using conventional backprojection algorithm and the new ωBP-algorithm. The comparison of the results to the non-weighted case demonstrates the potential of the proposed weighted backprojection to reduce the blurring artifacts in musculoskeletal DT. The proposed weighting scheme is not limited to the tomosynthesis limitedangle geometry. It can also be adapted for Computed Tomography (CT) and included in iterative reconstruction algorithms (e.g. SART).

  14. An Adaptive Motion Estimation Scheme for Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsymmetrical-cross multihexagon-grid search (UMHexagonS is one of the best fast Motion Estimation (ME algorithms in video encoding software. It achieves an excellent coding performance by using hybrid block matching search pattern and multiple initial search point predictors at the cost of the computational complexity of ME increased. Reducing time consuming of ME is one of the key factors to improve video coding efficiency. In this paper, we propose an adaptive motion estimation scheme to further reduce the calculation redundancy of UMHexagonS. Firstly, new motion estimation search patterns have been designed according to the statistical results of motion vector (MV distribution information. Then, design a MV distribution prediction method, including prediction of the size of MV and the direction of MV. At last, according to the MV distribution prediction results, achieve self-adaptive subregional searching by the new estimation search patterns. Experimental results show that more than 50% of total search points are dramatically reduced compared to the UMHexagonS algorithm in JM 18.4 of H.264/AVC. As a result, the proposed algorithm scheme can save the ME time up to 20.86% while the rate-distortion performance is not compromised.

  15. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-08-01

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task—especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  16. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-08-28

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task-especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version. PMID:27586901

  17. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalewski, Markus; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task -- especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior is evaluated for a model function in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  18. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness.

  19. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  20. An Adaptive Estimation Scheme for Open-Circuit Voltage of Power Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-circuit voltage (OCV is one of the most important parameters in determining state of charge (SoC of power battery. The direct measurement of it is costly and time consuming. This paper describes an adaptive scheme that can be used to derive OCV of the power battery. The scheme only uses the measurable input (terminal current and the measurable output (terminal voltage signals of the battery system and is simple enough to enable online implement. Firstly an equivalent circuit model is employed to describe the polarization characteristic and the dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery; the state-space representation of the electrical performance for the battery is obtained based on the equivalent circuit model. Then the implementation procedure of the adaptive scheme is given; also the asymptotic convergence of the observer error and the boundedness of all the parameter estimates are proven. Finally, experiments are carried out, and the effectiveness of the adaptive estimation scheme is validated by the experimental results.

  1. An adaptive additive inflation scheme for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Matthias; Janjic, Tijana

    2016-04-01

    Data assimilation for atmospheric dynamics requires an accurate estimate for the uncertainty of the forecast in order to obtain an optimal combination with available observations. This uncertainty has two components, firstly the uncertainty which originates in the the initial condition of that forecast itself and secondly the error of the numerical model used. While the former can be approximated quite successfully with an ensemble of forecasts (an additional sampling error will occur), little is known about the latter. For ensemble data assimilation, ad-hoc methods to address model error include multiplicative and additive inflation schemes, possibly also flow-dependent. The additive schemes rely on samples for the model error e.g. from short-term forecast tendencies or differences of forecasts with varying resolutions. However since these methods work in ensemble space (i.e. act directly on the ensemble perturbations) the sampling error is fixed and can be expected to affect the skill substiantially. In this contribution we show how inflation can be generalized to take into account more degrees of freedom and what improvements for future operational ensemble data assimilation can be expected from this, also in comparison with other inflation schemes.

  2. Adaptive Decision-Making Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Radio resource management becomes an important aspect of the current wireless networks because of spectrum scarcity and applications heterogeneity. Cognitive radio is a potential candidate for resource management because of its capability to satisfy the growing wireless demand and improve network efficiency. Decision-making is the main function of the radio resources management process as it determines the radio parameters that control the use of these resources. In this paper, we propose an adaptive decision-making scheme (ADMS) for radio resources management of different types of network applications including: power consuming, emergency, multimedia, and spectrum sharing. ADMS exploits genetic algorithm (GA) as an optimization tool for decision-making. It consists of the several objective functions for the decision-making process such as minimizing power consumption, packet error rate (PER), delay, and interference. On the other hand, maximizing throughput and spectral efficiency. Simulation results and test bed evaluation demonstrate ADMS functionality and efficiency.

  3. Development of three-dimensional hydrodynamical and MHD codes using Adaptive Mesh Refinement scheme with TVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    den, M.; Yamashita, K.; Ogawa, T.

    A three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical (HD) and magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulation codes using an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme are developed. This method places fine grids over areas of interest such as shock waves in order to obtain high resolution and places uniform grids with lower resolution in other area. Thus AMR scheme can provide a combination of high solution accuracy and computational robustness. We demonstrate numerical results for a simplified model of a shock propagation, which strongly indicate that the AMR techniques have the ability to resolve disturbances in an interplanetary space. We also present simulation results for MHD code.

  4. Kinematic dynamos using constrained transport with high order Godunov schemes and adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, Romain; Fromang, Sébastien; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2006-10-01

    We propose to extend the well-known MUSCL-Hancock scheme for Euler equations to the induction equation modeling the magnetic field evolution in kinematic dynamo problems. The scheme is based on an integral form of the underlying conservation law which, in our formulation, results in a “finite-surface” scheme for the induction equation. This naturally leads to the well-known “constrained transport” method, with additional continuity requirement on the magnetic field representation. The second ingredient in the MUSCL scheme is the predictor step that ensures second order accuracy both in space and time. We explore specific constraints that the mathematical properties of the induction equations place on this predictor step, showing that three possible variants can be considered. We show that the most aggressive formulations (referred to as C-MUSCL and U-MUSCL) reach the same level of accuracy as the other one (referred to as Runge Kutta), at a lower computational cost. More interestingly, these two schemes are compatible with the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) framework. It has been implemented in the AMR code RAMSES. It offers a novel and efficient implementation of a second order scheme for the induction equation. We have tested it by solving two kinematic dynamo problems in the low diffusion limit. The construction of this scheme for the induction equation constitutes a step towards solving the full MHD set of equations using an extension of our current methodology.

  5. An adaptive blind watermarking scheme utilizing neural network for synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-zhen; XIE Jian-ying; YANG Yu-pu

    2007-01-01

    An important problem constraining the practical implementation of robust watermarking technology is the low robustness of existing algorithms against geometrical distortions. An adaptive blind watermarking scheme utilizing neural network for synchronization is proposed in this paper,which allows to recover watermark even if the image has been subjected to generalized geometrical transforms. Through classification of image's brightness, texture and contrast sensitivity utilizing fuzzy clustering theory and human visual system, more robust watermark is adaptively embedded in DWT domain. In order to register rotation, scaling and translation parameters, feedforward neural network is utilized to learn image geometric pattern represented by six combined low order image moments. The distortion can be inverted after determining the affine distortion applied to the image and watermark can be extracted in a standard way without original image. It only needs a trained neural network. Experimental results demonstrate its advantages over previous method in terms of computational effectiveness and parameter estimation accuracy. It can embed more robust watermark under certain visual distance, and effectively resist JPEG compression, noise and geometric attacks.

  6. Adaptive QoS Class Allocation Schemes in Multi-Domain Path-Based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Nagao; Nakamura, Hajime

    MPLS-based path technology shows promise as a means of realizing reliable IP networks. Real-time services such as VoIP and video-conference supplied through a multi-domain MPLS network must be able to guarantee end-to-end QoS of the inter-domain paths. Thus, it is important to allocate an appropriate QoS class to the inter-domain paths in each domain traversed by the inter-domain paths. Because each domain has its own policy for QoS class allocation, it is necessary to adaptively allocate the optimum QoS class based on estimation of the QoS class allocation policies in other domains. This paper proposes two kinds of adaptive QoS class allocation schemes, assuming that the arriving inter-domain path requests include the number of downstream domains traversed by the inter-domain paths and the remaining QoS value toward the destination nodes. First, a measurement-based scheme, based on measurement of the loss rates of inter-domain paths in the downstream domains, is proposed. This scheme estimates the QoS class allocation policies in the downstream domains, using the measured loss rates of path requests. Second, a state-dependent type scheme, based on measurement of the arrival rates of path requests in addition to the loss rates of paths in the downstream domains, is also proposed. This scheme allows an appropriate QoS class to be allocated according to the domain state. This paper proposes an application of the Markov decision theory to the modeling of state-dependent type scheme. The performances of the proposed schemes are evaluated and compared with those of the other less complicated non-adaptive schemes using a computer simulation. The results of the comparison reveal that the proposed schemes can adaptively increase the number of inter-domain paths accommodated in the considered domain, even when the QoS class allocation policies change in the other domains and the arrival pattern of path requests varies in the considered domain.

  7. Quadtree-adaptive tsunami modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinet, Stéphane

    2011-09-01

    The well-balanced, positivity-preserving scheme of Audusse et al. (SIAM J Sci Comput 25(6):2050-2065, 2004), for the solution of the Saint-Venant equations with wetting and drying, is generalised to an adaptive quadtree spatial discretisation. The scheme is validated using an analytical solution for the oscillation of a fluid in a parabolic container, as well as the classic Monai tsunami laboratory benchmark. An efficient database system able to dynamically reconstruct a multiscale bathymetry based on extremely large datasets is also described. This combination of methods is successfully applied to the adaptive modelling of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami. Adaptivity is shown to significantly decrease the exponent of the power law describing computational cost as a function of spatial resolution. The new exponent is directly related to the fractal dimension of the geometrical structures characterising tsunami propagation. The implementation of the method as well as the data and scripts necessary to reproduce the results presented are freely available as part of the open-source Gerris Flow Solver framework.

  8. A SUBDIVISION SCHEME FOR VOLUMETRIC MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GhulamMustafa; LiuXuefeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a subdivision scheme which generalizes a surface scheme in previous papers to volume meshes is designed. The scheme exhibits significant control over shrink-age/size of volumetric models. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of models. The method presented here is much simpler and easier as compared to MacCracken and Joy's. This method makes no restrictions on the local topology of meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes of nonmanifold topology.

  9. Adaptive codebook selection schemes for image classification in correlated channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia Chang; Liu, Xiang Lian; Liu, Kuan-Fu

    2015-09-01

    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with the use of transmit and receive antenna arrays achieves diversity and array gains via transmit beamforming. Due to the absence of full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, the transmit beamforming vector can be quantized at the receiver and sent back to the transmitter by a low-rate feedback channel, called limited feedback beamforming. One of the key roles of Vector Quantization (VQ) is how to generate a good codebook such that the distortion between the original image and the reconstructed image is the minimized. In this paper, a novel adaptive codebook selection scheme for image classification is proposed with taking both spatial and temporal correlation inherent in the channel into consideration. The new codebook selection algorithm is developed to select two codebooks from the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) codebook, the generalized Lloyd algorithm (GLA) codebook and the Grassmannian codebook to be combined and used as candidates of the original image and the reconstructed image for image transmission. The channel is estimated and divided into four regions based on the spatial and temporal correlation of the channel and an appropriate codebook is assigned to each region. The proposed method can efficiently reduce the required information of feedback under the spatially and temporally correlated channels, where each region is adaptively. Simulation results show that in the case of temporally and spatially correlated channels, the bit-error-rate (BER) performance can be improved substantially by the proposed algorithm compared to the one with only single codebook.

  10. New Adaptive Data Transmission Scheme Over HF Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H. Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable Bit Error rate can be maintained by adapting some of the design parameters such as modulation, symbol rate, constellation size, and transmit power according to the channel state.An estimate of HF propagation effects can be used to design an adaptive data transmission system over HF link. The proposed system combines the well known Automatic Link Establishment (ALE together with variable rate transmission system. The standard ALE is modified to suite the required goal of selecting the best carrier frequency (channel for a given transmission. This is based on measuring SINAD (Signal plus Noise plus Distortion to Noise plus Distortion, RSL (Received Signal Level, multipath phase distortion and BER (Bit Error Rate for each channel in the frequency list. Channel condition evaluation is done by two arrangements. In the first an FFT analysis is used where a pilot signal is transmitted over the channel, while the data itself is used in the second arrangement. Passive channel assessment is used to avoid bad channels hence limiting the frequency pool size to be used in the point to point communication and the time required for scanning and linking. An exchange of channel information between the transmitting and receiving stations is considered to select the modulation scheme for transmission. Mainly MPSK and MFSK are considered with different levels giving different data rate according to the channel condition. The results of the computer simulation have shown that when transmitting at a fixed channel symbol rate of 1200 symbol/sec, the information rate ranges from 2400 bps using 4FSK up to 3600 bps using 8PSK for SNR ranges from 11dB up to 26dB.

  11. An adaptive nonlinear solution scheme for reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, G.S. [Scientific Software - Intercomp, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerical reservoir simulation involves solving large, nonlinear systems of PDE with strongly discontinuous coefficients. Because of the large demands on computer memory and CPU, most users must perform simulations on very coarse grids. The average properties of the fluids and rocks must be estimated on these grids. These coarse grid {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} properties are costly to determine, and risky to use, since their optimal values depend on the fluid flow being simulated. Thus, they must be found by trial-and-error techniques, and the more coarse the grid, the poorer the results. This paper describes a numerical reservoir simulator which accepts fine scale properties and automatically generates multiple levels of coarse grid rock and fluid properties. The fine grid properties and the coarse grid simulation results are used to estimate discretization errors with multilevel error expansions. These expansions are local, and identify areas requiring local grid refinement. These refinements are added adoptively by the simulator, and the resulting composite grid equations are solved by a nonlinear Fast Adaptive Composite (FAC) Grid method, with a damped Newton algorithm being used on each local grid. The nonsymmetric linear system of equations resulting from Newton`s method are in turn solved by a preconditioned Conjugate Gradients-like algorithm. The scheme is demonstrated by performing fine and coarse grid simulations of several multiphase reservoirs from around the world.

  12. Adaptive Covariance Inflation in a Multi-Resolution Assimilation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmann, K. S.; Godinez, H. C.

    2015-12-01

    When forecasts are performed using modern data assimilation methods observation and model error can be scaledependent. During data assimilation the blending of error across scales can result in model divergence since largeerrors at one scale can be propagated across scales during the analysis step. Wavelet based multi-resolution analysiscan be used to separate scales in model and observations during the application of an ensemble Kalman filter. However,this separation is done at the cost of implementing an ensemble Kalman filter at each scale. This presents problemswhen tuning the covariance inflation parameter at each scale. We present a method to adaptively tune a scale dependentcovariance inflation vector based on balancing the covariance of the innovation and the covariance of observations ofthe ensemble. Our methods are demonstrated on a one dimensional Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (K-S) model known todemonstrate non-linear interactions between scales.

  13. Adaptive multi-objective Optimization scheme for cognitive radio resource management

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive Radio is an intelligent Software Defined Radio that is capable to alter its transmission parameters according to predefined objectives and wireless environment conditions. Cognitive engine is the actuator that performs radio parameters configuration by exploiting optimization and machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Multi-objective Optimization Scheme (AMOS) for cognitive radio resource management to improve spectrum operation and network performance. The optimization relies on adapting radio transmission parameters to environment conditions using constrained optimization modeling called fitness functions in an iterative manner. These functions include minimizing power consumption, Bit Error Rate, delay and interference. On the other hand, maximizing throughput and spectral efficiency. Cross-layer optimization is exploited to access environmental parameters from all TCP/IP stack layers. AMOS uses adaptive Genetic Algorithm in terms of its parameters and objective weights as the vehicle of optimization. The proposed scheme has demonstrated quick response and efficiency in three different scenarios compared to other schemes. In addition, it shows its capability to optimize the performance of TCP/IP layers as whole not only the physical layer.

  14. Adaptive Bit Loading Scheme with Semi-Blind Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; SU Guang-chuan

    2006-01-01

    An adaptive bit loading and power-allocation scheme is proposed in order to augment the performance of the system based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which is based on the maximum power margin. Coinciding with the adaptive loading scheme, a semi-blind channel estimation algorithm using subspace decomposition method is proposed, which uses the information in the cyclic prefix. An initial channel state information is estimated by using the training sequences with the method of interpolation filtering. The proposed adaptive scheme is simulated on an OFDM wireless local area network(WLAN) system in a time-varying channel. The performance is compared to the constant loading scheme.

  15. Automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme for a class of real complicated systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shahi; A H Mazinan

    2015-02-01

    A class of real complicated systems, including chemical reactions, biological systems, information processing, laser systems, electrical circuits, information exchange, brain activities modelling, secure communication and other related ones can be presented through nonlinear and non-identical hyper-chaotic systems. The main goal of the present investigation is to synchronize two non-identical hyperchaotic master/slave systems, which are given as the models of the complicated systems, based on the realization of an efficient automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme. In the research presented here, the mentioned systems need to be dealt with through the proposed control scheme, since two non-identical systems are completely synchronized. In one such case, the whole of the chosen states of the master and slave systems should be coincided after a few time steps, as long as the effect of the external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters could truly be ignored. Due to the fact that the investigated hyper-chaotic systems have taken into consideration as the representation of a number of complicated processes under mentioned external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters, the traditional control approaches cannot actually be realized, in satisfactory manners.With this purpose, the proposed control scheme has been designed to cope with synchronization error, in a reasonable amount of time, in order to drive applicable hyper-chaotic systems. Consequently, the performance of the proposed control scheme is considered and verified through the numerical simulations.

  16. A novel adaptive classification scheme for digital modulations in satellite communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dan; Gu Xuemai; Guo Qing

    2007-01-01

    To make the modulation classification system more suitable for signals in a wide range of signal to noise ratios (SNRs) , a novel adaptive modulation classification scheme is presented in this paper. Different from traditional schemes, the proposed scheme employs a new SNR estimation algorithm for small samples before modulation classification, which makes the modulation classifier work adaptively according to estimated SNRs. Furthermore, it uses three efficient features and support vector machines (SVM) in modulation classification. Computer simulation shows that the scheme can adaptively classify ten digital modulation types (i.e. 2ASK, 4ASK, 2FSK, 4FSK, 2PSK, 4PSK, 16QAM, TFM, π/4QPSK and OQPSK) at SNRS ranging from OdB to 25 dB and success rates are over 95% when SNR is not lower than 3dB. Accuracy, efficiency and simplicity of the proposed scheme are obviously improved, which make it more adaptive to engineering applications.

  17. An Adaptive Scheme for Neighbor Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The neighbor knowledge in mobile ad hoc networks is important information. However, the accuracy of neighbor knowledge is paid in terms of energy consumption. In traditional schemes for neighbor discovery, a mobile node uses fixed period to send HELLO messages to notify its existence. An adaptive scheme was proposed.The objective is that when mobile nodes are distributed sparsely or move slowly, fewer HELLO messages are needed to achieve reasonable accuracy, while in a mutable network where nodes are dense or move quickly, they can adaptively send more HELLO messages to ensure the accuracy. Simulation results show that the adaptive scheme achieves the objective and performs effectively.

  18. A Modified Model Predictive Control Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bing Hu; Wen-Hua Chen

    2005-01-01

    In implementations of MPC (Model Predictive Control) schemes, two issues need to be addressed. One is how to enlarge the stability region as much as possible. The other is how to guarantee stability when a computational time limitation exists. In this paper, a modified MPC scheme for constrained linear systems is described. An offline LMI-based iteration process is introduced to expand the stability region. At the same time, a database of feasible control sequences is generated offline so that stability can still be guaranteed in the case of computational time limitations. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of this new approach.

  19. Adaptive Ranging Code Allocation Scheme in IEEE 802.16 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Kuo-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.16 uses the code division multiple access (CDMA method as the channel access method to decrease the collision probability of data delivery. However, IEEE 802.16 does not regulate a ranging code allocation scheme in its specification. In this paper, we propose the adaptive ranging code allocation (ARCA scheme, a novel ranging code allocation scheme for IEEE 802.16. According to the traffic sent to the base station (BS from the mobile station (MS, the ARCA scheme not only forecasts the traffic quantity of the MS but also finds the optimal ranging code allocation value for the MS to improve the transmission success rate next time. The ARCA scheme is verified with simulation and compared with other schemes in performance differences. According to the simulation results, the ARCA scheme is proved to have better performance than other schemes.

  20. Comparison of Mesh Adaptivity Schemes in Finite ElementSimulation of Tube Extrusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Pathak

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, finite element simulation of tube extrusion process has been carried outconsidering different mesh adaptivity schemes. A comparison of these schemes has been madebased on stress, strain distribution, and load-stroke curves. Based on the finite element results,it is observed that the success of the computer simulation is dependent on the mesh refinementcriteria.

  1. Performance analysis of joint diversity combining, adaptive modulation, and power control schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive modulation and diversity combining represent very important adaptive solutions for future generations of wireless communication systems. Indeed, in order to improve the performance and the efficiency of these systems, these two techniques have been recently used jointly in new schemes named joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (JAMDC) schemes. Considering the problem of finding low hardware complexity, bandwidth-efficient, and processing-power efficient transmission schemes for a downlink scenario and capitalizing on some of these recently proposed JAMDC schemes, we propose and analyze in this paper three joint adaptive modulation, diversity combining, and power control (JAMDCPC) schemes where a constant-power variable-rate adaptive modulation technique is used with an adaptive diversity combining scheme and a common power control process. More specifically, the modulation constellation size, the number of combined diversity paths, and the needed power level are jointly determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency with the lowest possible processing power consumption quantified in terms of the average number of combined paths, given the fading channel conditions and the required bit error rate (BER) performance. In this paper, the performance of these three JAMDCPC schemes is analyzed in terms of their spectral efficiency, processing power consumption, and error-rate performance. Selected numerical examples show that these schemes considerably increase the spectral efficiency of the existing JAMDC schemes with a slight increase in the average number of combined paths for the low signal-to-noise ratio range while maintaining compliance with the BER performance and a low radiated power which yields to a substantial decrease in interference to co-existing users and systems. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. A spectrally efficient detect-and-forward scheme with two-tier adaptive cooperation

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2011-09-01

    We propose a simple relay-based adaptive cooperation scheme to improve the spectral efficiency of "Detect-and-Forward" (DetF) half-duplex relaying in fading channels. In a new common framework, we show that the proposed scheme offers considerable gainsin terms of the achievable information ratescompared to conventional DetF relaying schemes for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal source/relay transmissions. The analysis leads on to a general adaptive cooperation strategy based on the maximization of information rates at the destination which needs to observe only the average signal-to-noise ratios of the links. © 2006 IEEE.

  3. An adaptive sampling scheme for deep-penetration calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we know, the deep-penetration problem has been one of the important and difficult problems in shielding calculation with Monte Carlo Method for several decades. In this paper, an adaptive Monte Carlo method under the emission point as a sampling station for shielding calculation is investigated. The numerical results show that the adaptive method may improve the efficiency of the calculation of shielding and might overcome the under-estimation problem easy to happen in deep-penetration calculation in some degree

  4. Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Control Scheme for Smart Grids with Consideration of Signal Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the smart grid, a wide-area measurement system (WAMS provides the key technical support for power system monitoring, protection and control. But 20 uncertainties in system parameters and signal transmission time delay could worsen the damping effect and deteriorate the system stability. In the presented study, the subspace system identification technique (SIT is used to firstly derive a low-order linear model of a power system from the measurements. Then, a novel adaptive wide-area damping control scheme for online tuning of the wide-area damping controller (WADC parameters using the residue method is proposed. In order to eliminate the effects of the time delay to the signal transmission, a simple and practical time delay compensation algorithm is proposed to compensate the time delay in each wide-area control signal. Detailed examples, inspired by the IEEE test system under various disturbance scenarios, have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive wide-area damping control scheme.

  5. On the feedback error compensation for adaptive modulation and coding scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong

    2011-11-25

    In this paper, we consider the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of perfect feedback channels. We quantify the performance of two joint AMDC schemes in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of combined paths, and the average bit error rate. The benefit of feedback error compensation with adaptive combining is also quantified. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Performance Analysis and Optimization of an Adaptive Admission Control Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfu Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio networks, if all the secondary user (SU packets join the system without any restrictions, the average latency of the SU packets will be greater, especially when the traffic load of the system is higher. For this, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme with a system access probability for the SU packets in this paper. We suppose the system access probability is inversely proportional to the total number of packets in the system and introduce an Adaptive Factor to adjust the system access probability. Accordingly, we build a discrete-time preemptive queueing model with adjustable joining rate. In order to obtain the steady-state distribution of the queueing model exactly, we construct a two-dimensional Markov chain. Moreover, we derive the formulas for the blocking rate, the throughput, and the average latency of the SU packets. Afterwards, we provide numerical results to investigate the influence of the Adaptive Factor on different performance measures. We also give the individually optimal strategy and the socially optimal strategy from the standpoints of the SU packets. Finally, we provide a pricing mechanism to coordinate the two optimal strategies.

  7. A Practical Adaptive TuCM Scheme for Rayleigh Flat Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍守豪; 宋文涛

    2004-01-01

    A practical adaptive turbo coded modulation (TuCM) scheme was proposed and its adaptive method was described. With some hardware considerations, a suboptimal optimization algorithm that the number of fading regions is variable was put forward. Furthermore, the cutoff fade depth of power adaptation was modified to reduce the interruption probability. The results show that the proposed adaptive TuCM comes within 3 dB of Rayleigh fading channel capacity, and exhibits about 3 dB power gain relative to the conventional adaptive trellis-coded modulation (TCM), and is easy to realize by hardware.

  8. Design of an Adaptive Scheme to Enable Green Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Estelrich Moreno, Rafel

    2011-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] The use of localization attached to any kind of devices is a common feature nowadays. In the case of sensors, the combination of sampling, connectivity and localization bring a world of possibilities. However, those small devices lack of enough energy resources due its size. To resolve the problem, a protocol named High Configurable Protocol was implemented in order to adapt the operation to the user needs, while focusing on energy savings. The problem comes from, once configured, th...

  9. Adaptive Numerical Dissipative Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free of numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multi-resolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filter approaches also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The filter scheme consists of spatially sixth order or higher non-dissipative spatial difference operators as the base scheme for the inviscid flux derivatives. If necessary, a small amount of high order linear dissipation is used to remove spurious high frequency oscillations. For example, an eighth-order centered linear dissipation (AD8) might be included in conjunction with a spatially sixth-order base scheme. The inviscid difference operator is applied twice for the viscous flux derivatives. After the completion of a full time step of the base scheme step, the solution is adaptively filtered by the product of a 'flow detector' and the 'nonlinear dissipative portion' of a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. In addition, the scheme independent wavelet flow detector can be used in conjunction with spatially compact, spectral or spectral element type of base schemes. The ACM and wavelet filter schemes using the dissipative portion of a second-order shock-capturing scheme with sixth-order spatial central base scheme for both the inviscid and viscous MHD flux

  10. Hybrid adaptive control of a dragonfly model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, Micael S.; Ferreira, Nuno M. F.; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro

    2012-02-01

    Dragonflies show unique and superior flight performances than most of other insect species and birds. They are equipped with two pairs of independently controlled wings granting an unmatchable flying performance and robustness. In this paper, it is presented an adaptive scheme controlling a nonlinear model inspired in a dragonfly-like robot. It is proposed a hybrid adaptive ( HA) law for adjusting the parameters analyzing the tracking error. At the current stage of the project it is considered essential the development of computational simulation models based in the dynamics to test whether strategies or algorithms of control, parts of the system (such as different wing configurations, tail) as well as the complete system. The performance analysis proves the superiority of the HA law over the direct adaptive ( DA) method in terms of faster and improved tracking and parameter convergence.

  11. Multiple-Model Adaptive Switching Control for Uncertain Multivariable Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldi, Simone; Battistelli, Giorgio; Mari, Daniele; Mosca, Edoardo; Tesi, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling an uncertain multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system by means of adaptive switching control schemes. In particular, the paper aims at extending the approach of multiple-model unfalsified adaptive switched control, so far restricted to single-input singl

  12. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah Ching Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day.

  13. Estimation of Stator winding faults in induction motors using an adaptive observer scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, C. S.; Vadstrup, P.; Rasmussen, Henrik;

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the subject of inter-turn short circuit estimation in the stator of an induction motor. In the paper an adaptive observer scheme is proposed. The proposed observer is capable of simultaneously estimating the speed of the motor, the amount turns involved in the short circuit...... and an expression of the current in the short circuit. Moreover the states of the motor are estimated, meaning that the magnetizing currents are made available even though a fault has happened in the motor. To be able to develop this observer, a model particular suitable for the chosen observer design, is also...... derived. The efficiency of the proposed observer is demonstrated by tests performed on a test setup with a customized designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate inter-turn short circuit faults....

  14. Estimation of Stator Winding Faults in Induction Motors using an Adaptive Observer Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, C. S.; Vadstrup, P.; Rasmussen, Henrik;

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the subject of inter-turn short circuit estimation in the stator of an induction motor. In the paper an adaptive observer scheme is proposed. The proposed observer is capable of simultaneously estimating the speed of the motor, the amount turns involved in the short circuit...... and an expression of the current in the short circuit. Moreover the states of the motor are estimated, meaning that the magnetizing currents are made available even though a fault has happened in the motor. To be able to develop this observer, a model particular suitable for the chosen observer design, is also...... derived. The efficiency of the proposed observer is demonstrated by tests performed on a test setup with a customized designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate inter-turn short circuit faults....

  15. Efficient Pseudorecursive Evaluation Schemes for Non-adaptive Sparse Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Buse, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    In this work we propose novel algorithms for storing and evaluating sparse grid functions, operating on regular (not spatially adaptive), yet potentially dimensionally adaptive grid types. Besides regular sparse grids our approach includes truncated grids, both with and without boundary grid points. Similar to the implicit data structures proposed in Feuersänger (Dünngitterverfahren für hochdimensionale elliptische partielle Differntialgleichungen. Diploma Thesis, Institut für Numerische Simulation, Universität Bonn, 2005) and Murarasu et al. (Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011, pp. 25–34) we also define a bijective mapping from the multi-dimensional space of grid points to a contiguous index, such that the grid data can be stored in a simple array without overhead. Our approach is especially well-suited to exploit all levels of current commodity hardware, including cache-levels and vector extensions. Furthermore, this kind of data structure is extremely attractive for today’s real-time applications, as it gives direct access to the hierarchical structure of the grids, while outperforming other common sparse grid structures (hash maps, etc.) which do not match with modern compute platforms that well. For dimensionality d ≤ 10 we achieve good speedups on a 12 core Intel Westmere-EP NUMA platform compared to the results presented in Murarasu et al. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science—ICCS 2012. Procedia Computer Science, 2012). As we show, this also holds for the results obtained on Nvidia Fermi GPUs, for which we observe speedups over our own CPU implementation of up to 4.5 when dealing with moderate dimensionality. In high-dimensional settings, in the order of tens to hundreds of dimensions, our sparse grid evaluation kernels on the CPU outperform any other known implementation.

  16. A High Order Godunov Scheme with Constrained Transport and Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Astrophysical MHD

    OpenAIRE

    Fromang, S.; Hennebelle, P.; Teyssier, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to perform numerical simulations of astrophysical MHD flows using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement framework and Constrained Transport. The algorithm is based on a previous work in which the MUSCL--Hancock scheme was used to evolve the induction equation. In this paper, we detail the extension of this scheme to the full MHD equations and discuss its properties. Through a series of test problems, we illustrate the performances of this new code using two diffe...

  17. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...

  18. An Energy Efficient Semi-static Power Control and Link Adaptation Scheme in UMTS HSDPA

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yi; Qiu, Ling

    2012-01-01

    High speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) has been successfully applied in commercial systems and improves user experience significantly. However, it incurs substantial energy consumption. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing a novel energy efficient semi-static power control and link adaptation scheme in HSDPA. Through estimating the EE under different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) and corresponding transmit power, the proposed scheme can determine the most energy efficient MCS level and transmit power at the Node B. And then the Node B configure the optimal MCS level and transmit power. In order to decrease the signaling overhead caused by the configuration, a dual trigger mechanism is employed. After that, we extend the proposed scheme to the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) scenarios. Simulation results confirm the significant EE improvement of our proposed scheme. Finally, we give a discussion on the potential EE gain and challenge of the energy efficient mode switching between s...

  19. A self-adaptive memeplexes robust search scheme for solving stochastic demands vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianshun; Feng, Liang; Ong, Yew Soon

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we proposed a self-adaptive memeplex robust search (SAMRS) for finding robust and reliable solutions that are less sensitive to stochastic behaviours of customer demands and have low probability of route failures, respectively, in vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands (VRPSD). In particular, the contribution of this article is three-fold. First, the proposed SAMRS employs the robust solution search scheme (RS 3) as an approximation of the computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulation, thus reducing the computation cost of fitness evaluation in VRPSD, while directing the search towards robust and reliable solutions. Furthermore, a self-adaptive individual learning based on the conceptual modelling of memeplex is introduced in the SAMRS. Finally, SAMRS incorporates a gene-meme co-evolution model with genetic and memetic representation to effectively manage the search for solutions in VRPSD. Extensive experimental results are then presented for benchmark problems to demonstrate that the proposed SAMRS serves as an efficable means of generating high-quality robust and reliable solutions in VRPSD.

  20. Joint multiuser switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme selects the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the high feedback load associated with the first scheme, we develop a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity where the base station scans the users in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition to these two selection schemes, we consider two power adaptive settings at the secondary users based on the amount of interference available at the secondary transmitter. In the On/Off power setting, users are allowed to transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not, while in the full power adaptive setting, the users are allowed to vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results for our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load for both schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. An Adaptive Data Gathering Scheme for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Compressed Sensing and Network Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Yang, Yuwang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Joint design of compressed sensing (CS) and network coding (NC) has been demonstrated to provide a new data gathering paradigm for multi-hop wireless sensor networks (WSNs). By exploiting the correlation of the network sensed data, a variety of data gathering schemes based on NC and CS (Compressed Data Gathering-CDG) have been proposed. However, these schemes assume that the sparsity of the network sensed data is constant and the value of the sparsity is known before starting each data gathering epoch, thus they ignore the variation of the data observed by the WSNs which are deployed in practical circumstances. In this paper, we present a complete design of the feedback CDG scheme where the sink node adaptively queries those interested nodes to acquire an appropriate number of measurements. The adaptive measurement-formation procedure and its termination rules are proposed and analyzed in detail. Moreover, in order to minimize the number of overall transmissions in the formation procedure of each measurement, we have developed a NP-complete model (Maximum Leaf Nodes Minimum Steiner Nodes-MLMS) and realized a scalable greedy algorithm to solve the problem. Experimental results show that the proposed measurement-formation method outperforms previous schemes, and experiments on both datasets from ocean temperature and practical network deployment also prove the effectiveness of our proposed feedback CDG scheme. PMID:27043574

  2. A Formal Model for the Security of Proxy Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Chun-xiang; ZHU Yue-fei; ZHANG Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical foundations for the secure proxy signature primitive. We present a formal model for the security of proxy signature schemes, which defines the capabilities of the adversary and the security goals to capture which mean for a proxy signature scheme to be secure. Then, we present an example of proxy signature scheme that can be proven secure in the standard model.

  3. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Zeng; Deshi Li

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along wi...

  4. ADAPTATIVE IMAGE WATERMARKING SCHEME BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    BASSEL SOLAIMANE; ADNENE CHERIF; SAMEH OUESLATI,

    2011-01-01

    Digital image watermarking has been proposed as a method to enhance medical data security, confidentiality and integrity. Medical image watermarking requires extreme care when embedding additional data, given their importance to clinical diagnosis, treatment, and research. In this paper, a novel image watermarking approach based on the human visual system (HVS) model and neural network technique is proposed. The watermark was inserted into the middle frequency coefficients of the cover image’...

  5. A Self-adaptive Scope Allocation Scheme for Labeling Dynamic XML Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.; Feng, L.; Shen, T.; Wang, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a self-adaptive scope allocation scheme for labeling dynamic XML documents. It is general, light-weight and can be built upon existing data retrieval mechanisms. Bayesian inference is used to compute the actual scope allocated for labeling a certain node based on both the prior i

  6. Kinematic Dynamos using Constrained Transport with High Order Godunov Schemes and Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssier, R.; Fromang, S.; Dormy, E.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to extend the well-known MUSCL-Hancock scheme for Euler equations to the induction equation modeling the magnetic field evolution in kinematic dynamo problems. The scheme is based on an integral form of the underlying conservation law which, in our formulation, results in a ``finite-surface'' scheme for the induction equation. This naturally leads to the well-known ``constrained transport'' method, with additional continuity requirement on the magnetic field representation. The sec...

  7. Context-Adaptive Arithmetic Coding Scheme for Lossless Bit Rate Reduction of MPEG Surround in USAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungyong; Pang, Hee-Suk; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    We propose a new coding scheme for lossless bit rate reduction of the MPEG Surround module in unified speech and audio coding (USAC). The proposed scheme is based on context-adaptive arithmetic coding for efficient bit stream composition of spatial parameters. Experiments show that it achieves the significant lossless bit reduction of 9.93% to 12.14% for spatial parameters and 8.64% to 8.96% for the overall MPEG Surround bit streams compared to the original scheme. The proposed scheme, which is not currently included in USAC, can be used for the improved coding efficiency of MPEG Surround in USAC, where the saved bits can be utilized by the other modules in USAC.

  8. Adaptive approximate Bayesian computation for complex models

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a family of computational techniques in Bayesian statistics. These techniques allow to fit a model to data without relying on the computation of the model likelihood. They instead require to simulate a large number of times the model to be fitted. A number of refinements to the original rejection-based ABC scheme have been proposed, including the sequential improvement of posterior distributions. This technique allows to decrease the number of model simulations required, but it still presents several shortcomings which are particularly problematic for costly to simulate complex models. We here provide a new algorithm to perform adaptive approximate Bayesian computation, which is shown to perform better on both a toy example and a complex social model.

  9. Multi-dimensional upwind fluctuation splitting scheme with mesh adaption for hypersonic viscous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William Alfred, III

    production is shown relative to DMFDSFV. Remarkably the fluctuation splitting scheme shows grid converged skin friction coefficients with only five points in the boundary layer for this case. A viscous Mach 17.6 (perfect gas) cylinder case demonstrates solution monotonicity and heat transfer capability with the fluctuation splitting scheme. While fluctuation splitting is recommended over DMFDSFV, the difference in performance between the schemes is not so great as to obsolete DMFDSFV. The second half of the dissertation develops a local, compact, anisotropic unstructured mesh adaption scheme in conjunction with the multi-dimensional upwind solver, exhibiting a characteristic alignment behavior for scalar problems. This alignment behavior stands in contrast to the curvature clustering nature of the local, anisotropic unstructured adaption strategy based upon a posteriori error estimation that is used for comparison. The characteristic alignment is most pronounced for linear advection, with reduced improvement seen for the more complex non-linear advection and advection-diffusion cases. The adaption strategy is extended to the two-dimensional and axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations of motion through the concept of fluctuation minimization. The system test case for the adaption strategy is a sting mounted capsule at Mach-10 wind tunnel conditions, considered in both two-dimensional and axisymmetric configurations. For this complex flowfield the adaption results are disappointing since feature alignment does not emerge from the local operations. Aggressive adaption is shown to result in a loss of robustness for the solver, particularly in the bow shock/stagnation point interaction region. Reducing the adaption strength maintains solution robustness but fails to produce significant improvement in the surface heat transfer predictions.

  10. An Adaptive Handover Prediction Scheme for Seamless Mobility Based Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Safa Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.

  11. Non-iterative adaptive time-stepping scheme with temporal truncation error control for simulating variable-density flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirthe, Eugenia M.; Graf, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The automatic non-iterative second-order time-stepping scheme based on the temporal truncation error proposed by Kavetski et al. [Kavetski D, Binning P, Sloan SW. Non-iterative time-stepping schemes with adaptive truncation error control for the solution of Richards equation. Water Resour Res 2002;38(10):1211, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001WR000720.] is implemented into the code of the HydroGeoSphere model. This time-stepping scheme is applied for the first time to the low-Rayleigh-number thermal Elder problem of free convection in porous media [van Reeuwijk M, Mathias SA, Simmons CT, Ward JD. Insights from a pseudospectral approach to the Elder problem. Water Resour Res 2009;45:W04416, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008WR007421.], and to the solutal [Shikaze SG, Sudicky EA, Schwartz FW. Density-dependent solute transport in discretely-fractured geological media: is prediction possible? J Contam Hydrol 1998;34:273-91] problem of free convection in fractured-porous media. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed scheme efficiently limits the temporal truncation error to a user-defined tolerance by controlling the time-step size. The non-iterative second-order time-stepping scheme can be applied to (i) thermal and solutal variable-density flow problems, (ii) linear and non-linear density functions, and (iii) problems including porous and fractured-porous media.

  12. Adapted nested force-gradient integrators for the Schwinger model

    CERN Document Server

    Shcherbakov, Dmitry; Günther, Michael; Finkenrath, Jacob; Knechtli, Francesco; Peardon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study a novel class of numerical integrators, the adapted nested force-gradient schemes, used within the molecular dynamics step of the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm. We test these methods in the Schwinger model on the lattice, a well known benchmark problem. We derive the analytical basis of nested force-gradient type methods and demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach, namely reduced computational costs compared with other numerical integration schemes in HMC.

  13. Iterative Schemes for Bump Solutions in a Neural Field Model

    OpenAIRE

    Oleynik, Anna; Ponosov, Arcady; Wyller, John

    2013-01-01

    We develop two iteration schemes for construction of localized stationary solutions (bumps) of a one-population Wilson-Cowan model with a smoothed Heaviside firing rate function. The first scheme is based on the fixed point formulation of the stationary Wilson-Cowan model. The second one is formulated in terms of the excitation width of a bump. Using the theory of monotone operators in ordered Banach spaces we justify convergence of both iteration schemes.

  14. Adaptive visual attention model

    OpenAIRE

    Hügli, Heinz; Bur, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention, defined as the ability of a biological or artificial vision system to rapidly detect potentially relevant parts of a visual scene, provides a general purpose solution for low level feature detection in a vision architecture. Well considered for its universal detection behaviour, the general model of visual attention is suited for any environment but inferior to dedicated feature detectors in more specific environments. The goal of the development presented in this paper is t...

  15. LPTA: Location Predictive and Time Adaptive Data Gathering Scheme with Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper exploits sink mobility to prolong the lifetime of sensor networks while maintaining the data transmission delay relatively low. A location predictive and time adaptive data gathering scheme is proposed. In this paper, we introduce a sink location prediction principle based on loose time synchronization and deduce the time-location formulas of the mobile sink. According to local clocks and the time-location formulas of the mobile sink, nodes in the network are able to calculate the current location of the mobile sink accurately and route data packets timely toward the mobile sink by multihop relay. Considering that data packets generating from different areas may be different greatly, an adaptive dwelling time adjustment method is also proposed to balance energy consumption among nodes in the network. Simulation results show that our data gathering scheme enables data routing with less data transmission time delay and balance energy consumption among nodes.

  16. Universal adaptive self-stabilizing traversal scheme: random walk and reloading wave

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Thibault; Sohier, Devan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate random walk based token circulation in dynamic environments subject to failures. We describe hypotheses on the dynamic environment that allow random walks to meet the important property that the token visits any node infinitely often. The randomness of this scheme allows it to work on any topology, and require no adaptation after a topological change, which is a desirable property for applications to dynamic systems. For random walks to be a traversal scheme and to answer the concurrence problem, one needs to guarantee that exactly one token circulates in the system. In the presence of transient failures, configurations with multiple tokens or with no token can occur. The meeting property of random walks solves the cases with multiple tokens. The reloading wave mechanism we propose, together with timeouts, allows to detect and solve cases with no token. This traversal scheme is self-stabilizing, and universal, meaning that it needs no assumption on the system topology. We describ...

  17. An adaptive scaling and biasing scheme for OFDM-based visible light communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaocheng; Wang, Qi; Chen, Sheng; Hanzo, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely used in visible light communication systems to achieve high-rate data transmission. Due to the nonlinear transfer characteristics of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and owing the high peak-to-average-power ratio of OFDM signals, the transmitted signal has to be scaled and biased before modulating the LEDs. In this contribution, an adaptive scaling and biasing scheme is proposed for OFDM-based visible light communication systems, which fully exploits the dynamic range of the LEDs and improves the achievable system performance. Specifically, the proposed scheme calculates near-optimal scaling and biasing factors for each specific OFDM symbol according to the distribution of the signals, which strikes an attractive trade-off between the effective signal power and the clipping-distortion power. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly improves the performance without changing the LED's emitted power, while maintaining the same receiver structure. PMID:24921387

  18. A Novel Adaptive Observer-Based Control Scheme for Synchronization and Suppression of a Class of Uncertain Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; TAN Zhen-Yu; MA Xi-Kui; GAO Jin-Feng

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive observer-based control scheme is presented for synchronization and suppression of a class of uncertain chaotic system. First, an adaptive observer based on an orthogonal neural network is designed. Subsequently, the sliding mode controllers via the proposed adaptive observer are proposed for synchronization and suppression of the uncertain chaotic systems. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  19. Vector perturbation based adaptive distributed precoding scheme with limited feedback for CoMP systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthbert Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A downlink adaptive distributed precoding scheme is proposed for coordinated multi-point (CoMP transmission systems. The serving base station (BS obtains the optimal precoding vector via user feedback. Meanwhile, the precoding vector of each coordinated BS is determined by adaptive gradient iteration according to the perturbation vector and the adjustment factor based on the vector perturbation method. In each transmission frame, the CoMP user feeds the precoding matrix index back to the serving BS, and feeds back the adjustment factor index to the coordinated BSs, which can reduce the uplink feedback overhead. The selected adjustment factor for each coordinated BS is obtained via the precoding vector of the coordinated BS used in the previous frame and the preferred precoding vector of the serving BS in this frame. The proposed scheme takes advantage of the spatial non-correlation and temporal correlation of the distributed MIMO channel. The design of the adjustment factor set is given and the channel feedback delay is considered. The system performance of the proposed scheme is verified with and without feedback delay respectively and the system feedback overhead is analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a good trade-off between system performance and the system control information overhead on feedback.

  20. ADER-WENO Finite Volume Schemes with Space-Time Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Dumbser, Michael; Hidalgo, Arturo; Balsara, Dinshaw S

    2012-01-01

    We present the first high order one-step ADER-WENO finite volume scheme with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in multiple space dimensions. High order spatial accuracy is obtained through a WENO reconstruction, while a high order one-step time discretization is achieved using a local space-time discontinuous Galerkin predictor method. Due to the one-step nature of the underlying scheme, the resulting algorithm is particularly well suited for an AMR strategy on space-time adaptive meshes, i.e.with time-accurate local time stepping. The AMR property has been implemented 'cell-by-cell', with a standard tree-type algorithm, while the scheme has been parallelized via the Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigm. The new scheme has been tested over a wide range of examples for nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws, including the classical Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics and the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). High order in space and time have been confirmed via a numerical convergenc...

  1. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  2. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications. PMID:27515908

  3. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2016-08-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications.

  4. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications. PMID:27515908

  5. A novel power swing blocking scheme using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, Hassan Khorashadi; Li, Zuyi [Illinois Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 3301 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    A power swing may be caused by any sudden change in the configuration or the loading of an electrical network. During a power swing, the impedance locus moves along an impedance circle with possible encroachment into the distance relay zone, which may cause an unnecessary tripping. In order to prevent the distance relay from tripping under such condition, a novel power swing blocking (PSB) scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme uses an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) for preventing distance relay from tripping during power swings. The input signals to ANFIS, include the change of positive sequence impedance, positive and negative sequence currents, and power swing center voltage. Extensive tests show that the proposed PSB has two distinct features that are advantageous over existing schemes. The first is that the proposed scheme is able to detect various kinds of power swings thus block distance relays during power swings, even if the power swings are fast or the power swings occur during single pole open conditions. The second distinct feature is that the proposed scheme is able to clear the blocking if faults occur within the relay trip zone during power swings, even if the faults are high resistance faults, or the faults occur at the power swing center, or the faults occur when the power angle is close to 180 . (author)

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Downlink Subcarrier Allocation Schemes in LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The efficient utilization of the air interface in the LTE standard is achieved through a combination of subcarrier allocation schemes, adaptive modulation and coding, and transmission power allotment. The scheduler in the base station has a major role in achieving the required QoS and the overall...

  7. A massively parallel adaptive scheme for melt migration in geodynamics computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannberg, Juliane; Heister, Timo; Grove, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    Melt generation and migration are important processes for the evolution of the Earth's interior and impact the global convection of the mantle. While they have been the subject of numerous investigations, the typical time and length-scales of melt transport are vastly different from global mantle convection, which determines where melt is generated. This makes it difficult to study mantle convection and melt migration in a unified framework. In addition, modelling magma dynamics poses the challenge of highly non-linear and spatially variable material properties, in particular the viscosity. We describe our extension of the community mantle convection code ASPECT that adds equations describing the behaviour of silicate melt percolating through and interacting with a viscously deforming host rock. We use the original compressible formulation of the McKenzie equations, augmented by an equation for the conservation of energy. This approach includes both melt migration and melt generation with the accompanying latent heat effects, and it incorporates the individual compressibilities of the solid and the fluid phase. For this, we derive an accurate and stable Finite Element scheme that can be combined with adaptive mesh refinement. This is particularly advantageous for this type of problem, as the resolution can be increased in mesh cells where melt is present and viscosity gradients are high, whereas a lower resolution is sufficient in regions without melt. Together with a high-performance, massively parallel implementation, this allows for high resolution, 3d, compressible, global mantle convection simulations coupled with melt migration. Furthermore, scalable iterative linear solvers are required to solve the large linear systems arising from the discretized system. Finally, we present benchmarks and scaling tests of our solver up to tens of thousands of cores, show the effectiveness of adaptive mesh refinement when applied to melt migration and compare the

  8. Practical splitting methods for the adaptive integration of nonlinear evolution equations. Part I: Construction of optimized schemes and pairs of schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Auzinger, Winfried

    2016-07-28

    We present a number of new contributions to the topic of constructing efficient higher-order splitting methods for the numerical integration of evolution equations. Particular schemes are constructed via setup and solution of polynomial systems for the splitting coefficients. To this end we use and modify a recent approach for generating these systems for a large class of splittings. In particular, various types of pairs of schemes intended for use in adaptive integrators are constructed.

  9. A Trust-Based Adaptive Probability Marking and Storage Traceback Scheme for WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anfeng; Liu, Xiao; Long, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Security is a pivotal issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are emerging as a promising platform that enables a wide range of military, scientific, industrial and commercial applications. Traceback, a key cyber-forensics technology, can play an important role in tracing and locating a malicious source to guarantee cybersecurity. In this work a trust-based adaptive probability marking and storage (TAPMS) traceback scheme is proposed to enhance security for WSNs. In a TAPMS scheme, the marking probability is adaptively adjusted according to the security requirements of the network and can substantially reduce the number of marking tuples and improve network lifetime. More importantly, a high trust node is selected to store marking tuples, which can avoid the problem of marking information being lost. Experimental results show that the total number of marking tuples can be reduced in a TAPMS scheme, thus improving network lifetime. At the same time, since the marking tuples are stored in high trust nodes, storage reliability can be guaranteed, and the traceback time can be reduced by more than 80%. PMID:27043566

  10. A Trust-Based Adaptive Probability Marking and Storage Traceback Scheme for WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anfeng; Liu, Xiao; Long, Jun

    2016-03-30

    Security is a pivotal issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are emerging as a promising platform that enables a wide range of military, scientific, industrial and commercial applications. Traceback, a key cyber-forensics technology, can play an important role in tracing and locating a malicious source to guarantee cybersecurity. In this work a trust-based adaptive probability marking and storage (TAPMS) traceback scheme is proposed to enhance security for WSNs. In a TAPMS scheme, the marking probability is adaptively adjusted according to the security requirements of the network and can substantially reduce the number of marking tuples and improve network lifetime. More importantly, a high trust node is selected to store marking tuples, which can avoid the problem of marking information being lost. Experimental results show that the total number of marking tuples can be reduced in a TAPMS scheme, thus improving network lifetime. At the same time, since the marking tuples are stored in high trust nodes, storage reliability can be guaranteed, and the traceback time can be reduced by more than 80%.

  11. A Trust-Based Adaptive Probability Marking and Storage Traceback Scheme for WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anfeng; Liu, Xiao; Long, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Security is a pivotal issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are emerging as a promising platform that enables a wide range of military, scientific, industrial and commercial applications. Traceback, a key cyber-forensics technology, can play an important role in tracing and locating a malicious source to guarantee cybersecurity. In this work a trust-based adaptive probability marking and storage (TAPMS) traceback scheme is proposed to enhance security for WSNs. In a TAPMS scheme, the marking probability is adaptively adjusted according to the security requirements of the network and can substantially reduce the number of marking tuples and improve network lifetime. More importantly, a high trust node is selected to store marking tuples, which can avoid the problem of marking information being lost. Experimental results show that the total number of marking tuples can be reduced in a TAPMS scheme, thus improving network lifetime. At the same time, since the marking tuples are stored in high trust nodes, storage reliability can be guaranteed, and the traceback time can be reduced by more than 80%. PMID:27043566

  12. An Adaptive Loss-Aware Flow Control Scheme for Delay-Sensitive Applications in OBS Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hongkyu; Choi, Jungyul; Mo, Jeonghoon; Kang, Minho

    Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is one of the most promising switching technologies for next generation optical networks. As delay-sensitive applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) have recently become popular, OBS networks should guarantee stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for such applications. Thus, this paper proposes an Adaptive Loss-aware Flow Control (ALFC) scheme, which adaptively decides on the burst offset time based on loss-rate information delivered from core nodes for assigning a high priority to delay-sensitive application traffic. The proposed ALFC scheme also controls the upper-bounds of the factors inducing delay and jitter for guaranteeing the delay and jitter requirements of delay-sensitive application traffic. Moreover, a piggybacking method used in the proposed scheme accelerates the guarantee of the loss, delay, and jitter requirements because the response time for flow control can be extremely reduced up to a quarter of the Round Trip Time (RTT) on average while minimizing the signaling overhead. Simulation results show that our mechanism can guarantee a 10-3 loss-rate under any traffic load while offering satisfactory levels of delay and jitter for delay-sensitive applications.

  13. A High Order Godunov Scheme with Constrained Transport and Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Astrophysical MHD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromang, S; Teyssier, R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to perform numerical simulations of astrophysical MHD flows using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement framework and Constrained Transport. The algorithm is based on a previous work in which the MUSCL--Hancock scheme was used to evolve the induction equation. In this paper, we detail the extension of this scheme to the full MHD equations and discuss its properties. Through a series of test problems, we illustrate the performances of this new code using two different MHD Riemann solvers (Lax-Friedrich and Roe) and the need of the Adaptive Mesh Refinement capabilities in some cases. Finally, we show its versatility by applying it to two completely different astrophysical situations well studied in the past years: the growth of the magnetorotational instability in the shearing box and the collapse of magnetized cloud cores. We have implemented this new Godunov scheme to solve the ideal MHD equations in the AMR code RAMSES. It results in a powerful tool that can be applied to a grea...

  14. A high order Godunov scheme with constrained transport and adaptive mesh refinement for astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromang, S.; Hennebelle, P.; Teyssier, R.

    2006-10-01

    Aims. In this paper, we present a new method to perform numerical simulations of astrophysical MHD flows using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement framework and Constrained Transport. Methods: . The algorithm is based on a previous work in which the MUSCL-Hancock scheme was used to evolve the induction equation. In this paper, we detail the extension of this scheme to the full MHD equations and discuss its properties. Results: . Through a series of test problems, we illustrate the performances of this new code using two different MHD Riemann solvers (Lax-Friedrich and Roe) and the need of the Adaptive Mesh Refinement capabilities in some cases. Finally, we show its versatility by applying it to two completely different astrophysical situations well studied in the past years: the growth of the magnetorotational instability in the shearing box and the collapse of magnetized cloud cores. Conclusions: . We have implemented a new Godunov scheme to solve the ideal MHD equations in the AMR code RAMSES. We have shown that it results in a powerful tool that can be applied to a great variety of astrophysical problems, ranging from galaxies formation in the early universe to high resolution studies of molecular cloud collapse in our galaxy.

  15. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems: Tradeoffs and performance analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a number of adaptive transmission techniques in order to improve the performance of the secondary link in a spectrum sharing system. We first introduce the concept of minimum-selection maximum ratio transmission (MS-MRT) as an adaptive variation of the existing MRT (MRT) technique. While in MRT all available antennas are used for transmission, MS-MRT uses the minimum subset of antennas verifying both the interference constraint (IC) to the primary user and the bit error rate (BER) requirements. Similar to MRT, MS-MRT assumes that perfect channel state information (CSI) is available at the secondary transmitter (ST), which makes this scheme challenging from a practical point of view. To overcome this challenge, we propose another transmission technique based on orthogonal space-time block codes with transmit antenna selection (TAS). This technique uses the full-rate full-diversity Alamouti scheme in order to maximize the secondary\\'s transmission rate. The performance of these techniques is analyzed in terms of the average spectral efficiency (ASE), average number of transmit antennas, average delay, average BER, and outage performance. In order to give the motivation behind these analytical results, the tradeoffs offered by the proposed schemes are summarized and then demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  16. Load-adaptive frequency reuse scheme for inter-cell interference coordination in relay networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mu-qiong; JI Hong; LI Xi

    2010-01-01

    Cellular relay networks adopting orthogonal frequency division multiple(OFDM)technology has been widely accepted for next generation wireless communication due to its advantage in enlarging coverage scale as well as improving data rate.In order to improve the performance of user equipments(UEs)near the cell edge,especially to avoid the interference from inter-cell and intra cell,an enhanced soft frequency reuse scheme is adopted in this paper to assure inter-cell interference coordination(ICIC).Compared with traditional frequency allocation work,the proposed scheme is interference-aware and load-adaptive,which dynamically assigns available frequency among UES under certain schedule method in variable traffic load condition and mitigates interference using information provided by interference indicator.It can improve signal-to-interference plus noise ratio(SINR)of the UE in each sub channel thus enable the system achieve better throughput and blocking probability performance.Simulation results prove that the proposed scheme may achieve desirable performance on throughput,blocking probability and spectral utilization in the sector under different traffic load compared with other schemes.

  17. SMR-Based Adaptive Mobility Management Scheme in Hierarchical SIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KwangHee Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In hierarchical SIP networks, paging is performed to reduce location update signaling cost for mobility management. However, the cost efficiency largely depends on each mobile node’s session-to-mobility-ratio (SMR, which is defined as a ratio of the session arrival rate to the movement rate. In this paper, we propose the adaptive mobility management scheme that can determine the policy regarding to each mobile node’s SMR. Each mobile node determines whether the paging is applied or not after comparing its SMR with the threshold. In other words, the paging is applied to a mobile node when a mobile node’s SMR is less than the threshold. Therefore, the proposed scheme provides a way to minimize signaling costs according to each mobile node’s SMR. We find out the optimal threshold through performance analysis, and show that the proposed scheme can reduce signaling cost than the existing SIP and paging schemes in hierarchical SIP networks.

  18. AN ADAPTIVE MEASUREMENT SCHEME BASED ON COMPRESSED SENSING FOR WIDEBAND SPECTRUM DETECTION IN COGNITIVE WSN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaorong; Zhang Jianwu; Huang Aiping; Jiang Bin

    2012-01-01

    An Adaptive Measurement Scheme (AMS) is investigated with Compressed Sensing (CS)theory in Cognitive Wireless Sensor Network (C-WSN).Local sensing information is collected via energy detection with Analog-to-Information Converter (AIC) at massive cognitive sensors,and sparse representation is considered with the exploration of spatial temporal correlation structure of detected signals.Adaptive measurement matrix is designed in AMS,which is based on maximum energy subset selection.Energy subset is calculated with sparse transformation of sensing information,and maximum energy subset is selected as the row vector of adaptive measurement matrix.In addition,the measurement matrix is constructed by orthogonalization of those selected row vectors,which also satisfies the Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) in CS theory.Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) reconstruction algorithm is implemented at sink node to recover original information.Simulation results are performed with the comparison of Random Measurement Scheme (RMS).It is revealed that,signal reconstruction effect based on AMS is superior to conventional RMS Gaussian measurement.Moreover,AMS has better detection performance than RMS at lower compression rate region,and it is suitable for large-scale C-WSN wideband spectrum sensing.

  19. An efficient fully unsupervised video object segmentation scheme using an adaptive neural-network classifier architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulamis, A; Doulamis, N; Ntalianis, K; Kollias, S

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an unsupervised video object (VO) segmentation and tracking algorithm is proposed based on an adaptable neural-network architecture. The proposed scheme comprises: 1) a VO tracking module and 2) an initial VO estimation module. Object tracking is handled as a classification problem and implemented through an adaptive network classifier, which provides better results compared to conventional motion-based tracking algorithms. Network adaptation is accomplished through an efficient and cost effective weight updating algorithm, providing a minimum degradation of the previous network knowledge and taking into account the current content conditions. A retraining set is constructed and used for this purpose based on initial VO estimation results. Two different scenarios are investigated. The first concerns extraction of human entities in video conferencing applications, while the second exploits depth information to identify generic VOs in stereoscopic video sequences. Human face/ body detection based on Gaussian distributions is accomplished in the first scenario, while segmentation fusion is obtained using color and depth information in the second scenario. A decision mechanism is also incorporated to detect time instances for weight updating. Experimental results and comparisons indicate the good performance of the proposed scheme even in sequences with complicated content (object bending, occlusion).

  20. Adaptive Deployment Scheme and Multi-path Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyan Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-path routing protocols have many advantages in wireless multimedia sensor networks. To succeed in setting up multiple paths in the wireless multimedia sensor network, the Adaptive Deployment Scheme of sensor Nodes which is based upon multi-path routing protocol (ADSN is proposed in the paper. ADSN deploys the sensor nodes on the basis of the number of paths, camera nodes’ positions and the sink’s position etc. Compared to the uniform deployment scheme, ADSN can save 67% sensor nodes when setting up multiple paths. And it can avoid the hotspot area in the vicinity of the sink. Energy Equalization Multi-path Routing protocol (EEMR can consume the energy of sensor nodes more evenly and extends the network lifetime compared to TPGF.

  1. ADAPTIVE DELAUNAY TRIANGULATION WITH MULTIDIMENSIONAL DISSIPATION SCHEME FOR HIGH-SPEED COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive Delaunay triangulation is combined with the cell-centered upwinding algorithm to analyze inviscid high-speed compressible flow problems. The multidimensional dissipation scheme was developed and included in the upwinding algorithm for unstructured triangular meshes to improve the computed shock wave resolution. The solution accuracy is further improved by coupling an error estimation procedure to a remeshing algorithm that generates small elements in regions with large change of solution gradients, and at the same time, larger elements in other regions. The proposed scheme is further extended to achieve higher-order spatial and temporal solution accuracy. Efficiency of the combined procedure is evaluated by analyzing supersonic shocks and shock propagation behaviors for both the steady and unsteady high-speed compressible flows.

  2. A RSS Based Adaptive Hand-Off Management Scheme In Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Sarddar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobility management, integration and interworking of existing wireless systems are important factors to obtain seamless roaming and services continuity in Next Generation Wireless Systems (NGWS.So it is important to have a handoff scheme that takes into account the heterogeneity of the network. In this work we propose a handoff scheme which takes handoff decision adaptively based on the type of network it presently resides and the one it is attempting handoff with through some predefined rules. It also relies on the speed of the mobile terminal to make a decision of the handoff initiation received signal strength (RSS threshold value. Finally simulations have been done to show the importance of taking these factors into account for handoff decisions rather than having a fixed threshold value of handoff for different scenarios.

  3. On Adaptive Contention Resolution Schemes for IEEE 802.16 BWA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Heng Ke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest version of the IEEE 802.16 standard, the mandatory contention resolution method is the truncated binary exponential backoff, with the initial window size and the maximum window size controlled by the base station. However, the problem of choosing the right set of backoff parameters for the current network level remains unsolved and left as an open issue since this strategy might incur a high collision probability and the channel utilization could be degraded in congested scenario. In this paper, we propose two pragmatic adaptive algorithms, namely semi-dynamic and quasi-dynamic contention resolution schemes, that allow the base station to adjust its backoff window size based on current channel status. By controlling the size of backoff window according to varying network conditions, both schemes are able to achieve higher performance in comparison with the legacy IEEE 802.16 standard.

  4. Astrophysical hydrodynamics with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin scheme and adaptive mesh refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Schaal, Kevin; Chandrashekar, Praveen; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Klingenberg, Christian; Springel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Solving the Euler equations of ideal hydrodynamics as accurately and efficiently as possible is a key requirement in many astrophysical simulations. It is therefore important to continuously advance the numerical methods implemented in current astrophysical codes, especially also in light of evolving computer technology, which favours certain computational approaches over others. Here we introduce the new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code TENET, which employs a high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for hydrodynamics. The Euler equations in this method are solved in a weak formulation with a polynomial basis by means of explicit Runge-Kutta time integration and Gauss-Legendre quadrature. This approach offers significant advantages over commonly employed finite volume (FV) solvers. In particular, the higher order capability renders it computationally more efficient, in the sense that the same precision can be obtained at significantly less computational cost. Also, the DG scheme inherently conserves a...

  5. The Nonlinear Sigma Model With Distributed Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Liebling, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    An adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is implemented in a distributed environment using Message Passing Interface (MPI) to find solutions to the nonlinear sigma model. Previous work studied behavior similar to black hole critical phenomena at the threshold for singularity formation in this flat space model. This work is a follow-up describing extensions to distribute the grid hierarchy and presenting tests showing the correctness of the model.

  6. Hybrid flux-splitting schemes for a common two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to construct hybrid flux vector splitting (FVS) and flux difference splitting (FDS) schemes for a commonly used two-fluid model consisting of two separate momentum equations. This is done by refining ideas previously applied to develop hybrid FVS/FDS schemes for a simpler two-phase model consisting of a mixture momentum equation [J. Comput. Phys. 175 (2002) 674]. More specifically, we seek to construct upwind type of schemes which are not based on calculations of the full eigenstructure of Jacobi matrices as needed by approximate Riemann solvers like the Roe scheme. Based on a crude approximation of the eigenstructure of the model, we derive schemes of the van Leer and FVS type. We demonstrate that these schemes possess desirable stability properties, but are excessively diffusive. By adapting ideas originally suggested by Wada and Liou [SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 18 (1997) 633] for the Euler equations, we suggest a mechanism for removing numerical dissipation. We present numerical simulations where we compare the performance of the resulting schemes with that of the Roe scheme, and by that shed light on the issues of accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the proposed schemes. Particularly, we consider the classical water faucet problem as well as a stiff separation problem which locally involves transition from two-phase to single-phase flow. Results from these test cases show that we are able to construct hybrid FVS/FDS schemes which properly combine the accuracy of FDS in the resolution of sharp mass fronts and the robustness of FVS which ensures stability under stiff conditions

  7. Decentralized & Adaptive Load-Frequency Control Scheme of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    and therefore determining the contribution factor of each individual WT to gain an adaptive LFC approach. The Electrical Distance (ED) concept confirms that the locally measured voltage decay is a proper criterion of closeness to the disturbance place. Numerical simulations carried out in DigSilent Power......In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout......Factory software confirm the efficiency of proposed methodology to stabilize the power system after a severe contingency....

  8. An Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Communication Scheme for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichuan Xu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A high degree of reliability for critical data transmission is required in body sensor networks (BSNs. However, BSNs are usually vulnerable to channel impairments due to body fading effect and RF interference, which may potentially cause data transmission to be unreliable. In this paper, an adaptive and flexible fault-tolerant communication scheme for BSNs, namely AFTCS, is proposed. AFTCS adopts a channel bandwidth reservation strategy to provide reliable data transmission when channel impairments occur. In order to fulfill the reliability requirements of critical sensors, fault-tolerant priority and queue are employed to adaptively adjust the channel bandwidth allocation. Simulation results show that AFTCS can alleviate the effect of channel impairments, while yielding lower packet loss rate and latency for critical sensors at runtime.

  9. Q-phonon scheme in the collective nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Q-phonon scheme developed in the framework of the algebraic collective nuclear model is discussed. It is shown that in the framework of this scheme the low-lying collective states of the even-even nuclei can be presented with an accuracy better than 90% of the norm using one or maximum two components of the Q-phonon basis constructed by an action of the fixed number of the quadrupole operators Q on the exact ground state of the system. Different applications of this approximate scheme are discussed. It is shown that using this scheme the relations between several E2-transition probabilities or between the energies of the collective states can be derived. It is shown also that the Q-phonon scheme can be used to extract an information about the equilibrium shapes of nuclei and their fluctuations from the data on the E2-transition probabilities

  10. Generic-Model-Based Description Scheme for MPEG-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Juan; Tan Hut; Chen Xin-meng

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new description scheme for MPEG7-: Generic-model-based Description Scheme to describe contents of audio, video, text and other sorts of multimedia.It uses a generic model as the description frame, which provides a simple but useful object-based structure. The main components of the description scheme are generic model, objects and object fcatures. The proposed description scheme is illustrated and exemplified by Extensible Markup Language.It aims at clarity and flexibility to support MPEG-7 applications such as query and edit. We demonstrate its feasibility and efficiency by presenting applications: Digital Broadcasting and Edit System (DEBS) and Non-linear Edit System (NLES) that already used the generic structure or will greatly benefit from it.

  11. XTR-Kurosawa-Desmedt Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING XIU-HUAN; FU ZHI-GUO; ZHANG SHU-GONG

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an XTR version of the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme. Our scheme is secure against adaptive choeen-ciphertext attack under the XTR version of the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption in the standard model. Comparing efficiency between the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme and the proposed XTR-Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme, we find that the proposed scheme is more efficient than the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme both in communication and computation without compromising security.

  12. Kinematic Dynamos using Constrained Transport with High Order Godunov Schemes and Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Teyssier, R; Fromang, S

    2006-01-01

    We propose to extend the well-known MUSCL-Hancock scheme for Euler equations to the induction equation modeling the magnetic field evolution in kinematic dynamo problems. The scheme is based on an integral form of the underlying conservation law which, in our formulation, results in a ``finite-surface'' scheme for the induction equation. This naturally leads to the well-known ``constrained transport'' method, with additional continuity requirement on the magnetic field representation. The second ingredient in the MUSCL scheme is the predictor step that ensures second order accuracy both in space and time. We explore specific constraints that the mathematical properties of the induction equations place on this predictor step, showing that three possible variants can be considered. We show that the most aggressive formulations (referred to as C-MUSCL and U-MUSCL) reach the same level of accuracy as the other one (referred to as Runge-Kutta), at a lower computational cost. More interestingly, these two schemes a...

  13. Peano—A Traversal and Storage Scheme for Octree-Like Adaptive Cartesian Multiscale Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Weinzierl, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Almost all approaches to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) are based upon a spatial discretization of the computational domain-a grid. This paper presents an algorithm to generate, store, and traverse a hierarchy of d-dimensional Cartesian grids represented by a (k = 3)- spacetree, a generalization of the well-known octree concept, and it also shows the correctness of the approach. These grids may change their adaptive structure throughout the traversal. The algorithm uses 2d + 4 stacks as data structures for both cells and vertices, and the storage requirements for the pure grid reduce to one bit per vertex for both the complete grid connectivity structure and the multilevel grid relations. Since the traversal algorithm uses only stacks, the algorithm\\'s cache hit rate is continually higher than 99.9 percent, and the runtime per vertex remains almost constant; i.e., it does not depend on the overall number of vertices or the adaptivity pattern. We use the algorithmic approach as the fundamental concept for a mesh management for d-dimensional PDEs and for a matrix-free PDE solver represented by a compact discrete 3 d-point operator. In the latter case, one can implement a Jacobi smoother, a Krylov solver, or a geometric multigrid scheme within the presented traversal scheme which inherits the low memory requirements and the good memory access characteristics directly. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  14. A novel OFDM transmission scheme with length-adaptive Cyclic Prefix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝阳; 赖利峰

    2004-01-01

    Conventional OFDM transmission system uses a fixed-length Cyclic Prefix to counteract Inter-Symbol Interferences(ISI)caused by channel delay spreading under wireless mobile environment. This may cause considerable performance deterioration when the CP length is less than the channel RMS delay spread,or may decrease the system power and spectrum efficiency when it is much larger. A novel Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM)transmission scheme is proposed in this paper to adapt the CP length to the variation of channel delay spread. AOFDM-VCPL utilizes the preamble or pilot sub-carriers of each OFDM packet to estimate the channel RMS delay spread; and then uses a criterion to calculate the CP length,which finally affects the OFDM transmitter. As illustrated in the simulation section,by deploying this scheme in a typical wireless environment,the system can transmit at data rate 11.5 Mb/s higher than conventional non-adaptive system while gaining a 0.65 dB power saving at the same BER performance.

  15. A novel OFDM transmission scheme with length-adaptive Cyclic Prefix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝阳; 赖利锋

    2004-01-01

    Conventional OFDM transmission system uses a fixed-length Cyclic Prefix to counteract Inter-Symbol Interferences (1SI) caused by channel delay spreading under wireless mobile environment. This may cause considerable performance deterioration when the CP length is less than the channel RMS delay spread, or may decrease the system power and spectrum efficiency when it is much larger. A novel Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme is proposed in this paper to adapt the CP length to the variation of channel delay spread. AOFDM-VCPL utilizes the preamble or pilot sub-carriers of each OFDM packet to estimate the channel RMS delay spread; and then uses a criterion to calculate the CP length, which finally affects the OFDM transmitter. As illustrated in the simulation section, by deploying this scheme in a typical wireless environment, the system can transmit at data rate 11.5Mb/s higher than conventional non-adaptive system while gaining a 0.65dB power saving at the same BER performance.

  16. An adaptive high-order hybrid scheme for compressive, viscous flows with detailed chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jack L.; Deiterding, Ralf; Shepherd, Joseph E.; Pullin, D. I.

    2011-08-01

    A hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO)/centered-difference numerical method, with low numerical dissipation, high-order shock-capturing, and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR), has been developed for the direct numerical simulation of the multicomponent, compressible, reactive Navier-Stokes equations. The method enables accurate resolution of diffusive processes within reaction zones. The approach combines time-split reactive source terms with a high-order, shock-capturing scheme specifically designed for diffusive flows. A description of the order-optimized, symmetric, finite difference, flux-based, hybrid WENO/centered-difference scheme is given, along with its implementation in a high-order SAMR framework. The implementation of new techniques for discontinuity flagging, scheme-switching, and high-order prolongation and restriction is described. In particular, the refined methodology does not require upwinded WENO at grid refinement interfaces for stability, allowing high-order prolongation and thereby eliminating a significant source of numerical diffusion within the overall code performance. A series of one-and two-dimensional test problems is used to verify the implementation, specifically the high-order accuracy of the diffusion terms. One-dimensional benchmarks include a viscous shock wave and a laminar flame. In two-space dimensions, a Lamb-Oseen vortex and an unstable diffusive detonation are considered, for which quantitative convergence is demonstrated. Further, a two-dimensional high-resolution simulation of a reactive Mach reflection phenomenon with diffusive multi-species mixing is presented.

  17. A Cost-Based Adaptive Handover Hysteresis Scheme to Minimize the Handover Failure Rate in 3GPP LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Gye-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with a cost-based adaptive handover hysteresis scheme for the horizontal handover decision strategies, as one of the self-optimization techniques that can minimize the handover failure rate (HFR in the 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP long-term evolution (LTE system based on the network-controlled hard handover. Especially, for real-time operation, we propose an adaptive hysteresis scheme with a simplified cost function considering some dominant factors closely related to HFR performance such as the load difference between the target and serving cells, the velocity of user equipment (UE, and the service type. With the proposed scheme, a proper hysteresis value based on the dominant factors is easily obtained, so that the handover parameter optimization for minimizing the HFR can be effectively achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can support better HFR performance than the conventional schemes.

  18. Adaptive resolution simulation of polarizable supramolecular coarse-grained water models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel N.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale simulations methods, such as adaptive resolution scheme, are becoming increasingly popular due to their significant computational advantages with respect to conventional atomistic simulations. For these kind of simulations, it is essential to develop accurate multiscale water models that

  19. A Novel Scheme Adaptive Hybrid Dislocated Synchronization for Two Identical and Different Memristor Chaotic Oscillator Systems with Uncertain Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Chen; Junwei Sun; Ming Chi; Xin-Ming Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The drive system can synchronize with the response system by the scaling factor in the traditional projective synchronization. This paper proposes a novel adaptive hybrid dislocated synchronization with uncertain parameters scheme for chaos synchronization using the Lyapunov stability theory. The drive system is synchronized by the sum of hybrid dislocated state variables for the response system. By designing effective hybrid dislocated adaptive controller and hybrid dislocated adaptive law o...

  20. Moist convection scheme in Model E2

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Daehyun; Yao, Mao-Sung

    2013-01-01

    This documentation describes the version of the Del Genio - Yao cumulus parameterization used in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2 GCM. This version was used for the official GISS submissions to the CMIP5 archive.

  1. Adaptive finite-volume WENO schemes on dynamically redistributed grids for compressible Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Harshavardhana S.; Shukla, Ratnesh K.

    2016-08-01

    A high-order adaptive finite-volume method is presented for simulating inviscid compressible flows on time-dependent redistributed grids. The method achieves dynamic adaptation through a combination of time-dependent mesh node clustering in regions characterized by strong solution gradients and an optimal selection of the order of accuracy and the associated reconstruction stencil in a conservative finite-volume framework. This combined approach maximizes spatial resolution in discontinuous regions that require low-order approximations for oscillation-free shock capturing. Over smooth regions, high-order discretization through finite-volume WENO schemes minimizes numerical dissipation and provides excellent resolution of intricate flow features. The method including the moving mesh equations and the compressible flow solver is formulated entirely on a transformed time-independent computational domain discretized using a simple uniform Cartesian mesh. Approximations for the metric terms that enforce discrete geometric conservation law while preserving the fourth-order accuracy of the two-point Gaussian quadrature rule are developed. Spurious Cartesian grid induced shock instabilities such as carbuncles that feature in a local one-dimensional contact capturing treatment along the cell face normals are effectively eliminated through upwind flux calculation using a rotated Hartex-Lax-van Leer contact resolving (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver for the Euler equations in generalized coordinates. Numerical experiments with the fifth and ninth-order WENO reconstructions at the two-point Gaussian quadrature nodes, over a range of challenging test cases, indicate that the redistributed mesh effectively adapts to the dynamic flow gradients thereby improving the solution accuracy substantially even when the initial starting mesh is non-adaptive. The high adaptivity combined with the fifth and especially the ninth-order WENO reconstruction allows remarkably sharp capture of

  2. Comparison of tropospheric chemistry schemes for use within global models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Emmerson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Methane and ozone are two important climate gases with significant tropospheric chemistry. Within chemistry-climate and transport models this chemistry is simplified for computational expediency. We compare the state of the art Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM with six tropospheric chemistry schemes (CRI-reduced, GEOS-CHEM and a GEOS-CHEM adduct, MOZART, TOMCAT and CBM-IV that could be used within composition transport models. We test the schemes within a box model framework under conditions derived from a composition transport model and from field observations from a regional scale pollution event. We find that CRI-reduced provides much skill in simulating the full chemistry, yet with greatly reduced complexity. We find significant variations between the other chemical schemes, and reach the following conclusions. 1 The inclusion of a gas phase N2O5+H2O reaction in some schemes and not others is a large source of uncertainty in the inorganic chemistry. 2 There are significant variations in the calculated concentration of PAN between the schemes, which will affect the long range transport of reactive nitrogen in global models. 3 The representation of isoprene chemistry differs hugely between the schemes, leading to significant uncertainties on the impact of isoprene on composition. 4 Night-time chemistry is badly represented with significant disagreements in the ratio of NO3 to NOx. Resolving these four issues through further investigative laboratory studies will reduce the uncertainties within the chemical schemes of global tropospheric models.

  3. Ancient numerical daemons of conceptual hydrological modeling: 1. Fidelity and efficiency of time stepping schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2010-10-01

    A major neglected weakness of many current hydrological models is the numerical method used to solve the governing model equations. This paper thoroughly evaluates several classes of time stepping schemes in terms of numerical reliability and computational efficiency in the context of conceptual hydrological modeling. Numerical experiments are carried out using 8 distinct time stepping algorithms and 6 different conceptual rainfall-runoff models, applied in a densely gauged experimental catchment, as well as in 12 basins with diverse physical and hydroclimatic characteristics. Results show that, over vast regions of the parameter space, the numerical errors of fixed-step explicit schemes commonly used in hydrology routinely dwarf the structural errors of the model conceptualization. This substantially degrades model predictions, but also, disturbingly, generates fortuitously adequate performance for parameter sets where numerical errors compensate for model structural errors. Simply running fixed-step explicit schemes with shorter time steps provides a poor balance between accuracy and efficiency: in some cases daily-step adaptive explicit schemes with moderate error tolerances achieved comparable or higher accuracy than 15 min fixed-step explicit approximations but were nearly 10 times more efficient. From the range of simple time stepping schemes investigated in this work, the fixed-step implicit Euler method and the adaptive explicit Heun method emerge as good practical choices for the majority of simulation scenarios. In combination with the companion paper, where impacts on model analysis, interpretation, and prediction are assessed, this two-part study vividly highlights the impact of numerical errors on critical performance aspects of conceptual hydrological models and provides practical guidelines for robust numerical implementation.

  4. RLAM: A Dynamic and Efficient Reinforcement Learning-Based Adaptive Mapping Scheme in Mobile WiMAX Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Louta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access constitutes a candidate networking technology towards the 4G vision realization. By adopting the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA technique, the latest IEEE 802.16x amendments manage to provide QoS-aware access services with full mobility support. A number of interesting scheduling and mapping schemes have been proposed in research literature. However, they neglect a considerable asset of the OFDMA-based wireless systems: the dynamic adjustment of the downlink-to-uplink width ratio. In order to fully exploit the supported mobile WiMAX features, we design, develop, and evaluate a rigorous adaptive model, which inherits its main aspects from the reinforcement learning field. The model proposed endeavours to efficiently determine the downlink-to-uplinkwidth ratio, on a frame-by-frame basis, taking into account both the downlink and uplink traffic in the Base Station (BS. Extensive evaluation results indicate that the model proposed succeeds in providing quite accurate estimations, keeping the average error rate below 15% with respect to the optimal sub-frame configurations. Additionally, it presents improved performance compared to other learning methods (e.g., learning automata and notable improvements compared to static schemes that maintain a fixed predefined ratio in terms of service ratio and resource utilization.

  5. Alternative modeling schemes for propositional calculus problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Chanda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to discuss alternative approaches to convert a propositional logic problem into a 0-1 integer program. The substitution method proposed by Williams and CNF method is used for modeling and representation of logical inference problem. The similarity between the two fields viz. optimization problems or mathematical programming and deductive logic are shown.

  6. Iteration schemes for parallelizing models of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The time dependent Lawrence-Doniach model, valid for high fields and high values of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter, is often used for studying vortex dynamics in layered high-T{sub c} superconductors. When solving these equations numerically, the added degrees of complexity due to the coupling and nonlinearity of the model often warrant the use of high-performance computers for their solution. However, the interdependence between the layers can be manipulated so as to allow parallelization of the computations at an individual layer level. The reduced parallel tasks may then be solved independently using a heterogeneous cluster of networked workstations connected together with Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software. Here, this parallelization of the model is discussed and several computational implementations of varying degrees of parallelism are presented. Computational results are also given which contrast properties of convergence speed, stability, and consistency of these implementations. Included in these results are models involving the motion of vortices due to an applied current and pinning effects due to various material properties.

  7. The Numerical Scheme Development of a Simplified Frozen Soil Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; SUN Shufen; DAI Qiudan

    2009-01-01

    In almost all frozen soil models used currently,three variables of temperature,ice content and moisture content are used as prognostic variables and the rate term,accounting for the contribution of the phase change between water and ice,is shown explicitly in both the energy and mass balance equations.The models must be solved by a numerical method with an iterative process,and the rate term of the phase change needs to be pre-estimated at the beginning in each iteration step.Since the rate term of the phase change in the energy equation is closely related to the release or absorption of the great amount of fusion heat,a small error in the rate term estimation will introduce greater error in the energy balance,which will amplify the error in the temperature calculation and in turn,cause problems for the numerical solution convergence.In this work,in order to first reduce the trouble,the methodology of the variable transformation is applied to a simplified frozen soil model used currently,which leads to new frozen soil scheme used in this work.In the new scheme,the enthalpy and the total water equivalent are used as predictive variables in the governing equations to replace temperature,volumetric soil moisture and ice content used in many current models.By doing so,the rate terms of the phase change are not shown explicitly in both the mass and energy equations and its pre-estimation is avoided.Secondly,in order to solve this new scheme more functionally,the development of the numerical scheme to the new scheme is described and a numerical algorithm appropriate to the numerical scheme is developed.In order to evaluate the new scheme of the frozen soil model and its relevant algorithm,a series of model evaluations are conducted by comparing numerical results from the new model scheme with three observational data sets.The comparisons show that the results from the model are in good agreement with these data sets in both the change trend of variables and their

  8. Reversible fragile watermarking scheme for three-dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Tse; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Yu, Shyr-Shen

    2009-09-01

    Watermarking is a very important technique for protecting the authorization of digital content, such as still images, video streams, audio streams, and 3-D models. Most fragile watermarking schemes for 3-D models are not reversible. Published reversible or irreversible fragile watermarking schemes for 3-D models have many drawbacks, such as the causality problem, not being blind, or being unable to locate changed regions. To overcome these drawbacks, a reversible fragile watermarking scheme for 3-D models in spatial domain is proposed. Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to produce the PCA coordinate system and make the system robust against similarity transformation attacks. PCA, together with a novel interval embedding technique, provide the blind reversibility of the proposed scheme. Intervals larger than a threshold and smaller than another threshold are adopted as legitimate to avoid large distortion. Moreover, experimental results show that the proposed scheme can overcome the causality, convergence, and confusion problems; provide both tampering detection and better embedding rate and requiring a small key size.

  9. Adaptive Gaussian sum squared-root cubature Kalman filter with split-merge scheme for state estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian discrete dynamic systems for improvement of accuracy and consistency. An efficient new algorithm called the adaptive Gaussian-sum square-root cubature Kalman filter (AGSSCKF with a split-merge scheme is proposed. It is developed based on the squared-root extension of newly introduced cubature Kalman filter (SCKF and is built within a Gaussian-sum framework. Based on the condition that the probability density functions of process noises and initial state are denoted by a Gaussian sum using optimization method, a bank of SCKF are used as the sub-filters to estimate state of system with the corresponding weights respectively, which is adaptively updated. The new algorithm consists of an adaptive splitting and merging procedure according to a proposed split-decision model based on the nonlinearity degree of measurement. The results of two simulation scenarios (one-dimensional state estimation and bearings-only tracking show that the proposed filter demonstrates comparable performance to the particle filter with significantly reduced computational cost.

  10. Adaptive Gaussian sum squared-root cubature Kalman filter with split-merge scheme for state estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu; Dong Kai; Wang Haipeng; Liu Jun; He You; Pan Lina

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian discrete dynamic systems for improvement of accuracy and consistency. An efficient new algorithm called the adaptive Gaussian-sum square-root cubature Kalman filter (AGSSCKF) with a split-merge scheme is proposed. It is developed based on the squared-root extension of newly introduced cuba-ture Kalman filter (SCKF) and is built within a Gaussian-sum framework. Based on the condition that the probability density functions of process noises and initial state are denoted by a Gaussian sum using optimization method, a bank of SCKF are used as the sub-filters to estimate state of sys-tem with the corresponding weights respectively, which is adaptively updated. The new algorithm consists of an adaptive splitting and merging procedure according to a proposed split-decision model based on the nonlinearity degree of measurement. The results of two simulation scenarios (one-dimensional state estimation and bearings-only tracking) show that the proposed filter demon-strates comparable performance to the particle filter with significantly reduced computational cost.

  11. Models of the group schemes of roots of unity

    CERN Document Server

    Mézard, Ariane; Tossici, Dajano

    2011-01-01

    Let O_K be a discrete valuation ring of mixed characteristics (0,p), with residue field k. Using work of Sekiguchi and Suwa, we construct some finite flat O_K-models of the group scheme \\mu_{p^n,K} of p^n-th roots of unity, which we call Kummer group schemes. We set carefully the general framework and algebraic properties of this construction. When k is perfect and O_K is a complete totally ramified extension of the ring of Witt vectors W(k), we provide a parallel study of the Breuil-Kisin modules of finite flat models of \\mu_{p^n,K}, in such a way that the construction of Kummer groups and Breuil-Kisin modules can be compared. We compute these objects for n < 4. This leads us to conjecture that all finite flat models of \\mu_{p^n,K} are Kummer group schemes.

  12. Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mariani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.

  13. Complex Modelling Scheme Of An Additive Manufacturing Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Liliana Georgeta

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a modelling scheme sustaining the development of an additive manufacturing research centre model and its processes. This modelling is performed using IDEF0, the resulting model process representing the basic processes required in developing such a centre in any university. While the activities presented in this study are those recommended in general, changes may occur in specific existing situations in a research centre.

  14. A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.

  15. A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kuiper, Rolf [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Institut für Computergestützte Wissenschaften, Universität Zürich Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars, E-mail: klassm@mcmaster.ca [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-12-10

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.

  16. Adaptive Numerical Dissipation Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2005-01-01

    The required type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter to accurately resolve all relevant multiscales of complex MHD unsteady high-speed shock/shear/turbulence/combustion problems are not only physical problem dependent, but also vary from one flow region to another. In addition, proper and efficient control of the divergence of the magnetic field (Div(B)) numerical error for high order shock-capturing methods poses extra requirements for the considered type of CPU intensive computations. The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multiresolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filters also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error.

  17. Action versus result-oriented schemes in a grassland agroecosystem: a dynamic modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Sabatier

    Full Text Available Effects of agri-environment schemes (AES on biodiversity remain controversial. While most AES are action-oriented, result-oriented and habitat-oriented schemes have recently been proposed as a solution to improve AES efficiency. The objective of this study was to compare action-oriented, habitat-oriented and result-oriented schemes in terms of ecological and productive performance as well as in terms of management flexibility. We developed a dynamic modelling approach based on the viable control framework to carry out a long term assessment of the three schemes in a grassland agroecosystem. The model explicitly links grazed grassland dynamics to bird population dynamics. It is applied to lapwing conservation in wet grasslands in France. We ran the model to assess the three AES scenarios. The model revealed the grazing strategies respecting ecological and productive constraints specific to each scheme. Grazing strategies were assessed by both their ecological and productive performance. The viable control approach made it possible to obtain the whole set of viable grazing strategies and therefore to quantify the management flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem. Our results showed that habitat and result-oriented scenarios led to much higher ecological performance than the action-oriented one. Differences in both ecological and productive performance between the habitat and result-oriented scenarios were limited. Flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem in the result-oriented scenario was much higher than in that of habitat-oriented scenario. Our model confirms the higher flexibility as well as the better ecological and productive performance of result-oriented schemes. A larger use of result-oriented schemes in conservation may also allow farmers to adapt their management to local conditions and to climatic variations.

  18. Action versus result-oriented schemes in a grassland agroecosystem: a dynamic modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Doyen, Luc; Tichit, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Effects of agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity remain controversial. While most AES are action-oriented, result-oriented and habitat-oriented schemes have recently been proposed as a solution to improve AES efficiency. The objective of this study was to compare action-oriented, habitat-oriented and result-oriented schemes in terms of ecological and productive performance as well as in terms of management flexibility. We developed a dynamic modelling approach based on the viable control framework to carry out a long term assessment of the three schemes in a grassland agroecosystem. The model explicitly links grazed grassland dynamics to bird population dynamics. It is applied to lapwing conservation in wet grasslands in France. We ran the model to assess the three AES scenarios. The model revealed the grazing strategies respecting ecological and productive constraints specific to each scheme. Grazing strategies were assessed by both their ecological and productive performance. The viable control approach made it possible to obtain the whole set of viable grazing strategies and therefore to quantify the management flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem. Our results showed that habitat and result-oriented scenarios led to much higher ecological performance than the action-oriented one. Differences in both ecological and productive performance between the habitat and result-oriented scenarios were limited. Flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem in the result-oriented scenario was much higher than in that of habitat-oriented scenario. Our model confirms the higher flexibility as well as the better ecological and productive performance of result-oriented schemes. A larger use of result-oriented schemes in conservation may also allow farmers to adapt their management to local conditions and to climatic variations.

  19. From Classical to Quantum and Back: A Hamiltonian Scheme for Adaptive Multiresolution Classical/Path-Integral Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Karsten; Tuckerman, Mark E; Donadio, Davide; Kremer, Kurt; Potestio, Raffaello

    2016-07-12

    Quantum delocalization of atomic nuclei affects the physical properties of many hydrogen-rich liquids and biological systems even at room temperature. In computer simulations, quantum nuclei can be modeled via the path-integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics, which implies a substantial increase in computational overhead. By restricting the quantum description to a small spatial region, this cost can be significantly reduced. Herein, we derive a bottom-up, rigorous, Hamiltonian-based scheme that allows molecules to change from quantum to classical and vice versa on the fly as they diffuse through the system, both reducing overhead and making quantum grand-canonical simulations possible. The method is validated via simulations of low-temperature parahydrogen. Our adaptive resolution approach paves the way to efficient quantum simulations of biomolecules, membranes, and interfaces. PMID:27214610

  20. Subjective quality assessment of an adaptive video streaming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Shahid, Muhammad; Garcia, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increased popularity and high usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) techniques, various studies have been carried out in this area which generally focused on the technical enhancement of HAS technology and applications. However, a lack of common HAS standard led to multiple proprietary approaches which have been developed by major Internet companies. In the emerging MPEG-DASH standard the packagings of the video content and HTTP syntax have been standardized; but all the details of the adaptation behavior are left to the client implementation. Nevertheless, to design an adaptation algorithm which optimizes the viewing experience of the enduser, the multimedia service providers need to know about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. Taking this into account, the objective of this experiment was to study the QoE of a HAS-based video broadcast model. The experiment has been carried out through a subjective study of the end user response to various possible clients' behavior for changing the video quality taking different QoE-influence factors into account. The experimental conclusions have made a good insight into the QoE of different adaptation schemes which can be exploited by HAS clients for designing the adaptation algorithms.

  1. Adaptive Call Admission Control Based on Reward-Penalty Model in Wireless/Mobile Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hui Huang; De-Pei Qian; Sheng-Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic threshold-based Call Admission Control (CAC) scheme used in wireless/mobile network for multi- class services is proposed. In the scheme, each class's CAC thresholds are solved through establishing a reward-penalty model which strives to maximize network's revenue. In order to lower Handoff Dropping Probability (HDP), the scheme joints packet and connection levels Quality of Service constraints, designing a bandwidth degradation algorithm to accept handoff calls by degrading existing calls' bandwidth during network congestion. Analyses show that the CAC thresholds change adaptively with the average call arrival rate. The performance comparison shows that the proposed scheme outperforms the Mobile IP Reservation scheme.

  2. A High-Capacity Image Data Hiding Scheme Using Adaptive LSB Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many existing steganographic methods hide more secret data into edged areas than smooth areas in the host image, which does not differentiate textures from edges and causes serious degradation in actual edge areas. To avoid abrupt changes in image edge areas, as well as to achieve better quality of the stego-image, a novel image data hiding technique by adaptive Least Significant Bits (LSBs substitution is proposed in this paper. The scheme exploits the brightness, edges, and texture masking of the host image to estimate the number k of LSBs for data hiding. Pixels in the noise non-sensitive regions are embedded by a k-bit LSB substitution with a lager value of k than that of the pixels in noise sensitive regions. Moreover, an optimal pixel adjustment process is used to enhance stego-image visual quality obtained by simple LSB substitution method. To ensure that the adaptive number k of LSBs remains unchanged after pixel modification, the LSBs number is computed by the high-order bits rather than all the bits of the image pixel value. The theoretical analyses and experiment results show that the proposed method achieves higher embedding capacity and better stegoimage quality compared with some existing LSB methods.

  3. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  4. A mesh adaptivity scheme on the Landau-de Gennes functional minimization case in 3D, and its driving efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Bajc, Iztok; Žumer, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D mesh adaptivity strategy on unstructured tetrahedral meshes by a posteriori error estimates based on metrics, studied on the case of a nonlinear finite element minimization scheme for the Landau-de Gennes free energy functional of nematic liquid crystals. Newton's iteration for tensor fields is employed with steepest descent method possibly stepping in. Aspects relating the driving of mesh adaptivity within the nonlinear scheme are considered. The algorithmic performance is found to depend on at least two factors: when to trigger each single mesh adaptation, and the precision of the correlated remeshing. Each factor is represented by a parameter, with its values possibly varying for every new mesh adaptation. We empirically show that the time of the overall algorithm convergence can vary considerably when different sequences of parameters are used, thus posing a question about optimality. The extensive testings and debugging done within this work on the simulation of systems of nemati...

  5. Bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity: A comparison of modeling schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng; Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-11-01

    Accurate modeling of wind-induced loads on bridge decks is critical to ensure the functionality and survivability of long-span bridges. Over the last few decades, several schemes have emerged to model bridge behavior under winds from an aerodynamic/aeroelastic perspective. A majority of these schemes rely on the quasi-steady (QS) theory. This paper systematically compares and assesses the efficacy of five analytical models available in the literature with a new model presented herein. These models include: QS theory-based model, corrected QS theory-based model, linearized QS theory-based model, semi-empirical linear model, hybrid model, and the proposed modified hybrid model. The ability of these models to capture fluid memory and nonlinear effects either individually or collectively is examined. In addition, their ability to include the effects of turbulence in the approach flow on the bridge behavior is assessed. All models are compared in a consistent manner by utilizing the time domain approach. The underlying role of each model in capturing the physics of bridge behavior under winds is highlighted and the influence of incoming turbulence and its interaction with the bridge deck is examined. A discussion is included that focuses on a number of critical parameters pivotal to the effectiveness of corresponding models.

  6. Performance analysis of joint multi-branch switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2012-12-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper two adaptive schemes using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link and maintain a desired performance for the primary link. The proposed switching efficient scheme (SES) and bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) use the scan and wait combining technique (SWC) where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In these schemes, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to minimize the average number of switched branches and to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver (PR). For delay-sensitive applications, we also propose two variations of the SES and BES schemes using power control (SES-PC and BES-PC) where the secondary transmitter (ST) starts sending data using a nominal power level which is selected in order to minimize the average delay introduced by the SWC technique. We demonstrate through numerical examples that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to the SES scheme. This spectral efficiency improvement comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. We also show that the SES-PC and the BES-PC schemes minimize the average delay while satisfying the same spectral efficiency as the SES and BES schemes, respectively. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Comparative application and analysis from a one dimensional and a multi-dimensional routing scheme and its impact on process oriented hydrological modeling with the Jena Adaptable Modelling System (JAMS) and the integrated hydrological, nutrient transport and erosion modeling system J2000-S-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipka, H.; Pfennig, B.; Fink, M.; Kralisch, S.; Krause, P.; Flügel, W.

    2010-12-01

    Fully spatially distributed hydrological modeling requires a topological linkage of single modeling entities (e.g. Hydrological Response Units - HRU) in order to reproduce relevant attenuation and translation processes within the stream but also during the transport of water in form of lateral surface or subsurface flow. Most often such linkage is considered by a one dimensional (1D) approach which links one modeling entity to only one receiver that follows in flow direction. The comparison with actual lateral water movement in catchments show that such a 1D routing scheme is often too simple which can lead to an overestimation of the runoff concentration along the 1D flow paths. On the other hand an underestimation of runoff in flow cascades that do not reside next to the main 1D flow paths can occur as the affected HRUs don’t receive realistic inflow from their source entities above. As a catchment-wide consequence the 1D routing scheme can result in a significant over- or underestimation of the contributing area for specific parts of a catchment which can have important implications on the spatial distribution of accompanying processes such as spatial variation of soil moisture, soil erosion or nutrient/contaminant transport. To address the problems outlined above a new approach has been developed that allows a multi-dimensional linkage of model entities in such a way that each entity can have various receivers to which the water is passed. This extended routing scheme was implemented in the hydrological, nutrient transport and erosion modeling system J2000-S-E and was used for the simulation of the hydrological processes of a number of meso-scaled catchments in Thuringia, Germany. This work will present the most important facts of the extended routing scheme, the simulation results along with the comparison of those obtained with the 1D linkage and will highlight the impacts on the hydrological process dynamics as well as on the HRU-based mass transport and

  8. Adaptive block-wise alphabet reduction scheme for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Atef; Zouari, Sonia; Ghribi, Abdelaziz

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new adaptive block-wise lossless image compression algorithm, which is based on the so-called alphabet reduction scheme combined with an adaptive arithmetic coding (AC). This new encoding algorithm is particularly efficient for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms. AC is a very efficient technique for lossless data compression and produces a rate that is close to the entropy; however, a compression performance loss occurs when encoding images or blocks with a limited number of active symbols by comparison with the number of symbols in the nominal alphabet, which consists in the amplification of the zero frequency problem. Generally, most methods add one to the frequency count of each symbol from the nominal alphabet, which leads to a statistical model distortion, and therefore reduces the efficiency of the AC. The aim of this work is to overcome this drawback by assigning to each image block the smallest possible set including all the existing symbols called active symbols. This is an alternative of using the nominal alphabet when applying the conventional arithmetic encoders. We show experimentally that the proposed method outperforms several lossless image compression encoders and standards including the conventional arithmetic encoders, JPEG2000, and JPEG-LS.

  9. An Adaptive Systematic Lossy Error Protection Scheme for Broadcast Applications Based on Frequency Filtering and Unequal Picture Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic lossy error protection (SLEP is a robust error resilient mechanism based on principles of Wyner-Ziv (WZ coding for video transmission over error-prone networks. In an SLEP scheme, the video bitstream is separated into two parts: a systematic part consisting of a video sequence transmitted without channel coding, and additional information consisting of a WZ supplementary stream. This paper presents an adaptive SLEP scheme in which the WZ stream is obtained by frequency filtering in the transform domain. Additionally, error resilience varies adaptively depending on the characteristics of compressed video. We show that the proposed SLEP architecture achieves graceful degradation of reconstructed video quality in the presence of increasing transmission errors. Moreover, it provides good performances in terms of error protection as well as reconstructed video quality if compared to solutions based on coarser quantization, while offering an interesting embedded scheme to apply digital video format conversion.

  10. Modelling of Substrate Noise and Mitigation Schemes for UWB Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The last chapter of this first part of the book, chapter seven, is devoted to Modeling of Substrate Noise and Mitigation Schemes for Ultrawideband (UWB) systems, and is written by Ming Shen, Jan H. Mikkelsen, and Torben Larsen from Aalborg University, Denmark. In highly integrated mixed...... with narrow-band circuits. This chapter presents a study on the modeling and mitigation of substrate noise in mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs), focusing on UWB system/circuit designs. Experimental impact evaluation of substrate noise on UWB circuits is presented. It shows how a wide-band circuit can...... be affected by substrate noise. This chapter also presents a new analytical model for the estimation of the spectral content of the switching noise. In addition a novel active noise mitigation scheme based on spectral information is presented....

  11. A Novel Scheme Adaptive Hybrid Dislocated Synchronization for Two Identical and Different Memristor Chaotic Oscillator Systems with Uncertain Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drive system can synchronize with the response system by the scaling factor in the traditional projective synchronization. This paper proposes a novel adaptive hybrid dislocated synchronization with uncertain parameters scheme for chaos synchronization using the Lyapunov stability theory. The drive system is synchronized by the sum of hybrid dislocated state variables for the response system. By designing effective hybrid dislocated adaptive controller and hybrid dislocated adaptive law of the parameters estimation, we investigate the synchronization of two identical memristor chaotic oscillator systems and two different memristor chaotic oscillator systems with uncertain parameters. Finally, the numerical simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of our method.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Integration Adapter Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Daniel; Holzleitner, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Integration Adapters are a fundamental part of an integration system, since they provide (business) applications access to its messaging channel. However, their modeling and configuration remain under-represented. In previous work, the integration control and data flow syntax and semantics have been expressed in the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) as a semantic model for message-based integration, while adapter and the related quality of service modeling were left for further studi...

  13. Completing and adapting models of biological processes

    OpenAIRE

    Margaria, Tiziana; Hinchey, Michael G.; Raffelt, Harald; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Steffen, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    We present a learning-based method for model completion and adaptation, which is based on the combination of two approaches: 1) R2D2C, a technique for mechanically transforming system requirements via provably equivalent models to running code, and 2) automata learning-based model extrapolation. The intended impact of this new combination is to make model completion and adaptation accessible to experts of the field, like biologists or engineers. The principle is briefly illustrated by gene...

  14. Asymptotic-Preserving Schemes for Fluid Models of Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Degond, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    These notes summarize a series of works related to the numerical approximation of plasma fluid problems. We construct so-called 'Asymptotic-Preserving' schemes which are valid for a large range of values (from very small to order unity) of the dimensionless parameters that appear in plasma fluid models. Specifically, we are interested in two parameters, the scaled Debye length which quantifies how close to quasi-neutrality the plasma is, and the scaled cyclotron period, which is inversely pro...

  15. An Industrial Model Based Disturbance Feedback Control Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawai, Fukiko; Nakazawa, Chikashi; Vinther, Kasper;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model based disturbance feedback control scheme. Industrial process systems have been traditionally controlled by using relay and PID controller. However these controllers are affected by disturbances and model errors and these effects degrade control performance. The authors...... propose a new control method that can decrease the negative impact of disturbance and model errors. The control method is motivated by industrial practice by Fuji Electric. Simulation tests are examined with a conventional PID controller and the disturbance feedback control. The simulation results...

  16. Stability of Constrained Adaptive Model Predictive Control Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Jahn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Recently, suboptimality estimates for model predictive controllers (MPC) have been derived for the case without additional stabilizing endpoint constraints or a Lyapunov function type endpoint weight. The proposed methods yield a posteriori and a priori estimates of the degree of suboptimality with respect to the infinite horizon optimal control and can be evaluated at runtime of the MPC algorithm. Our aim is to design automatic adaptation strategies of the optimization horizon in order to guarantee stability and a predefined degree of suboptimality for the closed loop solution. Here, we present a stability proof for an arbitrary adaptation scheme and state a simple shortening and prolongation strategy which can be used for adapting the optimization horizon.

  17. OMEGA: The operational multiscale environment model with grid adaptivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This review talk describes the OMEGA code, used for weather simulation and the modeling of aerosol transport through the atmosphere. Omega employs a 3D mesh of wedge shaped elements (triangles when viewed from above) that adapt with time. Because wedges are laid out in layers of triangular elements, the scheme can utilize structured storage and differencing techniques along the elevation coordinate, and is thus a hybrid of structured and unstructured methods. The utility of adaptive gridding in this moded, near geographic features such as coastlines, where material properties change discontinuously, is illustrated. Temporal adaptivity was used additionally to track moving internal fronts, such as clouds of aerosol contaminants. The author also discusses limitations specific to this problem, including manipulation of huge data bases and fixed turn-around times. In practice, the latter requires a carefully tuned optimization between accuracy and computation speed.

  18. Stateless Transitive Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-guang; CAI Man-chun; YANG Yi-xian

    2004-01-01

    A new practical method is introduced to transform the stateful transitive signature scheme to stateless one without the loss of security. According to the approach, two concrete stateless transitive signature schemes based on Factoring and RSA are presented respectively. Under the assumption of the hardness of factoring and one-more- RSA-inversion problem, both two schemes are secure under the adaptive chosen-message attacks in random oracle model.

  19. A dual adaptive watermarking scheme in contourlet domain for DICOM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, medical imaging equipments produce digital form of medical images. In a modern health care environment, new systems such as PACS (picture archiving and communication systems, use the digital form of medical image too. The digital form of medical images has lots of advantages over its analog form such as ease in storage and transmission. Medical images in digital form must be stored in a secured environment to preserve patient privacy. It is also important to detect modifications on the image. These objectives are obtained by watermarking in medical image. Methods In this paper, we present a dual and oblivious (blind watermarking scheme in the contourlet domain. Because of importance of ROI (region of interest in interpretation by medical doctors rather than RONI (region of non-interest, we propose an adaptive dual watermarking scheme with different embedding strength in ROI and RONI. We embed watermark bits in singular value vectors of the embedded blocks within lowpass subband in contourlet domain. Results The values of PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio and SSIM (structural similarity measure index of ROI for proposed DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine images in this paper are respectively larger than 64 and 0.997. These values confirm that our algorithm has good transparency. Because of different embedding strength, BER (bit error rate values of signature watermark are less than BER values of caption watermark. Our results show that watermarked images in contourlet domain have greater robustness against attacks than wavelet domain. In addition, the qualitative analysis of our method shows it has good invisibility. Conclusions The proposed contourlet-based watermarking algorithm in this paper uses an automatically selection for ROI and embeds the watermark in the singular values of contourlet subbands that makes the algorithm more efficient, and robust against noise attacks than other transform

  20. Unobtrusive user modeling for adaptive hypermedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Holz; K. Hofmann; C. Reed

    2008-01-01

    We propose a technique for user modeling in Adaptive Hypermedia (AH) that is unobtrusive at both the level of observable behavior and that of cognition. Unobtrusive user modeling is complementary to transparent user modeling. Unobtrusive user modeling induces user models appropriate for Educational

  1. Adaptive finite difference for seismic wavefield modelling in acoustic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Wu, Di; Debens, Henry Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Efficient numerical seismic wavefield modelling is a key component of modern seismic imaging techniques, such as reverse-time migration and full-waveform inversion. Finite difference methods are perhaps the most widely used numerical approach for forward modelling, and here we introduce a novel scheme for implementing finite difference by introducing a time-to-space wavelet mapping. Finite difference coefficients are then computed by minimising the difference between the spatial derivatives of the mapped wavelet and the finite difference operator over all propagation angles. Since the coefficients vary adaptively with different velocities and source wavelet bandwidths, the method is capable to maximise the accuracy of the finite difference operator. Numerical examples demonstrate that this method is superior to standard finite difference methods, while comparable to Zhang's optimised finite difference scheme. PMID:27491333

  2. Application of Genetic Control with Adaptive Scaling Scheme to Signal Acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic-based control scheme that not only utilizes evolutionary characteristics to find the signal acquisition parameters, but also employs an adaptive scheme to control the search space and avoid the genetic control converging to local optimal value so as to acquire the desired signal precisely and rapidly. Simulations and experiment results show that the proposed method can improve the precision of signal parameters and take less signal acquisition time than traditional serial search methods for global navigation satellite system (GNSS signals.

  3. Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Scheme with Reduced Computational Complexity and Improved Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Siddanna Gowd

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The general multidimensional linear channel model adequately represents a plethora of communication system models which utilize multidimensional transmit-receive signals for attaining increased rates and reliability in the presence of fading. The logarithmic dependence of the spectral efficiency of the transmitted power makes it extremely expensive to increase the capacity solely by radiating more power. Also, increasing the transmitted power in a mobile terminal is not advisable due to possible violation of regulatory power masks and possible electromagnetic radiation effects. Alternately, MIMO schemes if properly exploited can exhibit a linearly increasing capacity, due to the presence of a rich scattering environment that provides independent transmission paths from each transmit to each receive antenna. An Idealized practical communication system assumes perfect channel state information (CSI and uses a linear transmitter to maximize the reliability of the wireless multi-antenna link. However, in actual practice the CSI is incomplete. As a result of this, there is a necessity to deal with ergodic and compound capacity formulations and these factors are strongly dependent on the model utilized to characterize the channel. Practical system models include quasi-static multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO, MIMO-OFDM, ISI, amplify-andforward (AF, decode-and-forward (DF, and MIMO automatic repeat request (ARQ models. Each of the above models introduces its own structure, its own error performance limits, and its own requirements on coding and decoding schemes. Finding general purpose transceiver structures with (provably good performance in these scenarios, and with a reasonable computational complexity, is challenging. Existing MIMO systems are able to provide either high spectral efficiency (spatial multiplexing or low error rate (high diversity via exploiting multiple degrees of freedom available in the channel, but not both simultaneously as

  4. A Muscle Synergy-inspired Adaptive Control Scheme for a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji A Alibeji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract--- Abstract--- A hybrid neuroprosthesis that uses an electric motor-based wearable exoskeleton and functional electrical stimulation (FES has a promising potential to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. A hybrid actuation structure introduces effector redundancy, making its automatic control a challenging task because multiple muscles and additional electric motor need to be coordinated. Inspired by the muscle synergy principle, we designed a low dimensional controller to control multiple effectors: FES of multiple muscles and electric motors. The resulting control system may be less complex and easier to control. To obtain the muscle synergy-inspired low dimensional control, a subject-specific gait model was optimized to compute optimal control signals for the multiple effectors. The optimal control signals were then dimensionally reduced by using principal component analysis to extract synergies. Then, an adaptive feedforward controller with an update law for the synergy activation was designed. In addition, feedback control was used to provide stability and robustness to the control design. The adaptive-feedforward and feedback control structure makes the low dimensional controller more robust to disturbances and variations in the model parameters and may help to compensate for other time-varying phenomena (e.g., muscle fatigue. This is proven by using a Lyapunov stability analysis, which yielded semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded tracking. Computer simulations were performed to test the new controller on a 4 degree of freedom gait model.

  5. A Formal Model for Dynamically Adaptable Services

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The growing complexity of software systems as well as changing conditions in their operating environment demand systems that are more flexible, adaptive and dependable. The service-oriented computing paradigm is in widespread use to support such adaptive systems, and, in many domains, adaptations may occur dynamically and in real time. In addition, services from heterogeneous, possibly unknown sources may be used. This motivates a need to ensure the correct behaviour of the adapted systems, and its continuing compliance to time bounds and other QoS properties. The complexity of dynamic adaptation (DA) is significant, but currently not well understood or formally specified. This paper elaborates a well-founded model and theory of DA, introducing formalisms written using COWS. The model is evaluated for reliability and responsiveness properties with the model checker CMC.

  6. Uncertainty Propagation and Quantification using Constrained Coupled Adaptive Forward-Inverse Schemes: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    equation for the distribution of k is solved, provided that Cauchy data are appropriately assigned. In the next stage, only a limited number of passive measurements are provided. In this case, the forward and inverse PDEs are solved simultaneously. This is accomplished by adding regularization terms and filtering the pressure gradients in the inverse problem. Both the forward and the inverse problem are either simultaneously or sequentially coupled and solved using implicit schemes, adaptive mesh refinement, Galerkin finite elements. The final case arises when P, k, and Q data only exist at producing wells. This exceedingly ill posed problem calls for additional constraints on the forward-inverse coupling to insure that the production rates are satisfied at the desired locations. Results from all three cases are presented demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed approach and, more importantly, providing some insights into the consequences of data under sampling, uncertainty propagation and quantification. We illustrate the advantages of this novel approach over the common UQ forward drivers on several subsurface energy problems in either porous or fractured or/and faulted reservoirs. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Multiple models adaptive feedforward decoupling controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xin; Li Shaoyuan; Wang Zhongjie

    2005-01-01

    When the parameters of the system change abruptly, a new multivariable adaptive feedforward decoupling controller using multiple models is presented to improve the transient response. The system models are composed of multiple fixed models, one free-running adaptive model and one re-initialized adaptive model. The fixed models are used to provide initial control to the process. The re-initialized adaptive model can be reinitialized as the selected model to improve the adaptation speed. The free-running adaptive controller is added to guarantee the overall system stability. At each instant, the best system model is selected according to the switching index and the corresponding controller is designed. During the controller design, the interaction is viewed as the measurable disturbance and eliminated by the choice of the weighting polynomial matrix. It not only eliminates the steady-state error but also decouples the system dynamically. The global convergence is obtained and several simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  8. Multi-dimensional Upwind Fluctuation Splitting Scheme with Mesh Adaption for Hypersonic Viscous Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, William Alfred

    2001-01-01

    A multi-dimensional upwind fluctuation splitting scheme is developed and implemented for two-dimensional and axisymmetric formulations of the Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Key features of the scheme are the compact stencil, full upwinding, and non-linear discretization which allow for second-order accuracy with enforced positivity. Throughout, the fluctuation splitting scheme is compared to a current state-of-the-art finite volume approach, a second-orde...

  9. CFD DPAL modeling for various schemes of flow configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waichman, Karol; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman

    2014-10-01

    Comprehensive analysis of kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in flowing-gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) using two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (2D and 3D CFD) models is reported for Cs DPALs. The models take into account effects of temperature rise and losses of alkali atoms due to ionization. Various gas flow regimes and transverse and parallel flow-optics directions configurations are studied. Optimization of the Cs DPAL parameters, using 3D CFD modeling, shows that applying high flow velocity and narrowband pumping, maximum lasing power as high as 40 kW can be obtained at pump power of 80 kW for transverse flow configuration in a pumped volume of ~ 0.7 cm3. At high pump power the calculated laser power is higher for the transverse scheme than for the parallel scheme because of a more efficient heat convection from the beam volume in the transverse configuration. The CFD models are applied to experimental devices and the calculated results are in good agreement with the measurements.

  10. Adaptive Gaussian sum squared-root cubature Kalman filter with split-merge scheme for state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yu; Dong Kai; Wang Haipeng; Liu Jun; He You; Pan Lina

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian discrete dynamic systems for improvement of accuracy and consistency. An efficient new algorithm called the adaptive Gaussian-sum square-root cubature Kalman filter (AGSSCKF) with a split-merge scheme is proposed. It is developed based on the squared-root extension of newly introduced cubature Kalman filter (SCKF) and is built within a Gaussian-sum framework. Based on the condition that the probability density functions o...

  11. MODELING THE ADAPTION RULE IN CONTEXTAWARE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context awareness is increasingly gaining applicability in interactive ubiquitous mobile computing systems. Each context-aware application has its own set of behaviors to react to context modifications. This paper is concerned with the context modeling and the development methodology for context-aware systems. We proposed a rule-based approach and use the adaption tree to model the adaption rule of context-aware systems. We illustrate this idea in an arithmetic game application.

  12. An integration scheme for stiff solid-gas reactor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne A. Foss

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Many dynamic models encounter numerical integration problems because of a large span in the dynamic modes. In this paper we develop a numerical integration scheme for systems that include a gas phase, and solid and liquid phases, such as a gas-solid reactor. The method is based on neglecting fast dynamic modes and exploiting the structure of the algebraic equations. The integration method is suitable for a large class of industrially relevant systems. The methodology has proven remarkably efficient. It has in practice performed excellent and been a key factor for the success of the industrial simulator for electrochemical furnaces for ferro-alloy production.

  13. Asymptotic-Preserving Schemes for Fluid Models of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    These notes summarize a series of works related to the numerical approximation of plasma fluid problems. We construct so-called 'Asymptotic-Preserving' schemes which are valid for a large range of values (from very small to order unity) of the dimensionless parameters that appear in plasma fluid models. Specifically, we are interested in two parameters, the scaled Debye length which quantifies how close to quasi-neutrality the plasma is, and the scaled cyclotron period, which is inversely proportional to the magnetic field strength. We will largely focus on the ideas, in order to enable the reader to apply these concepts to other situations.

  14. A UPFC damping control scheme using Lead-Lag and ANN based Adaptive controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ramesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low Frequency Oscillations (LFO occur inpower systems because of lack of the damping torque inorder to dominance to power system disturbances aschange in mechanical input power. In the recent pastPower System Stabilizer (PSS was used to damp LFO.FACTs devices, such as Unified Power Flow Controller(UPFC, can control power flow and increase transientstability. So UPFC may be used to damp LFO instead ofPSS. UPFC damps LFO through direct control of voltageand power. In this research the linearized model ofsynchronous machine (Heffron-Philips connected toinfinite bus (Single Machine-Infinite Bus: SMIB withUPFC is used and also in order to damp LFO, adaptiveANN damping controller for UPFC is designed andsimulated. Simulation is performed for various types ofloads and for different disturbances. Simulation resultsdemonstrate that the developed ANN damping controllerwould be more effective in damping electromechanicaloscillations in comparison with the conventional lead-lagcontroller.

  15. Modeling Phosphorous Losses from Seasonal Manure Application Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nutrient loading, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters is a common and significant problem throughout the United States. While pollution remediation efforts are continuously improving, the most effective treatment remains to limit the source. Appropriate timing of fertilizer application to reduce nutrient losses is currently a hotly debated topic in the Northeastern United States; winter spreading of manure is under special scrutiny. We plan to evaluate the loss of phosphorous to surface waters from agricultural systems under varying seasonal fertilization schemes in an effort to determine the impacts of fertilizers applied throughout the year. The Cayuga Lake basin, located in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, is a watershed dominated by agriculture where a wide array of land management strategies can be found. The evaluation will be conducted on the Fall Creek Watershed, a large sub basin in the Cayuga Lake Watershed. The Fall Creek Watershed covers approximately 33,000 ha in central New York State with approximately 50% of this land being used for agriculture. We plan to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model a number of seasonal fertilization regimes such as summer only spreading and year round spreading (including winter applications), as well as others. We will use the model to quantify the phosphorous load to surface waters from these different fertilization schemes and determine the impacts of manure applied at different times throughout the year. More detailed knowledge about how seasonal fertilization schemes impact phosphorous losses will provide more information to stakeholders concerning the impacts of agriculture on surface water quality. Our results will help farmers and extensionists make more informed decisions about appropriate timing of manure application for reduced phosphorous losses and surface water degradation as well as aid law makers in improving policy surrounding manure application.

  16. Tissue modeling schemes in low energy breast brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpour, Hossein; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-11-21

    Breast tissue is heterogeneous and is mainly composed of glandular (G) and adipose (A) tissues. The proportion of G versus A varies considerably among the population. The absorbed dose distributions in accelerated partial breast irradiation therapy with low energy photon brachytherapy sources are very sensitive to tissue heterogeneities. Current clinical algorithms use the recommendations of the AAPM TG43 report which approximates the human tissues by unit density water. The aim of this study is to investigate various breast tissue modeling schemes for low energy brachytherapy. A special case of breast permanent seed implant is considered here. Six modeling schemes are considered. Uniform and non-uniform water breast (UWB and NUWB) consider the density but neglect the effect of the composition of tissues. The uniform and the non-uniform G/A breast (UGAB and NUGAB) as well the age-dependent breast (ADB) models consider the effect of the composition. The segmented breast tissue (SBT) method uses a density threshold to distinguish between G and A tissues. The PTV D(90) metric is used for the analysis and is based on the dose to water (D(90(w,m))). D(90(m,m)) is also reported for comparison to D(90(w,m)). The two-month post-implant D(90(w,m)) averaged over 38 patients is smaller in NUWB than in UWB by about 4.6% on average (ranging from 5% to 13%). Large average differences of G/A breast models with TG43 (17% and 26% in UGAB and NUGAB, respectively) show that the effect of the chemical composition dominates the effect of the density on dose distributions. D(90(w,m)) is 12% larger in SBT than in TG43 when averaged. These differences can be as low as 4% or as high as 20% when the individual patients are considered. The high sensitivity of dosimetry on the modeling scheme argues in favor of an agreement on a standard tissue modeling approach to be used in low energy breast brachytherapy. SBT appears to generate the most geometrically reliable breast tissue models in this

  17. Lyapunov exponents and adaptive mesh refinement for high-speed flows using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, R. C.; Silva, A. F. C.; Bigarella, E. D. V.; Fazenda, A. L.; Ortega, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes two important improvements to shock-capturing strategies using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme, namely, accurate shock identification via finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) operators and efficient shock treatment through a point-implicit discretization of a PDE-based artificial viscosity technique. The advocated approach is based on the FTLE operator, originally developed in the context of dynamical systems theory to identify certain types of coherent structures in a flow. We propose the application of FTLEs in the detection of shock waves and demonstrate the operator's ability to identify strong and weak shocks equally well. The detection algorithm is coupled with a mesh refinement procedure and applied to transonic and supersonic flows. While the proposed strategy can be used potentially with any numerical method, a high-order discontinuous Galerkin solver is used in this study. In this context, two artificial viscosity approaches are employed to regularize the solution near shocks: an element-wise constant viscosity technique and a PDE-based smooth viscosity model. As the latter approach is more sophisticated and preferable for complex problems, a point-implicit discretization in time is proposed to reduce the extra stiffness introduced by the PDE-based technique, making it more competitive in terms of computational cost.

  18. A mesh adaptivity scheme on the Landau-de Gennes functional minimization case in 3D, and its driving efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajc, Iztok; Hecht, Frédéric; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a 3D mesh adaptivity strategy on unstructured tetrahedral meshes by a posteriori error estimates based on metrics derived from the Hessian of a solution. The study is made on the case of a nonlinear finite element minimization scheme for the Landau-de Gennes free energy functional of nematic liquid crystals. Newton's iteration for tensor fields is employed with steepest descent method possibly stepping in. Aspects relating the driving of mesh adaptivity within the nonlinear scheme are considered. The algorithmic performance is found to depend on at least two factors: when to trigger each single mesh adaptation, and the precision of the correlated remeshing. Each factor is represented by a parameter, with its values possibly varying for every new mesh adaptation. We empirically show that the time of the overall algorithm convergence can vary considerably when different sequences of parameters are used, thus posing a question about optimality. The extensive testings and debugging done within this work on the simulation of systems of nematic colloids substantially contributed to the upgrade of an open source finite element-oriented programming language to its 3D meshing possibilities, as also to an outer 3D remeshing module.

  19. Study on noise prediction model and control schemes for substation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanmin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Songtao

    2014-01-01

    With the government's emphasis on environmental issues of power transmission and transformation project, noise pollution has become a prominent problem now. The noise from the working transformer, reactor, and other electrical equipment in the substation will bring negative effect to the ambient environment. This paper focuses on using acoustic software for the simulation and calculation method to control substation noise. According to the characteristics of the substation noise and the techniques of noise reduction, a substation's acoustic field model was established with the SoundPLAN software to predict the scope of substation noise. On this basis, 4 reasonable noise control schemes were advanced to provide some helpful references for noise control during the new substation's design and construction process. And the feasibility and application effect of these control schemes can be verified by using the method of simulation modeling. The simulation results show that the substation always has the problem of excessive noise at boundary under the conventional measures. The excess noise can be efficiently reduced by taking the corresponding noise reduction methods.

  20. Modeling of power control schemes in induction cooking devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Alessio; Conti, Massimo; Turchetti, Claudio; Orcioni, Simone

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, with remarkable advancements of power semiconductor devices and electronic control systems, it becomes possible to apply the induction heating technique for domestic use. In order to achieve the supply power required by these devices, high-frequency resonant inverters are used: the force commutated, half-bridge series resonant converter is well suited for induction cooking since it offers an appropriate balance between complexity and performances. Power control is a key issue to attain efficient and reliable products. This paper describes and compares four power control schemes applied to the half-bridge series resonant inverter. The pulse frequency modulation is the most common control scheme: according to this strategy, the output power is regulated by varying the switching frequency of the inverter circuit. Other considered methods, originally developed for induction heating industrial applications, are: pulse amplitude modulation, asymmetrical duty cycle and pulse density modulation which are respectively based on variation of the amplitude of the input supply voltage, on variation of the duty cycle of the switching signals and on variation of the number of switching pulses. Each description is provided with a detailed mathematical analysis; an analytical model, built to simulate the circuit topology, is implemented in the Matlab environment in order to obtain the steady-state values and waveforms of currents and voltages. For purposes of this study, switches and all reactive components are modelled as ideal and the "heating-coil/pan" system is represented by an equivalent circuit made up of a series connected resistance and inductance.

  1. Effects of small irrigation schemes in farm resource production and climate change adaptation practices in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabi Prasad Pokhrel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to evaluate the socio-economic as well as environmental impacts of small irrigation schemes in different parts of Nepal so as to help in formulating future policies on small irrigation schemes and subsidy programs. The paper has clearly pointed out the operation and management structure in each of the selected schemes have been playing significant role to increase the farm resource productivity, reduce poverty level, improve farmer participation and to manage available environmental resources in sustainable way. Furthermore, the functions and effectiveness of the Irrigation Management Committees (IMCs and Water Users Groups (WUGs, farmers groups (FG and cooperatives have been actively participated in the overall activities of small scale irrigation schemes to implement effectively.

  2. Provisioning of adaptability to variable topologies for routing schemes in MANETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Shengming; Liu, Yaoda; Jiang, Yuming;

    2004-01-01

    Frequent changes in network topologies caused by mobility in. mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) impose great challenges to designing routing schemes for such networks. Various routing schemes each aiming at particular type of MANET (e.g., flat or clustered. MANETs) with different mobility degrees (e.......g., low, medium, and high mobility) have been proposed in the,literature. However, since a mobile node should not be limited to operate in a particular MANET assumed by-a routing scheme, an important issue is how to enable, a mobile node to achieve routing performance as high as possible when it roams...... across different types of MANETs. To handle this issue, a quantity that can predict the link status for a time period in the future with the consideration of mobility is required. In this paper, we discuss such a quantity and investigate how well this quantity can be used by the link caching scheme...

  3. Horizon Adaptation for Nonlinear Model Predictive Controllers with guaranteed Degree of Suboptimality

    CERN Document Server

    Pannek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    We propose adaptation strategies to modify the standard constrained model predictive controller scheme in order to guarantee a certain lower bound on the degree of suboptimality. Within this analysis, the length of the optimization horizon is the parameter we wish to adapt. We develop and prove several shortening and prolongation strategies which also allow for an effective implementation. Moreover, extensions of stability results and suboptimality estimates to model predictive controllers with varying optimization horizon are shown.

  4. Adaptations in a Community-Based Family Intervention: Replication of Two Coding Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Shrestha, Gitanjali; Hyman, Leah; Hill, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Although program adaptation is a reality in community-based implementations of evidence-based programs, much of the discussion about adaptation remains theoretical. The primary aim of this study was to replicate two coding systems to examine adaptations in large-scale, community-based disseminations of the Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 10-14, a family-based substance use prevention program. Our second aim was to explore intersections between various dimensions of facilitator-reported adaptations from these two coding systems. Our results indicate that only a few types of adaptations and a few reasons accounted for a majority (over 70 %) of all reported adaptations. We also found that most adaptations were logistical, reactive, and not aligned with program's goals. In many ways, our findings replicate those of the original studies, suggesting the two coding systems are robust even when applied to self-reported data collected from community-based implementations. Our findings on the associations between adaptation dimensions can inform future studies assessing the relationship between adaptations and program outcomes. Studies of local adaptations, like the present one, should help researchers, program developers, and policymakers better understand the issues faced by implementers and guide efforts related to program development, transferability, and sustainability. PMID:26661413

  5. Dynamics Model Abstraction Scheme Using Radial Basis Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control model for object manipulation. Properties of objects and environmental conditions influence the motor control and learning. System dynamics depend on an unobserved external context, for example, work load of a robot manipulator. The dynamics of a robot arm change as it manipulates objects with different physical properties, for example, the mass, shape, or mass distribution. We address active sensing strategies to acquire object dynamical models with a radial basis function neural network (RBF. Experiments are done using a real robot’s arm, and trajectory data are gathered during various trials manipulating different objects. Biped robots do not have high force joint servos and the control system hardly compensates all the inertia variation of the adjacent joints and disturbance torque on dynamic gait control. In order to achieve smoother control and lead to more reliable sensorimotor complexes, we evaluate and compare a sparse velocity-driven versus a dense position-driven control scheme.

  6. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding.......Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  7. An adaptive stochastic model for financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adaptive stochastic model is introduced to simulate the behavior of real asset markets. The model adapts itself by changing its parameters automatically on the basis of the recent historical data. The basic idea underlying the model is that a random variable uniformly distributed within an interval with variable extremes can replicate the histograms of asset returns. These extremes are calculated according to the arrival of new market information. This adaptive model is applied to the daily returns of three well-known indices: Ibex35, Dow Jones and Nikkei, for three complete years. The model reproduces the histograms of the studied indices as well as their autocorrelation structures. It produces the same fat tails and the same power laws, with exactly the same exponents, as in the real indices. In addition, the model shows a great adaptation capability, anticipating the volatility evolution and showing the same volatility clusters observed in the assets. This approach provides a novel way to model asset markets with internal dynamics which changes quickly with time, making it impossible to define a fixed model to fit the empirical observations.

  8. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

  9. Adaptive Q–V Scheme for the Voltage Control of a DFIG-Based Wind Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinho; Seok, Jul-Ki; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Wind generators within a wind power plant (WPP) will produce different amounts of active power because of the wake effect, and therefore, they have different reactive power capabilities. This paper proposes an adaptive reactive power to the voltage (Q-V) scheme for the voltage control of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WPP. In the proposed scheme, the WPP controller uses a voltage control mode and sends a voltage error signal to each DFIG. The DFIG controller also employs a voltage control mode utilizing the adaptive Q-V characteristics depending on the reactive power capability such that a DFIG with a larger reactive power capability will inject more reactive power to ensure fast voltage recovery. Test results indicate that the proposed scheme can recover the voltage within a short time, even for a grid fault with a small short-circuit ratio, by making use of the available reactive power of a WPP and differentiating the reactive power injection in proportion to the reactive power capability. This will, therefore, help to reduce the additional reactive power and ensure fast voltage recovery.

  10. Hybrid Surface Mesh Adaptation for Climate Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Khamayseh; Valmor de Almeida; Glen Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Solution-driven mesh adaptation is becoming quite popular for spatial error control in the numerical simulation of complex computational physics applications, such as climate modeling. Typically, spatial adaptation is achieved by element subdivision (h adaptation) with a primary goal of resolving the local length scales of interest. A second, lesspopular method of spatial adaptivity is called "mesh motion" (r adaptation); the smooth repositioning of mesh node points aimed at resizing existing elements to capture the local length scales. This paper proposes an adaptation method based on a combination of both element subdivision and node point repositioning (rh adaptation). By combining these two methods using the notion of a mobility function, the proposed approach seeks to increase the flexibility and extensibility of mesh motion algorithms while providing a somewhat smoother transition between refined regions than is pro-duced by element subdivision alone. Further, in an attempt to support the requirements of a very general class of climate simulation applications, the proposed method is de-signed to accommodate unstructured, polygonal mesh topologies in addition to the most popular mesh types.

  11. Performance analysis of switch-based multiuser scheduling schemes with adaptive modulation in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2014-04-01

    This paper focuses on the development of multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, two scheduling schemes are proposed for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme focuses on optimizing the average spectral efficiency by selecting the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the relatively high feedback required by the first scheme, a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity is proposed, where the base station (BS) scans the secondary users in a sequential manner until a user whose channel quality is above an acceptable predetermined threshold is found. We develop expressions for the statistics of the signal-to-interference and noise ratio as well as the average spectral efficiency, average feedback load, and the delay at the secondary BS. We then present numerical results for the effect of the number of users and the interference constraint on the optimal switching threshold and the system performance and show that our analysis results are in perfect agreement with the numerical results. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A shock-adaptive Godunov scheme based on the generalised Lagrangian formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, C.Y. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Hui, W.H. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    1995-12-01

    Application of the Godunov scheme to the Euler equations of gas dynamics based on the Eulerian formulation of flow smears discontinuities, sliplines especially, over several computational cells, while the accuracy in the smooth flow region is of the order 0 (h),where h is the cell width. Based on the generalised Lagrangian formulation (GLF) of Hui et al., the Godunov scheme yields superior accuracy. By the use of coordinate streamlines in the GLF, the slip-line - itself a streamline - is resolved crisply. Infinite shock resolution is achieved through the splitting of shock-cells. An improved entropy-conservation formulation of the governing equations is also proposed for computations in smooth flow regions. Finally, the use of the GLF substantially simplifies the programming logic resulting in a very robust, accurate, and efficient scheme. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Adaptive control model of water resources regulation in the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jiahua; WANG Guangqian; WENG Wenbin; CAI Zhiguo; CHEN Liangcheng

    2004-01-01

    According to the principle of procedure control and the characteristic of stochastic of inflow and water demands, this paper deals with the application of adaptive control to a water resources regulation system. The main control objective is to approach the vested target of water resources allocation by controlling the reservoir discharge and water demand. The adaptive control implemented is based on the linear quadratic control approach. Models of water balance, reservoir adjusted model and allocation model are used for the control purposes. The results show the performance of this adaptive scheme and its ability to control the water resources allocation process.

  14. A Conservative Scheme for Vlasov Poisson Landau modeling collisional plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chenglong

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a deterministic conservative solver for the inhomogeneous Fokker-Planck-Landau equation coupled with Poisson equation, which is a rather realistic and primary model for collisional plasmas. Two subproblems, i.e Vlasov-Poisson problem and homogeneous Landau problem, are obtained through time-splitting methods, and treated separately by Runge-Kutta Dis- continuous Galerkin method and conservative spectral method, respectively. To ensure conservation when projecting between the two different computing grids, a special conservation routine is designed to link the two solutions to these two subproblems. The entire numerical scheme is implemented with parallelization with hybrid MPI and OpenMP. Numerical experiments are provided to study linear and nonlinear Landau Damping problems and two- stream flow problem as well.

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ADAPTIVE LIFTING BASED SCHEME AND INTERACTIVE ARTIFICIAL BEE COLONY ALGORITHM FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive update lifting scheme based Interactive artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed in this paper. Wavelet transform based compression technique is used for images and multimedia files. Approximation and detail coefficients are extracted from the signal by filtering in wavelet transform. To increase frequency resolution both approximation and detail coefficients are re-decomposed up to some level. Artificial bee colony algorithm by local search finds different update coefficients to get quality of compressed image by choosing optimally best update coefficient. In IABC, the affection between employed bees and the onlooker bees is found by considering the concept of universal gravitation. By passing on control parameter different values, the universal gravitation involved in the IABC has a single onlooker bee & variety of quantities of employed bees. As a result, IABC compared with existing image compression schemes such as wavelet transform and Artificial Bee colony Algorithm, the proposed work gives better PSNR.

  16. Assessment of an unstructured exponential scheme discrete ordinates radiation model for non-gray media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, S.; Lima, K. L. M.; Wen, J. X.

    2011-11-01

    For radiative transfer in complex geometries, Sakami and his co-workers have developed a discrete ordinates method (DOM) exponential scheme for unstructured meshes which was mainly applied to gray media. The present study investigates the application of the unstructured exponential scheme to a wider range of non-gray scenarios found in fire and combustion applications, with the goal to implement it in an in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code for fire simulations. The original unstructured gray exponential scheme is adapted to non-gray applications by employing a statistical narrow-band/correlated-k (SNB-CK) gas model and meshes generated using the authors' own mesh generator. Different non-gray scenarios involving spectral gas absorption by H2O and CO2 are investigated and a comparative analysis is carried out between heat flux and radiative source terms predicted and literature data based on ray-tracing and Monte Carlo methods. The maximum discrepancies for total radiative heat flux do not typically exceed 5%.

  17. Intelligent CAD Methodology Research of Adaptive Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weibo; LI Jun; YAN Jianrong

    2006-01-01

    The key to carry out ICAD technology is to establish the knowledge-based and wide rang of domains-covered product model. This paper put out a knowledge-based methodology of adaptive modeling. It is under the Ontology mind, using the Object-Oriented technology and being a knowledge-based model framework. It involves the diverse domains in product design and realizes the multi-domain modeling, embedding the relative information including standards, regulars and expert experience. To test the feasibility of the methodology, the research bonds of the automotive diaphragm spring clutch design and an adaptive clutch design model is established, using the knowledge-based modeling language-AML.

  18. Modeling Marine Stratocumulus with a Detailed Microphysical Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunsheng(赵春生); Yutaka ISHIZAKA

    2004-01-01

    A one-dimensional 3rd-order turbulence closure model with size-resolved microphysics and radiative transfer has been developed for investigating aerosol and cloud interactions of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer.A new method is presented for coupling between the dynamical model and the microphysical model.This scheme allows the liquid water related correlations to be directly calculated rather than parameterized.On 21 April 2001,a marine stratocumulus was observed by the Caesar aircraft over the west Pacific Rim south of Japan during the 2001 APEX/ACE-Asia field measurements.This cloud is simulated by the model we present here.The model results show that the general features of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer predicted by the model are in agreement with the measurements.A new onboard cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter provides not only total CC Nnumber concentration (as the traditional CCN counters do at a certain supersaturation) but also the CCN size distribution information.Using these CCN data,model responses to different CCN initial concentrations are examined.The model results are consistent with both observations and expectations.The numerical results show that the cloud microphysical properties are changed fundamentally by differentinitial CCN concentrations but the cloud liquid water content does not differ significantly.Different initial CCN loadings have large impacts on the evolution of cloud microstructure and radiation transfer while they have a modest effect on thermodynamics.Increased CCN concentration leads to significant decrease of cloud effective radius.

  19. Reference model decomposition in direct adaptive control

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, H.; Honderd, G.; Amerongen, van, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces the method of reference model decomposition as a way to improve the robustness of model reference adaptive control systems (MRACs) with respect to unmodelled dynamics with a known structure. Such unmodelled dynamics occur when some of the nominal plant dynamics are purposely neglected in the controller design with the aim of keeping the controller order low. One of the effects of such undermodelling of the controller is a violation of the perfect model-matching condition...

  20. New synchronization criteria for memristor-based networks: adaptive control and feedback control schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Cao, Jinde

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate synchronization for memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delay via an adaptive and feedback controller. Under the framework of Filippov's solution and differential inclusion theory, and by using the adaptive control technique and structuring a novel Lyapunov functional, an adaptive updated law was designed, and two synchronization criteria were derived for memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delay. By removing some of the basic literature assumptions, the derived synchronization criteria were found to be more general than those in existing literature. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:25299765

  1. Minimization of Call Blocking Probability by Using an Adaptive Heterogeneous Channel Allocation Scheme for Next Generation Wireless Handoff Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Sarddar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays IEEE 802.11 based wireless local area networks (WLAN have been widely deployed for business and personal applications. The main issue regarding wireless network technology is handoff or hand over management. The minimization of handoff failure due to call blocking is an important issue of research. For the last few years plenty of researches had been done to reduce the handoff failure. Here we also propose a method to minimize the handoff failure by using an adaptive heterogeneous channel allocation scheme.

  2. Adaptive regression for modeling nonlinear relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Knafl, George J

    2016-01-01

    This book presents methods for investigating whether relationships are linear or nonlinear and for adaptively fitting appropriate models when they are nonlinear. Data analysts will learn how to incorporate nonlinearity in one or more predictor variables into regression models for different types of outcome variables. Such nonlinear dependence is often not considered in applied research, yet nonlinear relationships are common and so need to be addressed. A standard linear analysis can produce misleading conclusions, while a nonlinear analysis can provide novel insights into data, not otherwise possible. A variety of examples of the benefits of modeling nonlinear relationships are presented throughout the book. Methods are covered using what are called fractional polynomials based on real-valued power transformations of primary predictor variables combined with model selection based on likelihood cross-validation. The book covers how to formulate and conduct such adaptive fractional polynomial modeling in the s...

  3. Numerical issues for coupling biological models with isopycnal mixing schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand

    1999-01-01

    In regions of sloping isopycnals, isopycnal mixing acting in conjunction with biological cycling can produce patterns in the nutrient field which have negative values of tracer in light water and unrealistically large values of tracer in dense water. Under certain circumstances, these patterns can start to grow unstably. This paper discusses why such behavior occurs. Using a simple four-box model, it demonstrates that the instability appears when the isopycnal slopes exceed the grid aspect ratio ( Δz/ Δx). In contrast to other well known instabilities of the CFL type, this instability does not depend on the time step or time-stepping scheme. Instead it arises from a fundamental incompatibility between two requirements for isopycnal mixing schemes, namely that they should produce no net flux of passive tracer across an isopycnal and everywhere reduce tracer extrema. In order to guarantee no net flux of tracer across an isopycnal, some upgradient fluxes across certain parts of an isopycnal are required to balance downgradient fluxes across other parts of the isopycnal. However, these upgradient fluxes can cause local maxima in the nutrient field to become self-reinforcing. Although this is less of a problem in larger domains, there is still a strong tendency for isopycnal mixing to overconcentrate tracer in the dense water. The introduction of eddy-induced advection is shown to be capable of counteracting the upgradient fluxes of nutrient which cause problems, stabilizing the solution. The issue is not simply a numerical curiosity. When used in a GCM, different parameterizations of eddy mixing result in noticeably different distributions of nutrient and large differences in biological production. While much of this is attributable to differences in convection and circulation, the numerical errors described here may also play an important role in runs with isopycnal mixing alone.

  4. Multi-loop adaptive internal model control based on a dynamic partial least squares model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao ZHAO; Bin HU; Jun LIANG

    2011-01-01

    A multi-loop adaptive internal model control (IMC) strategy based on a dynamic partial least squares (PLS) framework is proposed to account for plant model errors caused by slow aging, drift in operational conditions, or environmental changes. Since PLS decomposition structure enables multi-loop controller design within latent spaces, a multivariable adaptive control scheme can be converted easily into several independent univariable control loops in the PLS space. In each latent subspace,once the model error exceeds a specific threshold, online adaptation rules are implemented separately to correct the plant model mismatch via a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Because the IMC extracts the inverse of the minimum part of the internal model as its structure, the IMC controller is self-tuned by explicitly updating the parameters, which are parts of the internal model.Both parameter convergence and system stability are briefly analyzed, and proved to be effective. Finally, the proposed control scheme is tested and evaluated using a widely-used benchmark of a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with pure delay.

  5. Traffic Prediction Scheme based on Chaotic Models in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangrong Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the local support vector algorithm of chaotic time series analysis, the Hannan-Quinn information criterion and SAX symbolization are introduced. Then a novel prediction algorithm is proposed, which is successfully applied to the prediction of wireless network traffic. For the correct prediction problems of short-term flow with smaller data set size, the weakness of the algorithms during model construction is analyzed by study and comparison to LDK prediction algorithm. It is verified the Hannan-Quinn information principle can be used to calculate the number of neighbor points to replace pervious empirical method, which uses the number of neighbor points to acquire more accurate prediction model. Finally, actual flow data is applied to confirm the accuracy rate of the proposed algorithm LSDHQ. It is testified by our experiments that it also has higher performance in adaptability than that of LSDHQ algorithm.

  6. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  7. Modelling and (adaptive) control of greenhouse climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis can be grouped around four themes, system concepts, modeling, control and adaptive control. In this summary these themes will be treated separately.System conceptsIn Chapters 1 and 2 an overview of the problem formulation is presented. It is suggested that there

  8. Integrating hydrograph modeling with real-time flow monitoring to generate hydrograph-specific sampling schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Heather E.; Jafvert, Chad T.; Jenkinson, Byron

    2010-11-01

    Automated sample collection for water quality research and evaluation generally is performed by simple time-paced or flow-weighted sampling protocols. However, samples collected on strict time-paced or flow-weighted schemes may not adequately capture all elements of storm event hydrographs (i.e., rise, peak, and recession). This can result in inadequate information for calculating chemical mass flux over storm events. In this research, an algorithm was developed to guide automated sampling of hydrographs based on storm-specific information. A key element of the new "hydrograph-specific sampling scheme" is the use of a hydrograph recession model for predicting the hydrograph recession curve, during which flow-paced intervals are calculated for scheduling the remaining samples. The algorithm was tested at a tile drained Midwest agricultural site where real-time flow data were processed by a programmable datalogger that in turn activated an automated sampler at the appropriate sampling times to collect a total of twenty samples during each storm event independent of the number of sequential hydrographs generated. The utility of the algorithm was successfully tested with hydrograph data collected at both a tile drain and agricultural ditch, suggesting the potential for general applicability of the method. This sampling methodology is flexible in that the logic can be adapted for use with any hydrograph recession model; however, in this case a power law equation proved to be the most practical model.

  9. Adaptive Backbone and Link Correlation based Data Transmission Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Weerasinghe, Thilina Nuwan

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by modern wireless sensor networks (WSN) is rapid energy depletion of individual sensor nodes. In many applications, sensor nodes are deployed in outdoor environments and it is difficult to replace or recharge node batteries. Depending on network topology and the transmission schemes implemented, certain nodes could have higher energy consumption compared with other nodes. In highly unbalanced load distributions this could lead to early total energ...

  10. An Adaptive Scheme for Robot Localization and Mapping with Dynamically Configurable Inter-Beacon Range Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Torres-González; Jose Ramiro Martinez-de Dios; Anibal Ollero

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and i...

  11. Adaptive Modeling for Security Infrastructure Fault Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhong-jie; YAO Shu-ping; HU Chang-zhen

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of inherent limitations in existing security response decision-making systems, a dynamic adaptive model of fault response is presented. Several security fault levels were founded, which comprise the basic level, equipment level and mechanism level. Fault damage cost is calculated using the analytic hierarchy process. Meanwhile, the model evaluates the impact of different responses upon fault repair and normal operation. Response operation cost and response negative cost are introduced through quantitative calculation. This model adopts a comprehensive response decision of security fault in three principles-the maximum and minimum principle, timeliness principle, acquiescence principle, which assure optimal response countermeasure is selected for different situations. Experimental results show that the proposed model has good self-adaptation ability, timeliness and cost-sensitiveness.

  12. Adaptive Cruise Control and Driver Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Johan

    2001-01-01

    Many vehicle manufacturers have lately introduced advance driver support in some of their automobiles. One of those new features is Adaptive Cruise Control DACCE, which extends the conventional cruise control system to control of relative speed and distance to other vehicles. In order to design an ACC controller it is suitable to have a model of driver behavior. The approach in the thesis is to use system identification methodology to obtain dynamic models of driver behavior useful for ACC ap...

  13. A Practical Frame-Work for the Performance Evaluation of Classical Frequency Planning Schemes in OFDM Based on Markov’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a frame-work for the performance evaluation of frequency allocation schemes in 3G LTE OFDMA systems. We first develop an analytical model for collisions in an OFDMA system for an arbitrary number of users in the different cells. We then calculate the capacity of the system using a Markov model and taking into account the inter-cell interference and its impact on the adaptive modulation. We finally apply this model to compare three frequency allocation schemes, namely reuse 1, reuse 3, and a mix of reuse 1 and 3. Our results show that a mix of reuse 1 and 3 schemes outperforms a reuse 1 scheme in terms of better cell-edge performance, and outperforms also a reuse 3 scheme by achieving an higher cell throughput.

  14. A novel data adaptive detection scheme for distributed fiber optic acoustic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ölçer, Íbrahim; Öncü, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new approach for distributed fiber optic sensing based on adaptive processing of phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) signals. Instead of conventional methods which utilizes frame averaging of detected signal traces, our adaptive algorithm senses a set of noise parameters to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for improved detection performance. This data set is called the secondary data set from which a weight vector for the detection of a signal is computed. The signal presence is sought in the primary data set. This adaptive technique can be used for vibration detection of health monitoring of various civil structures as well as any other dynamic monitoring requirements such as pipeline and perimeter security applications.

  15. An Adaptive Identification and Control Scheme Using Radial Basis Function Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, adaptive identification and control of nonlinear dynamical systems are investigated using radial basis function networks (RBF). Firstly, a novel approach to train the RBF is introduced, which employs an adaptive fuzzy generalized learning vector quantization (AFGLVQ) technique and recursive least squares algorithm with variable forgetting factor (VRLS). The AFGLVQ adjusts the centers of the RBF while the VRLS updates the connection weights of the network. The identification algorithm has the properties of rapid convergence and persistent adaptability that make it suitable for real-time control. Secondly, on the basis of the one-step ahead RBF predictor, the control law is optimized iteratively through a numerical stable Davidon's least squares-based (SDLS) minimization approach. Four nonlinear examples are simulated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the identification and control algorithms.

  16. An Auditory Model of Improved Adaptive ZCPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An improved ZCAP auditory model with adaptability is proposed in this paper, and the  adaptive method designed for ZCPA model is suitable for other auditory model with inner-hair-cell sub-model. The first step in the implement process of the proposed ZCPA model is to carry out the calculation of inner product between signal and complex Gammatone filters to obtain important frequency components  of signal. And then, according to  the result of the first step, the parameters of the basilar membrane sub-model and frequency box are automatically adjusted, such as the number of the basilar membrane filters, center frequency and bandwith of each basilar membrane filter, position of each frequency box, and so on. Lastly  an auditory model is built, and the final output is auditory spectrum.The results of numerical simulation and experiments have showed that the proposed model could realize accurate frequency selection, and the auditory spectrum is more distinctly than that of conventional ZCPA model. Moreover, the proposed model can completely avoided the influence of the number of filter on the shape of auditory spectrum existing in conventional ZCPA model so that the shape of auditory spectrum is steady, and the data quantity is small.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Deep Mantle Convection: Advection and Diffusion Schemes for Marker Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Dabrowski, Marcin; Steinberger, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Thermal and chemical evolution of Earth's deep mantle can be studied by modeling vigorous convection in a chemically heterogeneous fluid. Numerical modeling of such a system poses several computational challenges. Dominance of heat advection over the diffusive heat transport, and a negligible amount of chemical diffusion results in sharp gradients of thermal and chemical fields. The exponential dependence of the viscosity of mantle materials on temperature also leads to high gradients of the velocity field. The accuracy of many numerical advection schemes degrades quickly with increasing gradient of the solution, while the computational effort, in terms of the scheme complexity and required resolution, grows. Additional numerical challenges arise due to a large range of length-scales characteristic of a thermochemical convection system with highly variable viscosity. To examplify, the thickness of the stem of a rising thermal plume may be a few percent of the mantle thickness. An even thinner filament of an anomalous material that is entrained by that plume may consitute less than a tenth of a percent of the mantle thickness. We have developed a two-dimensional FEM code to model thermochemical convection in a hollow cylinder domain, with a depth- and temperature-dependent viscosity representative of the mantle (Steinberger and Calderwood, 2006). We use marker-in-cell method for advection of chemical and thermal fields. The main advantage of perfoming advection using markers is absence of numerical diffusion during the advection step, as opposed to the more diffusive field-methods. However, in the common implementation of the marker-methods, the solution of the momentum and energy equations takes place on a computational grid, and nodes do not generally coincide with the positions of the markers. Transferring velocity-, temperature-, and chemistry- information between nodes and markers introduces errors inherent to inter- and extrapolation. In the numerical scheme

  18. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement method based on WENO finite difference scheme for the simulation of multi-dimensional detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Dong, XinZhuang; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2015-10-01

    For numerical simulation of detonation, computational cost using uniform meshes is large due to the vast separation in both time and space scales. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is advantageous for problems with vastly different scales. This paper aims to propose an AMR method with high order accuracy for numerical investigation of multi-dimensional detonation. A well-designed AMR method based on finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme, named as AMR&WENO is proposed. A new cell-based data structure is used to organize the adaptive meshes. The new data structure makes it possible for cells to communicate with each other quickly and easily. In order to develop an AMR method with high order accuracy, high order prolongations in both space and time are utilized in the data prolongation procedure. Based on the message passing interface (MPI) platform, we have developed a workload balancing parallel AMR&WENO code using the Hilbert space-filling curve algorithm. Our numerical experiments with detonation simulations indicate that the AMR&WENO is accurate and has a high resolution. Moreover, we evaluate and compare the performance of the uniform mesh WENO scheme and the parallel AMR&WENO method. The comparison results provide us further insight into the high performance of the parallel AMR&WENO method.

  19. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    the viewpoint movements to the player type and her game-play style. Ultimately, the methodology is applied to a 3D platform game and is evaluated through a controlled experiment; the results suggest that the resulting adaptive cinematographic experience is favoured by some player types and it can generate......Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...... a novel approach to virtual camera control, which builds upon camera control and player modelling to provide the user with an adaptive point-of-view. To achieve this goal, we propose a methodology to model the player’s preferences on virtual camera movements and we employ the resulting models to tailor...

  20. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  1. New Digital Signature Scheme Attaining Immunity to Adaptive Chosen Message Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Huafei

    2001-01-01

    A new signature provably secureagainst adaptive chosen message attack is developedin this report. It is state-free and the proof of secu-rity is based on "strong RSA (Rivest-shamir-adleman)assumption, collision free hash algorithm as well as in-tractability of" discrete logarithm problem.

  2. A Distributed Taxation Based Rank Adaptation Scheme for 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catania, Davide; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Mahmood, Nurul Huda;

    2015-01-01

    The further densification of small cells impose high and undesirable levels of inter-cell interference. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems along with advanced receiver techniques provide us with extra degrees of freedom to combat such a problem. With such tools, rank adaptation algorit...

  3. Adaptive discrete-time sliding-mode control of nonlinear systems described by Wiener models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Houda; Kamoun, Samira; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive control scheme that can be applied to nonlinear systems with unknown parameters. The considered class of nonlinear systems is described by the block-oriented models, specifically, the Wiener models. These models consist of dynamic linear blocks in series with static nonlinear blocks. The proposed adaptive control method is based on the inverse of the nonlinear function block and on the discrete-time sliding-mode controller. The parameters adaptation are performed using a new recursive parametric estimation algorithm. This algorithm is developed using the adjustable model method and the least squares technique. A recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm is used to estimate the inverse nonlinear function. A time-varying gain is proposed, in the discrete-time sliding mode controller, to reduce the chattering problem. The stability of the closed-loop nonlinear system, with the proposed adaptive control scheme, has been proved. An application to a pH neutralisation process has been carried out and the simulation results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control scheme.

  4. Incompressible Turbulent Flow Simulation Using the κ-ɛ Model and Upwind Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the computation of turbulent flows via turbulence modeling, the treatment of the convective terms is a key issue. In the present work, we present a numerical technique for simulating two-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows. In particular, the performance of the high Reynolds κ-ɛ model and a new high-order upwind scheme (adaptative QUICKEST by Kaibara et al. (2005 is assessed for 2D confined and free-surface incompressible turbulent flows. The model equations are solved with the fractional-step projection method in primitive variables. Solutions are obtained by using an adaptation of the front tracking GENSMAC (Tomé and McKee (1994 methodology for calculating fluid flows at high Reynolds numbers. The calculations are performed by using the 2D version of the Freeflow simulation system (Castello et al. (2000. A specific way of implementing wall functions is also tested and assessed. The numerical procedure is tested by solving three fluid flow problems, namely, turbulent flow over a backward-facing step, turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate under zero-pressure gradients, and a turbulent free jet impinging onto a flat surface. The numerical method is then applied to solve the flow of a horizontal jet penetrating a quiescent fluid from an entry port beneath the free surface.

  5. A numerical scheme for coastal morphodynamic modelling on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Thomas; Bertin, Xavier; Dodet, Guillaume

    2016-08-01

    Over the last decade, modelling systems based on unstructured grids have been appearing increasingly attractive to investigate the dynamics of coastal zones. However, the resolution of the sediment continuity equation to simulate bed evolution is a complex problem which often leads to the development of numerical oscillations. To overcome this problem, addition of artificial diffusion or bathymetric filters are commonly employed methods, although these techniques can potentially over-smooth the bathymetry. This study aims to present a numerical scheme based on the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) formalism to solve the bed continuity equation on unstructured grids in a finite volume formulation. The new solution is compared against a classical method, which combines a basic node-centered finite volume method with artificial diffusion, for three idealized test cases. This comparison reveals that a higher accuracy is obtained with our new method while the addition of diffusion appears inappropriate mainly due to the arbitrary choice of the diffusion coefficient. Moreover, the increased computation time associated with the WENO-based method to solve the bed continuity equation is negligible when considering a fully-coupled simulation with tides and waves. Finally, the application of the new method to the pluri-monthly evolution of an idealized inlet subjected to tides and waves shows the development of realistic bed features (e.g. secondary flood channels, ebb-delta sandbars, or oblique sandbars at the adjacent beaches), that are smoothed or nonexistent when using additional diffusion.

  6. An Adaptive Scheme for Robot Localization and Mapping with Dynamically Configurable Inter-Beacon Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Torres-González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons are used as landmarks for range-only (RO simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16% and similar beacon energy consumption.

  7. An adaptive scheme for robot localization and mapping with dynamically configurable inter-beacon range measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martinez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2014-04-25

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM) and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively) than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16%) and similar beacon energy consumption.

  8. DOAS: device-oriented adaptive multimedia scheme for 3GPP LTE systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Longhao; Trestian, Ramona; Muntean, Gabriel-Miro

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed The growing popularity of the high-end mobile computing devices ??? smartphones, tablets, notebooks and more ??? equipped with high-speed network access, enables the mobile user to watch multimedia content from any source on any screen, at any time, while on the move or stationary. In this context, the network operators must ensure smooth video streaming with the lowest service delay, jitter, and packet loss. This paper proposes a resource efficient Device-Oriented Adaptive M...

  9. Direct model reference adaptive control using Kp =LDU factorization for multivariable discrete-time plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junling LI; Xuejun XIE; Wei CHEN

    2008-01-01

    For a large class of discrete-time multivariable plants with arbitrary relative degrees.the design and analysis of the direct model reference adaptive control scheme are investigated under less restrictive assumptions.The algorithm is based on a new parametrization dedved from the high frequency gain matrix factorization Kp=LDU under the condition that the signs of the leading principal minors of Kp are known.By reproving the discrete-time Lp and L2δ norm relationship between inputs and outputs,establishing the properties of discrete-time adaptive law,defining the normalizing signal.and relating the signal with all signals in the closed-loop system.the stability and convergence of the discrete-time multivariable model reference adaptive control scheme are analyzed rigorously in a systematic fashion as in the continuous-time case.

  10. Linear Models Based on Noisy Data and the Frisch Scheme*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lipeng; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Tannenbaum, Allen; Boyd, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of identifying linear relations among variables based on noisy measurements. This is a central question in the search for structure in large data sets. Often a key assumption is that measurement errors in each variable are independent. This basic formulation has its roots in the work of Charles Spearman in 1904 and of Ragnar Frisch in the 1930s. Various topics such as errors-in-variables, factor analysis, and instrumental variables all refer to alternative viewpoints on this problem and on ways to account for the anticipated way that noise enters the data. In the present paper we begin by describing certain fundamental contributions by the founders of the field and provide alternative modern proofs to certain key results. We then go on to consider a modern viewpoint and novel numerical techniques to the problem. The central theme is expressed by the Frisch–Kalman dictum, which calls for identifying a noise contribution that allows a maximal number of simultaneous linear relations among the noise-free variables—a rank minimization problem. In the years since Frisch’s original formulation, there have been several insights, including trace minimization as a convenient heuristic to replace rank minimization. We discuss convex relaxations and theoretical bounds on the rank that, when met, provide guarantees for global optimality. A complementary point of view to this minimum-rank dictum is presented in which models are sought leading to a uniformly optimal quadratic estimation error for the error-free variables. Points of contact between these formalisms are discussed, and alternative regularization schemes are presented. PMID:27168672

  11. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (I): Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Ye, Yushi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the adaption, dynamic and multi-objective characteristics of complex water resources system, it is a considerable challenge to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable way. An integrated optimal allocation model is proposed for complex adaptive system of water resources management. The model consists of three modules: (1) an agent-based module for revealing evolution mechanism of complex adaptive system using agent-based, system dynamic and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II methods, (2) an optimal module for deriving decision set of water resources allocation using multi-objective genetic algorithm, and (3) a multi-objective evaluation module for evaluating the efficiency of the optimal module and selecting the optimal water resources allocation scheme using project pursuit method. This study has provided a theoretical framework for adaptive allocation, dynamic allocation and multi-objective optimization for a complex adaptive system of water resources management.

  12. A fast and efficient adaptive threshold rate control scheme for remote sensing images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Xu, Xiaoqing

    2012-01-01

    The JPEG2000 image compression standard is ideal for processing remote sensing images. However, its algorithm is complex and it requires large amounts of memory, making it difficult to adapt to the limited transmission and storage resources necessary for remote sensing images. In the present study, an improved rate control algorithm for remote sensing images is proposed. The required coded blocks are sorted downward according to their numbers of bit planes prior to entropy coding. An adaptive threshold computed from the combination of the minimum number of bit planes, along with the minimum rate-distortion slope and the compression ratio, is used to truncate passes of each code block during Tier-1 encoding. This routine avoids the encoding of all code passes and improves the coding efficiency. The simulation results show that the computational cost and working buffer memory size of the proposed algorithm reach only 18.13 and 7.81%, respectively, of the same parameters in the postcompression rate distortion algorithm, while the peak signal-to-noise ratio across the images remains almost the same. The proposed algorithm not only greatly reduces the code complexity and buffer requirements but also maintains the image quality.

  13. Automated detection scheme of architectural distortion in mammograms using adaptive Gabor filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Ruriha; Teramoto, Atsushi; Matsubara, Tomoko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer is a serious health concern for all women. Computer-aided detection for mammography has been used for detecting mass and micro-calcification. However, there are challenges regarding the automated detection of the architectural distortion about the sensitivity. In this study, we propose a novel automated method for detecting architectural distortion. Our method consists of the analysis of the mammary gland structure, detection of the distorted region, and reduction of false positive results. We developed the adaptive Gabor filter for analyzing the mammary gland structure that decides filter parameters depending on the thickness of the gland structure. As for post-processing, healthy mammary glands that run from the nipple to the chest wall are eliminated by angle analysis. Moreover, background mammary glands are removed based on the intensity output image obtained from adaptive Gabor filter. The distorted region of the mammary gland is then detected as an initial candidate using a concentration index followed by binarization and labeling. False positives in the initial candidate are eliminated using 23 types of characteristic features and a support vector machine. In the experiments, we compared the automated detection results with interpretations by a radiologist using 50 cases (200 images) from the Digital Database of Screening Mammography (DDSM). As a result, true positive rate was 82.72%, and the number of false positive per image was 1.39. There results indicate that the proposed method may be useful for detecting architectural distortion in mammograms.

  14. Numerical tests of efficiency of the retrospective time integration scheme in the self-memory model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiangqian; YOU Xingtian; ZHU He; CAO Hongxing

    2004-01-01

    A set of numerical tests was carried out to compare the retrospective time integral scheme in a self-memory model,whose dynamic kernel is the barotropical quasi-geostrophic model, with the ordinary centered difference scheme in the barotropical quasigeostrophic model. The Rossby-Haurwitz wave function was taken as the initial fields for both schemes. The results show that in comparison with the ordinary centered difference scheme, the retrospective time integral scheme reduces by 2 orders of magnitude the forecast error, and the forecast error increases very little with lengthening of the time-step. Therefore, the retrospective time integral scheme has advantages of improving the forecast accuracy, extending the predictable duration and reducing the computation amount.

  15. ART-GAS: An Adaptive and Real-Time GTS Allocation Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng; Cao, Yang; Xue, Lei

    2012-01-01

    IEEE 802.15.4 supports a Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) allocation mechanism for time-critical and delay-sensitive data transmissions in Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). However, the inflexible first-come-first-served GTS allocation policy and the passive deallocation mechanism significantly reduce network efficiency. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive and Real-Time GTS Allocation Scheme (ART-GAS) to provide differentiated services for devices with different priorities, which guarantees data transmissions for time-sensitive and high-traffic devices. The bandwidth utilization in IEEE 802.15.4-based PAN is improved. Simulation results show that our ART-GAS algorithm significantly outperforms the existing GTS mechanism specified in IEEE 802.15.4.

  16. Comparison Experiments of Different Model Error Schemes in Ensemble Kalman Filter Soil Moisture Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Suping; Zhu, Jiang; Luo, Yong

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the performances of different model error scheme in soil moisture data assimilation. Based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the atmosphere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM), point-scale analysis results for three schemes, 1) covariance inflation (CI), 2) direct random disturbance (DRD), and 3) error source random disturbance (ESRD), are combined under conditions of different observational error estimations, different observation layers, and different observation intervals using a series of idealized experiments. The results shows that all these schemes obtain good assimilation results when the assumed observational error is an accurate statistical representation of the actual error used to perturb the original truth value, and the ESRD scheme has the least root mean square error (RMSE). Overestimation or underestimation of the observational errors can affect the assimilation results of CI and DRD schemes sensitively. The performances of these two schemes deteriorate obviously while the ESRD scheme keeps its capability well. When the observation layers or observation interval increase, the performances of both CI and DRD schemes decline evidently. But for the ESRD scheme, as it can assimilate multi-layer observations coordinately, the increased observations improve the assimilation results further. Moreover, as the ESRD scheme contains a certain amount of model error estimation functions in its assimilation process, it also has a good performance in assimilating sparse-time observations.

  17. A quadtree-adaptive spectral wave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinet, Stéphane; Gorman, Richard M.; Rickard, Graham J.; Tolman, Hendrik L.

    A spectral wave model coupling a quadtree-adaptive discretisation of the two spatial dimensions with a standard discretisation of the two spectral dimensions is described. The implementation is greatly simplified by reusing components of the Gerris solver (for spatial advection on quadtrees) and WAVEWATCH III (for spectral advection and source terms). Strict equivalence between the anisotropic diffusion and spatial filtering methods for alleviation of the Garden Sprinkler Effect (GSE) is demonstrated. This equivalence facilitates the generalisation of GSE alleviation techniques to quadtree grids. For the case of a cyclone-generated wave field, the cost of the adaptive method increases linearly with spatial resolution compared to quadratically for constant-resolution methods. This leads to decrease in runtimes of one to two orders of magnitude for practical spatial resolutions. Similar efficiency gains are shown to be possible for global spectral wave forecasting.

  18. BOT schemes as financial model of hydro power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) schemes are the latest methods adopted in the developing infrastructure projects. This paper outlines the project financing through BOT schemes and briefly focuses on the factors particularly relevant to hydro power projects. Hydro power development provides not only the best way to produce electricity, it can also solve problems in different fields, such as navigation problems in case of run-of-the river plants, ground water management systems and flood control etc. This makes HPP projects not cheaper, but hydro energy is a clean and renewable energy and the hydro potential worldwide will play a major role to meet the increased demand in future. 5 figs

  19. Modified adaptive algebraic tomographic reconstruction of gas distribution from incomplete projection by a two-wavelength absorption scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Li; Chunsheng Weng

    2011-01-01

    @@ A modified adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (MAART) with an auto-adjustment relaxation parameter and smoothness regularization is developed to reveal the tomographic reconstruction of H2O distribution in combustion from incomplete projections.Determinations of relaxation parameter and regularization factor are discussed with regard to the consideration of improvement in reconstruction and reduction of computational burden.A two-wavelength scheme from tunable diode laser absorption measurement, 7444.36 and 7185.59 cm-1, is used to simplify the nonlinear solution problem for obtaining the tomographic distributions of concentration and temperature simultaneously.Results of calculations demonstrate that MAART can perform the reconstruction results more efficiently with little complex modification and much lower iterations as compared with the traditional algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) or simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) methods.The stability of the algorithm is studied by reconstruction from projections with random noise at different levels to demonstrate the dependence of reconstruction results on precise line-of-sight measurements.%A modified adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (MAART) with an auto-adjustment relaxation parameter and smoothness regularization is developed to reveal the tomographic reconstruction of H2O distribution in combustion from incomplete projections. Determinations of relaxation parameter and regularization factor are discussed with regard to the consideration of improvement in reconstruction and reduction of computational burden. A two-wavelength scheme from tunable diode laser absorption measurement, 7444.36 and 7185.59 cm-1, is used to simplify the nonlinear solution problem for obtaining the tomographic distributions of concentration and temperature simultaneously. Results of calculations demonstrate that MAART can perform the reconstruction results more efficiently with little complex

  20. An adaptive undersampling scheme of wavelet-encoded parallel MR imaging for more efficient MR data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Bosshard, John C.; Hill, Jason E.; Wright, Steven M.; Mitra, Sunanda

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers noninvasive high resolution, high contrast cross-sectional anatomic images through the body. The data of the conventional MRI is collected in spatial frequency (Fourier) domain, also known as kspace. Because there is still a great need to improve temporal resolution of MRI, Compressed Sensing (CS) in MR imaging is proposed to exploit the sparsity of MR images showing great potential to reduce the scan time significantly, however, it poses its own unique problems. This paper revisits wavelet-encoded MR imaging which replaces phase encoding in conventional MRI data acquisition with wavelet encoding by applying wavelet-shaped spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) excitation, and keeps the readout direction as frequency encoding. The practicality of wavelet encoded MRI by itself is limited due to the SNR penalties and poor time resolution compared to conventional Fourier-based MRI. To compensate for those disadvantages, this paper first introduces an undersampling scheme named significance map for sparse wavelet-encoded k-space to speed up data acquisition as well as allowing for various adaptive imaging strategies. The proposed adaptive wavelet-encoded undersampling scheme does not require prior knowledge of the subject to be scanned. Multiband (MB) parallel imaging is also incorporated with wavelet-encoded MRI by exciting multiple regions simultaneously for further reduction in scan time desirable for medical applications. The simulation and experimental results are presented showing the feasibility of the proposed approach in further reduction of the redundancy of the wavelet k-space data while maintaining relatively high quality.

  1. CLUSTERING BASED ADAPTIVE IMAGE COMPRESSION SCHEME USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Mohamed Ismail,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image compression scheme with particle swarm optimization technique for clustering. The PSO technique is a powerful general purpose optimization technique that uses the concept of fitness.It provides a mechanism such that individuals in the swarm communicate and exchange information which is similar to the social behaviour of insects & human beings. Because of the mimicking the social sharing of information ,PSO directs particle to search the solution more efficiently.PSO is like a GA in that the population isinitialized with random potential solutions.The adjustment towards the best individual experience (PBEST and the best social experience (GBEST.Is conceptually similar to the cross over operaton of the GA.However it is unlike a GA in that each potential solution , called a particle is flying through the solution space with a velocity.Moreover the particles and the swarm have memory,which does not exist in the populatiom of GA.This optimization technique is used in Image compression and better results have obtained in terms of PSNR, CR and the visual quality of the image when compared to other existing methods.

  2. Modification of cumulus convection and planetary boundary layer schemes in the GRAPES global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Chen, Qiying; Sun, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Cumulus convection is a key linkage between hydrological cycle and large-scale atmospheric circulation. Cumulus parameterization scheme is an important component in numerical weather and climate modeling studies. In the Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction Enhanced System (GRAPES), turbulent mixing and diffusion approach is applied in its shallow convection scheme. This method overestimates the vertical transport of heat and moisture fluxes but underestimates cloud water mixing ratio over the region of stratocumulus clouds. As a result, the simulated low stratocumulus clouds are less than observations. To overcome this problem, a mass flux method is employed in the shallow convection scheme to replace the original one. Meanwhile, the deep convection scheme is adjusted correspondingly. This modification is similar to that in the US NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS), which uses the simplified Arakawa Schubert Scheme (SAS). The planetary boundary layer scheme (PBL) is also revised by considering the coupling between the PBL and stratocumulus clouds. With the modification of both the cumulus and PBL schemes, the GRAPES simulation of shallow convective heating rate becomes more reasonable; total amounts of stratocumulus clouds simulated over the eastern Pacific and their vertical structure are more consistent with observations; the underestimation of stratocumulus clouds simulated by original schemes is less severe with the revised schemes. Precipitation distribution in the tropics becomes more reasonable and spurious precipitation is effectively suppressed. The westward extension and northward movement of the western Pacific subtropical high simulated with the revised schemes are more consistent with Final Operational Global Analysis (FNL) than that simulated with the original schemes. The statistical scores for the global GRAPES forecast are generally improved with the revised schemes, especially for the simulation of geopotential height in the Northern

  3. An adaptive contextual quantum language model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Peng; Song, Dawei; Hou, Yuexian

    2016-08-01

    User interactions in search system represent a rich source of implicit knowledge about the user's cognitive state and information need that continuously evolves over time. Despite massive efforts that have been made to exploiting and incorporating this implicit knowledge in information retrieval, it is still a challenge to effectively capture the term dependencies and the user's dynamic information need (reflected by query modifications) in the context of user interaction. To tackle these issues, motivated by the recent Quantum Language Model (QLM), we develop a QLM based retrieval model for session search, which naturally incorporates the complex term dependencies occurring in user's historical queries and clicked documents with density matrices. In order to capture the dynamic information within users' search session, we propose a density matrix transformation framework and further develop an adaptive QLM ranking model. Extensive comparative experiments show the effectiveness of our session quantum language models.

  4. Model reference adaptive control and adaptive stability augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Ravn, Ole

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of the standard concepts in MRAC design suggests that a combination of the implicit and the explicit design techniques may lead to an improvement of the overall system performance in the presence of unmodelled dynamics. Using the ideas of adaptive stability augmentation a combined...

  5. Coupling a local adaptive grid refinement technique with an interface sharpening scheme for the simulation of two-phase flow and free-surface flows using VOF methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgarinos, Ilias; Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos; Gavaises, Manolis

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the implementation of an interface sharpening scheme on the basis of the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, as well as its application in a number of theoretical and real cases usually modelled in literature. More specifically, the solution of an additional sharpening equation along with the standard VOF model equations is proposed, offering the advantage of "restraining" interface numerical diffusion, while also keeping a quite smooth induced velocity field around the interface. This sharpening equation is solved right after volume fraction advection; however a novel method for its coupling with the momentum equation has been applied in order to save computational time. The advantages of the proposed sharpening scheme lie on the facts that a) it is mass conservative thus its application does not have a negative impact on one of the most important benefits of VOF method and b) it can be used in coarser grids as now the suppression of the numerical diffusion is grid independent. The coupling of the solved equation with an adaptive local grid refinement technique is used for further decrease of computational time, while keeping high levels of accuracy at the area of maximum interest (interface). The numerical algorithm is initially tested against two theoretical benchmark cases for interface tracking methodologies followed by its validation for the case of a free-falling water droplet accelerated by gravity, as well as the normal liquid droplet impingement onto a flat substrate. Results indicate that the coupling of the interface sharpening equation with the HRIC discretization scheme used for volume fraction flux term, not only decreases the interface numerical diffusion, but also allows the induced velocity field to be less perturbed owed to spurious velocities across the liquid-gas interface. With the use of the proposed algorithmic flow path, coarser grids can replace finer ones at the slight expense of accuracy.

  6. Model Driven Mutation Applied to Adaptative Systems Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, Alexandre; Munoz, Freddy; Klein, Jacques; Mouelhi, Tejeddine; Traon, Yves Le

    2012-01-01

    Dynamically Adaptive Systems modify their behav- ior and structure in response to changes in their surrounding environment and according to an adaptation logic. Critical sys- tems increasingly incorporate dynamic adaptation capabilities; examples include disaster relief and space exploration systems. In this paper, we focus on mutation testing of the adaptation logic. We propose a fault model for adaptation logics that classifies faults into environmental completeness and adaptation correct- ness. Since there are several adaptation logic languages relying on the same underlying concepts, the fault model is expressed independently from specific adaptation languages. Taking benefit from model-driven engineering technology, we express these common concepts in a metamodel and define the operational semantics of mutation operators at this level. Mutation is applied on model elements and model transformations are used to propagate these changes to a given adaptation policy in the chosen formalism. Preliminary resul...

  7. A Positive and Entropy-Satisfying Finite Volume Scheme for the Baer-Nunziato Model

    CERN Document Server

    Coquel, Frédéric; Saleh, Khaled; Seguin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We present a relaxation scheme for approximating the entropy dissipating weak solutions of the Baer-Nunziato two-phase flow model. This relaxation scheme is straightforwardly obtained as an extension of the relaxation scheme designed in the reference [16] for the isentropic Baer-Nunziato model and consequently inherits its main properties. Up to our knowledge, this is the only existing scheme for which the approximated phase fractions, phase densities and phase pressures are proven to remain positive without any restrictive condition other than a classical fully computable CFL condition. It is also the only scheme for which a discrete entropy inequality is proven, under a CFL condition derived from the natural sub-characteristic condition associated with the relaxation approximation. These two properties of the numerical scheme (discrete positivity and entropy inequality) are satisfied for any admissible equation of state. We provide a numerical study for the convergence of the approximate solutions towards s...

  8. Space-time adaptive ADER discontinuous Galerkin finite element schemes with a posteriori sub-cell finite volume limiting

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, Olindo; Dumbser, Michael; Hidalgo, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel arbitrary high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method on space-time adaptive Cartesian meshes (AMR) for hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions, using a high order \\aposteriori sub-cell ADER-WENO finite volume \\emph{limiter}. Notoriously, the original DG method produces strong oscillations in the presence of discontinuous solutions and several types of limiters have been introduced over the years to cope with this problem. Following the innovative idea recently proposed in \\cite{Dumbser2014}, the discrete solution within the troubled cells is \\textit{recomputed} by scattering the DG polynomial at the previous time step onto a suitable number of sub-cells along each direction. Relying on the robustness of classical finite volume WENO schemes, the sub-cell averages are recomputed and then gathered back into the DG polynomials over the main grid. In this paper this approach is implemented for the first time within a space-time adaptive ...

  9. A second-order characteristic line scheme for solving a juvenile-adult model of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Keng; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a second-order characteristic line scheme for a nonlinear hierarchical juvenile-adult population model of amphibians. The idea of the scheme is not to follow the characteristics from the initial data, but for each time step to find the origins of the grid nodes at the previous time level. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the scheme and its capability to handle solutions with singularity.

  10. Convergence Analysis of a Finite Difference Scheme for the Gradient Flow associated with the ROF Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Qianying; Lai, Ming-Jun; Wang, Jingyue

    2013-01-01

    We present a convergence analysis of a finite difference scheme for the time dependent partial different equation called gradient flow associated with the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi model. We devise an iterative algorithm to compute the solution of the finite difference scheme and prove the convergence of the iterative algorithm. Finally computational experiments are shown to demonstrate the convergence of the finite difference scheme. An application for image denoising is given.

  11. Neural model-based adaptive control for systems with unknown Preisach-type hysteresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuntao LI; Yonghong TAN

    2004-01-01

    An adaptive control scheme is presented for systems with unknown hysteresis. In order to handle the case where the hysteresis output is unmeasurale, a novel model is firstly developed to describe the characteristic of hysteresis. This model is motivated by Preisach model but implemented by using neural networks (NN). The main advantage is that it is easily used for controller design. Then, the adaptive controller based on the proposed model is presented for a class of SISO nonlinear systems preceded by unknown hysteresis, which is estimated by the proposed model. The laws for model updating and the control laws for the neural adaptive controller are derived from Lyapunov stability theorem, therefore the semi- global stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. At last, the simulation results are illustrated.

  12. Adaptive load balancing scheme in ad hoc networks%Ad hoc网络中一种自适应的负载均衡机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉华; 陈惠民; 贾旻

    2007-01-01

    An adaptive load balancing scheme is proposed to balance the load in ad hoc networks.The new scheme can be applied in most on-demand routing protocols resulting in significant performance improvement.The proposed scheme is applied to the ad hoc on-demand distance vector(AODV)routing protocol.Simulation results show that the network load is balanced on the whole,and performance in packet loss rate,routing overhead and average end-to-end delay is also improved.

  13. Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Anil Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems are intelligent systems designed to identify and prevent the misuse of computer networks and systems. Various approaches to Intrusion Detection are currently being used, but they are relatively ineffective. Thus the emerging network security systems need be part of the life system and this ispossible only by embedding knowledge into the network. The Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model - IDS comprising of K-Means clustering Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network techniques. Thetechnique is tested using multitude of background knowledge sets in DARPA network traffic datasets.

  14. A Model for Dynamic Adaptive Coscheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sanglu; ZHOU Xiaobo; XIE Li

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic adaptive coscheduling modelDASIC to take advantage of excess available resources in anetwork of workstations (NOW). Besides coscheduling related subtasksdynamically, DASIC can scale up or down the process space dependingupon the number of available processors on an NOW. Based on thedynamic idle processor group (IPG), DASIC employs three modules: thecoscheduling module, the scalable scheduling module and the loadbalancing module, and uses six algorithms to achieve scalability. Asimplified DASIC was also implemented, and experimental results arepresented in this paper, which show that it can maximize systemutilization, and achieve task parallelism as much as possible.

  15. A mass-conserving advection scheme for offline simulation of scalar transport in coastal ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillibrand, P. A.; Herzfeld, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a flux-form semi-Lagrangian (FFSL) advection scheme designed for offline scalar transport simulation with coastal ocean models using curvilinear horizontal coordinates. The scheme conserves mass, overcoming problems of mass conservation typically experienced with offline transport models, and permits long time steps (relative to the Courant number) to be used by the offline model. These attributes make the method attractive for offline simulation of tracers in biogeochemical or sediment transport models using archived flow fields from hydrodynamic models. We describe the FFSL scheme, and test it on two idealised domains and one real domain, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. For comparison, we also include simulations using a traditional semi-Lagrangian advection scheme for the offline simulations. We compare tracer distributions predicted by the offline FFSL transport scheme with those predicted by the original hydrodynamic model, assess the conservation of mass in all cases and contrast the computational efficiency of the schemes. We find that the FFSL scheme produced very good agreement with the distributions of tracer predicted by the hydrodynamic model, and conserved mass with an error of a fraction of one percent. In terms of computational speed, the FFSL scheme was comparable with the semi-Lagrangian method and an order of magnitude faster than the full hydrodynamic model, even when the latter ran in parallel on multiple cores. The FFSL scheme presented here therefore offers a viable mass-conserving and computationally-efficient alternative to traditional semi-Lagrangian schemes for offline scalar transport simulation in coastal models.

  16. Adaptive model training system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M; Lee, Vo

    2014-04-15

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  17. Adaptive model training system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M

    2014-11-18

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  18. Adapting a weather forecast model for greenhouse gas simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, S. M.; Neish, M.; Tanguay, M.; Girard, C.; de Grandpré, J.; Gravel, S.; Semeniuk, K.; Chan, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to simulate greenhouse gases on the global domain is useful for providing boundary conditions for regional flux inversions, as well as for providing reference data for bias correction of satellite measurements. Given the existence of operational weather and environmental prediction models and assimilation systems at Environment Canada, it makes sense to use these tools for greenhouse gas simulations. In this work, we describe the adaptations needed to reasonably simulate CO2 with a weather forecast model. The main challenges were the implementation of a mass conserving advection scheme, and the careful implementation of a mixing ratio defined with respect to dry air. The transport of tracers through convection was also added, and the vertical mixing through the boundary layer was slightly modified. With all these changes, the model conserves CO2 mass well on the annual time scale, and the high resolution (0.9 degree grid spacing) permits a good description of synoptic scale transport. The use of a coupled meteorological/tracer transport model also permits an assessment of approximations needed in offline transport model approaches, such as the neglect of water vapour mass when computing a tracer mixing ratio with respect to dry air.

  19. Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Scheme with Reduced Computational Complexity and Improved Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Siddanna Gowd; A. R. Rajini

    2011-01-01

    The general multidimensional linear channel model adequately represents a plethora of communication system models which utilize multidimensional transmit-receive signals for attaining increased rates and reliability in the presence of fading. The logarithmic dependence of the spectral efficiency of the transmitted power makes it extremely expensive to increase the capacity solely by radiating more power. Also, increasing the transmitted power in a mobile terminal is not advisable due to possi...

  20. Godunov-type schemes for hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Vides Higueros, Jeaniffer

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis concerns the study, design and numerical implementation of finite volume schemes based on the so-Called Godunov-Type solvers for hyperbolic systems of nonlinear conservation laws, with special attention given to the Euler equations and ideal MHD equations. First, we derive a simple and genuinely two-Dimensional Riemann solver for general conservation laws that can be regarded as an actual 2D generalization of the HLL approach, relying heavily on the consisten...

  1. Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment Scheme Evaluation and Selection Based on DEA Model for Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun

    2015-01-01

    DEA is a nonparametric method used in operation researches and economics fields for the evaluation of the production frontier. It has distinct intrinsic which is worth coping with assessment problems with multiple inputs in particular with multiple outputs. This paper usedDεC2R model of DEA to assess the comparative efficiency of the multiple schemes of agricultural industrial structure, at the end we chose the most favorable also known as "OPTIMAL" scheme. In addition to this, using some functional insights from DEA model non optimal schemes or less optimal schemes had also been improved to some extent. Assessment and selection of optimal schemes of agricultural industrial structure using DEA model gave a greater and better insight of agricultural industrial structure and was the first of such researches in Pakistan.

  2. A Markov Chain Model for the Analysis of Round-Robin Scheduling Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shukla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the literature of Round-Robin scheduling scheme, each job is processed, one after the another after giving a fix quantum. In case of First-come first-served, each process is executed, if the previously arrived processed is completed. Both these scheduling schemes are used in this paper as its special cases. A Markov chain model is used to compare several scheduling schemes of the class. An index measure is defined to compare the model based efficiency of different scheduling schemes. One scheduling scheme which is the mixture of FIFO and round robin is found efficient in terms of model based study. The system simulation procedure is used to derive the conclusion of the content.

  3. Advanced radar detection schemes under mismatched signal models

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive detection of signals embedded in correlated Gaussian noise has been an active field of research in the last decades. This topic is important in many areas of signal processing such as, just to give some examples, radar, sonar, communications, and hyperspectral imaging. Most of the existing adaptive algorithms have been designed following the lead of the derivation of Kelly's detector which assumes perfect knowledge of the target steering vector. However, in realistic scenarios, mismatches are likely to occur due to both environmental and instrumental factors. When a mismatched signal

  4. Adaptation dynamics of the quasispecies model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kavita Jain

    2008-08-01

    We study the adaptation dynamics of an initially maladapted population evolving via the elementary processes of mutation and selection. The evolution occurs on rugged fitness landscapes which are defined on the multi-dimensional genotypic space and have many local peaks separated by low fitness valleys. We mainly focus on the Eigen’s model that describes the deterministic dynamics of an infinite number of self-replicating molecules. In the stationary state, for small mutation rates such a population forms a quasispecies which consists of the fittest genotype and its closely related mutants. The quasispecies dynamics on rugged fitness landscape follow a punctuated (or step-like) pattern in which a population jumps from a low fitness peak to a higher one, stays there for a considerable time before shifting the peak again and eventually reaches the global maximum of the fitness landscape. We calculate exactly several properties of this dynamical process within a simplified version of the quasispecies model.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Handover Scheme in Integrated EPON-WiMAX Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the seamless handover problem in integrated optical wireless networks. Our model applies for the convergence network of EPON and WiMAX and a mobilityaware signaling protocol is proposed. The proposed handover scheme, Integrated Mobility Management Scheme (IMMS), is assisted...

  6. European upper mantle tomography: adaptively parameterized models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, J.; Boschi, L.

    2009-04-01

    We have devised a new algorithm for upper-mantle surface-wave tomography based on adaptive parameterization: i.e. the size of each parameterization pixel depends on the local density of seismic data coverage. The advantage in using this kind of parameterization is that a high resolution can be achieved in regions with dense data coverage while a lower (and cheaper) resolution is kept in regions with low coverage. This way, parameterization is everywhere optimal, both in terms of its computational cost, and of model resolution. This is especially important for data sets with inhomogenous data coverage, as it is usually the case for global seismic databases. The data set we use has an especially good coverage around Switzerland and over central Europe. We focus on periods from 35s to 150s. The final goal of the project is to determine a new model of seismic velocities for the upper mantle underlying Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, of resolution higher than what is currently found in the literature. Our inversions involve regularization via norm and roughness minimization, and this in turn requires that discrete norm and roughness operators associated with our adaptive grid be precisely defined. The discretization of the roughness damping operator in the case of adaptive parameterizations is not as trivial as it is for the uniform ones; important complications arise from the significant lateral variations in the size of pixels. We chose to first define the roughness operator in a spherical harmonic framework, and subsequently translate it to discrete pixels via a linear transformation. Since the smallest pixels we allow in our parameterization have a size of 0.625 °, the spherical-harmonic roughness operator has to be defined up to harmonic degree 899, corresponding to 810.000 harmonic coefficients. This results in considerable computational costs: we conduct the harmonic-pixel transformations on a small Beowulf cluster. We validate our implementation of adaptive

  7. Multifluid Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar Wind Roe-Type Upwind Scheme: Magnetospheric Composition and Dynamics During Geomagnetic Storms-Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Toth, G.; Ma, Y.; Gombosi, T.; Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetosphere contains a significant amount of ionospheric O+, particularly during geomagnetically active times. The presence of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere has a notable impact on magnetospheric composition and processes. We present a new multifluid MHD version of the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme model of the magnetosphere to track the fate and consequences of ionospheric outflow. The multifluid MHD equations are presented as are the novel techniques for overcoming the formidable challenges associated with solving them. Our new model is then applied to the May 4, 1998 and March 31, 2001 geomagnetic storms. The results are juxtaposed with traditional single-fluid MHD and multispecies MHD simulations from a previous study, thereby allowing us to assess the benefits of using a more complex model with additional physics. We find that our multifluid MHD model (with outflow) gives comparable results to the multispecies MHD model (with outflow), including a more strongly negative Dst, reduced CPCP, and a drastically improved magnetic field at geosynchronous orbit, as compared to single-fluid MHD with no outflow. Significant differences in composition and magnetic field are found between the multispecies and multifluid approach further away from the Earth. We further demonstrate the ability to explore pressure and bulk velocity differences between H+ and O+, which is not possible when utilizing the other techniques considered

  8. Towards a large-scale scalable adaptive heart model using shallow tree meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Dorian; Dickopf, Thomas; Potse, Mark; Krause, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Electrophysiological heart models are sophisticated computational tools that place high demands on the computing hardware due to the high spatial resolution required to capture the steep depolarization front. To address this challenge, we present a novel adaptive scheme for resolving the deporalization front accurately using adaptivity in space. Our adaptive scheme is based on locally structured meshes. These tensor meshes in space are organized in a parallel forest of trees, which allows us to resolve complicated geometries and to realize high variations in the local mesh sizes with a minimal memory footprint in the adaptive scheme. We discuss both a non-conforming mortar element approximation and a conforming finite element space and present an efficient technique for the assembly of the respective stiffness matrices using matrix representations of the inclusion operators into the product space on the so-called shallow tree meshes. We analyzed the parallel performance and scalability for a two-dimensional ventricle slice as well as for a full large-scale heart model. Our results demonstrate that the method has good performance and high accuracy.

  9. Enhanced Physics-Based Numerical Schemes for Two Classes of Turbulence Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo G. Rebholz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present enhanced physics-based finite element schemes for two families of turbulence models, the NS- models and the Stolz-Adams approximate deconvolution models. These schemes are delicate extensions of a method created for the Navier-Stokes equations in Rebholz (2007, that achieve high physical fidelity by admitting balances of both energy and helicity that match the true physics. The schemes' development requires carefully chosen discrete curl, discrete Laplacian, and discrete filtering operators, in order to permit the necessary differential operator commutations.

  10. Constructing an Urban Population Model for Medical Insurance Scheme Using Microsimulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linping Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China launched a pilot project of medical insurance reform in 79 cities in 2007 to cover urban nonworking residents. An urban population model was created in this paper for China’s medical insurance scheme using microsimulation model techniques. The model made it clear for the policy makers the population distributions of different groups of people, the potential urban residents entering the medical insurance scheme. The income trends of units of individuals and families were also obtained. These factors are essential in making the challenging policy decisions when considering to balance the long-term financial sustainability of the medical insurance scheme.

  11. An Adaptive Learning Model in Coordination Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Funai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide a theoretical prediction of the way in which adaptive players behave in the long run in normal form games with strict Nash equilibria. In the model, each player assigns subjective payoff assessments to his own actions, where the assessment of each action is a weighted average of its past payoffs, and chooses the action which has the highest assessment. After receiving a payoff, each player updates the assessment of his chosen action in an adaptive manner. We show almost sure convergence to a Nash equilibrium under one of the following conditions: (i that, at any non-Nash equilibrium action profile, there exists a player who receives a payoff, which is less than his maximin payoff; (ii that all non-Nash equilibrium action profiles give the same payoff. In particular, the convergence is shown in the following games: the battle of the sexes game, the stag hunt game and the first order statistic game. In the game of chicken and market entry games, players may end up playing the action profile, which consists of each player’s unique maximin action.

  12. Godunov-type schemes for hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this thesis concerns the study, design and numerical implementation of finite volume schemes based on the so-Called Godunov-Type solvers for hyperbolic systems of nonlinear conservation laws, with special attention given to the Euler equations and ideal MHD equations. First, we derive a simple and genuinely two-Dimensional Riemann solver for general conservation laws that can be regarded as an actual 2D generalization of the HLL approach, relying heavily on the consistency with the integral formulation and on the proper use of Rankine-Hugoniot relations to yield expressions that are simple enough to be applied in the structured and unstructured contexts. Then, a comparison between two methods aiming to numerically maintain the divergence constraint of the magnetic field for the ideal MHD equations is performed and we show how the 2D Riemann solver can be employed to obtain robust divergence-Free simulations. Next, we derive a relaxation scheme that incorporates gravity source terms derived from a potential into the hydrodynamic equations, an important problem in astrophysics, and finally, we review the design of finite volume approximations in curvilinear coordinates, providing a fresher view on an alternative discretization approach. Throughout this thesis, numerous numerical results are shown. (author)

  13. Biohybrid control of general linear systems using the adaptive filter model of cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma D. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit has been successfully applied to biological motor control problems such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR and to sensory processing problems such as the adaptive cancellation of reafferent noise. It has also been successfully applied to problems in robotics such as adaptive camera stabilisation and sensor noise cancellation. In previous applications to inverse control problems the algorithm was applied to the velocity control of a plant dominated by viscous and elastic elements. Naive application of the adaptive filter model to the displacement (as opposed to velocity control of this plant results in unstable learning and control. To be more generally useful in engineering problems it is essential to remove this restriction to enable the stable control of plants of any order. We address this problem here by developing a biohybrid model reference adaptive control (MRAC scheme, which stabilises the control algorithm for strictly proper plants. We evaluate the performance of this novel cerebellar inspired algorithm with MRAC scheme in the experimental control of a dielectric electroactive polymer, a class of artificial muscle. The results show that the augmented cerebellar algorithm is able to accurately control the displacement response of the artificial muscle. The proposed solution not only greatly extends the practical applicability of the cerebellar-inspired algorithm, but may also shed light on cerebellar involvement in a wider range of biological control tasks.

  14. Adaptable Multivariate Calibration Models for Spectral Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS,EDWARD V.

    1999-12-20

    Multivariate calibration techniques have been used in a wide variety of spectroscopic situations. In many of these situations spectral variation can be partitioned into meaningful classes. For example, suppose that multiple spectra are obtained from each of a number of different objects wherein the level of the analyte of interest varies within each object over time. In such situations the total spectral variation observed across all measurements has two distinct general sources of variation: intra-object and inter-object. One might want to develop a global multivariate calibration model that predicts the analyte of interest accurately both within and across objects, including new objects not involved in developing the calibration model. However, this goal might be hard to realize if the inter-object spectral variation is complex and difficult to model. If the intra-object spectral variation is consistent across objects, an effective alternative approach might be to develop a generic intra-object model that can be adapted to each object separately. This paper contains recommendations for experimental protocols and data analysis in such situations. The approach is illustrated with an example involving the noninvasive measurement of glucose using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Extensions to calibration maintenance and calibration transfer are discussed.

  15. Multiple model adaptive tracking of airborne targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Over the past ten years considerable work has been accomplished at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) towards improving the ability of tracking airborne targets. Motivated by the performance advantages in using established models of tracking environment variables within a Kalman filter, an advanced tracking algorithm has been developed based on adaptive estimation filter structures. A multiple model bank of filters that have been designed for various target dynamics, which each accounting for atmospheric disturbance of the Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor data and mechanical vibrations of the sensor platform, outperforms a correlator tracker. The bank of filters provides the estimation capability to guide the pointing mechanisms of a shared aperture laser/sensor system. The data is provided to the tracking algorithm via an (8 x 8)-pixel tracking Field of View (FOV) from the FLIR image plane. Data at each sample period is compared by an enhanced correlator to a target template. These offsets are measurements to a bank of linear Kalman filters which provide estimates of the target's location in azimuth and elevation coordinates based on a Gauss-Markov acceleration model, and a reduced form of the atmospheric jitter model for the disturbance in the IR wavefront carrying future measurements.

  16. An Optimal Control Modification to Model-Reference Adaptive Control for Fast Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Boskovic, Jovan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method that can achieve fast adaptation for a class of model-reference adaptive control. It is well-known that standard model-reference adaptive control exhibits high-gain control behaviors when a large adaptive gain is used to achieve fast adaptation in order to reduce tracking error rapidly. High gain control creates high-frequency oscillations that can excite unmodeled dynamics and can lead to instability. The fast adaptation approach is based on the minimization of the squares of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The necessary condition of optimality is used to derive an adaptive law using the gradient method. This adaptive law is shown to result in uniform boundedness of the tracking error by means of the Lyapunov s direct method. Furthermore, this adaptive law allows a large adaptive gain to be used without causing undesired high-gain control effects. The method is shown to be more robust than standard model-reference adaptive control. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Performance analysis of a rate adaptive multi-band ultra-wideband system based on quadrature fractal modulation scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-hong; ZHOU Zheng

    2005-01-01

    A rate adaptive multi-band ultra-wideband (UWB) system based on the quadrature fractal modulation (QFM)scheme was proposed. Exploring the use of homogeneous signals as modulating waveforms in UWB system, the signal within each 528MHz sub-band was divided into 8 different frequency bandwidths using wavelets transform and these data sequences to be transmitted were embedded into homogeneous waveforms. It is found that the use of homogeneous signals in such UWB system is quite feasible, leadings to a novel multi-rate diversity strategy. Within each 528MHz sub-band, the UWB-QFM system can provide much higher data rates than that of the UWB orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. Simulation results also show that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the UWB-QFM system achieves a greatly improvement over existing UWB-OFDM system. Due to the fractal properties of the homogeneous signals, these data sequences to be transmitted can be recovered using arbitrarily short receiver signal.

  18. A benchmark study of numerical schemes for one-dimensional arterial blood flow modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Etienne; Nithiarasu, Perumal; Blanco, Pablo J; Müller, Lucas O; Fossan, Fredrik Eikeland; Hellevik, Leif Rune; Donders, Wouter P; Huberts, Wouter; Willemet, Marie; Alastruey, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    Haemodynamical simulations using one-dimensional (1D) computational models exhibit many of the features of the systemic circulation under normal and diseased conditions. Recent interest in verifying 1D numerical schemes has led to the development of alternative experimental setups and the use of three-dimensional numerical models to acquire data not easily measured in vivo. In most studies to date, only one particular 1D scheme is tested. In this paper, we present a systematic comparison of six commonly used numerical schemes for 1D blood flow modelling: discontinuous Galerkin, locally conservative Galerkin, Galerkin least-squares finite element method, finite volume method, finite difference MacCormack method and a simplified trapezium rule method. Comparisons are made in a series of six benchmark test cases with an increasing degree of complexity. The accuracy of the numerical schemes is assessed by comparison with theoretical results, three-dimensional numerical data in compatible domains with distensible walls or experimental data in a network of silicone tubes. Results show a good agreement among all numerical schemes and their ability to capture the main features of pressure, flow and area waveforms in large arteries. All the information used in this study, including the input data for all benchmark cases, experimental data where available and numerical solutions for each scheme, is made publicly available online, providing a comprehensive reference data set to support the development of 1D models and numerical schemes.

  19. Soft rotator model and {sup 246}Cm low-lying level scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    Non-axial soft rotator nuclear model is suggested as self-consistent approach for interpretation of level schemes, {gamma}-transition probabilities and neutron interaction with even-even nuclei. (author)

  20. SEMPATH Ontology: modeling multidisciplinary treatment schemes utilizing semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Dimitrios Al; Pardalis, Konstantinos V; Bouras, Thanassis D; Karakitsos, Petros; Mentzas, Gregoris N

    2012-03-01

    A dramatic increase of demand for provided treatment quality has occurred during last decades. The main challenge to be confronted, so as to increase treatment quality, is the personalization of treatment, since each patient constitutes a unique case. Healthcare provision encloses a complex environment since healthcare provision organizations are highly multidisciplinary. In this paper, we present the conceptualization of the domain of clinical pathways (CP). The SEMPATH (SEMantic PATHways) Oontology comprises three main parts: 1) the CP part; 2) the business and finance part; and 3) the quality assurance part. Our implementation achieves the conceptualization of the multidisciplinary domain of healthcare provision, in order to be further utilized for the implementation of a Semantic Web Rules (SWRL rules) repository. Finally, SEMPATH Ontology is utilized for the definition of a set of SWRL rules for the human papillomavirus) disease and its treatment scheme. PMID:21768052

  1. Assessment of asymptotically corrected model potential scheme for charge-transfer-like excitations in oligoacenes

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Wei-Tao

    2014-01-01

    We examine the performance of the asymptotically corrected model potential scheme on the two lowest singlet excitation energies of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 5), employing both the real-time time-dependent density functional theory and the frequency-domain formulation of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. The results are compared with the experimental data and those calculated by long-range corrected hybrid functionals and others. The long-range corrected hybrid scheme is shown to outperform the asymptotically corrected model potential scheme for charge-transfer-like excitations.

  2. Adaptive model predictive control of the hybrid dynamics of a fuel cell system

    OpenAIRE

    Fiacchini, Mirko; Alamo, Teodoro; Albea-Sanchez, Carolina; Fernandez Camacho, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this paper, an adaptive control scheme for the safe operation of a fuel cell system is presented. The aim of the control design is to guarantee that the oxygen ratio do not reach dangerous values. A first level of control is given by a feedforward control. An improved behavior is obtained using an adaptive predictive controller to determine the voltage to be applied to the air compressor. An admissible robust control invariant set for the PWA model of the system i...

  3. Data assimilation for unsaturated flow models with restart adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jun; Li, Weixuan; Zeng, Lingzao; Wu, Laosheng

    2016-06-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has gained popularity in hydrological data assimilation problems. As a Monte Carlo based method, a sufficiently large ensemble size is usually required to guarantee the accuracy. As an alternative approach, the probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (PCKF) employs the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) to represent and propagate the uncertainties in parameters and states. However, PCKF suffers from the so-called "curse of dimensionality". Its computational cost increases drastically with the increasing number of parameters and system nonlinearity. Furthermore, PCKF may fail to provide accurate estimations due to the joint updating scheme for strongly nonlinear models. Motivated by recent developments in uncertainty quantification and EnKF, we propose a restart adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (RAPCKF) for data assimilation in unsaturated flow problems. During the implementation of RAPCKF, the important parameters are identified and active PCE basis functions are adaptively selected at each assimilation step; the "restart" scheme is utilized to eliminate the inconsistency between updated model parameters and states variables. The performance of RAPCKF is systematically tested with numerical cases of unsaturated flow models. It is shown that the adaptive approach and restart scheme can significantly improve the performance of PCKF. Moreover, RAPCKF has been demonstrated to be more efficient than EnKF with the same computational cost.

  4. A Finite Difference Scheme for Pricing American Put Options under Kou's Jump-Diffusion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Huang; Zhongdi Cen; Anbo Le

    2013-01-01

    We present a stable finite difference scheme on a piecewise uniform mesh along with a penalty method for pricing American put options under Kou's jump-diffusion model. By adding a penalty term, the partial integrodifferential complementarity problem arising from pricing American put options under Kou's jump-diffusion model is transformed into a nonlinear parabolic integro-differential equation. Then a finite difference scheme is proposed to solve the penalized integrodiffere...

  5. A theoretical extraction scheme of transport information based on exclusion models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua; Du Lei; Qu Cheng-Li; Li Wei-Hua; He Liang; Chen Wen-Hao; Sun Peng

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore how to extract more transport information from current fluctuation, a theoretical extraction scheme is presented in a single barrier structure based on exclusion models, which include counter-flows model and tunnel model. The first four cumulants of these two exclusion models are computed in a single barrier structure, and their characteristics are obtained. A scheme with the help of the first three cumulants is devised to check a transport process to follow the counter-flows model, the tunnel model or neither of them. Time series generated by Monte Carlo techniques is adopted to validate the abstraction procedure, and the result is reasonable.

  6. Optimal Scheme Selection of Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment - Based on DEA Model; Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Muhammad Abdullah; Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq; Majid Lateef; Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.

  7. Adaptive control using a hybrid-neural model: application to a polymerisation reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of a hybrid-neural model for predictive control of a plug flow polymerisation reactor. The hybrid-neural model (HNM is based on fundamental conservation laws associated with a neural network (NN used to model the uncertain parameters. By simulations, the performance of this approach was studied for a peroxide-initiated styrene tubular reactor. The HNM was synthesised for a CSTR reactor with a radial basis function neural net (RBFN used to estimate the reaction rates recursively. The adaptive HNM was incorporated in two model predictive control strategies, a direct synthesis scheme and an optimum steady state scheme. Tests for servo and regulator control showed excellent behaviour following different setpoint variations, and rejecting perturbations. The good generalisation and training capacities of hybrid models, associated with the simplicity and robustness characteristics of the MPC formulations, make an attractive combination for the control of a polymerisation reactor.

  8. A hierarchical protein folding scheme based on the building block folding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Nurit; Wainreb, Gilad; Inbar, Yuval; Tsai, Hui-Hsu; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Wolfson, Haim J; Nussinov, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The building block protein folding model states that the native protein structure is the product of a combinatorial assembly of relatively structurally independent contiguous parts of the protein that possess a hydrophobic core, i.e., building blocks (BBs). According to this model, our group proposed a three-stage scheme for a feasible time-wise semi ab-intio protein structure prediction. Given a protein sequence, at the first stage of the prediction scheme, we propose cutting the sequence into structurally assigned BBs. Next, we perform a combinatorial assembly and attempt to predict the relative three-dimensional arrangement of the BBs. In the third stage, we refine and rank the assemblies. The scheme has proven to be very promising in reducing the complexity of the protein folding problem and gaining insight into the protein folding process. In this chapter, we describe the different stages of the scheme and discuss a possible application of the model to protein design. PMID:16957324

  9. Neural Network Based Multi-level Fuzzy Evaluation Model for Mechanical Kinematic Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Ruifeng; LI Ruiqin

    2006-01-01

    To implement a quantificational evaluation for mechanical kinematic scheme more effectively, a multi-level and multi-objective evaluation model is presented using neural network and fuzzy theory. Firstly, the structure of evaluation model is constructed according to evaluation indicator system. Then evaluation samples are generated and provided to train this model. Thus it can reflect the relation between attributive value and evaluation result, as well as the weight of evaluation indicator. Once evaluation indicators of each candidate are fuzzily quantified and fed into the trained network model, the corresponding evaluation result is outputted and the best alternative can be selected. Under this model, expert knowledge can be effectively acquired and expressed, and the quantificational evaluation can be implemented for kinematic scheme with multi-level evaluation indicator system. Several key problems on this model are discussed and an illustration has demonstrated that this model is feasible and can be regarded as a new idea for solving kinematic scheme evaluation.

  10. Adaptable Authentication Model: Exploring Security with Weaker Attacker Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    suffer because of the identified vulnerabilities. Therefore, we may need to analyze a protocol for weaker notions of security. In this paper, we present a security model that supports such weaker notions. In this model, the overall goals of an authentication protocol are broken into a finer granularity......; for each fine level authentication goal, we determine the “least strongest-attacker” for which the authentication goal can be satisfied. We demonstrate that this model can be used to reason about the security of supposedly insecure protocols. Such adaptability is particularly useful in those applications...... where one may need to trade-off security relaxations against resource requirements....

  11. Adaptation in Cones: A General Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dawis, Stevan M.; Purple, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Three features appear to characterize steady-state light adaptation in vertebrate cone photoreceptors: (a) the shape of the “log intensity-response” curve at different levels of adaptation is the same, the only change with adaptation is in the position of the point on the curve about which the cones operate; (b) at high adapting intensities the operating point becomes fixed in position; (c) this fixed position is at the steepest point of the log intensity-response curve. These three features ...

  12. A hybrid convection scheme for use in non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kuell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The correct representation of convection in numerical weather prediction (NWP models is essential for quantitative precipitation forecasts. Due to its small horizontal scale convection usually has to be parameterized, e.g. by mass flux convection schemes. Classical schemes originally developed for use in coarse grid NWP models assume zero net convective mass flux, because the whole circulation of a convective cell is confined to the local grid column and all convective mass fluxes cancel out. However, in contemporary NWP models with grid sizes of a few kilometers this assumption becomes questionable, because here convection is partially resolved on the grid. To overcome this conceptual problem we propose a hybrid mass flux convection scheme (HYMACS in which only the convective updrafts and downdrafts are parameterized. The generation of the larger scale environmental subsidence, which may cover several grid columns, is transferred to the grid scale equations. This means that the convection scheme now has to generate a net convective mass flux exerting a direct dynamical forcing to the grid scale model via pressure gradient forces. The hybrid convection scheme implemented into the COSMO model of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD is tested in an idealized simulation of a sea breeze circulation initiating convection in a realistic manner. The results are compared with analogous simulations with the classical Tiedtke and Kain-Fritsch convection schemes.

  13. A Knowledge-Based Representation Scheme for Environmental Science Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One of the primary methods available for studying environmental phenomena is the construction and analysis of computational models. We have been studying how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to assist in the development and use of environmental science models within the context of NASA-sponsored activities. We have identified several high-utility areas as potential targets for research and development: model development; data visualization, analysis, and interpretation; model publishing and reuse, training and education; and framing, posing, and answering questions. Central to progress on any of the above areas is a representation for environmental models that contains a great deal more information than is present in a traditional software implementation. In particular, a traditional software implementation is devoid of any semantic information that connects the code with the environmental context that forms the background for the modeling activity. Before we can build AI systems to assist in model development and usage, we must develop a representation for environmental models that adequately describes a model's semantics and explicitly represents the relationship between the code and the modeling task at hand. We have developed one such representation in conjunction with our work on the SIGMA (Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modeling Assistant) environment. The key feature of the representation is that it provides a semantic grounding for the symbols in a set of modeling equations by linking those symbols to an explicit representation of the underlying environmental scenario.

  14. Adapting the ALP Model for Student and Institutional Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of accelerated models of learning comes the necessary step of adapting these models to fit the unique needs of the student population at each individual institution. One such college adapted the ALP (Accelerated Learning Program) model and made specific changes to the target population, structure and scheduling, and…

  15. The ADAPT design model: towards instructional control of transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Otto; Merrienboer, van Jeroen J.G.; Bijlstra, Jim P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the ADAPT (Apply Delayed Automatization for Positive Transfer) design model. ADAPT is based upon production system models of learning and provides guidelines for developing instructional systems that offer transfer of leamed skills. The model suggests th

  16. STOCHASTIC ADAPTIVE SWITCHING CONTROL BASED ON MULTIPLE MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanxia; GUO Lei

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the transient behaviors of the traditional adaptive control may be very poor in general, and that the adaptive control designed based on switching between multiple models is an intuitively appealing and practically feasible approach to improve the transient performances. In this paper, we shall prove that for a typical class of linear systems disturbed by random noises, the multiple model based least-squares (LS)adaptive switching control is stable and convergent, and has the same convergence rate as that established for the standard least-squares-based self-tunning regulators. Moreover,the mixed case combining adaptive models with fixed models is also considered.

  17. A theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort - Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Runming [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Li, Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University (China); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Liu, Jing [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents in detail a theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort based on the ''Black Box'' theory, taking into account factors such as culture, climate, social, psychological and behavioural adaptations, which have an impact on the senses used to detect thermal comfort. The model is called the Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV) model. The aPMV model explains, by applying the cybernetics concept, the phenomena that the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) is greater than the Actual Mean Vote (AMV) in free-running buildings, which has been revealed by many researchers in field studies. An Adaptive coefficient ({lambda}) representing the adaptive factors that affect the sense of thermal comfort has been proposed. The empirical coefficients in warm and cool conditions for the Chongqing area in China have been derived by applying the least square method to the monitored onsite environmental data and the thermal comfort survey results. (author)

  18. A Positivity-Preserving Numerical Scheme for Nonlinear Option Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwu Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A positivity-preserving numerical method for nonlinear Black-Scholes models is developed in this paper. The numerical method is based on a nonstandard approximation of the second partial derivative. The scheme is not only unconditionally stable and positive, but also allows us to solve the discrete equation explicitly. Monotone properties are studied in order to avoid unwanted oscillations of the numerical solution. The numerical results for European put option and European butterfly spread are compared to the standard finite difference scheme. It turns out that the proposed scheme is efficient and reliable.

  19. Stable explicit coupling of the Yee scheme with a linear current model in fluctuating magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyzes the stability of the Yee scheme for non-stationary Maxwell's equations coupled with a linear current model with density fluctuations. We show that the usual procedure may yield unstable scheme for physical situations that correspond to strongly magnetized plasmas in X-mode (TE) polarization. We propose to use first order clustered discretization of the vectorial product that gives back a stable coupling. We validate the schemes on some test cases representative of direct numerical simulations of X-mode in a magnetic fusion plasma including turbulence

  20. Stable explicit coupling of the Yee scheme with a linear current model in fluctuating magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Filipe da, E-mail: tanatos@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pinto, Martin Campos, E-mail: campos@ann.jussieu.fr [CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Després, Bruno, E-mail: despres@ann.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Heuraux, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.heuraux@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, CNRS – University Lorraine, Vandoeuvre (France)

    2015-08-15

    This work analyzes the stability of the Yee scheme for non-stationary Maxwell's equations coupled with a linear current model with density fluctuations. We show that the usual procedure may yield unstable scheme for physical situations that correspond to strongly magnetized plasmas in X-mode (TE) polarization. We propose to use first order clustered discretization of the vectorial product that gives back a stable coupling. We validate the schemes on some test cases representative of direct numerical simulations of X-mode in a magnetic fusion plasma including turbulence.

  1. Modeling stable orographic precipitation at small scales. The impact of the autoconversion scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaengl, Guenther; Seifert, Axel [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Wobrock, Wolfram [Clermont Univ., Univ. Blaise Pascal, Lab. de Meteorologie Physique, Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, INSU, UMR, LaMP, Aubiere (France)

    2010-10-15

    This study presents idealized numerical simulations of moist airflow over a narrow isolated mountain in order to investigate the impact of the autoconversion scheme on simulated precipitation. The default setup generates an isolated water cloud over the mountain, implying that autoconversion of cloud water into rain is the only process capable of initiating precipitation. For comparison, a set of sensitivity experiments considers the classical seeder-feeder configuration, which means that ambient precipitation generated by large-scale lifting is intensified within the orographic cloud. Most simulations have been performed with the nonhydrostatic COSMO model developed at the German Weather Service (DWD), comparing three different autoconversion schemes of varying sophistication. For reference, a subset of experiments has also been performed with a spectral (bin) microphysics model. While precipitation enhancement via the seeder-feeder mechanism turns out to be relatively insensitive against the autoconversion scheme because accretion is the leading process in this case, simulated precipitation amounts can vary by 1-2 orders of magnitude for purely orographic precipitation. By comparison to the reference experiments conducted with the bin model, the Seifert-Beheng autoconversion scheme (which is the default in the COSMO model) and the Berry-Reinhardt scheme are found to represent the nonlinear behaviour of orographic precipitation reasonably well, whereas the linear approach of the Kessler scheme appears to be less adequate. (orig.)

  2. Post-processing scheme for modelling the lithospheric magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lesur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how the noise in satellite magnetic data affects magnetic lithospheric field models derived from these data in the special case where this noise is correlated along satellite orbit tracks. For this we describe the satellite data noise as a perturbation magnetic field scaled independently for each orbit, where the scaling factor is a random variable, normally distributed with zero mean. Under this assumption, we have been able to derive a model for errors in lithospheric models generated by the correlated satellite data noise. Unless the perturbation field is known, estimating the noise in the lithospheric field model is a non-linear inverse problem. We therefore proposed an iterative post-processing technique to estimate both the lithospheric field model and its associated noise model. The technique has been successfully applied to derive a lithospheric field model from CHAMP satellite data up to spherical harmonic degree 120. The model is in agreement with other existing models. The technique can, in principle, be extended to all sorts of potential field data with "along-track" correlated errors.

  3. Evaluation of nourishment schemes based on long-term morphological modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Nicholas; Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Drønen, Nils;

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed long-term morphological modeling concept is applied to evaluate the impact of nourishment schemes. The concept combines detailed two-dimensional morphological models and simple one-line models for the coastline evolution and is particularly well suited for long-term simulatio...

  4. Univariate time series modeling and an application to future claims amount in SOCSO's invalidity pension scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chek, Mohd Zaki Awang; Ahmad, Abu Bakar; Ridzwan, Ahmad Nur Azam Ahmad; Jelas, Imran Md.; Jamal, Nur Faezah; Ismail, Isma Liana; Zulkifli, Faiz; Noor, Syamsul Ikram Mohd

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to forecast the future claims amount of Invalidity Pension Scheme (IPS). All data were derived from SOCSO annual reports from year 1972 - 2010. These claims consist of all claims amount from 7 benefits offered by SOCSO such as Invalidity Pension, Invalidity Grant, Survivors Pension, Constant Attendance Allowance, Rehabilitation, Funeral and Education. Prediction of future claims of Invalidity Pension Scheme will be made using Univariate Forecasting Models to predict the future claims among workforce in Malaysia.

  5. Evaluating agri-environmental schemes using a spatially explicit agent-based modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, M.A.H.; Polman, N.B.P.; Westerhof, E.J.G.M.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Networks of nature reserves are being proposed as a solution when the degree of fragmentation is considered to endanger the long-term persistence of species diversity. Agri-environmental schemes are supposed to make a positive contribution to these networks. The spatially explicit agent-based model presented in this chapter combines spatial dynamics in land ownership, land use and the importance of agri-environmental schemes in conserving biodiversity by capturing the heterogeneity of individ...

  6. Hybrid model for the Coupling of an Asymptotic Preserving scheme with the Asymptotic Limit model: The One Dimensional Case⋆

    OpenAIRE

    Narski Jacek; Negulescu Claudia; Maldarella Dario; Degond Pierre; Deluzet Fabrice; Parisot Martin

    2011-01-01

    International audience In this paper a strategy is investigated for the spatial coupling of an asymptotic preserving scheme with the asymptotic limit model, associated to a singularly perturbed, highly anisotropic, ellip-tic problem. This coupling strategy appears to be very advantageous as compared with the numerical discretization of the initial singular perturbation model or the purely asymptotic preserving scheme introduced in previous works [3, 5]. The model problem addressed in this ...

  7. A Lattice-Based Identity-Based Proxy Blind Signature Scheme in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A proxy blind signature scheme is a special form of blind signature which allowed a designated person called proxy signer to sign on behalf of original signers without knowing the content of the message. It combines the advantages of proxy signature and blind signature. Up to date, most proxy blind signature schemes rely on hard number theory problems, discrete logarithm, and bilinear pairings. Unfortunately, the above underlying number theory problems will be solvable in the postquantum era. Lattice-based cryptography is enjoying great interest these days, due to implementation simplicity and provable security reductions. Moreover, lattice-based cryptography is believed to be hard even for quantum computers. In this paper, we present a new identity-based proxy blind signature scheme from lattices without random oracles. The new scheme is proven to be strongly unforgeable under the standard hardness assumption of the short integer solution problem (SIS and the inhomogeneous small integer solution problem (ISIS. Furthermore, the secret key size and the signature length of our scheme are invariant and much shorter than those of the previous lattice-based proxy blind signature schemes. To the best of our knowledge, our construction is the first short lattice-based identity-based proxy blind signature scheme in the standard model.

  8. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  9. A model and regularization scheme for ultrasonic beamforming clutter reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Brett; Dei, Kazuyuki; Tierney, Jaime; Dumont, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Acoustic clutter produced by off-axis and multipath scattering is known to cause image degradation, and in some cases these sources may be the prime determinants of in vivo image quality. We have previously shown some success addressing these sources of image degradation by modeling the aperture domain signal from different sources of clutter, and then decomposing aperture domain data using the modeled sources. Our previous model had some shortcomings including model mismatch and failure to recover B-Mode speckle statistics. These shortcomings are addressed here by developing a better model and by using a general regularization approach appropriate for the model and data. We present results with L1 (lasso), L2 (ridge), and L1/L2 combined (elastic-net) regularization methods. We call our new method aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE). Our results demonstrate that ADMIRE with L1 regularization, or weighted toward L1 in the case of elastic-net regularization, have improved image quality. L1 by itself works well, but additional improvements are seen with elastic-net regularization over the pure L1 constraint. On in vivo example cases, L1 regularization showed mean contrast improvements of 4.6 and 6.8 dB on fundamental and harmonic images, respectively. Elastic net regularization (α = 0.9) showed mean contrast improvements of 17.8 dB on fundamental images and 11.8 dB on harmonic images. We also demonstrate that in uncluttered Field II simulations the decluttering algorithm produces the same contrast, contrast-tonoise ratio, and speckle SNR as normal B-mode imaging, demonstrating that ADMIRE preserves typical image features.

  10. A seawater desalination scheme for global hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, Naota; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Kakinuma, Kaoru; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-10-01

    Seawater desalination is a practical technology for providing fresh water to coastal arid regions. Indeed, the use of desalination is rapidly increasing due to growing water demand in these areas and decreases in production costs due to technological advances. In this study, we developed a model to estimate the areas where seawater desalination is likely to be used as a major water source and the likely volume of production. The model was designed to be incorporated into global hydrological models (GHMs) that explicitly include human water usage. The model requires spatially detailed information on climate, income levels, and industrial and municipal water use, which represent standard input/output data in GHMs. The model was applied to a specific historical year (2005) and showed fairly good reproduction of the present geographical distribution and national production of desalinated water in the world. The model was applied globally to two periods in the future (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) under three distinct socioeconomic conditions, i.e., SSP (shared socioeconomic pathway) 1, SSP2, and SSP3. The results indicate that the usage of seawater desalination will have expanded considerably in geographical extent, and that production will have increased by 1.4-2.1-fold in 2011-2040 compared to the present (from 2.8 × 109 m3 yr-1 in 2005 to 4.0-6.0 × 109 m3 yr-1), and 6.7-17.3-fold in 2041-2070 (from 18.7 to 48.6 × 109 m3 yr-1). The estimated global costs for production for each period are USD 1.1-10.6 × 109 (0.002-0.019 % of the total global GDP), USD 1.6-22.8 × 109 (0.001-0.020 %), and USD 7.5-183.9 × 109 (0.002-0.100 %), respectively. The large spreads in these projections are primarily attributable to variations within the socioeconomic scenarios.

  11. Development of Non-staggered, semi-implicit ICE numerical scheme for a two-fluid, three-field model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Jun; Yoon, H. Y.; Bae, S. W

    2007-11-15

    A pilot code for one-dimensional, transient, two-fluid, three-field model has been developed. In this code, the semi-implicit ICE numerical scheme has been adapted to a 'non-staggered' grid. Using several conceptual problems, the numerical scheme has been verified. The results of the verifications are summarized below: - It was confirmed that the basic pilot code can simulate various flow conditions (such as single-phase liquid flow, two-phase mixture flow, and single-phase vapor flow) and transitions of the flow conditions. A mist flow was not simulated, but it seems that the basic pilot code can simulate mist flow conditions. - The mass and energy conservation was confirmed for single-phase liquid and single-phase vapor flows. - It was confirmed that the inlet pressure and velocity boundary conditions work properly. - It was confirmed that, for single- and two-phase flows, the velocity and temperature of non-existing phase are calculated as intended. The non-staggered, semi-implicit ICE numerical scheme, which has been developed in this study, will be a starting point of a new code development that adopts an unstructured finite volume method.

  12. Evaluation of radiation scheme performance within chemistry climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, P. M.; Mayer, B.; et, al.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates global mean radiatively important properties of chemistry climate models (CCMs). We evaluate stratospheric temperatures and their 1980�2000 trends, January clear sky irradiances, heating rates, and greenhouse gas radiative forcings from an offline comparison of CCM radiation codes with line�by�line models, and CCMs� representation of the solar cycle. CCM global mean temperatures and their change can give an indication of errors in radiative trans...

  13. LIMIT THEOREMS AND OPTIMAL DESIGN WITH ADAPTIVE URN MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guijing; ZHU Chunhua; WANG Yao-hung

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study urn model, using some available estimates of successes probabilities, and adding particle parameter, we establish adaptive models. We obtain some strong convergence theorems, rates of convergence, asymptotic normality of components in the urn, and estimates. With these asymptotical results, we show that the adaptive designs given in this paper are asymptotically optimal designs.

  14. Evaluation of Parameterization Schemes in the WRF Model for Estimation of Mixing Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of parameterization schemes in the WRF model for estimation of mixing height. Numerical experiments were performed using various combinations of parameterization schemes and the results were compared with the mixing height estimated using the radiosonde observations taken by the India Meteorological Department (IMD at Mangalore site for selected days of the warm and cold season in the years 2004–2007. The results indicate that there is a large variation in the mixing heights estimated by the model using various combinations of parameterization schemes. It was seen that the physics option consisting of Mellor Yamada Janjic (Eta as the PBL scheme, Monin Obukhov Janjic (Eta as the surface layer scheme, and Noah land surface model performs reasonably well in reproducing the observed mixing height at this site for both the seasons as compared to the other combinations tested. This study also showed that the choice of the land surface model can have a significant impact on the simulation of mixing height by a prognostic model.

  15. A novel interacting multiple model based network intrusion detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruichi; Venkatasubramanian, Vijay; Leung, Henry

    2006-04-01

    In today's information age, information and network security are of primary importance to any organization. Network intrusion is a serious threat to security of computers and data networks. In internet protocol (IP) based network, intrusions originate in different kinds of packets/messages contained in the open system interconnection (OSI) layer 3 or higher layers. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems observe the layer 3 packets (or layer 4 to 7 messages) to screen for intrusions and security threats. Signature based methods use a pre-existing database that document intrusion patterns as perceived in the layer 3 to 7 protocol traffics and match the incoming traffic for potential intrusion attacks. Alternately, network traffic data can be modeled and any huge anomaly from the established traffic pattern can be detected as network intrusion. The latter method, also known as anomaly based detection is gaining popularity for its versatility in learning new patterns and discovering new attacks. It is apparent that for a reliable performance, an accurate model of the network data needs to be established. In this paper, we illustrate using collected data that network traffic is seldom stationary. We propose the use of multiple models to accurately represent the traffic data. The improvement in reliability of the proposed model is verified by measuring the detection and false alarm rates on several datasets.

  16. (t, n Secret Sharing Scheme Based on Cylinder Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the existence of characteristics of heterogeneity, limited energy, complexity and so forth, it turns into a research hot spot on the security mechanism of wireless sensor networks (WSN, especially the problems on the key management. On regard of the deficiency of extant secret sharing schemes, we develop a (t, n threshold secret sharing scheme which is based on the cylinder model, including the procedures of master-key reconfiguration and sub-key updating. This scheme enables several nodes to be responsible for the security of key together, and by the mean time, we introduce a monitoring mechanism to improve the capability of anti-capturing. With the security theoretical analysis and the comparison with the performance on B-PCGR, GKD simulation experiment, it reveals that our scheme satisfies the security requirement of key management in wireless sensor networks, and can effectively reduce the cost on communication and computation.

  17. A New Framework to Compare Mass-Flux Schemes Within the AROME Numerical Weather Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riette, Sébastien; Lac, Christine

    2016-08-01

    In the Application of Research to Operations at Mesoscale (AROME) numerical weather forecast model used in operations at Météo-France, five mass-flux schemes are available to parametrize shallow convection at kilometre resolution. All but one are based on the eddy-diffusivity-mass-flux approach, and differ in entrainment/detrainment, the updraft vertical velocity equation and the closure assumption. The fifth is based on a more classical mass-flux approach. Screen-level scores obtained with these schemes show few discrepancies and are not sufficient to highlight behaviour differences. Here, we describe and use a new experimental framework, able to compare and discriminate among different schemes. For a year, daily forecast experiments were conducted over small domains centred on the five French metropolitan radio-sounding locations. Cloud base, planetary boundary-layer height and normalized vertical profiles of specific humidity, potential temperature, wind speed and cloud condensate were compared with observations, and with each other. The framework allowed the behaviour of the different schemes in and above the boundary layer to be characterized. In particular, the impact of the entrainment/detrainment formulation, closure assumption and cloud scheme were clearly visible. Differences mainly concerned the transport intensity thus allowing schemes to be separated into two groups, with stronger or weaker updrafts. In the AROME model (with all interactions and the possible existence of compensating errors), evaluation diagnostics gave the advantage to the first group.

  18. An adaptable neural-network model for recursive nonlinear traffic prediction and modeling of MPEG video sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulamis, A D; Doulamis, N D; Kollias, S D

    2003-01-01

    Multimedia services and especially digital video is expected to be the major traffic component transmitted over communication networks [such as internet protocol (IP)-based networks]. For this reason, traffic characterization and modeling of such services are required for an efficient network operation. The generated models can be used as traffic rate predictors, during the network operation phase (online traffic modeling), or as video generators for estimating the network resources, during the network design phase (offline traffic modeling). In this paper, an adaptable neural-network architecture is proposed covering both cases. The scheme is based on an efficient recursive weight estimation algorithm, which adapts the network response to current conditions. In particular, the algorithm updates the network weights so that 1) the network output, after the adaptation, is approximately equal to current bit rates (current traffic statistics) and 2) a minimal degradation over the obtained network knowledge is provided. It can be shown that the proposed adaptable neural-network architecture simulates a recursive nonlinear autoregressive model (RNAR) similar to the notation used in the linear case. The algorithm presents low computational complexity and high efficiency in tracking traffic rates in contrast to conventional retraining schemes. Furthermore, for the problem of offline traffic modeling, a novel correlation mechanism is proposed for capturing the burstness of the actual MPEG video traffic. The performance of the model is evaluated using several real-life MPEG coded video sources of long duration and compared with other linear/nonlinear techniques used for both cases. The results indicate that the proposed adaptable neural-network architecture presents better performance than other examined techniques.

  19. Assimilation of radar precipitation and satellite data into a NWP model using a physical initialisation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, M.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Venema, V.; Simmer, C.

    2009-04-01

    We implemented a PI (Physical Initialization) method in the non hydrostatic limited-area model COSMO (version 4.2) of the DWD (German Meteorological Service). The goal is the improvement of quantitative rain nowcasting with a high resolution NWP model. Input radar data is a DWD product: the national radar composite for 16 radars with a spatial resolution of one kilometer and a time resolution of 5 minutes. The conversion from reflectivity to rain rate is already made by DWD. This data is interpolated on the LM grid ( 2.8 × 2.8 km resolution) in order to calculate the analysed precipitation rate which depends on the observed precipitation and the model precipitation. The PIB (Physical Initialization Bonn) takes as input the radar based precipitation product and a cloud top height field retrieved from satellite observations, in our case we are using the SAFNWC products generated from Meteosat Second Generation data by DWD. During the assimilation window PIB adjusts the vertical wind, humidity, cloud water and cloud ice in order to force the model state towards the measurements. The most distinctive feature of the algorithm is the adjustment of the vertical wind profile in the framework of a simple precipitation scheme. The PIB assumes that the rain rate is proportional to the vertical humidity flux at cloud base and the vertical wind is adapted according to the conversion efficiency of saturated water vapor into rain water at the cloud base. This parameter is dynamically adjusted by the comparison between the model precipitation and the radar precipitation. The model is tested in convective cases over Germany, an identical twin experiment is used in order to demonstrate the consistency of PIB with the physics of the NWP model. In the tests which we have already performed this method has improved the forecast of the precipitation patterns, as well as the dynamics of the events. These improvements are found both during the assimilation window and for the first hours

  20. 改进的抗自适应泄漏公钥加密方案%Improved Adaptive Leakage-resilient Public Key Encryption Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 朱艳琴; 罗喜召

    2012-01-01

    Halevi's adaptive leakage-resilient Public Key Encryption(PKE) scheme can only resist Chosen-Plaintext-Attack(CPA) but can not resist Chosen-Cipertext-Attack(CCA). This paper uses double encryption and non-interactive zero knowledge proof systems to improve the scheme, and proposes a formal definition on adaptive leakage-resilient against CCA. Based on the definition, an adaptive-resilient PKE against CCA is constructed. Security analysis shows that improved scheme has the same secret key size, and it is more secure.%Halevi提出的抗自适应泄漏公钥加密(PKE)方案(TCC 2011会议论文集)只能抵抗选择明文攻击,不能抵抗选择密文攻击(CCA).为此,利用双加密技术和非交互的零知识证明系统对其进行改进,基于CCA安全的抗自适应泄漏的形式化定义,给出一个新的PKE方案.理论分析结果表明,与原方案相比,新方案具有相同的密钥长度和抗泄漏量,并且安全性更高.

  1. Gradient-based adaptation of continuous dynamic model structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cava, William G.; Danai, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    A gradient-based method of symbolic adaptation is introduced for a class of continuous dynamic models. The proposed model structure adaptation method starts with the first-principles model of the system and adapts its structure after adjusting its individual components in symbolic form. A key contribution of this work is its introduction of the model's parameter sensitivity as the measure of symbolic changes to the model. This measure, which is essential to defining the structural sensitivity of the model, not only accommodates algebraic evaluation of candidate models in lieu of more computationally expensive simulation-based evaluation, but also makes possible the implementation of gradient-based optimisation in symbolic adaptation. The proposed method is applied to models of several virtual and real-world systems that demonstrate its potential utility.

  2. ADAPTIVE MODEL REFINEMENT FOR THE IONOSPHERE AND THERMOSPHERE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ADAPTIVE MODEL REFINEMENT FOR THE IONOSPHERE AND THERMOSPHERE ANTHONY M. D’AMATO∗, AARON J. RIDLEY∗∗, AND DENNIS S. BERNSTEIN∗∗∗ Abstract. Mathematical models of...

  3. An Adaptive Code for Radial Stellar Model Pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, J. Robert; Kolláth, Zoltán; Marom, Ariel

    1997-09-01

    We describe an implicit 1-D adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code that is specially tailored for radial stellar pulsations. In the Lagrangian limit the code reduces to the well tested Fraley scheme. The code has the useful feature that unwanted, long lasting transients can be avoided by smoothly switching on the adaptive mesh features starting from the Lagrangean code. Thus, a limit cycle pulsation that can readily be computed with the relaxation method of Stellingwerf will converge in a few tens of pulsation cycles when put into the adaptive mesh code. The code has been checked with two shock problems, viz. Noh and Sedov, for which analytical solutions are known, and it has been found to be both accurate and stable. Superior results were obtained through the solution of the total energy (gravitational + kinetic + internal) equation rather than that of the internal energy only.

  4. Central upwind scheme for a compressible two-phase flow model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshoor Ahmed

    Full Text Available In this article, a compressible two-phase reduced five-equation flow model is numerically investigated. The model is non-conservative and the governing equations consist of two equations describing the conservation of mass, one for overall momentum and one for total energy. The fifth equation is the energy equation for one of the two phases and it includes source term on the right-hand side which represents the energy exchange between two fluids in the form of mechanical and thermodynamical work. For the numerical approximation of the model a high resolution central upwind scheme is implemented. This is a non-oscillatory upwind biased finite volume scheme which does not require a Riemann solver at each time step. Few numerical case studies of two-phase flows are presented. For validation and comparison, the same model is also solved by using kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS and staggered central schemes. It was found that central upwind scheme produces comparable results to the KFVS scheme.

  5. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SERVICE BASED ON ADAPTIVE USER MODELING AND GROUPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we suggest the mobile business intelligence service based on adaptive recognition of user intention and usage patterns. This service is named as InSciTe adaptive and based on text mining and semantic web technologies. This service supports not only technology-focusing analysis and prediction but also adaptive recognition about user’s intention by semi-automatic user modeling process. By the adaptive user modeling, this service can provide more suitable service flow and more proper analysis results based on user’s intention.

  6. A Simplified Scheme of the Generalized Layered Radiative Transfer Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, firstly, a simplified version (SGRTM) of the generalized layered radiative transfer model (GRTM) within the canopy, developed by us, is presented. It reduces the information requirement of inputted sky diffuse radiation, as well as of canopy morphology, and in turn saves computer resources. Results from the SGRTM agree perfectly with those of the GRTM. Secondly, by applying the linear superposition principle of the optics and by using the basic solutions of the GRTM for radiative transfer within the canopy under the condition of assumed zero soil reflectance, two sets of explicit analytical solutions of radiative transfer within the canopy with any soil reflectance magnitude are derived: one for incident diffuse, and the other for direct beam radiation. The explicit analytical solutions need two sets of basic solutions of canopy reflectance and transmittance under zero soil reflectance, run by the model for both diffuse and direct beam radiation. One set of basic solutions is the canopy reflectance αf (written as α1 for direct beam radiation) and transmittance βf (written as β1 for direction beam radiation) with zero soil reflectance for the downward radiation from above the canopy (i.e. sky), and the other set is the canopy reflectance (αb) and transmittanceβb for the upward radiation from below the canopy (i.e., ground). Under the condition of the same plant architecture in the vertical layers, and the same leaf adaxial and abaxial optical properties in the canopies for the uniform diffuse radiation, the explicit solutions need only one set of basic solutions, because under this condition the two basic solutions are equal, i.e., αf = αb and βf = βb. Using the explicit analytical solutions, the fractions of any kind of incident solar radiation reflected from (defined as surface albedo, or canopy reflectance),transmitted through (defined as canopy transmittance), and absorbed by (defined as canopy absorptance)the canopy and other properties

  7. Basic study on Reynolds stress model calculations - Application of TVD scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Makoto

    1993-07-01

    The Reynolds stress turbulence model has been investigated for more than 15 years. However, it has not been used widely in comparison with the k-epsilon model. One reason is that Reynolds equations are unstable because of the Eulerian characteristics, and thus it is necessary to introduce a stabilizing procedure in solving the equations. Attention is given to the applicability of the TVD scheme, which is been used successfully in compressible flow calculations, for incompressible Reynolds stress turbulence model calculations. A zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate was calculated using the TVD scheme. It was found that the TVD scheme contributes to the stabilization of the calculation, especially in the case where the spatial resolution is not sufficient.

  8. THE SCHEME FOR THE DATABASE BUILDING AND UPDATING OF 1:10 000 DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China has planned to speed up the development of spatial data infrastructure (SDI) in the coming few years. This SDI consists of four types of digital products, i. e., digital orthophotos, digital elevation models,digital line graphs and digital raster graphs. For the DEM,a scheme for the database building and updating of 1:10 000 digital elevation models has been proposed and some experimental tests have also been accomplished. This paper describes the theoretical (and/or technical)background and reports some of the experimental results to support the scheme. Various aspects of the scheme such as accuracy, data sources, data sampling, spatial resolution, terrain modeling, data organization, etc are discussed.

  9. Application of blocking diagnosis methods to general circulation models. Part I: a novel detection scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriopedro, D. [Universidade de Lisboa, CGUL-IDL, Faculdade de Ciencias, Ed. C-8, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidad de Extremadura, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Herrera, R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra II, Facultad de C.C. Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Trigo, R.M. [Universidade de Lisboa, CGUL-IDL, Faculdade de Ciencias, Ed. C-8, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    This paper aims to provide a new blocking definition with applicability to observations and model simulations. An updated review of previous blocking detection indices is provided and some of their implications and caveats discussed. A novel blocking index is proposed by reconciling two traditional approaches based on anomaly and absolute flows. Blocks are considered from a complementary perspective as a signature in the anomalous height field capable of reversing the meridional jet-based height gradient in the total flow. The method succeeds in identifying 2-D persistent anomalies associated to a weather regime in the total flow with blockage of the westerlies. The new index accounts for the duration, intensity, extension, propagation, and spatial structure of a blocking event. In spite of its increased complexity, the detection efficiency of the method is improved without hampering the computational time. Furthermore, some misleading identification problems and artificial assumptions resulting from previous single blocking indices are avoided with the new approach. The characteristics of blocking for 40 years of reanalysis (1950-1989) over the Northern Hemisphere are described from the perspective of the new definition and compared to those resulting from two standard blocking indices and different critical thresholds. As compared to single approaches, the novel index shows a better agreement with reported proxies of blocking activity, namely climatological regions of simultaneous wave amplification and maximum band-pass filtered height standard deviation. An additional asset of the method is its adaptability to different data sets. As critical thresholds are specific of the data set employed, the method is useful for observations and model simulations of different resolutions, temporal lengths and time variant basic states, optimizing its value as a tool for model validation. Special attention has been paid on the devise of an objective scheme easily applicable

  10. A Secret 3D Model Sharing Scheme with Reversible Data Hiding Based on Space Subdivision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuan-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Secret sharing is a highly relevant research field, and its application to 2D images has been thoroughly studied. However, secret sharing schemes have not kept pace with the advances of 3D models. With the rapid development of 3D multimedia techniques, extending the application of secret sharing schemes to 3D models has become necessary. In this study, an innovative secret 3D model sharing scheme for point geometries based on space subdivision is proposed. Each point in the secret point geometry is first encoded into a series of integer values that fall within [0, p - 1], where p is a predefined prime number. The share values are derived by substituting the specified integer values for all coefficients of the sharing polynomial. The surface reconstruction and the sampling concepts are then integrated to derive a cover model with sufficient model complexity for each participant. Finally, each participant has a separate 3D stego model with embedded share values. Experimental results show that the proposed technique supports reversible data hiding and the share values have higher levels of privacy and improved robustness. This technique is simple and has proven to be a feasible secret 3D model sharing scheme.

  11. Labour supply modelling in Italy when minimum income scheme is an option

    OpenAIRE

    Narazani, Edlira; Shima, Isilda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of Minimum Guaranteed Income (MGI) schemes on labour supply of Italian married couples by applying a behavioural micro-simulation tax-benefit model. The Tax-Benefit Model applied is the static micro-simulation model of EUROMOD. A household labour supply model is simulated with different tax rules where MGI is an option. The simulated tax regimes are Negative Income Tax (NIT), Workfare Tax (WF) and Universal Basic Income (UBI). These exercises of behavioura...

  12. The Application of Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian Transport Scheme in a Spectral Atmosphere Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaocong; LIU Yimin; WU Guoxiong; Shian-Jiann LIN; BAO Qing

    2013-01-01

    A flux-form semi-Lagrangian transport scheme (FFSL) was implemented in a spectral atmospheric GCM developed and used at IAP/LASG.Idealized numerical experiments show that the scheme is good at shape preserving with less dissipation and dispersion,in comparison with other conventional schemes.Importantly,FFSL can automatically maintain the positive definition of the transported tracers,which was an underlying problem in the previous spectral composite method (SCM).To comprehensively investigate the impact of FFSL on GCM results,we conducted sensitive experiments.Three main improvements resulted:first,rainfall simulation in both distribution and intensity was notably improved,which led to an improvement in precipitation frequency.Second,the dry bias in the lower troposphere was significantly reduced compared with SCM simulations.Third,according to the Taylor diagram,the FFSL scheme yields simulations that are superior to those using the SCM:a higher correlation between model output and observation data was achieved with the FFSL scheme,especially for humidity in lower troposphere.However,the moist bias in the middle and upper troposphere was more pronounced with the FFSL scheme.This bias led to an over-simulation of precipitable water in comparison with reanalysis data.Possible explanations,as well as solutions,are discussed herein.

  13. A gradient stable scheme for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Min

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, an efficient numerical scheme is designed for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,4]. The nonlinear version of the scheme is semi-implicit in time and is based on a convex splitting of the Cahn-Hilliard free energy (including the boundary energy) together with a projection method for the Navier-Stokes equations. We show, under certain conditions, the scheme has the total energy decaying property and is unconditionally stable. The linearized scheme is easy to implement and introduces only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy and stability of the scheme. The behavior of the solution near the contact line is examined. It is verified that, when the interface intersects with the boundary, the consistent splitting scheme [21,22] for the Navier Stokes equations has the better accuracy for pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of numerical integration schemes for Lagrangian particle dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Huda Mohd.; Esler, J. Gavin

    2016-07-01

    A rigorous methodology for the evaluation of integration schemes for Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDMs) is presented. A series of one-dimensional test problems are introduced, for which the Fokker-Planck equation is solved numerically using a finite-difference discretisation in physical space and a Hermite function expansion in velocity space. Numerical convergence errors in the Fokker-Planck equation solutions are shown to be much less than the statistical error associated with a practical-sized ensemble (N = 106) of LPDM solutions; hence, the former can be used to validate the latter. The test problems are then used to evaluate commonly used LPDM integration schemes. The results allow for optimal time-step selection for each scheme, given a required level of accuracy. The following recommendations are made for use in operational models. First, if computational constraints require the use of moderate to long time steps, it is more accurate to solve the random displacement model approximation to the LPDM rather than use existing schemes designed for long time steps. Second, useful gains in numerical accuracy can be obtained, at moderate additional computational cost, by using the relatively simple "small-noise" scheme of Honeycutt.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Chennai Heavy Rainfall Using MM5 Mesoscale Model with Different Cumulus Parameterization Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litta, A. J.; Chakrapani, B.; Mohankumar, K.

    2007-07-01

    Heavy rainfall events become significant in human affairs when they are combined with hydrological elements. The problem of forecasting heavy precipitation is especially difficult since it involves making a quantitative precipitation forecast, a problem well recognized as challenging. Chennai (13.04°N and 80.17°E) faced incessant and heavy rain about 27 cm in 24 hours up to 8.30 a.m on 27th October 2005 completely threw life out of gear. This torrential rain caused by deep depression which lay 150km east of Chennai city in Bay of Bengal intensified and moved west north-west direction and crossed north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh coast on 28th morning. In the present study, we investigate the predictability of the MM5 mesoscale model using different cumulus parameterization schemes for the heavy rainfall event over Chennai. MM5 Version 3.7 (PSU/NCAR) is run with two-way triply nested grids using Lambert Conformal Coordinates (LCC) with a nest ratio of 3:1 and 23 vertical layers. Grid sizes of 45, 15 and 5 km are used for domains 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The cumulus parameterization schemes used in this study are Anthes-Kuo scheme (AK), the Betts-Miller scheme (BM), the Grell scheme (GR) and the Kain-Fritsch scheme (KF). The present study shows that the prediction of heavy rainfall is sensitive to cumulus parameterization schemes. In the time series of rainfall, Grell scheme is in good agreement with observation. The ideal combination of the nesting domains, horizontal resolution and cloud parameterization is able to simulate the heavy rainfall event both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. A Big Data Driven Adaptive Routing Service Customization Scheme%大数据驱动的自适应路由服务定制机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜超; 王兴伟; 李福亮; 黄敏

    2016-01-01

    随着多种多样新型网络应用的涌现,传统的路由配置模式越来越难以适应用户多样化的数据通信需求。因此,需要依据用户对不同类型应用差异化的通信需求,在数据分组的传输路径上配置合适的路由功能,自适应地合成满足分组传输特性的路由服务,改善用户体验。根据由大数据带来的数据间关联关系新范式,文中试图从大量的应用通信流状态数据中,分析和获取用户体验与路由服务各属性之间的依赖关系,促进高效地实现路由服务的定制化。鉴于此,文中提出了大数据驱动的自适应路由服务定制机制(Big data driven Adaptive Routing service Customization scheme,BARC),以网内大量流状态数据为驱动,建立了用户需求属性模型,挖掘用户体验对路由需求的依赖关系,获得候选路由功能集合;考虑商业化运营模式下用户和网络服务提供商之间的利益关系,提出了双方利益共赢的博弈策略,获得符合双方利益的最佳路由服务定制化方案。仿真实现和性能评价表明,文中提出的大数据驱动的自适应路由服务定制机制是可行和有效的。%With various kinds of new network applications emerged,it is more and more difficult to satisfy their diversified data communication requirements by using the traditional routing configuration model.It is necessary to provision appropriate routing functions on the communication paths based on the users’specific communication demands on different types of applications,and compose routing services adaptively to satisfy their packet transmission characteristics with user experience improved.Inspired by the new paradigm of data correlation brought by the big data, in this paper the dependencies between user experience and routing service properties are analyzed and exploited to help customize routing services efficiently,and a Big data driven Adaptive Routing

  17. Modeling Family Adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald, Jr.; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a survey of 1,099 families who have a child with Fragile X syndrome, we examined adaptation across 7 dimensions of family life: parenting knowledge, social support, social life, financial impact, well-being, quality of life, and overall impact. Results illustrate that although families report a high quality of life, they struggle…

  18. Evaluating the effect of Tikhonov regularization schemes on predictions in a variable‐density groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeremy T.; Langevin, Christian D.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration of highly‐parameterized numerical models typically requires explicit Tikhonovtype regularization to stabilize the inversion process. This regularization can take the form of a preferred parameter values scheme or preferred relations between parameters, such as the preferred equality scheme. The resulting parameter distributions calibrate the model to a user‐defined acceptable level of model‐to‐measurement misfit, and also minimize regularization penalties on the total objective function. To evaluate the potential impact of these two regularization schemes on model predictive ability, a dataset generated from a synthetic model was used to calibrate a highly-parameterized variable‐density SEAWAT model. The key prediction is the length of time a synthetic pumping well will produce potable water. A bi‐objective Pareto analysis was used to explicitly characterize the relation between two competing objective function components: measurement error and regularization error. Results of the Pareto analysis indicate that both types of regularization schemes affect the predictive ability of the calibrated model.

  19. Implementation of a canopy air space scheme into the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    A single-layer Canopy Air Space Scheme (CASS) is implemented into the Community Land Surface Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) in this study. It considers the canopy storages for heat, water, and trace gases that are generally neglected in the CLM4.5 surface flux calculation algorithm. Moreover, the CASS introduces prognostic equations for the surface variables and eliminates the CLM4.5 Crank-Nicolson iterative solution for computing surface skin temperature, which usually brings residual errors into the model and causes numerical instability. Two off-line simulations (one with the CASS and the other with the origin CLM4.5 scheme) were conducted and their results were compared with the FLUXNET observations. Preliminary results show that compared with the origin CLM4.5 scheme, the CASS has similar or better skills in representing land surface exchanges for heat, water and carbon under several biome types. The implementation of the CASS into the CLM4.5 not only improves the land model skills, but also provides a modeling framework to incorporate more complex canopy processes into the land surface model, such as bi-directional emission schemes for various trace gases and multi-layer canopy energy balance models.

  20. Histogram Equalization to Model Adaptation for Robust Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoirin Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new model adaptation method based on the histogram equalization technique for providing robustness in noisy environments. The trained acoustic mean models of a speech recognizer are adapted into environmentally matched conditions by using the histogram equalization algorithm on a single utterance basis. For more robust speech recognition in the heavily noisy conditions, trained acoustic covariance models are efficiently adapted by the signal-to-noise ratio-dependent linear interpolation between trained covariance models and utterance-level sample covariance models. Speech recognition experiments on both the digit-based Aurora2 task and the large vocabulary-based task showed that the proposed model adaptation approach provides significant performance improvements compared to the baseline speech recognizer trained on the clean speech data.

  1. ADAPTIVE GUIDANCE MODEL BASED SIMILARITY FOR SOFTWARE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Khemissa; Mohamed Ahmed-nacer; Abdelkader Belkhir

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach SAGM (Similarity for Adaptive Guidance Model) that provides adaptive and recursive guidance for software process development. This approach, in accordance to developer needs, allows specific tailored guidance regarding the profile of developers. A profile is partially or completely defined from a model of developers, through their roles, their qualifications, and through the relationships between the context of the current activity and the ...

  2. The hybrid model, and adaptive educational hypermedia frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Mohamed Ramzy

    2004-01-01

    The amount of information on the web is characterised by being enormous, as is the number of users with different goals and interests. User models have been utilized by adaptive hypermedia systems generally and adaptive educational hypermedia systems (AEHS) particularly to personalize the amount of information they have with respect to each individual's knowledge, background and goals. As a result of the research described herein, a user model called the Hybrid Model has been developed. Th...

  3. Performance of the Goddard multiscale modeling framework with Goddard ice microphysical schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jiun-Dar; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Matsui, Toshihisa; Li, J.-L. F.; Mohr, Karen I.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail M.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2016-03-01

    The multiscale modeling framework (MMF), which replaces traditional cloud parameterizations with cloud-resolving models (CRMs) within a host atmospheric general circulation model (GCM), has become a new approach for climate modeling. The embedded CRMs make it possible to apply CRM-based cloud microphysics directly within a GCM. However, most such schemes have never been tested in a global environment for long-term climate simulation. The benefits of using an MMF to evaluate rigorously and improve microphysics schemes are here demonstrated. Four one-moment microphysical schemes are implemented into the Goddard MMF and their results validated against three CloudSat/CALIPSO cloud ice products and other satellite data. The new four-class (cloud ice, snow, graupel, and frozen drops/hail) ice scheme produces a better overall spatial distribution of cloud ice amount, total cloud fractions, net radiation, and total cloud radiative forcing than earlier three-class ice schemes, with biases within the observational uncertainties. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to examine the impact of recently upgraded microphysical processes on global hydrometeor distributions. Five processes dominate the global distributions of cloud ice and snow amount in long-term simulations: (1) allowing for ice supersaturation in the saturation adjustment, (2) three additional correction terms in the depositional growth of cloud ice to snow, (3) accounting for cloud ice fall speeds, (4) limiting cloud ice particle size, and (5) new size-mapping schemes for snow and graupel. Despite the cloud microphysics improvements, systematic errors associated with subgrid processes, cyclic lateral boundaries in the embedded CRMs, and momentum transport remain and will require future improvement.

  4. Ensuring confidence in predictions: A scheme to assess the scientific validity of in silico models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Mark; Ellison, Claire M; Cronin, Mark T D; Pastor, Manuel; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Munoz-Muriendas, Jordi; Pognan, Francois; Madden, Judith C

    2015-06-23

    The use of in silico tools within the drug development process to predict a wide range of properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity has become increasingly important due to changes in legislation and both ethical and economic drivers to reduce animal testing. Whilst in silico tools have been used for decades there remains reluctance to accept predictions based on these methods particularly in regulatory settings. This apprehension arises in part due to lack of confidence in the reliability, robustness and applicability of the models. To address this issue we propose a scheme for the verification of in silico models that enables end users and modellers to assess the scientific validity of models in accordance with the principles of good computer modelling practice. We report here the implementation of the scheme within the Innovative Medicines Initiative project "eTOX" (electronic toxicity) and its application to the in silico models developed within the frame of this project.

  5. Ensuring confidence in predictions: A scheme to assess the scientific validity of in silico models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Mark; Ellison, Claire M; Cronin, Mark T D; Pastor, Manuel; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Munoz-Muriendas, Jordi; Pognan, Francois; Madden, Judith C

    2015-06-23

    The use of in silico tools within the drug development process to predict a wide range of properties including absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity has become increasingly important due to changes in legislation and both ethical and economic drivers to reduce animal testing. Whilst in silico tools have been used for decades there remains reluctance to accept predictions based on these methods particularly in regulatory settings. This apprehension arises in part due to lack of confidence in the reliability, robustness and applicability of the models. To address this issue we propose a scheme for the verification of in silico models that enables end users and modellers to assess the scientific validity of models in accordance with the principles of good computer modelling practice. We report here the implementation of the scheme within the Innovative Medicines Initiative project "eTOX" (electronic toxicity) and its application to the in silico models developed within the frame of this project. PMID:25794480

  6. Validation of a RANS transition model using a high-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, GuoHua; Deng, XiaoGang; Mao, MeiLiang

    2013-04-01

    A modified transition model is given based on the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model and an intermittency transport equation. The energy gradient term in the original model is replaced by flow strain rate to saving computational costs. The model employs local variables only, and then it can be conveniently implemented in modern computational fluid dynamics codes. The fifth-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme and the fourth-order staggered scheme are applied to discrete the governing equations for the purpose of minimizing discretization errors, so as to mitigate the confusion between numerical errors and transition model errors. The high-order package is compared with a second-order TVD method on simulating the transitional flow of a flat plate. Numerical results indicate that the high-order package give better grid convergence property than that of the second-order method. Validation of the transition model is performed for transitional flows ranging from low speed to hypersonic speed.

  7. Change in Farm Production Structure Within Different CAP Schemes – an LP Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ŽGAJNAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After accession to European Union in 2004 direct payments became veryimportant income source also for farmers in Slovenia. But agricultural policy inplace at accession changed significantly in year 2007 as result of CAP reformimplementation. The objective of this study was to evaluate decision makingimpacts of direct payments scheme implemented with the reform: regional or morelikely hybrid scheme. The change in farm production structure was simulated withmodel, applying gross margin maximisation, based on static linear programmingapproach. The model has been developed in a spreadsheet framework in MS Excelplatform. A hypothetical farm has been chosen to analyse different scenarios andspecializations. Focus of the analysis was on cattle sector, since it is expected thatdecoupling is going to have significant influence on its optimal productionstructure. The reason is high level of direct payments that could in pre-reformscheme rise up to 70 % of total gross margin. Model results confirm that the reformshould have unfavourable impacts on cattle farms with intensive productionpractice. The results show that hybrid scheme has minor negative impacts in allcattle specializations, while regional scheme would be better option for sheepspecialized farm. Analysis has also shown growing importance of CAP pillar IIpayments, among them particularly agri-environmental measures. In all threeschemes budgetary payments enable farmers to improve financial results and inboth reform schemes they alleviate economic impacts of the CAP reform.

  8. Power and Contention Control Scheme: As a Good Candidate for Interference Modeling in Cognitive Radio Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireyuwa E. Igbinosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever growing need for spectrum, the cognitive radio (CR has been proposed to improve the radio spectrum utilization. In this scenario, the secondary users (SU are permitted to share spectrum with the licensed primary users (SU with a strict condition that they do not cause harmful interference to the cognitive network. In this work, we have proposed an interference model for cognitive radio network that utilizes power or contention control interference management schemes. We derived the probability density function (PDF with the power control scheme, where the power of transmission of the CR transmitter is guided by the power control law and also with contention control scheme that has a fixed transmission power for all CR transmitter controlled by a contention control protocol. This protocol makes a decision on which CR transmitter can transmit at any point in time. In this work, we have shown that power and contention control schemes are good candidates for interference modeling in cognitive radio system. The impact of the unknown location of the primary receiver on the resulting interference generated by the CR transmitters was investigated and the results shows that the challenges of the hidden primary receivers lead to higher CR-primary interference in respect to higher mean and variance. Finally, the presented results show power control and the contention control scheme are good candidates in reducing the interference generated by the cognitive radio network.

  9. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Yuan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes.

  10. A Spatially-Analytical Scheme for Surface Temperatures and Conductive Heat Fluxes in Urban Canopy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hua; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Smith, James A.

    2011-02-01

    In the urban environment, surface temperatures and conductive heat fluxes through solid media (roofs, walls, roads and vegetated surfaces) are of paramount importance for the comfort of residents (indoors) and for microclimatic conditions (outdoors). Fully discrete numerical methods are currently used to model heat transfer in these solid media in parametrisations of built surfaces commonly used in weather prediction models. These discrete methods usually use finite difference schemes in both space and time. We propose a spatially-analytical scheme where the temperature field and conductive heat fluxes are solved analytically in space. Spurious numerical oscillations due to temperature discontinuities at the sublayer interfaces can be avoided since the method does not involve spatial discretisation. The proposed method is compared to the fully discrete method for a test case of one-dimensional heat conduction with sinusoidal forcing. Subsequently, the analytical scheme is incorporated into the offline version of the current urban canopy model (UCM) used in the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the new UCM is validated against field measurements using a wireless sensor network and other supporting measurements over a suburban area under real-world conditions. Results of the comparison clearly show the advantage of the proposed scheme over the fully discrete model, particularly for more complicated cases.

  11. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheresiz, S. V.; Semenova, E. A.; Chepurnov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups. PMID:26989413

  12. Emotional Development and Adaptive Abilities in Adults with Intellectual Disability. A Correlation Study between the Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development (SAED) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Lassi, Stefano; Bertelli, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Dosen, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional aspects in developing cognitive and social abilities has already been underlined by many authors even if there is no unanimous agreement on the factors constituting adaptive abilities, nor is there any on the way to measure them or on the relation between adaptive ability and cognitive level. The purposes of this study…

  13. ADAPTIVE CONFIGURATION META-MODEL OF A GUIDANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khemissa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current technology tend leads us to recognize the need for adaptive guidance process for all process of software development. The new needs generated by the mobility context for software development led these guidance processes to be adapted. In order to improve the performance of the deployed software development, it is useful to manage the configuration of its evolving aspects. This paper deals with the configuration management of guidance process or its ability to be adapted to specific development contexts. The proposed adaptive configuration Meta-model is worked out on the basis of a Y description for adaptive guidance process. This description focuses on three dimensions defined by the material/software platform, the adaptation form and provided guidance service. Each dimension considers several factors to develop a coherent configuration strategy and provide automatically the appropriate guidance process to a current development context.

  14. A parameterization scheme of vertical mixing due to inertial internal wave breaking in the ocean general circulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Zhisong; SHANG Zhenqi; ZHANG Shanwu; HU Ruijin; LIU Hailong

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical spectral model of inertial internal wave breaking (fine structure) proposed previ-ously, in which the effects of the horizontal Coriolis frequency component f-tilde on a potential isopycnal are taken into account, a parameterization scheme of vertical mixing in the stably stratified interior be-low the surface mixed layer in the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is put forward preliminarily in this paper. Besides turbulence, the impact of sub-mesoscale oceanic processes (including inertial internal wave breaking product) on oceanic interior mixing is emphasized. We suggest that adding the inertial inter-nal wave breaking mixing scheme (F-scheme for short) put forward in this paper to the turbulence mixing scheme of Canuto et al. (T-scheme for short) in the OGCM, except the region from 15°S to 15°N. The numeri-cal results of F-scheme by using WOA09 data and an OGCM (LICOM, LASG/IAP climate system ocean model) over the global ocean are given. A notable improvement in the simulation of salinity and temperature over the global ocean is attained by using T-scheme adding F-scheme, especially in the mid- and high-latitude regions in the simulation of the intermediate water and deep water. We conjecture that the inertial internal wave breaking mixing and inertial forcing of wind might be one of important mechanisms maintaining the ventilation process. The modeling strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) by using T-scheme adding F-scheme may be more reasonable than that by using T-scheme alone, though the physical processes need to be further studied, and the overflow parameterization needs to be incorporated. A shortcoming in F-scheme is that in this paper the error of simulated salinity and temperature by using T-scheme adding F-scheme is larger than that by using T-scheme alone in the subsurface layer.

  15. RELAP5 two-phase fluid model and numerical scheme for economic LWR system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RELAP5 two-phase fluid model and the associated numerical scheme are summarized. The experience accrued in development of a fast running light water reactor system transient analysis code is reviewed and example of the code application are given

  16. Efficient and stable model reduction scheme for the numerical simulation of broadband acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyun, Jaeyub; Kook, Junghwan; Wang, Semyung

    2015-01-01

    and basis vectors for use according to the target system. The proposed model reduction scheme is applied to the numerical simulation of the simple mass-damping-spring system and the acoustic metamaterial systems (i.e., acoustic lens and acoustic cloaking device) for the first time. Through these numerical...

  17. Sensitivity of a regional climate model to land surface parameterization schemes for East Asian summer monsoon simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Xue, Yongkang; Fu, Congbin; Qiu, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Land surface processes play an important role in the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) system. Parameterization schemes of land surface processes may cause uncertainties in regional climate model (RCM) studies for the EASM. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a RCM to land surface parameterization (LSP) schemes for long-term simulation of the EASM. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with four different LSP schemes (Noah-MP, CLM4, Pleim-Xiu and SSiB), hereafter referred to as Sim-Noah, Sim-CLM, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB respectively, have been applied for 22-summer EASM simulations. The 22-summer averaged spatial distributions and strengths of downscaled large-scale circulation, 2-m temperature and precipitation are comprehensively compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis and dense station observations in China. Results show that the downscaling ability of RCM for the EASM is sensitive to LSP schemes. Furthermore, this study confirms that RCM does add more information to the EASM compared to reanalysis that imposes the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) because it provides 2-m temperature and precipitation that are with higher resolution and more realistic compared to LBC. For 2-m temperature and monsoon precipitation, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB simulations are more consistent with observation than simulations of Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM. To further explore the physical and dynamic mechanisms behind the RCM sensitivity to LSP schemes, differences in the surface energy budget between simulations of Ens-Noah-CLM (ensemble mean averaging Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM) and Ens-PX-SSiB (ensemble mean averaging Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB) are investigated and their subsequent impacts on the atmospheric circulation are analyzed. It is found that the intensity of simulated sensible heat flux over Asian continent in Ens-Noah-CLM is stronger than that in Ens-PX-SSiB, which induces a higher tropospheric temperature in Ens-Noah-CLM than in Ens-PX-SSiB over land. The adaptive

  18. An enhanced informed watermarking scheme using the posterior hidden Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuntao

    2014-01-01

    Designing a practical watermarking scheme with high robustness, feasible imperceptibility, and large capacity remains one of the most important research topics in robust watermarking. This paper presents a posterior hidden Markov model (HMM-) based informed image watermarking scheme, which well enhances the practicability of the prior-HMM-based informed watermarking with favorable robustness, imperceptibility, and capacity. To make the encoder and decoder use the (nearly) identical posterior HMM, each cover image at the encoder and each received image at the decoder are attacked with JPEG compression at an equivalently small quality factor (QF). The attacked images are then employed to estimate HMM parameter sets for both the encoder and decoder, respectively. Numerical simulations show that a small QF of 5 is an optimum setting for practical use. Based on this posterior HMM, we develop an enhanced posterior-HMM-based informed watermarking scheme. Extensive experimental simulations show that the proposed scheme is comparable to its prior counterpart in which the HMM is estimated with the original image, but it avoids the transmission of the prior HMM from the encoder to the decoder. This thus well enhances the practical application of HMM-based informed watermarking systems. Also, it is demonstrated that the proposed scheme has the robustness comparable to the state-of-the-art with significantly reduced computation time.

  19. Turing pattern dynamics and adaptive discretization for a super-diffusive Lotka-Volterra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahmane, Mostafa; Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Tian, Canrong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of introducing the fractional-in-space operator into a Lotka-Volterra competitive model describing population super-diffusion. First, we study how cross super-diffusion influences the formation of spatial patterns: a linear stability analysis is carried out, showing that cross super-diffusion triggers Turing instabilities, whereas classical (self) super-diffusion does not. In addition we perform a weakly nonlinear analysis yielding a system of amplitude equations, whose study shows the stability of Turing steady states. A second goal of this contribution is to propose a fully adaptive multiresolution finite volume method that employs shifted Grünwald gradient approximations, and which is tailored for a larger class of systems involving fractional diffusion operators. The scheme is aimed at efficient dynamic mesh adaptation and substantial savings in computational burden. A numerical simulation of the model was performed near the instability boundaries, confirming the behavior predicted by our analysis. PMID:26219250

  20. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  1. Turing pattern dynamics and adaptive discretization for a super-diffusive Lotka-Volterra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahmane, Mostafa; Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Tian, Canrong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of introducing the fractional-in-space operator into a Lotka-Volterra competitive model describing population super-diffusion. First, we study how cross super-diffusion influences the formation of spatial patterns: a linear stability analysis is carried out, showing that cross super-diffusion triggers Turing instabilities, whereas classical (self) super-diffusion does not. In addition we perform a weakly nonlinear analysis yielding a system of amplitude equations, whose study shows the stability of Turing steady states. A second goal of this contribution is to propose a fully adaptive multiresolution finite volume method that employs shifted Grünwald gradient approximations, and which is tailored for a larger class of systems involving fractional diffusion operators. The scheme is aimed at efficient dynamic mesh adaptation and substantial savings in computational burden. A numerical simulation of the model was performed near the instability boundaries, confirming the behavior predicted by our analysis.

  2. Adaptive Guidance based on Context Profile for Software Process Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khemissa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to define an adaptive guidance for software process modeling. The proposed guidance approach is based on development’s profile context (actor’s role in the process, actor’s qualification and related activities in progress. We introduce new guidance concepts through adaptive guidance meta-model (AGM allowing specific assistance interventions (corrective, constructive and automatic guidance. We illustrate our guidance approach using SPEM formalism extended with these new guidance concepts.

  3. Recent models for adaptive personality differences: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dingemanse, Niels J.; Wolf, Max

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review recent models that provide adaptive explanations for animal personalities: individual differences in behaviour (or suites of correlated behaviours) that are consistent over time or contexts. We start by briefly discussing patterns of variation in behaviour that have been documented in natural populations. In the main part of the paper we discuss models for personality differences that (i) explain animal personalities as adaptive behavioural responses to differences in ...

  4. TRAFFIC FLOW MODEL BASED ON CELLULAR AUTOMATION WITH ADAPTIVE DECELERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Shinkarev, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes continuation of the authors’ work in the field of traffic flow mathematical models based on the cellular automata theory. The refactored representation of the multifactorial traffic flow model based on the cellular automata theory is used for a representation of an adaptive deceleration step implementation. The adaptive deceleration step in the case of a leader deceleration allows slowing down smoothly but not instantly. Concepts of the number of time steps without confli...

  5. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments. PMID:26396214

  6. A hybrid scheme for absorbing edge reflections in numerical modeling of wave propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2010-03-01

    We propose an efficient scheme to absorb reflections from the model boundaries in numerical solutions of wave equations. This scheme divides the computational domain into boundary, transition, and inner areas. The wavefields within the inner and boundary areas are computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation, respectively. The wavefields within the transition area are determined by a weighted combination of the wavefields computed by the wave equation and the one-way wave equation to obtain a smooth variation from the inner area to the boundary via the transition zone. The results from our finite-difference numerical modeling tests of the 2D acoustic wave equation show that the absorption enforced by this scheme gradually increases with increasing width of the transition area. We obtain equally good performance using pseudospectral and finite-element modeling with the same scheme. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that use of 10 grid points for absorbing edge reflections attains nearly perfect absorption. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Multi-model ensemble schemes for predicting northeast monsoon rainfall over peninsular India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nachiketa Acharya; S C Kar; Makarand A Kulkarni; U C Mohanty; L N Sahoo

    2011-10-01

    The northeast (NE) monsoon season (October, November and December) is the major period of rainfall activity over south peninsular India. This study is mainly focused on the prediction of northeast monsoon rainfall using lead-1 products (forecasts for the season issued in beginning of September) of seven general circulation models (GCMs). An examination of the performances of these GCMs during hindcast runs (1982–2008) indicates that these models are not able to simulate the observed interannual variability of rainfall. Inaccurate response of the models to sea surface temperatures may be one of the probable reasons for the poor performance of these models to predict seasonal mean rainfall anomalies over the study domain. An attempt has been made to improve the accuracy of predicted rainfall using three different multi-model ensemble (MME) schemes, viz., simple arithmetic mean of models (EM), principal component regression (PCR) and singular value decomposition based multiple linear regressions (SVD). It is found out that among these three schemes, SVD based MME has more skill than other MME schemes as well as member models.

  8. Hybrid model for the Coupling of an Asymptotic Preserving scheme with the Asymptotic Limit model: The One Dimensional Case⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narski Jacek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a strategy is investigated for the spatial coupling of an asymptotic preserving scheme with the asymptotic limit model, associated to a singularly perturbed, highly anisotropic, elliptic problem. This coupling strategy appears to be very advantageous as compared with the numerical discretization of the initial singular perturbation model or the purely asymptotic preserving scheme introduced in previous works [3, 5]. The model problem addressed in this paper is well suited for the simulation of a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field, whose intensity may vary considerably within the simulation domain.

  9. Numerical scheme for multilayer shallow-water model in the low-Froude number regime

    OpenAIRE

    Parisot, Martin; Vila, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this note is to present a multi-dimensional numerical scheme approximating the solutions of the multilayer shallow water model in the low Froude number regime. The proposed strategy is based on a regularized model where the advection velocity is modified with a pressure gradient in both mass and momentum equations. The numerical solution satisfy the dissipation of energy, which act for mathematical entropy, and the main physical properties required for simulations within oceanic fl...

  10. Scheme of Constructing CGE Model of China's Direct Grain Subsidy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Can

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of China's direct grain subsidy policy, adopts computable general equilibrium (CGE) theory, and advances the scheme of constructing the model of China's direct grain subsidy policy. On the basis of some assumptions, such as conforming to the complete competition of market, inexistence of move of capital and labor forces among countries, unchanged exchange rate and incomplete substitution, and the main body of behavior comprising representative households, produ...

  11. Impact of the modal aerosol scheme GLOMAP-mode on aerosol forcing in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bellouin, N; Mann, G.W.; Woodhouse, M.T.; Johnson, C.; Carslaw, K. S.; Dalvi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM) includes two aerosol schemes: the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies in Climate (CLASSIC), and the new Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode). GLOMAP-mode is a modal aerosol microphysics scheme that simulates not only aerosol mass but also aerosol number, represents internally-mixed particles, and includes aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation. In this study, both schemes provide hindcast simulations of...

  12. Impact of stochastic parametrisation schemes on the climate of the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hannah; Berner, Judith; Coleman, Dani; Palmer, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic parametrisations have been used for more than a decade in atmospheric models. They provide a way to represent model uncertainty through representing the variability of unresolved sub-grid processes, and have been shown to have a beneficial effect on the spread and mean state for medium- and extended-range forecasts (Buizza et al. 1999, Palmer et al. 2009). There is also increasing evidence that stochastic parametrisation of unresolved processes could be beneficial for the climate of an atmospheric model. There is evidence that including stochastic physics can reduce model biases through noise-induced drift (nonlinear rectification) (Berner et al. 2008), and that including stochastic physics enables the climate simulator to explore other flow regimes (Christensen et al. 2014; Dawson and Palmer 2014). It is also possible that, through representing the variability of unresolved sub-grid processes, stochastic parametrisation schemes could improve the internal variability of a model's climate. We present results showing the impact of including the Stochastic Kinetic Energy Backscatter Scheme (SKEBS) and the Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies scheme (SPPT) in coupled runs of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4) with historical forcing. The impact of the schemes in the coupled runs is compared to the impact in a similar set of AMIP runs. Both schemes have a beneficial impact on the model climate. The SKEBS scheme significantly reduces mean biases in several fields whereas SPPT results in a significant improvement in the variability of the modeled climate. In particular, SPPT results in a significant improvement to the representation of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in CAM4, improving the power spectrum, as well as both the inter- and intra-annual variability of tropical pacific sea surface temperatures. References: Berner, J., Doblas-Reyes, F. J., Palmer, T. N., Shutts, G. J

  13. Adapting Dynamic Mathematical Models to a Pilot Anaerobic Digestion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haugen, R. Bakke, and B. Lie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model has been adapted to a pilot anaerobic reactor fed diarymanure. Both steady-state data from online sensors and laboratory analysis anddynamic operational data from online sensors are used in the model adaptation.The model is based on material balances, and comprises four state variables,namely biodegradable volatile solids, volatile fatty acids, acid generatingmicrobes (acidogens, and methane generating microbes (methanogens. The modelcan predict the methane gas flow produced in the reactor. The model may beused for optimal reactor design and operation, state-estimation and control.Also, a dynamic model for the reactor temperature based on energy balance ofthe liquid in the reactor is adapted. This model may be used for optimizationand control when energy and economy are taken into account.

  14. Adaptive Finite Element Methods for Continuum Damage Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, J. B.; Tworzydlo, W. W.; Xiques, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an application of adaptive finite element methods to the modeling of low-cycle continuum damage and life prediction of high-temperature components. The major objective is to provide automated and accurate modeling of damaged zones through adaptive mesh refinement and adaptive time-stepping methods. The damage modeling methodology is implemented in an usual way by embedding damage evolution in the transient nonlinear solution of elasto-viscoplastic deformation problems. This nonlinear boundary-value problem is discretized by adaptive finite element methods. The automated h-adaptive mesh refinements are driven by error indicators, based on selected principal variables in the problem (stresses, non-elastic strains, damage, etc.). In the time domain, adaptive time-stepping is used, combined with a predictor-corrector time marching algorithm. The time selection is controlled by required time accuracy. In order to take into account strong temperature dependency of material parameters, the nonlinear structural solution a coupled with thermal analyses (one-way coupling). Several test examples illustrate the importance and benefits of adaptive mesh refinements in accurate prediction of damage levels and failure time.

  15. Modeling Students' Memory for Application in Adaptive Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelánek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Human memory has been thoroughly studied and modeled in psychology, but mainly in laboratory setting under simplified conditions. For application in practical adaptive educational systems we need simple and robust models which can cope with aspects like varied prior knowledge or multiple-choice questions. We discuss and evaluate several models of…

  16. Adaptive Networks Theory, Models and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Thilo

    2009-01-01

    With adaptive, complex networks, the evolution of the network topology and the dynamical processes on the network are equally important and often fundamentally entangled. Recent research has shown that such networks can exhibit a plethora of new phenomena which are ultimately required to describe many real-world networks. Some of those phenomena include robust self-organization towards dynamical criticality, formation of complex global topologies based on simple, local rules, and the spontaneous division of "labor" in which an initially homogenous population of network nodes self-organizes into functionally distinct classes. These are just a few. This book is a state-of-the-art survey of those unique networks. In it, leading researchers set out to define the future scope and direction of some of the most advanced developments in the vast field of complex network science and its applications.

  17. Modeling-Error-Driven Performance-Seeking Direct Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V.; Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Burken, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a stable discrete-time adaptive law that targets modeling errors in a direct adaptive control framework. The update law was developed in our previous work for the adaptive disturbance rejection application. The approach is based on the philosophy that without modeling errors, the original control design has been tuned to achieve the desired performance. The adaptive control should, therefore, work towards getting this performance even in the face of modeling uncertainties/errors. In this work, the baseline controller uses dynamic inversion with proportional-integral augmentation. Dynamic inversion is carried out using the assumed system model. On-line adaptation of this control law is achieved by providing a parameterized augmentation signal to the dynamic inversion block. The parameters of this augmentation signal are updated to achieve the nominal desired error dynamics. Contrary to the typical Lyapunov-based adaptive approaches that guarantee only stability, the current approach investigates conditions for stability as well as performance. A high-fidelity F-15 model is used to illustrate the overall approach.

  18. Observation Likelihood Model Design and Failure Recovery Scheme toward Reliable Localization of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-bae Moon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many researches on mobile robot localization, it is still difficult to obtain reliable localization performance in a human co-existing real environment. Reliability of localization is highly dependent upon developer's experiences because uncertainty is caused by a variety of reasons. We have developed a range sensor based integrated localization scheme for various indoor service robots. Through the experience, we found out that there are several significant experimental issues. In this paper, we provide useful solutions for following questions which are frequently faced with in practical applications: 1 How to design an observation likelihood model? 2 How to detect the localization failure? 3 How to recover from the localization failure? We present design guidelines of observation likelihood model. Localization failure detection and recovery schemes are presented by focusing on abrupt wheel slippage. Experiments were carried out in a typical office building environment. The proposed scheme to identify the localizer status is useful in practical environments. Moreover, the semi-global localization is a computationally efficient recovery scheme from localization failure. The results of experiments and analysis clearly present the usefulness of proposed solutions.

  19. Validation of sub-grid-scale mixing schemes using CFCs in a global ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Daniel Y.; Weaver, Andrew J.

    Three sub-grid-scale mixing parameterizations (lateral/vertical; isopycnal; Gent and McWilliams, 1990) are used in a global ocean model in an attempt to determine which yields the best ocean climate. Observed CFC-11 distributions, in both the North and South Atlantic, are used in evaluating the model results. While the isopycnal mixing scheme does improve the deep ocean potential temperature and salinity distributions, when compared to results from the traditional lateral/vertical mixing scheme, the CFC-11 distribution is worse in the upper ocean due to too much mixing. The Gent and McWilliams (1990) parameterization significantly improves the CFC-11 distributions when compared to both of the other schemes. The main improvement comes from a reduction of CFC uptake in the southern ocean where the ‘bolus’ transport cancels the mean advection of tracers and hence causes the Deacon Cell to disappear. These results suggest that the asymmetric response found in CO2-increase experiments, whereby the climate over the southern ocean does not warm as much as in the northern hemisphere, may be due to the particular mixing schemes used.

  20. A density-dependent matrix model and its applications in optimizing harvest schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guofan Shao; WANG Fei; DAI Limin; BAI Jianwei; LI Yingshan

    2006-01-01

    Based on temporal data collected from 36 re-measured plots, transition probabilities of trees from a diameter class to a higher class were analyzed for the broadleaved-Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains. It was found that the transition probabilities were related not only to diameter size but also to the total basal area of trees with the diameter class. This paper demonstrates the development of a density-dependent matrix model, DM2, and a series of simulations with it for forest stands with different conditions under different harvest schemes. After validations with independent field data, this model proved a suitable tool for optimization analysis of harvest schemes on computers. The optimum harvest scheme(s) can be determined by referring to stand growth, total timbers harvested, and size diversity changes over time. Three user-friendly interfaces were built with a forest management decision support system FORESTAR(R) for easy operations of DM2 by forest managers. This paper also summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of DM2.

  1. The Adaptation Fund: a model for the future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Harmeling, Sven; Kaloga, Alpha Oumar

    2009-08-15

    With millions of the poor already facing the impacts of a changing climate, adaptation is a globally urgent – and costly – issue. The Adaptation Fund, created under the Kyoto Protocol, has unique features that could herald a new era of international cooperation on adaptation. Its governance structure, for instance, offers a fresh approach to fund management under the UN climate convention. The Fund's Board has also developed a constructive working atmosphere, and further progress is expected before the 2009 climate summit in Copenhagen. But developing countries' demand for adaptation funding is huge: conservative estimates put it at US$50 billion a year. The Fund's current structure and funding base are clearly only a first step towards filling that gap. And despite its significant progress over the last 18 months, many countries, particularly in the developed world, remain sceptical about this approach. Looking in detail at the Fund's evolution offers insight into its future potential as a model for adaptation finance.

  2. Adaptive time stepping algorithm for Lagrangian transport models: Theory and idealised test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Hyder Ali Muttaqi; Heemink, Arnold Willem; Gräwe, Ulf; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Random walk simulations have an excellent potential in marine and oceanic modelling. This is essentially due to their relative simplicity and their ability to represent advective transport without being plagued by the deficiencies of the Eulerian methods. The physical and mathematical foundations of random walk modelling of turbulent diffusion have become solid over the years. Random walk models rest on the theory of stochastic differential equations. Unfortunately, the latter and the related numerical aspects have not attracted much attention in the oceanic modelling community. The main goal of this paper is to help bridge the gap by developing an efficient adaptive time stepping algorithm for random walk models. Its performance is examined on two idealised test cases of turbulent dispersion; (i) pycnocline crossing and (ii) non-flat isopycnal diffusion, which are inspired by shallow-sea dynamics and large-scale ocean transport processes, respectively. The numerical results of the adaptive time stepping algorithm are compared with the fixed-time increment Milstein scheme, showing that the adaptive time stepping algorithm for Lagrangian random walk models is more efficient than its fixed step-size counterpart without any loss in accuracy.

  3. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A; Vlahos, George; Kristensen, Lone; Vejre, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly depended on whether scheme objectives were related to natural resources, biodiversity or landscape. A higher proportion of schemes dealing with natural resources (primarily water) were based on quantitative impact models, compared to those concerned with biodiversity or landscape. Schemes explicitly targeted either on particular parts of individual farms or specific areas tended to be based more on quantitative impact models compared to whole-farm schemes and broad, horizontal schemes. We conclude that increased and better use of impact models has significant potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness of AES.

  4. Research on the Adaptive Object-Model Architecture Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Hai-qiong; NI Gui-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly changing requirements and business rules stimulate software developers to make their applications more dynamic, configurable, and adaptable. An effective way to meet such requirements is to apply an adaptive object-model (AOM). The AOM architecture style is composed of metamodel, model engine and tools. Firstly, two small patterns for building up metamodel are analyzed in detail. Then model engine for interpreting metamodel and tools for end-uses to define and configure object models are discussed. Finally, a novel platform-applicationware-is proposed.

  5. High dynamic adaptive mobility network model and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui; ZHANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Since mobile networks are not currently deployed on a large scale, research in this area is mostly by simulation. Among other simulation parameters, the mobility model plays a very important role in determining the protocol performance in MANET. Based on random direction mobility model, a high dynamic adaptive mo-bility network model is proposed in the paper. The algorithms and modeling are mainly studied and explained in detail. The technique keystone is that normal dis-tribution is combined with uniform distribution and inertial feedback control is combined with kinematics, through the adaptive control on nodes speed and pre-diction tracking on nodes routes, an adaptive model is designed, which can be used in simulations to produce realistic and dynamic network scenarios. It is the adaptability that nodes mobile parameters can be adjusted randomly in three-dimensional space. As a whole, colony mobility can show some rules. Such ran-dom movement processes as varied speed and dwells are simulated realistically. Such problems as sharp turns and urgent stops are smoothed well. The model can be adapted to not only common dynamic scenarios, but also high dynamic sce-narios. Finally, the mobility model performance is analyzed and validated based on random dynamic scenarios simulations.

  6. An integrated approach to modeling and adaptive control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    In the book (Adaptive Identification,Prediction and Control-Multi Level Recursive Approach), the concept of dynamical linearization of nonlinear systems has been presented.This dynamical linearization is formal only,not a real linearization.From the linearization procedure,we can find a new approach of system identification,which is on-line real-time modeling and real-time feedback control correction.The modeling and real-time feedback control have been integrated in the identification approach,with the parameter adaptation model being abandoned.The structure adaptation of control systems has been achieved,which avoids the complex modeling steps.The objective of this paper is to introduce the approach of integrated modeling and control.

  7. The Distance Field Model and Distance Constrained MAP Adaptation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUPeng; WANGZuoying

    2003-01-01

    Spatial structure information, i.e., the rel-ative position information of phonetic states in the feature space, is long to be carefully researched yet. In this pa-per, a new model named “Distance Field” is proposed to describe the spatial structure information. Based on this model, a modified MAP adaptation algorithm named dis-tance constrained maximum a poateriori (DCMAP) is in-troduced. The distance field model gives large penalty when the spatial structure is destroyed. As a result the DCMAP reserves the spatial structure information in adaptation process. Experiments show the Distance Field Model improves the performance of MAP adapta-tion. Further results show DCMAP has strong cross-state estimation ability, which is used to train a well-performed speaker-dependent model by data from only part of pho-

  8. Model-based design of adaptive embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamberg, Roelof; Reckers, Frans; Verriet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today’s embedded systems have to operate in a wide variety of dynamically changing environmental circumstances. Adaptivity, the ability of a system to autonomously adapt itself, is a means to optimise a system’s behaviour to accommodate changes in its environment. It involves making in-product trade-offs between system qualities at system level. The main challenge in the development of adaptive systems is keeping control of the intrinsic complexity of such systems while working with multi-disciplinary teams to create different parts of the system. Model-Based Development of Adaptive Embedded Systems focuses on the development of adaptive embedded systems both from an architectural and methodological point of view. It describes architectural solution patterns for adaptive systems and state-of-the-art model-based methods and techniques to support adaptive system development. In particular, the book describes the outcome of the Octopus project, a cooperation of a multi-disciplinary team of academic and indus...

  9. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  10. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Niet, de, A.; Vrugt, van de, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richard J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can contribute considerably to the increase of energy-efficiency in wastewater treatment. To this end, we introduce an adaptive model based control strategy for aeration called adaptive WOMBAT. The strategy is...

  11. Structured and Unstructured Cache Models for SMT Domain Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Annie; Webber, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a French to English translation system for Wikipedia biography articles. We use training data from out-of-domain corpora and adapt the system for biographies. We propose two forms of domain adaptation. The first biases the system towards words likely in biographies and encourages repetition of words across the document. Since biographies in Wikipedia follow a regular structure, our second model exploits this structure as a sequence of topic segments, where each segment discusses a ...

  12. Modeling and Analysis of DIPPM: A New Modulation Scheme for Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Visible Light Communication (VLC uses an Intensity-Modulation and Direct-Detection (IM/DD scheme to transmit data. However, the light source used in VLC systems is continuously switched on and off quickly, resulting in flickering. In addition, recent illumination systems include dimming support to allow users to dim the light sources to the desired level. Therefore, the modulation scheme for data transmission in VLC system must include flicker mitigation and dimming control capabilities. In this paper, the authors propose a Double Inverse Pulse Position Modulation (DIPPM scheme that minimizes flickering and supports a high level of dimming for the illumination sources in VLC systems. To form DIPPM, some changes are made in the symbol structure of the IPPM scheme, and a detailed explanation and mathematical model of DIPPM are given in this paper. Furthermore, both analytical and simulation results for the error performance of 2-DIPPM are compared with the performance of VPPM. Also, the communication performance of DIPPM is analyzed in terms of the normalized required power.

  13. A Statistically-Based Low-Level Cloud Scheme and Its Tentative Application in a General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fushan; YU Rucong; ZHANG Xuehong; YU Yongqiang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a statistical cloud scheme is first introduced and coupled with a first-order turbulence scheme with second-order turbulence moments parameterized by the timescale of the turbulence dissipation and the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient. Then the ability of the scheme to simulate cloud fraction at different relative humidity, vertical temperature profile, and the timescale of the turbulent dissipation is examined by numerical simulation. It is found that the simulated cloud fraction is sensitive to the parameter used in the statistical cloud scheme and the timescale of the turbulent dissipation. Based on the analyses, the introduced statistical cloud scheme is modified. By combining the modified statistical cloud scheme with a boundary layer cumulus scheme, a new statistically-based low-level cloud scheme is proposed and tentatively applied in NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) CCM3 (Community Climate Model version3). It is found that the simulation of low-level cloud fraction is markedly improved and the centers with maximum low-level cloud fractions are well simulated in the cold oceans off the western coasts with the statistically-based low-level cloud scheme applied in CCM3. It suggests that the new statistically-based low-level cloud scheme has a great potential in the general circulation model for improving the low-level cloud parameterization.

  14. A Case Study of the Accounting Models for the Participants in an Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As emissions trading schemes are becoming more popular across the world, accounting has to keep up with these new economic developments. The absence of guidance regarding the accounting for greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions generated by the withdrawal of IFRIC 3- Emission Rights - is the main reason why there is a diversity of accounting practices. This diversity of accounting methods makes the financial statements of companies that are taking part in emissions trading schemes like EU ETS, difficult to compare. The present paper uses a case study that assumes the existence of three entities that have chosen three different accounting methods: the IFRIC 3 cost model, the IFRIC 3 revaluation model and the “off balance sheet” approach. This illustrates how the choice of an accounting method regarding GHGs emissions influences their interim and annual reports through the chances in the companies’ balance sheet and financial results.

  15. Simplified prediction model for lighting energy consumption in office building scheme design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余琼; 周潇儒; 林波荣; 朱颖心

    2009-01-01

    At the scheme design stage,the potential of daylighting is significant due to the saving for electric lighting use. There are few simple tools for architects to optimize the daylighting design. Therefore,it is useful to develop a design guideline related to the evaluation of lighting energy saving potential and sunlight design strategies. This paper analyzes the impacts of different artificial lighting control methods and design parameters on daylighting. A direct correlation between lighting energy consumption and parameters such as orientations,window to wall ratio (WWR) and perimeter depth is established. A simplified prediction model is proposed to estimate lighting energy consumption with the given perimeter depth,WWR,and window transparency. Validation of the model is carried out compared with detailed lighting simulation software for an office building. After the variation analysis for these parameters,design advises for the daylighting design at scheme design phase are summarized.

  16. STOCHASTIC ADAPTIVE SWITCHING CONTROL BASED ON MULTIPLE MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYanxia; GUOLei

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the transient behaviors of the traditional adaptive control may be very poor in general,and that the adaptive control designed based in switching between multiple models is an intuitively appealing and practically feasible approach to improve the transient performances.In this paper,we shall prove that for a typical class of linear systems disturbed by random noises,the multiple model based least-equares(LS)adaptive switching control is statble and convergent and has the same convergence rate as that established for the standard least-squares-based self-tunning regulators.Moreover,the mixed case combining adative models with fixed models is also considered.

  17. Adaptive network models of collective decision making in swarming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Huepe, Cristián; Gross, Thilo

    2016-08-01

    We consider a class of adaptive network models where links can only be created or deleted between nodes in different states. These models provide an approximate description of a set of systems where nodes represent agents moving in physical or abstract space, the state of each node represents the agent's heading direction, and links indicate mutual awareness. We show analytically that the adaptive network description captures a phase transition to collective motion in some swarming systems, such as the Vicsek model, and that the properties of this transition are determined by the number of states (discrete heading directions) that can be accessed by each agent.

  18. Double Discretization Difference Schemes for Partial Integrodifferential Option Pricing Jump Diffusion Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Casabán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new discretization strategy is introduced for the numerical solution of partial integrodifferential equations appearing in option pricing jump diffusion models. In order to consider the unknown behaviour of the solution in the unbounded part of the spatial domain, a double discretization is proposed. Stability, consistency, and positivity of the resulting explicit scheme are analyzed. Advantages of the method are illustrated with several examples.

  19. Model-based fault diagnosis techniques design schemes, algorithms, and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this book is to introduce basic model-based FDI schemes, advanced analysis and design algorithms, and the needed mathematical and control theory tools at a level for graduate students and researchers as well as for engineers. This is a textbook with extensive examples and references. Most methods are given in the form of an algorithm that enables a direct implementation in a programme. Comparisons among different methods are included when possible.

  20. A new modeling and control scheme for thyristor-controlled series capacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong MAO

    2009-01-01

    In order to design an optimal controller for the thyristor controlled series capacitor(TCSC),a novel TCSC control model is developed.In the model,the delay angle of thyristor valves is the input,and the inductor current is chosen as the output.Theoretical analysis and simulation studies show that TCSC is a non-linear system and its parameters vary with the operating point.In consideration of the special characteristics of the TCSC,an improved model algorithmic control (IMAC) scheme is proposed to control TCSC effectively.The good performance can be observed from simulation results when IMAC is applied to a series compensated radial system.

  1. The two-dimensional Godunov scheme and what it means for macroscopic pedestrian flow models

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient simulation method for two-dimensional continuum pedestrian flow models is introduced. It is a two-dimensional and multi-class extension of the Go-dunov scheme for one-dimensional road traffic flow models introduced in the mid 1990’s. The method can be applied to continuum pedestrian flow models in a wide range of applications from the design of train stations and other travel hubs to the study of crowd behaviour and safety at religious and cultural events. The combination of the ...

  2. Acoustic Model Adaptation for Indonesian Language Utterance Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Indrayanti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In order to build an utterance training system for Indonesian language, a speech recognition system designed for Indonesian is necessary. However, the system hardly works well due to the pronunciation variants of non-native utterances may lead to substitution/deletion error. This research investigated the pronunciation variant and proposes acoustic model adaptation to improve performance of the system. Approach: The proposed acoustic model adaptation worked in three steps: to analyze pronunciation variant with knowledge-based and data-derived methods; to align knowledge-based and data-derived results in order to list frequently mispronounced phones with their variants; to perform a state-clustering procedure with the list obtained from the second step. Further, three Speaker Adaptation (SA techniques were used in combination with the acoustic model adaptation and they are compared each other. In order to evaluate and tune the adaptation techniques, perceptual-based evaluation by three human raters is performed to obtain the "true"recognition results. Results: The proposed method achieved an average gain in Hit + Rejection (the percentage of correctly accepted and correctly rejected utterances by the system as the human raters do of 2.9 points and 2 points for native and non-native subjects, respectively, when compared with the system without adaptation. Average gains of 12.7 and 6.2 points for native and non-native students in Hit + Rejection were obtained by combining SA to the acoustic model adaptation. Conclusion/Recommendations: Performance evaluation of the adapted system demonstrated that the proposed acoustic model adaptation can improve Hit even though there is a slight increase of False Alarm (FA, the percentage of incorrectly accepted utterances by the system of which the human raters reject. The performance of the proposed acoustic model adaptation depends strongly on the effectiveness of state-clustering procedure

  3. The Nominal Response Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ayala, R. J.

    One important and promising application of item response theory (IRT) is computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The implementation of a nominal response model-based CAT (NRCAT) was studied. Item pool characteristics for the NRCAT as well as the comparative performance of the NRCAT and a CAT based on the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model were…

  4. The behavior of adaptive bone-remodeling simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Weinans (Harrie); R. Huiskes (Rik); H.J. Grootenboer

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe process of adaptive bone remodeling can be described mathematically and simulated in a computer model, integrated with the finite element method. In the model discussed here, cortical and trabecular bone are described as continuous materials with variable density. The remodeling rule

  5. Adaptive Simulated Annealing Based Protein Loop Modeling of Neurotoxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 黄丽娜; 彭志红

    2003-01-01

    A loop modeling method, adaptive simulated annealing, for ab initio prediction of protein loop structures, as an optimization problem of searching the global minimum of a given energy function, is proposed. An interface-friendly toolbox-LoopModeller in Windows and Linux systems, VC++ and OpenGL environments is developed for analysis and visualization. Simulation results of three short-chain neurotoxins modeled by LoopModeller show that the method proposed is fast and efficient.

  6. Cirrus clouds in a global climate model with a statistical cirrus cloud scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that accounts for mesoscale temperature perturbations is implemented into a coupled aerosol and atmospheric circulation model to better represent both cloud fraction and subgrid-scale supersaturation in global climate models. This new scheme is able to better simulate the observed probability distribution of relative humidity than the scheme that was implemented in an older version of the model. Heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN are shown to affect not only high level cirrus clouds through their effect on ice crystal number concentration but also low level liquid clouds through the moistening effect of settling and evaporating ice crystals. As a result, the change in the net cloud forcing is not very sensitive to the change in ice crystal concentrations associated with heterogeneous IN because changes in high cirrus clouds and low level liquid clouds tend to cancel. Nevertheless, the change in the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere due to changes in IN is still large because of changes in the greenhouse effect of water vapor caused by the changes in ice crystal number concentrations. Changes in the magnitude of the assumed mesoscale temperature perturbations by 25% alter the ice crystal number concentrations and radiative fluxes by an amount that is similar to that from a factor of 10 change in the heterogeneous IN number concentrations.

  7. Confined turbulent fluid-particle flow modeling using multiple-realization particle trajectory schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji-Fashola, A. A.

    1988-07-01

    A multiple-realization particle trajectory scheme has been developed and applied to the numerical prediction of confined turbulent fluid-particle flows. The example flows investigated include the vertical pipe upflow experimental data of Tsuji et al. and the experimental data of Leavitt for a coaxial jet flow, comprising a particle-laden central jet and a clean annular jet, into a large recirculation chamber. The results obtained from the numerical scheme agree well with the experimental data, lending confidence to the modeling approach. The multiple-realization particle trajectory turbulent flow modeling scheme is believed to be a more elegant and accurate approach to the extension of single-particle hydrodynamics to dilute multi-particle systems than the more commonly employed two-fluid modeling approach. It is also better able to incorporate additional force items such as lift, virtual mass and Bassett history terms directly into the particle equation of motion as appropriate. This makes it a suitable candidate for particle migration studies and an extension to situations involving liquid particulate phases with possible propulsion applications, such as in spray combustion, follows naturally.

  8. Nonstandard finite difference scheme for SIRS epidemic model with disease-related death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah, Z.; Suryanto, A.

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that SIRS epidemic with disease-related death can be described by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NL ODEs). This model has two equilibrium points where their existence and stability properties are determined by the basic reproduction number [1]. Besides the qualitative properties, it is also often needed to solve the system of NL ODEs. Euler method and 4th order Runge-Kutta (RK4) method are often used to solve the system of NL ODEs. However, both methods may produce inconsistent qualitative properties of the NL ODEs such as converging to wrong equilibrium point, etc. In this paper we apply non-standard finite difference (NSFD) scheme (see [2,3]) to approximate the solution of SIRS epidemic model with disease-related death. It is shown that the discrete system obtained by NSFD scheme is dynamically consistent with the continuous model. By our numerical simulations, we find that the solutions of NSFD scheme are always positive, bounded and convergent to the correct equilibrium point for any step size of integration (h), while those of Euler or RK4 method have the same properties only for relatively small h.

  9. Runoff estimates across large regions using multiple data sources and regional model calibration schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, B.; Vaze, J.; Chiew, F. H.; Guerschman, J. P.; McVicar, T.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating runoff in ungauged or poorly gauged catchments is one of the most challenging tasks in surface water hydrology. This study focuses on runoff estimates across large regions using multiple data sources together with different regional model calibration schemes. First, 228 gauged catchments widely located across south-east Australia (~1.4 million km2) are selected. Half of the catchments are randomly selected for regional model calibrations and the remainder used for cross-validations. Four rainfall-runoff and landscape hydrological models (Xinanjiang, AWBM, Sacramento and AWRA-L) are regionally calibrated against multiple data sources, including recorded daily streamflow, gridded monthly remotely-sensed actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and gridded daily remotely-sensed soil moisture (SM) data. The modeling results are assessed against recorded streamflow, remotely sensed ETa and remotely-sensed SM in other half of the catchments. Results indicate that the multi-objective calibrations are better than the traditional model calibration solely against streamflow data, in terms of overall model performance in simulating daily runoff, monthly actual ET and daily SM in the validation catchments. The runoff prediction results using the regional model calibration schemes perform similarly to (or slightly better than) the traditional regionalization approach, i.e., the nearest neighbor (or spatial proximity) approach. However, the regional model calibration approach has an important advantage for runoff estimates across large regions where gauging stations are relatively sparse.

  10. Efficiently adapting graphical models for selectivity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Deshpande, Amol; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    in estimation accuracy. We show how to efficiently construct such a graphical model from the database using only two-way join queries, and we show how to perform selectivity estimation in a highly efficient manner. We integrate our algorithms into the PostgreSQL DBMS. Experimental results indicate...

  11. Modeling developmental transitions in adaptive resonance theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. Raijmakers; P.C.M. Molenaar

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are applied to a theoretical subject in developmental psychology: modeling developmental transitions. Two issues that are involved will be discussed: discontinuities and acquiring qualitatively new knowledge. We will argue that by the appearance of a bifurcation, a neural network can

  12. An Adaptive Trust Model of Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jin-dian; GUO He-qing; GAO Yin

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic Web service trust(WS Trust ) model, and some corresponding trust metric evaluation algorithms. The main goal is to evaluate the trustworthiness and predict the future behaviors of entities in order to help users find trustworthy Web service providers and prevent users from providing unfair ratings against service providers.

  13. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy driven initialization scheme for active shape model based prostate segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Robert; Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Reed, Galen; Kurhanewicz, John; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Pungavkar, Sona; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-04-01

    Segmentation of the prostate boundary on clinical images is useful in a large number of applications including calculation of prostate volume pre- and post-treatment, to detect extra-capsular spread, and for creating patient-specific anatomical models. Manual segmentation of the prostate boundary is, however, time consuming and subject to inter- and intra-reader variability. T2-weighted (T2-w) magnetic resonance (MR) structural imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as promising modalities for detection of prostate cancer in vivo. MRS data consists of spectral signals measuring relative metabolic concentrations, and the metavoxels near the prostate have distinct spectral signals from metavoxels outside the prostate. Active Shape Models (ASM's) have become very popular segmentation methods for biomedical imagery. However, ASMs require careful initialization and are extremely sensitive to model initialization. The primary contribution of this paper is a scheme to automatically initialize an ASM for prostate segmentation on endorectal in vivo multi-protocol MRI via automated identification of MR spectra that lie within the prostate. A replicated clustering scheme is employed to distinguish prostatic from extra-prostatic MR spectra in the midgland. The spatial locations of the prostate spectra so identified are used as the initial ROI for a 2D ASM. The midgland initializations are used to define a ROI that is then scaled in 3D to cover the base and apex of the prostate. A multi-feature ASM employing statistical texture features is then used to drive the edge detection instead of just image intensity information alone. Quantitative comparison with another recent ASM initialization method by Cosio showed that our scheme resulted in a superior average segmentation performance on a total of 388 2D MRI sections obtained from 32 3D endorectal in vivo patient studies. Initialization of a 2D ASM via our MRS-based clustering scheme resulted in an average

  14. A Hamiltonian theory of adaptive resolution simulations of classical and quantum models of nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Karsten; Donadio, Davide; Kremer, Kurt; Potestio, Raffaello

    2015-03-01

    Quantum delocalization of atomic nuclei strongly affects the physical properties of low temperature systems, such as superfluid helium. However, also at room temperature nuclear quantum effects can play an important role for molecules composed by light atoms. An accurate modeling of these effects is possible making use of the Path Integral formulation of Quantum Mechanics. In simulations, this numerically expensive description can be restricted to a small region of space, while modeling the remaining atoms as classical particles. In this way the computational resources required can be significantly reduced. In the present talk we demonstrate the derivation of a Hamiltonian formulation for a bottom-up, theoretically solid coupling between a classical model and a Path Integral description of the same system. The coupling between the two models is established with the so-called Hamiltonian Adaptive Resolution Scheme, resulting in a fully adaptive setup in which molecules can freely diffuse across the classical and the Path Integral regions by smoothly switching their description on the fly. Finally, we show the validation of the approach by means of adaptive resolution simulations of low temperature parahydrogen. Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

  15. Hybrid and adaptive meta-model-based global optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J.; Li, G. Y.; Dong, Z.

    2012-01-01

    As an efficient and robust technique for global optimization, meta-model-based search methods have been increasingly used in solving complex and computation intensive design optimization problems. In this work, a hybrid and adaptive meta-model-based global optimization method that can automatically select appropriate meta-modelling techniques during the search process to improve search efficiency is introduced. The search initially applies three representative meta-models concurrently. Progress towards a better performing model is then introduced by selecting sample data points adaptively according to the calculated values of the three meta-models to improve modelling accuracy and search efficiency. To demonstrate the superior performance of the new algorithm over existing search methods, the new method is tested using various benchmark global optimization problems and applied to a real industrial design optimization example involving vehicle crash simulation. The method is particularly suitable for design problems involving computation intensive, black-box analyses and simulations.

  16. Explaining the face-inversion effect: the face-scheme incompatibility (FSI) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakover, Sam S

    2013-08-01

    The face-inversion effect (FIE) can be viewed as being based on two kinds of findings. According to the face(UI) effect, perception and recognition are better for faces presented upright (U) than for faces presented inverted (I). According to the face/object(UI) effect, inversion impairs the processing of faces more than the processing of nonfacial objects (e.g., buildings or cars). Part I of this article focuses on the face(UI) effect and the configural-processing hypothesis, which is considered the most popular explanatory hypothesis of the FIE. In this hypothesis, it is proposed that inversion impairs the processing of configural information (the spatial relations between features) but hardly (if at all) impairs the processing of featural information (e.g., eyes, nose, and mouth). Part II of the article starts from the conclusion reached in part I, that the configural-processing hypothesis has not succeeded in explaining a substantial number of the findings and in resolving certain theoretical problems. The part then goes on to outline a new alternative model, the face-scheme incompatibility (FSI) model, which contends with these theoretical problems, accounts for the configural-processing hypothesis, succeeds in explaining a considerable portion of the empirical findings related to the face(UI) effect, and proposes a relatively new research program on the concept of the face scheme. The basic assumption of the FSI model is that schemes and prototypes are involved in processing a visual stimulus of a face and in transforming it to a "meaning-bearing" face, and that different schemes are involved if the face is presented upright or inverted. PMID:23381811

  17. The Importance of Formalizing Computational Models of Face Adaptation Aftereffects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Face adaptation is widely used as a means to probe the neural representations that support face recognition. While the theories that relate face adaptation to behavioral aftereffects may seem conceptually simple, our work has shown that testing computational instantiations of these theories can lead to unexpected results. Instantiating a model of face adaptation not only requires specifying how faces are represented and how adaptation shapes those representations but also specifying how decisions are made, translating hidden representational states into observed responses. Considering the high-dimensionality of face representations, the parallel activation of multiple representations, and the non-linearity of activation functions and decision mechanisms, intuitions alone are unlikely to succeed. If the goal is to understand mechanism, not simply to examine the boundaries of a behavioral phenomenon or correlate behavior with brain activity, then formal computational modeling must be a component of theory testing. To illustrate, we highlight our recent computational modeling of face adaptation aftereffects and discuss how models can be used to understand the mechanisms by which faces are recognized. PMID:27378960

  18. Assessing the tangent linear behaviour of common tracer transport schemes and their use in a linearised atmospheric general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Holdaway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The linearity of a selection of common advection schemes is tested and examined with a view to their use in the tangent linear and adjoint versions of an atmospheric general circulation model. The schemes are tested within a simple offline one-dimensional periodic domain as well as using a simplified and complete configuration of the linearised version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5. All schemes which prevent the development of negative values and preserve the shape of the solution are confirmed to have non-linear behaviour. The piecewise parabolic method (PPM with certain flux limiters, including that used by default in GEOS-5, is found to support linear growth near the shocks. This property can cause the rapid development of unrealistically large perturbations within the tangent linear and adjoint models. It is shown that these schemes with flux limiters should not be used within the linearised version of a transport scheme. The results from tests using GEOS-5 show that the current default scheme (a version of PPM is not suitable for the tangent linear and adjoint model, and that using a linear third-order scheme for the linearised model produces better behaviour. Using the third-order scheme for the linearised model improves the correlations between the linear and non-linear perturbation trajectories for cloud liquid water and cloud liquid ice in GEOS-5.

  19. Assessing the Tangent Linear Behaviour of Common Tracer Transport Schemes and Their Use in a Linearised Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Kent, James

    2015-01-01

    The linearity of a selection of common advection schemes is tested and examined with a view to their use in the tangent linear and adjoint versions of an atmospheric general circulation model. The schemes are tested within a simple offline one-dimensional periodic domain as well as using a simplified and complete configuration of the linearised version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5). All schemes which prevent the development of negative values and preserve the shape of the solution are confirmed to have nonlinear behaviour. The piecewise parabolic method (PPM) with certain flux limiters, including that used by default in GEOS-5, is found to support linear growth near the shocks. This property can cause the rapid development of unrealistically large perturbations within the tangent linear and adjoint models. It is shown that these schemes with flux limiters should not be used within the linearised version of a transport scheme. The results from tests using GEOS-5 show that the current default scheme (a version of PPM) is not suitable for the tangent linear and adjoint model, and that using a linear third-order scheme for the linearised model produces better behaviour. Using the third-order scheme for the linearised model improves the correlations between the linear and non-linear perturbation trajectories for cloud liquid water and cloud liquid ice in GEOS-5.

  20. A coupled model tree genetic algorithm scheme for flow and water quality predictions in watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Ami; Ostfeld, Avi

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe rapid advance in information processing systems along with the increasing data availability have directed research towards the development of intelligent systems that evolve models of natural phenomena automatically. This is the discipline of data driven modeling which is the study of algorithms that improve automatically through experience. Applications of data driven modeling range from data mining schemes that discover general rules in large data sets, to information filtering systems that automatically learn users' interests. This study presents a data driven modeling algorithm for flow and water quality load predictions in watersheds. The methodology is comprised of a coupled model tree-genetic algorithm scheme. The model tree predicts flow and water quality constituents while the genetic algorithm is employed for calibrating the model tree parameters. The methodology is demonstrated through base runs and sensitivity analysis for daily flow and water quality load predictions on a watershed in northern Israel. The method produced close fits in most cases, but was limited in estimating the peak flows and water quality loads.

  1. Experimenting with a Convective Parameterization Scheme Suitable for High-Resolution Mesoscale Models in Tropical Cyclone Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grell, Evelyn; Grell, Georg; Bao, Jian-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Results from numerical experiments using high-resolution mesoscale models have presented evidence that the use of the explicit microphysics scheme only at grid spacing from few hundred meters to a few kilometers is often not sufficient to neutralize moist instability within the grid box. A consequence of such a problem is that artificial grid-point storms may occur, which in tropical cyclone simulations can lead to erroneous representation of tropical cyclone development. The use of conventional sub-grid convection parameterization schemes to alleviate artificial grid-point storms is not appropriate in this situation since these schemes assume that the updraft area is much smaller than the model grid spacing and this assumption becomes invalid when the grid size is a few kilometers or smaller. A sub-grid convection scheme suitable for high-resolution mesoscale models has been developed by Grell and Freitas (2013) to remove the aforementioned assumption used in conventional sub-grid convection parameterization schemes. This scheme can be used for grid spacing equal to or smaller than a few kilometers to help sufficiently remove moist instability for the entire grid point. This scheme behaves similarly to conventional schemes when the updraft area is much smaller than the grids size. As the updraft area in a grid box approaches the grid size, the parameterized sub-grid convection gradually diminishes. This presentation highlights major results from experimenting with this newly developed scheme in the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model with an idealized tropical cyclone intensification case. We will demonstrate the scheme converges (i.e., the parameterized convection diminishes as the updraft area in a grid box approaches the grid size) using the change of the intensity of parameterized sub-grid convection with the decrease in grid size. We will also discuss the issues and challenges in refining this scheme for its application in operational models.

  2. A new multi-tracer transport scheme for the dynamical core of NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, C.

    2012-04-01

    The integration of a conservative semi-Lagrangian multi-tracer transport scheme (CSLAM) in NCAR's High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) is considered here. HOMME is a highly scalable atmospheric modeling framework, and its current horizontal discretization relies on spectral element (SE) and/or discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods on the cubed-sphere. It is one dynamical core of NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The main advantage of CSLAM is that the upstream cell (trajectories) information and computation of weights of integrals can be reused for each additional tracer. This makes CSLAM particularly interesting for global atmospheric modeling with growing number of tracers, e.g. more than 100 tracers for the chemistry version of CAM. An algorithm specifically designed for multiple processors and on the cubed-sphere grid for CSLAM in HOMME is a challenging task. HOMME is running on an element ansatz on the six cube faces. Inside these elements we create an Eulerian finite volume grid of equiangular gnomonic type, which represents the arrival grid in the scheme. But CSLAM relies on backward trajectories, which entails a departure grid. That means departure and arrival grid don't necessary have to be on the same element and certainly not on the same cube face. Also the reconstruction for higher order modeling needs a patch of tracer values which extend the element. Here we consider a third order reconstruction method. Therefore, we introduce a halo for the tracer values in the cell centers of a cube-element. The size of this halo depends on the Courant number (CFL condition) and the reconstruction type. Note that for a third order scheme and CFL number communication can be limited to one per time step. This data structure allows us to consider an element with its halo as one task where we have to be extra carful for elements which share a cube edge due to projection and orientation reasons. We stress that the reconstruction coefficients for elements

  3. Comparison and verification of enthalpy schemes for polythermal glaciers and ice sheets with a one-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Heinz; Greve, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The enthalpy method for the thermodynamics of polythermal glaciers and ice sheets is tested and verified by a one-dimensional problem (parallel-sided slab). The enthalpy method alone does not include explicitly the transition conditions at the cold-temperate transition surface (CTS) that separates the upper cold from the lower temperate layer. However, these conditions are important for correctly determining the position of the CTS. For the numerical solution of the polythermal slab problem, we consider a two-layer front-tracking scheme as well as three different one-layer schemes (conventional one-layer scheme, one-layer melting CTS scheme, one-layer freezing CTS scheme). Computed steady-state temperature and water-content profiles are verified with exact solutions, and transient solutions computed by the one-layer schemes are compared with those of the two-layer scheme, considered to be a reliable reference. While the conventional one-layer scheme (that does not include the transition conditions at the CTS) can produce correct solutions for melting conditions at the CTS, it is more reliable to enforce the transition conditions explicitly. For freezing conditions, it is imperative to enforce them because the conventional one-layer scheme cannot handle the associated discontinuities. The suggested numerical schemes are suitable for implementation in three-dimensional glacier and ice-sheet models.

  4. Adaptive plasticity model for bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on experimental investigations, the literature proposes different methods for modeling the behavior and capacity of foundations subjected to combined loading. Generally, two methods are used to predict the behavior of foundations: traditional approaches and hardening plasticity solutions....... The first method is only capable of determining the capacity of the foundations and not the prepeak behavior. Thus, a new strain-hardening criterion is developed by calibrating failure criteria by employing data from small-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to static loads. The shape of the yield...

  5. Distortion Modeling and Error Robust Coding Scheme for H.26L Video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENChuan; YUSongyu; CHENGLianji

    2004-01-01

    Transmission of hybrid-coded video including motion compensation and spatial prediction over error prone channel results in the well-known problem of error propagation because of the drift in reference frames between encoder and decoder. The prediction loop propa-gates errors and causes substantial degradation in video quality. Especially in H.26L video, both intra and inter prediction strategies are used to improve compression efficiency, however, they make error propagation more serious. This work proposes distortion models for H.26L video to optimally estimate the overall distortion of decoder frame reconstruction due to quantization, error propagation, and error concealment. Based on these statistical distortion models, our error robust coding scheme only integrates the distinct distortion between intra and inter macroblocks into a rate-distortlon based framework to select suitable coding mode for each macroblock, and so,the cost in computation complexity is modest. Simulations under typical 3GPP/3GPP2 channel and Internet channel conditions have shown that our proposed scheme achieves much better performance than those currently used in H.26L. The error propagation estimation and effect at high fractural pixel-level prediction have also been tested. All the results have demonstrated that our proposed scheme achieves a good balance between compression efficiency and error robustness for H.26L video, at the cost of modest additional complexity.

  6. A new thermal comfort approach comparing adaptive and PMV models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, Jose A. [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Energia y P. M. Paseo de Ronda, n :51, 15011. A Coruna (Spain); Oliveira, Armando C. [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, New Energy Tec. Unit. Rua Dr Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    In buildings with heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), the Predicted Mean Vote index (PMV) was successful at predicting comfort conditions, whereas in naturally ventilated buildings, only adaptive models provide accurate predictions. On the other hand, permeable coverings can be considered as a passive control method of indoor conditions and, consequently, have implications in the perception of indoor air quality, local thermal comfort, and energy savings. These energy savings were measured in terms of the set point temperature established in accordance with adaptive methods. Problems appear when the adaptive model suggests the same neutral temperature for ambiences with the same indoor temperature but different relative humidities. In this paper, a new design of the PMV model is described to compare the neutral temperature to real indoor conditions. Results showed that this new PMV model tends to overestimate thermal neutralities but with a lower value than Fanger's PMV index. On the other hand, this new PMV model considers indoor relative humidity, showing a clear differentiation of indoor ambiences in terms of it, unlike adaptive models. Finally, spaces with permeable coverings present indoor conditions closer to thermal neutrality, with corresponding energy savings. (author)

  7. Adaptive network models of collective decision making in swarming systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li; Gross, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    We consider a class of adaptive network models where links can only be created or deleted between nodes in different states. These models provide an approximate description of a set of systems where nodes represent agents moving in physical or abstract space, the state of each node represents the agent's heading direction, and links indicate mutual awareness. We show analytically that the adaptive network description captures the phase transition to collective motion in swarming systems and that the properties of this transition are determined by the number of states (discrete heading directions) that can be accessed by each agent.

  8. Multi-users network model and the corresponding networking scheme for indoor VLC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Yin Tang; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the visible light communication (VLC) based on LEDs has attracted much attention. In order to realize multi-users indoor VLC system based on the hybrid full-duplex, we design a kind of illumination/communication terminal and present the corresponding network model in this paper. We propose a multi-access scheme, which can avoid the access collision and network congestion. Meanwhile, we present a method to establish the link between users and expound the routing strategy of information forwarding. Besides, we evaluate the network performance by numerical simulations in aspects of access collision probability, throughput, access time and link establishment time. The results show that the proposed multi-access scheme and routing strategy are feasible for indoor VLC system. PMID:25969253

  9. Baroclinic pressure gradient difference schemes of subtracting the local averaged density stratification in sigma coordinates models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing

    2008-01-01

    Much has been written of the error in computing the baroclinic pressure gradient (BPG) with sigma coordinates in ocean or atmos- pheric numerical models. The usual way to reduce the error is to subtract area-averaged density stratification of the whole computa- tion region. But if there is great difference between the area-averaged and the local averaged density stratification, the error will be obvious. An example is given to show that the error from this method may be larger than that from no correction sometimes. The definition of local area is put forward. Then, four improved BPG difference schemes of subtracting the local averaged density strat- ification are designed to reduce the error. Two of them are for diagnostic calculation (density field is fixed), and the others are for prognostic calculation (density field is not fixed). The results show that the errors from these schemes all significantly decrease.

  10. Convergent and Correct Message Passing Schemes for Optimization Problems over Graphical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ruozzi, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The max-product algorithm, which attempts to compute the most probable assignment (MAP) of a given probability distribution, has recently found applications in quadratic minimization and combinatorial optimization. Unfortunately, the max-product algorithm is not guaranteed to converge and, even if it does, is not guaranteed to produce the MAP assignment. In this work, we provide a simple derivation of a new family of message passing algorithms. We first show how to arrive at this general message passing scheme by "splitting" the factors of our graphical model and then we demonstrate that this construction can be extended beyond integral splitting. We prove that, for any objective function which attains its maximum value over its domain, this new family of message passing algorithms always contains a message passing scheme that guarantees correctness upon convergence to a unique estimate. We then adopt a serial message passing schedule and prove that, under mild assumptions, such a schedule guarantees the conv...

  11. Intention to Purchase Products under Volume Discount Scheme: A Conceptual Model and Research Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Iranmanesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many standard brands sell products under the volume discount scheme (VDS as more and more consumers are fond of purchasing products under this scheme. Despite volume discount being commonly practiced, there is a dearth of research, both conceptual and empirical, focusing on purchase characteristics factors and consumer internal evaluation concerning the purchase of products under VDS. To attempt to fill this void, this article develops a conceptual model on VDS with the intention of delineating the influence of the purchase characteristics factors on the consumer intention to purchase products under VDS and provides an explanation of their effects through consumer internal evaluation. Finally, the authors discuss the managerial implications of their research and offer guidelines for future empirical research.

  12. Multi-users network model and the corresponding networking scheme for indoor VLC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Yin Tang; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the visible light communication (VLC) based on LEDs has attracted much attention. In order to realize multi-users indoor VLC system based on the hybrid full-duplex, we design a kind of illumination/communication terminal and present the corresponding network model in this paper. We propose a multi-access scheme, which can avoid the access collision and network congestion. Meanwhile, we present a method to establish the link between users and expound the routing strategy of information forwarding. Besides, we evaluate the network performance by numerical simulations in aspects of access collision probability, throughput, access time and link establishment time. The results show that the proposed multi-access scheme and routing strategy are feasible for indoor VLC system.

  13. Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Based on Combination of HVS Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Foris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two new blind adaptive digital watermarking methods of color images are presented. The adaptability is based on perceptual watermarking which exploits Human Visual System (HVS models. The first method performs watermark embedding in transform domain of DCT and the second method is based on DWT. Watermark is embedded into transform domain of a chosen color image component in a selected color space. Both methods use a combination of HVS models to select perceptually significant transform coefficients and at the same time to determine the bounds of modification of selected coefficients. The final HVS model consists of three parts. The first part is the HVS model in DCT (DWT domain. The second part is the HVS model based on Region of Interest and finally the third part is the HVS model based on Noise Visibility Function. Watermark has a form of a real number sequence with normal distribution.

  14. Adaptive Nonlinear Tire-Road Friction Force Estimation for Vehicular Systems Based on a Novel Differentiable Friction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel adaptive nonlinear observer-based parameter estimation scheme using a newly continuously differentiable friction model has been developed to estimate the tire-road friction force. The differentiable friction model is more flexible and suitable for online adaptive identification and control with the advantage of more explicit parameterizable form. Different from conventional estimation methods, the filtered regression estimation parameter is introduced in the novel adaptive laws, which can guarantee that both the observer error and parameter error exponentially converge to zero. Lyapunov theory has been used to prove the stability of the proposed methods. The effectiveness of the estimation algorithm is illustrated via a bus simulation model in the Trucksim software and simulation environment. The relatively accurate tire-road friction force was estimated just by the easily existing sensors signals wheel rotational speed and vehicle speed and the proposed method also displays strong robustness against bounded disturbances.

  15. Validation of the surge model and lessons learnt from commissioning of the Shuweihat water transmission scheme, UAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leruth, P.; Pothof, I.W.M.; Naja, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a validation of the surge modeling results as well as lessons learnt from the commissioning test of the Shuweihat Water Transmission Scheme in the UAE. The Scheme is divided in two systems, The first system (Lot A) transmits water from Shuweihat to Mirfa (100 km). The second (Lot

  16. Generalization of the Event-Based Carnevale-Hines Integration Scheme for Integrate-and-Fire Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, Ronald A. J.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2009-01-01

    An event-based integration scheme for an integrate-and-fire neuron model with exponentially decaying excitatory synaptic currents and double exponential inhibitory synaptic currents has been introduced by Carnevale and Hines. However, the integration scheme imposes nonphysiological constraints on th

  17. Turing patterns in a reaction-diffusion model with the Degn-Harrison reaction scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanbing; Wu, Jianhua; Dong, Yaying

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a reaction-diffusion model with Degn-Harrison reaction scheme. Some fundamental analytic properties of nonconstant positive solutions are first investigated. We next study the stability of constant steady-state solution to both ODE and PDE models. Our result also indicates that if either the size of the reactor or the effective diffusion rate is large enough, then the system does not admit nonconstant positive solutions. Finally, we establish the global structure of steady-state bifurcations from simple eigenvalues by bifurcation theory and the local structure of the steady-state bifurcations from double eigenvalues by the techniques of space decomposition and implicit function theorem.

  18. Numerical Solutions of Traffic Flow on Networks : Using the LWR-Model and the Godunov Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Bergersen, Bjørnar Dolva

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how to create a simulationtool for traffic flow in a network using the Lighthill--Witham--Richards model and the Godunov scheme. First some basic rules about conservation laws are described and how to solve them using the method characteristics. This leads to the notion of weak solutions which can be solved by shock- and rarefractions-solutions. This is then used to describe how traffic behaves on a single road by using the LWR-model. The behavior of traffic at junctions is d...

  19. Cirrus clouds in a global climate model with a statistical cirrus cloud scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that accounts for mesoscale temperature perturbations is implemented in a coupled aerosol and atmospheric circulation model to better represent both subgrid-scale supersaturation and cloud formation. This new scheme treats the effects of aerosol on cloud formation and ice freezing in an improved manner, and both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are included. The scheme is able to better simulate the observed probability distribution of relative humidity compared to the scheme that was implemented in an older version of the model. Heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN are shown to decrease the frequency of occurrence of supersaturation, and improve the comparison with observations at 192 hPa. Homogeneous freezing alone can not reproduce observed ice crystal number concentrations at low temperatures (<205 K, but the addition of heterogeneous IN improves the comparison somewhat. Increases in heterogeneous IN affect both high level cirrus clouds and low level liquid clouds. Increases in cirrus clouds lead to a more cloudy and moist lower troposphere with less precipitation, effects which we associate with the decreased convective activity. The change in the net cloud forcing is not very sensitive to the change in ice crystal concentrations, but the change in the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere is still large because of changes in water vapor. Changes in the magnitude of the assumed mesoscale temperature perturbations by 25% alter the ice crystal number concentrations and the net radiative fluxes by an amount that is comparable to that from a factor of 10 change in the heterogeneous IN number concentrations. Further improvements on the representation of mesoscale temperature perturbations, heterogeneous IN and the competition between homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are needed.

  20. Development of polarizable models for molecular mechanical calculations. 3. Polarizable water models conforming to Thole polarization screening schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Cieplak, Piotr; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, Meng-Juei; Wang, Junmei; Duan, Yong; Luo, Ray

    2012-07-19

    As an integrated step toward a coherent polarizable force field for biomolecular modeling, we analyzed four polarizable water models to evaluate their consistencies with the Thole polarization screening schemes utilized in our latest Amber polarizable force field. Specifically, we studied the performance of both the Thole linear and exponential schemes in these water models to assess their abilities to reproduce experimental water properties. The analysis shows that the tested water models reproduce most of the room-temperature properties of liquid water reasonably well but fall short of reproducing the dynamic properties and temperature-dependent properties. This study demonstrates the necessity to further fine-tune water polarizable potentials for more robust polarizable force fields for biomolecular simulations.

  1. CLOUD COMPUTING AND ITS PRICING SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kamra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly emerging technology which involves deployment of various services like software, web services and virtualized infrastructure, as a product on public, private or hybrid clouds on lease basis. These services are charged by the respective pricing scheme for the cloud. The price varies with the number and type of data structures used for query execution. In this paper we describe static and dynamic pricing schemes for cloud cache. In static pricing scheme the prices are fixed for different resources which remain constant with time. Static pricing scheme does not benefit the service provider because it does not reflect the current market value. The dynamic pricing scheme can adapt as the time changes. According to the demand of a resource the pricing is done in dynamic pricing scheme so as to maximize the profit of the service provider. In addition to this, our paper explains characteristics and the delivery models for cloud computing in short.

  2. Adaptive Shape Functions and Internal Mesh Adaptation for Modelling Progressive Failure in Adhesively Bonded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott; Gries, Thomas; Waas, Anthony M.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution that can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh independent finite element analysis. The shape functions are determined based on the analytical model rather than prescribed. This method was applied to adhesively bonded joints to model joint behavior with one element through the thickness. This study demonstrates two methods of maintaining the fidelity of such elements during adhesive non-linearity and cracking without increasing the mesh needed for an accurate solution. The first method uses adaptive shape functions, where the shape functions are recalculated at each load step based on the softening of the adhesive. The second method is internal mesh adaption, where cracking of the adhesive within an element is captured by further discretizing the element internally to represent the partially cracked geometry. By keeping mesh adaptations within an element, a finer mesh can be used during the analysis without affecting the global finite element model mesh. Examples are shown which highlight when each method is most effective in reducing the number of elements needed to capture adhesive nonlinearity and cracking. These methods are validated against analogous finite element models utilizing cohesive zone elements.

  3. The monetary model of hyperinflation and the adaptive expectations: limits of the association and model validity.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Sokic

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights the strict association met in the literature between the adaptive expectations assumption and the correct running of the monetary model of hyperinflation. A complete resolution of the model is carried out under the adaptive expectations hypothesis. It is shown that the assumption of adaptive expectations is not sufficient to ensure the validity of the model for the explanation of monetary hyperinflation. This result raises the question of the field of validity of this ...

  4. Finite element model for linear-elastic mixed mode loading using adaptive mesh strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive mesh finite element model has been developed to predict the crack propagation direction as well as to calculate the stress intensity factors (SIFs), under linear-elastic assumption for mixed mode loading application. The finite element mesh is generated using the advancing front method. In order to suit the requirements of the fracture analysis, the generation of the background mesh and the construction of singular elements have been added to the developed program. The adaptive remeshing process is carried out based on the posteriori stress error norm scheme to obtain an optimal mesh. Previous works of the authors have proposed techniques for adaptive mesh generation of 2D cracked models. Facilitated by the singular elements, the displacement extrapolation technique is employed to calculate the SIF. The fracture is modeled by the splitting node approach and the trajectory follows the successive linear extensions of each crack increment. The SIFs values for two different case studies were estimated and validated by direct comparisons with other researchers work.

  5. Symmetry-Adapted Ab Initio Shell Model for Nuclear Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draayer, J. P.; Dytrych, T.; Launey, K. D.; Langr, D.

    2012-05-01

    An innovative concept, the symmetry-adapted ab initio shell model, that capitalizes on partial as well as exact symmetries that underpin the structure of nuclei, is discussed. This framework is expected to inform the leading features of nuclear structure and reaction data for light and medium mass nuclei, which are currently inaccessible by theory and experiment and for which predictions of modern phenomenological models often diverge. We use powerful computational and group-theoretical algorithms to perform ab initio CI (configuration-interaction) calculations in a model space spanned by SU(3) symmetry-adapted many-body configurations with the JISP16 nucleon-nucleon interaction. We demonstrate that the results for the ground states of light nuclei up through A = 16 exhibit a strong dominance of low-spin and high-deformation configurations together with an evident symplectic structure. This, in turn, points to the importance of using a symmetry-adapted framework, one based on an LS coupling scheme with the associated spatial configurations organized according to deformation.

  6. Comparison of Aircraft Models and Integration Schemes for Interval Management in the TRACON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Natasha; Hagen, George E.; Herencia-Zapana, Heber

    2012-01-01

    Reusable models of common elements for communication, computation, decision and control in air traffic management are necessary in order to enable simulation, analysis and assurance of emergent properties, such as safety and stability, for a given operational concept. Uncertainties due to faults, such as dropped messages, along with non-linearities and sensor noise are an integral part of these models, and impact emergent system behavior. Flight control algorithms designed using a linearized version of the flight mechanics will exhibit error due to model uncertainty, and may not be stable outside a neighborhood of the given point of linearization. Moreover, the communication mechanism by which the sensed state of an aircraft is fed back to a flight control system (such as an ADS-B message) impacts the overall system behavior; both due to sensor noise as well as dropped messages (vacant samples). Additionally simulation of the flight controller system can exhibit further numerical instability, due to selection of the integration scheme and approximations made in the flight dynamics. We examine the theoretical and numerical stability of a speed controller under the Euler and Runge-Kutta schemes of integration, for the Maintain phase for a Mid-Term (2035-2045) Interval Management (IM) Operational Concept for descent and landing operations. We model uncertainties in communication due to missed ADS-B messages by vacant samples in the integration schemes, and compare the emergent behavior of the system, in terms of stability, via the boundedness of the final system state. Any bound on the errors incurred by these uncertainties will play an essential part in a composable assurance argument required for real-time, flight-deck guidance and control systems,. Thus, we believe that the creation of reusable models, which possess property guarantees, such as safety and stability, is an innovative and essential requirement to assessing the emergent properties of novel airspace

  7. Modeling and Adaptive Control of a Planar Parallel Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖银辉; 陈新

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic model and control strategy of parallel mechanism have always been a problem in robotics research. In this paper,different dynamics formulation methods are discussed first, A model of redundant driven parallel mechanism with a planar parallel manipulator is then constructed as an example. A nonlinear adaptive control method is introduced. Matrix pseudo-inversion is used to get a desired actuator torque from a desired end-effector coordinate while the feedback torque is directly calculated in the actuator space. This treatment avoids forward kinematics computation that is very difficult in a parallel mechanism. Experiments with PID together with the descibed adaptive control strategy were carried out for a planar parallel mechanism. The results show that the proposed adaptive controller outperforms conventional PID methods in tracking desired input at a high speed,

  8. Stock market modeling and forecasting a system adaptation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Xiaolian

    2013-01-01

    Stock Market Modeling translates experience in system adaptation gained in an engineering context to the modeling of financial markets with a view to improving the capture and understanding of market dynamics. The modeling process is considered as identifying a dynamic system in which a real stock market is treated as an unknown plant and the identification model proposed is tuned by feedback of the matching error. Like a physical system, a stock market exhibits fast and slow dynamics corresponding to internal (such as company value and profitability) and external forces (such as investor sentiment and commodity prices) respectively. The framework presented here, consisting of an internal model and an adaptive filter, is successful at considering both fast and slow market dynamics. A double selection method is efficacious in identifying input factors influential in market movements, revealing them to be both frequency- and market-dependent.   The authors present work on both developed and developing markets ...

  9. A novel scheme for global scattering center modeling of radar targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel scheme for extracting the global scattering center model of radar targets is proposed in this paper.The 2D/3D scattering center models can be recon structed based on the wideband measurements at different viewing angles.The sphere spreading of the 1D scattering center projections is exploited.The 1D-2D/3D scatterer map(OTSM)is designed to manifest the high dimensional scattering characteristic of radar targets.The Hough transform and the least squares method are used to extract the stable scattering centers and their scattering coefficients.This modeling method does not need a high density of the spatial grid,which greatly cuts down the necessary original data.The model built in this Way describes the stable point scattering mechanisms in a large spatial extent and can be extrapolated to other frequencies in the optical region.Examples verify the validity of both the model and the method.

  10. Integration of a 3D Variational data assimilation scheme with a coastal area morphodynamic model of Morecambe Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Thornhill, Gill D.; Mason, David C.; Sarah L. Dance; Amos S. Lawless; Nichols, Nancy K.; Forbes, Heather R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a 3D variational (3D-Var) data assimilation scheme for a morphodynamic model applied to Morecambe Bay, UK. A simple decoupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model is combined with a data assimilation scheme to investigate the ability of such methods to improve the accuracy of the predicted bathymetry. The inverse forecast error covariance matrix is modelled using a Laplacian approximation which is calibrated for the length scale parameter requir...

  11. Student Modelling in Adaptive E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Bechter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most e-Learning systems provide web-based learning so that students can access the same online courses via the Internet without adaptation, based on each student's profile and behavior. In an e-Learning system, one size does not fit all. Therefore, it is a challenge to make e-Learning systems that are suitably “adaptive”. The aim of adaptive e-Learning is to provide the students the appropriate content at the right time, means that the system is able to determine the knowledge level, keep track of usage, and arrange content automatically for each student for the best learning result. This study presents a proposed system which includes major adaptive features based on a student model. The proposed system is able to initialize the student model for determining the knowledge level of a student when the student registers for the course. After a student starts learning the lessons and doing many activities, the system can track information of the student until he/she takes a test. The student’s knowledge level, based on the test scores, is updated into the system for use in the adaptation process, which combines the student model with the domain model in order to deliver suitable course contents to the students. In this study, the proposed adaptive e-Learning system is implemented on an “Introduction to Java Programming Language” course, using LearnSquare software. After the system was tested, the results showed positive feedback towards the proposed system, especially in its adaptive capability.

  12. Throughput Analytical Model and Adaptive MAC Scheme for IEEE 802.11e EDCA Based on AIFS Differentiation%AIFS区分的IEEE 802.11e EDCA吞吐率分析模型与自适应MAC算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白翔; 毛玉明; 冷甦鹏; 毛建兵; 谢军

    2009-01-01

    针对IEEE 802.11e EDCA(enhanced distributed channel access)支持业务区分服务的特点,提出了一个基于AIFS(arbitration inter-frame space)区分的信道吞吐率分析模型,该模型将不同接入等级的业务统一到一个信道模型中进行分析.通过数值计算结果与仿真实验结果的对比,验证了该模型的准确性,尤其是在分析信道吞吐卒方面更优于Xiao的Markov链模型.根据提出的分析模型,研究了近似优化条件,使得各类优先级业务的发送概率平衡虚拟发送时间段中空闲时间与冲突持续时间对系统性能的影响,实现靠近最优的信道吞吐率,从而使计算复杂度大为减小.利用数值分析的方法验证了近似优化条件实现靠近最优信道吞吐率的可行性.最后,提出的DPS(dynamicparameter-tunjmg scheme)算法根据负载情况自适应地调整不同级别业务的相应参数,使得系统时时满足优化条件,在各种场景下都能实现最大信道吞吐率,同时又满足EDCA支持QoS区分的要求.仿真结果验证了DPS算法不仅能够根据竞争节点的数目变化对信道吞吐率进行优化,而且其性能也明显优于标准的IEEE 802.11e EDCA机制.

  13. A chimera grid scheme. [multiple overset body-conforming mesh system for finite difference adaptation to complex aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, J. L.; Dougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A mesh system composed of multiple overset body-conforming grids is described for adapting finite-difference procedures to complex aircraft configurations. In this so-called 'chimera mesh,' a major grid is generated about a main component of the configuration and overset minor grids are used to resolve all other features. Methods for connecting overset multiple grids and modifications of flow-simulation algorithms are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions indicate that the use of multiple overset grids can simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse effect on flow-field algorithms and computer code complexity.

  14. APC-PC Combined Scheme in Gilbert Two State Model: Proposal and Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulo, Yaka; Saring, Yang; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak

    2016-08-01

    In an automatic repeat request (ARQ) scheme, a packet is retransmitted if it gets corrupted due to transmission errors caused by the channel. However, an erroneous packet may contain both erroneous bits and correct bits and hence it may still contain useful information. The receiver may be able to combine this information from multiple erroneous copies to recover the correct packet. Packet combining (PC) is a simple and elegant scheme of error correction in transmitted packet, in which two received copies are XORed to obtain the bit location of erroneous bits. Thereafter, the packet is corrected by bit inversion of bit located as erroneous. Aggressive packet combining (APC) is a logic extension of PC primarily designed for wireless communication with objective of correcting error with low latency. PC offers higher throughput than APC, but PC does not correct double bit errors if occur in same bit location of erroneous copies of the packet. A hybrid technique is proposed to utilize the advantages of both APC and PC while attempting to remove the limitation of both. In the proposed technique, applications of APC-PC on Gilbert two state model has been studied. The simulation results show that the proposed technique offers better throughput than the conventional APC and lesser packet error rate than PC scheme.

  15. A mixed finite element scheme for viscoelastic flows with XPP model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianhong Han; Xikui Li

    2008-01-01

    A mixed finite element formulation for viscoe-lastic flows is derived in this paper, in which the FIC (finite incremental calculus) pressure stabilization process and the DEVSS (discrete elastic viscous stress splitting) method using the Crank-Nicolson-based split are introduced within a general framework of the iterative version of the fractio-nal step algorithm. The SU (streamline-upwind) method is particularly chosen to tackle the convective terms in constitu-tive equations of viscoelastic flows. Thanks to the proposed scheme the finite elements with equal low-order interpola-tion approximations for stress-velocity-pressure variables can be successfully used even for viscoelastic flows with high Weissenberg numbers. The XPP (extended Pom-Pom) consti-tutive model for describing viscoelastic behaviors is particu-larly integrated into the proposed scheme. The numerical results for the 4:1 sudden contraction flow problem demons-trate prominent stability, accuracy and convergence rate of the proposed scheme in both pressure and stress distributions over the flow domain within a wide range of the Weissenberg number, particularly the capability in reproducing the results, which can be used to explain the "die swell" phenomenon observed in the polymer injection molding process.

  16. Impact of an improved shortwave radiation scheme in the MAECHAM5 General Circulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Morcrette

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the representation of ozone absorption in the stratosphere of the MAECHAM5 general circulation model, the spectral resolution of the shortwave radiation parameterization used in the model has been increased from 4 to 6 bands. Two 20-years simulations with the general circulation model have been performed, one with the standard and the other with the newly introduced parameterization respectively, to evaluate the temperature and dynamical changes arising from the two different representations of the shortwave radiative transfer. In the simulation with the increased spectral resolution in the radiation parameterization, a significant warming of almost the entire model domain is reported. At the summer stratopause the temperature increase is about 6 K and alleviates the cold bias present in the model when the standard radiation scheme is used. These general circulation model results are consistent both with previous validation of the radiation scheme and with the offline clear-sky comparison performed in the current work with a discrete ordinate 4 stream scattering line by line radiative transfer model. The offline validation shows a substantial reduction of the daily averaged shortwave heating rate bias (1–2 K/day cooling that occurs for the standard radiation parameterization in the upper stratosphere, present under a range of atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the 6 band shortwave radiation parameterization is considered to be better suited for the representation of the ozone absorption in the stratosphere than the 4 band parameterization. Concerning the dynamical response in the general circulation model, it is found that the reported warming at the summer stratopause induces stronger zonal mean zonal winds in the middle atmosphere. These stronger zonal mean zonal winds thereafter appear to produce a dynamical feedback that results in a dynamical warming (cooling of the polar winter (summer mesosphere, caused by an

  17. Hybrid advection scheme for 3-dimensional atmospheric models. Testing and application for a study of NO{sub x} transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubov, V.A.; Rozanov, E.V. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schlesinger, M.E.; Andronova, N.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The problems of ozone depletion, climate change and atmospheric pollution strongly depend on the processes of production, destruction and transport of chemical species. A hybrid transport scheme was developed, consisting of the semi-Lagrangian scheme for horizontal advection and the Prather scheme for vertical transport, which have been used for the Atmospheric Chemical Transport model to calculate the distributions of different chemical species. The performance of the new hybrid scheme has been evaluated in comparison with other transport schemes on the basis of specially designed tests. The seasonal cycle of the distribution of N{sub 2}O simulated by the model, as well as the dispersion of NO{sub x} exhausted from subsonic aircraft, are in a good agreement with published data. (author) 8 refs.

  18. Partially implicit finite difference scheme for calculating dynamic pressure in a terrain-following coordinate non-hydrostatic ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Lin, Lei; Xie, Lian; Gao, Huiwang

    2016-10-01

    To improve the efficiency of the terrain-following σ-coordinate non-hydrostatic ocean model, a partially implicit finite difference (PIFD) scheme is proposed. By using explicit terms instead of implicit terms to discretize the parts of the vertical dynamic pressure gradient derived from the σ-coordinate transformation, the coefficient matrix of the discrete Poisson equation that the dynamic pressure satisfies can be simplified from 15 diagonals to 7 diagonals. The PIFD scheme is shown to run stably when it is applied to simulate five benchmark cases, namely, a standing wave in a basin, a surface solitary wave, a lock-exchange problem, a periodic wave over a bar and a tidally induced internal wave. Compared with the conventional fully implicit finite difference (FIFD) scheme, the PIFD scheme produces simulation results of equivalent accuracy at only 40-60% of the computational cost. The PIFD scheme demonstrates strong applicability and can be easily implemented in σ-coordinate ocean models.

  19. Why Reinvent the Wheel? Let's Adapt Our Institutional Assessment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Francisco; Hawkins, Linda

    This paper reports on the implementation of an Integrated Assessment and Strategic Planning (IASP) process to comply with accountability requirements at the community college of New Mexico State University at Alamogordo. The IASP model adapted an existing compliance matrix and applied it to the business college program in 1995 to assess and…

  20. Adapting the Transtheoretical Model of Change to the Bereavement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Theorists currently believe that bereaved people undergo some transformation of self rather than returning to their original state. To advance our understanding of this process, this article presents an adaptation of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of change as it could be applied to the journey that bereaved individuals…

  1. Classrooms as Complex Adaptive Systems: A Relational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne; Knox, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe and model the language classroom as a complex adaptive system (see Logan & Schumann, 2005). We argue that linear, categorical descriptions of classroom processes and interactions do not sufficiently explain the complex nature of classrooms, and cannot account for how classroom change occurs (or does not occur), over…

  2. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-06-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people’s adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics.

  3. A Model of Internal Communication in Adaptive Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. Lee

    A study identified and categorized different types of internal communication systems and developed an applied model of internal communication in adaptive organizational systems. Twenty-one large organizations were selected for their varied missions and diverse approaches to managing internal communication. Individual face-to-face or telephone…

  4. A Context-Adaptive Model for Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Brian K.

    1990-01-01

    Presents an adaptable, context-sensitive model for ESL/EFL program evaluation, consisting of seven steps that guide an evaluator through consideration of relevant issues, information, and design elements. Examples from an evaluation of the Reading for Science and Technology Project at the University of Guadalajara, Mexico are given. (31…

  5. Gust response modeling and alleviation scheme design for an elastic aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Time-domain approaches are presented for analysis of the dynamic response of aeroservoelastic systems to atmospheric gust excitations. The continuous and discrete gust inputs are defined in the time domain. The time-domain approach to continuous gust response uses a state-space formulation that requires the frequency-dependent aerodynamic coefficients to be approximated with the rational function of a Laplace variable. A hybrid method which combines the Fourier transform and time-domain approaches is used to calculate discrete gust response. The purpose of this approach is to obtain a time-domain state-space model without using rational function approximation of the gust columns. Three control schemes are designed for gust alleviation on an elastic aircraft, and three control surfaces are used: aileron, elevator and spoiler. The signals from the rate of pitch angle gyroscope or angle of attack sensor are sent to the elevator while the signals from accelerometers at the wing tip and center of gravity of the aircraft are sent to the aileron and spoiler, respectively. All the control laws are based on classical control theory. The results show that acceleration at the center of gravity of the aircraft and bending-moment at the wing-root section are mainly excited by rigid modes of the aircraft and the accelerations at the wing-tip are mainly excited by elastic modes of the aircraft. All the three control schemes can be used to alleviate the wing-root moments and the accelerations. The gust response can be alleviated using control scheme 3, in which the spoiler is used as a control surface, but the effects are not as good as those of control schemes 1 and 2.

  6. Do they adapt or react? A comparison of the adaptation model and the stress reaction model among South African unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Griep; Elfi Baillien; Wouter Vleugels; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Hans De Witte

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates affective experience as a function of unemployment duration in South Africa. The study contrasts two models. The stress reaction model proposes a linear decrease of affective experience as unemployment prolongs. The adaptation model assumes a curvilinear pattern between affective experience and unemployment duration. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with contrast revealed no differences in affective experience between short-term (N = 101), long-term (N = 152) and very long...

  7. INFERNO: a fire and emissions scheme for the UK Met Office's Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeon, Stéphane; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Gilham, Richard; Harper, Anna; Sitch, Stephen; Folberth, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    Warm and dry climatological conditions favour the occurrence of forest fires. These fires then become a significant emission source to the atmosphere. Despite this global importance, fires are a local phenomenon and are difficult to represent in large-scale Earth system models (ESMs). To address this, the INteractive Fire and Emission algoRithm for Natural envirOnments (INFERNO) was developed. INFERNO follows a reduced complexity approach and is intended for decadal- to centennial-scale climate simulations and assessment models for policy making. Fuel flammability is simulated using temperature, relative humidity (RH) and fuel load as well as precipitation and soil moisture. Combining flammability with ignitions and vegetation, the burnt area is diagnosed. Emissions of carbon and key species are estimated using the carbon scheme in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model. JULES also possesses fire index diagnostics, which we document and compare with our fire scheme. We found INFERNO captured global burnt area variability better than individual indices, and these performed best for their native regions. Two meteorology data sets and three ignition modes are used to validate the model. INFERNO is shown to effectively diagnose global fire occurrence (R = 0.66) and emissions (R = 0.59) through an approach appropriate to the complexity of an ESM, although regional biases remain.

  8. An Adaptively-Refined, Cartesian, Cell-Based Scheme for the Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations. Ph.D. Thesis - Michigan Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coirier, William John

    1994-01-01

    A Cartesian, cell-based scheme for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions is developed and tested. Grids about geometrically complicated bodies are generated automatically, by recursive subdivision of a single Cartesian cell encompassing the entire flow domain. Where the resulting cells intersect bodies, polygonal 'cut' cells are created. The geometry of the cut cells is computed using polygon-clipping algorithms. The grid is stored in a binary-tree data structure which provides a natural means of obtaining cell-to-cell connectivity and of carrying out solution-adaptive refinement. The Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the resulting grids using a finite-volume formulation. The convective terms are upwinded, with a limited linear reconstruction of the primitive variables used to provide input states to an approximate Riemann solver for computing the fluxes between neighboring cells. A multi-stage time-stepping scheme is used to reach a steady-state solution. Validation of the Euler solver with benchmark numerical and exact solutions is presented. An assessment of the accuracy of the approach is made by uniform and adaptive grid refinements for a steady, transonic, exact solution to the Euler equations. The error of the approach is directly compared to a structured solver formulation. A non smooth flow is also assessed for grid convergence, comparing uniform and adaptively refined results. Several formulations of the viscous terms are assessed analytically, both for accuracy and positivity. The two best formulations are used to compute adaptively refined solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions are compared to each other, to experimental results and/or theory for a series of low and moderate Reynolds numbers flow fields. The most suitable viscous discretization is demonstrated for geometrically-complicated internal flows. For flows at high Reynolds numbers, both an altered grid-generation procedure and a

  9. 变压器主保护中的自适应方案%Self-adapting schemes in transformer main protections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世明; 林湘宁; 杨春明; 陈德树

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes some self_adapting schemes to complete the functions of CT scale coefficients adjusting and CT polarity checking and correcting in transformer longitudinal differential protection, which makes micro-computer based protective relays more intelligent and can accomplish these works to be done automatically. And two draft resolutions were proposed trying to solve the problem of CT polarity checking in transformer zero-sequence differential protection.%针对变压器微机纵差保护中的电流互感器比例系数的调整以及互感器接线极性校对等问题,介绍了几种自适应方案。对于零序差动保护的CT极性检测和校对问题,文中提出了两种自适应参考方案以供探讨。

  10. An adaptive multi-feature segmentation model for infrared image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Jin; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lianfa

    2016-04-01

    Active contour models (ACM) have been extensively applied to image segmentation, conventional region-based active contour models only utilize global or local single feature information to minimize the energy functional to drive the contour evolution. Considering the limitations of original ACMs, an adaptive multi-feature segmentation model is proposed to handle infrared images with blurred boundaries and low contrast. In the proposed model, several essential local statistic features are introduced to construct a multi-feature signed pressure function (MFSPF). In addition, we draw upon the adaptive weight coefficient to modify the level set formulation, which is formed by integrating MFSPF with local statistic features and signed pressure function with global information. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can make up for the inadequacy of the original method and get desirable results in segmenting infrared images.

  11. Improved Based on "Self-Adaptive Turning Rate" Model Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling He

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For tracking the object with tracking nonlinear, high maneuvering target,traditional interactive multiple model self-adaptive filter algorithm was usually adopted.The turning rate estimate was very important. However,the performance of turning rate algorithm was not so satisfactory in the  model.Thus,a new the average value turning rate algorithm based on self-adaptive turning model was proposed.Aiming at additional device for turning rate estimation turning model, the parameters α and β were introduced to adjust the roughness of turning rate.Aiming at target constant turning movement and orthogonal turning rate unequal, estimates, turning rate was used the average value model to reduce the noise and error influence. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm was more suitable for the objects with Nonlinear, high maneuvering target tracking and could remarkably reduce the sample,and thus achieve much better tracking performance.

  12. Modeling the pairwise key distribution scheme in the presence of unreliable links

    CERN Document Server

    Yagan, Osman

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the secure connectivity of wireless sensor networks under the pairwise key distribution scheme of Chan et al.. Unlike recent work which was carried out under the assumption of full visibility, here we assume a (simplified) communication model where unreliable wireless links are represented as on/off channels. We present conditions on how to scale the model parameters so that the network i) has no secure node which is isolated and ii) is securely connected, both with high probability when the number of sensor nodes becomes large. The results are given in the form of zero-one laws, and exhibit significant differences with corresponding results in the full visibility case. Through simulations these zero-one laws are shown to be valid also under a more realistic communication model, i.e., the disk model.

  13. Extended Model-Based Feedforward Compensation in L1 Adaptive Control for Mechanical Manipulators: Design and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussab eBennehar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new control scheme for Parallel Kinematic Manipulators (PKMs based on the L1 adaptive control theory. The original L1 adaptive controller is extended by including an adaptive loop based on the dynamics of the PKM. The additional model-based term is in charge of the compensation of the modeled nonlinear dynamics in the aim of improving the tracking performance. Moreover, the proposed controller is enhanced to reduce the internal forces, which may appear in the case of Redundantly Actuated PKMs (RA-PKMs. The generated control inputs are first regulated through a projection mechanism that reduces the antagonistic internal forces, before being applied to the manipulator. To validate the proposed controller and to show its effectiveness, real-time experiments are conducted on a new four degrees-of-freedom (4-DOFs RA-PKM developed in our laboratory.

  14. Adaptive quasi-likelihood estimate in generalized linear models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xia; CHEN Xiru

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a thorough theoretical treatment on the adaptive quasilikelihood estimate of the parameters in the generalized linear models. The unknown covariance matrix of the response variable is estimated by the sample. It is shown that the adaptive estimator defined in this paper is asymptotically most efficient in the sense that it is asymptotic normal, and the covariance matrix of the limit distribution coincides with the one for the quasi-likelihood estimator for the case that the covariance matrix of the response variable is completely known.

  15. Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bueno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Budget (TEB scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM that has been integrated in the TEB scheme. BEM-TEB makes it possible to represent the energy effects of buildings and building systems on the urban climate and to estimate the building energy consumption at city scale (~10 km with a resolution of a neighbourhood (~100 m. The physical and geometric definition of buildings in BEM has been intentionally kept as simple as possible, while maintaining the required features of a comprehensive building energy model. The model considers a single thermal zone, where the thermal inertia of building materials associated with multiple levels is represented by a generic thermal mass. The model accounts for heat gains due to transmitted solar radiation, heat conduction through the enclosure, infiltration, ventilation, and internal heat gains. As a difference with respect to other building parameterizations used in urban climate, BEM includes specific models for real air-conditioning systems. It accounts for the dependence of the system capacity and efficiency on indoor and outdoor air temperatures and solves the dehumidification of the air passing through the system. Furthermore, BEM includes specific models for passive systems, such as window shadowing devices and natural ventilation. BEM has satisfactorily passed different evaluation processes, including testing its modelling assumptions, verifying that the chosen equations are solved correctly, and validating the model with field data.

  16. Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, B.; Pigeon, G.; Norford, L. K.; Zibouche, K.; Marchadier, C.

    2012-03-01

    The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM) that has been integrated in the TEB scheme. BEM-TEB makes it possible to represent the energy effects of buildings and building systems on the urban climate and to estimate the building energy consumption at city scale (~10 km) with a resolution of a neighbourhood (~100 m). The physical and geometric definition of buildings in BEM has been intentionally kept as simple as possible, while maintaining the required features of a comprehensive building energy model. The model considers a single thermal zone, where the thermal inertia of building materials associated with multiple levels is represented by a generic thermal mass. The model accounts for heat gains due to transmitted solar radiation, heat conduction through the enclosure, infiltration, ventilation, and internal heat gains. BEM allows for previously unavailable sophistication in the modelling of air-conditioning systems. It accounts for the dependence of the system capacity and efficiency on indoor and outdoor air temperatures and solves the dehumidification of the air passing through the system. Furthermore, BEM includes specific models for passive systems, such as window shadowing devices and natural ventilation. BEM has satisfactorily passed different evaluation processes, including testing its modelling assumptions, verifying that the chosen equations are solved correctly, and validating the model with field data.

  17. Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bueno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Balance (TEB scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM that has been integrated in the TEB scheme. BEM-TEB makes it possible to represent the energy effects of buildings and building systems on the urban climate and to estimate the building energy consumption at city scale (~10 km with a resolution of a neighbourhood (~100 m. The physical and geometric definition of buildings in BEM has been intentionally kept as simple as possible, while maintaining the required features of a comprehensive building energy model. The model considers a single thermal zone, where the thermal inertia of building materials associated with multiple levels is represented by a generic thermal mass. The model accounts for heat gains due to transmitted solar radiation, heat conduction through the enclosure, infiltration, ventilation, and internal heat gains. BEM allows for previously unavailable sophistication in the modelling of air-conditioning systems. It accounts for the dependence of the system capacity and efficiency on indoor and outdoor air temperatures and solves the dehumidification of the air passing through the system. Furthermore, BEM includes specific models for passive systems, such as window shadowing devices and natural ventilation. BEM has satisfactorily passed different evaluation processes, including testing its modelling assumptions, verifying that the chosen equations are solved correctly, and validating the model with field data.

  18. Snow modeling using SURFEX with the CROCUS snow scheme for Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, D.; Müller, K.

    2012-04-01

    In 2010 a research project was initiated with the aim to investigate methods to establish a regional snow avalanche forecasting system for Norway. A part of this project concerns snow models that simulate snow stratigraphy and physical parameters in the snow pack. For this purpose we have used the CROCUS snow scheme within the land surface model SURFEX for the location of 18 weather stations in Norway. We have carried out a sensitivity study of available meteorological data. Few weather stations have measurements of all the parameters used by the model on an hourly basis. Therefore it is interesting to investigate if certain parameters can be replaced by short-term prognoses from the operational weather prediction models (Unified Model-4 km, HARMONIE-4 km and postprocessed prognoses of temperature and precipitation). This study indicates that short-term prognoses of radiation, air humidity, wind and air pressure may replace observations without loosing the quality of the snow simulations. For all stations the modeled snow depth is validated with the observed snow depth for the last 2-3 winter seasons. Our results show that the modeled snow depth is most sensitive to precipitation and air temperature. Overall, very good estimates of the snow depth are obtained using the CROCUS snow scheme, except for very wind exposed stations. Temperatures within the snowpack were compared with observations of snow temperature at the Filefjell station, showing promising results. A cold bias was observed, but daily variations were reasonably modeled. During the winter 2011/2012 a series of snow stratigraphy observations from the Filefjell station is carried out for validation purposes of other intra-snowpack physical properties (density, liquid water content, temperature, grain type).

  19. Supply Chain as Complex Adaptive System and Its Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingmingWang

    2004-01-01

    Supply chain is a complex, hierarchical, integrated, open and dynamic network.Every node in the network is an independent business unit that unites other organizations to develop its value, the competition and cooperation between these units are basic impetus of the development and evolution of the supply chain system. The characteristics of supply chain as a complex adaptive system and its modeling are discussed in this paper, and use an example demonstrating the feasibility of CAS modeling in supply chain management study.

  20. Human Adaptive Mechatronics and Human-System Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Suzuki; Hiroshi Igarashi; Harumi Kobayashi; Tetsuya Yasuda; Fumio Harashima

    2013-01-01

    Several topics in projects for mechatronics studies, which are ʹHuman Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM)ʹ and ʹHuman‐System Modelling (HSM)ʹ, are presented in this paper. The main research theme of the HAM project is a design strategy for a new intelligent mechatronics system, which enhances operatorsʹ skills during machine operation. Skill analyses and control system design have been addressed. In the HSM project, human modelling based on hierarchical classification of skills was studied, including...