WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive metabolism reduction

  1. Alzheimer's disease and natural cognitive aging may represent adaptive metabolism reduction programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reser Jared

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article examines several lines of converging evidence suggesting that the slow and insidious brain changes that accumulate over the lifespan, resulting in both natural cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD, represent a metabolism reduction program. A number of such adaptive programs are known to accompany aging and are thought to have decreased energy requirements for ancestral hunter-gatherers in their 30s, 40s and 50s. Foraging ability in modern hunter-gatherers declines rapidly, more than a decade before the average terminal age of 55 years. Given this, the human brain would have been a tremendous metabolic liability that must have been advantageously tempered by the early cellular and molecular changes of AD which begin to accumulate in all humans during early adulthood. Before the recent lengthening of life span, individuals in the ancestral environment died well before this metabolism reduction program resulted in clinical AD, thus there was never any selective pressure to keep adaptive changes from progressing to a maladaptive extent. Aging foragers may not have needed the same cognitive capacities as their younger counterparts because of the benefits of accumulated learning and life experience. It is known that during both childhood and adulthood metabolic rate in the brain decreases linearly with age. This trend is thought to reflect the fact that children have more to learn. AD "pathology" may be a natural continuation of this trend. It is characterized by decreasing cerebral metabolism, selective elimination of synapses and reliance on accumulating knowledge (especially implicit and procedural over raw brain power (working memory. Over decades of subsistence, the behaviors of aging foragers became routinized, their motor movements automated and their expertise ingrained to a point where they no longer necessitated the first-rate working memory they possessed when younger and learning actively. Alzheimer

  2. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of metabolic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we study how organisms adapt their metabolism to a changing environment. Metabolic adaptation occurs at different timescales. Organisms adapt their metabolism via metabolic regulation, which happens in the order of minutes to hours and via evolution, which takes many generations. Here

  4. Adaptations in the energy metabolism of parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, K.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    For this thesis fundamental research was performed on the metabolic adaptations found in parasites. Studying the adaptations in parasite metabolisms leads to a better understanding of parasite bioenergetics and can also result in the identification of new anti-parasitic drug targets. We focussed on

  5. Adaptive diversity: hormones and metabolism in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Vincent

    2010-12-01

    Genes underlying the evolution of morphological traits have recently been identified in a number of model species. In the stickleback, the metabolic adaptations to a freshwater habitat have now been linked to a well-known hormonal system. PMID:21145015

  6. Metabolic adaptations for desert survival in the Bedouin goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choshniak, I; Ben-Kohav, N; Taylor, C R; Robertshaw, D; Barnes, R J; Dobson, A; Belkin, V; Shkolnik, A

    1995-05-01

    Energy conservation is a key adaptation for desert survival in the Bedouin goat. When food is scarce, metabolism is reduced and body weight can be maintained indefinitely on less than one-half of normal intake. We hypothesized that metabolism would be turned down during both rest and exercise, but it was not. It was low when animals rested and returned to normal during exercise. We expected catecholamines and thyroid hormones would modulate metabolism, but they did not. The reduction in metabolism preceded any change in thyroid hormone concentrations, and infusions of epinephrine did not restore reduced metabolism to normal levels. Finally, we expected the gut would be the major organ system involved in the metabolic reduction because less food is eaten, processed, and absorbed. Contrary to our expectations, we found that muscle is the primary organ system responsible for the reduction. It appears that the adaptations of the Bedouin goat for surviving on limited food supplies involve different organ systems and different modulators to reduce metabolism from those known for other mammals. PMID:7771568

  7. Endocrine and metabolic adaptations to pregnancy; impact of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Sylvie Hauguel-de; Lassance, Luciana

    2015-10-01

    Adaptations of maternal endocrine and metabolic homeostasis are central to successful pregnancy. They insure that an adequate and continuous supply of metabolic fuels is available for the growing fetus. Healthy pregnancy is classically described as a mild diabetogenic state with significant adjustments in both insulin production and sensitivity. The placenta contributes to the endocrine adaptations to pregnancy through the synthesis of various hormones which may impact insulin action. Obesity has the highest prevalence among metabolic disease in pregnancy. This article summarizes the literature addressing the endocrine and metabolic adaptations implemented during normal pregnancy. Mechanisms of regulation are further examined in the context of maternal obesity.

  8. Adaptive evolution of complex innovations through stepwise metabolic niche expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szappanos, Balázs; Fritzemeier, Jonathan; Csörgő, Bálint; Lázár, Viktória; Lu, Xiaowen; Fekete, Gergely; Bálint, Balázs; Herczeg, Róbert; Nagy, István; Notebaart, Richard A; Lercher, Martin J; Pál, Csaba; Papp, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in evolutionary biology concerns the mechanisms by which complex metabolic innovations requiring multiple mutations arise. Here, we propose that metabolic innovations accessible through the addition of a single reaction serve as stepping stones towards the later establishment of complex metabolic features in another environment. We demonstrate the feasibility of this hypothesis through three complementary analyses. First, using genome-scale metabolic modelling, we show that complex metabolic innovations in Escherichia coli can arise via changing nutrient conditions. Second, using phylogenetic approaches, we demonstrate that the acquisition patterns of complex metabolic pathways during the evolutionary history of bacterial genomes support the hypothesis. Third, we show how adaptation of laboratory populations of E. coli to one carbon source facilitates the later adaptation to another carbon source. Our work demonstrates how complex innovations can evolve through series of adaptive steps without the need to invoke non-adaptive processes. PMID:27197754

  9. An adaptive composite quantile approach to dimension reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Efang; Xia, Yingcun

    2014-01-01

    Sufficient dimension reduction [J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 86 (1991) 316–342] has long been a prominent issue in multivariate nonparametric regression analysis. To uncover the central dimension reduction space, we propose in this paper an adaptive composite quantile approach. Compared to existing methods, (1) it requires minimal assumptions and is capable of revealing all dimension reduction directions; (2) it is robust against outliers and (3) it is structure-adaptive, thus more efficient. Asy...

  10. AN ADAPTIVE COMPOSITE QUANTILE APPROACH TO DIMENSION REDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Efang

    2014-01-01

    Su�cient dimension reduction [Li (1991)] has long been a promi- nent issue in multivariate nonparametric regression analysis. To un- cover the central dimension reduction space, we propose in this pa- per an adaptive composite quantile approach. Compared to existing methods, (1) it requires minimal assumptions and is capable of reveal- ing all dimension reduction directions; (2) it is robust against outliers; and (3) it is structure-adaptive, thus more e�cient. Asymptotic re...

  11. Adaptive Liners for Broadband Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will combine the advantages of adaptive materials with the simplistic passive design of state-of-the-art acoustic liners to provide the ability to tune...

  12. Fermentation and hydrogen metabolism affect uranium reduction by clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Francis, Arokiasamy J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduction discussed. Then, the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and uranium reduction has been further explored and the important role played by hydrogenase in uranium(VI) and iron(III) reduction by clostridia demonstrated. When hydrogen was provided as the headspace gas, uranium(VI) reduction occurred in the presence of whole cells of clostridia. This is in contrast to that of nitrogen as the headspace gas. Without clostridia cells, hydrogen alone could not result in uranium(VI) reduction. In alignment with this observation, it was also found that either copper(II) addition or iron depletion in the medium could compromise uranium reduction by clostridia. In the end, a comprehensive model was proposed to explain uranium reduction by clostridia and its relationship to the overall metabolism especially hydrogen (H2) production. PMID:25937978

  13. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Gao; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduc...

  14. Metabolic Adaptation after Whole Genome Duplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, M.J.A. van; Hogeweg, P.

    2009-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGDs) have been hypothesized to be responsible for major transitions in evolution. However, the effects of WGD and subsequent gene loss on cellular behavior and metabolism are still poorly understood. Here we develop a genome scale evolutionary model to study the dynamics

  15. Metabolism as means for hypoxia adaptation: metabolic profiling and flux balance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paternostro Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular hypoxia is a component of many diseases, but mechanisms of global hypoxic adaptation and resistance are not completely understood. Previously, a population of Drosophila flies was experimentally selected over several generations to survive a chronically hypoxic environment. NMR-based metabolomics, combined with flux-balance simulations of genome-scale metabolic networks, can generate specific hypotheses for global reaction fluxes within the cell. We applied these techniques to compare metabolic activity during acute hypoxia in muscle tissue of adapted versus "naïve" control flies. Results Metabolic profiles were gathered for adapted and control flies after exposure to acute hypoxia using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Principal Component Analysis suggested that the adapted flies are tuned to survive a specific oxygen level. Adapted flies better tolerate acute hypoxic stress, and we explored the mechanisms of this tolerance using a flux-balance model of central metabolism. In the model, adapted flies produced more ATP per glucose and created fewer protons than control flies, had lower pyruvate carboxylase flux, and had greater usage of Complex I over Complex II. Conclusion We suggest a network-level hypothesis of metabolic regulation in hypoxia-adapted flies, in which lower baseline rates of biosynthesis in adapted flies draws less anaplerotic flux, resulting in lower rates of glycolysis, less acidosis, and more efficient use of substrate during acute hypoxic stress. In addition we suggest new specific hypothesis, which were found to be consistent with existing data.

  16. Impact of genome reduction on bacterial metabolism and its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yus, Eva; Maier, Tobias; Michalodimitrakis, Konstantinos; van Noort, Vera; Yamada, Takuji; Chen, Wei-Hua; Wodke, Judith A H; Güell, Marc; Martínez, Sira; Bourgeois, Ronan; Kühner, Sebastian; Raineri, Emanuele; Letunic, Ivica; Kalinina, Olga V; Rode, Michaela; Herrmann, Richard; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; Russell, Robert B; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Bork, Peer; Serrano, Luis

    2009-11-27

    To understand basic principles of bacterial metabolism organization and regulation, but also the impact of genome size, we systematically studied one of the smallest bacteria, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A manually curated metabolic network of 189 reactions catalyzed by 129 enzymes allowed the design of a defined, minimal medium with 19 essential nutrients. More than 1300 growth curves were recorded in the presence of various nutrient concentrations. Measurements of biomass indicators, metabolites, and 13C-glucose experiments provided information on directionality, fluxes, and energetics; integration with transcription profiling enabled the global analysis of metabolic regulation. Compared with more complex bacteria, the M. pneumoniae metabolic network has a more linear topology and contains a higher fraction of multifunctional enzymes; general features such as metabolite concentrations, cellular energetics, adaptability, and global gene expression responses are similar, however.

  17. Global network reorganization during dynamic adaptations of Bacillus subtilis metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu;

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and...

  18. Energetic Metabolism and Biochemical Adaptation: A Bird Flight Muscle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Pierre; Blier, Pierre U.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to measure the activity of two metabolic enzymes in crude extract from bird pectoral muscle and to relate the differences to their mode of locomotion and ecology. The laboratory is adapted to stimulate the interest of wildlife management students to biochemistry. The enzymatic activities of cytochrome…

  19. Adaptive deployment of model reductions for tau-leaping simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Fu, Jin; Petzold, Linda R

    2015-05-28

    Multiple time scales in cellular chemical reaction systems often render the tau-leaping algorithm inefficient. Various model reductions have been proposed to accelerate tau-leaping simulations. However, these are often identified and deployed manually, requiring expert knowledge. This is time-consuming and prone to error. In previous work, we proposed a methodology for automatic identification and validation of model reduction opportunities for tau-leaping simulation. Here, we show how the model reductions can be automatically and adaptively deployed during the time course of a simulation. For multiscale systems, this can result in substantial speedups.

  20. Adaptive deployment of model reductions for tau-leaping simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Fu, Jin; Petzold, Linda R.

    2015-05-01

    Multiple time scales in cellular chemical reaction systems often render the tau-leaping algorithm inefficient. Various model reductions have been proposed to accelerate tau-leaping simulations. However, these are often identified and deployed manually, requiring expert knowledge. This is time-consuming and prone to error. In previous work, we proposed a methodology for automatic identification and validation of model reduction opportunities for tau-leaping simulation. Here, we show how the model reductions can be automatically and adaptively deployed during the time course of a simulation. For multiscale systems, this can result in substantial speedups.

  1. Adaptive Noise Reduction Scheme for Salt and Pepper

    CERN Document Server

    Gebreyohannes, Tina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new adaptive noise reduction scheme for images corrupted by impulse noise is presented. The proposed scheme efficiently identifies and reduces salt and pepper noise. MAG (Mean Absolute Gradient) is used to identify pixels which are most likely corrupted by salt and pepper noise that are candidates for further median based noise reduction processing. Directional filtering is then applied after noise reduction to achieve a good tradeoff between detail preservation and noise removal. The proposed scheme can remove salt and pepper noise with noise density as high as 90% and produce better result in terms of qualitative and quantitative measures of images.

  2. An adaptive Kalman filter for speckle reductions in ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speckle is the term used to describe the granular appearance found in ultrasound images. The presence of speckle reduces the diagnostic potential of the echographic technique because it tends to mask small inhomogeneities of the investigated tissue. We developed a new method of speckle reductions that utilizes an adaptive one-dimensional Kalman filter based on the assumption that the observed image can be considered as a superimposition of speckle on a ''true images''. The filter adaptivity, necessary to avoid loss of resolution, has been obtained by statistical considerations on the local signal variations. The results of the applications of this particular Kalman filter, both on A-Mode and B-MODE images, show a significant speckle reduction

  3. Adaptive model reduction for nonsmooth discrete element simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A method for adaptive model order reduction for nonsmooth discrete element simulation is developed and analysed in numerical experiments. Regions of the granular media that collectively move as rigid bodies are substituted with rigid bodies of the corresponding shape and mass distribution. The method also support particles merging with articulated multibody systems. A model approximation error is defined used for deriving and conditions for when and where to apply model reduction and refinement back into particles and smaller rigid bodies. Three methods for refinement are proposed and tested: prediction from contact events, trial solutions computed in the background and using split sensors. The computational performance can be increased by 5 - 50 times for model reduction level between 70 - 95 %.

  4. Adaptive changes in basal metabolic rate and thermogenesis in chronic undernutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic adaptation during chronic undernutrition represents a complex integration of several processes which affect the total energy expenditure of the individual. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is reduced; reductions in BMR per unit fat free mass (FFM) is difficult to demonstrate. BMR changes in undernutrition reflect the low body weight as well as alterations in the composition of the FFM; more specifically changes in the ratio of viscera to muscle compartments of the FFM. Thermogenic responses to norepinephrine are transiently suppressed but recover rapidly on repeated stimulation. Dietary thermogenesis is enhanced possible the result of increases in tissue synthesis within the body. Changes in BMR and thermogenesis suggestive of an increase in metabolic efficiency is thus difficult to demonstrate in chronic undernutrition. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Adaptations to pressure in the RBC metabolism of diving mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, M A; Castellini, J M; Rivera, P M

    2001-07-01

    Marine mammals are known to dive up to 2000 m and, therefore, tolerate as much as 200 atm. of hydrostatic pressure. To examine possible metabolic adaptations to these elevated pressures, fresh blood samples from marine and terrestrial mammals were incubated for 2 h at 37 degrees C under 136 atm (2000 psi) of hydrostatic pressure. The consumption of plasma glucose and the production of lactate over the 2-h period were used to assess glycolytic flux in the red cells. The results indicate that glycolytic flux as measured by lactate production under pressure can be significantly depressed in most terrestrial mammals and either not altered or accelerated in marine mammals. The data also suggest that there is a significant shift in the ratio of lactate produced to glucose consumed under pressure. Interestingly, human and dolphin blood do not react to pressure. These combined data imply a metabolic adaptation to pressure in marine mammal RBC that may not be necessary in human or dolphin cells due to their unique patterns of glucose metabolism.

  6. Adaptation of Myocardial Substrate Metabolism to a Ketogenic Nutrient Environment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Anna E.; d'Avignon, D. André; Weber, Mary L.; Cotter, David G.; Doherty, Jason M.; Kerns, Robnet; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Reddy, Naveen; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Crawford, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Heart muscle is metabolically versatile, converting energy stored in fatty acids, glucose, lactate, amino acids, and ketone bodies. Here, we use mouse models in ketotic nutritional states (24 h of fasting and a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) to demonstrate that heart muscle engages a metabolic response that limits ketone body utilization. Pathway reconstruction from microarray data sets, gene expression analysis, protein immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial tissue from nutritionally modified mouse models reveal that ketotic states promote transcriptional suppression of the key ketolytic enzyme, succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; encoded by Oxct1), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-dependent induction of the key ketogenic enzyme HMGCS2. Consistent with reduction of SCOT, NMR profiling demonstrates that maintenance on a ketogenic diet causes a 25% reduction of myocardial 13C enrichment of glutamate when 13C-labeled ketone bodies are delivered in vivo or ex vivo, indicating reduced procession of ketones through oxidative metabolism. Accordingly, unmetabolized substrate concentrations are higher within the hearts of ketogenic diet-fed mice challenged with ketones compared with those of chow-fed controls. Furthermore, reduced ketone body oxidation correlates with failure of ketone bodies to inhibit fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that ketotic nutrient environments engage mechanisms that curtail ketolytic capacity, controlling the utilization of ketone bodies in ketotic states. PMID:20529848

  7. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-07-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the "beiging" of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health.

  8. Adaptation from interactions between metabolism and behaviour: self-sensitive behaviour in protocells

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers the relationship between adaptive behaviour and metabolism, using theoretical arguments supported by computational models to demonstrate mechanisms of adaptation that are uniquely available to systems based upon the metabolic organisation of self-production. It is argued how, by being sensitive to their metabolic viability, an organism can respond to the quality of its environment with respect to its metabolic well-being. This makes possible simple but powerful ‘self...

  9. Metabolic 'engines' of flight drive genome size reduction in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natalie A; Gregory, T Ryan; Witt, Christopher C

    2014-03-22

    The tendency for flying organisms to possess small genomes has been interpreted as evidence of natural selection acting on the physical size of the genome. Nonetheless, the flight-genome link and its mechanistic basis have yet to be well established by comparative studies within a volant clade. Is there a particular functional aspect of flight such as brisk metabolism, lift production or maneuverability that impinges on the physical genome? We measured genome sizes, wing dimensions and heart, flight muscle and body masses from a phylogenetically diverse set of bird species. In phylogenetically controlled analyses, we found that genome size was negatively correlated with relative flight muscle size and heart index (i.e. ratio of heart to body mass), but positively correlated with body mass and wing loading. The proportional masses of the flight muscles and heart were the most important parameters explaining variation in genome size in multivariate models. Hence, the metabolic intensity of powered flight appears to have driven genome size reduction in birds.

  10. Quantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianoulis, Tara A; Raes, Jeroen; Patel, Prianka V;

    2009-01-01

    of particular pathways and subnetworks reflects the adaptation of microbial communities across environments and habitats-i.e., how network dynamics relates to environmental features. Previous research has treated environments as discrete, somewhat simplified classes (e.g., terrestrial vs. marine), and searched......Recently, approaches have been developed to sample the genetic content of heterogeneous environments (metagenomics). However, by what means these sequences link distinct environmental conditions with specific biological processes is not well understood. Thus, a major challenge is how the usage...... of weighted pathways that maximally covaries with a combination of environmental variables (many-to-many), which we term a metabolic footprint. Applied to available aquatic datasets, we identified footprints predictive of their environment that can potentially be used as biosensors. For example, we show...

  11. Adaptive radial basis function mesh deformation using data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillebaart, T.; Blom, D. S.; van Zuijlen, A. H.; Bijl, H.

    2016-09-01

    Radial Basis Function (RBF) mesh deformation is one of the most robust mesh deformation methods available. Using the greedy (data reduction) method in combination with an explicit boundary correction, results in an efficient method as shown in literature. However, to ensure the method remains robust, two issues are addressed: 1) how to ensure that the set of control points remains an accurate representation of the geometry in time and 2) how to use/automate the explicit boundary correction, while ensuring a high mesh quality. In this paper, we propose an adaptive RBF mesh deformation method, which ensures the set of control points always represents the geometry/displacement up to a certain (user-specified) criteria, by keeping track of the boundary error throughout the simulation and re-selecting when needed. Opposed to the unit displacement and prescribed displacement selection methods, the adaptive method is more robust, user-independent and efficient, for the cases considered. Secondly, the analysis of a single high aspect ratio cell is used to formulate an equation for the correction radius needed, depending on the characteristics of the correction function used, maximum aspect ratio, minimum first cell height and boundary error. Based on the analysis two new radial basis correction functions are derived and proposed. This proposed automated procedure is verified while varying the correction function, Reynolds number (and thus first cell height and aspect ratio) and boundary error. Finally, the parallel efficiency is studied for the two adaptive methods, unit displacement and prescribed displacement for both the CPU as well as the memory formulation with a 2D oscillating and translating airfoil with oscillating flap, a 3D flexible locally deforming tube and deforming wind turbine blade. Generally, the memory formulation requires less work (due to the large amount of work required for evaluating RBF's), but the parallel efficiency reduces due to the limited

  12. Optimization under uncertainty: Adaptive variance reduction, adaptive metamodeling, and investigation of robustness measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juan Camilo

    This dissertation offers computational and theoretical advances for optimization under uncertainty problems that utilize a probabilistic framework for addressing such uncertainties, and adopt a probabilistic performance as objective function. Emphasis is placed on applications that involve potentially complex numerical and probability models. A generalized approach is adopted, treating the system model as a "black-box" and relying on stochastic simulation for evaluating the probabilistic performance. This approach can impose, though, an elevated computational cost, and two of the advances offered in this dissertation aim at decreasing the computational burden associated with stochastic simulation when integrated with optimization applications. The first one develops an adaptive implementation of importance sampling (a popular variance reduction technique) by sharing information across the iterations of the numerical optimization algorithm. The system model evaluations from the current iteration are utilized to formulate importance sampling densities for subsequent iterations with only a small additional computational effort. The characteristics of these densities as well as the specific model parameters these densities span are explicitly optimized. The second advancement focuses on adaptive tuning of a kriging metamodel to replace the computationally intensive system model. A novel implementation is considered, establishing a metamodel with respect to both the uncertain model parameters as well as the design variables, offering significant computational savings. Additionally, the adaptive selection of certain characteristics of the metamodel, such as support points or order of basis functions, is considered by utilizing readily available information from the previous iteration of the optimization algorithm. The third advancement extends to a different application and considers the assessment of the appropriateness of different candidate robust designs. A novel

  13. Beyond Reduction: Climate Change Adaptation Planning for Universities and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rochelle; Fisher, Erica; McKenzie, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a unique six-step process for the inclusion of climate change adaption goals and strategies in a University Climate Change Plan. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-method approach was used to gather data on campus climate change vulnerabilities and adaption strategies. A literature review…

  14. Cold adaptation increases rates of nutrient flow and metabolic plasticity during cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; McCue, Marshall D; Sunny, Nishanth E; Szejner-Sigal, Andre; Morgan, Theodore J; Allison, David B; Hahn, Daniel A

    2016-09-14

    Metabolic flexibility is an important component of adaptation to stressful environments, including thermal stress and latitudinal adaptation. A long history of population genetic studies suggest that selection on core metabolic enzymes may shape life histories by altering metabolic flux. However, the direct relationship between selection on thermal stress hardiness and metabolic flux has not previously been tested. We investigated flexibility of nutrient catabolism during cold stress in Drosophila melanogaster artificially selected for fast or slow recovery from chill coma (i.e. cold-hardy or -susceptible), specifically testing the hypothesis that stress adaptation increases metabolic turnover. Using (13)C-labelled glucose, we first showed that cold-hardy flies more rapidly incorporate ingested carbon into amino acids and newly synthesized glucose, permitting rapid synthesis of proline, a compound shown elsewhere to improve survival of cold stress. Second, using glucose and leucine tracers we showed that cold-hardy flies had higher oxidation rates than cold-susceptible flies before cold exposure, similar oxidation rates during cold exposure, and returned to higher oxidation rates during recovery. Additionally, cold-hardy flies transferred compounds among body pools more rapidly during cold exposure and recovery. Increased metabolic turnover may allow cold-adapted flies to better prepare for, resist and repair/tolerate cold damage. This work illustrates for the first time differences in nutrient fluxes associated with cold adaptation, suggesting that metabolic costs associated with cold hardiness could invoke resource-based trade-offs that shape life histories. PMID:27605506

  15. Urban focus in climate change adaptation and risk reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Wamsler, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Urban communities will face increased risks, such as floods, landslides, heat stress and fires and water scarcity, as a consequence of climate change. The latest IPCC report (AR5) has for the first time devoted a whole chapter to urban areas. The assessment stresses the need to tackle urban risk through more effective adaptation planning.

  16. Metabolic insight into mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Ri-Li; Simonson, Tatum S.; Cooksey, Robert C.; Tanna, Uran; Qin, Ga; Huff, Chad D.; WITHERSPOON, DAVID J.; Xing, Jinchuan; Zhengzhong, Bai; Prchal, Josef T.; Jorde, Lynn B.; McClain, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have identified genes involved in high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans. Genetic variants/haplotypes within regions containing three of these genes (EPAS1, EGLN1, and PPARA) are associated with relatively decreased hemoglobin levels observed in Tibetans at high altitude, providing corroborative evidence for genetic adaptation to this extreme environment. The mechanisms that afford adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, however, remain unclear. Considering the strong metabolic dema...

  17. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    metabolic capacity through several mechanisms. Some of the most important are increases in muscle capillarization and in expression of metabolic and mitochondrial proteins that transport and metabolize glucose and fatty acids. The protein AMPK is a trimeric protein composed of an  α-, β- and a y...

  18. Nation-building policies in Timor-Leste: Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, F.; de Deus de Jesus Lima, A.; A. da Silva; Beloff, A. M.; McClean, A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its natio...

  19. Exercise, PGC-1α and metabolic adaptation in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Endurance exercise promotes skeletal muscle adaptation, and exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (Pgc-1α) gene expression may play a pivotal role in the adaptive processes. Recent applications of mouse genetic models and in vivo imaging in exercise studies started to delineate the signaling-transcription pathways that are involved in the regulation of the Pgc-1α gene. These studies revealed the importance of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/...

  20. Boots for Achilles: progesterone's reduction of cholesterol is a second-order adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Dorsa; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2013-06-01

    Progesterone and cholesterol are both vital to pregnancy. Among other functions, progesterone downregulates inflammatory responses, allowing for maternal immune tolerance of the fetal allograft. Cholesterol a key component of cell membranes, is important in intracellular transport, cell signaling, nerve conduction, and metabolism Despite the importance of each substance in pregnancy, one exercises an antagonistic effect on the other, as periods of peak progesterone correspond with reductions in cholesterol availability, a consequence of progesterone's negative effects on cholesterol biosynthesis. This arrangement is understandable in light of the threat posed by pathogens early in pregnancy. Progesterone-induced immunomodulation entails increased vulnerability to infection, an acute problem in the first trimester, when fetal development is highly susceptible to insult. Many pathogens rely on cholesterol for cell entry, egress, and replication. Progesterone's antagonistic effects on cholesterol thus partially compensate for the costs entailed by progesterone-induced immunomodulation. Among pathogens to which the host's vulnerability is increased by progesterone's effects, approximately 90% utilize cholesterol, and this is notably true of pathogens that pose a risk during pregnancy. In addition to having a number of possible clinical applications, our approach highlights the potential importance of second-order adaptations, themselves a consequence of the lack of teleology in evolutionary processes. PMID:23909226

  1. Glucocorticoids, metabolic adaptations and recovery : studies in specific mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auvinen, Hanna Elina

    2013-01-01

    Today’s Western society and work promotes a sedentary lifestyle. This, coupled with high caloric food availability has increased obesity followed by an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological data show a clear as

  2. ADAPTIVE DEVICES IN YOUNG PEOPLE WITH UPPER LIMB REDUCTION DEFICIENCIES : USE AND SATISFACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; van Wijk, Iris; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Reinders - Messelink, Heelen; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate use of, satisfaction with, and social adjustment with adaptive devices compared with prostheses in young people with upper limb reduction deficiencies. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 218 young people with upper limb reduction deficiencies (age range 2-20 years) and their pa

  3. Perceptual adaptation to segmental and syllabic reductions in continuous spoken Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poellmann, K.; Bosker, H.R.; McQueen, J.M.; Mitterer, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if and how listeners adapt to reductions in casual continuous speech. In a perceptual-learning variant of the visual-world paradigm, two groups of Dutch participants were exposed to either segmental (/b/ -> [upsilon] or syllabic (ver- -> [f:]) reductions in spoken Dutch

  4. Adaptations to climate in candidate genes for common metabolic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Hancock

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary pressures due to variation in climate play an important role in shaping phenotypic variation among and within species and have been shown to influence variation in phenotypes such as body shape and size among humans. Genes involved in energy metabolism are likely to be central to heat and cold tolerance. To test the hypothesis that climate shaped variation in metabolism genes in humans, we used a bioinformatics approach based on network theory to select 82 candidate genes for common metabolic disorders. We genotyped 873 tag SNPs in these genes in 54 worldwide populations (including the 52 in the Human Genome Diversity Project panel and found correlations with climate variables using rank correlation analysis and a newly developed method termed Bayesian geographic analysis. In addition, we genotyped 210 carefully matched control SNPs to provide an empirical null distribution for spatial patterns of allele frequency due to population history alone. For nearly all climate variables, we found an excess of genic SNPs in the tail of the distributions of the test statistics compared to the control SNPs, implying that metabolic genes as a group show signals of spatially varying selection. Among our strongest signals were several SNPs (e.g., LEPR R109K, FABP2 A54T that had previously been associated with phenotypes directly related to cold tolerance. Since variation in climate may be correlated with other aspects of environmental variation, it is possible that some of the signals that we detected reflect selective pressures other than climate. Nevertheless, our results are consistent with the idea that climate has been an important selective pressure acting on candidate genes for common metabolic disorders.

  5. Perilipin 5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism and in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohktar, Ruzaidi A M; Montgomery, Magda K; Murphy, Robyn M; Watt, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets provide a reservoir for triglyceride storage and are a central hub for fatty acid trafficking in cells. The protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is highly expressed in oxidative tissues such as skeletal muscle and regulates lipid metabolism by coordinating the trafficking and the reversible interactions of effector proteins at the lipid droplet. PLIN5 may also regulate mitochondrial function, although this remains unsubstantiated. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the role of PLIN5 in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate metabolism during acute exercise and to determine whether PLIN5 is required for the metabolic adaptations and enhancement in exercise tolerance following endurance exercise training. Using muscle-specific Plin5 knockout mice (Plin5(MKO)), we show that PLIN5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism during exercise, as reflected by levels of blood metabolites and rates of glycogen and triglyceride depletion that were indistinguishable from control (lox/lox) mice. Plin5(MKO) mice exhibited a functional impairment in their response to endurance exercise training, as reflected by reduced maximal running capacity (20%) and reduced time to fatigue during prolonged submaximal exercise (15%). The reduction in exercise performance was not accompanied by alterations in carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during submaximal exercise. Similarly, mitochondrial capacity (mtDNA, respiratory complex proteins, citrate synthase activity) and mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption rate in muscle fiber bundles) were not different between lox/lox and Plin5(MKO) mice. Thus, PLIN5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism during exercise and is not required to promote mitochondrial biogenesis or enhance the cellular adaptations to endurance exercise training.

  6. Perilipin 5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism and in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohktar, Ruzaidi A M; Montgomery, Magda K; Murphy, Robyn M; Watt, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets provide a reservoir for triglyceride storage and are a central hub for fatty acid trafficking in cells. The protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is highly expressed in oxidative tissues such as skeletal muscle and regulates lipid metabolism by coordinating the trafficking and the reversible interactions of effector proteins at the lipid droplet. PLIN5 may also regulate mitochondrial function, although this remains unsubstantiated. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the role of PLIN5 in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate metabolism during acute exercise and to determine whether PLIN5 is required for the metabolic adaptations and enhancement in exercise tolerance following endurance exercise training. Using muscle-specific Plin5 knockout mice (Plin5(MKO)), we show that PLIN5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism during exercise, as reflected by levels of blood metabolites and rates of glycogen and triglyceride depletion that were indistinguishable from control (lox/lox) mice. Plin5(MKO) mice exhibited a functional impairment in their response to endurance exercise training, as reflected by reduced maximal running capacity (20%) and reduced time to fatigue during prolonged submaximal exercise (15%). The reduction in exercise performance was not accompanied by alterations in carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during submaximal exercise. Similarly, mitochondrial capacity (mtDNA, respiratory complex proteins, citrate synthase activity) and mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption rate in muscle fiber bundles) were not different between lox/lox and Plin5(MKO) mice. Thus, PLIN5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism during exercise and is not required to promote mitochondrial biogenesis or enhance the cellular adaptations to endurance exercise training. PMID:27189934

  7. Carbohydrate oxidation coupled to Fe(III) reduction, a novel form of anaerobic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, J D; Councell, T; Ellis, D J; Lovley, D R

    1998-12-01

    An isolate, designated GC-29, that could incompletely oxidize glucose to acetate and carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the electron acceptor was recovered from freshwater sediments of the Potomac River, Maryland. This metabolism yielded energy to support cell growth. Strain GC-29 is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative motile rod which, in addition to glucose, also used sucrose, lactate, pyruvate, yeast extract, casamino acids or H2 as alternative electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. Stain GC-29 could reduce NO3(-), Mn(IV), U(VI), fumarate, malate, S2O3(2-), and colloidal S0 as well as the humics analog, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA sequence indicated that strain GC-29 belongs in the Shewanella genus in the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The name Shewanella saccharophilia is proposed. Shewanella saccharophilia differs from previously described fermentative microorganisms that metabolize glucose with the reduction of Fe(III) because it transfers significantly more electron equivalents to Fe(III); acetate and carbon dioxide are the only products of glucose metabolism; energy is conserved from Fe(III) reduction; and glucose is not metabolized in the absence of Fe(III). The metabolism of organisms like S. saccharophilia may account for the fact that glucose is metabolized primarily to acetate and carbon dioxide in a variety of sediments in which Fe(III) reduction is the terminal electron accepting process. PMID:16887653

  8. Adaptation to different types of stress converge on mitochondrial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; Kumar, Rahul; Hallstrom, B. M.;

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cell factories encounter physical and chemical stresses when used for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. These stresses reduce productivity and increase bioprocess costs. Understanding the mechanisms of the stress response is essential for improving cellular robustness in platform......-level analysis, we found that most stress responses converge on mitochondrial processes. Our analysis revealed that stress-specific factors differ between applied stresses; however, they are underpinned by an increased ATP demand. We found that when ATP demand increases to high levels, respiration cannot provide...... sufficient ATP, leading to onset of respirofermentative metabolism. Although stress-specific factors increase ATP demand for cellular growth under stressful conditions, increased ATP demand for cellular maintenance underpins a general stress response and is responsible for the onset of overflow metabolism....

  9. Adaptive dimension reduction for clustering high dimensional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst

    2002-10-01

    It is well-known that for high dimensional data clustering, standard algorithms such as EM and the K-means are often trapped in local minimum. many initialization methods were proposed to tackle this problem, but with only limited success. In this paper they propose a new approach to resolve this problem by repeated dimension reductions such that K-means or EM are performed only in very low dimensions. Cluster membership is utilized as a bridge between the reduced dimensional sub-space and the original space, providing flexibility and ease of implementation. Clustering analysis performed on highly overlapped Gaussians, DNA gene expression profiles and internet newsgroups demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Recovery of Phenotypes Obtained by Adaptive Evolution through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, system level analysis of adaptively evolved yeast mutants showing improved galactose utilization revealed relevant mutations. The governing mutations were suggested to be in the Ras/PKA signaling pathway and ergosterol metabolism. Here, site-directed mutants having one of the...... the identification of specific mutations by systems biology can direct new metabolic engineering strategies for improving galactose utilization by yeast....

  11. Metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscles to gravitational unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Y.; Yasui, W.; Kariya, F.; Wakatsuki, T.; Nakamura, K.; Asakura, T.; Edgerton, V. R.

    Responses of high-energy phosphates and metabolic properties to hindlimb suspension were studied in adult rats. The relative content of phosphocreatine (PCr) in the calf muscles was significantly higher in rats suspended for 10 days than in age-matched cage controls. The Pi/PCr ratio, where Pi is inorganic phosphate, in suspended muscles was less than controls. The absolute weights of soleus and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were approximately 40% less than controls. Although the % fiber distribution in MG was unchanged, the % slow fibers decreased and the % fibers which were classified as both slow and fast was increased in soleus. The activities (per unit weight or protein) of succinate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in soleus were unchanged but those of cytochrome oxidase, β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase were decreased following unloading. None of these enzyme activities in MG changed. However, the total levels of all enzymes in whole muscles decreased by suspension. It is suggested that shift of slow muscle toward fast type by unloading is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, gravitational unloading affected the levels of muscle proteins differently even in the same mitochondrial enzymes. Unloading-related atrophy is prominent in red muscle or slow-twitch fiber 1, 2. Such atrophy is accompanied by a shift of contractile properties toward fast-twitch type 2-9. Further, inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism in these muscles is also reported by some studies 10-14 suggesting a lowered mitochondrial biogenesis, although results from some studies do not necessarily agree 1, 7, 15. However, the precise mechanism responsible for such alterations of muscle properties in response to gravitational unloading is unclear. On the contrary, mitochondrial biogenesis, suggested by mitochondrial enzyme activities and/or mass, is stimulated in muscles with depleted high-energy phosphates by cold exposure 16 and/or by feeding

  12. Role of AMPK in skeletal muscle metabolic regulation and adaptation in relation to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We...... in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training.......The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism...

  13. Energy metabolism of overweight women before, during and after weight reduction assessed by indirect calorimetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies had suggested that periods of low energy intake evoke compensatory adaptations in energy metabolism, which retard weight loss, and promote weight regain when energy intake returns to normal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether a slimming (low-energy) diet based on alte

  14. Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihua; Coon, Michael; McLinden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Pulse compression has been widely used in radars so that low-power, long RF pulses can be transmitted, rather than a highpower short pulse. Pulse compression radars offer a number of advantages over high-power short pulsed radars, such as no need of high-power RF circuitry, no need of high-voltage electronics, compact size and light weight, better range resolution, and better reliability. However, range sidelobe associated with pulse compression has prevented the use of this technique on spaceborne radars since surface returns detected by range sidelobes may mask the returns from a nearby weak cloud or precipitation particles. Research on adaptive pulse compression was carried out utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) waveform generation board and a radar transceiver simulator. The results have shown significant improvements in pulse compression sidelobe performance. Microwave and millimeter-wave radars present many technological challenges for Earth and planetary science applications. The traditional tube-based radars use high-voltage power supply/modulators and high-power RF transmitters; therefore, these radars usually have large size, heavy weight, and reliability issues for space and airborne platforms. Pulse compression technology has provided a path toward meeting many of these radar challenges. Recent advances in digital waveform generation, digital receivers, and solid-state power amplifiers have opened a new era for applying pulse compression to the development of compact and high-performance airborne and spaceborne remote sensing radars. The primary objective of this innovative effort is to develop and test a new pulse compression technique to achieve ultrarange sidelobes so that this technique can be applied to spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based remote sensing radars to meet future science requirements. By using digital waveform generation, digital receiver, and solid-state power amplifier technologies, this improved pulse compression

  15. Adaptative diversity of calcium metabolism in gammarus fossarum populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyran, J.C. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1994-11-01

    Analysis of Gammarus fossarum populations from mountain torrents in the Grenoble region reveals some morphological and eco physiological diversity which appears to be related to the calcium concentration of the water after both field and laboratory experimentation. Animals from waters with a high calcium concentration (located in Chartreuse and Vercors) show larger size and a longer molt cycle than those from low calcium concentrated waters (located in Belledonne); their calcium balance during the molt cycle is different. Translocation experiments confirm these differences: a significant increase of the duration of the molt cycle is observed in animals translocated to lower calcium concentrated waters and vice-versa whereas no significant difference is observed between controls and animals translocated within comparably calcium concentrated waters. The causes of such an adaptative diversity between Gammarus fossarum populations will be researched at the genetic level, namely through mitochondrial DNA investigations. (author). 25 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Adaptative diversity of calcium metabolism in gammarus fossarum populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of Gammarus fossarum populations from mountain torrents in the Grenoble region reveals some morphological and eco physiological diversity which appears to be related to the calcium concentration of the water after both field and laboratory experimentation. Animals from waters with a high calcium concentration (located in Chartreuse and Vercors) show larger size and a longer molt cycle than those from low calcium concentrated waters (located in Belledonne); their calcium balance during the molt cycle is different. Translocation experiments confirm these differences: a significant increase of the duration of the molt cycle is observed in animals translocated to lower calcium concentrated waters and vice-versa whereas no significant difference is observed between controls and animals translocated within comparably calcium concentrated waters. The causes of such an adaptative diversity between Gammarus fossarum populations will be researched at the genetic level, namely through mitochondrial DNA investigations. (author). 25 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Becker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the interest of the international community in the concepts of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation has been growing immensely. Even though an increasing number of scholars seem to view these concepts as two sides of the same coin (at least when not considering the potentially positive effects of climate change, in practice the two concepts have developed in parallel rather than in an integrated manner when it comes to policy, rhetoric and funding opportunities amongst international organisations and donors. This study investigates the extent of the creation of parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. The chosen methodology for the study is a comparative case study and the data are collected through focus groups and content analysis of documentary sources, as well as interviews with key informants. The results indicate that parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation have been established in all but one of the studied countries. The qualitative interviews performed in some of the countries indicate that stakeholders in disaster risk reduction view this duplication of structures as unfortunate, inefficient and a fertile setup for conflict over resources for the implementation of similar activities. Additional research is called for in order to study the concrete effects of having these parallel structures as a foundation for advocacy for more efficient future disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.

  18. Metabolic adaptation in transplastomic plants massively accumulating recombinant proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bally

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant chloroplasts are endowed with an astonishing capacity to accumulate foreign proteins. However, knowledge about the impact on resident proteins of such high levels of recombinant protein accumulation is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used proteomics to characterize tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plastid transformants massively accumulating a p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD or a green fluorescent protein (GFP. While under the conditions used no obvious modifications in plant phenotype could be observed, these proteins accumulated to even higher levels than ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, the most abundant protein on the planet. This accumulation occurred at the expense of a limited number of leaf proteins including Rubisco. In particular, enzymes involved in CO(2 metabolism such as nuclear-encoded plastidial Calvin cycle enzymes and mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase were found to adjust their accumulation level to these novel physiological conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results document how protein synthetic capacity is limited in plant cells. They may provide new avenues to evaluate possible bottlenecks in recombinant protein technology and to maintain plant fitness in future studies aiming at producing recombinant proteins of interest through chloroplast transformation.

  19. Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows’ Ability to Adapt is Overstressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundrum, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. Problems derive from difficulties animals have to adapt to large variations and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organism. A lack of success in solving these issues may be due to predominant approaches in farm management and agricultural science, dealing with such disorders as merely negative side effects. Instead, a successful adaptation of animals to their living conditions should be seen as an important end in itself. Both farm management and agricultural sciences should support animals in their ability to cope with nutritional and metabolic challenges by employing a functional and result-driven approach. Abstract Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. They mainly derive from difficulties the animals have in adapting to changes and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organisms and due to varying gaps between nutrient supply and demand. Adaptation is a functional and target-oriented process involving the whole organism and thus cannot be narrowed down to single factors. Most problems which challenge the organisms can be solved in a number of different ways. To understand the mechanisms of adaptation, the interconnectedness of variables and the nutrient flow within a metabolic network need to be considered. Metabolic disorders indicate an overstressed ability to balance input, partitioning and output variables. Dairy cows will more easily succeed in adapting and in avoiding dysfunctional processes in the transition period when the gap between nutrient and energy demands and their supply is restricted. Dairy farms vary widely in relation to the living conditions of the animals. The complexity of nutritional and metabolic processes and their large variations on various scales

  20. Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows’ Ability to Adapt is Overstressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Sundrum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are a key problem in the transition period of dairy cows and often appear before the onset of further health problems. They mainly derive from difficulties the animals have in adapting to changes and disturbances occurring both outside and inside the organisms and due to varying gaps between nutrient supply and demand. Adaptation is a functional and target-oriented process involving the whole organism and thus cannot be narrowed down to single factors. Most problems which challenge the organisms can be solved in a number of different ways. To understand the mechanisms of adaptation, the interconnectedness of variables and the nutrient flow within a metabolic network need to be considered. Metabolic disorders indicate an overstressed ability to balance input, partitioning and output variables. Dairy cows will more easily succeed in adapting and in avoiding dysfunctional processes in the transition period when the gap between nutrient and energy demands and their supply is restricted. Dairy farms vary widely in relation to the living conditions of the animals. The complexity of nutritional and metabolic processes Animals 2015, 5 979 and their large variations on various scales contradict any attempts to predict the outcome of animals’ adaptation in a farm specific situation. Any attempts to reduce the prevalence of metabolic disorders and associated production diseases should rely on continuous and comprehensive monitoring with appropriate indicators on the farm level. Furthermore, low levels of disorders and diseases should be seen as a further significant goal which carries weight in addition to productivity goals. In the long run, low disease levels can only be expected when farmers realize that they can gain a competitive advantage over competitors with higher levels of disease.

  1. Elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs metabolic adaptations to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D Crane

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a complex phenomenon that is inherently tied to energy provision and is implicated in many metabolic disorders. Exercise training increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle yet it remains unclear if oxidative stress plays a role in regulating these adaptations. We demonstrate that the chronic elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress present in Sod2 (+/- mice impairs the functional and biochemical mitochondrial adaptations to exercise. Following exercise training Sod2 (+/- mice fail to increase maximal work capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity and mtDNA copy number, despite a normal augmentation of mitochondrial proteins. Additionally, exercised Sod2 (+/- mice cannot compensate for their higher amount of basal mitochondrial oxidative damage and exhibit poor electron transport chain complex assembly that accounts for their compromised adaptation. Overall, these results demonstrate that chronic skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative stress does not impact exercise induced mitochondrial biogenesis, but impairs the resulting mitochondrial protein function and can limit metabolic plasticity.

  2. A non-traditional model of the metabolic syndrome: the adaptive significance of insulin resistance in fasting-adapted seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian S Houser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in modern society is perceived as a pathological consequence of excess energy consumption and reduced physical activity. Its presence in relation to the development of cardiovascular risk factors has been termed the metabolic syndrome, which produces increased mortality and morbidity and which is rapidly increasing in human populations. Ironically, insulin resistance likely evolved to assist animals during food shortages by increasing the availability of endogenous lipid for catabolism while protecting protein from use in gluconeogenesis and eventual oxidation. Some species that incorporate fasting as a predictable component of their life history demonstrate physiological traits similar to the metabolic syndrome during prolonged fasts. One such species is the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris, which fasts from food and water for periods of up to three months. During this time, ~90% of the seals metabolic demands are met through fat oxidation and circulating non-esterified fatty acids are high (0.7-3.2 mM. All life history stages of elephant seal studied to date demonstrate insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycemia as well as variations in hormones and adipocytokines that reflect the metabolic syndrome to some degree. Elephant seals demonstrate some intriguing adaptations with the potential for medical advancement; for example, ketosis is negligible despite significant and prolonged fatty acid oxidation and investigation of this feature might provide insight into the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. The parallels to the metabolic syndrome are likely reflected to varying degrees in other marine mammals, most of which evolved on diets high in lipid and protein content but essentially devoid of carbohydrate. Utilization of these natural models of insulin resistance may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome in humans and better assist the development of preventative measures

  3. Nation-building policies in Timor-Leste: disaster risk reduction, including climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, Francisco; de Deus de Jesus Lima, Abilio; da Silva, Augusto; Beloff, Anna-Maija; McClean, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its nation-building efforts as well as an overview of the state of knowledge of disaster risk reduction including climate change adaptation. It also offers an analysis of significant gaps and challenges in terms of vertical and horizontal governance, large donor presence, data availability and the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation for nation-building in Timor-Leste. Relevant and applicable lessons are provided from other small island developing states to assist Timor-Leste in identifying its own trajectory out of underdevelopment while it builds on existing strengths.

  4. p300 is not required for metabolic adaptation to endurance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarge, Samuel A; Migdal, Christopher W; Buckner, Elisa H; Okuno, Hiroshi; Gertsman, Ilya; Stocks, Ben; Barshop, Bruce A; Nalbandian, Sarah R; Philp, Andrew; McCurdy, Carrie E; Schenk, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The acetyltransferase, E1a-binding protein (p300), is proposed to regulate various aspects of skeletal muscle development, metabolism, and mitochondrial function,viaits interaction with numerous transcriptional regulators and other proteins. Remarkably, however, the contribution of p300 to skeletal muscle function and metabolism,in vivo, is poorly understood. To address this, we used Cre-LoxP methodology to generate mice with skeletal muscle-specific knockout of E1a-binding protein (mKO). mKO mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type/floxed littermates, with no differences in lean mass, skeletal muscle structure, fiber type, respirometry flux, or metabolites of fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.Ex vivomuscle function in extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles, including peak stress and time to fatigue, as well asin vivorunning capacity were also comparable. Moreover, expected adaptations to a 20 d voluntary wheel running regime were not compromised in mKO mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that p300 is not required for the normal development or functioning of adult skeletal muscle, nor is it required for endurance exercise-mediated mitochondrial adaptations.-LaBarge, S. A., Migdal, C. W., Buckner, E. H., Okuno, H., Gertsman, I., Stocks, B., Barshop, B. A., Nalbandian, S. R., Philp, A., McCurdy, C. E., Schenk, S. p300 is not required for metabolic adaptation to endurance exercise training.

  5. Cholesterol Metabolism and Weight Reduction in Subjects with Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Randomised, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether parameters of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA associate with cholesterol metabolism before and after weight reduction, 42 middle-aged overweight subjects with mild OSA were randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (N=23 or to control group (N=18 with routine lifestyle counselling only. Cholesterol metabolism was evaluated with serum noncholesterol sterol ratios to cholesterol, surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (cholestanol and plant sterols and synthesis (cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol at baseline and after 1-year intervention. At baseline, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 was associated with serum campesterol (P<0.05 and inversely with desmosterol ratios (P<0.001 independently of gender, BMI, and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI was not associated with cholesterol metabolism. Weight reduction significantly increased SaO2and serum cholestanol and decreased AHI and serum cholestenol ratios. In the groups combined, the changes in AHI were inversely associated with changes of cholestanol and positively with cholestenol ratios independent of gender and the changes of BMI and HOMA-IR (P<0.05. In conclusion, mild OSA seemed to be associated with cholesterol metabolism independent of BMI and HOMA-IR. Weight reduction increased the markers of cholesterol absorption and decreased those of cholesterol synthesis in the overweight subjects with mild OSA.

  6. Reductive metabolism of oxymatrine is catalyzed by microsomal CYP3A4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenqin; Shi, Jian; Zhu, Lijun; Dong, Lingna; Luo, Feifei; Zhao, Min; Wang, Ying; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2015-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is a pharmacologically active primary quinolizidine alkaloid with various beneficial and toxic effects. It is confirmed that, after oral administration, OMT could be transformed to the more toxic metabolite matrine (MT), and this process may be through the reduction reaction, but the study on the characteristics of this transformation is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of this transformation of OMT in the human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in this transformation. The current studies demonstrated that OMT could be metabolized to MT rapidly in HLMs and HIMs and CYP3A4 greatly contributed to this transformation. All HLMs, HIMs, and CYP3A4 isoform mediated reduction reaction followed typical biphasic kinetic model, and Km, Vmax, and CL were significant higher in HLMs than those in HIMs. Importantly, different oxygen contents could significantly affect the metabolism of OMT, and with the oxygen content decreased, the formation of metabolite was increased, suggesting this transformation was very likely a reduction reaction. Results of this in vitro study elucidated the metabolic pathways and characteristics of metabolism of OMT to MT and would provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the safe application of OMT. PMID:26586934

  7. The evolution of control and distribution of adaptive mutations in a metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin M; Rausher, Mark D

    2010-02-01

    In an attempt to understand whether it should be expected that some genes tend to be used disproportionately often by natural selection, we investigated two related phenomena: the evolution of flux control among enzymes in a metabolic pathway and properties of adaptive substitutions in pathway enzymes. These two phenomena are related by the principle that adaptive substitutions should occur more frequently in enzymes with greater flux control. Predicting which enzymes will be preferentially involved in adaptive evolution thus requires an evolutionary theory of flux control. We investigated the evolution of enzyme control in metabolic pathways with two models of enzyme kinetics: metabolic control theory (MCT) and Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics (SK). Our models generate two main predictions for pathways in which reactions are moderately to highly irreversible: (1) flux control will evolve to be highly unequal among enzymes in a pathway and (2) upstream enzymes evolve a greater control coefficient then those downstream. This results in upstream enzymes fixing the majority of beneficial mutations during adaptive evolution. Once the population has reached high fitness, the trend is reversed, with the majority of neutral/slightly deleterious mutations occurring in downstream enzymes. These patterns are the result of three factors (the first of these is unique to the MCT simulations while the other two seem to be general properties of the metabolic pathways): (1) the majority of randomly selected, starting combinations of enzyme kinetic rates generate pathways that possess greater control for the upstream enzymes compared to downstream enzymes; (2) selection against large pools of intermediate substrates tends to prevent majority control by downstream enzymes; and (3) equivalent mutations in enzyme kinetic rates have the greatest effect on flux for enzymes with high levels of flux control, and these enzymes will accumulate adaptive substitutions, strengthening their

  8. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kathrin eHeroven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Y. pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g. soil, plants, insects as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g. rodents, pigs, humans with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and inter-bacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp and the carbon storage regulator (Csr system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets.

  9. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g., soil, plants, insects) as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g., rodents, pigs, humans) with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and interbacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets. PMID:25368845

  10. Integration of Posttranscriptional Gene Networks into Metabolic Adaptation and Biofilm Maturation in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoti Verma-Gaur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida albicans is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen. Although both commensalism and pathogenesis depend on metabolic adaptation, the regulatory pathways that mediate metabolic processes in C. albicans are incompletely defined. For example, metabolic change is a major feature that distinguishes community growth of C. albicans in biofilms compared to suspension cultures, but how metabolic adaptation is functionally interfaced with the structural and gene regulatory changes that drive biofilm maturation remains to be fully understood. We show here that the RNA binding protein Puf3 regulates a posttranscriptional mRNA network in C. albicans that impacts on mitochondrial biogenesis, and provide the first functional data suggesting evolutionary rewiring of posttranscriptional gene regulation between the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. albicans. A proportion of the Puf3 mRNA network is differentially expressed in biofilms, and by using a mutant in the mRNA deadenylase CCR4 (the enzyme recruited to mRNAs by Puf3 to control transcript stability we show that posttranscriptional regulation is important for mitochondrial regulation in biofilms. Inactivation of CCR4 or dis-regulation of mitochondrial activity led to altered biofilm structure and over-production of extracellular matrix material. The extracellular matrix is critical for antifungal resistance and immune evasion, and yet of all biofilm maturation pathways extracellular matrix biogenesis is the least understood. We propose a model in which the hypoxic biofilm environment is sensed by regulators such as Ccr4 to orchestrate metabolic adaptation, as well as the regulation of extracellular matrix production by impacting on the expression of matrix-related cell wall genes. Therefore metabolic changes in biofilms might be intimately linked to a key biofilm maturation mechanism that ultimately results in untreatable fungal disease.

  11. Reductive metabolism of oxymatrine is catalyzed by microsomal CYP3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wenqin Liu,1,2,* Jian Shi,1,2,* Lijun Zhu,2 Lingna Dong,1 Feifei Luo,2 Min Zhao,2 Ying Wang,2 Ming Hu,2,3 Linlin Lu,2 Zhongqiu Liu1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Oxymatrine (OMT is a pharmacologically active primary quinolizidine alkaloid with various beneficial and toxic effects. It is confirmed that, after oral administration, OMT could be transformed to the more toxic metabolite matrine (MT, and this process may be through the reduction reaction, but the study on the characteristics of this transformation is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of this transformation of OMT in the human liver microsomes (HLMs and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs and the cytochrome P450 (CYP isoforms involved in this transformation. The current studies demonstrated that OMT could be metabolized to MT rapidly in HLMs and HIMs and CYP3A4 greatly contributed to this transformation. All HLMs, HIMs, and CYP3A4 isoform mediated reduction reaction followed typical biphasic kinetic model, and Km, Vmax, and CL were significant higher in HLMs than those in HIMs. Importantly, different oxygen contents could significantly affect the metabolism of OMT, and with the oxygen content decreased, the formation of metabolite was increased, suggesting this transformation was very likely a reduction reaction. Results of this in vitro study elucidated the metabolic pathways and characteristics of metabolism of OMT to MT and would provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the safe application of OMT

  12. Metabolic Plasticity of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells: Adaptation to Changes in the Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui V. Simões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells adapt their metabolism during tumorigenesis. We studied two isogenic breast cancer cells lines (highly metastatic 4T1; nonmetastatic 67NR to identify differences in their glucose and glutamine metabolism in response to metabolic and environmental stress. Dynamic magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 13C-isotopomers showed that 4T1 cells have higher glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle flux than 67NR cells and readily switch between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS in response to different extracellular environments. OXPHOS activity increased with metastatic potential in isogenic cell lines derived from the same primary breast cancer: 4T1 > 4T07 and 168FARN (local micrometastasis only > 67NR. We observed a restricted TCA cycle flux at the succinate dehydrogenase step in 67NR cells (but not in 4T1 cells, leading to succinate accumulation and hindering OXPHOS. In the four isogenic cell lines, environmental stresses modulated succinate dehydrogenase subunit A expression according to metastatic potential. Moreover, glucose-derived lactate production was more glutamine dependent in cell lines with higher metastatic potential. These studies show clear differences in TCA cycle metabolism between 4T1 and 67NR breast cancer cells. They indicate that metastases-forming 4T1 cells are more adept at adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental stress than isogenic, nonmetastatic 67NR cells. We suggest that the metabolic plasticity and adaptability are more important to the metastatic breast cancer phenotype than rapid cell proliferation alone, which could 1 provide a new biomarker for early detection of this phenotype, possibly at the time of diagnosis, and 2 lead to new treatment strategies of metastatic breast cancer by targeting mitochondrial metabolism.

  13. Monitoring and robust adaptive control of fed-batch cultures of microorganisms exhibiting overflow metabolism [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vande Wouwer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overflow metabolism characterizes cells strains that are likely to produce inhibiting by-products resulting from an excess of substrate feeding and a saturated respiratory capacity. The critical substrate level separating the two different metabolic pathways is generally not well defined. Monitoring of this kind of cultures, going from model identification to state estimation, is first discussed. Then, a review of control techniques which all aim at maximizing the cell productivity of fed-batch fermentations is presented. Two main adaptive control strategies, one using an estimation of the critical substrate level as set-point and another regulating the by-product concentration, are proposed. Finally, experimental investigations of an adaptive RST control scheme using the observer polynomial for the regulation of the ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultures ranging from laboratory to industrial scales, are also presented.

  14. An adaptive optics approach to the reduction of misalignments and beam jitters in gravitational wave interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a study and the preliminary experimental results on the possibility of using adaptive optics systems for the reduction of geometrical fluctuations of input laser beams in long baseline interferometric detectors of gravitational waves. The experimental tests aimed to test the efficiency of Hermite-Gauss versus Shack-Hartmann wavefront reconstruction and feedback diagonalization. These preliminary results seem to indicate that the adaptive optics systems may be integrated in the near future as stabilization stages before a passive mode cleaner cavity, provided that the operational band of the mirror is increased together with the efficiency of the control system

  15. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Quo, Chang F.; Moffitt, Richard A; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human e...

  16. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Kathrin eHeroven; Petra eDersch

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Y. pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g. soil, plants, insects) as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g. rodents, pigs, humans) with a particular preference for lymphatic tis...

  17. Altered myocardial metabolic adaptation to increased fatty acid availability in cardiomyocyte-specific CLOCK mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A; Goel, Mehak; Aristorenas, Jonathan A; Shah, Krishna; He, Lan; Yang, Qinglin; Shalev, Anath; Bailey, Shannon M; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Chatham, John C; Gamble, Karen L; Young, Martin E

    2016-10-01

    A mismatch between fatty acid availability and utilization leads to cellular/organ dysfunction during cardiometabolic disease states (e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus). This can precipitate cardiac dysfunction. The heart adapts to increased fatty acid availability at transcriptional, translational, post-translational and metabolic levels, thereby attenuating cardiomyopathy development. We have previously reported that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock regulates transcriptional responsiveness of the heart to acute increases in fatty acid availability (e.g., short-term fasting). The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the cardiomyocyte circadian clock plays a role in adaptation of the heart to chronic elevations in fatty acid availability. Fatty acid availability was increased in cardiomyocyte-specific CLOCK mutant (CCM) and wild-type (WT) littermate mice for 9weeks in time-of-day-independent (streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes) and dependent (high fat diet meal feeding) manners. Indices of myocardial metabolic adaptation (e.g., substrate reliance perturbations) to STZ-induced diabetes and high fat meal feeding were found to be dependent on genotype. Various transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms were investigated, revealing that Cte1 mRNA induction in the heart during STZ-induced diabetes is attenuated in CCM hearts. At the functional level, time-of-day-dependent high fat meal feeding tended to influence cardiac function to a greater extent in WT versus CCM mice. Collectively, these data suggest that CLOCK (a circadian clock component) is important for metabolic adaption of the heart to prolonged elevations in fatty acid availability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:26721420

  18. Adaptive Benefits of Storage Strategy and Dual AMPK/TOR Signaling in Metabolic Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuty, Benjamin; Thommen, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism must ensure that supply of nutrient meets the biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs. Cells have therefore developed sophisticated signaling and regulatory pathways in order to cope with dynamic fluctuations of both resource and demand and to regulate accordingly diverse anabolic and catabolic processes. Intriguingly, these pathways are organized around a relatively small number of regulatory hubs, such as the highly conserved AMPK and TOR kinase families in eukaryotic cells. Here, the global metabolic adaptations upon dynamic environment are investigated using a prototypical model of regulated metabolism. In this model, the optimal enzyme profiles as well as the underlying regulatory architecture are identified by combining perturbation and evolutionary methods. The results reveal the existence of distinct classes of adaptive strategies, which differ in the management of storage reserve depending on the intensity of the stress and in the regulation of ATP-producing reaction depending on the nature of the stress. The regulatory architecture that optimally implements these adaptive features is characterized by a crosstalk between two specialized signaling pathways, which bears close similarities with the sensing and regulatory properties of AMPK and TOR pathways. PMID:27505075

  19. Metabolic cold adaptation of polar fish based on measurements of aerobic oxygen consumption: fact or artefact? Artefact!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2002-01-01

    a considerably elevated resting oxygen consumption, or standard metabolic rate, compared with oxygen consumption values of tropical or temperate fish extrapolated to similar low polar temperatures. Recent experiments on arctic and Antarctic fish, however, do not show elevated resting aerobic oxygen consumption......Whether metabolic cold adaptation in polar fish, based on measurements of aerobic standard metabolic rate, is a fact or an artefact has been a dispute since Holeton asked the question in 1974. So far polar fish had been considered to be metabolically cold adapted because they were reported to have...

  20. Depletion of reduction potential and key energy generation metabolic enzymes underlies tellurite toxicity in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaganti, Narasimha; Basu, Bhakti; Gupta, Alka; Joseph, Daisy; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress resistant Deinococcus radiodurans surprisingly exhibited moderate sensitivity to tellurite induced oxidative stress (LD50 = 40 μM tellurite, 40 min exposure). The organism reduced 70% of 40 μM potassium tellurite within 5 h. Tellurite exposure significantly modulated cellular redox status. The level of ROS and protein carbonyl contents increased while the cellular reduction potential substantially decreased following tellurite exposure. Cellular thiols levels initially increased (within 30 min) of tellurite exposure but decreased at later time points. At proteome level, tellurite resistance proteins (TerB and TerD), tellurite reducing enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogense subunits E1 and E3), ROS detoxification enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase), and protein folding chaperones (DnaK, EF-Ts, and PPIase) displayed increased abundance in tellurite-stressed cells. However, remarkably decreased levels of key metabolic enzymes (aconitase, transketolase, 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein alpha, and beta) involved in carbon and energy metabolism were observed upon tellurite stress. The results demonstrate that depletion of reduction potential in intensive tellurite reduction with impaired energy metabolism lead to tellurite toxicity in D. radiodurans.

  1. Adaptive Modified Hysteresis Current Control for Reduction of Switching Losses in Grid Connected Solar Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Thekkath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current Control logic plays an important role in the performance of Grid connected inverters. In the present work Adaptive Modified Hysteresis controller has been used for generation of switching pulses to the minimally switched grid connected inverter. Different from the previous works the new control logic helps in maintaining the instantaneous switching frequency low and nearly constant with reduction of switching losses to one-third of that of the conventional type. Considerable reduction in Total harmonic distortion of supply current, better DC bus voltage stabilization, good reactive power compensation, satisfactory performance under unbalanced source and load conditions and good dynamic response is also achieved. The experimental verification is done using SIMULINK/REALTIME WINDOWS TARGET. Present control logic is compared with conventional hysteresis controller with and without adaptive control to prove the effectiveness.

  2. Sustainable development through a gendered lens: climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nancy D

    2016-03-01

    The UN General Assembly has just adopted the post 2015 Sustainable Development Agenda articulated in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Achieving the SDGs will be furthered by the closer integration of the climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) agendas. Gender provides us a valuable portal for considering this integration. Acknowledging that gender relaters to both women and men and that men and women experience climate variability and disasters differently, in this paper the role of women in both CCA and DRR is explored, shifting the focus from women as vulnerable victims to women as critical agents for change with respect to climate change mitigation and adaptation and reduction of disaster risks. Appropriately targeted interventions can also empower women and contribute to more just and inclusive sustainable development. PMID:26943600

  3. Sustainable development through a gendered lens: climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nancy D

    2016-03-01

    The UN General Assembly has just adopted the post 2015 Sustainable Development Agenda articulated in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Achieving the SDGs will be furthered by the closer integration of the climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) agendas. Gender provides us a valuable portal for considering this integration. Acknowledging that gender relaters to both women and men and that men and women experience climate variability and disasters differently, in this paper the role of women in both CCA and DRR is explored, shifting the focus from women as vulnerable victims to women as critical agents for change with respect to climate change mitigation and adaptation and reduction of disaster risks. Appropriately targeted interventions can also empower women and contribute to more just and inclusive sustainable development.

  4. Design of a Low-Power VLSI Macrocell for Nonlinear Adaptive Video Noise Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Fanucci Luca; Saponara Sergio; Terreni Pierangelo

    2004-01-01

    A VLSI macrocell for edge-preserving video noise reduction is proposed in the paper. It is based on a nonlinear rational filter enhanced by a noise estimator for blind and dynamic adaptation of the filtering parameters to the input signal statistics. The VLSI filter features a modular architecture allowing the extension of both mask size and filtering directions. Both spatial and spatiotemporal algorithms are supported. Simulation results with monochrome test videos prove its efficiency for ...

  5. Increased adaptation rates and reduction in trial-by-trial variability in subjects with Cerebral Palsy following a multi-session locomotor adaptation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eMawase

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy (CP results from an insult to the developing brain and is associated with deficits in locomotor and manual skills and in sensorimotor adaptation. We hypothesized that the poor sensorimotor adaptation in persons with CP is related to their high execution variability and does not reflect a general impairment in adaptation learning. We studied the interaction between performance variability and adaptation deficits using a multi-session locomotor adaptation design in persons with CP. Six adolescents with diplegic CP were exposed, during a period of 15 weeks, to a repeated split-belt treadmill perturbation spread over 30 sessions and were tested again 6 months after the end of training. Compared to age-matched healthy controls, subjects with CP showed poor adaptation and high execution variability in the first exposure to the perturbation. Following training they showed marked reduction in execution variability and an increase in learning rates. The reduction in variability and the improvement in adaptation were highly correlated in the CP group and were retained 6 months after training. Interestingly, despite reducing their variability in the washout phase, subjects with CP did not improve learning rates during washout phases that were introduced only 4 times during the experiment. Our results suggest that locomotor adaptation in subjects with CP is related to their execution variability. Nevertheless, while variability reduction is generalized to other locomotor contexts, the development of savings requires both reduction in execution variability and multiple exposures to the perturbation.

  6. Lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress as metabolic adaptation processes in dairy heifers during transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, R; Podpečan, O; Mrkun, J; Kosec, M; Flegar-Meštrić, Z; Perkov, S; Starič, J; Robić, M; Belić, M; Zrimšek, P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in dairy heifers during the transition period. Possible relationships between lipid mobilisation indicators and oxidative stress markers were investigated as well. Nineteen dairy heifers were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of estrus synchronisation in heifers, at insemination, three weeks after insemination, one week before calving, at calving and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Common metabolic parameters, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidative status (TAS) were analysed. Around insemination, no significant difference was observed in the majority of tested parameters (P>0.05). However, the transition period markedly affected the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, BHB, FFA, TAS and PON1activity. Positive correlations between PON1 activity and total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides were noted but inverse correlations with FFA, BHB and bilirubin were found indicating that PON1 activity changed with lipid metabolism and was influenced by negative energy balance. These findings suggest that lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress are part of a complex metabolic adaptation to low energy balance which reaches equilibrium later in advanced lactation.

  7. Online Adaptive Local-Global Model Reduction for Flows in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2016-06-07

    We propose an online adaptive local-global POD-DEIM model reduction method for flows in heterogeneous porous media. The main idea of the proposed method is to use local online indicators to decide on the global update, which is performed via reduced cost local multiscale basis functions. This unique local-global online combination allows (1) developing local indicators that are used for both local and global updates (2) computing global online modes via local multiscale basis functions. The multiscale basis functions consist of offline and some online local basis functions. The approach used for constructing a global reduced system is based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) Galerkin projection. The nonlinearities are approximated by the Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM). The online adaption is performed by incorporating new data, which become available at the online stage. Once the criterion for updates is satisfied, we adapt the reduced system online by changing the POD subspace and the DEIM approximation of the nonlinear functions. The main contribution of the paper is that the criterion for adaption and the construction of the global online modes are based on local error indicators and local multiscale basis function which can be cheaply computed. Since the adaption is performed infrequently, the new methodology does not add significant computational overhead associated with when and how to adapt the reduced basis. Our approach is particularly useful for situations where it is desired to solve the reduced system for inputs or controls that result in a solution outside the span of the snapshots generated in the offline stage. Our method also offers an alternative of constructing a robust reduced system even if a potential initial poor choice of snapshots is used. Applications to single-phase and two-phase flow problems demonstrate the efficiency of our method.

  8. Adaptive rational block Arnoldi methods for model reductions in large-scale MIMO dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalide Jbilou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a great interest has been shown towards Krylov subspace techniques applied to model order reduction of large-scale dynamical systems. A special interest has been devoted to single-input single-output (SISO systems by using moment matching techniques based on Arnoldi or Lanczos algorithms. In this paper, we consider multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO dynamical systems and introduce the rational block Arnoldi process to design low order dynamical systems that are close in some sense to the original MIMO dynamical system. Rational Krylov subspace methods are based on the choice of suitable shifts that are selected a priori or adaptively. In this paper, we propose an adaptive selection of those shifts and show the efficiency of this approach in our numerical tests. We also give some new block Arnoldi-like relations that are used to propose an upper bound for the norm of the error on the transfer function.

  9. Co-evolution of Hormone Metabolism and Signaling Networks Expands Plant Adaptive Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Ye, Mingli; Li, Bin; Noel, Joseph P

    2016-08-11

    Classically, hormones elicit specific cellular responses by activating dedicated receptors. Nevertheless, the biosynthesis and turnover of many of these hormone molecules also produce chemically related metabolites. These molecules may also possess hormonal activities; therefore, one or more may contribute to the adaptive plasticity of signaling outcomes in host organisms. Here, we show that a catabolite of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), namely phaseic acid (PA), likely emerged in seed plants as a signaling molecule that fine-tunes plant physiology, environmental adaptation, and development. This trait was facilitated by both the emergence-selection of a PA reductase that modulates PA concentrations and by the functional diversification of the ABA receptor family to perceive and respond to PA. Our results suggest that PA serves as a hormone in seed plants through activation of a subset of ABA receptors. This study demonstrates that the co-evolution of hormone metabolism and signaling networks can expand organismal resilience. PMID:27518563

  10. Powerline interference reduction in ECG signals using empirical wavelet transform and adaptive filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Omkar; Sunkaria, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Separating an information-bearing signal from the background noise is a general problem in signal processing. In a clinical environment during acquisition of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, The ECG signal is corrupted by various noise sources such as powerline interference (PLI), baseline wander and muscle artifacts. This paper presents novel methods for reduction of powerline interference in ECG signals using empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and adaptive filtering. The proposed methods are compared with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) based PLI cancellation methods. A total of six methods for PLI reduction based on EMD and EWT are analysed and their results are presented in this paper. The EWT-based de-noising methods have less computational complexity and are more efficient as compared with the EMD-based de-noising methods. PMID:25412942

  11. Context-Adaptive Arithmetic Coding Scheme for Lossless Bit Rate Reduction of MPEG Surround in USAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungyong; Pang, Hee-Suk; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    We propose a new coding scheme for lossless bit rate reduction of the MPEG Surround module in unified speech and audio coding (USAC). The proposed scheme is based on context-adaptive arithmetic coding for efficient bit stream composition of spatial parameters. Experiments show that it achieves the significant lossless bit reduction of 9.93% to 12.14% for spatial parameters and 8.64% to 8.96% for the overall MPEG Surround bit streams compared to the original scheme. The proposed scheme, which is not currently included in USAC, can be used for the improved coding efficiency of MPEG Surround in USAC, where the saved bits can be utilized by the other modules in USAC.

  12. ERROR REDUCTION IN ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT APPROXIMATIONS OF ELLIPTIC OBSTACLE PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dietrich Braess; Carsten Carstensen; Ronald H.W. Hoppe

    2009-01-01

    We consider an adaptive finite element method (AFEM) for obstacle problems associated with linear second order elliptic boundary value problems and prove a reduction in the energy norm of the discretization error which leads to R-linear convergence. This result is shown to hold up to a consistency error due to the extension of the discrete multipliers (point functionals) to H-1 and a possible mismatch between the continuous and discrete coincidence and noncoincidence sets. The AFEM is based on a residual-type error estimator consisting of element and edge residuals. The a posteriori error analysis reveals that the significant difference to the unconstrained case lies in the fact that these residuals only have to be taken into account within the discrete noncoincidence set. The proof of the error reduction property uses the reliability and the discrete local efficiency of the estimator as well as a perturbed Galerkin orthogonality. Numerical results are given illustrating the performance of the AFEM.

  13. Systematic Sensitivity Analysis of Metabolic Controllers During Reductions in Skeletal Muscle Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Cabrera, Marco

    2000-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle is generally associated with profound derangements in substrate metabolism. Given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to quantify the interaction of cellular metabolic processes to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and their regulation. In this study, we apply a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to study effects of ischemia during periods of increased ATP turnover (e.g., exercise). By using systematic sensitivity analysis the oxidative phosphorylation rate was found to be the most important rate parameter affecting lactate production during ischemia under resting conditions. Here we examine whether mild exercise under ischemic conditions alters the relative importance of pathways and parameters previously obtained.

  14. Metabolic modelling reveals the specialization of secondary replicons for niche adaptation in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Checcucci, Alice; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Viti, Carlo; Dziewit, Lukasz; Finan, Turlough M; Galardini, Marco; Fondi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The genome of about 10% of bacterial species is divided among two or more large chromosome-sized replicons. The contribution of each replicon to the microbial life cycle (for example, environmental adaptations and/or niche switching) remains unclear. Here we report a genome-scale metabolic model of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti that is integrated with carbon utilization data for 1,500 genes with 192 carbon substrates. Growth of S. meliloti is modelled in three ecological niches (bulk soil, rhizosphere and nodule) with a focus on the role of each of its three replicons. We observe clear metabolic differences during growth in the tested ecological niches and an overall reprogramming following niche switching. In silico examination of the inferred fitness of gene deletion mutants suggests that secondary replicons evolved to fulfil a specialized function, particularly host-associated niche adaptation. Thus, genes on secondary replicons might potentially be manipulated to promote or suppress host interactions for biotechnological purposes. PMID:27447951

  15. IKKβ promotes metabolic adaptation to glutamine deprivation via phosphorylation and inhibition of PFKFB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael A; Lowman, Xazmin H; Pan, Min; Tran, Thai Q; Warmoes, Marc O; Ishak Gabra, Mari B; Yang, Ying; Locasale, Jason W; Kong, Mei

    2016-08-15

    Glutamine is an essential nutrient for cancer cell survival and proliferation. Enhanced utilization of glutamine often depletes its local supply, yet how cancer cells adapt to low glutamine conditions is largely unknown. Here, we report that IκB kinase β (IKKβ) is activated upon glutamine deprivation and is required for cell survival independently of NF-κB transcription. We demonstrate that IKKβ directly interacts with and phosphorylates 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase isoform 3 (PFKFB3), a major driver of aerobic glycolysis, at Ser269 upon glutamine deprivation to inhibit its activity, thereby down-regulating aerobic glycolysis when glutamine levels are low. Thus, due to lack of inhibition of PFKFB3, IKKβ-deficient cells exhibit elevated aerobic glycolysis and lactate production, leading to less glucose carbons contributing to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and the pentose phosphate pathway, which results in increased glutamine dependence for both TCA cycle intermediates and reactive oxygen species suppression. Therefore, coinhibition of IKKβ and glutamine metabolism results in dramatic synergistic killing of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. In all, our results uncover a previously unidentified role of IKKβ in regulating glycolysis, sensing low-glutamine-induced metabolic stress, and promoting cellular adaptation to nutrient availability. PMID:27585591

  16. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Howarth, Krista R; Phillips, Stuart M; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Macdonald, Maureen J; McGee, Sean L; Gibala, Martin J

    2008-01-01

    Low-volume 'sprint' interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid improvements in muscle oxidative capacity that are comparable to levels reached following traditional endurance training (ET) but no study has examined metabolic adaptations during exercise after these different training strategies. We hypothesized that SIT and ET would induce similar adaptations in markers of skeletal muscle carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid metabolism and metabolic control during exercise despite large differences in training volume and time commitment. Active but untrained subjects (23 +/- 1 years) performed a constant-load cycling challenge (1 h at 65% of peak oxygen uptake (.VO(2peak)) before and after 6 weeks of either SIT or ET (n = 5 men and 5 women per group). SIT consisted of four to six repeats of a 30 s 'all out' Wingate Test (mean power output approximately 500 W) with 4.5 min recovery between repeats, 3 days per week. ET consisted of 40-60 min of continuous cycling at a workload that elicited approximately 65% (mean power output approximately 150 W) per day, 5 days per week. Weekly time commitment (approximately 1.5 versus approximately 4.5 h) and total training volume (approximately 225 versus approximately 2250 kJ week(-1)) were substantially lower in SIT versus ET. Despite these differences, both protocols induced similar increases (P < 0.05) in mitochondrial markers for skeletal muscle CHO (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1alpha protein content) and lipid oxidation (3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity) and protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha. Glycogen and phosphocreatine utilization during exercise were reduced after training, and calculated rates of whole-body CHO and lipid oxidation were decreased and increased, respectively, with no differences between groups (all main effects, P < 0.05). Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high-intensity interval training is a time

  17. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Howarth, Krista R; Phillips, Stuart M; Rakobowchuk, Mark; MacDonald, Maureen J; McGee, Sean L; Gibala, Martin J

    2008-01-01

    Low-volume ‘sprint’ interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid improvements in muscle oxidative capacity that are comparable to levels reached following traditional endurance training (ET) but no study has examined metabolic adaptations during exercise after these different training strategies. We hypothesized that SIT and ET would induce similar adaptations in markers of skeletal muscle carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid metabolism and metabolic control during exercise despite large differences in training volume and time commitment. Active but untrained subjects (23 ± 1 years) performed a constant-load cycling challenge (1 h at 65% of peak oxygen uptake before and after 6 weeks of either SIT or ET (n = 5 men and 5 women per group). SIT consisted of four to six repeats of a 30 s ‘all out’ Wingate Test (mean power output ∼500 W) with 4.5 min recovery between repeats, 3 days per week. ET consisted of 40–60 min of continuous cycling at a workload that elicited ∼65% (mean power output ∼150 W) per day, 5 days per week. Weekly time commitment (∼1.5 versus∼4.5 h) and total training volume (∼225 versus∼2250 kJ week−1) were substantially lower in SIT versus ET. Despite these differences, both protocols induced similar increases (P < 0.05) in mitochondrial markers for skeletal muscle CHO (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α protein content) and lipid oxidation (3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity) and protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. Glycogen and phosphocreatine utilization during exercise were reduced after training, and calculated rates of whole-body CHO and lipid oxidation were decreased and increased, respectively, with no differences between groups (all main effects, P < 0.05). Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high-intensity interval training is a time-efficient strategy to increase skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and induce specific metabolic

  18. Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, A.; Méheux, K.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2011-01-01

    It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.

  19. Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.

  20. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  1. SEVERE OBESITY SHIFTS METABOLIC THRESHOLDS BUT DOES NOT ATTENUATE AEROBIC TRAINING ADAPTATIONS IN ZUCKER RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Santos Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe obesity affects metabolism with potential to influence the lactate and glycemic response to different exercise intensities in untrained and trained rats. Here we evaluated metabolic thresholds and maximal aerobic capacity in rats with severe obesity and lean counterparts at pre- and post-training. Zucker rats (obese: n = 10, lean: n = 10 were submitted to constant treadmill bouts, to determine the maximal lactate steady state, and an incremental treadmill test, to determine the lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal velocity at pre and post 8 weeks of treadmill training. Velocities of the lactate threshold and glycemic threshold agreed with the maximal lactate steady state velocity on most comparisons. The maximal lactate steady state velocity occurred at higher percentage of the maximal velocity in Zucker rats at pre-training than the percentage commonly reported and used for training prescription for other rat strains (i.e., 60% (obese = 78±9% and lean = 68±5%, P 0.05, whereas increase in maximal velocity was greater in the obese group (P <0.05 vs. lean. In conclusion, lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal lactate steady state occurred at similar exercise intensity in Zucker rats at pre- and post-training. Severe obesity shifted metabolic thresholds to higher exercise intensity at pre-training, but did not attenuate submaximal and maximal aerobic training adaptations.

  2. Severe Obesity Shifts Metabolic Thresholds but Does Not Attenuate Aerobic Training Adaptations in Zucker Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Thiago S.; Simões, Herbert G.; Rogero, Marcelo M.; Moraes, Milton R.; Denadai, Benedito S.; Arida, Ricardo M.; Andrade, Marília S.; Silva, Bruno M.

    2016-01-01

    Severe obesity affects metabolism with potential to influence the lactate and glycemic response to different exercise intensities in untrained and trained rats. Here we evaluated metabolic thresholds and maximal aerobic capacity in rats with severe obesity and lean counterparts at pre- and post-training. Zucker rats (obese: n = 10, lean: n = 10) were submitted to constant treadmill bouts, to determine the maximal lactate steady state, and an incremental treadmill test, to determine the lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal velocity at pre and post 8 weeks of treadmill training. Velocities of the lactate threshold and glycemic threshold agreed with the maximal lactate steady state velocity on most comparisons. The maximal lactate steady state velocity occurred at higher percentage of the maximal velocity in Zucker rats at pre-training than the percentage commonly reported and used for training prescription for other rat strains (i.e., 60%) (obese = 78 ± 9% and lean = 68 ± 5%, P 0.05), whereas increase in maximal velocity was greater in the obese group (P < 0.05 vs. lean). In conclusion, lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal lactate steady state occurred at similar exercise intensity in Zucker rats at pre- and post-training. Severe obesity shifted metabolic thresholds to higher exercise intensity at pre-training, but did not attenuate submaximal and maximal aerobic training adaptations. PMID:27148063

  3. Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

    2015-03-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria. PMID:25403594

  4. Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

    2015-03-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria.

  5. Experience of Climate Change Adaptation; Emic Perception of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Programs in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathana peou van den Heuvel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 40 years (I/ NGOs together with the Government of Bangladesh (GoB have been working to build the capacity of population at risk to cope with natural disasters. From a response rationale to preparedness one, (I/NGOs together with the GoB struggled to integrate adaptation frame into Disaster Risk Reduction program. Those initial steps were mainly lead by a top down approach. Bangladesh usually pointed as the most vulnerable country in the world, has a long history of different frame of actions and practices toward building both community and individual resilience. Structural poverty and low good governance mechanisms are just some of the factors that jeopardize the gains of development project in general in Bangladesh. Donors and (I/NGO play major roles by shaping not only the national discourse but as well by leading the practices and the methodology that needs to be used at the field. Within couple of years, community based approach has been largely adopted by different institutions as being the right way to deliver intervention that aims at reducing the vulnerability and the enhancing the resilience. It is in this context that this paper offers an insight on how DRR and adaptation is translated at the field level. Through an emic perspective this research aims at confronting the realities of the practices of DRR/ Adaptation by (I/NGOs to the discourse that they communicate.

  6. Characterization of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm for dose reduction in CT: A pediatric oncology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S. L.; Yee, B. S.; Kaufman, R. A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: This study demonstrates a means of implementing an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign ) technique for dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) while maintaining similar noise levels in the reconstructed image. The effects of image quality and noise texture were assessed at all implementation levels of ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign . Empirically derived dose reduction limits were established for ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign for imaging of the trunk for a pediatric oncology population ranging from 1 yr old through adolescence/adulthood. Methods: Image quality was assessed using metrics established by the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation program. Each image quality metric was tested using the ACR CT phantom with 0%-100% ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign blended with filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructed images. Additionally, the noise power spectrum (NPS) was calculated for three common reconstruction filters of the trunk. The empirically derived limitations on ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign implementation for dose reduction were assessed using (1, 5, 10) yr old and adolescent/adult anthropomorphic phantoms. To assess dose reduction limits, the phantoms were scanned in increments of increased noise index (decrementing mA using automatic tube current modulation) balanced with ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign reconstruction to maintain noise equivalence of the 0% ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign image. Results: The ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign algorithm did not produce any unfavorable effects on image quality as assessed by ACR criteria. Conversely, low-contrast resolution was found to improve due to the reduction of noise in the reconstructed images. NPS calculations demonstrated that images with lower frequency noise had lower noise variance and coarser graininess at progressively higher percentages of ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign reconstruction; and in spite of the similar magnitudes of noise, the image reconstructed with 50% or more ASiR Trade-Mark-Sign presented a more

  7. Thermal and metabolic adaptation to first cold-water immersion in juvenile penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, H; Roussel, B

    1986-09-01

    Juvenile king and macaroni penguins are terrestrial seabirds and must face an intensive and prolonged energetic demand during their passage from shore to marine life in cold subantarctic seawater. Evidence for progressive thermal adaptation was sought by measurement of metabolic rate (MR) and body (Tb) and skin (Tsk) temperatures in unrestrained, fully immersed penguins. Steady-state responses obtained after the 3rd h of immersion in never-immersed (NI) penguins were compared with those of penguins acclimatized to seawater temperature (A). NI macaroni penguins, unlike NI king penguins, showed a fall in Tb on their first immersion but, once acclimatized, were able to maintain their homeothermy due to an increase (greater than 3.2 W/kg) in regulatory thermogenesis. In NI king penguins, during a simulation of seawater adaptation by 10 successive immersions, MR at 7 degrees C water temperature (Tw) rose from 6.0 to 9.4 W/kg (becoming 3-5 times higher than in air), whereas Tb rose from 37.6 to 38.4 degrees C. In both species occurrence of peak MR at much lower Tw, progressive increase in thermogenesis capacity, and lower conductance in water after adaptation to marine life (28 and 36% less in A king and macaroni penguins, respectively) showed that the passage from shore to marine life consisted of a true cold acclimatization. PMID:3752279

  8. Adaptive ultrasonic speckle reduction based on the slope-facet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan-Chao; Chen, Jau-Yuen; Wang, Sheng-De; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2003-08-01

    The flat-facet model has been implicitly assumed for the structure of the image surface by most conventional speckle-reduction algorithms. However, this model is rarely found in a real ultrasound (US) image. To preserve the higher order structures and to capture the spatially variant property of the speckle, a new adaptive speckle-reduction algorithm, called the symmetrical speckle-reduction filter (SSRF), was developed based on the slope-facet model. The basic idea of the SSRF was to estimate the uncorrupted signal on the largest symmetrical slope facet centered at each target pixel. The symmetry constraint ensured the correctness of the mean value. An empirical speckle model was incorporated to account for the nature of the speckle in US image. A two-stage despeckling strategy was employed to enhance the statistical reliability of each estimate by forming a union of a set of symmetrical despeckling windows. The proposed SSRF algorithm was compared with two filtered-based and one wavelet-based approaches and the experimental results showed that the proposed SSRF outperformed these three previous approaches in both the synthetic images and the clinical US images tested in this study. PMID:12946519

  9. The limits of poverty reduction in support of climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donald R.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Eakin, Hallie; Lo, Yun-Jia

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between poverty and climate change vulnerability is complex and though not commensurate, the distinctions between the two are often blurred. There is widespread recognition of the need to better understand poverty-vulnerability dynamics in order to improve risk management and poverty reduction investments. This is challenging due to the latent nature of adaptive capacities, frequent lack of baseline data, and the need for high-resolution studies. Here we respond to these challenges by analyzing household-level data in Northeast Brazil to compare drought events 14 years apart. In the period between droughts, the government implemented an aggressive anti-poverty program that includes financial and human capital investments. Poverty declined significantly, but the expected reduction in vulnerability did not occur, in part because the households were not investing in risk management strategies. Our findings complement other research that shows that households make rational decisions that may not correspond with policymaker expectations. We emphasize the need for complementary investments to help channel increased household wealth into risk reduction, and to ensure that the public sector itself continues to prioritize the public functions of risk management, especially in areas where the social cost of climatic risk is high.

  10. CS-16THE eEF2 KINASE IS CRITICAL FOR BRAIN TUMOURS ADAPTATION TO METABOLIC STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leprivier, Gabriel; Remke, Marc; Rotblat, Barak; Agnihotri, Sameer; Kool, Marcel; Derry, Brent; Pfister, Stefan; Taylor, Michael D.; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2014-01-01

    During tumour progression, brain tumour cells are exposed to metabolic stress, such as nutrient deprivation, due to abnormal tumour vasculature. The ability of tumour cells to respond and manage reduced nutrient availability has a strong impact on tumour outcome. The molecular pathways supporting metabolic adaptation of brain tumour cells to nutrient stress represent potential therapeutic targets which are still not well defined. We report that the translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinas...

  11. A remediation performance model for enhanced metabolic reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in fractured clay till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Chambon, Julie C.; Bjerg, Poul L.;

    2012-01-01

    A numerical model of metabolic reductive dechlorination is used to describe the performance of enhanced bioremediation in fractured clay till. The model is developed to simulate field observations of a full scale bioremediation scheme in a fractured clay till and thereby to assess remediation...... efficiency and timeframe. A relatively simple approach is used to link the fermentation of the electron donor soybean oil to the sequential dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) while considering redox conditions and the heterogeneous clay till system (clay till matrix, fractures and sand stringers...... stringers. Field scale simulations show that the injected donor is expected to be depleted after 5 years, and that without donor re-injection contaminant rebound will occur in the high permeability zones and the mass removal will stall at 18%. Long remediation timeframes, if dechlorination is limited...

  12. Complex adaptive HIV/AIDS risk reduction: Plausible implications from findings in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Chris J; Aphane, Marota A

    2016-05-16

    This article emphasises that when working with complex adaptive systems it is possible to stimulate new social practices and/or cognitive perspectives that contribute to risk reduction, associated with reducing aggregate community viral loads. The process of achieving this is highly participatory and is methodologically possible because evidence of 'attractors' that influence the social practices can be identified using qualitative research techniques. Using findings from Limpopo Province, South Africa, we argue that working with 'wellness attractors' and increasing their presence within the HIV/AIDS landscape could influence aggregate community viral loads. While the analysis that is presented is unconventional, it is plausible that this perspective may hold potential to develop a biosocial response - which the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) has called for - that reinforces the biomedical opportunities that are now available to achieve the ambition of ending AIDS by 2030.

  13. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-08-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise. PMID:27570687

  14. Adaptive mutations in sugar metabolism restore growth on glucose in a pyruvate decarboxylase negative yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yiming; Liu, Guodong; Engqvist, Martin K. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying deletions in all three pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes (also called Pdc negative yeast) represents a non-ethanol producing platform strain for the production of pyruvate derived biochemicals. However, it cannot grow on glucose as the sole...... carbon source, and requires supplementation of C2 compounds to the medium in order to meet the requirement for cytosolic acetyl-CoA for biosynthesis of fatty acids and ergosterol. Results: In this study, a Pdc negative strain was adaptively evolved for improved growth in glucose medium via serial...... expression of several hexose transporter genes. The non-synonymous mutations in HXT2 and CIT1 may function in the presence of mutated MTH1 alleles and could be related to an altered central carbon metabolism in order to ensure production of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in the Pdc negative strain....

  15. The globally widespread genus Sulfurimonas: versatile energy metabolisms and adaptations to redox clines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuchen; Perner, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Sulfurimonas species are commonly isolated from sulfidic habitats and numerous 16S rRNA sequences related to Sulfurimonas species have been identified in chemically distinct environments, such as hydrothermal deep-sea vents, marine sediments, the ocean's water column, and terrestrial habitats. In some of these habitats, Sulfurimonas have been demonstrated to play an important role in chemoautotrophic processes. Sulfurimonas species can grow with a variety of electron donors and acceptors, which may contribute to their widespread distribution. Multiple copies of one type of enzyme (e.g., sulfide:quinone reductases and hydrogenases) may play a pivotal role in Sulfurimonas' flexibility to colonize disparate environments. Many of these genes appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer which has promoted adaptations to the distinct habitats. Here we summarize Sulfurimonas' versatile energy metabolisms and link their physiological properties to their global distribution.

  16. Reduction of concentrate for bovine sires: Influence on metabolic status and semen quality under production conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of reduced concentrate fed in rations of Holstein Friesian bulls for artificial insemination was evaluated with respect to metabolic status, sexual behaviour, semen production and semen quality during one year. In the first of two studies, twenty bulls were fed diets based on hay, green forage and concentrate according to the standard nutrient requirements for dairy cattle in artificial insemination centres. Bulls were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 10, control, 5 kg concentrate) and Group 2 (n = 10, experimental, 1 kg concentrate). Feed, blood semen samples were taken for bromatological analysis, metabolic profile and semen evaluation, respectively. Group 2 had lower plasma concentrations of urea (P<0.001), calcium (P<0.05) and phosphorous (P<0.01). Urea were below the reference range. Season of the year affected lipid metabolite concentrations (P<0.001) and osteotrophic minerals (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Group 2 had better production and quality of semen than did Group 1. In the second study, five bulls were fed as the experimental group in the first study. Time of sampling, season of the year and sire affected the hormonal secretion pattern (P<0.001). There were no differences in testoterone and LH plasma concentrations before and after mounting; however, cortisol concentrations showed a significant raise during the period of maximum excitation. Individual secretion patterns varied between bulls and were related to pathological morphology of reproductive and endocrine organs. The effect of sire was significant on all the indicators of the sperm production, except to percentage of live sperm. Season of the year significantly affected sperm concentration and number of doses of extended sperm produced. It is concluded that a reduction of concentrate in the diet did not affect the metabolic status, sexual behaviour, semen production or sperm quality of sires. 29 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pattern Recognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim 91301 (Germany); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8

  18. Regional difference of glucose metabolism reduction in equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in cerebral glucose metabolism between patients with equivocal Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and those with elderly major depression (DEP). 31 patients with eAD, 7 patients with DEP, and 15 age matched normal controls were scanned with FDG-PET. Each FDG-PET images was normalized to the cerebellar activity before voxel-voxel analysis using SPM99. In comparison with normal controls, the eAD patents showed the most significant reduction of glucose metabolism (hypometabolism) in anterior inferior temporal gyrus in left, followed by bilateral posterior cingulate, left thalamus, and inferior parietal lobe. Patients with DEP showed hypometabolism in precuneus, inferior and middle frontal gyri in left, and right angular gyrus. Significantly lower activity was found in left inferior temporal gyrus in DEP in comparison to the eAD. Patients with eAD and DEP showed different pattern of hypometabolism, especially in inferior temporal gyrus. FDG brain PET may be useful in differential diagnosis between equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depression

  19. Stereoselectivity in metabolic 3-reduction of tibolone in healthy Chinese female volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming ZUO; Ming-jie GAO; Zhen LIU; Lei CAI; Geng-li DUAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the stereoselectivity in human metabolic 3-reduction oftibolone. Methods: Twenty healthy Chinese female volunteers were given a singleoral dose of tibolone (2.5 mg), and serial blood samples were collected aftertreatment. The plasma concentrations of the two pharmacologically active 3-hydroxyl metabolites of tibolone, 3α-hydroxyl-7-methyl- norethynodrel (3α-HMN)and 3β-hydroxyl-7-methyl- norethynodrel (3β-HMN) in plasma were determinedby using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method.Results: The apparent elimination half-life (T1/2) of 3α-HMN was 1.43±0.52 h, andthat of 3β-HMN was 1.53±0.60 h. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) werefound to be 8.75±4.36 μg/L for 3α-HMN and 3.59±1.81 μg/L for 3β-HMN. Areash-1. L-1 for 3α-HMN and 9.89±4.93 μg.h-1. L-1 for 3β-HMN. Conclusion: Stereoselective differences exist in the pharmacokinetics of tibolone metabolism in humans.

  20. Analysis of anoxybacillus genomes from the aspects of lifestyle adaptations, prophage diversity, and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Mau Goh

    Full Text Available Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism.

  1. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  2. Improvement in DMSA imaging using adaptive noise reduction: an ROC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Lisa; Gemmell, Howard G; Sharp, Peter F; McKiddie, Fergus I; Staff, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid imaging is the 'gold standard' for the detection of cortical defects and diagnosis of scarring of the kidneys. The Siemens planar processing package, which implements adaptive noise reduction using the Pixon algorithm, is designed to allow a reduction in image noise, enabling improved image quality and reduced acquisition time/injected activity. This study aimed to establish the level of improvement in image quality achievable using this algorithm. Images were acquired of a phantom simulating a single kidney with a range of defects of varying sizes, positions and contrasts. These images were processed using the Pixon processing software and shown to 12 observers (six experienced and six novices) who were asked to rate the images on a six-point scale depending on their confidence that a defect was present. The data were analysed using a receiver operating characteristic approach. Results showed that processed images significantly improved the performance of the experienced observers in terms of their sensitivity and specificity. Although novice observers showed significant increase in sensitivity when using the software, a significant decrease in specificity was also seen. This study concludes that the Pixon software can be used to improve the assessment of cortical defects in dimercaptosuccinic acid imaging by suitably trained observers.

  3. Effective long term adaptation and metabolic state regulation of ski-racers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhareva A.S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate effective mechanisms of organism’s bio-chemical adaptation of ski-racers in competition period with the help of lipid peroxidation indicators, oxidative modification of proteins and activity of hypothalamus pituitary adrenocortical system. Material: in the research 14 sportsmen of 18-25 years’ age (combined team of university with different level of sportsmanship participated. Assessment of free radical oxidation, anti-oxidant system, cortisol level was fulfilled with the help of indicators’ quantitative analysis by bio-chemical methods applied to blood serum samples. Results: it was found that in the basis of bio-chemical changes under intensive physical loads is increase of catabolic processes’ speed. Change of organism’s metabolic orientation of ski racers at optimal level results in working muscles’ energy supply improvement, increase of energy systems’ power and sports efficiency. Conclusions: Application of interval trainings at stages of preparation to special significant competitions results in expected adaptation and increase of sports efficiency. We also showed their effective role in ensuring long term reactions, conditioning high sports efficiency.

  4. Metabolic Adaptations of White Lupin Roots and Shoots under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Julia; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is highly adapted to phosphorus-diminished soils. P-deficient white lupin plants modify their root architecture and physiology to acquire sparingly available soil phosphorus. We employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling of P-deficient white lupins, to investigate biochemical pathways involved in the P-acquiring strategy. After 14 days of P-deficiency, plants showed reduced levels of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in shoots. Phosphorylated metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, myo-inositol-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate were reduced in both shoots and roots. After 22 days of P-deficiency, no effect on shoot or root sugar metabolite levels was found, but the levels of phosphorylated metabolites were further reduced. Organic acids, amino acids and several shikimate pathway products showed enhanced levels in 22-day-old P-deficient roots and shoots. These results indicate that P-deficient white lupins adapt their carbohydrate partitioning between shoot and root in order to supply their growing root system as an early response to P-deficiency. Organic acids are released into the rhizosphere to mobilize phosphorus from soil particles. A longer period of P-deficiency leads to scavenging of Pi from P-containing metabolites and reduced protein anabolism, but enhanced formation of secondary metabolites. The latter can serve as stress protection molecules or actively acquire phosphorus from the soil. PMID:26635840

  5. LOSS OF CARDIAC METABOLIC ADAPTATION AND DYSFUNCTION OF THE HEART WITH WESTERN DIET IN THE OBESE ZUCKER RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The normal heart sustains its work output through changing the proportion of substrates it oxidizes depending on fuel supply. This metabolic adaptation is thought to be regulated at a transcriptional level by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha). We proposed that obesity...

  6. Response of benthic metabolism and nutrient cycling to reductions in wastewater loading to Boston Harbor, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jane; Giblin, Anne E.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Kelsey, Samuel W.; Howes, Brian L.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the long-term response of benthic metabolism in depositional sediments of Boston Harbor, MA, to large reductions in organic matter and nutrient loading. Although Boston Harbor received very high loadings of nutrients and solids it differs from many eutrophic estuaries in that severe hypoxia was prevented by strong tidal flushing. Our study was conducted for 9 years during which a series of improvements to sewage treatment were implemented, followed by 10 years after the culminating step in the clean-up, which was to divert all wastewater effluent offshore. Counter to expectations, sediment oxygen demand and nutrient effluxes initially increased at some stations, reaching some of the highest rates recorded in the literature, and were spatially and temporally quite variable. Early increases were attributed to macrofaunal effects, as sediments at some sites were rapidly colonized by tube-building amphipods, Ampelisca spp., which dominated a dense macrofaunal mat community. As reductions in loading progressed, however, mean rates in oxygen uptake and release of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate all decreased. At the point of outfall diversion, rates and variability had already decreased substantially. By the end of the study, average oxygen uptake had decreased from 74 to 41 mmol m-2 d-1 and spatial and temporal variability had decreased. Similarly, nutrient fluxes were less than half the rates measured at the start of the project and also less variable. Other evidence of improved conditions included a decrease in the carbon content of sediments at most stations and higher Eh values at all stations, illustrating less reducing conditions. Denitrification also showed an overall decrease from the beginning to the end of the 19-year study, but was highest during the intermediate phases of the cleanup, reaching 9 mmol N m-2 d-1. At the end of the study denitrification averaged for all sites was 2.2 mmol N m-2 d-1, but when compared to current loadings, had become

  7. Lifestyle modification and weight reduction among low-income patients with the metabolic syndrome: the CHARMS randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Diana A; Goldberg, Ronald B; Llabre, Maria M; Gellman, Marc; Gutt, Miriam; McCalla, Judith; Mendez, Armando; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-06-01

    Although weight is an important intervention target among patients with metabolic syndrome, few trials have recruited low-income minority populations. The Community Health and Risk-reduction for Metabolic Syndrome randomized controlled trial aimed to examine the effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic syndrome components among low-income minority adults. We randomized 120 adults with metabolic syndrome to standard medical care (N = 60) or a lifestyle intervention (N = 60). Using an intent-to-treat approach, we found significant intervention effects on weight [B = -0.452; SE = 0.122; 95 % confidence intervals (CI) -0.653 to -0.251) and glucose levels at 6-months (B = -0.522, SE = 0.234, 95 % CI -0.907 to -0.138). These changes were maintained through the 12-month assessment. No significant effects were observed on insulin resistance or other metabolic syndrome components. Our intervention was successful in achieving modest but significant weight loss and reduction in fasting glucose among low-income minority subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Radiation dose reduction in soft tissue neck CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachha, Behroze, E-mail: bvachha@partners.org [Neuroradiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Brodoefel, Harald; Wilcox, Carol; Hackney, David B.; Moonis, Gul [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare objective and subjective image quality in neck CT images acquired at different tube current–time products (275 mA s and 340 mA s) and reconstructed with filtered-back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Materials and methods: HIPAA-compliant study with IRB approval and waiver of informed consent. 66 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to undergo contrast-enhanced neck CT at a standard tube-current–time-product (340 mA s; n = 33) or reduced tube-current–time-product (275 mA s, n = 33). Data sets were reconstructed with FBP and 2 levels (30%, 40%) of ASIR-FBP blending at 340 mA s and 275 mA s. Two neuroradiologists assessed subjective image quality in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length-product (DLP), effective dose, and objective image noise were recorded. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was computed as mean attenuation in a region of interest in the sternocleidomastoid muscle divided by image noise. Results: Compared with FBP, ASIR resulted in a reduction of image noise at both 340 mA s and 275 mA s. Reduction of tube current from 340 mA s to 275 mA s resulted in an increase in mean objective image noise (p = 0.02) and a decrease in SNR (p = 0.03) when images were reconstructed with FBP. However, when the 275 mA s images were reconstructed using ASIR, the mean objective image noise and SNR were similar to those of the standard 340 mA s CT images reconstructed with FBP (p > 0.05). Subjective image noise was ranked by both raters as either average or less-than-average irrespective of the tube current and iterative reconstruction technique. Conclusion: Adapting ASIR into neck CT protocols reduced effective dose by 17% without compromising image quality.

  9. Application of adaptive kinetic modelling for bias propagation reduction in direct 4D image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Matthews, J. C.; Reader, A. J.; Angelis, G. I.; Zaidi, H.

    2014-10-01

    Parametric imaging in thoracic and abdominal PET can provide additional parameters more relevant to the pathophysiology of the system under study. However, dynamic data in the body are noisy due to the limiting counting statistics leading to suboptimal kinetic parameter estimates. Direct 4D image reconstruction algorithms can potentially improve kinetic parameter precision and accuracy in dynamic PET body imaging. However, construction of a common kinetic model is not always feasible and in contrast to post-reconstruction kinetic analysis, errors in poorly modelled regions may spatially propagate to regions which are well modelled. To reduce error propagation from erroneous model fits, we implement and evaluate a new approach to direct parameter estimation by incorporating a recently proposed kinetic modelling strategy within a direct 4D image reconstruction framework. The algorithm uses a secondary more general model to allow a less constrained model fit in regions where the kinetic model does not accurately describe the underlying kinetics. A portion of the residuals then is adaptively included back into the image whilst preserving the primary model characteristics in other well modelled regions using a penalty term that trades off the models. Using fully 4D simulations based on dynamic [15O]H2O datasets, we demonstrate reduction in propagation-related bias for all kinetic parameters. Under noisy conditions, reductions in bias due to propagation are obtained at the cost of increased noise, which in turn results in increased bias and variance of the kinetic parameters. This trade-off reflects the challenge of separating the residuals arising from poor kinetic modelling fits from the residuals arising purely from noise. Nonetheless, the overall root mean square error is reduced in most regions and parameters. Using the adaptive 4D image reconstruction improved model fits can be obtained in poorly modelled regions, leading to reduced errors potentially propagating

  10. A unique in vivo experimental approach reveals metabolic adaptation of the probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii to the colon environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a food grade bacterium consumed both in cheeses and in probiotic preparations. Its promising probiotic potential, relying largely on the active release of beneficial metabolites within the gut as well as the expression of key surface proteins involved in immunomodulation, deserves to be explored more deeply. Adaptation to the colon environment is requisite for the active release of propionibacterial beneficial metabolites and constitutes a bottleneck for metabolic activity in vivo. Mechanisms allowing P. freudenreichii to adapt to digestive stresses have been only studied in vitro so far. Our aim was therefore to study P. freudenreichii metabolic adaptation to intra-colonic conditions in situ. Results We maintained a pure culture of the type strain P. freudenreichii CIRM BIA 1, contained in a dialysis bag, within the colon of vigilant piglets during 24 hours. A transcriptomic analysis compared gene expression to identify the metabolic pathways induced by this environment, versus control cultures maintained in spent culture medium. We observed drastic changes in the catabolism of sugars and amino-acids. Glycolysis, the Wood-Werkman cycle and the oxidative phosphorylation pathways were down-regulated but induction of specific carbohydrate catabolisms and alternative pathways were induced to produce NADH, NADPH, ATP and precursors (utilizing of propanediol, gluconate, lactate, purine and pyrimidine and amino-acids). Genes involved in stress response were down-regulated and genes specifically expressed during cell division were induced, suggesting that P. freudenreichii adapted its metabolism to the conditions encountered in the colon. Conclusions This study constitutes the first molecular demonstration of P. freudenreichii activity and physiological adaptation in vivo within the colon. Our data are likely specific to our pig microbiota composition but opens an avenue towards understanding probiotic action within the gut

  11. Fungal Inositol Pyrophosphate IP7 Is Crucial for Metabolic Adaptation to the Host Environment and Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Sophie; Li, Cecilia; Desmarini, Desmarini; Saiardi, Adolfo; Fewings, Nicole L.; Schibeci, Stephen D.; Sharma, Raghwa; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) comprising inositol, phosphate, and pyrophosphate (PP) are essential for multiple functions in eukaryotes. Their role in fungal pathogens has never been addressed. Cryptococcus neoformans is a model pathogenic fungus causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. We investigate the cryptococcal kinases responsible for the production of PP-IPs (IP7/IP8) and the hierarchy of PP-IP importance in pathogenicity. Using gene deletion and inositol polyphosphate profiling, we identified Kcs1 as the major IP6 kinase (producing IP7) and Asp1 as an IP7 kinase (producing IP8). We show that Kcs1-derived IP7 is the most crucial PP-IP for cryptococcal drug susceptibility and the production of virulence determinants. In particular, Kcs1 kinase activity is essential for cryptococcal infection of mouse lungs, as reduced fungal burdens were observed in the absence of Kcs1 or when Kcs1 was catalytically inactive. Transcriptome and carbon source utilization analysis suggested that compromised growth of the KCS1 deletion strain (Δkcs1 mutant) in the low-glucose environment of the host lung is due to its inability to utilize alternative carbon sources. Despite this metabolic defect, the Δkcs1 mutant established persistent, low-level asymptomatic pulmonary infection but failed to elicit a strong immune response in vivo and in vitro and was not readily phagocytosed by primary or immortalized monocytes. Reduced recognition of the Δkcs1 cells by monocytes correlated with reduced exposure of mannoproteins on the Δkcs1 mutant cell surface. We conclude that IP7 is essential for fungal metabolic adaptation to the host environment, immune recognition, and pathogenicity. PMID:26037119

  12. Biomimetic bluff body drag reduction by self-adaptive porous flaps

    CERN Document Server

    Mazellier, Nicolas; Kourta, Azeddine

    2011-01-01

    The performances of an original passive control system based on a biomimetic approach are assessed by investigating the flow over a bluff-body. This control device consists in a couple of flaps made from the combination of a rigid plastic skeleton coated with a porous fabric mimicking the shaft and the vane of the bird's feathers, respectively. The sides of a square cylinder have been fitted with this system so as to enable the flaps to freely rotate around their leading edge. This feature allows the movable flaps to self-adapt to the flow conditions. Comparing both the uncontrolled and the controlled flow, a significant drag reduction (up to 22%) has been obtained over a broad range of Reynolds number. The investigation of the mean flow reveals a noticeable modification of the flow topology at large scale in the vicinity of the controlled cylinder accounting for the increase of the pressure base in comparison with the natural flow. Meanwhile, the study of the relative motion of both flaps points out that the...

  13. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms predict response to lung volume reduction surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeMeo Dawn L

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT, marked variability in response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS was observed. We sought to identify genetic differences which may explain some of this variability. Methods In 203 subjects from the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study, four outcome measures were used to define response to LVRS at six months: modified BODE index, post-bronchodilator FEV1, maximum work achieved on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, and University of California, San Diego shortness of breath questionnaire. Sixty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in five genes previously shown to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility, exercise capacity, or emphysema distribution. Results A SNP upstream from glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1; p = 0.003 and a coding SNP in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1; p = 0.02 were each associated with change in BODE score. These effects appeared to be strongest in patients in the non-upper lobe predominant, low exercise subgroup. A promoter SNP in EPHX1 was associated with change in BODE score (p = 0.008, with the strongest effects in patients with upper lobe predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity. One additional SNP in GSTP1 and three additional SNPs in EPHX1 were associated (p Conclusion Genetic variants in GSTP1 and EPHX1, two genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, were predictive of response to LVRS. These polymorphisms may identify patients most likely to benefit from LVRS.

  14. Identification and analysis of uncertainty in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keur, van der Peter; Bers, van Caroline; Henriksen, Hans Jørgen; Nibanupudi, Hari Krishna; Yadav, Shobha; Wijaya, Rina; Subiyono, Andreas; Mukerjee, Nandan; Hausmann, Hans Jakob; Hare, Matt; Scheltinga, van Catharien Terwisscha; Pearn, Gregory; Jaspers, Fons

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the mainstreaming of uncertainty in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) using as a case South and Southeast Asia, a region highly vulnerable to a wide range of natural disasters. Improvements in the implementation of DRR and CCA at the community

  15. Incentivising flood risk adaptation through risk based insurance premiums : Trade-offs between affordability and risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Feyen, L.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The financial incentives offered by the risk-based pricing of insurance can stimulate policyholder adaptation to flood risk while potentially conflicting with affordability. We examine the trade-off between risk reduction and affordability in a model of public-private flood insurance in France and G

  16. Livelihoods and climate change : combining disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change adaptation in a new approach to the reduction of vulnerability and poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, I.; Soussan, J.; Hammill, A.

    2003-07-01

    This paper provides a framework for researchers and policy-makers that are taking action on climate change adaptation. It presents innovative and sustainable ways to respond to the changing global climate. It focuses, in particular, on international research and policy initiatives on climate change, vulnerable communities and adaptation. The international and multi-disciplinary task force that put the framework together includes experts from the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, conservation and poverty reduction. The report emphasizes that successful climate change adaptation should be accomplished through actions that reduce the vulnerabilities of poor people and poor countries because people's livelihoods shape poverty and their ability to move out of poverty. The task force identifies the need to integrate a climate change adaptation approach based on the livelihoods of vulnerable communities in different parts of the world. The examples cited in this report include: (1) mangrove rehabilitation in Vietnam, (2) community-based rang eland rehabilitation for carbon sequestration in Sudan, (3) agroecological roots of resilience in Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala, and (4) watershed restoration and development in Maharashtra State, India. refs., figs.

  17. Livelihoods and climate change : combining disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change adaptation in a new approach to the reduction of vulnerability and poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a framework for researchers and policy-makers that are taking action on climate change adaptation. It presents innovative and sustainable ways to respond to the changing global climate. It focuses, in particular, on international research and policy initiatives on climate change, vulnerable communities and adaptation. The international and multi-disciplinary task force that put the framework together includes experts from the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, conservation and poverty reduction. The report emphasizes that successful climate change adaptation should be accomplished through actions that reduce the vulnerabilities of poor people and poor countries because people's livelihoods shape poverty and their ability to move out of poverty. The task force identifies the need to integrate a climate change adaptation approach based on the livelihoods of vulnerable communities in different parts of the world. The examples cited in this report include: (1) mangrove rehabilitation in Vietnam, (2) community-based rang eland rehabilitation for carbon sequestration in Sudan, (3) agro-ecological roots of resilience in Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala, and (4) watershed restoration and development in Maharashtra State, India. refs., figs

  18. Integrative Phosphoproteomics Links IL-23R Signaling with Metabolic Adaptation in Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmatter, Corinne; Fischer, Roman; Charles, Philip D; Yu, Zhanru; Powrie, Fiona; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 mediated signal transduction represents a major molecular mechanism underlying the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition, emerging evidence supports the role of IL-23-driven Th17 cells in inflammation. Components of the IL-23 signaling pathway, such as IL-23R, JAK2 and STAT3, have been characterized, but elements unique to this network as compared to other interleukins have not been readily explored. In this study, we have undertaken an integrative phosphoproteomics approach to better characterise downstream signaling events. To this end, we performed and compared phosphopeptide and phosphoprotein enrichment methodologies after activation of T lymphocytes by IL-23. We demonstrate the complementary nature of the two phosphoenrichment approaches by maximizing the capture of phosphorylation events. A total of 8202 unique phosphopeptides, and 4317 unique proteins were identified, amongst which STAT3, PKM2, CDK6 and LASP-1 showed induction of specific phosphorylation not readily observed after IL-2 stimulation. Interestingly, quantitative analysis revealed predominant phosphorylation of pre-existing STAT3 nuclear subsets in addition to translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 within 30 min after IL-23 stimulation. After IL-23R activation, a small subset of PKM2 also translocates to the nucleus and may contribute to STAT3 phosphorylation, suggesting multiple cellular responses including metabolic adaptation. PMID:27080861

  19. Noninvasive Monitoring of Training Induced Muscle Adaptation with -MRS: Fibre Type Shifts Correlate with Metabolic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Hoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate training induced metabolic changes noninvasively with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (-MRS for measuring muscle fibre type adaptation. Methods. Eleven volunteers underwent a 24-week training, consisting of speed-strength, endurance, and detraining (each 8 weeks. Prior to and following each training period, needle biopsies and -MRS of the resting gastrocnemius muscle were performed. Fibre type distribution was analyzed histologically and tested for correlation with the ratios of high energy phosphates ([PCr]/[], [PCr]/[βATP] and [PCr + ]/[βATP]. The correlation between the changes of the -MRS parameters during training and the resulting changes in fibre composition were also analysed. Results. We observed an increased type-II-fibre proportion after speed-strength and detraining. After endurance training the percentage of fast-twitch fibres was reduced. The progression of the [PCr]/[]-ratio was similar to that of the fast-twitch fibres during the training. We found a correlation between the type-II-fibre proportion and [PCr]/[] (, or [PCr]/[βATP] (, ; the correlations between its changes (delta and the fibre-shift were significant as well (delta[PCr]/[] , delta[PCr]/[βATP] , . Conclusion. Shifts in fibre type composition and high energy phosphate metabolite content covary in human gastrocnemius muscle. Therefore -MRS might be a feasible method for noninvasive monitoring of exercise-induced fibre type transformation.

  20. An Adaptive Management Approach for Summer Water Level Reductions on the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.L.; Barko, J.W.; Clevenstine, R.; Davis, M.; Galat, D.L.; Lubinski, S.J.; Nestler, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to provide an adaptive management approach for learning more about summer water level reductions (drawdowns) as a management tool, including where and how drawdowns can be applied most effectively within the Upper Mississippi River System. The report reviews previous drawdowns conducted within the system and provides specific recommendations for learning more about the lesser known effects of drawdowns and how the outcomes can be influenced by different implementation strategies and local conditions. The knowledge gained can be used by managers to determine how best to implement drawdowns in different parts of the UMRS to help achieve management goals. The information and recommendations contained in the report are derived from results of previous drawdown projects, insights from regional disciplinary experts, and the experience of the authors in experimental design, modeling, and monitoring. Modeling is a critical part of adaptive management and can involve conceptual models, simulation models, and empirical models. In this report we present conceptual models that express current understanding regarding functioning of the UMRS as related to drawdowns and highlight interactions among key ecological components of the system. The models were developed within the constraints of drawdown timing, magnitude (depth), and spatial differences in effects (longitudinal and lateral) with attention to ecological processes affected by drawdowns. With input from regional experts we focused on the responses of vegetation, fish, mussels, other invertebrates, and birds. The conceptual models reflect current understanding about relations and interactions among system components, the expected strength of those interactions, potential responses of system components to drawdowns, likelihood of the response occurring, and key uncertainties that limit our ability to make accurate predictions of effects (Table 1, Fig. 4-10). Based on this current

  1. Metabolic Adaptation of the Small Intestine to Short- and Medium-Term High-Fat Diet Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Rosmarie; Schumacher, Manuel; Ramachandran, Deepti; Fedele, Shahana; Krieger, Jean-Philippe; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2017-01-01

    The small intestine is the main organ involved in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. It is in an ideal position to sense the availability of energy in the lumen in addition to its absorptive function. Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) influences the metabolic characteristics of the small intestine. Therefore, to better understand the metabolic features of the small intestine and their changes in response to dietary fat, we characterized the metabolism of duodenal, jejunal, and hepatic cell lines and assessed the metabolic changes in the enterocytes and the liver after short-term (3 days) or medium-term (14 days) HFD feeding in mice. Experiments with immortalized enterocytes indicated a higher glycolytic capacity in the duodenal cell line compared to the other two cell lines, whereas the jejunal cell line exhibited a high oxidative metabolism. Short-term HFD feeding induced changes in the expression of glucose and lipid metabolism-related genes in the duodenum and the jejunum of mice, but not in the liver. When focusing on fatty acid oxidation both, short- and medium-term HFD feeding induced an upregulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A, the key enzyme of ketogenesis, at the protein level in the intestinal epithelial cells, but not in the liver. These results suggest that HFD feeding induces an early adaptation of the small intestine rather than the liver in response to a substantial fat load. This highlights the importance of the small intestine in the adaptation of the body to the metabolic changes induced by HFD exposure. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 167-175, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation policy integration in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Väätäinen-Chimpuku, S.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) policies, their implementation measures and the contribution of these to development has been gaining attention recently. Due to the shared objectives of CCA and particularly Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), a component of DRM, their integration provides many benefits. At the implementation level, DRR and CCA are usually integrated. Policy integration, however, is often lacking. This study presents a novel analysis of the policy integration of DRR and CCA by 1) suggesting a definition for their integration at a general and further at horizontal and vertical levels, 2) using an analysis framework for policy integration cycle, which separates the policy formulation and implementation processes, and 3) applying these to a case study in Zambia. Moreover, the study identifies the key gaps in the integration process, obtains an understanding of identified key factors for creating an enabling environment for the integration, and provides recommendations for further progress. The study is based on a document analysis of the relevant DRM, climate change (CC), agriculture, forestry, water management and meteorology policy documents and Acts, and 21 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Horizontal integration has occurred both ways, as the revised DRM policy draft has incorporated CCA, and the new CC policy draft has incorporated DRR. This is not necessarily an optimal strategy and unless carefully implemented, it may create pressure on institutional structures and duplication of efforts in the implementation. Much less vertical integration takes place, and where it does, no guidance on how potential goal conflicts with sectorial and development objectives ought to be handled. The objectives of the instruments show convergence. At the programme stage, the measures are fully integrated as they can be classified as robust CCA measures, providing benefits in the current and future

  3. Climate Change Adaptation and Climate Related Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Zimbabwe and Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubaya, C. P.; Ngepah, N.; Seyama, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) have similar aims and mutual benefits, and there is a very strong rationale for adopting a more integrated approach to these issues rather than analysing each of them as distinct from the other. One of the gaps that have been noted in this context is the lack of evidence in systematic integration of CCA and DRR in Southern Africa. In this regard, this study builds on understanding CCA and DRR policies from the perspectives of vulnerable groups- women and smallholder farmers, and conducts institutional and policy analysis of CCA and DRR in southern Africa, with specific focus on Malawi and Zimbabwe. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed to collect data for this study in the two countries. The analysis is centred on the conceptualization of DRR in the context of recovery time and CCA on livelihood changes. Findings of the study show that drought is no longer viewed as a hazard as it is a perennial and chronic occurrence in selected climate hotspots, with heightened intensity in certain identified years. Households are able to quickly recover from slow onset hazards such as droughts and dry spells more than they are able to recover from sudden onset floods, implying more capacity towards CCA than DRR. Government programmes and policies are also focused more on CCA than on DRR efforts that appear not to be a priority. Findings point towards female vulnerability from perceptions and practice where males tend to dominate where they are set to benefit from external assistance. We need to strengthen government capacity in implementation of DRR programmes, which is currently limited and development initiatives must deliberately target building the resilience of women.

  4. Adaptation of chondrocytes to low oxygen tension: relationship between hypoxia and cellular metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpurohit, R; Koch, C J; Tao, Z; Teixeira, C M; Shapiro, I M

    1996-08-01

    In endochondral bone, the growth cartilage is the site of rapid growth. Since the vascular supply to the cartilage is limited, it is widely assumed that cells of the cartilage are hypoxic and that limitations in the oxygen supply regulate the energetic state of the maturing cells. In this report, we evaluate the effects of oxygen tension on chondrocyte energy metabolism, thiol status, and expression of transcription elements, HIF and AP-1. Imposition of an hypoxic environment on cultured chondrocytes caused a proportional increase in glucose utilization and elevated levels of lactate synthesis. Although we observed a statistical increase in the activities of phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase after exposure to lowered oxygen concentrations, the effect was small. The cultured cells exhibited a decreased utilization of glutamine, possibly due to down regulation of mitochondrial function and inhibition of oxidative deamination. With respect to total energy generation, we noted that these cells are quite capable of maintaining the energy charge of the cell at low oxygen tensions. Indeed, no changes in the absolute quantity of adenine nucleotides or the energy charge ratio was observed. Hypoxia caused a decrease in the glutathione content of cultured chondrocytes and a concomitant rise in cell and medium cysteine levels. It is likely that the fall in cell glutathione level is due to decreased synthesis of the tripeptide under reduced oxygen stress and the limited supply of glutamate. The observed rise in cellular and medium cysteine levels probably reflects an increase in the rate of degradation of glutathione and a decrease in synthesis of the peptide. To explore how cells transduce these metabolic effects, gel retardation assays were used to study chondrocyte HIF and AP-1 binding activities. Chondrocyte nuclear preparations bound an HIF-oligonucleotide; however, at low oxygen tensions, no increase in HIF binding was

  5. The correlation of sodium and potassium metabolism with the level of energy consumption in man during adaptation to heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, B. G.; Zhestovskiy, V. A.

    1978-01-01

    The sodium and potassium metabolism was studied in a thermal chamber at 35 deg and 80 percent relative humidity in 8 men for a period of 6 days. The control group (3 subjects) were outside of the chamber at a comfortable ambient temperature. The intracellular sodium and potassium metabolism were assessed based on their content in the erythrocytes. The finding was that during adaptation to heat, a considerable amount of sodium was excreted by the body in the sweat and urine (about 1/3 of the sodium content of the human body) as compared with its intake and the amount of potassium retained in the body. Changes in the concentration of sodium and potassium may serve as indexes of the state of adaptation processes during constant exposure to heat.

  6. Multi-omic profiling of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Engmark, Mikael;

    2015-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied...... the existence of production bottlenecks in energy metabolism (i.e., glycolytic metabolites, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ and ANPs) in batch culture or in the secretory protein production pathway (i.e., gene dosage, transcription and post-translational processing of EPO) in chemostat culture at specific productivities up...... to 5 pg/cell/day. Time-course analysis of high- and low-producing clones in chemostat culture revealed rapid adaptation of transcription levels of amino acid catabolic genes in favor of EPO production within nine generations. Interestingly, the adaptation was followed by an increase in specific EPO...

  7. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also influenced by body composition — people with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs. previous continue Things That Can Go Wrong With Metabolism Most of the time your metabolism works effectively ...

  8. Exploring the molecular and metabolic factors contributing to the adaptation of maize seedlings to nitrate limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf eEl-Kereamy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop production on soils containing sub-optimal levels of nitrogen (N severely compromises yield potential. The development of plant varieties displaying high N use efficiency (NUE will optimize N fertilizer use and reduce the environmental damage caused by excess N application. Maize is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identification of the genotypes with an enhanced NUE in the field is both time and resource consuming and sometime is difficult due to the regulation in the biotechnology programs. Identification of traits associated with adaptation to N limitation at an early vegetative stage which could reflect NUE at maturity is in need. We developed a hydroponic growth system and used it to test two genotypes that were different in their NUE at maturity under N limitation. One genotype SRG-200 showed a higher NUE than the other genotype SRG-100 and we used its hybrid SRG-150 as a reference for NUE. A number of phenotypic, molecular and metabolic factors were tested using these three genetic lines at an early vegetative stage to determine which of these could be more indicative of predicting improved NUE at an early seedling stage. These include a transcriptional analysis which showed that the higher NUE in SRG-200 genotype is associated with higher transcript levels for the genes involved in nitrate transport, N assimilation and GS and that the SRG-200 genotype maintained higher sugar content in leaves. Those identified in this study could be useful indicators for selecting promising maize lines at early stages to help develop elite varieties showing an enhanced NUE.

  9. Comparative genome analysis reveals metabolic versatility and environmental adaptations of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain ST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Guo

    Full Text Available The genus Sulfobacillus is a cohort of mildly thermophilic or thermotolerant acidophiles within the phylum Firmicutes and requires extremely acidic environments and hypersalinity for optimal growth. However, our understanding of them is still preliminary partly because few genome sequences are available. Here, the draft genome of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain ST was deciphered to obtain a comprehensive insight into the genetic content and to understand the cellular mechanisms necessary for its survival. Furthermore, the expressions of key genes related with iron and sulfur oxidation were verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The draft genome sequence of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain ST, which encodes 3225 predicted coding genes on a total length of 3,333,554 bp and a 48.35% G+C, revealed the high degree of heterogeneity with other Sulfobacillus species. The presence of numerous transposases, genomic islands and complete CRISPR/Cas defence systems testifies to its dynamic evolution consistent with the genome heterogeneity. As expected, S. thermosulfidooxidans encodes a suit of conserved enzymes required for the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds (ISCs. The model of sulfur oxidation in S. thermosulfidooxidans was proposed, which showed some different characteristics from the sulfur oxidation of Gram-negative A. ferrooxidans. Sulfur oxygenase reductase and heterodisulfide reductase were suggested to play important roles in the sulfur oxidation. Although the iron oxidation ability was observed, some key proteins cannot be identified in S. thermosulfidooxidans. Unexpectedly, a predicted sulfocyanin is proposed to transfer electrons in the iron oxidation. Furthermore, its carbon metabolism is rather flexible, can perform the transformation of pentose through the oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathways and has the ability to take up small organic compounds. It encodes a multitude of heavy metal

  10. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  11. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Lisa M; Hyde, Andrew S; MacGregor, Barbara J; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis - previously developed based on (14)C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842

  12. Global rates of marine sulfate reduction and implications for sub–sea-floor metabolic activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowles, M.W.; Mogollón, J.M.; Kasten, S.; Zabel, M.; Hinrichs, K.U.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate reduction is a globally important yet poorly quantified redox process in marine sediments. We developed an artificial neural network trained with 199 sulfate profiles, constrained with geomorphological and geochemical maps to estimate global sulfate reduction rate distributions. Globally, 11

  13. Two brothers with skewed thiopurine metabolism in ulcerative colitis treated successfully with allopurinol and mercaptopurine dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoentjen, Frank; Hanauer, Stephen B; de Boer, Nanne K; Rubin, David T

    2012-01-01

    Thiopurine therapy effectively maintains remission in inflammatory bowel disease. However, many patients are unable to achieve optimum benefits from azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine because of undesirable metabolism related to high thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity characterized by hepatic transaminitis secondary to increased 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) production and reduced levels of therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN). Allopurinol can optimize this skewed metabolism. We discuss two brothers who were both diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). Their disease remained active despite oral and topical mesalamines. Steroids followed by 6-mercaptopurine (MP) were unsuccessfully introduced for both patients and both were found to have high 6-MMP and low 6-TGN levels, despite normal TMPT enzyme activity, accompanied by transaminitis. Allopurinol was introduced in combination with MP dose reduction. For both brothers addition of allopurinol was associated with successful remission and optimized MP metabolites. These siblings with active UC illustrate that skewed thiopurine metabolism may occur despite normal TPMT enzyme activity and can lead to adverse events in the absence of disease control. We confirm previous data showing that addition of allopurinol can reverse this skewed metabolism, and reduce both hepatotoxicity and disease activity, but we now also introduce the concept of a family history of preferential MP metabolism as a clue to effective management for other family members. PMID:22147254

  14. Metabolic Adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to Oxygen Stress by Cell-to-Cell Clumping and Flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N.; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K.; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S.; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists. PMID:26407887

  15. Metabolic adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to oxygen stress by cell-to-cell clumping and flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B; Alexandre, Gladys

    2015-12-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists.

  16. Metabolic analysis of adaptation to short-term changes in culture conditions of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz A Bromke

    Full Text Available This report describes the metabolic and lipidomic profiling of 97 low-molecular weight compounds from the primary metabolism and 124 lipid compounds of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. The metabolic profiles were created for diatoms perturbed for 24 hours with four different treatments: (I removal of nitrogen, (II lower iron concentration, (III addition of sea salt, (IV addition of carbonate to their growth media. Our results show that as early as 24 hours after nitrogen depletion significant qualitative and quantitative change in lipid composition as well as in the primary metabolism of Thalassiosira pseudonana occurs. So we can observe the accumulation of several storage lipids, namely triacylglycerides, and TCA cycle intermediates, of which citric acid increases more than 10-fold. These changes are positively correlated with expression of TCA enzymes genes. Next to the TCA cycle intermediates and storage lipid changes, we have observed decrease in N-containing lipids and primary metabolites such as amino acids. As a measure of counteracting nitrogen starvation, we have observed elevated expression levels of nitrogen uptake and amino acid biosynthetic genes. This indicates that diatoms can fast and efficiently adapt to changing environment by altering the metabolic fluxes and metabolite abundances. Especially, the accumulation of proline and the decrease of dimethylsulfoniopropionate suggest that the proline is the main osmoprotectant for the diatom in nitrogen rich conditions.

  17. Metabolic analysis of adaptation to short-term changes in culture conditions of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromke, Mariusz A; Giavalisco, Patrick; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hesse, Holger

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the metabolic and lipidomic profiling of 97 low-molecular weight compounds from the primary metabolism and 124 lipid compounds of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. The metabolic profiles were created for diatoms perturbed for 24 hours with four different treatments: (I) removal of nitrogen, (II) lower iron concentration, (III) addition of sea salt, (IV) addition of carbonate to their growth media. Our results show that as early as 24 hours after nitrogen depletion significant qualitative and quantitative change in lipid composition as well as in the primary metabolism of Thalassiosira pseudonana occurs. So we can observe the accumulation of several storage lipids, namely triacylglycerides, and TCA cycle intermediates, of which citric acid increases more than 10-fold. These changes are positively correlated with expression of TCA enzymes genes. Next to the TCA cycle intermediates and storage lipid changes, we have observed decrease in N-containing lipids and primary metabolites such as amino acids. As a measure of counteracting nitrogen starvation, we have observed elevated expression levels of nitrogen uptake and amino acid biosynthetic genes. This indicates that diatoms can fast and efficiently adapt to changing environment by altering the metabolic fluxes and metabolite abundances. Especially, the accumulation of proline and the decrease of dimethylsulfoniopropionate suggest that the proline is the main osmoprotectant for the diatom in nitrogen rich conditions. PMID:23799147

  18. Reduction of cardiac and pulmonary complication probabilities after breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine S; Pedersen, Anders N; Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine;

    2006-01-01

    tomography studies showed that both voluntary DIBH and IG provided reduction of the lung V50 (relative volume receiving more than 50% of prescription dose) on the order of 30-40%, and a 80-90% reduction of the heart V50 for left-sided cancers. Corresponding pneumonitis probability of 28.1% (range, 0...

  19. Adaptive Model Predictive Control of Diesel Engine Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction or SCR is coming into worldwide use for diesel engine emissions reduction for on- and off-highway vehicles. These applications are characterized by broad operating range as well as rapid and unpredictable changes in operating conditions. Significant nonlinearity, input and output constraints, and stringent performance…

  20. Metabolic heat production and thermal conductance are mass-independent adaptations to thermal environment in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristoe, Trevor S; Burger, Joseph R; Balk, Meghan A; Khaliq, Imran; Hof, Christian; Brown, James H

    2015-12-29

    The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander-Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their high, relatively constant body temperatures in the face of wide variation in environmental temperature. The S-I model shows how body temperature is regulated by balancing the rates of heat production and heat loss. Both rates scale with body size, suggesting that larger animals should be better adapted to cold environments than smaller animals, and vice versa. However, the global distributions of ∼9,000 species of terrestrial birds and mammals show that the entire range of body sizes occurs in nearly all climatic regimes. Using physiological and environmental temperature data for 211 bird and 178 mammal species, we test for mass-independent adaptive changes in two key parameters of the S-I model: basal metabolic rate (BMR) and thermal conductance. We derive an axis of thermal adaptation that is independent of body size, extends the S-I model, and highlights interactions among physiological and morphological traits that allow endotherms to persist in a wide range of temperatures. Our macrophysiological and macroecological analyses support our predictions that shifts in BMR and thermal conductance confer important adaptations to environmental temperature in both birds and mammals.

  1. Metabolic adaptations in a H2 producing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium: potentials and implications for biological engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Martin; Ow, Saw Yen; Holmqvist, Marie; Zhang, Xiaohui; van Wagenen, Jon; Wright, Phillip C; Stensjö, Karin

    2011-04-01

    Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a photoautotrophic cyanobacterium with the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and photoproduce hydrogen through the enzyme nitrogenase. The H(2) produced is reoxidized by an uptake hydrogenase. Inactivation of the uptake hydrogenase in N. punctiforme leads to increased H(2) release but unchanged rates of N(2) fixation, indicating redirected metabolism. System-wide understanding of the mechanisms of this metabolic redirection was obtained using complementary quantitative proteomic approaches, at both the filament and the heterocyst level. Of the total 1070 identified and quantified proteins, 239 were differentially expressed in the uptake hydrogenase mutant (NHM5) as compared to wild type. Our results indicate that the inactivation of uptake hydrogenase in N. punctiforme changes the overall metabolic equilibrium, affecting both oxygen reduction mechanisms in heterocysts as well as processes providing reducing equivalents for metabolic functions such as N(2) fixation. We identify specific metabolic processes used by NHM5 to maintain a high rate of N(2) fixation, and thereby potential targets for further improvement of nitrogenase based H(2) photogeneration. These targets include, but are not limited to, components of the oxygen scavenging capacity and cell envelope of heterocysts and proteins directly or indirectly involved in reduced carbon transport from vegetative cells to heterocysts.

  2. A Shape Memory Polymer Dialysis Needle Adapter for the Reduction of Hemodynamic Stress within Arteriovenous Grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J M; Small, W; Wilson, T S; Benett, W; Loge, J; Maitland, D J

    2006-08-16

    A deployable, shape memory polymer adapter is investigated for reducing the hemodynamic stress caused by a dialysis needle flow within an arteriovenous graft. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of dialysis sessions with and without the adapter demonstrate that the adapter provides a significant decrease in the wall shear stress. In vitro flow visualization measurements are made within a graft model following delivery and actuation of a prototype shape memory polymer adapter. Vascular access complications resulting from arteriovenous (AV) graft failures account for over $1 billion per year in the health care costs of dialysis patients in the U.S.[1] The primary mode of failure of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF's) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts is the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and the subsequent formation of stenotic lesions, resulting in a graft flow decline. The hemodynamic stresses arising within AVF's and PTFE grafts play an important role in the pathogenesis of IH. Studies have shown that vascular damage can occur in regions where there is flow separation, oscillation, or extreme values of wall shear stress (WSS).[2] Nevaril et al.[3] show that exposure of red blood cells to WSS's on the order of 1500 dynes/cm2 can result in hemolysis. Hemodynamic stress from dialysis needle flow has recently been investigated for the role it plays in graft failure. Using laser Doppler velocimetry measurements, Unnikrishnan et al.[4] show that turbulence intensities are 5-6 times greater in the AV flow when the needle flow is present and that increased levels of turbulence exist for approximately 7-8cm downstream of the needle. Since the AVF or PTFE graft is exposed to these high levels of hemodynamic stress several hours each week during dialysis sessions, it is quite possible that needle flow is an important contributor to vascular access occlusion.[4] We present a method for reducing the hemodynamic stress in an AV graft by tailoring

  3. Pseudo-transition Analysis Identifies the Key Regulators of Dynamic Metabolic Adaptations from Steady-State Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Luca; Haverkorn van Rijsewijk, Bart R B; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Kochanowski, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas S B; Noor, Elad; Sauer, Uwe

    2015-10-28

    Hundreds of molecular-level changes within central metabolism allow a cell to adapt to the changing environment. A primary challenge in cell physiology is to identify which of these molecular-level changes are active regulatory events. Here, we introduce pseudo-transition analysis, an approach that uses multiple steady-state observations of (13)C-resolved fluxes, metabolites, and transcripts to infer which regulatory events drive metabolic adaptations following environmental transitions. Pseudo-transition analysis recapitulates known biology and identifies an unexpectedly sparse, transition-dependent regulatory landscape: typically a handful of regulatory events drive adaptation between carbon sources, with transcription mainly regulating TCA cycle flux and reactants regulating EMP pathway flux. We verify these observations using time-resolved measurements of the diauxic shift, demonstrating that some dynamic transitions can be approximated as monotonic shifts between steady-state extremes. Overall, we show that pseudo-transition analysis can explore the vast regulatory landscape of dynamic transitions using relatively few steady-state data, thereby guiding time-consuming, hypothesis-driven molecular validations. PMID:27136056

  4. Flux analysis of central metabolic pathways in Geobactermetallireducens during reduction of solubleFe(III)-NTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Chakraborty, Romy; Garcia-Martin, Hector; Chu,Jeannie; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the carbon fluxes in the central metabolism ofGeobacter metallireducens strain GS-15 using 13C isotopomer modeling.Acetate labeled in the 1st or 2nd position was the sole carbon source,and Fe-NTA was the sole terminal electron acceptor. The measured labeledacetate uptake rate was 21 mmol/gdw/h in the exponential growth phase.The resulting isotope labeling pattern of amino acids allowed an accuratedetermination of the in vivo global metabolic reaction rates (fluxes)through the central metabolic pathways using a computational isotopomermodel. The tracer experiments showed that G. metallireducens containedcomplete biosynthesis pathways for essential metabolism, and this strainmight also have an unusual isoleucine biosynthesis route (usingacetyl-CoA and pyruvate as the precursors). The model indicated that over90 percent of the acetate was completely oxidized to CO2 via a completetricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle while reducing iron. Pyruvate carboxylaseand phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present under theseconditions, but enzymes in the glyoxylate shunt and malic enzyme wereabsent. Gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway were mainlyemployed for biosynthesis and accounted for less than 3 percent of totalcarbon consumption. The model also indicated surprisingly highreversibility in the reaction between oxoglutarate and succinate. Thisstep operates close to the thermodynamic equilibrium possibly becausesuccinate is synthesized via a transferase reaction, and the conversionof oxoglutarate to succinate is a rate limiting step for carbonmetabolism. These findings enable a better understanding of therelationship between genome annotation and extant metabolic pathways inG. metallireducens.

  5. Marked reduction of cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with advanced cirrhosis; A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatoko, Toshiharu; Murai, Koichiro; Ibayashi, Setsurou; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nomiyama, Kensuke; Sadoshima, Seizo; Eujishima, Masatoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}), and oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with cirrhosis (two males and two females, aged 57 to 69 years) in comparison with those in five age matched controls with previous transient global amnesia. PET studies were carried out when the patients were fully alert and oriented after the episodes of encephalopathy. In the patients, rCBF tended to be lower, while rCMRO{sub 2} was significantly lowered in almost all hemisphere cortices, more markedly in the frontal cortex. Our results suggest that the brain oxygen metabolism is diffusely impaired in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and the frontal cortex seems to be more susceptible to the systemic metabolic derangements induced by chronic liver disease. (author).

  6. Dynamical feedback between circadian clock and sucrose availability explains adaptive response of starch metabolism to various photoperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Gabriel Feugier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants deal with resource management during all their life. During the day they feed on photosynthetic carbon, sucrose, while storing a part into starch for night use. Careful control of carbon partitioning, starch degradation and sucrose export rates is crucial to avoid carbon starvation, insuring optimal growth whatever the photoperiod. Efficient regulation of these key metabolic rates can give an evolutionary advantage to plants. Here we propose a model of adaptive starch metabolism in response to various photoperiods. We assume the three key metabolic rates to be circadian regulated in leaves and that their phases of oscillations are shifted in response to sucrose starvation. We performed gradient descents for various photoperiod conditions to find the corresponding optimal sets of phase shifts that minimize starvation. Results at convergence were all consistent with experimental data: i diurnal starch profile showed linear increase during the day and linear decrease at night; ii shorter photoperiod tended to increase starch synthesis speed while decreasing its degradation speed during the longer night; iii sudden early dusk showed slower starch degradation during the longer night. Profiles that best explained observations corresponded to circadian regulation of all rates. This theoretical study would establish a framework for future research on feedback between starch metabolism and circadian clock as well as plant productivity.

  7. FGF21 as a Stress Hormone: The Roles of FGF21 in Stress Adaptation and the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kook Hwan Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an endocrine hormone that is primarily expressed in the liver and exerts beneficial effects on obesity and related metabolic diseases. In addition to its remarkable pharmacologic actions, the physiological roles of FGF21 include the maintenance of energy homeostasis in the body in conditions of metabolic or environmental stress. The expression of FGF21 is induced in multiple organs in response to diverse physiological or pathological stressors, such as starvation, nutrient excess, autophagy deficiency, mitochondrial stress, exercise, and cold exposure. Thus, the FGF21 induction caused by stress plays an important role in adaptive response to these stimuli. Here, we highlight our current understanding of the functional importance of the induction of FGF21 by diverse stressors as a feedback mechanism that prevents excessive stress.

  8. Metabolic Adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to Oxygen Stress by Cell-to-Cell Clumping and Flocculation

    OpenAIRE

    Bible, Amber N.; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K.; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S.; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Gregory B Hurst; Alexandre, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clum...

  9. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-08-01

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)-chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)-chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9-chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31-chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31-inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops. PMID:27450089

  10. Transcriptome profiles of the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus reveal that excretory-secretory products are essential to metabolic adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic hydatid disease (CHD is caused by the larval stages of the cestode and affects humans and domestic animals worldwide. Protoscoleces (PSCs are one component of the larval stages that can interact with both definitive and intermediate hosts. Previous genomic and transcriptomic data have provided an overall snapshot of the genomics of the growth and development of this parasite. However, our understanding of how PSCs subvert the immune response of hosts and maintains metabolic adaptation remains unclear. In this study, we used Roche 454 sequencing technology and in silico secretome analysis to explore the transcriptome profiles of the PSCs from E. granulosus and elucidate the potential functions of the excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs released by the parasite.A large number of nonredundant sequences as unigenes were generated (26,514, of which 22,910 (86.4% were mapped to the newly published E. granulosus genome and 17,705 (66.8% were distributed within the coding sequence (CDS regions. Of the 2,280 ESPs predicted from the transcriptome, 138 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, while 124 ESPs were inferred to be involved in the metabolism of protein. Eleven ESPs were identified as intracellular enzymes that regulate glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (GL/GN pathways, while a further 44 antigenic proteins, 25 molecular chaperones and four proteases were highly represented. Many proteins were also found to be significantly enriched in development-related signaling pathways, such as the TGF-β receptor pathways and insulin pathways.This study provides valuable information on the metabolic adaptation of parasites to their hosts that can be used to aid the development of novel intervention targets for hydatid treatment and control.

  11. Disruption of the acyl-coa binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Bloksgaard, Maria; Sørensen, Signe Bek;

    2011-01-01

    , little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice go through a crisis with overall weakness, and a slightly decreased growth...... rate. Using microarray analysis we show that the liver of ACBP-/- mice display a significantly delayed adaptation to weaning with late induction of target genes of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) family. As a result, hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is decreased at weaning....... The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning and leads...

  12. Artifact reduction of compressed images and video combining adaptive fuzzy filtering and directional anisotropic diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2011-01-01

    and ringing artifacts, we have applied directional anisotropic diffusion. Besides that, the selection of the adaptive threshold parameter for the diffusion coefficient has also improved the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results on JPEG compressed images as well as MJPEG and H.264 compressed...

  13. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  14. Rician noise reduction in magnetic resonance images using adaptive non-local mean and guided image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq; Chu, Yeon-Ho; Choi, Young-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a Rician noise reduction method for magnetic resonance (MR) images. The proposed method is based on adaptive non-local mean and guided image filtering techniques. In the first phase, a guidance image is obtained from the noisy image through an adaptive non-local mean filter. Sobel operators are applied to compute the strength of edges which is further used to control the spread of the kernel in non-local mean filtering. In the second phase, the noisy and the guidance images are provided to the guided image filter as input to restore the noise-free image. The improved performance of the proposed method is investigated using the simulated and real data sets of MR images. Its performance is also compared with the previously proposed state-of-the art methods. Comparative analysis demonstrates the superiority of the proposed scheme over the existing approaches.

  15. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C

    2015-01-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested stat...

  16. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood ...

  17. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland); Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH 3004 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Salicornia europaea under saline conditions revealed the adaptive primary metabolic pathways as early events to facilitate salt adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Halophytes such as Salicornia europaea have evolved to exhibit unique mechanisms controlled by complex networks and regulated by numerous genes and interactions to adapt to habitats with high salinity. However, these mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: To investigate the mechanism by which halophytes tolerate salt based on changes in the whole transcriptome, we performed transcriptome sequencing and functional annotation by database search. Using the unigene database, we conducted digital gene expression analysis of S. europaea at various time points after these materials were treated with NaCl. We also quantified ion uptakes. Gene functional enrichment analysis was performed to determine the important pathways involved in this process. RESULTS: A total of 57,151 unigenes with lengths of >300 bp were assembled, in which 57.5% of these unigenes were functionally annotated. Differentially expressed genes indicated that cell wall metabolism and lignin biosynthetic pathways were significantly enriched in S. europaea to promote the development of the xylem under saline conditions. This result is consistent with the increase in sodium uptake as ions pass through the xylem. Given that PSII efficiency remained unaltered, salt treatment activated the expression of electron transfer-related genes encoded by the chloroplast chromosome. Chlorophyll biosynthesis was also inhibited, indicating the energy-efficient state of the electron transfer system of S. europaea. CONCLUSIONS: The key function of adjusting important primary metabolic pathways in salt adaption was identified by analyzing the changes in the transcriptome of S. europaea. These pathways could involve unique salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes. This study also provided information as the basis of future investigations on salt response genes in S. europaea. Ample gene resources were also provided to improve the genes responsible for the salt tolerance ability of crops.

  19. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. Dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of thoracic outlet syndrome by anatomically adapted tube current modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastora, I.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Remy, J. [Dept. of Radiology, University Center Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Medical Research Group, Lille (France); Suess, C.; Scherf, C. [Siemens Medical Systems, Forcheim (Germany); Guillot, J.P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Center Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of the thoracic outlet by on-line tube-current control. Prospectively, 114 patients undergoing spiral CT angiography of the subclavian artery for thoracic outlet arterial syndromes were evaluated with and without tube-current modulation at the same session (scanning parameters for the two successive angiograms, one in the neutral position and one after the postural maneuver): 140 kV; 206 mA; scan time 0.75 s; collimation 3 mm; pitch = (1). The dose reduction system was applied in the neutral position in the first 92 consecutive patients and after postural maneuver in the remaining 22 consecutive patients. Dose reduction and image quality were analyzed in the overall study group (group 1; n = 114). The influence of the arm position was assessed in 44 of the 114 patients (group 2), matched by the transverse diameter of the upper thorax. The mean dose reduction was 33 % in group 1 (range 22-40 %) and 34 % in group 2 (range 26-40 %). In group 2 the only difference in image quality was a significantly higher frequency of graininess on low-dose scans compared with reference scans whatever the patient's arm position, graded as minimal in 38 of the 44 patients (86 %). When the low-dose technique was applied after postural maneuver in group 2: (a) the mean dose reduction was significantly higher (35 vs 32 % in the neutral position; p = 0.006); (b) graininess was less frequent (82 vs 91 % in the neutral position); and (c) the percentage of graininess graded as minimal was significantly higher (83 vs 70 % in the neutral position; p = 0.2027). On-line tube-current modulation enables dose reduction on high-quality, diagnostic spiral CT angiograms of the thoracic outlet and should be applied during data acquisition in the neutral position and after postural maneuver for optimal use. (orig.)

  1. The impact of head movements on EEG and contact impedance: an adaptive filtering solution for motion artifact reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlovic, Vojkan; Patki, Shrishail; Grundlehner, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Designing and developing a comfortable and convenient EEG system for daily usage that can provide reliable and robust EEG signal, encompasses a number of challenges. Among them, the most ambitious is the reduction of artifacts due to body movements. This paper studies the effect of head movement artifacts on the EEG signal and on the dry electrode-tissue impedance (ETI), monitored continuously using the imec's wireless EEG headset. We have shown that motion artifacts have huge impact on the EEG spectral content in the frequency range lower than 20 Hz. Coherence and spectral analysis revealed that ETI is not capable of describing disturbances at very low frequencies (below 2 Hz). Therefore, we devised a motion artifact reduction (MAR) method that uses a combination of a band-pass filtering and multi-channel adaptive filtering (AF), suitable for real-time MAR. This method was capable of substantially reducing artifacts produced by head movements.

  2. Ready for the Storm: Education for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Fumiyo; Selby, David

    2012-01-01

    Incidences of disaster and climate change impacts are rising globally. Disaster risk reduction and climate change education are two educational responses to present and anticipated increases in the severity and frequency of hazards. They share significant complementarities and potential synergies, the latter as yet largely unexploited. Three…

  3. Adaptive reduction of the vibrations from a vacuum pump for high-precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.; Wesselink, J.M.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with active vibration reduction on a setup with a vacuum pump that is tightly coupled with high-precision equipment. The precision of this equipment is critically dependent on the level of the vibrations that are introduced by the vacuum pump. The vibrations were red

  4. Tumour-specific metabolic adaptation to acidosis is coupled to epigenetic stability in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chano, Tokuhiro; Avnet, Sofia; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Sonveaux, Pierre; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Baldini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The glycolytic-based metabolism of cancers promotes an acidic microenvironment that is responsible for increased aggressiveness. However, the effects of acidosis on tumour metabolism have been almost unexplored. By using capillary electrophoresis with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we observed a significant metabolic difference associated with glycolysis repression (dihydroxyacetone phosphate), increase of amino acid catabolism (phosphocreatine and glutamate) and urea cycle enhancement (arginino succinic acid) in osteosarcoma (OS) cells compared with normal fibroblasts. Noteworthy, metabolites associated with chromatin modification, like UDP-glucose and N(8)-acetylspermidine, decreased more in OS cells than in fibroblasts. COBRA assay and acetyl-H3 immunoblotting indicated an epigenetic stability in OS cells than in normal cells, and OS cells were more sensitive to an HDAC inhibitor under acidosis than under neutral pH. Since our data suggest that acidosis promotes a metabolic reprogramming that can contribute to the epigenetic maintenance under acidosis only in tumour cells, the acidic microenvironment should be considered for future therapies. PMID:27186436

  5. A PPAR gamma-FGF1 axis is required for adaptive adipose remodelling and metabolic homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Johan W.; Suh, Jae Myoung; Atkins, Annette R.; Ahmadian, Maryam; Li, Pingping; Whyte, Jamie; He, Mingxiao; Juguilon, Henry; Yin, Yun-Qiang; Phillips, Colin T.; Yu, Ruth T.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Henry, Robert R.; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    Although feast and famine cycles illustrate that remodelling of adipose tissue in response to fluctuations in nutrient availability is essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood(1,2). Here we identify fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) as a cri

  6. A transcription factor links growth rate and metabolism in the hypersaline adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Horia; Dulmage, Keely; Gillum, Nicholas; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Schmid, Amy K

    2014-09-01

    Co-ordinating metabolism and growth is a key challenge for all organisms. Despite fluctuating environments, cells must produce the same metabolic outputs to thrive. The mechanisms underlying this 'growth homeostasis' are known in bacteria and eukaryotes, but remain unexplored in archaea. In the model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum, the transcription factor TrmB regulates enzyme-coding genes in diverse metabolic pathways in response to glucose. However, H. salinarum is thought not to catabolize glucose. To resolve this discrepancy, we demonstrate that TrmB regulates the gluconeogenic production of sugars incorporated into the cell surface S-layer glycoprotein. Additionally, we show that TrmB-DNA binding correlates with instantaneous growth rate, likely because S-layer glycosylation is proportional to growth. This suggests that TrmB transduces a growth rate signal to co-regulated metabolic pathways including amino acid, purine, and cobalamin biosynthesis. Remarkably, the topology and function of this growth homeostatic network appear conserved across domains despite extensive alterations in protein components.

  7. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations to fasting in lean and obese individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, Marjolein A.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we examined several effects of fasting in lean and obese individuals. As expected, both the hormonal response as well as the metabolic shift from glucose towards lipid oxidation was impaired in obese individuals. At baseline, mitochondrial protein content in skeletal muscle of obese s

  8. Tumour-specific metabolic adaptation to acidosis is coupled to epigenetic stability in osteosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chano, Tokuhiro; Avnet, Sofia; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Sonveaux, Pierre; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Baldini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The glycolytic-based metabolism of cancers promotes an acidic microenvironment that is responsible for increased aggressiveness. However, the effects of acidosis on tumour metabolism have been almost unexplored. By using capillary electrophoresis with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we observed a significant metabolic difference associated with glycolysis repression (dihydroxyacetone phosphate), increase of amino acid catabolism (phosphocreatine and glutamate) and urea cycle enhancement (arginino succinic acid) in osteosarcoma (OS) cells compared with normal fibroblasts. Noteworthy, metabolites associated with chromatin modification, like UDP-glucose and N8-acetylspermidine, decreased more in OS cells than in fibroblasts. COBRA assay and acetyl-H3 immunoblotting indicated an epigenetic stability in OS cells than in normal cells, and OS cells were more sensitive to an HDAC inhibitor under acidosis than under neutral pH. Since our data suggest that acidosis promotes a metabolic reprogramming that can contribute to the epigenetic maintenance under acidosis only in tumour cells, the acidic microenvironment should be considered for future therapies. PMID:27186436

  9. Adaptation of energy metabolism to undernutrition in ewes. Contribution of portal-drained viscera, liver and hindquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigues, I; Durand, D

    1995-02-01

    Adaptation of energy metabolism to undernutrition and to the duration of undernutrition was studied in adult, non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes at the whole-animal, portal-drained viscera, liver and hindquarters levels. Arterio-venous and indirect calorimetry techniques were used. Animals were successively fed at 1 times (3 weeks) and at 0.5 times (7 weeks) their metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance (MEm). Portal, hepatic and hindquarters blood flows in quietly standing ewes decreased by 22, 19 and 11% respectively within the first week of undernutrition and remained at that level thereafter. Standardizing hindquarters blood flow to that in a given posture (quietly standing) reduced blood flow by 9.8%. In the portal-drained viscera and liver, O2 extraction rates decreased, leading to 34 and 38% drops in O2 consumption with underfeeding respectively. In the hindquarters, O2 extraction rate increased, partly counterbalancing the drop in blood flow. Thus O2 consumption of hindquarters tended to decrease but the effect was not significant. All changes appeared to be completed from day 5 of underfeeding. Consequently, the portal-drained viscera, liver and carcass were responsible for 39, 32 and 5% respectively of the drop in whole-animal O2 consumption with underfeeding. At the end of the 0.5 x MEm period, in vivo metabolic rates averaged 1.65, 4.89 and 0.38 mmol O2 consumed/d per g fresh weight of adipose-tissue-free portal-drained viscera, liver and boneless hindquarters respectively. Undernutrition imposed a much greater nutritional challenge to splanchnic tissues than to hindquarters. The former reduced their energy expenditure whereas hindquarters metabolism adapted by counteracting the slight drop in nutrient supply.

  10. Reduction of skin stretch induced motion artifacts in electrocardiogram monitoring using adaptive filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Pecht, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of electrocardiogram (ECG) monitors can be significantly impaired by motion artifacts which can cause misdiagnoses, lead to inappropriate treatment decisions, and trigger false alarms. Skin stretch associated with patient motion is a significant source of motion artifacts in current ECG monitoring. In this study, motion artifacts are adaptively filtered by using skin strain as the reference variable. Skin strain is measured non-invasively using a light emitting diode (LED) and an optical sensor incorporated in an ECG electrode. The results demonstrate that this device and method can significantly reduce skin strain induced ECG artifacts.

  11. Improved Reproduction of Stops in Noise Reduction Systems with Adaptive Windows and Nonstationarity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Mauler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new block-based noise reduction system is proposed which focuses on the preservation of transient sounds like stops or speech onsets. The power level of consonants has been shown to be important for speech intelligibility. In single-channel noise reduction systems, however, these sounds are frequently severely attenuated. The main reasons for this are an insufficient temporal resolution of transient sounds and a delayed tracking of important control parameters. The key idea of the proposed system is the detection of non-stationary input data. Depending on that decision, a pair of spectral analysis-synthesis windows is selected which either provides high temporal or high spectral resolution. Furthermore, the decision-directed approach for the estimation of the a priori SNR is modified so that speech onsets are tracked more quickly without sacrificing performance in stationary signal regions. The proposed solution shows significant improvements in the preservation of stops with an overall system delay (input-output, excluding group delay of noise reduction filter of only 10 milliseconds.

  12. Reduction of benzene metabolism and toxicity in mice that lack CYP2E1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, J L; Lee, S S; Seaton, M J; Asgharian, B; Farris, G; Corton, J C; Gonzalez, F J; Medinsky, M A

    1996-11-01

    Transgenic CYP2E1 knockout mice (cyp2e1-/-) were used to investigate the involvement of CYP2E1 in the in vivo metabolism of benzene and in the development of benzene-induced toxicity. After benzene exposure, absence of CYP2E1 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis of mouse liver samples. For the metabolism studies, male cyp2e1-/- and wild-type control mice were exposed to 200 ppm benzene, along with a radiolabeled tracer dose of [14C]benzene (1.0 Ci/mol) by nose-only inhalation for 6 hr. Total urinary radioactivity and all radiolabeled individual metabolites were reduced in urine of cyp2e1-/- mice compared to wild-type controls during the 48-hr period after benzene exposure. In addition, a significantly greater percentage of total urinary radioactivity could be accounted for as phenylsulfate conjugates in cyp2e1-/- mice compared to wild-type mice, indicating the importance of CYP2E1 in oxidation of phenol following benzene exposure in normal mice. For the toxicity studies, male cyp2e1-/-, wild-type, and B6C3F1 mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0 ppm (control) or 200 ppm benzene, 6 hr/day for 5 days. On Day 5, blood, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen were removed for evaluation of micronuclei frequencies and tissue cellularities. No benzene-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity was observed in cyp2e1-/- mice. In contrast, benzene exposure resulted in severe genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in both wild-type and B6C3F1 mice. These studies conclusively demonstrate that CYP2E1 is the major determinant of in vivo benzene metabolism and benzene-induced myelotoxicity in mice.

  13. Data reduction in the ITMS system through a data acquisition model with self-adaptive sampling rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain)], E-mail: mariano.ruiz@upm.es; Lopez, JM.; Arcas, G. de [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Barrera, E. [Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Melendez, R. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Long pulse or steady state operation of fusion experiments require data acquisition and processing systems that reduce the volume of data involved. The availability of self-adaptive sampling rate systems and the use of real-time lossless data compression techniques can help solve these problems. The former is important for continuous adaptation of sampling frequency for experimental requirements. The latter allows the maintenance of continuous digitization under limited memory conditions. This can be achieved by permanent transmission of compressed data to other systems. The compacted transfer ensures the use of minimum bandwidth. This paper presents an implementation based on intelligent test and measurement system (ITMS), a data acquisition system architecture with multiprocessing capabilities that permits it to adapt the system's sampling frequency throughout the experiment. The sampling rate can be controlled depending on the experiment's specific requirements by using an external dc voltage signal or by defining user events through software. The system takes advantage of the high processing capabilities of the ITMS platform to implement a data reduction mechanism based in lossless data compression algorithms which are themselves based in periodic deltas.

  14. Phylogeography, salinity adaptations and metabolic potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria based on a partial single cell genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nigro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that has been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome (SAG of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source.

  15. Responses of mouse skeletal muscle to endurance exercise. Functional, metabolic, and genomic adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Snoo, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Endurance exercise is commonly known to improve skeletal muscle performance with respect to fatigue resistance. The exact mechanisms, however, as to how skeletal muscle adapts to increased physical demand are still largely unknown, despite extensive research. These processes were originally studied

  16. Metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to voluntary wheel running exercise in hypertensive heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, Ryan;

    2013-01-01

    The Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rat mimics the human progression of hypertension from hypertrophy to heart failure. However, it is unknown whether SHHF animals can exercise at sufficient levels to observe beneficial biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle. Thirty-seven fema...

  17. Effects of Reductive Biomineralization of Ferric Hydroxides on Sustained Microbial Metabolism and Contaminant Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, C. M.; Benner, S. G.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S.

    2002-12-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides not only serve as potent sorbents and repositories for contaminants but also provide a terminal electron acceptor for microbial respiration. The microbial reduction of Fe (hydr)oxides and subsequent secondary solid-phase transformations will, therefore, have a profound influence on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe and associated metals. Here we elucidate the pathways and mechanisms of secondary mineralization during dissimilatory iron reduction of 2-line ferrihydrite under advective flow conditions. Solids were characterized using a host of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to quantitatively determine the mineral components and microbial-mineral interactions. Secondary mineralization of ferrihydrite occurs via a coupled, biotic-abiotic pathway resulting in the production of primarily magnetite and goethite. Operating mineralization pathways are dictated by competing abiotic reactions of bacterially-generated ferrous iron with the ferrihydrite surface. The distribution of goethite and magnetite within the column is dictated, in large part, by flow-induced ferrous Fe profiles. While goethite precipitation ensues over a large Fe(II) concentration range, magnetite accumulation is only observed at concentrations exceeding 0.3 mM over a 9 d reaction period thus leading to a progression of magnetite levels downgradient within the column. While goethite's precipitation rate exceeds that of magnetite allowing for its initial precipitation, continued growth is inhibited by magnetite nucleation, most likely a result of lower Fe(III) activity. The operating secondary mineralization pathways following reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite at a given pH will therefore be governed by Fe(II) concentration, which drives mineral precipitation kinetics and selection of competing mineral pathways. The ultimate Fe mineral phase assemblage and distribution will have profound consequences on the reduction and sequestration of contaminants. For instance

  18. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Remodeling and Metabolic Adaptation: Redox Signaling and Role of Autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Elisabetta; Giammarioli, Anna Maria; Chiandotto, Sergio; Spoletini, Ilaria; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue. Exercise evokes signaling pathways that strongly modify myofiber metabolism and physiological and contractile properties of skeletal muscle. Regular physical activity is beneficial for health and is highly recommended for the prevention of several chronic conditions. In this review, we have focused our attention on the pathways that are known to mediate physical training-induced plasticity. Recent Advances: An important role for redox ...

  19. Leukemic Stem Cells Evade Chemotherapy by Metabolic Adaptation to an Adipose Tissue Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Haobin; Adane, Biniam; Khan, Nabilah; Sullivan, Timothy; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Gasparetto, Maura; Stevens, Brett; Pei, Shanshan; Balys, Marlene; Ashton, John M; Klemm, Dwight J; Woolthuis, Carolien M; Stranahan, Alec W; Park, Christopher Y; Jordan, Craig T

    2016-07-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) has previously been identified as an extra-medullary reservoir for normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and may promote tumor development. Here, we show that a subpopulation of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) can utilize gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) as a niche to support their metabolism and evade chemotherapy. In a mouse model of blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adipose-resident LSCs exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype and induce lipolysis in GAT. GAT lipolysis fuels fatty acid oxidation in LSCs, especially within a subpopulation expressing the fatty acid transporter CD36. CD36(+) LSCs have unique metabolic properties, are strikingly enriched in AT, and are protected from chemotherapy by the GAT microenvironment. CD36 also marks a fraction of human blast crisis CML and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells with similar biological properties. These findings suggest striking interplay between leukemic cells and AT to create a unique microenvironment that supports the metabolic demands and survival of a distinct LSC subpopulation. PMID:27374788

  20. Proteomic analysis of the metabolic adaptation of the biocontrol agent Pseudozyma flocculosa leading to glycolipid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélanger Richard R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast-like epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma flocculosa is known to antagonize powdery mildew fungi through proliferation on colonies presumably preceded by the release of an antifungal glycolipid (flocculosin. In culture conditions, P. flocculosa can be induced to produce or not flocculosin through manipulation of the culture medium nutrients. In order to characterize and understand the metabolic changes in P. flocculosa linked to glycolipid production, we conducted a 2-DE proteomic analysis and compared the proteomic profile of P. flocculosa growing under conditions favoring the development of the fungus (control or conducive to flocculosin synthesis (stress. A large number of protein spots (771 were detected in protein extracts of the control treatment compared to only 435 matched protein spots in extracts of the stress cultures, which clearly suggests an important metabolic reorganization in slow-growing cells producing flocculosin. From the latter treatment, we were able to identify 21 protein spots that were either specific to the treatment or up-regulated significantly (2-fold increase. All of them were identified based on similarity between predicted ORF of the newly sequenced genome of P. flocculosa with Ustilago maydis' available annotated sequences. These proteins were associated with the carbon and fatty acid metabolism, and also with the filamentous change of the fungus leading to flocculosin production. This first look into the proteome of P. flocculosa suggests that flocculosin synthesis is elicited in response to specific stress or limiting conditions.

  1. Reductions in urban outdoor water use as an adaptation to declining water supplies in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Hogue, T. S.; Litvak, E.; Mini, C.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    Many irrigated cities in the semi-arid west wish to reduce their water consumption by more efficiently planning and managing outdoor landscapes. This requires accurate information about the actual water budget of these landscapes, which is still quite uncertain. We evaluated urban water use and the potential for reductions in outdoor water use in Los Angeles, which relies heavily on imported water from high elevation recharge outside the urban area, and is therefore very sensitive to declining snowpack as a result of climate change. Most landscapes in Los Angeles are irrigated, and outdoor water use constitutes a significant fraction of total municipal water use. Quantifying the fate of this water and the implications for water-conserving landscape designs requires a combination of direct measurements, hydrologic modeling, and analysis of water consumption data. We analyzed water billing records in relation to climatic and land use characteristics, directly measured transpiration in a variety of species and landscape types, and characterized regional evapotranspiration (ET) with a remote-sensing based model. We found that climate variables explaining approximately 1-30% of the variability in residential water use depending on neighborhood. Over a 10 year period, there was no correlation between interannual variability in water use and interannual variability in remote-sensing based vegetation greenness. Following the implementation of conservation measures, residential water use declined throughout the city, but greenness remained constant. Direct measurements of plant water use and plant water relations confirmed that most vegetation was well-watered and showed few signs of water stress. Transpiration rates were highly species specific, with the highest transpiration rates and lowest water use efficiency found in species originating from humid environments or from riparian habitats. Unshaded turfgrass showed the highest rates of ET in any measured landscape, but

  2. Implementation of Adaptive Filter Structures on a Fixed Point Signal Processor for Acoustical Noise Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chunduri, Krishna Chaitanya; Gutti, Chalapathi

    2005-01-01

    The problem of controlling the noise level in the environment has been the focus of a tremendous amount of research over the years. Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) is one such approach that has been proposed for reduction of steady state noise. ANC refers to an electromechanical or electro acoustic technique of canceling an acoustic disturbance to yield a quieter environment. The basic principle of ANC is to introduce a canceling “anti-noise” signal that has the same amplitude but the exact o...

  3. The Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in the Course of Sulfate-Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Acid-producing phase reactor of two-phase anaerobic treatment process has remarkable advantages treating sulfate-laden wastewater. In order to investigate SRB population's capability of utilizing substrate and the microbial acidification type formed during the course of sulfate reduction, continuous-flow and batch tests were conducted in a continuous stirred tank bio-film reactor supplied with sodium sulfate as electron acceptor. The experimental results demonstrated that the acidification type formed b...

  4. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  5. [An adaptive scaling hybrid algorithm for reduction of CT artifacts caused by metal objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Luo, Hai; Zhou, He-qin

    2009-03-01

    A new adaptively hybrid filtering algorithm is proposed to reduce the artifacts caused by metal in CT image. Firstly, the method is used to preprocess the projection data of metal region and is reconstruct by filtered back projection (FBP) method. Then the expectation maximization algorithm (EM) is performed on the iterative original metal project data. Finally, a compensating procedure is applied to the reconstructed metal region. The simulation result has demonstrated that the proposed algorithm can remove the metal artifacts and keep the structure information of metal object effectively. It ensures that the tissues around the metal will not be distorted. The method is also computational efficient and effective for the CT images which contains several metal objects.

  6. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A;

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high......-fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  7. Effective long term adaptation and metabolic state regulation of ski-racers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhareva A.S.; Isaev A.P.; Erlikh V.V.; Aminov A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to scientifically substantiate effective mechanisms of organism’s bio-chemical adaptation of ski-racers in competition period with the help of lipid peroxidation indicators, oxidative modification of proteins and activity of hypothalamus pituitary adrenocortical system. Material: in the research 14 sportsmen of 18-25 years’ age (combined team of university) with different level of sportsmanship participated. Assessment of free radical oxidation, anti-oxidant system, cortisol level wa...

  8. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. PMID:26994581

  9. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia.

  10. Disruption of the Acyl-CoA binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Bloksgaard, Maria;

    -CoA esters between different enzymatic systems. However, little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice show decreased growth......) family, around the weaning period. As a result, the hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is significantly decreased at weaning. The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP...... to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP causes elevated levels of plasma and hepatic lipids during weaning, which interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning by delaying induction of the lipogenic gene programs in the liver....

  11. Changes in C-N metabolism under elevated CO2 and temperature in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.): an adaptation strategy under climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the possible role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in adaptation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) growing under ambient (370 ± 15 ppm) and elevated CO2 (700 ± 15 ppm), and jointly in elevated CO2 and temperature (30/22 °C for day/night). The key enzymes responsible for C-N metabolism were studied in different samples of Brassica juncea L. collected from ambient (AMB), elevated (ELE) and ELExT growth conditions. Total percent amount of C and N in leaves were particularly estimated to establish a clear understanding of aforesaid metabolism in plant adaptation. Furthermore, key morphological and physiological parameters such as plant height, leaf area index, dry biomass, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, total protein and chlorophyll contents were also studied in relation to C/N metabolism. The results indicated that the C-metabolizing enzymes, such as (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malic enzyme and citrate synthase) and the N-metabolizing enzymes, such as (aspartate amino transferase, glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) showed significantly (P ELExT > AMB growth conditions. This is also evident by significant (P adaptation in Brassica juncea L. against elevated CO2 and temperature prevailing in climate change scenarios.

  12. The Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers metabolic adaptation to ingested material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Taubert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (Pol(II dependent gene expression requires accessory factors termed transcriptional coregulators. One coregulator that universally contributes to Pol(II-dependent transcription is the Mediator, a multisubunit complex that is targeted by many transcriptional regulatory factors. For example, the Caenorhabditis elegans Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers the regulatory actions of the sterol response element binding protein SBP-1 and the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 on fatty acid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that MDT-15 displays a broader spectrum of activities, and that it integrates metabolic responses to materials ingested by C. elegans. Depletion of MDT-15 protein or mutation of the mdt-15 gene abrogated induction of specific detoxification genes in response to certain xenobiotics or heavy metals, rendering these animals hypersensitive to toxin exposure. Intriguingly, MDT-15 appeared to selectively affect stress responses related to ingestion, as MDT-15 functional defects did not abrogate other stress responses, e.g., thermotolerance. Together with our previous finding that MDT-15:NHR-49 regulatory complexes coordinate a sector of the fasting response, we propose a model whereby MDT-15 integrates several transcriptional regulatory pathways to monitor both the availability and quality of ingested materials, including nutrients and xenobiotic compounds.

  13. Regional difference of glucose metabolism reduction in equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. S.; Kang, E. J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, K. U.; Chung, J. K.; Woo, J. I.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in cerebral glucose metabolism between patients with equivocal Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and those with elderly major depression (DEP). 31 patients with eAD, 7 patients with DEP, and 15 age matched normal controls were scanned with FDG-PET. Each FDG-PET images was normalized to the cerebellar activity before voxel-voxel analysis using SPM99. In comparison with normal controls, the eAD patents showed the most significant reduction of glucose metabolism (hypometabolism) in anterior inferior temporal gyrus in left, followed by bilateral posterior cingulate, left thalamus, and inferior parietal lobe. Patients with DEP showed hypometabolism in precuneus, inferior and middle frontal gyri in left, and right angular gyrus. Significantly lower activity was found in left inferior temporal gyrus in DEP in comparison to the eAD. Patients with eAD and DEP showed different pattern of hypometabolism, especially in inferior temporal gyrus. FDG brain PET may be useful in differential diagnosis between equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depression.

  14. Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Edith E., E-mail: ed.mueller@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Mayr, Johannes A., E-mail: h.mayr@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Zimmermann, Franz A., E-mail: f.zimmermann@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Feichtinger, Rene G., E-mail: r.feichtinger@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Stanger, Olaf, E-mail: o.stanger@rbht.nhs.uk [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Sperl, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.sperl@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Kofler, Barbara, E-mail: b.kofler@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities in HEK293 cells devoid of mtDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzymes partially encoded by mtDNA show reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also the entirely nuclear encoded complex II and citrate synthase exhibit reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of mtDNA induces a feedback mechanism that downregulates complex II and citrate synthase. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 {rho}{sup 0} cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in {rho}{sup 0} cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  15. Adaptive grid artifact reduction in the frequency domain with spatial properties for x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Sanggyun

    2012-03-01

    By applying band-rejection filters (BRFs) in the frequency domain, we can efficiently reduce the grid artifacts, which are caused by using the antiscatter grid in obtaining x-ray digital images. However, if the frequency component of the grid artifact is relatively close to that of the object, then simply applying a BRF may seriously distort the object and cause the ringing artifacts. Since the ringing artifacts are quite dependent on the shape of the object to be recovered in the spatial domain, the spatial property of the x-ray image should be considered in applying BRFs. In this paper, we propose an adaptive filtering scheme, which can cooperate such different properties in the spatial domain. In the spatial domain, we compare several approaches, such as the mangnitude, edge, and frequency-modulation (FM) model-based algorithms, to detect the ringing artifact or the grid artifact component. In order to perform a robust detection whether the ringing artifact is strong or not, we employ the FM model for the extracted signal, which corresponds to a specific grid artifact. A detection of the position for the ringing artifact is then conducted based on the slope detection algorithm, which is commonly used as an FM discriminator in the communication area. However, the detected position of the ringing artifact is not accurate. Hence, in order to obtain an accurate detection result, we combine the edge-based approach with the FM model approach. Numerical result for real x-ray images shows that applying BRFs in the frequency domain in conjunction with the spatial property of the ringing artifact can successfully remove the grid artifact, distorting the object less.

  16. The adaptive metabolic response involves specific protein glutathionylation during the filamentation process in the pathogen Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergondey, R; Garcia, C; Serre, V; Camadro, J M; Auchère, F

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist pathogen responsible for a large spectrum of infections, from superficial mycosis to the systemic disease candidiasis. Its ability to adopt various morphological forms, such as unicellular yeasts, filamentous pseudohyphae and hyphae, contributes to its ability to survive within the host. It has been suggested that the antioxidant glutathione is involved in the filamentation process. We investigated S-glutathionylation, the reversible binding of glutathione to proteins, and the functional consequences on C. albicans metabolic remodeling during the yeast-to-hyphae transition. Our work provided evidence for the specific glutathionylation of mitochondrial proteins involved in bioenergetics pathways in filamentous forms and a regulation of the main enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase, by glutathionylation. Isocitrate lyase inactivation in the hyphal forms was reversed by glutaredoxin treatment, in agreement with a glutathionylation process, which was confirmed by proteomic data showing the binding of one glutathione molecule to the enzyme (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003685). We also assessed the effect of alternative carbon sources on glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity. Changes in nutrient availability led to morphological flexibility and were related to perturbations in glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity, confirming the key role of the maintenance of intracellular redox status in the adaptive metabolic strategy of the pathogen. PMID:27083931

  17. A Generalized Learning Curve Adapted for Purchasing and Cost Reduction Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam F. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use and validation of a generalized learning curve in the economies of scale purchasing experience. The model, based on Wright’s curve, incorporates two extra degrees of freedom to accommodate initial purchases of multiple (instead of single units and a finite asymptotic price at high volumes. The study shows that each time the part purchase quantity is doubled, the price is reduced either by a constant percentage (a learning rate or by an approach to an asymptotic plateau rate indicating a point of diminishing returns. Supplier price quotations at multiple purchase quantities were obtained for a pool of 17 critical parts. The data were fitted with the generalized learning curve by the method of least squares regression. The regressed learning rate, first unit price, and the asymptotic price can be used to infer supplier pricing strategies. Coupled with a “should-cost” analysis based on estimates of standard time and material, a system cost reduction task was carried out by the supply chain organization.

  18. How adaptable is the hydraulic system of European beech in the face of climate change-related precipitation reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Knutzen, Florian; Delzon, Sylvain; Jansen, Steven; Müller-Haubold, Hilmar; Burlett, Régis; Clough, Yann; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming will increase the drought exposure of many forests world-wide. It is not well understood how trees adapt their hydraulic architecture to a long-term decrease in water availability. We examined 23 traits characterizing the hydraulic architecture and growth rate of branches and the dependent foliage of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees along a precipitation gradient (855-594 mm yr(-1) ) on uniform soil. A main goal was to identify traits that are associated with xylem efficiency, safety and growth. Our data demonstrate for the first time a linear increase in embolism resistance with climatic aridity (by 10%) across populations within a species. Simultaneously, vessel diameter declined by 7% and pit membrane thickness (Tm ) increased by 15%. Although specific conductivity did not change, leaf-specific conductivity declined by 40% with decreasing precipitation. Of eight plant traits commonly associated with embolism resistance, only vessel density in combination with pathway redundancy and Tm were related. We did not confirm the widely assumed trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency but obtained evidence in support of a positive relationship between hydraulic efficiency and growth. We conclude that the branch hydraulic system of beech has a distinct adaptive potential to respond to a precipitation reduction as a result of the environmental control of embolism resistance.

  19. Adaptive block-wise alphabet reduction scheme for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Atef; Zouari, Sonia; Ghribi, Abdelaziz

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new adaptive block-wise lossless image compression algorithm, which is based on the so-called alphabet reduction scheme combined with an adaptive arithmetic coding (AC). This new encoding algorithm is particularly efficient for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms. AC is a very efficient technique for lossless data compression and produces a rate that is close to the entropy; however, a compression performance loss occurs when encoding images or blocks with a limited number of active symbols by comparison with the number of symbols in the nominal alphabet, which consists in the amplification of the zero frequency problem. Generally, most methods add one to the frequency count of each symbol from the nominal alphabet, which leads to a statistical model distortion, and therefore reduces the efficiency of the AC. The aim of this work is to overcome this drawback by assigning to each image block the smallest possible set including all the existing symbols called active symbols. This is an alternative of using the nominal alphabet when applying the conventional arithmetic encoders. We show experimentally that the proposed method outperforms several lossless image compression encoders and standards including the conventional arithmetic encoders, JPEG2000, and JPEG-LS.

  20. Bandwidth reduction of high-frequency sonar imagery in shallow water using content-adaptive hybrid image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Frances B.; Kil, David H.

    1998-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges in distributed underwater mine warfare for area sanitization and safe power projection during regional conflicts is transmission of compressed raw imagery data to a central processing station via a limited bandwidth channel while preserving crucial target information for further detection and automatic target recognition processing. Moreover, operating in an extremely shallow water with fluctuating channels and numerous interfering sources makes it imperative that image compression algorithms effectively deal with background nonstationarity within an image as well as content variation between images. In this paper, we present a novel approach to lossy image compression that combines image- content classification, content-adaptive bit allocation, and hybrid wavelet tree-based coding for over 100:1 bandwidth reduction with little sacrifice in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our algorithm comprises (1) content-adaptive coding that takes advantage of a classify-before-coding strategy to reduce data mismatch, (2) subimage transformation for energy compaction, and (3) a wavelet tree-based coding for efficient encoding of significant wavelet coefficients. Furthermore, instead of using the embedded zerotree coding with scalar quantization (SQ), we investigate the use of a hybrid coding strategy that combines SQ for high-magnitude outlier transform coefficients and classified vector quantization (CVQ) for compactly clustered coefficients. This approach helps us achieve reduced distortion error and robustness while achieving high compression ratio. Our analysis based on the high-frequency sonar real data that exhibit severe content variability and contain both mines and mine-like clutter indicates that we can achieve over 100:1 compression ratio without losing crucial signal attributes. In comparison, benchmarking of the same data set with the best still-picture compression algorithm called the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) reveals

  1. Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure in some high-alpine plants: adaptation to metabolic demands and climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, C; Engel, L

    2007-01-01

    The cytology of leaf cells from five different high-alpine plants was studied and compared with structures in chloroplasts from the typical high-alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis previously described as having frequent envelope plus stroma protrusions. The plants under investigation ranged from subalpine/alpine Geum montanum through alpine Geum reptans, Poa alpina var. vivipara, and Oxyria digyna to nival Cerastium uniflorum and R. glacialis. The general leaf structure (by light microscopy) and leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure (by transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) did not show any specialized structures unique to these mountain species. However, chloroplast protrusion formation could be found in G. reptans and, to a greater extent, in O. digyna. The other species exhibited only a low percentage of such chloroplast structural changes. Occurrence of protrusions in samples of G. montanum and O. digyna growing in a mild climate at about 50 m above sea level was drastically reduced. Serial TEM sections of O. digyna cells showed that the protrusions can appear as rather broad and long appendices of plastids, often forming pocketlike structures where mitochondria and microbodies are in close vicinity to the plastid and to each other. It is suggested that some high-alpine plants may form such protrusions to facilitate fast exchange of molecules between cytoplasm and plastid as an adaptation to the short, often unfavorable vegetation period in the Alps, while other species may have developed different types of adaptation that are not expressed in ultrastructural changes of the plastids.

  2. Curcuminoid binding to embryonal carcinoma cells: reductive metabolism, induction of apoptosis, senescence, and inhibition of cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang W Quitschke

    Full Text Available Curcumin preparations typically contain a mixture of polyphenols, collectively referred to as curcuminoids. In addition to the primary component curcumin, they also contain smaller amounts of the co-extracted derivatives demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcuminoids can be differentially solubilized in serum, which allows for the systematic analysis of concentration-dependent cellular binding, biological effects, and metabolism. Technical grade curcumin was solubilized in fetal calf serum by two alternative methods yielding saturated preparations containing either predominantly curcumin (60% or bisdemethoxycurcumin (55%. Continual exposure of NT2/D1 cells for 4-6 days to either preparation in cell culture media reduced cell division (1-5 µM, induced senescence (6-7 µM or comprehensive cell death (8-10 µM in a concentration-dependent manner. Some of these effects could also be elicited in cells transiently exposed to higher concentrations of curcuminoids (47 µM for 0.5-4 h. Curcuminoids induced apoptosis by generalized activation of caspases but without nucleosomal fragmentation. The equilibrium binding of serum-solubilized curcuminoids to NT2/D1 cells incubated with increasing amounts of curcuminoid-saturated serum occurred with apparent overall dissociation constants in the 6-10 µM range. However, the presence of excess free serum decreased cellular binding in a hyperbolic manner. Cellular binding was overwhelmingly associated with membrane fractions and bound curcuminoids were metabolized in NT2/D1 cells via a previously unidentified reduction pathway. Both the binding affinities for curcuminoids and their reductive metabolic pathways varied in other cell lines. These results suggest that curcuminoids interact with cellular binding sites, thereby activating signal transduction pathways that initiate a variety of biological responses. The dose-dependent effects of these responses further imply that distinct cellular pathways are

  3. Involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of Reaumuria soongorica to salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuBing Liu; Bo Cao; MeiLing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a short woody shrub widely found in semi-arid areas of China. It can survive severe environ-mental stress including high salinity in its natural habitat. Thus, we investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of R. soongorica to saline environments. R. soon-gorica was treated with 0, 100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl solutions for 14 days. Soil salt content increased significantly by watering with high content of NaCl solution, and no variation between 8 and 14 days during treatment. The levels of pe-roxidation of lipid membranes (measured by malondialdehyde content) and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) increased under salt stress. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content decreased with increasing salt content. The ratio of Chl a/Chl b and carotenoid/Chl exhibited sig-nificant increase under 400 mM NaCl. However, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents and key enzyme activities in the flavonoid pathway including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and Chalcone isomerase (CHI) decreased under salt stress. These findings possibly suggest that R. soongorica has an adaptation protection mechanism against salt-induced oxidative damage by inducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and maintaining a steady level of carotenoid/Chl.

  4. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    of gluconeogenesis, requires PGC-1α, while fasting-induced regulation of gluconeogenic capacity does not require PGC-1α. Study III demonstrates the time course of an exercise-induced uncoupling protein (UCP)1 mRNA response in WT mouse epididymal (eWAT) and inguinal (iWAT) white adipose tissue...... (PGC)-1α is required for exercise-, exercise training- and fasting-induced mRNA and protein responses, respectively, of metabolic, angiogenic and gluconeogenic proteins in liver and adipose tissue in mice, 3) PGC-1α is required for both exercise training and resveratrol mediated prevention of age...... in oxidative and/or angiogenic proteins in mouse liver and adipose tissue, while fasting-induced regulation of gluconeogenic capacity does not. In addition, resveratrol supplementation seems to have minor effects on the content of oxidative and angiogenic proteins in mouse skeletal muscle compared...

  5. Razor clam to RoboClam: burrowing drag reduction mechanisms and their robotic adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 cm. By measuring soil deformations around burrowing E. directus, we have found the animal reduces drag by contracting its valves to initially fail, and then fluidize, the surrounding substrate. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be calculated directly from soil properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by two commonly-measured geotechnical parameters: coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle. Calculations using full ranges for both parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1–5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate—characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity—scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For E. directus, this translates to a 10X reduction in the energy required to reach observed burrow depths. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat. (paper)

  6. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling. PMID:26020623

  7. The role of active arsenic species produced by metabolic reduction of dimethylarsinic acid in genotoxicity and tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent research of arsenic carcinogenesis, many researchers have directed their attention to methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenics. Because of its high cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, trivalent dimethylated arsenic, which can be produced by the metabolic reduction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), has attracted considerable attention from the standpoint of arsenic carcinogenesis. In the present paper, we examined trivalent dimethylated arsenic and its further metabolites for their chemical properties and biological behavior such as genotoxicity and tumorigenicity. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that the formation of cis-thymine glycol in DNA was induced via the production of dimethylated arsenic peroxide by the reaction of trivalent dimethylated arsenic with molecular oxygen, but not via the production of common reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, etc.). Thus, dimethylated arsenic peroxide may be the main species responsible for the tumor promotion in skin tumorigenesis induced by exposure to DMA. Free radical species, such as dimethylarsenic radical [(CH3)2As·] and dimethylarsenic peroxy radical [(CH3)2AsOO·], that are produced by the reaction of molecular oxygen and dimethylarsine [(CH3)2AsH], which is probably a further reductive metabolite of trivalent dimethylated arsenic, may be main agents for initiation in mouse lung tumorigenesis

  8. An adaptive integrated algorithm for noninvasive fetal ECG separation and noise reduction based on ICA-EEMD-WS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangchen; Luan, Yihui

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) plays an important role in assisting physicians to detect fetal changes in the womb and to make clinical decisions. However, in real situations, clear FECG is difficult to extract because it is usually overwhelmed by the dominant maternal ECG and other contaminated noise such as baseline wander, high-frequency noise. In this paper, we proposed a novel integrated adaptive algorithm based on independent component analysis (ICA), ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and wavelet shrinkage (WS) denoising, denoted as ICA-EEMD-WS, for FECG separation and noise reduction. First, ICA algorithm was used to separate the mixed abdominal ECG signal and to obtain the noisy FECG. Second, the noise in FECG was reduced by a three-step integrated algorithm comprised of EEMD, useful subcomponents statistical inference and WS processing, and partial reconstruction for baseline wander reduction. Finally, we evaluate the proposed algorithm using simulated data sets. The results indicated that the proposed ICA-EEMD-WS outperformed the conventional algorithms in signal denoising. PMID:26429348

  9. Loss of CD24 in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunctions and a Reduction in White Adipocyte Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Fairbridge

    Full Text Available CD24 is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI-linked cell surface receptor that is involved in regulating the survival or differentiation of several different cell types. CD24 has been used to identify pre-adipocytes that are able to reconstitute white adipose tissue (WAT in vivo. Moreover, we recently found that the dynamic upregulation of CD24 in vitro during early phases of adipogenesis is necessary for mature adipocyte development. To determine the role of CD24 in adipocyte development in vivo, we evaluated the development of the inguinal and interscapular subcutaneous WAT and the epididymal visceral WAT in mice with a homozygous deletion of CD24 (CD24KO. We observed a significant decrease in WAT mass of 40% to 74% in WAT mass from both visceral and subcutaneous depots in male mice, with no significant effect in female mice, compared to wild-type (WT sex- and age-matched controls. We also found that CD24KO mice had increased fasting glucose and free fatty acids, decreased fasting insulin, and plasma leptin. No major differences were observed in the sensitivity to insulin or glucose, or in circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol levels between WT and CD24KO mice. Challenging the CD24KO mice with either high sucrose (35% or high fat (45% diets that promote increased adiposity, increased WAT mass and fasting insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels, as well as reduced the sensitivity to insulin and glucose, to the levels of WT mice on the same diets. The CD24-mediated reduction in fat pad size was due to a reduction in adipocyte cell size in all depots with no significant reduction pre-adipocyte or adipocyte cell number. Thus, we have clearly demonstrated that the global absence of CD24 affects adipocyte cell size in vivo in a sex- and diet-dependent manner, as well as causing metabolic disturbances in glucose homeostasis and free fatty acid levels.

  10. The NADPH metabolic network regulates human αB-crystallin cardiomyopathy and reductive stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng B Xie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in the alpha-B crystallin (CryAB gene are responsible for a number of inherited human disorders, including cardiomyopathy, skeletal muscle myopathy, and cataracts. The cellular mechanisms of disease pathology for these disorders are not well understood. Among recent advances is that the disease state can be linked to a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction environment of the cell. In a mouse model, cardiomyopathy caused by the dominant CryAB(R120G missense mutation was suppressed by mutation of the gene that encodes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, one of the cell's primary sources of reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH. Here, we report the development of a Drosophila model for cellular dysfunction caused by this CryAB mutation. With this model, we confirmed the link between G6PD and mutant CryAB pathology by finding that reduction of G6PD expression suppressed the phenotype while overexpression enhanced it. Moreover, we find that expression of mutant CryAB in the Drosophila heart impaired cardiac function and increased heart tube dimensions, similar to the effects produced in mice and humans, and that reduction of G6PD ameliorated these effects. Finally, to determine whether CryAB pathology responds generally to NADPH levels we tested mutants or RNAi-mediated knockdowns of phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, and malic enzyme (MEN, the other major enzymatic sources of NADPH, and we found that all are capable of suppressing CryAB(R120G pathology, confirming the link between NADP/H metabolism and CryAB.

  11. The NADPH metabolic network regulates human αB-crystallin cardiomyopathy and reductive stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Heng B; Cammarato, Anthony; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Zhang, Huali; Suggs, Jennifer A; Lin, Ho-Chen; Bernstein, Sanford I; Benjamin, Ivor J; Golic, Kent G

    2013-06-01

    Dominant mutations in the alpha-B crystallin (CryAB) gene are responsible for a number of inherited human disorders, including cardiomyopathy, skeletal muscle myopathy, and cataracts. The cellular mechanisms of disease pathology for these disorders are not well understood. Among recent advances is that the disease state can be linked to a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction environment of the cell. In a mouse model, cardiomyopathy caused by the dominant CryAB(R120G) missense mutation was suppressed by mutation of the gene that encodes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), one of the cell's primary sources of reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH. Here, we report the development of a Drosophila model for cellular dysfunction caused by this CryAB mutation. With this model, we confirmed the link between G6PD and mutant CryAB pathology by finding that reduction of G6PD expression suppressed the phenotype while overexpression enhanced it. Moreover, we find that expression of mutant CryAB in the Drosophila heart impaired cardiac function and increased heart tube dimensions, similar to the effects produced in mice and humans, and that reduction of G6PD ameliorated these effects. Finally, to determine whether CryAB pathology responds generally to NADPH levels we tested mutants or RNAi-mediated knockdowns of phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and malic enzyme (MEN), the other major enzymatic sources of NADPH, and we found that all are capable of suppressing CryAB(R120G) pathology, confirming the link between NADP/H metabolism and CryAB.

  12. Staphylococcus epidermidis: metabolic adaptation and biofilm formation in response to different oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Alvarez, Cristina; Chiquete-Félix, Natalia; Contreras-Zentella, Martha; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Peña, Antonio; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a major health hazard. It is necessary to study its metabolism and hopefully uncover therapeutic targets. Cultivating S. epidermidis at increasing oxygen concentration [O2] enhanced growth, while inhibiting biofilm formation. Respiratory oxidoreductases were differentially expressed, probably to prevent reactive oxygen species formation. Under aerobiosis, S. epidermidis expressed high oxidoreductase activities, including glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, as well as cytochromes bo and aa3; while little tendency to form biofilms was observed. Under microaerobiosis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase decreased while glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase nearly disappeared; cytochrome bo was present; anaerobic nitrate reductase activity was observed; biofilm formation increased slightly. Under anaerobiosis, biofilms grew; low ethanol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and cytochrome bo were still present; nitrate dehydrogenase was the main terminal electron acceptor. KCN inhibited the aerobic respiratory chain and increased biofilm formation. In contrast, methylamine inhibited both nitrate reductase and biofilm formation. The correlation between the expression and/or activity or redox enzymes and biofilm-formation activities suggests that these are possible therapeutic targets to erradicate S. epidermidis.

  13. Differential remodelling of peroxisome function underpins the environmental and metabolic adaptability of diplonemids and kinetoplastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jorge; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Williams, Tom A; Hirawake-Mogi, Hiroko; Makiuchi, Takashi; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Kaga, Naoko; Taka, Hikari; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Koike, Masato; Mita, Toshihiro; Bringaud, Frédéric; Concepción, Juan L; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Embley, T Martin; Nara, Takeshi

    2016-05-11

    The remodelling of organelle function is increasingly appreciated as a central driver of eukaryotic biodiversity and evolution. Kinetoplastids including Trypanosoma and Leishmania have evolved specialized peroxisomes, called glycosomes. Glycosomes uniquely contain a glycolytic pathway as well as other enzymes, which underpin the physiological flexibility of these major human pathogens. The sister group of kinetoplastids are the diplonemids, which are among the most abundant eukaryotes in marine plankton. Here we demonstrate the compartmentalization of gluconeogenesis, or glycolysis in reverse, in the peroxisomes of the free-living marine diplonemid, Diplonema papillatum Our results suggest that peroxisome modification was already under way in the common ancestor of kinetoplastids and diplonemids, and raise the possibility that the central importance of gluconeogenesis to carbon metabolism in the heterotrophic free-living ancestor may have been an important selective driver. Our data indicate that peroxisome modification is not confined to the kinetoplastid lineage, but has also been a factor in the success of their free-living euglenozoan relatives. PMID:27170716

  14. Rapid temperature adaptation in trout: Alterations in membrane molecular species metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.E.; Hazel, J.R. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The ability of poikilotherms to change their membrane phospholipid composition in response to long term temperature change is well documented. Less understood are the changes which occur when rapid temperature fluctuations are encountered. The authors have followed the fate of 16:0/18:1 phosphatidylcholine (PC), radiocarbon labeled at the 18:1 acyl chain, in the plasma membranes of trout hepatocytes. After isolation by PC, 5%-10% of which was taken up into the plasma membranes. The cells were then divided into two groups and either held at acclimation temperature or transferred to 5C. After 1 hour at 20C or 5 hours at 5C the plasma membranes were isolated, the lipids extracted, and the PC fraction was resolved into its molecular species. The distribution of radiolabel between the warm and cold exposed cells was then determined. In both groups radioactivity was found in molecular species other than 16:0/18:1, however no radioactivity was found in lipids other than PC. Cold exposed cells contained less radioactivity in 18:2/18:2, 20:1/22:6, 16:0/18:2 and 18:0/18:1 PC than the warm cells, but contained more in 18:1/18:1 PC. These results indicate that the environmental temperature influences the rates of in situ desaturation, chain elongation, and intermolecular acyl chain regroupings. Subtle changes in molecular species metabolism might be important early steps in temperature acclimation.

  15. Role of Hypothalamic VGF in Energy Balance and Metabolic Adaption to Environmental Enrichment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglesong, Grant D; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xianglan; Slater, Andrew M; Siu, Jason; Yildiz, Vedat; Salton, Stephen R J; Cao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE), a housing condition providing complex physical, social, and cognitive stimulation, leads to improved metabolic health and resistance to diet-induced obesity and cancer. One underlying mechanism is the activation of the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis with hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as the key mediator. VGF, a peptide precursor particularly abundant in the hypothalamus, was up-regulated by EE. Overexpressing BDNF or acute injection of BDNF protein to the hypothalamus up-regulated VGF, whereas suppressing BDNF signaling down-regulated VGF expression. Moreover, hypothalamic VGF expression was regulated by leptin, melanocortin receptor agonist, and food deprivation mostly paralleled to BDNF expression. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of Cre recombinase to floxed VGF mice specifically decreased VGF expression in the hypothalamus. In contrast to the lean and hypermetabolic phenotype of homozygous germline VGF knockout mice, specific knockdown of hypothalamic VGF in male adult mice led to increased adiposity, decreased core body temperature, reduced energy expenditure, and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as disturbance of molecular features of brown and white adipose tissues without effects on food intake. However, VGF knockdown failed to block the EE-induced BDNF up-regulation or decrease of adiposity indicating a minor role of VGF in the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis. Taken together, our results suggest hypothalamic VGF responds to environmental demands and plays an important role in energy balance and glycemic control likely acting in the melanocortin pathway downstream of BDNF. PMID:26730934

  16. Adaptation and failure of pancreatic β cells in murine models with different degrees of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gomez, Gema; Yetukuri, Laxman; Velagapudi, Vidya; Campbell, Mark; Blount, Margaret; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Ros, Manuel; Orešič, Matej; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The events that contribute to the expansion of β-cell mass and enhanced β-cell function in insulin-resistant states have not been elucidated fully. Recently, we showed that β-cell adaptation failed dramatically in adult, insulin-resistant POKO mice, which contrasts with the appropriate expansion of β cells in their ob/ob littermates. Thus, we hypothesised that characterisation of the islets in these mouse models at an early age should provide a unique opportunity to: (1) identify mechanisms involved in sensing insulin resistance at the level of the β cells, (2) identify molecular effectors that contribute to increasing β-cell mass and function, and (3) distinguish primary events from secondary events that are more likely to be present at more advanced stages of diabetes. Our results define the POKO mouse as a model of early lipotoxicity. At 4 weeks of age, it manifests with inappropriate β-cell function and defects in proliferation markers. Other well-recognised pathogenic effectors that were observed previously in 16-week-old mice, such as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), macrophage infiltration and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, are also present in both young POKO and young ob/ob mice, indicating the lack of predictive power with regards to the severity of β-cell failure. Of interest, the relatively preserved lipidomic profile in islets from young POKO mice contrasted with the large changes in lipid composition and the differences in the chain length of triacylglycerols in the serum, liver, muscle and adipose tissue in adult POKO mice. Later lipotoxic insults in adult β cells contribute to the failure of the POKO β cell. Our results indicate that the rapid development of insulin resistance and β-cell failure in POKO mice makes this model a useful tool to study early molecular events leading to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Furthermore, comparisons with ob/ob mice might reveal important adaptive mechanisms in β cells with

  17. Differential effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on certain metabolic processes in a chromatically adapting Nostoc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of UV-B radiation on growth, pigmentation and certain physiological processes was studied in a N2-fixing chromatically adapting cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme. A brownish form (phycoerythrin rich) was found to be more tolerant to UV-B than the blue-green (phycocyanin rich) form of N. spongiaeforme. Continuous exposure to UV-B (5.5 W m-2) for 90 min caused complete killing of the blue-green strain whereas the brown strain showed complete loss of survival after 180 min. Pigment content was more strongly inhibited in the blue-green strain than in the brown. Nitrogenase activity was completely abolished in both strains within 35 min of UV-B treatment. Restoration of nitrogenase occurred upon transfer to fluorescent or incandescent light after a lag of 5-6 h, suggesting fresh synthesis of nitrogenase. In vivo nitrate reductase activity was stimulated by UV-B treatment, the degree of enhancement being significantly higher in the blue-green strain. 14CO2 uptake was also completely abolished by UV-B treatment in both strains. (author)

  18. Anthracycline resistance mediated by reductive metabolism in cancer cells: The role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Jakub; Malcekova, Beata; Skarka, Adam; Novotna, Eva; Wsol, Vladimir, E-mail: wsol@faf.cuni.cz

    2014-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug resistance is a serious obstacle that emerges during cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the possible role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in the resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclines. First, the reducing activity of AKR1C3 toward anthracyclines was tested using incubations with a purified recombinant enzyme. Furthermore, the intracellular reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin was examined by employing the transfection of A549, HeLa, MCF7 and HCT 116 cancer cells with an AKR1C3 encoding vector. To investigate the participation of AKR1C3 in anthracycline resistance, we conducted MTT cytotoxicity assays with these cells, and observed that AKR1C3 significantly contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to daunorubicin and idarubicin, whereas this resistance was reversible by the simultaneous administration of 2′-hydroxyflavanone, a specific AKR1C3 inhibitor. In the final part of our work, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3 expression after anthracycline exposure. Interestingly, a reciprocal correlation between the extent of induction and endogenous levels of AKR1C3 was recorded in particular cell lines. Therefore, we suggest that the induction of AKR1C3 following exposure to daunorubicin and idarubicin, which seems to be dependent on endogenous AKR1C3 expression, eventually might potentiate an intrinsic resistance given by the normal expression of AKR1C3. In conclusion, our data suggest a substantial impact of AKR1C3 on the metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which is catalyzed by AKR1C3, contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to anthracycline treatment. - Highlights: • Metabolism of anthracyclines by AKR1C3 was studied at enzyme and cellular levels. • Anthracycline resistance mediated by AKR1C3 was demonstrated in cancer cells. • Induction of AKR1C3

  19. Dynamic self-adaptive ANP algorithm and its application to electric field simulation of aluminum reduction cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅琳; 陈冬冬; 陈晓方; 蔡国民; 阳春华

    2015-01-01

    Region partition (RP) is the key technique to the finite element parallel computing (FEPC), and its performance has a decisive influence on the entire process of analysis and computation. The performance evaluation index of RP method for the three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been given. By taking the electric field of aluminum reduction cell (ARC) as the research object, the performance of two classical RP methods, which are Al-NASRA and NGUYEN partition (ANP) algorithm and the multi-level partition (MLP) method, has been analyzed and compared. The comparison results indicate a sound performance of ANP algorithm, but to large-scale models, the computing time of ANP algorithm increases notably. This is because the ANP algorithm determines only one node based on the minimum weight and just adds the elements connected to the node into the sub-region during each iteration. To obtain the satisfied speed and the precision, an improved dynamic self-adaptive ANP (DSA-ANP) algorithm has been proposed. With consideration of model scale, complexity and sub-RP stage, the improved algorithm adaptively determines the number of nodes and selects those nodes with small enough weight, and then dynamically adds these connected elements. The proposed algorithm has been applied to the finite element analysis (FEA) of the electric field simulation of ARC. Compared with the traditional ANP algorithm, the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been shortened approximately from 260 s to 13 s. This proves the superiority of the improved algorithm on computing time performance.

  20. The Variable Regions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genomes Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Metabolic and Host-Adaptation Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceapa, Corina; Davids, Mark; Ritari, Jarmo; Lambert, Jolanda; Wels, Michiel; Douillard, François P; Smokvina, Tamara; de Vos, Willem M; Knol, Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a diverse Gram-positive species with strains isolated from different ecological niches. Here, we report the genome sequence analysis of 40 diverse strains of L. rhamnosus and their genomic comparison, with a focus on the variable genome. Genomic comparison of 40 L. rhamnosus strains discriminated the conserved genes (core genome) and regions of plasticity involving frequent rearrangements and horizontal transfer (variome). The L. rhamnosus core genome encompasses 2,164 genes, out of 4,711 genes in total (the pan-genome). The accessory genome is dominated by genes encoding carbohydrate transport and metabolism, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis, bacteriocin production, pili production, the cas system, and the associated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, and more than 100 transporter functions and mobile genetic elements like phages, plasmid genes, and transposons. A clade distribution based on amino acid differences between core (shared) proteins matched with the clade distribution obtained from the presence-absence of variable genes. The phylogenetic and variome tree overlap indicated that frequent events of gene acquisition and loss dominated the evolutionary segregation of the strains within this species, which is paralleled by evolutionary diversification of core gene functions. The CRISPR-Cas system could have contributed to this evolutionary segregation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains contain the genetic and metabolic machinery with strain-specific gene functions required to adapt to a large range of environments. A remarkable congruency of the evolutionary relatedness of the strains' core and variome functions, possibly favoring interspecies genetic exchanges, underlines the importance of gene-acquisition and loss within the L. rhamnosus strain diversification. PMID:27358423

  1. Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction Using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D improves chest CT image quality and reduces radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo Yamashiro

    Full Text Available To assess the advantages of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D for image quality improvement and dose reduction for chest computed tomography (CT.Institutional Review Boards approved this study and informed consent was obtained. Eighty-eight subjects underwent chest CT at five institutions using identical scanners and protocols. During a single visit, each subject was scanned using different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to images using AIDR3D and a conventional reconstruction mode (without AIDR3D. Using a 5-point scale from 1 (non-diagnostic to 5 (excellent, three blinded observers independently evaluated image quality for three lung zones, four patterns of lung disease (nodule/mass, emphysema, bronchiolitis, and diffuse lung disease, and three mediastinal measurements (small structure visibility, streak artifacts, and shoulder artifacts. Differences in these scores were assessed by Scheffe's test.At each tube current, scans using AIDR3D had higher scores than those without AIDR3D, which were significant for lung zones (p<0.0001 and all mediastinal measurements (p<0.01. For lung diseases, significant improvements with AIDR3D were frequently observed at 120 and 60 mA. Scans with AIDR3D at 120 mA had significantly higher scores than those without AIDR3D at 240 mA for lung zones and mediastinal streak artifacts (p<0.0001, and slightly higher or equal scores for all other measurements. Scans with AIDR3D at 60 mA were also judged superior or equivalent to those without AIDR3D at 120 mA.For chest CT, AIDR3D provides better image quality and can reduce radiation exposure by 50%.

  2. NAD(PH-hydrate dehydratase- a metabolic repair enzyme and its role in Bacillus subtilis stress adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Petrovova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the strategies for survival stress conditions in bacteria is a regulatory adaptive system called general stress response (GSR, which is dependent on the SigB transcription factor in Bacillus sp. The GSR is one of the largest regulon in Bacillus sp., including about 100 genes; however, most of the genes that show changes in expression during various stresses have not yet been characterized or assigned a biochemical function for the encoded proteins. Previously, we characterized the Bacillus subtilis168 osmosensitive mutant, defective in the yxkO gene (encoding a putative ribokinase, which was recently assigned in vitro as an ADP/ATP-dependent NAD(PH-hydrate dehydratase and was demonstrated to belong to the SigB operon. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show the impact of YxkO on the activity of SigB-dependent Pctc promoter and adaptation to osmotic and ethanol stress and potassium limitation respectively. Using a 2DE approach, we compare the proteomes of WT and mutant strains grown under conditions of osmotic and ethanol stress. Both stresses led to changes in the protein level of enzymes that are involved in motility (flagellin, citrate cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase, and decomposition of Amadori products (fructosamine-6-phosphate deglycase. Glutamine synthetase revealed a different pattern after osmotic stress. The patterns of enzymes for branched amino acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis (L-alanine dehydrogenase, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, ketol-acid reductoisomerase were altered after ethanol stress. CONCLUSION: We performed the first characterization of a Bacillus subtilis168 knock-out mutant in the yxkO gene that encodes a metabolite repair enzyme. We show that such enzymes could play a significant role in the survival of stressed cells.

  3. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  4. Effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚; 卢亦成; 朱诚; 张光霁; 丁学华; 江基尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of ganglioside GM1 on reduction of brain edema and amelioration of cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods: An acute experimental closed TBI model in rats was induced by a fluid-percussion brain injury model. At five and sixty minutes after TBI, the animals were intraperitoneally injected by ganglioside GM1 (30 mg/kg) or the same volume of saline. At the 6th hour after TBI, effects of ganglioside GM1 or saline on changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP), contents of water, lactic acid (LA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the injured cerebral tissues were observed.Results: After TBI, MAP decreased and contents of water, LA and LPO increased in brain injury group; however, MAP was back to normal levels and contents of water, LA and LPO decreased in ganglioside GM1 treated group, compared with those in brain injury group (P0.05) was observed.Conclusions: Ganglioside GM1 does have obvious neuroprotective effect on early TBI.

  5. Industrial wideband noise reduction for hearing aids using a headset with adaptive-feedback active noise cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J H; Li, P C; Tang, S T; Liu, P T; Young, S T

    2005-11-01

    High-intensity noises are a health hazard for industrial workers, and hearing protection is necessary to prevent hearing loss. Passive methods, such as ear muffs, are ineffective against low-frequency noise. Moreover, many hearing-impaired workers must wear hearing aids to enable communication at their workplace, and such aids can amplify ambient noise. To overcome this problem, the present study developed a headset equipped with a digital signal processing system to implement adaptive-feedback active noise cancellation (AFANC) to reduce low-frequency noise. The proposed AFANC headset was effective against wideband industrial noise, with a maximum noise spectrum power reduction of 30 dB. Furthermore, when used with a hearing aid, it improved the speech signal-to-noise ratio by up to 14 dB. These results suggest that a headset with AFANC would be useful for hearing protection in workplaces with high levels of low-frequency industrial noise, especially for hearing-impaired workers. PMID:16594300

  6. Brief Communication: CATALYST - a multi-regional stakeholder Think Tank for fostering capacity development in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Hare, M.P.; Bers, van C.; Keur, van der P.

    2014-01-01

    This brief communication presents the work and objectives of the CATALYST project on "Capacity Development for Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation" funded by the European Commission (October 2011–September 2013). CATALYST set up a multi-regional think tank covering four regions (Central America and

  7. A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, M.; Bers, van C.; Mysiak, J.; Calliari, E.; Haque, A.; Warner, K.; Yuzva, K.; Zissener, M.; Jaspers, A.M.J.; Timmerman, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This publication, A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project is one of two main CATALYST knowledge products that focus on the transformative approaches and measures that can support Disa

  8. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear

  9. Dose reduction and image quality in MDCT of the upper abdomen. Potential of an adaptive post-processing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a 2D non-linear adaptive post-processing filter (2D-NLAF) on image quality in dose-reduced multi-detector CT (MDCT) of the upper abdomen. Materials and Methods: MDCT of the upper abdomen was simulated on a 64-slice scanner using a multi-modal anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS, Norfolk, USA). While keeping the collimation (64 x 0.6 mm) and pitch (p = 1) unchanged, the tube current (100 - 500 mAs) and tube potential (80 - 140 kVp) were varied to perform MDCT as high dose (CTDI > 20), middle dose (CTDI 10-20) and low dose (CTDI < 10) level protocols. Four independent blinded radiologists evaluated axial images with a thickness of 7 and 3 mm with respect to the presentation of ''mesenteric low contrast lesions'', ''liver veins'', ''liver cysts'', ''renal cysts'' and ''big vessels''. The subjective image quality of original data and post-processed images using a 2D-NLAF (SharpViewCT, Linkoeping, Sweden) was graded on a 5-point scale (from ''1'' not visible to ''5'' excellent) and statistically analyzed. The effective dose (E) was estimated using commercial software (CT-EXPO). Results: For all protocol groups, 2D-NLAF led to a significant improvement in subjective image quality for all examined lesions (p < 0.01), particularly at the protocols of middle dose (E: 5 - 8 mSv) and low dose level (E: 1-5 mSv). A maximum effect was seen in middle dose protocols for ''low contrast lesions'' (score ''3.3'' with filter versus ''2.5'' without) and ''liver veins'' (''4.5'' versus ''3.9''). Conclusion: The phantom study indicates a potential dose reduction of up to 50% in MDCT of the upper abdomen by use of a 2D-NLAF, which should be further examined in clinical trails. (orig.)

  10. KLIMA 2050: a research-based innovation centre for risk reduction through climate adaptation of infrastructure and buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Anders; Time, Berit; Kvande, Tore; Sivertsen, Edvard; Cepeda, Jose; Lappegard Hauge, Åshild; Bygballe, Lena; Almås, Anders-Johan

    2016-04-01

    Klima 2050 - Risk reduction through climate adaptation of buildings and infrastructure is a Centre for Research based Innovation (SFI), funded jointly by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) and the partners of the centre. The aim of Klima 2050 is to reduce the societal risks associated with climate changes, including enhanced precipitation and flood water exposure within the built environment. The Centre will strengthen companies' innovation capacity through a focus on long-term research. It is also a clear objective to facilitate close cooperation between Research & Development, performing companies, public entities, and prominent research groups. Emphasis will be placed on development of moisture-resilient buildings, storm-water management, blue-green solutions, mitigation measures for water-triggered landslides, socio-economic incentives and decision-making processes. Both extreme weather and gradual climatic changes will be addressed. The Centre consists of a consortium of 18 partners from three sectors: industry, public entities and research/education organizations. The partners from the industry/private sector include a variety of companies from the building industry. The public entities comprise the most important infrastructure owners in Norway (public roads, railroads, buildings, airports), as well as the directorate for water and energy. The research and education partners are SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, the Norwegian Business School, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute. This contribution presents the main research plans and activities of this Centre, which was started in 2015 and will run for 8 years, until 2023. The presentation also includes options for international cooperation in the Centre via PhD and postdoctoral positions, MSc projects and guest-researcher stays with Klima 2050 partners.

  11. Reduction of DILP2 in Drosophila triages a metabolic phenotype from lifespan revealing redundancy and compensation among DILPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Broughton

    Full Text Available The insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS pathway has diverse functions in all multicellular organisms, including determination of lifespan. The seven insulin-like peptides (DILPs in Drosophila are expressed in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. Partial ablation of the median neurosecretory cells (mNSCs in the brain, which produce three DILPs, extends lifespan, reduces fecundity, alters lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and increases oxidative stress resistance. To determine if reduced expression of DILPs is causal in these effects, and to investigate possible functional diversification and redundancy between DILPs, we used RNA interference to lower specifically the transcript and protein levels of dilp2, the most highly expressed of the mNSC-derived DILPs. We found that DILP2 was limiting only for the increased whole-body trehalose content associated with mNSC-ablation. We observed a compensatory increase in dilp3 and 5 mRNA upon dilp2 knock down. By manipulation of dfoxo and dInR, we showed that the increase in dilp3 is regulated via autocrine insulin signaling in the mNSCs. Our study demonstrates that, despite the correlation between reduced dilp2 mRNA levels and lifespan-extension often observed, DILP2 reduction is not sufficient to extend lifespan. Nor is the increased trehalose storage associated with reduced IIS sufficient to extend lifespan. To understand the normal regulation of expression of the dilps and any functional diversification between them will require independent control of the expression of different dilps.

  12. Identifying quantitative operation principles in metabolic pathways: a systematic method for searching feasible enzyme activity patterns leading to cellular adaptive responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorribas Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization methods allow designing changes in a system so that specific goals are attained. These techniques are fundamental for metabolic engineering. However, they are not directly applicable for investigating the evolution of metabolic adaptation to environmental changes. Although biological systems have evolved by natural selection and result in well-adapted systems, we can hardly expect that actual metabolic processes are at the theoretical optimum that could result from an optimization analysis. More likely, natural systems are to be found in a feasible region compatible with global physiological requirements. Results We first present a new method for globally optimizing nonlinear models of metabolic pathways that are based on the Generalized Mass Action (GMA representation. The optimization task is posed as a nonconvex nonlinear programming (NLP problem that is solved by an outer-approximation algorithm. This method relies on solving iteratively reduced NLP slave subproblems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP master problems that provide valid upper and lower bounds, respectively, on the global solution to the original NLP. The capabilities of this method are illustrated through its application to the anaerobic fermentation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We next introduce a method to identify the feasibility parametric regions that allow a system to meet a set of physiological constraints that can be represented in mathematical terms through algebraic equations. This technique is based on applying the outer-approximation based algorithm iteratively over a reduced search space in order to identify regions that contain feasible solutions to the problem and discard others in which no feasible solution exists. As an example, we characterize the feasible enzyme activity changes that are compatible with an appropriate adaptive response of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat shock Conclusion Our results

  13. New Features on the Environmental Regulation of Metabolism Revealed by Modeling the Cellular Proteomic Adaptations Induced by Light, Carbon, and Inorganic Nitrogen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin, Stéphanie; Leprince, Pierre; Sluse, Francis E; Franck, Fabrice; Mathy, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are currently emerging to be very promising organisms for the production of biofuels and high-added value compounds. Understanding the influence of environmental alterations on their metabolism is a crucial issue. Light, carbon and nitrogen availability have been reported to induce important metabolic adaptations. So far, the influence of these variables has essentially been studied while varying only one or two environmental factors at the same time. The goal of the present work was to model the cellular proteomic adaptations of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon the simultaneous changes of light intensity, carbon concentrations (CO2 and acetate), and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (nitrate and ammonium) in the culture medium. Statistical design of experiments (DOE) enabled to define 32 culture conditions to be tested experimentally. Relative protein abundance was quantified by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Additional assays for respiration, photosynthesis, and lipid and pigment concentrations were also carried out. A hierarchical clustering survey enabled to partition biological variables (proteins + assays) into eight co-regulated clusters. In most cases, the biological variables partitioned in the same cluster had already been reported to participate to common biological functions (acetate assimilation, bioenergetic processes, light harvesting, Calvin cycle, and protein metabolism). The environmental regulation within each cluster was further characterized by a series of multivariate methods including principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions. This metadata analysis enabled to highlight the existence of a clear regulatory pattern for every cluster and to mathematically simulate the effects of light, carbon, and nitrogen. The influence of these environmental variables on cellular metabolism is described in details and thoroughly discussed. This work provides an overview of the

  14. New Features on the Environmental Regulation of Metabolism Revealed by Modeling the Cellular Proteomic Adaptations Induced by Light, Carbon, and Inorganic Nitrogen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin, Stéphanie; Leprince, Pierre; Sluse, Francis E.; Franck, Fabrice; Mathy, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are currently emerging to be very promising organisms for the production of biofuels and high-added value compounds. Understanding the influence of environmental alterations on their metabolism is a crucial issue. Light, carbon and nitrogen availability have been reported to induce important metabolic adaptations. So far, the influence of these variables has essentially been studied while varying only one or two environmental factors at the same time. The goal of the present work was to model the cellular proteomic adaptations of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon the simultaneous changes of light intensity, carbon concentrations (CO2 and acetate), and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (nitrate and ammonium) in the culture medium. Statistical design of experiments (DOE) enabled to define 32 culture conditions to be tested experimentally. Relative protein abundance was quantified by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Additional assays for respiration, photosynthesis, and lipid and pigment concentrations were also carried out. A hierarchical clustering survey enabled to partition biological variables (proteins + assays) into eight co-regulated clusters. In most cases, the biological variables partitioned in the same cluster had already been reported to participate to common biological functions (acetate assimilation, bioenergetic processes, light harvesting, Calvin cycle, and protein metabolism). The environmental regulation within each cluster was further characterized by a series of multivariate methods including principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions. This metadata analysis enabled to highlight the existence of a clear regulatory pattern for every cluster and to mathematically simulate the effects of light, carbon, and nitrogen. The influence of these environmental variables on cellular metabolism is described in details and thoroughly discussed. This work provides an overview of the

  15. New Features on the Environmental Regulation of Metabolism Revealed by Modeling the Cellular Proteomic Adaptations Induced by Light, Carbon, and Inorganic Nitrogen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin, Stéphanie; Leprince, Pierre; Sluse, Francis E; Franck, Fabrice; Mathy, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are currently emerging to be very promising organisms for the production of biofuels and high-added value compounds. Understanding the influence of environmental alterations on their metabolism is a crucial issue. Light, carbon and nitrogen availability have been reported to induce important metabolic adaptations. So far, the influence of these variables has essentially been studied while varying only one or two environmental factors at the same time. The goal of the present work was to model the cellular proteomic adaptations of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon the simultaneous changes of light intensity, carbon concentrations (CO2 and acetate), and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (nitrate and ammonium) in the culture medium. Statistical design of experiments (DOE) enabled to define 32 culture conditions to be tested experimentally. Relative protein abundance was quantified by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Additional assays for respiration, photosynthesis, and lipid and pigment concentrations were also carried out. A hierarchical clustering survey enabled to partition biological variables (proteins + assays) into eight co-regulated clusters. In most cases, the biological variables partitioned in the same cluster had already been reported to participate to common biological functions (acetate assimilation, bioenergetic processes, light harvesting, Calvin cycle, and protein metabolism). The environmental regulation within each cluster was further characterized by a series of multivariate methods including principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions. This metadata analysis enabled to highlight the existence of a clear regulatory pattern for every cluster and to mathematically simulate the effects of light, carbon, and nitrogen. The influence of these environmental variables on cellular metabolism is described in details and thoroughly discussed. This work provides an overview of the

  16. Metabolic adaptation of microbial communities to ammonium stress in a high solid anaerobic digester with dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Yan, Han; Li, Ning; He, Jin; Ding, Yueling; Dai, Lingling; Dong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A high solid digester with dewatered sludge was operated for 110 days to ascertain the interactions between bacterial and archaeal communities under ammonium stress, as well as the corresponding changes in bio-degradation mechanisms. The volatile solids reduction (95% confidence intervals in mean) changed from 31.6 ± 0.9% in the stable period (day 40-55) to 21.3 ± 1.5% in the last period (day 71-110) when ammonium concentration was elevated to be within 5,000-6,000 mgN/L. Biogas yield dropped accordingly from 11.9 ± 0.3 to 10.4 ± 0.2 L/d and carbon dioxide increased simultaneously from 35.2% to 44.8%. Anaerobranca better adapted to the ammonium stress, while the initially dominant protein-degrading microbes-Tepidimicrobium and Proteiniborus were suppressed, probably responsible for the increase of protein content in digestate. Meanwhile, Methanosarcina, as the dominant Archaea, was resistant to ammonium stress with the constant relative abundance of more than 92% during the whole operation. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis was thus conducted which indicated that the gradually increased TAN dictated the bacterial clusters. The dominant Methanosarcina and the increased carbon dioxide content under ammonium stress suggested that, rather than the commonly acknowledged syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, only SAO pathway was enhanced during the initial 'ammonium inhibition'. PMID:27312792

  17. Two Brothers with Skewed Thiopurine Metabolism in Ulcerative Colitis Treated Successfully with Allopurinol and Mercaptopurine Dose Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hoentjen, Frank; Hanauer, Stephen B.; de Boer, Nanne K; Rubin, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Thiopurine therapy effectively maintains remission in inflammatory bowel disease. However, many patients are unable to achieve optimum benefits from azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine because of undesirable metabolism related to high thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity characterized by hepatic transaminitis secondary to increased 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) production and reduced levels of therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN). Allopurinol can optimize this skewed metabolism....

  18. Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

  19. Metabolic Analysis of Adaptation to Short-Term Changes in Culture Conditions of the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    OpenAIRE

    Bromke, Mariusz A; Patrick Giavalisco; Lothar Willmitzer; Holger Hesse

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the metabolic and lipidomic profiling of 97 low-molecular weight compounds from the primary metabolism and 124 lipid compounds of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. The metabolic profiles were created for diatoms perturbed for 24 hours with four different treatments: (I) removal of nitrogen, (II) lower iron concentration, (III) addition of sea salt, (IV) addition of carbonate to their growth media. Our results show that as early as 24 hours after nitrogen depletion sig...

  20. Comparison of grey matter and metabolic reductions in frontotemporal dementia using FDG-PET and voxel-based morphometric MR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki; Kono, Atsushi K. [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Neuroimaging Research, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regional differences between the morphologic and functional changes in the same patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using statistical parametric mapping and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirteen FTD patients (mean age, 64.9 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.7), 20 sex-matched Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (mean age, 65.0 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.5), and 20 normal volunteers (mean age, 65.2 years old; mean MMSE score, 29.0) underwent both [{sup 18}F]FDG positron emission tomography and three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo MRI. Statistical parametric mapping was used to conduct a VBM analysis of the morphologic data, which were compared voxel by voxel with the results of a similar analysis of glucose metabolic data. FTD patients showed decreased grey matter volume and decreased glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and anterior temporal lobe. In addition, there was a clear asymmetry in grey matter volume in FTD patients by the VBM analysis while the glucose metabolic data showed little asymmetry. In AD patients, glucose metabolic reduction occurred in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and parietal lobules while grey matter density decreased the least in the same patients. In FTD, metabolic and morphologic changes occur in the bilateral frontal lobe and temporal lobe with a limited asymmetry whereas there was considerable discordance in the AD group. (orig.)

  1. Image quality in multidetector CT of the paranasal sinuses. Potential of dose reduction using an adaptive post-processing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of subjective image quality in dose-reduced multi-detector CT (MDCT) of paranasal sinuses using a 2D non-linear adaptive post-processing filter (2D-NLAF). Materials and Methods: MDCT of paranasal sinuses was simulated using a human head phantom at a Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 (Siemens, Erlangen). At constant collimation (64 x 0.6 mm) und pitch (p = 1), the tube current (50, 100, 200 mAs) and tube potential (80, 100, 120 kVp) were modified. The radiation exposure was represented by CTDIvol. Four independent blinded radiologists evaluated the image quality of axial 2 mm images and coronal reformations concerning the assessment of 'fractures' and 'soft tissue processes'. The subjective image quality of original and post-processed images using a 2D-NLAF (SharpViewCT registered, Sweden) was graded on a 5-point scale ('1' excellent - '5' not adequate) and compared. Results: Compared to the protocol with the best image quality (120kVp/ 200 mAs) 2D-NLAF led to a significant improvement in the subjective image quality at 100 kVp/ 100 mAs (score '1.4' with filter versus '2.2' without) and 120 kVp/ 50 mAs ('1.6' versus '2.0') (p < 0.03) particularly for high contrasts ('fractures', p < 0.001). In 'soft tissue processes', 2D-NLAF provided improved quality from '2.1' to '1.4' (p < 0.04) at 100 kVp/ 100 mAs. Down to a CTDIvol of 8 mGy, the image quality was rated 'good', and down to 5 mGy 'diagnostic'. Conclusion: The phantom study indicates a dose reduction potential in MDCT of paranasal sinuses up to 58 % compared to a standard dose protocol using a 2D-NLAF without an essential loss of image quality. 2D-NLAF is particularly effective at 100 kVp/ 100 mAs and 120 kVp/ 50 mAs. (orig.)

  2. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Milim; Lee, Jeong Min; Son, Hyo Shin; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  3. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  4. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  5. Non-selective beta-adrenergic blockade prevents reduction of the cerebral metabolic ratio during exhaustive exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Rasmussen, P.; Overgaard, M.;

    2008-01-01

    .d.) and the arterial-jugular venous (a-v) difference from -0.02 +/- 0.03 mm at rest to 1.0 +/- 0.5 mm (P metabolic ratio decreased from 5.5 +/- 1.4 to 3.0 +/- 0.3 (P ...-v lactate difference (to 0.5 +/- 0.5 mm; P metabolic ratio remained at levels similar to those at rest. Together with the previous finding that the cerebral metabolic ratio is unaffected during exercise with administration of the beta(1......Intense exercise decreases the cerebral metabolic ratio of oxygen to carbohydrates [O(2)/(glucose + (1/2)lactate)], but whether this ratio is influenced by adrenergic stimulation is not known. In eight males, incremental cycle ergometry increased arterial lactate to 15.3 +/- 4.2 mm (mean +/- s...

  6. Effects of Reductions of Body Fat and Regional Adipose Tissue on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Among Eldery Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeto, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tai-ichiro

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate effects of improvement of obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism, changes of body weight, skinfolds and biochemical parameters in glucose and lipid metabolism were examined through a six month health education on excercise and diet. Subjects were 20 men and 36 women aged from 48 to 87, who had overweight and/or glucose intolerance. Weight, relative weight and fat mass were significantly reduced after the program in both sexes. Circumference ratios were reduced only in women. The ...

  7. Active and passive biomonitoring suggest metabolic adaptation in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) chronically exposed to a moderate contamination in Brest harbor (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Camille; Richard, Gaëlle; Seguineau, Catherine; Guyomarch, Julien; Moraga, Dario; Auffret, Michel

    2015-05-01

    oxidative stress and energy-related biomarkers were observed compared to native harbor mussels. Overall, these results suggested mussels chronically exposed to contamination have set up metabolic adaptation, which may contribute to their survival in the moderately contaminated harbor of Brest. Whether these adaptive traits result from phenotypic plasticity or genetic adaptation needs to be further investigated.

  8. High-intensity interval training-induced metabolic adaptation coupled with an increase in Hif-1α and glycolytic protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takaaki; Kitaoka, Yu; Kikuchi, Dale Manjiro; Takeda, Kohei; Numata, Osamu; Takemasa, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    It is known that repeated bouts of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lead to enhanced levels of glycolysis, glycogenesis, and lactate transport proteins in skeletal muscle; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations. To decipher the mechanism leading to improvement of skeletal muscle glycolytic capacity associated with HIIT, we examined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the major transcription factor regulating the expression of genes related to anaerobic metabolism, in the adaptation to HIIT. First, we induced Hif-1α accumulation using ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB) to assess the potential role of Hif-1α in skeletal muscle. Treatment with EDHB significantly increased the protein levels of Hif-1α in gastrocnemius muscles, accompanied by elevated expression of genes related to glycolysis, glycogenesis, and lactate transport. Daily administration of EDHB for 1 wk resulted in elevated glycolytic enzyme activity in gastrocnemius muscles. Second, we examined whether a single bout of HIIT could induce Hif-1α protein accumulation and subsequent increase in the expression of genes related to anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle. We observed that the protein levels of Hif-1α and expression of the target genes were elevated 3 h after an acute bout of HIIT in gastrocnemius muscles. Last, we examined the effects of long-term HIIT. We found that long-term HIIT increased the basal levels of Hif-1α as well as the glycolytic capacity in gastrocnemius muscles. Our results suggest that Hif-1α is a key regulator in the metabolic adaptation to high-intensity training.

  9. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  10. Glucose homeostasis and metabolic adaptation in the pregnant and lactating sheep are affected by the level of nutrition previously provided during her late fetal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Sanne Munch; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Blache, D.;

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether undernutrition (UN) during late fetal life can programme the subsequent adult life adaptation of glucose homeostasis and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four primiparous experimental ewes were used. Twelve had been exposed to a prenatal NORM level...... of nutrition (maternal diet approximately 15 MJME/d) and 12 to a LOW level of nutrition (maternal diet approximately 7 MJME/d) during the last 6 weeks pre-partum. The experimental ewes were subjected to two intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IGTT) in late gestation (one prior to (G-IGTT) and one by the end...

  11. 64-slice spiral computed tomography of the coronary arteries: dose reduction using an optimized imaging protocol including individual weight-adaptation of voltage and current-time product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose and image quality were compared between a standard protocol (40 patients, group A) and a weight-adapted protocol of voltage and current-time product (44 patients, group B) using 64-slice coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Effective dose estimate was lower by 37% in all patients of group B (9.2±2.5 mSv) compared with group A (14.6±2.3 mSv, P<0.0001). Group B patients with a small body mass index (BMI) benefited most with a dose reduction of 53% (6.7±1.5 mSv in group B versus 14.1±1.8 mSv in group A, P < 0.0001). Moderate reductions of 32% and 20% were achieved for patients with a medium and large BMI, respectively. Reduction in radiation dose did not affect the image quality as assessed by image noise, signal-to-noise ratios, and number of coronary segments with good diagnostic image quality. Individual weight-adaptation of voltage and current-time product significantly reduces the radiation dose without loss of image quality. (orig.)

  12. The relationship of sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activation protein and apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms with metabolic changes during weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Matinheikki, Jussi; Nenonen, Arja; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Lindi, Virpi; Hämelahti, Päivi; Laaksonen, Reijo; Fan, Yue-Mei; Kähönen, Mika; Fogelholm, Mikael; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2007-07-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and apolipoprotein E (apo E) regulate cellular and plasma lipid metabolism. Therefore, variations in the corresponding genes might influence weight reduction and obesity-associated metabolic changes. We investigated the relationships of SCAP (Ile796Val) and apo E polymorphisms on metabolic changes during weight reduction by using a 12-week very low-energy diet. Body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose, and insulin were assessed in 78 healthy premenopausal women (initial body mass index, 34 +/- 4 kg/m(2); age, 40 +/- 4 years) before and after the intervention. The SCAP genotype groups did not differ in the responses of any parameters measured during weight reduction. Apo E did not differentiate the weight loss, but the changes in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for the genotype groups apo E epsilon2/3, epsilon3/3, as well as epsilon3/4 and epsilon4/4 combined were -0.94 +/- 0.56 and -0.59 +/- 0.32, -0.71 +/- 0.49 and -0.49 +/- 0.45, and -0.55 +/- 0.47 and -0.37 +/- 0.39 mmol/L, respectively (P < .05 for both). In conclusion, neither the SCAP Ile796Val nor the apo E polymorphism was associated with weight loss in obese premenopausal women. However, the apo E-but not SCAP genotype-seems to be one of the modifying factors for serum cholesterol concentrations during very low-energy diet in obese premenopausal women. PMID:17570245

  13. An Adaptive Approach to Family Intervention: Linking Engagement in Family-Centered Intervention to Reductions in Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Arin M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Yasui, Miwa; Kavanagh, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11-17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th…

  14. Metabolic cold adaptation and aerobic performance of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a temperature gradient into the High Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Rysgaard, Søren; Blicher, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    and plasticity of blue mussels across latitudes spanning from 56 to 77ºN. This indicates that low ocean temperature per se does not constrain metabolic activity of Mytilus in the Arctic; rather, we speculate that maturation of reproductive tissues, larval supply and annual energy budgets are the most relevant......The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in the Arctic and is therefore considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes in this region. In this study, we compared aerobic performance of blue mussels from High Arctic, Subarctic and temperate...... populations at different temperatures. Standard metabolic rates (SMR) and active metabolic rates (AMR) were measured for each population, and absolute (AMR − SMR) and factorial (AMR/SMR) scopes were calculated. Blue mussels from the temperate population had the lowest Q10 (= 1.8) and the largest thermal...

  15. Fuel cycle analysis based evaluation of the fuel and emissions reduction potential of adapting the hybrid technology to tricycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biona, J.B.M. [Don Bosco Technical College, Mandaluyong City (Philippines); De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Culaba, A.B. [De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Purvis, M.R.I. [University of Portsmouth, Department of Mechanical Design and Engineering, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    A preliminary analysis has been conducted to investigate the fuel use and emissions reduction potential of incorporating hybrid systems to two stroke powered tricycles in Metro Manila. Carbureted and direct injection two stroke engine hybrid systems were investigated and compared with the impact of shifting to four stroke engines. Results showed that hybridized direct injection retrofitted two stroke powered systems would be able to provide far better environmental and fuel reduction benefits than the shift to new four strokes tricycles. It is thus recommended that the development of such technology specifically for tricycles be seriously pursued. (orig.)

  16. Background Noise Reduction in Wind Tunnels using Adaptive Noise Cancellation and Cepstral Echo Removal Techniques for Microphone Array Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Spalt, Taylor B

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate Adaptive Noise Cancelling and Cepstrum echo removal post-processing techniques on acoustic data from a linear microphone array in an anechoic chamber. A point source speaker driven with white noise was used as the primary signal. The first experiment included a background speaker to provide interference noise at three different Signal-to-Noise Ratios to simulate noise propagating down a wind tunnel circuit. The second experiment contained only the...

  17. Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Ameliorates Metabolism-Secretion Coupling in Islets of Diabetic GK Rats by Suppressing Lactate Overproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Sato, Yuichi; Nishi, Yuichi; Mukai, Eri; Yamano, Gen; Sato, Hiroki; Tahara, Yumiko; Ogura, Kasane; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion (IS) and ATP elevation in islets of Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese model of diabetes, were significantly restored by 30–60-min suppression of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. In this study, we investigated the effect of a longer (12 h) suppression of ROS on metabolism-secretion coupling in β-cells by exposure to tempol, a superoxide (O2 −) dismutase mimic, plus ebselen, a glutathione peroxi...

  18. Multideimensional adaptive filtering for noise reduction in computerized tomography. Comparison and combination of convolution based and spline based approaches; Multidimensionale adaptive Filterung zur Rauschreduktion in der Computertomographie. Vergleich und Kombination faltungs- und splinebasierter Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, Maria

    2009-07-01

    Since a few years there is the possibility of tomographic imaging with a C-Arm-system in addition to the conventional X-ray-computed tomography. By the use of a flatpanel detector the C-Arm-CT offers a high isotropic resolution. Besides the reduction of dose the improvement of image quality is on the top of the user's list of wishes. To improve the image quality at constant dose or allow dose reduction at changeless image quality methods of noise reduction are used in conventional CT-imaging. To reduce overall measurement- and reconstruction-time so-called on-line-compliant systems are developed which start reconstruction before the measurement is competed. The aim of this work is the development of algorithms for noise reduction in projection data which shall be applied especially to flatpanel-CT and fit in into online-compliant systems. Among the so far known noise reduction methods are the convolution based multidimensional adaptive filtering by Kachelries, Watzke and Kalender (MAF{sup KWK}) and the spline and statistic based filtering by La Riviere and Billmire (SSAF{sup RB}). The former can not be applied for on-line-reconstruction, the latter can be applied to one-dimensional data only. Both methods are developed further to overcome these restrictions. In addition a hybrid method from a combination of a convolution based and the spline and statistic approach is developed. The impact of the algorithms to noise and resolution is characterized using so-called {sigma}-FWHM-curves from simulated and measured one- and two-dimensional data, respectively. The change in noise impression and structure is considered by means of slices. Examples of the application to clinical data rounds out the comparison. The results of this work are a new convolution based adaptive filtering (CAF), which is on-line-compliant, a spline and statistic based filtering for two-dimensional data (SSAF{sup B2d}) and a hybrid method (Hybrid{sup CAF}). These new adaptive algorithms for

  19. Decreasing the Rate of Metabolic Ketone Reduction in the Discovery of a Clinical Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, David A. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kung, Daniel W. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Esler, William P. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Amor, Paul A. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Bagley, Scott W. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Beysen, Carine [KineMed Inc., Emeryville, CA (United States); Carvajal-Gonzalez, Santos [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Doran, Shawn D. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Limberakis, Chris [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mathiowetz, Alan M. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); McPherson, Kirk [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Price, David A. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ravussin, Eric [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Sonnenberg, Gabriele E. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Southers, James A. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sweet, Laurel J. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Turner, Scott M. [KineMed Inc., Emeryville, CA (United States); Vajdos, Felix F. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-26

    We found that Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitors offer significant potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hepatic steatosis, and cancer. However, the identification of tool compounds suitable to test the hypothesis in human trials has been challenging. An advanced series of spirocyclic ketone-containing ACC inhibitors recently reported by Pfizer were metabolized in vivo by ketone reduction, which complicated human pharmacology projections. Here, we disclose that this metabolic reduction can be greatly attenuated through introduction of steric hindrance adjacent to the ketone carbonyl. Incorporation of weakly basic functionality improved solubility and led to the identification of 9 as a clinical candidate for the treatment of T2DM. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated dose-proportional increases in exposure, single-dose inhibition of de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and changes in indirect calorimetry consistent with increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation. This demonstration of target engagement validates the use of compound 9 to evaluate the role of DNL in human disease.

  20. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV.

  1. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV. PMID:27448554

  2. Response of C2C12 Myoblasts to Hypoxia: The Relative Roles of Glucose and Oxygen in Adaptive Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen and glucose are two important nutrients for mammalian cell function. In this study, the effect of glucose and oxygen concentrations on C2C12 cellular metabolism was characterized with an emphasis on detecting whether cells show oxygen conformance (OC in response to hypoxia. Methods. After C2C12 cells being cultured in the levels of glucose at 0.6 mM (LG, 5.6 mM (MG, or 23.3 mM(HG under normoxic or hypoxic (1% oxygen condition, cellular oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, lactate production, and metabolic status were determined. Short-term oxygen consumption was measured with a novel oxygen biosensor technique. Longer-term measurements were performed with standard glucose, lactate, and cell metabolism assays. Results. It was found that oxygen depletion in normoxia is dependent on the glucose concentration in the medium. Cellular glucose uptake and lactate production increased significantly in hypoxia than those in normoxia. In hypoxia the cellular response to the level of glucose was different to that in normoxia. The metabolic activities decreased while glucose concentration increased in normoxia, while in hypoxia, metabolic activity was reduced in LG and MG, but unchanged in HG condition. The OC phenomenon was not observed in the present study. Conclusions. Our findings suggested that a combination of low oxygen and low glucose damages the viability of C2C12 cells more seriously than low oxygen alone. In addition, when there is sufficient glucose, C2C12 cells will respond to hypoxia by upregulating anaerobic respiration, as shown by lactate production.

  3. Reduction of ethanol yield and improvement of glycerol formation by adaptive evolution of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under hyperosmotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilloy, Valentin; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2014-04-01

    There is a strong demand from the wine industry for methodologies to reduce the alcohol content of wine without compromising wine's sensory characteristics. We assessed the potential of adaptive laboratory evolution strategies under hyperosmotic stress for generation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains with enhanced glycerol and reduced ethanol yields. Experimental evolution on KCl resulted, after 200 generations, in strains that had higher glycerol and lower ethanol production than the ancestral strain. This major metabolic shift was accompanied by reduced fermentative capacities, suggesting a trade-off between high glycerol production and fermentation rate. Several evolved strains retaining good fermentation performance were selected. These strains produced more succinate and 2,3-butanediol than the ancestral strain and did not accumulate undesirable organoleptic compounds, such as acetate, acetaldehyde, or acetoin. They survived better under osmotic stress and glucose starvation conditions than the ancestral strain, suggesting that the forces that drove the redirection of carbon fluxes involved a combination of osmotic and salt stresses and carbon limitation. To further decrease the ethanol yield, a breeding strategy was used, generating intrastrain hybrids that produced more glycerol than the evolved strain. Pilot-scale fermentation on Syrah using evolved and hybrid strains produced wine with 0.6% (vol/vol) and 1.3% (vol/vol) less ethanol, more glycerol and 2,3-butanediol, and less acetate than the ancestral strain. This work demonstrates that the combination of adaptive evolution and breeding is a valuable alternative to rational design for remodeling the yeast metabolic network. PMID:24532067

  4. 2-DE proteomics analysis of drought treated seedlings of Quercus ilex supports a root active strategy for metabolic adaptation in response to water shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Petrova Simova-Stoilova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Holm oak is a dominant tree in the western Mediterranean region. Despite being well adapted to dry hot climate, drought is the main cause of mortality post-transplanting in reforestation programs. An active response to drought is critical for tree establishment and survival. Applying a gel-based proteomic approach, the dynamic changes in root proteins of drought treated Quercus ilex subsp. Ballota [Desf.] Samp. seedlings were followed. Water stress was applied on 20 day-old holm oak plantlets by water limitation for a period of 10 and 20 days, each followed by 10 days of recovery. Stress was monitored by changes in water status, plant growth and electrolyte leakage. Contrary to leaves, holm oak roots responded readily to water shortage at physiological level by growth inhibition, changes in water status and membrane stability. Root proteins were extracted using trichloroacetate/acetone/phenol protocol and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Coomassie colloidal stained gel images were analysed and spot intensity data subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Selected consistent spots in the three biological replicas, presenting significant changes under stress, were subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS. For protein identification, combined search was performed with MASCOT search engine over NCBInr Viridiplantae and Uniprot databases. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002484. Identified proteins were classified into functional groups: metabolism, protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, defence against biotic stress, cellular protection against abiotic stress, intracellular transport. Several enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism decreased in abundance in roots under drought stress while some related to ATP synthesis and secondary metabolism increased. Results point at active metabolic adjustment and mobilization of the defence system in roots to actively counteract

  5. The Reduction of the Effect of the Müller—Lyer Illusion on Saccade Amplitude by Classic Adaptation

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    Paul C Knox

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Müller—Lyer stimuli on saccade amplitude varies across studies. One methodological difference between studies is stimulus display time; studies with long stimulus display times tend to report smaller effects than studies with short display times. Is it possible that long display times might provide conditions in which saccade adaption takes place? Five adult subjects were exposed to runs of the same illusion-inducing Müller—Lyer stimulus, presented for 1 s, interspersed with probe trials in which a point target was presented for 200 ms. While saccade amplitude was consistently larger with ‘in-configurations’ than with ‘out-configurations’ at the beginning of runs, amplitude declined over runs with the in-configuration. On average, it was constant in out-configuration runs. The net effect was a decline in the apparent effect size (in-amp - out-amp / out-amp of the Müller—Lyer stimulus. Probe trial saccade amplitude increased in ‘out’ runs and decreased in ‘in’ runs. These effects were not present in control experiments, in which stimulus display time was 200 ms. One explanation for this pattern of results is that long stimulus presentation times allow for the generation of retinal error signals. This in turn leads to saccade adaptation, causing an underestimation of the effect of this type of stimulus on saccade amplitude.

  6. Reduction in patient burdens with graphical computerized adaptive testing on the ADL scale: tool development and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weng-Chung

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness and efficacy of saving time and reducing burden for patients, nurses, and even occupational therapists through computer adaptive testing (CAT. Methods Based on an item bank of the Barthel Index (BI and the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI for assessing comprehensive activities of daily living (ADL function in stroke patients, we developed a visual basic application (VBA-Excel CAT module, and (1 investigated whether the averaged test length via CAT is shorter than that of the traditional all-item-answered non-adaptive testing (NAT approach through simulation, (2 illustrated the CAT multimedia on a tablet PC showing data collection and response errors of ADL clinical functional measures in stroke patients, and (3 demonstrated the quality control of endorsing scale with fit statistics to detect responding errors, which will be further immediately reconfirmed by technicians once patient ends the CAT assessment. Results The results show that endorsed items could be shorter on CAT (M = 13.42 than on NAT (M = 23 at 41.64% efficiency in test length. However, averaged ability estimations reveal insignificant differences between CAT and NAT. Conclusion This study found that mobile nursing services, placed at the bedsides of patients could, through the programmed VBA-Excel CAT module, reduce the burden to patients and save time, more so than the traditional NAT paper-and-pencil testing appraisals.

  7. Reduction of uncertainty for estimating runoff with the NRCS CN model by the adaptation to local climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Barroso, Pablo; González, Javier; Valdés, Juan B.

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-runoff quantification is one of the most important tasks in both engineering and watershed management as it allows to identify, forecast and explain watershed response. For that purpose, the Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number method (NRCS CN) is the conceptual lumped model more recognized in the field of rainfall-runoff estimation. Furthermore, there is still an ongoing discussion about the procedure to determine the portion of rainfall retained in the watershed before runoff is generated, called as initial abstractions. This concept is computed as a ratio (λ) of the soil potential maximum retention S of the watershed. Initially, this ratio was assumed to be 0.2, but later it has been proposed to be modified to 0.05. However, the actual procedures to convert NRCS CN model parameters obtained under a different hypothesis about λ do not incorporate any adaptation of climatic conditions of each watershed. By this reason, we propose a new simple method for computing model parameters which is adapted to local conditions taking into account regional patterns of climate conditions. After checking the goodness of this procedure against the actual ones in 34 different watersheds located in Ohio and Texas (United States), we concluded that this novel methodology represents the most accurate and efficient alternative to refit the initial abstraction ratio.

  8. Reduction of radiation exposure and improvement of image quality with BMI-adapted prospective cardiac computed tomography and iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI)-adapted protocols and iterative reconstruction algorithms (iDose) on patient radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective ECG-triggered 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: Image quality and radiation exposure were systematically analyzed in 100 patients. 60 Patients underwent prospective ECG-triggered CCTA using a non-tailored protocol and served as a ‘control’ group (Group 1: 120 kV, 200 mA s). 40 Consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent prospective CCTA, using BMI-adapted tube voltage and standard (Group 2: 100/120 kV, 100–200 mA s) versus reduced tube current (Group 3: 100/120 kV, 75–150 mA s). Iterative reconstructions were provided with different iDose levels and were compared to filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructions. Image quality was assessed in consensus of 2 experienced observers and using a 5-grade scale (1 = best to 5 = worse), and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR) were quantified. Results: CCTA was performed without adverse events in all patients (n = 100, heart rate of 47–87 bpm and BMI of 19–38 kg/m2). Patients examined using the non-tailored protocol in Group 1 had the highest radiation exposure (3.2 ± 0.4 mSv), followed by Group 2 (1.7 ± 0.7 mSv) and Group 3 (1.2 ± 0.6 mSv) (radiation savings of 47% and 63%, respectively, p < 0.001). Iterative reconstructions provided increased SNR and CNR, particularly when higher iDose level 5 was applied with Multi-Frequency reconstruction (iDose5 MFR) (14.1 ± 4.6 versus 21.2 ± 7.3 for SNR and 12.0 ± 4.2 versus 18.1 ± 6.6 for CNR, for FBP versus iDose5 MFR, respectively, p < 0.001). The combination of BMI adaptation with iterative reconstruction reduced radiation exposure and simultaneously improved image quality (subjective image quality of 1.4 ± 0.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.5 for Group 2 reconstructed using iDose5 MFR versus

  9. Reduction of liver fructokinase expression and improved hepatic inflammation and metabolism in liquid fructose-fed rats after atorvastatin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of beverages that contain fructose favors the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome alterations in humans, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the only effective treatment for NAFLD is caloric restriction and weight loss, existing data show that atorvastatin, a hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, can be used safely in patients with NAFLD and improves hepatic histology. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of atorvastatin's therapeutic effect on NAFLD, we used an experimental model that mimics human consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages. Control, fructose (10% w/v solution) and fructose + atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day) Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed after 14 days. Plasma and liver tissue samples were obtained to determine plasma analytes, liver histology, and the expression of liver proteins that are related to fatty acid synthesis and catabolism, and inflammatory processes. Fructose supplementation induced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperleptinemia, hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation, increased the expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid β-oxidation activity. Atorvastatin treatment completely abolished histological signs of necroinflammation, reducing the hepatic expression of metallothionein-1 and nuclear factor kappa B binding. Furthermore, atorvastatin reduced plasma (x 0.74) and liver triglyceride (x 0.62) concentrations, decreased the liver expression of carbohydrate response element binding protein transcription factor (x0.45) and its target genes, and increased the hepatic activity of the fatty acid β-oxidation system (x 1.15). These effects may be related to the fact that atorvastatin decreased the expression of fructokinase (x 0.6) in livers of fructose-supplemented rats, reducing the metabolic burden on the liver that is imposed by continuous fructose ingestion. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights:

  10. Radiohistochemical investigations into the central nervous sialoglycoconjugate metabolism of dormice (Glis glis) in different stages of adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty adult dormice (Glis glis, Gliridae) were used to measure seasonal and temperature-related variations of sialoglycoconjugates in the central nervous system. The study had two different aims: On the one hand, biochemical and radiochemical methods of separation were used to investigate 10 cerebral regions for any changes in their individual contents of proteins and protein-bound sialic acids and for alterations in the ganglioside pattern of neurons as well as the time curves plotted for the uptake of a specific ganglioside tracer, 14C-N-Ac-mannosamine, that may possibly arise in response to seasonal and temperature-dependent adaptations. In addition, 32 central cerebral regions were examined for dormice showing different stages of adaptation (winter versus summer) to determine in autoradiograms that percentage share of integrated optical density (IOD), which accounts for the radioactively labelled proportions of TCA/PTA-soluble compounds, sialoglycolipids and sialoglycoproteins plus asialocompounds in the total radioactivity. (orig./ECB)

  11. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki;

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled...... were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined...... nonfatiguing exercise. During exhaustive exercise, however, euhydration delayed but did not prevent the decline in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, during prolonged exercise in the heat, dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus...

  12. The influence of diet with reduction in calorie intake on metabolic syndrome parameters in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Current therapy of metabolic syndrome includes the assessment of cardiovascular risk together with control of high blood pressure, hyperlipidaemia and prevention of type 2 diabetes with adequate diet and increase in physical activity. Aim of the study. To investigate the influence of medical nutritive therapy in obese people with impaired glucose tolerance risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and potential consecutive lowering of cardio-metabolic risk. Material and methods. The 55 obese (body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 subjects were divided into two groups, the study group A (n=35, and the control group B (n=20. Group A was on diet for a period of 12 weeks (1200-1500kcal/day diet with 55-65% carbohydrates, 15-18% proteins and 22-23% predominantly unsaturated fats, and 20-40g fibers/day.. Before and after 12 weeks the following parameters were determined: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, Index HOMA-IR, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Results. After 12 weeks on low calorie diet in Group A there was a decrease in the waist circumference (p=0.001; systolyc blood pressure (p=0.001; diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.01; fasting blood glucose (p=0.001; Index HOMA IR (p<0.001; triglycerides (p<0.001 and increase in HDL cholesterol (p<0.05. Conclusion. These results suggest that implementation of low callorie-high fibers diet with balanced nutritive elements have a positive effect on visceral obesity, fasting glucose, lipid profile, and hypertension in obese people with impaired glucose tolerance and lead to consecutive lowering of cardiometabolic risk.

  13. METABOLIC EFFECT OF FOS (FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDE IN TERMS OF GUT INCRETIN (GLP-1 GUT MICROFLORA AND WEIGHT REDUCTION IN OBESE ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini K.Sheth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, obesity has increased beyond imagination. Appropriate dietary strategies which have the potential for weight loss demand patience and strong determination on part of the individual, however inclusion of functional foods like FOS that modulate gut hormones have a promising role in weight management. Methods: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was used as the study design wherein 65 obese adults were divided into experimental group (which was given 12 g of FOS and a placebo group (which was fed with 12 g dextrose. The subjects were given the supplements daily for 12 week period. Their plasma samples were anlaysed for GLP-1 and microbial count in fecal samples were determined in terms of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enteric pathogens. Hunger scores, dietary intake, and anthropometric parameters were assessed using standard techniques. Results: FOS supplementation resulted in improved plasma GLP-1 level by 17.0%. Significant improvement was observed in hunger score by 3.15% (p<0.05 along with reduction in dietary intake of energy (kcal by 8%, carbohydrate (g by 8%, protein (g by 6% and fat (g by 2%. Further, reductions were observed in total body weight (kg, BMI, % body fat and waist circumference (cm levels by 4%, 1.06%, 4% and 1.66% respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.05. The mean log counts of beneficial gut microbiota i.e. lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria increased significantly by 14 % and 10 % respectively along with 20% reduction in enteric pathogen. Conclusion: Daily intake of 12 gm FOS for 12 weeks helps in improving gut health and weight loss through increased satiety in obese individuals.

  14. Adaptation of ASTC in a Correlated Rayleigh Frequency-Selective Fading Channels in OFDM systems with PAPR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed BANNOUR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest to use the ASTC (Algebraic Space Time Codes as powerful coding technique for IEEE802.11x OFDM standard combined with PAPR reduction scheme. ASTC with their very Algebraic- constructionbased on Quaternionic algebra, have a full rate, full diversity, non-vanishing constant minimum determinant forincreasing spectral efficiency, uniform average transmitted energy per antenna and good shaping, readily lendthemselves to high data rate situations. However, by their construction they require a nonselective flat fadingchannels belonging to narrow-band systems. In fact, such systems are not readily found in airs interfaces. Inopen air we have what are commonly called frequency-selective fading channels. As a matter of fact, it becomesextremely necessary to harness their power for wide-band systems.

  15. Functional analysis of the group A streptococcal luxS/AI-2 system in metabolism, adaptation to stress and interaction with host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinkl Daniela

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The luxS/AI-2 signaling pathway has been reported to interfere with important physiological and pathogenic functions in a variety of bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the functional role of the streptococcal luxS/AI-2 system in metabolism and diverse aspects of pathogenicity including the adaptation of the organism to stress conditions using two serotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes, M1 and M19. Results Exposing wild-type and isogenic luxS-deficient strains to sulfur-limited media suggested a limited role for luxS in streptococcal activated methyl cycle metabolism. Interestingly, loss of luxS led to an increased acid tolerance in both serotypes. Accordingly, luxS expression and AI-2 production were reduced at lower pH, thus linking the luxS/AI-2 system to stress adaptation in S. pyogenes. luxS expression and AI-2 production also decreased when cells were grown in RPMI medium supplemented with 10% serum, considered to be a host environment-mimicking medium. Furthermore, interaction analysis with epithelial cells and macrophages showed a clear advantage of the luxS-deficient mutants to be internalized and survive intracellularly in the host cells compared to the wild-type parents. In addition, our data revealed that luxS influences the expression of two virulence-associated factors, the fasX regulatory RNA and the virulence gene sibA (psp. Conclusion Here, we suggest that the group A streptococcal luxS/AI-2 system is not only involved in the regulation of virulence factor expression but in addition low level of luxS expression seems to provide an advantage for bacterial survival in conditions that can be encountered during infections.

  16. Comparative genomics reveals adaptation by Alteromonas sp. SN2 to marine tidal-flat conditions: cold tolerance and aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renukaradhya K Math

    Full Text Available Alteromonas species are globally distributed copiotrophic bacteria in marine habitats. Among these, sea-tidal flats are distinctive: undergoing seasonal temperature and oxygen-tension changes, plus periodic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain SN2 of the genus Alteromonas was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sea-tidal flat sediment and has been shown to metabolize aromatic hydrocarbons there. Strain SN2's genomic features were analyzed bioinformatically and compared to those of Alteromonas macleodii ecotypes: AltDE and ATCC 27126. Strain SN2's genome differs from that of the other two strains in: size, average nucleotide identity value, tRNA genes, noncoding RNAs, dioxygenase gene content, signal transduction genes, and the degree to which genes collected during the Global Ocean Sampling project are represented. Patterns in genetic characteristics (e.g., GC content, GC skew, Karlin signature, CRISPR gene homology indicate that strain SN2's genome architecture has been altered via horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Experiments proved that strain SN2 was far more cold tolerant, especially at 5°C, than the other two strains. Consistent with the HGT hypothesis, a total of 15 genomic islands in strain SN2 likely confer ecological fitness traits (especially membrane transport, aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism, and fatty acid biosynthesis specific to the adaptation of strain SN2 to its seasonally cold sea-tidal flat habitat.

  17. The effects of ingested petroleum on the maphthalene-metabolizing properties of the liver tissue in seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsline, J.; Holmes, W.N.; Cronshaw, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hepatic mixed function oxidase activities were estimated in seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) that had been consuming food contaminated with one of five different types of crude oil. After 50 days of exposure to contaminated food, enzyme activities of liver microsomal preparations were assessed in terms of their naphthalenemetabolizing properties in vitro. Although dose-dependent increases in the total hepatic enzyme activities (nmole naphthalene metabolized per minute per unit mass body weight) were observed in birds consuming food contaminated with each type of crude oil, three patterns of response were apparent. Crude oils from South Louisiana and Kuwait stimulated large and significant increases in the specific activity of the enzyme system (nmole naphthalene metabolized per minute per unit mass microsomal protein), whereas little or no increase in either microsomal protein content or relative liver weight were observed. In contrast, two crude oils from Santa Barbara, Calif., induced only small increases in specific activity but significant increases occurred in hepatic microsomal protein concentration and relative liver weight. The crude oil from Prudhoe Bay, Ala., evoked intermediate patterns of response. The possible significance of these data is discussed in relation to the survival of seabirds consuming petroleum-contaminated food and drinking water.

  18. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 Adapts to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with "Auxin-Like" Morphological Changes, Cell Envelope Remodeling and Upregulation of Central Metabolic Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya V Bhat

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to characterize the effects of environmental stressors at the molecular level on model organisms with the ever increasing number and variety of anthropogenic chemical pollutants. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, as one of the most widely applied pesticides in the world, is one such example. This herbicide is known to have non-targeted undesirable effects on humans, animals and soil microbes, but specific molecular targets at sublethal levels are unknown. In this study, we have used Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv as a nitrogen fixing, beneficial model soil organism to characterize the effects of 2,4-D. Using metabolomics and advanced microscopy we determined specific target pathways in the Rlv metabolic network and consequent changes to its phenotype, surface ultrastructure, and physical properties during sublethal 2,4-D exposure. Auxin and 2,4-D, its structural analogue, showed common morphological changes in vitro which were similar to bacteroids isolated from plant nodules, implying that these changes are related to bacteroid differentiation required for nitrogen fixation. Rlv showed remarkable adaptation capabilities in response to the herbicide, with changes to integral pathways of cellular metabolism and the potential to assimilate 2,4-D with consequent changes to its physical and structural properties. This study identifies biomarkers of 2,4-D in Rlv and offers valuable insights into the mode-of-action of 2,4-D in soil bacteria.

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans AGXT-1 is a mitochondrial and temperature-adapted ortholog of peroxisomal human AGT1: New insights into between-species divergence in glyoxylate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Torres, Noel; Calvo, Ana C; Oppici, Elisa; Titelbaum, Nicholas; Montioli, Riccardo; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Cellini, Barbara; Salido, Eduardo; Pey, Angel L

    2016-09-01

    In humans, glyoxylate is an intermediary product of metabolism, whose concentration is finely balanced. Mutations in peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (hAGT1) cause primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), which results in glyoxylate accumulation that is converted to toxic oxalate. In contrast, glyoxylate is used by the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans through a glyoxylate cycle to by-pass the decarboxylation steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thus contributing to energy production and gluconeogenesis from stored lipids. To investigate the differences in glyoxylate metabolism between humans and C. elegans and to determine whether the nematode might be a suitable model for PH1, we have characterized here the predicted nematode ortholog of hAGT1 (AGXT-1) and compared its molecular properties with those of the human enzyme. Both enzymes form active PLP-dependent dimers with high specificity towards alanine and glyoxylate, and display similar three-dimensional structures. Interestingly, AGXT-1 shows 5-fold higher activity towards the alanine/glyoxylate pair than hAGT1. Thermal and chemical stability of AGXT-1 is lower than that of hAGT1, suggesting temperature-adaptation of the nematode enzyme linked to the lower optimal growth temperature of C. elegans. Remarkably, in vivo experiments demonstrate the mitochondrial localization of AGXT-1 in contrast to the peroxisomal compartmentalization of hAGT1. Our results support the view that the different glyoxylate metabolism in the nematode is associated with the divergent molecular properties and subcellular localization of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity.

  20. Yoga for Risk Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome: Patient-Reported Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Sohl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle change is recommended as treatment for adults at risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS, although adoption of new behavioral patterns is limited. In addition, most existing lifestyle interventions do not address psychological stress or quality of life, both of which impact the burden of MetS. Yoga, a form of physical activity that incorporates psychological components (e.g., maintaining attention, relaxation, is a promising intervention for improving the burden of MetS. This randomized controlled trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week yoga program coupled with an evidence-based health education program (HED compared to HED alone. A secondary, exploratory aim examined perceived stress, quality of life, and related psychological outcomes (mindfulness, perceived health competence, and mood. Sixty-seven adults at risk for MetS enrolled (mean age [SD]: 58 [10] years; 50% male; 79% non-Hispanic White. Preliminary results revealed significantly larger improvements in two quality of life domains (role-physical and general health perceptions in the HED plus yoga group versus HED alone (ps<0.05. This is the first study that implemented lifestyle education along with yoga to evaluate the potential unique effects of yoga on participants at risk for MetS. A larger clinical trial is warranted to further investigate these promising patient-reported outcomes.

  1. Global gene expression analysis of glucose overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli and reduction of aerobic acetate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Andrea; Polen, Tino; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-02-01

    During aerobic growth on glucose, Escherichia coli produces acetate in the so-called overflow metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was used to determine the global gene expression patterns of chemostat cultivations of E. coli MG1655 that were characterized by different acetate formation rates during aerobic growth on glucose. A correlation analysis identified that expression of ten genes (sdhCDAB, sucB, sucC, acnB, lpdA, fumC and mdh) encoding the TCA cycle enzymes succinate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, aconitase, fumarase and malate dehydrogenase, respectively, and of the acs-yjcH-actP operon for acetate utilization correlated negatively with acetate formation. Relieving transcriptional control of the sdhCDAB-b0725-sucABCD operon by chromosomal promoter exchange mutagenesis yielded a strain with increased specific activities of the TCA cycle enzymes succinate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA synthetase, which are encoded by this operon. The resulting strain produced less acetate and directed more carbon towards carbon dioxide formation than the parent strain MG1655 while maintaining high growth and glucose consumption rates. PMID:17273855

  2. Adaptation of HepG2 cells to a steady-state reduction in the content of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) catalytic subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boylan, Joan M. [Department of Pediatrics, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Salomon, Arthur R. [Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Tantravahi, Umadevi [Division of Genetics, Department of Pathology, Brown University and Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Gruppuso, Philip A., E-mail: philip_gruppuso@brown.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr phosphatase involved in an array of cellular processes. To assess the potential of PP6 as a therapeutic target in liver disorders, we attenuated expression of the PP6 catalytic subunit in HepG2 cells using lentiviral-transduced shRNA. Two PP6 knock-down (PP6KD) cell lines (90% reduction of PP6-C protein content) were studied in depth. Both proliferated at a rate similar to control cells. However, flow cytometry indicated G2/M cell cycle arrest that was accounted for by a shift of the cells from a diploid to tetraploid state. PP6KD cells did not show an increase in apoptosis, nor did they exhibit reduced viability in the presence of bleomycin or taxol. Gene expression analysis by microarray showed attenuated anti-inflammatory signaling. Genes associated with DNA replication were downregulated. Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis yielded 80 phosphopeptides representing 56 proteins that were significantly affected by a stable reduction in PP6-C. Proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and pre-mRNA splicing were overrepresented among these. PP6KD cells showed intact mTOR signaling. Our studies demonstrated involvement of PP6 in a diverse set of biological pathways and an adaptive response that may limit the effectiveness of targeting PP6 in liver disorders. - Highlights: • Lentiviral-transduced shRNA was used to generate a stable knockdown of PP6 in HepG2 cells. • Cells adapted to reduced PP6; cell proliferation was unaffected, and cell survival was normal. • However, PP6 knockdown was associated with a transition to a tetraploid state. • Genomic profiling showed downregulated anti-inflammatory signaling and DNA replication. • Phosphoproteomic profiling showed changes in proteins associated with DNA replication and repair.

  3. Oxidative stress indicators and metabolic adaptations in response to the omission of the dry period in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Roberto; Sgorlon, Sandy; Marinelli, Lieta; Bailoni, Lucia; Bittante, Giovanni; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2010-08-01

    The effects of dry period omission on oxidative stress and metabolic indicators around calving were studied. Seventeen Italian Friesian cows were randomly assigned to two groups, homogeneous for milk yield and parity, and managed either with a traditional 55-d dry off period (n=8) or continuously milked till parturition (n=9). Between 60 d before expected calving and 90 d after calving, body condition (BCS) was recorded and blood samples were collected to measure cortisol, urea, cholesterol, glucose, NEFA, triglycerides, insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. BCS changes after calving were not different between the two groups. The normally dried group showed lower (Pmilked cows after calving (Pmilking up to parturition (Pmilk secretion. The differences in plasma GSH observed after calving may depend upon sulphur amino acid sparing in continuously milked cows.

  4. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders.

  5. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and bismuth shielding for evaluation of dose reduction to the eye and image quality during head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a concern regarding the adverse effects of increasing radiation doses due to repeated computed tomography (CT) scans, especially in radiosensitive organs and portions thereof, such as the lenses of the eyes. Bismuth shielding with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm was recently introduced in our clinic as a method to reduce the absorbed radiation dose. This technique was applied to the lens of the eye during CT scans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction in the absorbed radiation dose and to determine the noise level when using bismuth shielding and the ASIR algorithm with the GE DC 750 HD 64-channel CT scanner for CT of the head of a humanoid phantom. With the use of bismuth shielding, the noise level was higher in the beam-hardening artifact areas than in the revealed artifact areas. However, with the use of ASIR, the noise level was lower than that with the use of bismuth alone; it was also lower in the artifact areas. The reduction in the radiation dose with the use of bismuth was greatest at the surface of the phantom to a limited depth. In conclusion, it is possible to reduce the radiation level and slightly decrease the bismuth-induced noise level by using a combination of ASIR as an algorithm process and bismuth as an in-plane hardware-type shielding method.

  6. Magnesium ions improving the growth and organics reduction of Rhodospirillum rubrum cultivated in sewage through regulating energy metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Ru; Wu, Pan; Lang, Lang; Liu, Ri-Jia; Li, Jian-Zheng; Ji, Yu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum has the potential for biomass resource recycling combined with sewage purification. However, low biomass production and yield restricts the potential for sewage purification. This research investigated the improvement of biomass production, yield and organics reduction by Mg²⁺ in R. rubrum wastewater treatment. Results showed that with optimal dosage (120 mg/L), biomass production reached 4,000 mg/L, which was 1.5 times of that of the control group. Biomass yield was improved by 43.3%. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached over 90%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that Mg²⁺ enhanced the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content on respiration and photophosphorylation. These effects then enhanced ATP production, which led to more biomass accumulation and COD removal. With 120 mg/L Mg²⁺ dosage, the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content, ATP production were improved, respectively, by 33.3%, 50%, 67%, 41.3% compared to those of the control group.

  7. Sulfur mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity involves efficient thiol metabolism and the antioxidant defense system in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Pradyumna Kumar; Kumar, Smita; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Norton, Gareth John; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination is a global issue, with South Asia and South East Asia being worst affected. Rice is major crop in these regions and can potentially pose serious health risks due to its known As accumulation potential. Sulfur (S) is an essential macronutrient and a vital element to combat As toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of S with regards to As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. To achieve this aim, plants were stressed with AsIII and AsV under three different S conditions (low sulfur (0.5mM), normal sulfur (3.5mM) and high sulfur (5.0mM)). High S treatment resulted in increased root As accumulation, likely due to As complexation through enhanced synthesis of thiolic ligands, such as non-protein thiols and phytochelatins, which restricted As translocation to the shoots. Enzymes of S assimilatory pathways and downstream thiolic metabolites were up-regulated with increased S supplementation; however, to maintain optimum concentrations of S, transcript levels of sulfate transporters were down-regulated at high S concentration. Oxidative stress generated due to As was counterbalanced in the high S treatment by reducing hydrogen peroxide concentration and enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities. The high S concentration resulted in reduced transcript levels of Lsi2 (a known transporter of As). This reduction in Lsi2 expression level is a probable reason for low shoot As accumulation, which has potential implications in reducing the risk of As in the food chain.

  8. Psychrophilic Enzymes: Molecular Basis of Cold Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Georges; Gerday, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Psychrophilic organisms have successfully colonized polar and alpine regions and are able to grow efficiently at sub-zero temperatures. At the enzymatic level, such organisms have to cope with the reduction of chemical reaction rates induced by low temperatures in order to maintain adequate metabolic fluxes. Thermal compensation in cold-adapted enzymes is reached through improved turnover number and catalytic efficiency. This optimization of the catalytic parameters can originate from a highl...

  9. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological And Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalcakan, Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m) were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model. PMID:25713670

  10. Protective properties of radio-chemoresistant glioblastoma stem cell clones are associated with metabolic adaptation to reduced glucose dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC are a significant cell model for explaining brain tumor recurrence. However, mechanisms underlying their radiochemoresistance remain obscure. Here we show that most clonogenic cells in GSC cultures are sensitive to radiation treatment (RT with or without temozolomide (TMZ. Only a few single cells survive treatment and regain their self-repopulating capacity. Cells re-populated from treatment-resistant GSC clones contain more clonogenic cells compared to those grown from treatment-sensitive GSC clones, and repeated treatment cycles rapidly enriched clonogenic survival. When compared to sensitive clones, resistant clones exhibited slower tumor development in animals. Upregulated genes identified in resistant clones via comparative expression microarray analysis characterized cells under metabolic stress, including blocked glucose uptake, impaired insulin/Akt signaling, enhanced lipid catabolism and oxidative stress, and suppressed growth and inflammation. Moreover, many upregulated genes highlighted maintenance and repair activities, including detoxifying lipid peroxidation products, activating lysosomal autophagy/ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, and enhancing telomere maintenance and DNA repair, closely resembling the anti-aging effects of caloric/glucose restriction (CR/GR, a nutritional intervention that is known to increase lifespan and stress resistance in model organisms. Although treatment-introduced genetic mutations were detected in resistant clones, all resistant and sensitive clones were subclassified to either proneural (PN or mesenchymal (MES glioblastoma subtype based on their expression profiles. Functional assays demonstrated the association of treatment resistance with energy stress, including reduced glucose uptake, fatty acid oxidation (FAO-dependent ATP maintenance, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production and autophagic activity, and increased AMPK activity and NAD(+ levels accompanied by

  11. Synergy and antagonism of active constituents of ADAPT-232 on transcriptional level of metabolic regulation of isolated neuroglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander George Panossian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling was performed on the human neuroglial cell line T98G after treatment with adaptogen ADAPT-232 and its constituents – extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus root, Schisandra chinensis berry, and Rhodiola rosea root as well as several constituents individually, namely, eleutheroside E, schizandrin B, salidroside, triandrin, and tyrosol. A common feature for all tested adaptogens was their effect on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathways, i.e. cAMP, phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathways. Adaptogens may reduce the cAMP level in brain cells by downregulation of adenylate cyclase gene ADC2Y and upregulation of phosphodiestherase gene PDE4D that is essential for energy homeostasis as well as for switching from catabolic to anabolic states and vice versa. All tested adaptogens up-regulated the PLCB1 gene, which encodes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks, key players for the regulation of NF-B-mediated defense responses. Other common targets of adaptogens included genes encoding ERα estrogen receptor(2.9-22.6 fold down-regulation, cholesterol ester transfer protein (5.1-10.6 fold down-regulation, heat shock protein Hsp70 (3.0-45.0 fold up-regulation, serpin peptidase inhibitor (neuroserpin, and 5-HT3 receptor of serotonin (2.2-6.6 fold down-regulation. These findings can be reconciled with the observed beneficial effects of adaptogens in behavioral, mental and aging-associated disorders. Combining two or more active substances in one mixture significantly changes deregulated genes profiles: synergetic interactions result in activation of genes that none of the individual substances affected, while antagonistic interactions result in suppression some genes activated by individual substances. Merging of deregulated genes array profiles and intracellular networks is specific to the new substance with unique pharmacological

  12. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological and Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.

  13. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  14. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Khanal

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements, LOW (50% of NORM or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF or moderate (CONV diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood, plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights.

  15. Baseline leptin and leptin reduction predict improvements in metabolic variables and long-term fat loss in obese children and adolescents: a prospective study of an inpatient weight-loss program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murer, S.B.; Knopfli, B.H.; Aeberli, I.; Jung, A.; Wildhaber, J.; Wildhaber-Brooks, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether high plasma leptin in obese individuals represents leptin resistance or whether individuals with marked reductions in leptin concentrations in response to weight loss may be at greater risk of regaining weight. Moreover, whether changes in leptin predict metabolic i

  16. Metabolic implications when employing heavy pre- and post-exercise rapid-acting insulin reductions to prevent hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes patients: a randomised clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Campbell

    Full Text Available To examine the metabolic, gluco-regulatory-hormonal and inflammatory cytokine responses to large reductions in rapid-acting insulin dose administered prandially before and after intensive running exercise in male type 1 diabetes patients.This was a single centre, randomised, controlled open label study. Following preliminary testing, 8 male patients (24±2 years, HbA1c 7.7±0.4%/61±4 mmol.l-1 treated with insulin's glargine and aspart, or lispro attended the laboratory on two mornings at ∼08:00 h and consumed a standardised breakfast carbohydrate bolus (1 g carbohydrate.kg-1BM; 380±10 kcal and self-administered a 75% reduced rapid-acting insulin dose 60 minutes before 45 minutes of intensive treadmill running at 73.1±0.9% VO2peak. At 60 minutes post-exercise, patients ingested a meal (1 g carbohydrate.kg-1BM; 660±21 kcal and administered either a Full or 50% reduced rapid-acting insulin dose. Blood glucose and lactate, serum insulin, cortisol, non-esterified-fatty-acids, β-Hydroxybutyrate, and plasma glucagon, adrenaline, noradrenaline, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were measured for 180 minutes post-meal.All participants were analysed. All glycaemic, metabolic, hormonal, and cytokine responses were similar between conditions up to 60 minutes following exercise. Following the post-exercise meal, serum insulin concentrations were lower under 50% (p<0.05 resulting in 75% of patients experiencing hyperglycaemia (blood glucose ≥8.0 mmol.l-1; 50% n = 6, Full n = 3. β-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations decreased similarly, such that at 180 minutes post-meal concentrations were lower than rest under Full and 50%. IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations remained similar to fasting levels under 50% but declined under Full. Under 50% IL-6 concentrations were inversely related with serum insulin concentrations (r = -0.484, p = 0.017.Heavily reducing rapid-acting insulin dose with a carbohydrate bolus before, and a meal after intensive

  17. PAPR reduction for OFDM systems with adaptive modulation%利用自适应调制进行OFDM系统PAPR抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡登鹏; 石峰; 王世练; 张尔扬

    2012-01-01

    根据相同的信息比特采用不同调制样式时所得的正交频分复用( OFDM)信号的峰均功率比(PAPR)不同,提出了一种利用自适应调制进行OFDM系统PAPR抑制的算法,并设计了利用该算法的OFDM系统.算法通过设定一个可选调制样式集合,改变发端信息比特的调制样式,选择具有最小PAPR值的OFDM信号作为传输的OFDM信号,从而使整个系统的PAPR得到抑制.在接收端,通过对OFDM符号的调制样式进行识别,完成对调制信息解调.由于算法不需要传输需严格保护的边带信息,系统具有较强的可靠性和抗干扰能力.仿真结果表明,利用自适应调制可有效地进行OFDM系统PAPR抑制;同已有算法相比,在多径信道下,利用该算法的OFDM系统的误码率性能总体上较好.%This paper proposes a PAPR reduction algorithm for OFDM systems with adaptive modulation, which is based on the fact that an OFDM symbol has different PAPR when its modulation type is changed, and designs an OFDM system. A group of modulation type is set to be the candidate and the OFDM symbol' s modulation type is changed according to the group. The one with the minimal peak power is selected as the output signal. In receiver, the information bit can be demodulated after the modulation type detection. As there is no side information which should be strictly protected, the system is more reliable and robust. Simulation results show that it is effective for PAPR reduction with adaptive modulation in OFDM systems, and the proposed algorithm's system has better bit error ratio performances than previously algorithms as a whole.

  18. Contrast adaptive total p-norm variation minimization approach to CT reconstruction for artifact reduction in reduced-view brain perfusion CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Won; Kim, Jong-Hyo

    2011-03-01

    Perfusion CT (PCT) examinations are getting more frequently used for diagnosis of acute brain diseases such as hemorrhage and infarction, because the functional map images it produces such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and mean transit time (MTT) may provide critical information in the emergency work-up of patient care. However, a typical PCT scans the same slices several tens of times after injection of contrast agent, which leads to much increased radiation dose and is inevitability of growing concern for radiation-induced cancer risk. Reducing the number of views in projection in combination of TV minimization reconstruction technique is being regarded as an option for radiation reduction. However, reconstruction artifacts due to insufficient number of X-ray projections become problematic especially when high contrast enhancement signals are present or patient's motion occurred. In this study, we present a novel reconstruction technique using contrast-adaptive TpV minimization that can reduce reconstruction artifacts effectively by using different p-norms in high contrast and low contrast objects. In the proposed method, high contrast components are first reconstructed using thresholded projection data and low p-norm total variation to reflect sparseness in both projection and reconstruction spaces. Next, projection data are modified to contain only low contrast objects by creating projection data of reconstructed high contrast components and subtracting them from original projection data. Then, the low contrast projection data are reconstructed by using relatively high p-norm TV minimization technique, and are combined with the reconstructed high contrast component images to produce final reconstructed images. The proposed algorithm was applied to numerical phantom and a clinical data set of brain PCT exam, and the resultant images were compared with those using filtered back projection (FBP) and conventional TV

  19. Influence of dietary sugar on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the rat: Marked reduction of hepatic Abcg5/8 expression following sucrose ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apro, Johanna; Beckman, Lena; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2015-06-12

    Previous studies have indicated that dietary intake of sugar may lower bile acid production, and may promote cholesterol gallstone formation in humans. We studied the influence of dietary sucrose on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the rat. In two different experiments, rats received high-sucrose diets. In the first, 60% of the weight of standard rat chow was replaced with sucrose (high-sucrose diet). In the second, rats received a diet either containing 65% sucrose (controlled high-sucrose diet) or 65% complex carbohydrates, in order to keep other dietary components constant. Bile acid synthesis, evaluated by measurements of the serum marker 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and of the hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp7a1, was markedly reduced by the high-sucrose diet, but not by the controlled high-sucrose diet. Both diets strongly reduced the hepatic - but not the intestinal - mRNA levels of Abcg5 and Abcg8. The differential patterns of regulation of bile acid synthesis induced by the two sucrose-enriched diets indicate that it is not sugar per se in the high-sucrose diet that reduces bile acid synthesis, but rather the reduced content of fiber or fat. In contrast, the marked reduction of hepatic Abcg5/8 observed is an effect of the high sugar content of the diets.

  20. Activation of glycerol metabolism in Xanthomonas campestris by adaptive evolution to produce a high-transparency and low-viscosity xanthan gum from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichao; Wu, Jianrong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have focused on using crude glycerol from biodiesel to obtain valuable products, but few of these studies have focused on obtaining polysaccharides. A mutant strain of Xanthomonas campestris CCTCC M2015714 that could use glycerol to produce high-transparency and low-viscosity xanthan gum was obtained by adaptive evolution, and the yield of xanthan gum reached 11.0g/L. We found that transcriptional levels of genes related to glycerol metabolism (glpF, glpK, glpD, and fbp) in the mutant strain were all higher than those from the parent strain. Using 5g/L sucrose or glucose as starter substrate, cell growth time decreased from 36h to 24h and xanthan gum yield increased. Moreover, the mutant strain can tolerate high titer glycerol, and its activity was not affected by the impurities in crude glycerol. All these results proved that crude glycerol from biodiesel industries can be used for xanthan gum production. PMID:27030959

  1. Heavy metal pollution exerts reduction/adaptation in the diversity and enzyme expression profile of heterotrophic bacteria in Cochin estuary, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past three decades heavy metal pollution has increased substantially in Cochin estuary, south west coast of India. Here we studied the distribution, diversity and enzyme expression profile of culturable microbial population along a pollution gradient. The distribution of resistance against 5 mM concentration of Zn, Co, Ni and Cu was observed among 90-100% of bacterial isolates retrieved from highly polluted Eloor, whereas it was less than 40% in Vypin and Munambam. Similarly, there was a difference in the distribution and diversity of bacterial phyla with predominance of Proteobacteria in Eloor and Firmicutes in Munambam and Vypin. We observed that 75-100% of the organisms retrieved from Eloor had low levels of expression for hydrolytic enzyme. In conclusion, the heavy metal pollution in Cochin estuary brought in reduction/adaptation in the distribution, diversity and enzyme expression profile of bacteria, which may impart adverse impacts on ecosystem functioning. - Highlights: → Substantial proliferation of heavy metal pollution in Cochin estuary. → 90-100% of bacteria were resistant against heavy metals. → Proteobacteria dominated in the hot spot sites. → Low Enzyme expression profile among microorganisms in hot spot sites. - Heavy metal pollution exerts pressure on the diversity and enzyme expression profile of estuarine bacteria.

  2. Metabolic adaptations to ammonia-induced oxidative stress in leaves of the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Song He; Wang, Pei Fang; Hou, Jun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jing

    2008-04-28

    Ammonia (i.e. the total of NH(3) and NH(4)(+)) has been one of the main causes of the decline of macrophytes in fresh water. In order to study the effects of ammonia toxicity, plants of the submersed macrophyte Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara were treated with various concentrations of NH(4)Cl (0.1, 0.4, 1.2, 2 and 2.8mM) for 4 days or with 2mM NH(4)Cl for different lengths of time (12h, 1, 2, 4 and 8 days). The toxic effect and oxidative stress caused by NH(4)Cl resulted in a reduction of total chlorophyll (chlorophyll a and b) and an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2), with an increased concentration of NH(4)Cl and duration of exposure. Meanwhile, weak chlorosis and water-soaked symptoms were observed in older leaves exposed to 2.8mM NH(4)Cl for 4 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was up-regulated in leaves treated with 1.2, 2 and 2.8mM NH(4)Cl for 4 days or with 2mM NH(4)Cl for 1, 2 and 4 days, when compared with controls. Among these enzymes, the activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase was significantly up-regulated in plants treated with 0.4mM NH(4)Cl for 4 days, while they were down-regulated at 4 and 8 days from their peak values in leaves treated with 2mM NH(4)Cl. The content of ascorbic acid decreased significantly in leaves treated with 0.4-2.8mM NH(4)Cl for 4 days or with 2mM NH(4)Cl for 2-8 days. The content of total glutathione (tGSH; reduced and oxidized glutathione) increased in leaves treated with NH(4)Cl at 0.4, 1.2 and 2mM for 4 days or with 2mM NH(4)Cl at 1, 2 and 4 days, while tGSH was decreased below the level of controls by treatment with 2.8mM NH(4)Cl for 4 days or to the level of controls by treatment with 2mM NH(4)Cl for 8 days. However, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased with increased concentration of NH(4)Cl and duration of

  3. A new dietary strategy for long-term treatment of the metabolic syndrome is compared with the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines: the MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Abete, Itziar; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Forga, Luis; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-02-01

    The long-term effects of dietary strategies designed to combat the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new dietary strategy based on macronutrient distribution, antioxidant capacity and meal frequency (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in NAvarra (RESMENA) diet) for the treatment of the MetS when compared with the American Heart Association guidelines, used as Control. Subjects with the MetS (fifty-two men and forty-one women, age 49 (se 1) years, BMI 36·11 (se 0·5) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. After a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, during which a nutritional assessment was made for the participants every 15 d, a 4-month self-control period began. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning anthropometry, but only the RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in body weight ( - 1·7%; P= 0·018), BMI ( - 1·7%; P= 0·019), waist circumference ( - 1·8%; P= 0·021), waist:hip ratio ( - 1·4%; P= 0·035) and android fat mass ( - 6·9%; P= 0·008). The RESMENA group exhibited a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations ( - 26·8%; P= 0·008 and - 14·0%; P= 0·018, respectively), while the Control group exhibited a significant increase in glucose (7·9%; P= 0·011), AST (11·3%; P= 0·045) and uric acid (9·0%; P< 0·001) concentrations. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were increased (Control group: 34·4%; P< 0·001 and RESMENA group: 33·8%; P< 0·001), but interestingly so were the LDL-C:apoB ratio (Control group: 28·7%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 17·1%; P= 0·009) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations (Control group: 21·1%; P< 0·001, RESMENA group: 8·7; P= 0·001). Fibre was the dietary component that most contributed to the improvement of anthropometry, while body-weight loss explained changes in some biochemical markers. In conclusion, the RESMENA diet is a good

  4. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now viewed as a stem cell disease. There is still no consensus on the metabolic characteristics of cancer stem cells, with several studies indicating that they are mainly glycolytic and others pointing instead to mitochondrial metabolism as their principal source of energy. Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes. Deter...

  5. Feasibility study of radiation dose reduction in adult female pelvic CT scan with low tube-voltage and adaptive statistical iterative econstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin Lian; He, Wen; Chen, Jian Hong; Hu, Zhi Hai; Zhao, Li Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate image quality of female pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans reconstructed with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique combined with low tube-voltage and to explore the feasibility of its clinical application. Ninety-four patients were divided into two groups. The study group used 100 kVp, and images were reconstructed with 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% ASIR. The control group used 120 kVp, and images were reconstructed with 30% ASIR. The noise index was 15 for the study group and 11 for the control group. The CT values and noise levels of different tissues were measured. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. A subjective evaluation was carried out by two experienced radiologists. The CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) was recorded. A 44.7% reduction in CTDIvol was observed in the study group (8.18 ± 3.58 mGy) compared with that in the control group (14.78 ± 6.15 mGy). No significant differences were observed in the tissue noise levels and CNR values between the 70% ASIR group and the control group (p = 0.068-1.000). The subjective scores indicated that visibility of small structures, diagnostic confidence, and the overall image quality score in the 70% ASIR group was the best, and were similar to those in the control group (1.87 vs. 1.79, 1.26 vs. 1.28, and 4.53 vs. 4.57; p = 0.122-0.585). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was detected between the study group and the control group (42/47 vs. 43/47, p = 1.000). Low tube-voltage combined with automatic tube current modulation and 70% ASIR allowed the low CT radiation dose to be reduced by 44.7% without losing image quality on female pelvic scan.

  6. Effects of starvation, refeeding, and insulin on energy-linked metabolic processes in catfish (Rhamdia hilarii) adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of starvation and of a short period of refeeding on energy-linked metabolic processes, as well as the effects of insulin administration, were investigated in an omnivorous fish (catfish, Rhamdia hilarii) previously adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet. Following food deprivation blood sugar levels declined progressively to about 50% of fed values after 30 days. During the same period plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration increased twofold. Starvation resulted in reduced concentrations of lipid and glycogen in the liver and of glycogen, lipid, and protein in white muscle. However, taking into account the initial and final concentrations of tissue constituents, the liver weight, and the large fractions of body weight represented by muscle, it could be estimated that most of the energy utilized during starvation derived from the catabolism of muscle lipid and protein. Refeeding starved fishes for 48 hr induced several-fold increases in the rates of in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [14C]glucose into liver and muscle lipid and of [14C]glycine into liver and muscle protein. Incorporation of [14C]glucose into liver glycogen was also increased. However; refeeding did not affect the incorporation of labeled glucose into muscle glycogen, neither in vivo nor in vitro. Administration of pharmacological doses of insulin to normally fed catfishes resulted in marked increases in the in vivo incorporation of 14C from glucose into lipid and protein in both liver and muscle. In contrast, labeled glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen was not affected by insulin and label incorporation into liver glycogen was actually lower than that in noninjected controls

  7. Effects of starvation, refeeding, and insulin on energy-linked metabolic processes in catfish (Rhamdia hilarii) adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C.R.; Garofalo, M.A.; Roselino, J.E.; Kettelhut, I.C.; Migliorini, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    The effects of starvation and of a short period of refeeding on energy-linked metabolic processes, as well as the effects of insulin administration, were investigated in an omnivorous fish (catfish, Rhamdia hilarii) previously adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet. Following food deprivation blood sugar levels declined progressively to about 50% of fed values after 30 days. During the same period plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration increased twofold. Starvation resulted in reduced concentrations of lipid and glycogen in the liver and of glycogen, lipid, and protein in white muscle. However, taking into account the initial and final concentrations of tissue constituents, the liver weight, and the large fractions of body weight represented by muscle, it could be estimated that most of the energy utilized during starvation derived from the catabolism of muscle lipid and protein. Refeeding starved fishes for 48 hr induced several-fold increases in the rates of in vivo and in vitro incorporation of (14C)glucose into liver and muscle lipid and of (14C)glycine into liver and muscle protein. Incorporation of (14C)glucose into liver glycogen was also increased. However; refeeding did not affect the incorporation of labeled glucose into muscle glycogen, neither in vivo nor in vitro. Administration of pharmacological doses of insulin to normally fed catfishes resulted in marked increases in the in vivo incorporation of 14C from glucose into lipid and protein in both liver and muscle. In contrast, labeled glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen was not affected by insulin and label incorporation into liver glycogen was actually lower than that in noninjected controls.

  8. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a very special organ in the body and has a high requirement for metabolism due to its constant workload. As a consequence, to provide a consistent and sufficient energy a high steady-state demand of metabolism is required by the heart. When delicately balanced mechanisms are changed by physiological or pathophysiological conditions, the whole system’s homeostasis will be altered to a new balance, which contributes to the pathologic process. So it is no wonder that almost every heart disease is related to metabolic shift. Furthermore, aging is also found to be related to the reduction in mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as an energy sensor to detect intracellular ATP/AMP ratio and plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress. During different pathology (like myocardial ischemia and hypertension), the activation of cardiac AMPK appears to be essential for repairing cardiomyocyte’s function by accelerating ATP generation, attenuating ATP depletion, and protecting the myocardium against cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis. In this overview, we will talk about the normal heart’s metabolism, how metabolic shifts during aging and different pathologies, and how AMPK regulates metabolic changes during these conditions. PMID:25880509

  9. [Microcirculation impairment in periodontal tissues in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis combined with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechina, E K; Zorina, O A; Molchanov, A M; Shilov, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using the method of laser Doppler flowmetry the study of microcirculation in periodontal tissues in patients with moderate chronic generalized periodontitis and metabolic syndrome was carried out. The analysis of microcirculation values proved not only the reduction of blood flow intensity but also the decreased vasoactivity of microvessels essential to maintain normal microcirculation in periodontal tissues, as it provides active modulation of tissue blood flow and its adaptation to local metabolic needs. PMID:26925562

  10. Using an Adaptative Fuzzy-Logic System to Optimize the Performances and the Reduction of Chattering Phenomenon in the Control of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Krishan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neural networks and fuzzy inference systems are becoming well-recognized tools of designing an identifier/controller capable of perceiving the operating environment and imitating a human operator with high performance. Also, by combining these two features, more versatile and robust models, called neuro-fuzzy architectures have been developed. The mo Approach: Motivation behind the use of neuro-fuzzy approaches was based on the complexity of real life systems, ambiguities on sensory information or time-varying nature of the system under investigation. In this way, the present contribution concerns the application of neuro-fuzzy approach in order to perform the responses of the speed regulation, ensure more robustness of the overall system and to reduce the chattering phenomenon introduced by sliding mode control which is very harmful to the actuators in our case and may excite the unmodeled dynamics of the system. Results: In fact, the aim of such a research consists first in simplifying the control of the motor by decoupling between two principles variables which provoque the torque in the motor by using the feedback linearization method. Then, using sliding mode controllers to give our process more robustness towards the variation of different parameters of the motor. However, the latter technique of control called sliding mode control caused an indesirable phenomenon which harmful and could leads to the deterioration of the inverters components called chattering. So, here the authors propose to use neuro-fuzzy systems to reduce this phenomenon and perform the performances of the adopted control process. The type of the neuro-fuzzy system used here is called: Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. This neuro-fuzzy is destined to replace the speed fuzzy sliding mode controller after its training process. Conclusion: Therefore, from a control design consideration, the adopted neuro-fuzzy system has opened up a new

  11. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  12. Distribution variation of a metabolic uncoupler, 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) in long-term sludge culture and their effects on sludge reduction and biological inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Di; Li, Zhipeng; Cui, Yanni

    2013-01-01

    Distribution variation of a metabolic uncoupler, 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), in long-term sludge culture was studied, and the effects on sludge reduction and biological inhibition of this chemical during the 90-day operation were established. The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix functioned as a protective barrier for the bacteria inside sludge flocs to 2,6-DCP, resulting in the transfer of 2,6-DCP from the liquid phase to the activated sludge fraction. Significant sludge reduction (about 40%) was observed after the addition of 2,6-DCP in the first 40 days, while the ineffective function of 2,6-DCP in sludge reduction (days 70-90) might be correlated to the EPS protection mechanism. The inhibitory effect of 2,6-DCP on the COD removal was extremely lower than on the nitrification performance due to the fact that 2,6-DCP was much more toxic to autotrophic microorganisms than heterotrophic microorganisms. Moreover, both of them recovered to a higher level again with the transfer potential of 2,6-DCP to sludge. Thus, the application of metabolic uncoupler for excess sludge reduction should be cautious. PMID:23123050

  13. Distribution variation of a metabolic uncoupler, 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) in long-term sludge culture and their effects on sludge reduction and biological inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Di; Li, Zhipeng; Cui, Yanni

    2013-01-01

    Distribution variation of a metabolic uncoupler, 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), in long-term sludge culture was studied, and the effects on sludge reduction and biological inhibition of this chemical during the 90-day operation were established. The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix functioned as a protective barrier for the bacteria inside sludge flocs to 2,6-DCP, resulting in the transfer of 2,6-DCP from the liquid phase to the activated sludge fraction. Significant sludge reduction (about 40%) was observed after the addition of 2,6-DCP in the first 40 days, while the ineffective function of 2,6-DCP in sludge reduction (days 70-90) might be correlated to the EPS protection mechanism. The inhibitory effect of 2,6-DCP on the COD removal was extremely lower than on the nitrification performance due to the fact that 2,6-DCP was much more toxic to autotrophic microorganisms than heterotrophic microorganisms. Moreover, both of them recovered to a higher level again with the transfer potential of 2,6-DCP to sludge. Thus, the application of metabolic uncoupler for excess sludge reduction should be cautious.

  14. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  15. The impact of acetate metabolism on yeast fermentative performance and wine quality: reduction of volatile acidity of grape musts and wines

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, A. Vilela; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth; Faia, A. Mendes; Silva, Rui D.; Chaves, S R; Sousa, Maria João; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    Acetic acid is the main component of the volatile acidity of grape musts and wines. It can be formed as a byproduct of alcoholic fermentation or as a product of the metabolism of acetic and lactic acid bacteria, which can metabolize residual sugars to increase volatile acidity. Acetic acid has a negative impact on yeast fermentative performance and affects the quality of certain types of wine when present above a given concentration. In this minireview, we present an o...

  16. Ensemble Modeling of Cancer Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh eKhazaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic behaviour of cancer cells is adapted to meet their proliferative needs, with notable changes such as enhanced lactate secretion and glucose uptake rates. In this work, we use the Ensemble Modeling (EM framework to gain insight and predict potential drug targets for tumour cells. EM generates a set of models which span the space of kinetic parameters that are constrained by thermodynamics. Perturbation data based on known targets are used to screen the entire ensemble of models to obtain a sub-set, which is increasingly predictive. EM allows for incorporation of regulatory information and captures the behaviour of enzymatic reactions at the molecular level by representing reactions in the elementary reaction form. In this study, a metabolic network consisting of 58 reactions is considered and accounts for glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and includes allosteric regulation of key enzymes. Experimentally measured intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentrations are used for developing the ensemble of models along with information on established drug targets. The resulting models predicted transaldolase (TALA and succinyl-CoA ligase (SUCOAS1m to cause a significant reduction in growth rate when repressed, relative to currently known drug targets. Furthermore, the results suggest that the synergetic repression of transaldolase and glycine hydroxymethyltransferase (GHMT2r will lead to a three-fold decrease in growth rate compared to the repression of single enzyme targets.

  17. Metabolic dynamics in skeletal muscle during acute reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria: in-silico studies using a multi-scale, top-down integrated model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan K Dash

    Full Text Available Control mechanisms of cellular metabolism and energetics in skeletal muscle that may become evident in response to physiological stresses such as reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria can be quantitatively understood using a multi-scale computational model. The analysis of dynamic responses from such a model can provide insights into mechanisms of metabolic regulation that may not be evident from experimental studies. For the purpose, a physiologically-based, multi-scale computational model of skeletal muscle cellular metabolism and energetics was developed to describe dynamic responses of key chemical species and reaction fluxes to muscle ischemia. The model, which incorporates key transport and metabolic processes and subcellular compartmentalization, is based on dynamic mass balances of 30 chemical species in both capillary blood and tissue cells (cytosol and mitochondria domains. The reaction fluxes in cytosol and mitochondria are expressed in terms of a general phenomenological Michaelis-Menten equation involving the compartmentalized energy controller ratios ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD(+. The unknown transport and reaction parameters in the model are estimated simultaneously by minimizing the differences between available in vivo experimental data on muscle ischemia and corresponding model outputs in coupled with the resting linear flux balance constraints using a robust, nonlinear, constrained-based, reduced gradient optimization algorithm. With the optimal parameter values, the model is able to simulate dynamic responses to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria associated with muscle ischemia of several key metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes in the subcellular cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments, some that can be measured and others that can not be measured with the current experimental techniques. The model can be applied to test complex hypotheses involving dynamic regulation of cellular

  18. Assessing Psychological Functioning in Metabolic Disorders: Validation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for Identification of Individuals at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of neuropsychological functioning in metabolic disorders remains difficult due to limited opportunities for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. This study examined the validity of using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for assessing developmental status in metabolic disorders and for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits. Results from individuals with urea cycle disorders, phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and fatty acid oxidation disorders were obtained on the ABAS-II and BRIEF and were compared to results obtained from neuropsychological testing performed on the same day. Correlations between scores on the ABAS-II and developmental or IQ tests for individuals with urea cycle disorders ranged from 0.48 to 0.72 and concordance rates for scores greater than a standard deviation below the normative mean ranged from 69 to 89%. Correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.68 with concordance ranging from 73 to 90% in the other metabolic disorders. For the BRIEF, correlations with other tests of executive functioning were significant for urea cycle disorders, with concordance ranging from 52 to 80%. For the other metabolic disorders, correlations ranged from -0.09 to -0.55. Concordance rates for at-risk status on the BRIEF and executive functioning tests ranged from 55% in adults to 80% in children with other metabolic disorders. These results indicate that the ABAS-II and BRIEF together can confidently be used as an adjunct or supplementary method for clinical follow-up and for research on functional status involving infants, children, and adults with metabolic disorders. PMID:25712381

  19. Digital computer modeling of the process of reduction of redundancy in multichannel telemetry information by the method of adaptive discretization with associative sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmadzheva, T. A.; Kantor, A. V.; Rozhkovskiy, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Digital computer modeling of the process of adaptive discretization with associative sorting of actual multichannel telemetry information is discussed. The main task in modeling is production of initial data for determination of dependences describing the operation of the on-board information compression device. Conclusions are presented including the shortcomings of telemetric information used in modeling.

  20. Environmental re-adaptations of farms seeking to the water contamination reduction (Itaipu/UNIOESTE integrated project); Readequacao ambiental de propriedades rurais visando a reducao de contaminacao das aguas (Projeto integrado Itaipu/UNIOESTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, Jacir; Campos, Alessandro Torres; Navarini, Franciele; Matsuo, Melissa [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia; Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paran (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias

    2004-07-01

    The work is destined to diagnose and to elaborate environmental adaptation projects in agricultural properties located in the micro basins: Arroio Fundo, Corregos Curvado and Ajuricaba, selected and located in the Rio Sao Francisco Verdadeiro basin, in the west Parana State area, by means of accord between ITAIPU Binational and UNIOESTE (West Parana State University). Four hundred and forty farms properties will be visited in a eleven months period. It will be lifted up environmental problems, in what it refers the ciliary forest, law reserves, fishing, crops, production and handling of dejections by: swine, dairy cattle, as well as readaptations projects of the farms in the areas of the micro basins, seeking to the environmental adaptation, reducing, consequently, the contamination of the waters that provisions the ITAIPU reservoir. The projects will be leaded to the IAP (Parana State environmental organ), by ITAIPU, for the environmental norms adaptation of the farms. Besides the environmental preservation and sustainability, with the environmental adaptations, ITAIPU will also benefit with the reduction of the ITAIPU lake water contamination, which arrives to the turbines. (author)

  1. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Niels B J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dimitru; Fredriksson, Katarina;

    2009-01-01

    It has not been established which physiological processes contribute to endurance training-related changes (Delta) in aerobic performance. For example, the relationship between intramuscular metabolic responses at the intensity used during training and improved human functional capacity has...... supervised cycling training (45 min at 70% of pretraining Vo(2max)) 4 times/wk for 6 wk. Performance was determined using a 15-min cycling time trial, and muscle biopsies were taken before and after a 10-min cycle at 70% of pretraining Vo(2max) to quantify substrate metabolism. Substantial interindividual...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown in vitro in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of human gut microbiota associated rats reveals an adaptive expression of metabolic and virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Guillaume; Jubelin, Grégory; Garneau, Philippe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Martin, Christine; Beaudry, Francis; Harel, Josée

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a leading cause of bloody diarrhea and renal failures in human. Understanding strategies employed by EHEC to colonize the intestine is of major importance since to date no cure exists to eradicate the pathogen. In this study, the adaptive response of EHEC to the intestinal milieu conditioned by a human microbiota was examined. A transcriptomic analysis was performed on the EHEC strain EDL933 incubated in vitro in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of human microbiota-associated rats (HMC) compared with EDL933 incubated in the sterile-filtrated cecal content of germ-free rat (GFC). EDL933 switches from a glycolytic metabolic profile in the GFC to an anaplerotic metabolic profile in HMC. The expression of several catabolism genes was strongly affected such as those involved in the utilization of sugars, glycerol, N-acetylneuraminic acid, amino acids and secondary metabolites. Interestingly, expression level of critical EHEC O157:H7 virulence genes including genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement was reduced in HMC. Altogether, these results contribute to the understanding of EHEC adaptive response to a digestive content and highlight the ability of the microbiota to repress EHEC virulence gene expression. PMID:25290220

  3. Short-term high fat-feeding results in morphological and metabolic adaptations in the skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de J.; Mohren, R.; Berg, van den S.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Groot, de P.J.; Müller, M.R.; Mariman, E.; Smit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is rapidly increasing all over the world. Consequently, there is an urgent need for more effective intervention strategies. Both animal and human studies indicate that lipid oversupply to skeletal muscle can result in insulin resistance which is one of t

  4. Middle-aged overweight South Asian men exhibit a different metabolic adaptation to short-term energy restriction compared with Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.E.; Guigas, B.; Schinkel, L.D. van; Zon, G.C. van der; Streefland, T.C.; Klinken, J.B. van; Jonker, J.T.; Lamb, H.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Pijl, H.; Meinders, A.E.; Jazet, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: South Asians have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than Europeans. The underlying cause of this excess risk is still poorly understood but might be related to differences in the regulation of energy/nutrient-sensing pathways in metabolic tissues and subsequent changes in

  5. Building resilience to overheating into UK 1960s hospital buildings within the constraint of the national carbon reduction target: adaptive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Short, C. Alan; Lomas, Kevin; Giridharan, Renganathan; Fair, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Estate in England includes 18.83 Mm2 of acute hospital accommodation, distributed across 330 sites. Vulnerability to overheating is clear with 15,000 excess deaths occurring nationally during the July 2003 heatwave. The installation of mechanical cooling in existing hospitals appears to be the inevitable recommendation from NHS patient safety risk assessments but the carbon implications would undermine the NHS Carbon Reduction Strategy. NHS CO2 emissions cons...

  6. Metabolism at Evolutionary Optimal States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraes Rabbers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is generally required for cellular maintenance and for the generation of offspring under conditions that support growth. The rates, yields (efficiencies, adaptation time and robustness of metabolism are therefore key determinants of cellular fitness. For biotechnological applications and our understanding of the evolution of metabolism, it is necessary to figure out how the functional system properties of metabolism can be optimized, via adjustments of the kinetics and expression of enzymes, and by rewiring metabolism. The trade-offs that can occur during such optimizations then indicate fundamental limits to evolutionary innovations and bioengineering. In this paper, we review several theoretical and experimental findings about mechanisms for metabolic optimization.

  7. 有氧运动刺激下代谢适应对膳食功能改善作用%Improving Dietary Function by Metabolic Adaptation Under Aerobic Exercise Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小凤

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究有氧运动刺激下代谢适应对膳食功能改善性作用,预防和治疗消化系统疾病和肥胖相关疾病.方法:对测试人员进行5 km短跑和3 km有用长跑训练,分析真核细胞生成素的代谢,进行实时监测,采用统计分析方法,分析ABX3 (A=阳离子;B=Ge, Sn, Pb;X=卤素离子)的结构,得到运动代谢细胞的分解过程,分析测试在有氧运动刺激下的膳食控制代谢活性酶含量,得到有氧运动刺激下的膳食控制代谢活性酶合成分子结构,进行资料分析.结果:并采用SPSS 13.0统计软件,利用Kinase-Glo Luminescent Kinase Assay Kit测定蛋白脂质体中磷脂和蛋白含量,随后用表面活性剂溶解蛋白脂质体,测试得出运动代谢适应度测试值分别为(48.11[±]12.11 ng/mL vs;126.33[±]32.152 ng/ml;167.58[±] 72.13 ng/mL, [P<0.05]).结论:在有氧运动刺激下进行运动代谢适应度控制,对膳食功能的改善,使得消化系统疾病的发病率得到有效降低,%Objective:To study the effect of metabolic adaptation to dietary function in aerobic exercise stimulation, and to prevent and treat digestive system diseases and obesity related diseases. Methods:To test personnel were a dash of 5 km and 3 km useful long-distance training, analysis of eukaryotic cells to produce pigment metabolism, real-time monitoring, using the method of statistical analysis, analysis of ABX3 (a=cations;b=Ge, Sn, Pb, x=halogen ion) structure, motion metabolic cell decomposition process, analysis and testing in has under the stimulation of aerobic exercise of dietary control metabolic enzyme activity content, aerobic exercise under the stimulation of dietary control the metabolic activity of the en-zyme synthesis of molecular structure, data analysis is obtained. Results:The statistical software SPSS 13.0, determination of protein lipid body phospholipid and protein content by kinase glo luminescent kinase assay kit, then by dissolving the surfactant protein

  8. Mitochondrial nitric oxide metabolism during rat heart adaptation to high altitude: effect of sildenafil, L-NAME, and L-arginine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaobornyj, Tamara; Valdez, Laura B; Iglesias, Darío E; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Boveris, Alberto

    2009-06-01

    Rats submitted to high altitude (Cerro de Pasco, Perú, 4,340 m, Po(2) = 12.2 kPa) for up to 84 days showed a physiological adaptive response with decreased body weight gain (15%), increased right ventricle weight (100%), and increased hematocrit (40%) compared with sea level animals. These classical parameters of adaptation to high altitude were accompanied by an increase in heart mitochondrial enzymes: complexes I-III activity by 34% and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) activity and expression by >75%. The hyperbolic increase for mtNOS activity during adaptation to high altitude was similar to the observed pattern for hematocrit. Hematocrit and mtNOS activity mean values correlated linearly (r(2) = 0.75, P adaptive response to sustained heart hypoxia that is susceptible to be modified by pharmacological treatments.

  9. Modified Speckle Reduction Algorithm for Local Adaptive Filtering%改进的局部自适应滤波散斑抑制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾小萍; 方亮; 唐劲松

    2009-01-01

    提出了一种改进的局部自适应滤波(Locally adaptive filter,LOAF)的散斑抑制算法,其特点是采用线性最小误差方差估计器,在没有对信号模型进行线性化的条件下得到了滤波器的最优权系数.滤波系数完全由局部统计特性确定,且对散斑统计特性没有任何先验知识假定,从而保证了算法具有良好的稳健性.采用复杂场景、边缘快变和平坦区域合成孔径雷达和声纳图像对算法进行了测试.测试评估的指标体系包括客观标准和主观标准两个方面,测试结果表明算法是有效的.

  10. 自适应理论在过热器减温调节中的应用%Application of Self-adapting theory To Temperature Reduction Regulation of Overheater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 阎明; 邵春江; 宋海龙

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the actual application of self-adapting theory from the temperature automatic reduction regulation of overheater at thermal power plant and with reference made to operating characteristics of collecting and rediating system itself, and its test method and test process as information to automatic control specialists.%从火力发电厂过热器减温自动调节入手,参照集散系统自身的运行特点,对自适应理论的实际应用做了初步研究,其试验方法及试验过程对电厂的自动控制专业人员具有一定的参考价值。

  11. Past and future corollaries of theories on causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities part 2: a composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome's underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to 'test' this composite unifying theory it is important to show that the hypothesis and sub-theories pertain throughout the whole of human evolution and history up till the current era. Corollaries of the composite unifying theory of MetS are examined with respect to past under-nutrition and malnutrition since agriculture began 10,000 years ago. The effects of man-made pollutants on degenerative change are examined. Projections are then made from current to future patterns on the state of 'insufficient micronutrient and/or unbalanced high energy malnutrition with central obesity and metabolic dysregulation' or 'malnubesity'. Forecasts

  12. Strengthening Voices: How patoralist communities and local government are shaping strategies for adaptive environmental management and poverty reduction in Tanzania's drylands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jode, Helen de; Hesse, Ced

    2011-06-15

    Across Tanzania, climate change is being felt in the changing patterns and intensity of rainfall, and in the growing unpredictability of the seasons. The drylands are being increasingly affected, and there is an urgent need to strengthen institutional capacity and good governance for drylands planning. Pastoralism provides over 90% of the meat and milk products consumed nationally in Tanzania. The pastoralist production system successfully exploits and adapts to the disequilibrium in the dryland ecosystems, but pastoralist voices are frequently excluded from the decision-making and management of dryland resources. The marginalisation of pastoralists is resulting in falling production levels. Since 2007, IIED, the Kimmage Development Studies Centre and the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum have been undertaking a project with their partners with the specific goal of generating more informed and equitable discussion and debate on pastoralism. Using local government reform processes, the 'Strengthening Voices' project works at the community, local government and national levels - addressing the lack of knowledge and power imbalances within all three. The central pillar of the project is a training course on the economic and ecological processes at the heart of pastoral systems — clarifying the rationale that underpins livelihood strategies. National politicians, local district officials and community participants have all benefited from the training. At the end of its 1st three-year phase good progress has been made in designing and implementing tools and approaches that promote citizen access to decision-making. With their new evidence, training and advocacy skills, people are now better able to inform policy of the economic and environmental benefits of dryland livelihood systems. This booklet and accompanying DVD explain the background to the project, its achievements, and how it plans to build on its successes to roll out the project to other districts in Tanzania

  13. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    over 24-48 h to improve the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and is further improved during a prolonged sojourn at altitude through an enhanced erythropoiesis and larger Hb mass, allowing for a partial or full restoration of the blood volume and arterial oxygen content. Most of these adaptations...... are observed from quite low altitudes [approximately 1000 m above sea level (m a.s.l.)] and become prominent from 2000 m a.s.l. At these higher altitudes additional adaptations occur, one being a reduction in the maximal heart rate response and consequently a lower peak cardiac output. Thus, in spite....... The alteration at the muscle level at altitude is minor and so is the effect on the metabolism, although it is debated whether a possible reduction in blood lactate accumulation occurs during exercise at altitude. Transient acute mountain sickness (headache, anorexia, and nausea) is present in 10-30% of subjects...

  14. Copepods in ice-covered seas—Distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. J.; Huntley, M.

    1991-07-01

    rhythms under or near the ice have also been observed for several species. In the Northern Hemisphere larger zooplanktonic species may take two, three, or possibly more years to reach maturity, but the grand strategy, apparently used by all, is to assure that their young have reached active feeding stages by the time of maximum primary production in the water column so that maximum growth, often, but not always, with emphasis on lipid storage, can occur during the often brief, but usually intense, summer bloom. The rate of growth of arctic or antarctic zooplankton is not so important as assuring a high level of fecundity when maturity comes. Overwintering is probably not a great hardship and diapause may not be a useful strategy because the environmental temperature is constantly near the freezing point of sea water, and basal metabolism accordingly low. Nonetheless, feeding behaviour and metabolic rates have strong seasonal signals. In the absence of other stimuli, light must be involved in the transformation from winter to summer metabolism and visa versa but the mechanisms still remain obscure.

  15. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah M.

    2015-10-21

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  16. Adaptation to anaerobic metabolism in two mussel species, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, from the tidal zone at Arcachon Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    Aspects of anaerobic metabolism were investigated in two sympatric mussel species, viz. Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, living in the tidal zone in Arcachon Bay, France. Specific activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate kinase (PEP-CK) were remarkably similar in the two sympatric species and generally corresponded more closely to those observed in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean than with M. edulis in the Dutch Wadden Sea. However, the values for the radio PK: PEP-CK for the two species in Arcachon Bay agreed with those of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Succinate accumulation during the first 24 h of anaerobicsis was about the same as in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean, but decreased during the second 24 h, particularly in M. edulis, obviously due to propionate formation. Decrease in ATP concentrations in the tissues during anaerobiosis corresponded to that of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. With the exception of specific activities of PK and PEP-CK, all properties investigated in both species were as expected in intertidal mussels.

  17. Metabolism of stromal and immune cells in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghesquière, Bart; Wong, Brian W.; Kuchnio, Anna; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells have been at the centre of cell metabolism research, but the metabolism of stromal and immune cells has received less attention. Nonetheless, these cells influence the progression of malignant, inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Here we discuss the metabolic adaptations of stromal and immune cells in health and disease, and highlight how metabolism determines their differentiation and function.

  18. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not ... the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ...

  19. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Galgani, Jose E.; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this “metabolic inflexibility” i...

  20. Combining metabolic engineering and adaptive evolution to enhance the production of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans in a low-cost way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Leifang; Wei, Liujing; Zhu, Kun; Wei, Dongzhi; Hua, Qiang

    2012-08-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans can rapidly and effectively transform glycerol to dihydroxyacetone (DHA) by membrane-bound quinoprotein sorbitol dehydrogenase (mSLDH). Two mutant strains of GDHE Δadh pBBR-PtufBsldAB and GDHE Δadh pBBR-sldAB derived from the GDHE strain were constructed for the enhancement of DHA production. Growth performances of both strains were largely improved after adaptively growing in the medium with glucose as the sole carbon source. The resulting GAT and GAN strains exhibited better catalytic property than the GDHE strain in the presence of a high concentration of glycerol. All strains of GDHE, GAT and GAN cultivated on glucose showed enhanced catalytic capacity than those grown on sorbitol, indicating a favorable prospect of using glucose as carbon source to reduce the cost in industrial production. It was also the first time to reveal that the expression level of the sldAB gene in glucose-growing strains were higher than that of the strains cultivated on sorbitol.

  1. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  2. Causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity-related co-morbidities Part 1: A composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    The medical, research and general community is unable to effect significantly decreased rates of central obesity and related type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. All conditions seem to be linked by the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the underlying causes are not known. MetS markers may have been mistaken for causes, thus many treatments are destined to be suboptimal. The current paper aims to critique current paradigms, give explanations for their persistence, and to return to first principles in an attempt to determine and clarify likely causes of MetS and obesity related comorbidities. A wide literature has been mined, study concepts analysed and the basics of human evolution and new biochemistry reviewed. A plausible, multifaceted composite unifying theory is formulated. The basis of the theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals, becoming highly energy efficient in humans. The still-evolving, complex human cortico-limbic-striatal system generates strong behavioural drives for energy dense food procurement, including motivating agricultural technologies and social system development. Addiction to such foods, leading to neglect of nutritious but less appetizing 'common or garden' food, appears to have occurred. Insufficient consumption of food micronutrients prevents optimal human NRF2 function. Inefficient oxidation of excess energy forces central and non-adipose cells to store excess toxic lipid. Oxidative stress and

  3. A PRACTICAL MODEL OF LOW-VOLUME HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING INDUCES PERFORMANCE AND METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS THAT RESEMBLE 'ALL-OUT' SPRINT INTERVAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bayati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts × 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts × 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05 following training were found in VO2max (9.6%, power at VO2max (12.8%, Tmax (48.4%, peak power output (10.3% and mean power output (17.1%. In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%, power at VO2max (16.1%, Tmax (54.2%, peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05, but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions

  4. Adaptive Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  5. Climatic adaptations in metabolism of four species of small birds in China%中国四种小型鸟类代谢产热的气候适应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳劲松; 王德华; 孙儒泳

    2005-01-01

    采用封闭式流体压力呼吸计,分别在5-35° C、10-30° C和10-35° C的环境温度范围内测定了黄眉NFDA2 (Emberiza chrysophrys)、红胁绣眼鸟 (Zosterops erythropleura)、画眉 (Garrulax canorus)和红嘴相思鸟 (Leiothrix lutea)的耗氧量、热传导、体温等指标,探讨了其代谢产热特征.黄眉NFDA2、红胁绣眼鸟、画眉和红嘴相思鸟的热中性区分别为25-30° C、25-27.5° C、22.5-27.5° C和30-32.5° C.在5-30° C的温度范围内,黄眉NFDA2和画眉能保持稳定的体温,分别为40.58±0.26° C和41.68±0.11° C;红胁绣眼鸟和红嘴相思鸟的体温随环境温度的降低有下降的趋势.在热中性区内,黄眉NFDA2、红胁绣眼鸟、画眉和红嘴相思鸟的平均基础代谢率分别是3.65±0.14、4.69±0.27、3.55±0.14和4.24±0.17ml O2/(g*h),分别是体重预期值的128%、230%、60%和120%.在下临界温度以下,黄眉NFDA2、红胁绣眼鸟、画眉和红嘴相思鸟的最小热传导分别是0.24、0.31、0.21和0.34 ml O2/(g·h·° C),分别是体重预期值的149%、149%、215%和243%.这些小型鸟类的生理生态学特征是:(1)黄眉NFDA2和红胁绣眼鸟有高的基础代谢率和相对低的下临界温度,适应低温环境的典型特征,这两种鸟同时有相对较高的热传导,可以扩展其地理分布;(2)画眉有低的基础代谢率和高的热传导,主要以昆虫为食,这些生理特征和食性限制了画眉只能分布在气候相对温暖和食物相对丰富的狭窄地区;(3)红嘴相思鸟有高的基础代谢率和热传导,相对较高的下临界温度[动物学报 51(1):24-30,2005].%To understand metabolic adaptations,the basal metabolic rate(BMR) of four small birds in China were investigated.Metabolic rate,body temperature and thermal conductance were determined in yellow-browed bunting Emberiza chrysophrys at a temperature range of 5-35° C,chestnut-flanked white-eye Zosterops erythropleura and hwamei

  6. REDUCTION ALGORITHM OF POINT CLOUD SEGMENTATION BASED ON ADAPTIVE ELLIPTICAL DISTANCE%基于自适应椭圆距离的点云分区精简算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴禄慎; 俞涛; 陈华伟

    2016-01-01

    Applying traditional point cloud reduction algorithm to reducing scattered point cloud will lead to missing or fuzzy of some detail features of the point cloud model and affecting the smoothness of non planar region.Aiming at these problems,we put forward the adaptive elliptical distance-based point cloud segmentation reduction algorithm.First,by fitting the tangent plane and local surface on neighbourhood set,it calculates the normal vector and curvature of each point;secondly,it uses the derived geometric feature information to extract point cloud boundary characteristics and to complete the partition of planar regions and non planar regions of point cloud;finally,it uses the improved reduction algorithm to simplify different regions.Experimental results show that the algorithm can not only rapidly accomplish data simplification in accord with the required reduction rate,but can also protect the detail characteristics of point cloud model and ensure the smoothness of non planar portion of model.Through software analysis,it is found that the standard deviation between the reduced model and the original model is 0.015 mm.%利用传统点云精简算法进行散乱点云简化会导致点云模型部分细节特征的丢失或模糊以及影响非平面区域的光顺性。针对这些问题,提出基于自适应椭圆距离的点云分区精简算法。首先,通过对邻域点集进行微切平面与局部曲面的拟合,计算出各点的法矢及曲率等;其次,利用所得几何特征信息,提取点云边界特征以及完成点云平面区域与非平面区域的划分;最后,采用改进后的精简算法对不同区域进行简化。实验结果表明,该算法不但能够快速完成符合要求精简率的数据简化,还能保护点云模型的细节特征以及保证模型非平面部分的光顺性。经过软件分析得出,精简后模型与原始模型的距离误差的标准偏差为0.015 mm。

  7. Model-based adaptive control of acetate concentration during the production of recombinant proteins with E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, I; Ferreira, E. C.

    2003-01-01

    A model-based adaptive linearizing control law was derived for the regulation of the acetate concentration during the fed-batch fermentation of recombinant proteins with high cell density culture of Escherichia coli growing on glucose. An unstructured model for the growth was applied to the major metabolic pathways: oxidative growth on glucose, fermentative growth on glucose, oxidative growth on acetate, and maintenance. A model order reduction method was used to allow the d...

  8. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  9. [Heme metabolism and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Barannik, T B

    2001-01-01

    The role of heme metabolism in oxidative stress development and defense reactions formation in mammals under different stress factors are discussed in the article. Heme metabolism is considered as the totality of synthesis, degradation, transport and exchange processes of exogenous heme and heme liberated from erythrocyte hemoglobin under erythrocyte aging and hemolysis. The literature data presented display normal heme metabolism including mammals heme-binding proteins and intracellular free heme pool and heme metabolism alterations under oxidative stress development. The main attention is focused to the prooxidant action of heme, the interaction of heme transport and lipid exchange, and to the heme metabolism key enzymes (delta-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase), serum heme-binding protein hemopexin and intracellular heme-binding proteins participating in metabolism adaptation under the action of factors, which cause oxidative stress. PMID:11599427

  10. Taurine biosynthesis in frog retina: effects of light and dark adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retinal uptake and metabolism of cysteine, a precursor for taurine biosynthesis, were analysed using the bull frog. The [14C] cysteine uptake into isolated retina had some specific properties: It was rather temperature independent, required Na ions, was inhibited by ouabain but not by dinitrophenol, and exhibited saturation kinetics composed of two components. When retinal homogenate was incubated with 12-30 microM of L-[U-14C]cysteine, the accumulation of labeled alanine, cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA), cysteic acid (CA), hypotaurine, and taurine was detected. The metabolic conversions of [14C] cysteine to labeled alanine, hypotaurine, and taurine were linear over 90 minutes. Prolonged light adaptation (3 weeks) induced a significant reduction in the formation of labeled CA, CSA, hypotaurine, and taurine from [14C] cysteine. On the other hand, it was found that in dark-adapted retinae, the formation of labeled taurine from [14C] cysteine increased significantly in spite of the reduction in the formation of labeled CA. These results indicate that biosynthetic pathways exist for taurine from cysteine in frog retina, and that these metabolic pathways are involved in the regulation of retinal taurine content under continuous visual adaptation

  11. 基于视觉适应的隧道入口外段遮光构件设计研究%Research of Light Reduction Components Applied on Highway Tunnel Portals Based on the Visual Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玮宝; 翁季; 黄新月; 王梦颖

    2014-01-01

    隧道入口处白昼亮度悬殊,导致驾驶员产生“黑洞效应”,难以应对突发事件,历来成为交通事故的多发区。解决上述问题的普遍做法是在入口段内加以大量的人工照明以减弱光差,但此方法不仅缺乏高效性,更会带来严重的能耗问题。该文简要论述了在入口接近段设置遮光构件的方法,保证行车安全,优化行车环境,同时达到节能效果。本研究致力于设计在隧道接近段形成光过渡带的减光构件,以此解决光差大的问题,并在此基础上根据人眼暗适应曲线,应用模型模拟对比测试的方式进行实测,将实验结果和节能效果进行量化。%there is a significant difference in brightness between day and night which leads to the black-hole effect on drivers at the Highway Tunnel Portals, an area with frequent traffic accident.Because of this drivers have hard time to handle the emergency. The common method to tackle this problem is to use artificial lighting to weaken the light equation at Highway Tunnel Portals. However, this method is not only short of efficiency but it also triggers a sever problem of energy consumption. In this essay, study briefly discuss the effect on the driving safety, the driving environment and the energy conservation after setting the lighting reduction compo⁃nents. The research concentrates on the light reduction components which can turn the tunnel entrance section into the light transition section in order to deal with the problem of high light equation. Furthermore, accord⁃ing to the human eye dark adaption curves, we apply the contrasting model for the experimental test in order to quantify the experimental results and the energy conservation effect.

  12. Phenotypic bistability in Escherichia coli's central carbon metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, Oliver; Volkmer, Benjamin; Radzikowski, Jakub L.; Heinemann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular molecule abundance can lead to distinct, coexisting phenotypes in isogenic populations. Although metabolism continuously adapts to unpredictable environmental changes, and although bistability was found in certain substrate-uptake pathways, central carbon metabolism is

  13. Emphysema quantification on low-dose CT using percentage of low-attenuation volume and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions: Effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Mizuho, E-mail: nmizuho@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Sumiaki, E-mail: sumatsu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Seki, Shinichiro, E-mail: sshin@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu, E-mail: hkoyama@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Fujisawa, Yasuko, E-mail: yasuko1.fujisawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); Sugihara, Naoki, E-mail: naoki.sugihara@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Emphysema quantification (LAV% and D) was affected by image noise on low-dose CT. • For LAV% and D, AIDR 3D improved agreement of quantification on low-dose CT. • AIDR 3D has the potential to quantify emphysema accurately on low-dose CT. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing (AIDR 3D) for quantification of two measures of emphysema: percentage of low-attenuation volume (LAV%) and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Method and materials: : Fifty-two patients who underwent standard-dose (SDCT) and low-dose CT (LDCT) were included. SDCT without AIDR 3D, LDCT without AIDR 3D, and LDCT with AIDR 3D were used for emphysema quantification. First, LAV% was computed at 10 thresholds from −990 to −900 HU. Next, at the same thresholds, linear regression on a log–log plot was used to compute the power law exponent (D) for the cumulative frequency-size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Bland–Altman analysis was used to assess whether AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D. Results: The mean relative differences in LAV% between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 3.73%–88.18% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were −6.61% to 0.406%. The mean relative differences in D between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 8.22%–19.11% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were 1.82%–4.79%. AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT at thresholds from −930 to −990 HU for LAV% and at all thresholds for D. Conclusion: AIDR 3D improved the consistency between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D.

  14. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  15. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  16. The suckling piglet as an agrimedical model for the study of pediatric nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Jack; Lin, Xi; Jacobi, Sheila K; Kim, Sung Woo; Stahl, Chad H

    2014-02-01

    The neonatal pig ranks among the most prominent research models for the study of pediatric nutrition and metabolism. Its precocial development at birth affords ready adaptation to artificial rearing systems, and research using this model spans a wide array of nutrients. Sophisticated in vitro and in vivo methodologies supporting both invasive, reduction-science research as well as whole-animal preclinical investigations have been developed. Potential applications may dually benefit both agricultural and medical sciences (e.g., "agrimedical research"). The broad scope of this review is to outline the fundamental elements of the piglet model and to highlight key aspects of relevance to various macronutrients, including lipids, carbohydrates, proteins/amino acids, and calcium/phosphorus. The review examines similarities between piglets and infants and also piglet idiosyncrasies, concluding that, overall, the piglet represents an adaptable and robust model for pediatric nutrition and metabolism research.

  17. Melphalan metabolism in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures are presented for the adaptation of reversed-phase-HPLC methods to accomplish separation and isolation of the cancer therapeutic drug melphalan (L-phenylalanine mustard) and its metabolic products from whole cells. Five major degradation products of melphalan were observed following its hydrolysis in phosphate buffer in vitro. The two most polar of these products (or modifications of them) were also found in the cytosol of Chinese hamster CHO cells. The amounts of these two polar products (shown not to be mono- or dihydroxymelphalan) were significantly changed by the pretreatment of cells with ZnC12, one being increased in amount while the other was reduced to an insignificant level. In ZnC12-treated cells, there was also an increased binding of melphalan (or its derivatives) to one protein fraction resolved by gel filtration-HPLC. These observations suggest that changes in polar melphalan products, and perhaps their interaction with a protein, may by involved in the reduction of melphalan cytotoxicity observed in ZnC12-treated cells. While ZnC12 is also known to increase the level of glutathione in cells, no significant amounts of glutathione-melphalan derivatives of the type formed non-enzymatically in vitro could be detected in ZnC12-treated or untreated cells. Formation of derivatives of melphalan with glutathione catabolic products in ZnC12-treated cells has not yet been eliminated, however. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Flood adaptive traits and processes : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissue

  19. Adaptation: Needs, Financing and Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Richard J.T.; Kartha, Sivan; Persson, Aasa; Watkiss, Paul; Ackerman, Frank; Downing, Thomas E.; Kjellen, Bo; Schipper, Lisa (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm (SE))

    2008-07-01

    Regardless of the efforts put into mitigation, some impacts of climate change are already unavoidable. Adaptation to climate change has therefore become a key component of domestic climate policy, along with mitigation. Adaptation has also become key to the success of global climate policy. Without an agreement on supporting adaptation in developing countries, there will be no agreement on mitigation. Strong mitigation efforts make it more likely that adaptation will be effective and affordable. The world cannot rely on adaptation alone: it would eventually lead to a level of climate change to which adaptation is no longer feasible. Government action is needed to create an enabling environment for adaptation. This includes removing existing financial, legal, institutional and knowledge barriers to adaptation, and strengthening the capacity of people and organisations to adapt. The success of adaptation relies on the success of development, and vice versa. Poverty reduction, good governance, education, environmental protection, health and gender equality all contribute to adaptive capacity. Substantially more money is needed to support adaptation in developing countries. Current levels of funding will soon have to be scaled up by two orders of magnitude (from US$ hundreds of million to US$ tens of billion per year). An agreement on adaptation in Copenhagen in 2009 will need to include concrete steps towards a strengthened knowledge base for adaptation, substantially more funding for developing countries, and enhanced adaptation planning and implementation at the national level. Recommendations: Developed countries should accept a transparent, principle-based allocation of responsibility for adaptation funding, resulting in adequate, new and additional money to support adaptation programmes in developing countries. Levies on carbon market transactions and auctioning emission permits are two existing mechanisms of generating new and additional funds consistent with

  20. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolism....... The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of nucleotide metabolism and its regulation to facilitate interpretation of data arising from genetics, proteomics, and transcriptomics in connection with biotechnological processes and beyond....

  1. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  2. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  3. 视频解码系统中读写带宽压缩算法设计%An adaptive bandwidth reduction scheme with reference frame compression for video decoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋柳; 刘佩林

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, as more and more portable consumer electronics video devices are becoming popular, power becomes the primary design issue for video coders/decoders. The state-of-the-art video coding standard H. 264/AVC achieved high compression efficiency by applying a number of highlighted coding strategies. Due to these new features, the decoder requires high memory bandwidth to off-chip memory or large amounts of on-chip cache memory. Therefore, memory bandwidth becomes a critical factor of whole system cost, especially for those battery-operated consumer electronic video devices with high-definition (HD) display capability. In this research, an adaptive bandwidth reduction scheme is proposed.%随着人们更多地使用携带式消费电子产品,电子产品中的电力消耗问题已经渐渐成为视频编解码器设计中关注的最主要的设计问题.特别是在最新的编码标准H.264/AVC中,由于采用了多种新的先进的压缩策略,编码器达到了更高的压缩效率的同时,由于这些新的性能,使H.264/AVC的解码器需要对外部存储进行大量的读取.所以,内存读取带宽成为对于整个系统成本的关键问题,具体如在使用电池提供高清视频播放的消费者电子产品中,需要以更低的电力提供更好更长时间的视频.在这个研究中,提出了针对于视频压缩解码系统中内存读写带宽问题所设计的可调的参考帧压缩算法设计的方案,通过降低系统读取外部内存的带宽而达到降低视频解码系统电力消耗的目的.

  4. Adaptive Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  5. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  6. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  7. Quantifying phenotypic flexibility as the response to a high-fat challenge test in different states of metabolic health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Erk, M.J. van; Dutman, A.E.; Stroeve, J.H.M.; Steeg, E. van de; Bijlsma, S.; Kooistra, T.; Ommen, B. van; Wopereis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism maintains homeostasis at chronic hypercaloric conditions, activating postprandial response mechanisms, which come at the cost of adaptation processes such as energy storage, eventually with negative health consequences. This study quantified the metabolic adaptation capacity by studying c

  8. Metabolic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Michael J; Young, G Bryan

    2011-11-01

    Kinnier Wilson coined the term metabolic encephalopathy to describe a clinical state of global cerebral dysfunction induced by systemic stress that can vary in clinical presentation from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma with decerebrate posturing; the causes are numerous. Some mechanisms by which cerebral dysfunction occurs in metabolic encephalopathies include focal or global cerebral edema, alterations in transmitter function, the accumulation of uncleared toxic metabolites, postcapillary venule vasogenic edema, and energy failure. This article focuses on common causes of metabolic encephalopathy, and reviews common causes, clinical presentations and, where relevant, management.

  9. Multi-Directional Motion Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patrick McGovern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The direction aftereffect (DAE is a phenomenon whereby prolonged exposure to a moving stimulus biases the perceived direction of subsequent stimuli. It is believed to arise through a selective suppression of directionally tuned neurons in the visual cortex, causing shifts in the population response away from the adapted direction. Whereas most studies consider only unidirectional adaptation, here we examine how concurrent adaptation to multiple directions affects the DAE. Observers were required to judge whether a random dot kinematogram (RDK moved clockwise or counter-clockwise relative to upwards. In different conditions, observers adapted to a stimulus comprised of directions drawn from a distribution or to bidirectional motion. Increasing the variance of normally distributed directions reduced the magnitude of the peak DAE and broadened its tuning profile. Asymmetric sampling of Gaussian and uniform distributions resulted in shifts of DAE tuning profiles consistent with changes in the perceived global direction of the adapting stimulus. Discrimination thresholds were elevated by an amount that related to the magnitude of the bias. For bidirectional adaptors, adding dots in directions away from the adapting motion led to a pronounced reduction in the DAE. This reduction was observed when dots were added in opposite or orthogonal directions to the adaptor suggesting that it may arise via inhibition from a broadly tuned normalisation pool. Preliminary simulations with a population coding model, where the gain of a direction-selective neuron is inversely proportional to its response to the adapting stimulus, suggest that it provides a parsimonious account of these adaptation effects.

  10. Chromium Isotope Behaviour During Aerobic Microbial Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Amor, K.; Porcelli, D.; Thompson, I.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial activity is a very important, and possibly even the dominant, reduction mechanism for many metals in natural water systems. Isotope fractionations during microbial metal reduction can reflect one major mechanism in metal cycling in the environment, and isotopic signatures can be used to identify and quantify reduction processes during biogeochemical cycling in the present environment as well as in the past. There are many Cr (VI)-reducing bacteria that have been discovered and isolated from the environment, and Cr isotopes were found to be fractionated during microbial reduction processes. In this study, Cr reduction experiments have been undertaken to determine the conditions under which Cr is reduced and the corresponding isotope signals that are generated. The experiments have been done with a facultative bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300, and several parameters that have potential impact on reduction mechanisms have been investigated. Electron donors are important for bacteria growth and metabolism. One factor that can control the rate of Cr reduction is the nature of the electron donor. The results show that using citrate as an electron donor can stimulate bacteria reduction activity to a large extent; the reduction rate is much higher (15.10 mgˑL-1hour-1) compared with experiments using glucose (6.65 mgˑL-1ˑhour-1), acetate (4.88 mgˑL-1hour-1) or propionate (4.85 mgˑL-1hour-1) as electron donors. Groups with higher electron donor concentrations have higher reduction rates. Chromium is toxic, and when increasing Cr concentrations in the medium, the bacteria reduction rate is also higher, which reflects bacteria adapting to the toxic environment. In the natural environment, under different pH conditions, bacteria may metabolise in different ways. In our experiments with pH, bacteria performed better in reducing Cr (VI) when pH = 8, and there are no significant differences between groups with pH = 4 or pH = 6. To investigate this further, Cr

  11. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Jose E; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this "metabolic inflexibility" is mostly the consequence of impaired cellular glucose uptake. Indeed, after controlling for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate (amount of glucose available for oxidation), metabolic flexibility is not altered in obesity regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes. To understand how intramyocellular lipids accumulate and cause insulin resistance, the assessment of metabolic flexibility to high-fat diets is more relevant than metabolic flexibility during a hyperinsulinemic clamp. An impaired capacity to upregulate muscle lipid oxidation in the face of high lipid supply may lead to increased muscle fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the response to high-fat diets. In this review, we discuss the role of glucose disposal rate, adipose tissue lipid storage, and mitochondrial function on metabolic flexibility. Additionally, we emphasize the bias of using the change in respiratory quotient to calculate metabolic flexibility and propose novel approaches to assess metabolic flexibility. On the basis of current evidence, one cannot conclude that impaired metabolic flexibility is responsible for the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. We propose to study metabolic flexibility in response to high-fat diets in individuals having contrasting degree of insulin sensitivity and/or mitochondrial characteristics. PMID:18765680

  12. Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008393 Effects of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker on triglyceride metabolism in the liver: experiment with Zucker fatty rats. RAN Jianmin(冉建民), et al. Dept Endocrinol, Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, 4th Hosp Med Coll, Jinan Univ, Guangzhou 510220. Natl Med J China 2008;88(22):1557-1561. Objective To investigate the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on triglyceride (TG) metabolism and mechanism thereof.

  13. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  14. Collagen Homeostasis and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, S Peter; Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable and the metabolic activity is low, but mechanical loading and subsequent mechanotransduction and molecular anabolic signaling can result in some adaptation of the tendon especially during youth and adolescence. Within short time, tendon will get stiffer with training and lack of mechanical tissue loading through inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis. This illustrates the importance of regular mechanical load in order to preserve the stabilizing role of the connective tissue for the overall function of the musculoskeletal system in both daily activity and exercise. Adaptive responses may vary along the tendon, and differ between mid-substance and insertional areas of the tendon. PMID:27535245

  15. Metabolism of hyperthermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönheit, P; Schäfer, T

    1995-01-01

    Hyperthermophiles are characterized by a temperature optimum for growth between 80 and 110°C. They are considered to represent the most ancient phenotype of living organisms and thus their metabolic design might reflect the situation at an early stage of evolution. Their modes of metabolism are diverse and include chemolithoautotrophic and chemoorganoheterotrophic. No extant phototrophic hyperthermophiles are known. Lithotrophic energy metabolism is mostly anaerobic or microaerophilic and based on the oxidation of H2 or S coupled to the reduction of S, SO inf4 (sup2-) , CO2 and NO inf3 (sup-) but rarely to O2. the substrates are derived from volcanic activities in hyperthermophilic habitats. The lithotrophic energy metabolism of hyperthermophiles appears to be similar to that of mesophiles. Autotrophic CO2 fixation proceeds via the reductive citric acid cycle, considered to be one of the first metabolic cycles, and via the reductive acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The Calvin cycle has not been found in hyperthermophiles (or any Archaea). Organotrophic metabolism mainly involves peptides and sugars as substrates, which are either oxidized to CO2 by external electron acceptors or fermented to acetate and other products. Sugar catabolism in hyperthermophiles involves non-phosphorylated versions of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and modified versions of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The 'classical' Embden-Meyerhof pathway is present in hyperthermophilic Bacteria (Thermotoga) but not in Archaea. All hyperthermophiles (and Archaea) tested so far utilize pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase for acetyl-CoA formation from pyruvate. Acetyl-CoA oxidation in anaerobic sulphur-reducing and aerobic hyperthermophiles proceeds via the citric acid cycle; in the hyperthermophilic sulphate-reducer Archaeoglobus an oxidative acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway is operative. Acetate formation from acetyl-CoA in Archaea, including hyperthermophiles, is

  16. Acute metabolic decompensation due to influenza in a mouse model of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. McGuire

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The urea cycle functions to incorporate ammonia, generated by normal metabolism, into urea. Urea cycle disorders (UCDs are caused by loss of function in any of the enzymes responsible for ureagenesis, and are characterized by life-threatening episodes of acute metabolic decompensation with hyperammonemia (HA. A prospective analysis of interim HA events in a cohort of individuals with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC deficiency, the most common UCD, revealed that intercurrent infection was the most common precipitant of acute HA and was associated with markers of increased morbidity when compared with other precipitants. To further understand these clinical observations, we developed a model system of metabolic decompensation with HA triggered by viral infection (PR8 influenza using spf-ash mice, a model of OTC deficiency. Both wild-type (WT and spf-ash mice displayed similar cytokine profiles and lung viral titers in response to PR8 influenza infection. During infection, spf-ash mice displayed an increase in liver transaminases, suggesting a hepatic sensitivity to the inflammatory response and an altered hepatic immune response. Despite having no visible pathological changes by histology, WT and spf-ash mice had reduced CPS1 and OTC enzyme activities, and, unlike WT, spf-ash mice failed to increase ureagenesis. Depression of urea cycle function was seen in liver amino acid analysis, with reductions seen in aspartate, ornithine and arginine during infection. In conclusion, we developed a model system of acute metabolic decompensation due to infection in a mouse model of a UCD. In addition, we have identified metabolic perturbations during infection in the spf-ash mice, including a reduction of urea cycle intermediates. This model of acute metabolic decompensation with HA due to infection in UCD serves as a platform for exploring biochemical perturbations and the efficacy of treatments, and could be adapted to explore acute decompensation in other

  17. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  18. Context-dependent metabolic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Oyarzún, Diego; Picó, Jesús; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Cells adapt their metabolism to survive changes in their environment. We present a framework for the construction and analysis of metabolic reaction networks that can be tailored to reflect different environmental conditions. Using context-dependent flux distributions from Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), we produce directed networks with weighted links representing the amount of metabolite flowing from a source reaction to a target reaction per unit time. Such networks are analyzed with tools from network theory to reveal salient features of metabolite flows in each biological context. We illustrate our approach with the directed network of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli, and study its properties in four relevant biological scenarios. Our results show that both flow and network structure depend drastically on the environment: networks produced from the same metabolic model in different contexts have different edges, components, and flow communities, capturing the biological re-routing of metab...

  19. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  20. CLIMATE CHANGE AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN SAHEL: CLIMATE RISK MANAGEMENT CONTRIBUTION TO POVERTY REDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Labintan Adeniyi

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays climate change event and poor population vulnerability become more severe and natural resources scarcity intensity increased. In order to mitigate climate change negative effects adaptive policies such as poverty reduction Strategy and National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) as effective’s responsive strategies. There are also farmers traditional adaptation methods which are consider as local mainstreaming climate change adaptation framework. This paper has explore subjective quali...

  1. High-fat diet-induced reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α messenger RNA levels and oxidative capacity in the soleus muscle of rats with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Fumiko; Fujino, Hidemi; Kondo, Hiroyo; Takeda, Isao; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2012-02-01

    Animal models of type 2 diabetes exhibit reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, which are associated with decreased oxidative capacity, in skeletal muscles. In contrast, animal models with metabolic syndrome show normal PGC-1α mRNA levels. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet decreases PGC-1α mRNA levels in skeletal muscles of rats with metabolic syndrome, reducing muscle oxidative capacity and accelerating metabolic syndrome or inducing type 2 diabetes. We examined mRNA levels and fiber profiles in the soleus muscles of rats with metabolic syndrome (SHR/NDmcr-cp [cp/cp]; CP) fed a high-fat diet. Five-week-old CP rats were assigned to a sedentary group (CP-N) that was fed a standard diet (15.1 kJ/g, 23.6% protein, 5.3% fat, and 54.4% carbohydrates) or a sedentary group (CP-H) that was fed a high-fat diet (21.6 kJ/g, 23.6% protein, 34.9% fat, and 25.9% carbohydrates) and were housed for 10 weeks. Body weight, energy intake, and systolic blood pressure were higher in the CP-H group than in the CP-N group. Nonfasting glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and leptin levels were higher in the CP-H group than in the CP-N group. There was no difference in insulin levels between the CP-N and CP-H groups. Muscle PGC-1α mRNA levels and succinate dehydrogenase activity were lower in the CP-H group than in the CP-N group. We concluded that a high-fat diet reduces PGC-1α mRNA levels and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscles and accelerates metabolic syndrome.

  2. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate.

  3. Late gestation under- and overnutrition have differential impacts when combined with a post-natal obesogenic diet on glucose-lactate-insulin adaptations during metabolic challenges in adolescent sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft;

    2015-01-01

    for the last 6 weeks of gestation (term = 147 days) assigned to HIGH (N = 13; 150 and 110% of energy and protein requirements, respectively), NORM (N = 9; 100% of requirements) or LOW (N = 14; 50% of requirements) diets. The twin offspring were raised on high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF; N = 35......AIM: To determine whether late gestation under- and overnutrition programme metabolic plasticity in a similar way, and whether metabolic responses to an obesogenic diet in early post-natal life depend on the foetal nutrition history. METHODS: In a 3 × 2 factorial design, twin-pregnant ewes were......) or conventional (CONV; N = 35) diets from 3 days to 6 months of age (around puberty). Then intravenous glucose (GTT; overnight fasted), insulin (ITT; fed) and propionate (gluconeogenetic precursor; PTT; both fed and fasted) tolerance tests were conducted to evaluate (hepatic) metabolic plasticity. RESULTS...

  4. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  5. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  6. Adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  7. EFFECT OF FLUOXETINE ON SLEEP ARCHITECTURE IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AND OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Lyubshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effect of fluoxetine on sleep architecture in patients with metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.Material and methods. 98 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and metabolic syndrome (aged 54.3±8.7 y.o. were included into the study. All patients received fluoxetine 20 mg once daily during 6 months. Influence of fluoxetine on sleep architecture was evaluated with special questionnaire and by polysomnography, including electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, mentalis electromyogram and pulseoxymetry.Results. Decrease in wake time after sleep onset (Δ33%; р<0.05 was found at the end of treatment. It resulted in improvement of sleep efficacy index. Decrease in respiratory sleep disorders index (Δ20% and rising of blood oxygen saturation (Δ12%; р<0.05 was also found. Improvement of the sleep architecture (reduction in the 2nd phase of slow wave sleep by 15%, increase in delta-sleep (Δ71% and rapid eye movement sleep (Δ25%; р<0.05 was also observed. Besides reduction in body mass index after fluoxetine therapy (Δ12%; р<0.05 was found. Serious adverse effects were not registered.Conclusion. Fluoxetine use in patients with metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome shown positive effect on objective indices of sleep architecture and respiratory sleep disorders. It improved adaptive function of the sleep and contributed to reduction in sleep disorders.

  8. The metabolic demands of endosymbiotic chemoautotrophic metabolism on host physiological capacities

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Childress; Peter R. Girguis

    2011-01-01

    While chemoautotrophic endosymbioses of hydrothermal vents and other reducing environments have been well studied, little attention has been paid to the magnitude of the metabolic demands placed upon the host by symbiont metabolism and the adaptations necessary to meet such demands. Here we make the first attempt at such an evaluation, and show that moderate to high rates of chemoautotrophic or methanotrophic metabolism impose oxygen uptake and proton equivalent elimination demands upon the h...

  9. Metabolic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1980-08-01

    A systematic review of catalytic activities in thermal proteinoids and microspheres aggregated therefrom yields some new inferences on the origins and evolution of metabolism. Experiments suggest that, instead of being inert, protocells were already biochemically and cytophysically competent. The emergence and refinement of metabolism ab initio is thus partly traced conceptually. When the principle of molecular self-instruction, as of amino acids in peptide synthesis, is taken into account as a concomitant of natural selection, an expanded theory of organismic evolution, including saltations, emerges.

  10. The 482Ser of PPARGC1A and 12Pro of PPARG2 Alleles Are Associated with Reduction of Metabolic Risk Factors Even Obesity in a Mexican-Mestizo Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between functional polymorphisms Gly482Ser in PPARGC1A and Pro12Ala in PPARG2 with the presence of obesity and metabolic risk factors. We included 375 individuals characterized as Mexican-Mestizos and classified by the body mass index (BMI. Body dimensions and distribution of body fat were measured. The HOMA-IR and adiposity indexes were calculated. Adipokines and metabolic profile quantification were performed by ELISA and routine methods. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A difference between obese and nonobese subjects in polymorphism PPARGC1A distribution was observed. Among obese individuals, carriers of genotype 482Gly/Gly were observed to have decreased body fat, BMI, and body fat ratio versus 482Ser/Ser carriers and increased resistin and leptin levels in carriers Gly+ phenotype versus Gly− phenotype. Subjects with PPARG2 Ala− phenotype (genotype 12Pro/Pro showed a decreased HOMA-IR index versus individuals with Ala+ phenotype (genotypes 12Pro/Ala plus 12Ala/Ala. We propose that, in obese Mexican-Mestizos, the combination of alleles 482Ser in PPARGC1A and 12Pro in PPARG2 represents a reduced metabolic risk profile, even when the adiposity indexes are increased.

  11. 肥胖者内脂素基因多态性对糖脂代谢及运动减肥效果的影响%Effects of visfatin gene polymorphisms on glycolipid metabolism and exerciseinduced weight reduction in obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖爱萍; 陈文鹤

    2012-01-01

    内脂素(visfatin),又被称为尼克酰胺磷酸核糖转移酶(nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase,NAMPT),是由脂肪组织分泌的细胞因子,在体内进行免疫调节,还可以作为NAMPT调节NAD+补救途径,同时也可影响糖脂代谢及运动减肥效果.本文旨在对肥胖者内脂素基因多态性与糖脂代谢及运动减肥效果的相关研究进行综述.%Visfatin, also named nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT), is a cytokine secreted from adipose tissue. Visfa-tin can regulate immune action and is involved in the NAD+ salvage pathway. In addition, recent researches have shown that visfatin helps the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, especially in exercise-induced weight reduction for obesity. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the contribution of visfatin gene polymorphisms to glucose and lipid metabolism and exercise-induced weight reduction in obesity.

  12. An economic assessment of losartan-based versus atenolol-based therapy in patients with hypertension and left-ventricular hypertrophy : Results from the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction (LIFE) study adapted to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Cornelis; Carides, George W.; Atthobari, Jarir; Voors, Adriaan A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction (LIFE) study was a randomized, doubleblind trial that compared the effects of losartan-based treatment with those of atenolol-based treatment on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related morbidity and mortality in 9193 patients with hypertensio

  13. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you already have metabolic syndrome, making these healthy lifestyle choices can help reduce your risk of heart disease and other health problems. If lifestyle changes alone can’t control your ... to help. Maintain a healthy weight Your doctor can measure your body mass ...

  14. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  15. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions are High blood pressure High blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels High levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, in your blood Low ...

  16. Seed Architecture Shapes Embryo Metabolism in Oilseed Rape[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Neuberger, Thomas; Schwender, Jörg; Heinzel, Nicolas; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Fuchs, Johannes; Hay, Jordan O.; Tschiersch, Henning; Braun, Hans-Peter; Denolf, Peter; Lambert, Bart; Jakob, Peter M.; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2013-01-01

    Constrained to develop within the seed, the plant embryo must adapt its shape and size to fit the space available. Here, we demonstrate how this adjustment shapes metabolism of photosynthetic embryo. Noninvasive NMR-based imaging of the developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seed illustrates that, following embryo bending, gradients in lipid concentration became established. These were correlated with the local photosynthetic electron transport rate and the accumulation of storage products. Experimentally induced changes in embryo morphology and/or light supply altered these gradients and were accompanied by alterations in both proteome and metabolome. Tissue-specific metabolic models predicted that the outer cotyledon and hypocotyl/radicle generate the bulk of plastidic reductant/ATP via photosynthesis, while the inner cotyledon, being enclosed by the outer cotyledon, is forced to grow essentially heterotrophically. Under field-relevant high-light conditions, major contribution of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase–bypass to seed storage metabolism is predicted for the outer cotyledon and the hypocotyl/radicle only. Differences between in vitro– versus in planta–grown embryos suggest that metabolic heterogeneity of embryo is not observable by in vitro approaches. We conclude that in vivo metabolic fluxes are locally regulated and connected to seed architecture, driving the embryo toward an efficient use of available light and space. PMID:23709628

  17. Risk of stroke and cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Alfred; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B;

    2011-01-01

    To perform a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial, which tested the effect of treatment with atorvastatin in reducing stroke in subjects with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, to explore the effects of treatment...

  18. On Graph Rewriting, Reduction and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian

    2010-01-01

    We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt et al. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also outline how to inter-derive a t...

  19. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti;

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  20. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Managing and, ideally, explaining phonetic variation has ever since been a key issue in the speech sciences. In this context, the major contribution of Lindblom's H&H theory was to replace the futile search for invariance by an explainable variance based on the tug-of-war metaphor. Recent empirical...... evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...

  1. RNA Regulation of Lipotoxicity and Metabolic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, George; Schaffer, Jean E

    2016-07-01

    Noncoding RNAs are an emerging class of nonpeptide regulators of metabolism. Metabolic diseases and the altered metabolic environment induce marked changes in levels of microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that a growing number of microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs serve as critical mediators of adaptive and maladaptive responses through their effects on gene expression. The metabolic environment also has a profound impact on the functions of classes of noncoding RNAs that have been thought primarily to subserve housekeeping functions in cells-ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs. Evidence is accumulating that these RNAs are also components of an integrated cellular response to the metabolic milieu. This Perspective discusses the different classes of noncoding RNAs and their contributions to the pathogenesis of metabolic stress. PMID:27288006

  2. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  3. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...

  4. Adaptive noise

    OpenAIRE

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  5. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  6. IDH1 mutations alter citric acid cycle metabolism and increase dependence on oxidative mitochondrial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassian, Alexandra R; Parker, Seth J; Davidson, Shawn M; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Green, Courtney R; Zhang, Xiamei; Slocum, Kelly L; Pu, Minying; Lin, Fallon; Vickers, Chad; Joud-Caldwell, Carol; Chung, Franklin; Yin, Hong; Handly, Erika D; Straub, Christopher; Growney, Joseph D; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Murphy, Anne N; Pagliarini, Raymond; Metallo, Christian M

    2014-06-15

    Oncogenic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) occur in several types of cancer, but the metabolic consequences of these genetic changes are not fully understood. In this study, we performed (13)C metabolic flux analysis on a panel of isogenic cell lines containing heterozygous IDH1/2 mutations. We observed that under hypoxic conditions, IDH1-mutant cells exhibited increased oxidative tricarboxylic acid metabolism along with decreased reductive glutamine metabolism, but not IDH2-mutant cells. However, selective inhibition of mutant IDH1 enzyme function could not reverse the defect in reductive carboxylation activity. Furthermore, this metabolic reprogramming increased the sensitivity of IDH1-mutant cells to hypoxia or electron transport chain inhibition in vitro. Lastly, IDH1-mutant cells also grew poorly as subcutaneous xenografts within a hypoxic in vivo microenvironment. Together, our results suggest therapeutic opportunities to exploit the metabolic vulnerabilities specific to IDH1 mutation.

  7. Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: implications for the maintenance of weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M Redman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and behavioral adaptations to caloric restriction (CR in free-living conditions have not yet been objectively measured. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-eight (36.8+/-1.0 y, overweight (BMI 27.8+/-0.7 kg/m(2 participants were randomized to four groups for 6-months; CONTROL: energy intake at 100% of energy requirements; CR: 25% calorie restriction; CR+EX: 12.5% CR plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure by structured exercise; LCD: low calorie diet (890 kcal/d until 15% weight reduction followed by weight maintenance. Body composition (DXA and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE over 14-days by doubly labeled water (DLW and activity related energy activity (AREE were measured after 3 (M3 and 6 (M6 months of intervention. Weight changes at M6 were -1.0+/-1.1% (CONTROL, -10.4+/-0.9% (CR, -10.0+/-0.8% (CR+EX and -13.9+/-0.8% (LCD. At M3, absolute TDEE was significantly reduced in CR (-454+/-76 kcal/d and LCD (-633+/-66 kcal/d but not in CR+EX or controls. At M6 the reduction in TDEE remained lower than baseline in CR (-316+/-118 kcal/d and LCD (-389+/-124 kcal/d but reached significance only when CR and LCD were combined (-351+/-83 kcal/d. In response to caloric restriction (CR/LCD combined, TDEE adjusted for body composition, was significantly lower by -431+/-51 and -240+/-83 kcal/d at M3 and M6, respectively, indicating a metabolic adaptation. Likewise, physical activity (TDEE adjusted for sleeping metabolic rate was significantly reduced from baseline at both time points. For control and CR+EX, adjusted TDEE (body composition or sleeping metabolic rate was not changed at either M3 or M6. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time we show that in free-living conditions, CR results in a metabolic adaptation and a behavioral adaptation with decreased physical activity levels. These data also suggest potential mechanisms by which CR causes large inter-individual variability in the rates of weight loss and how exercise may

  8. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  9. Pseudomonas genomes: diverse and adaptable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silby, Mark W; Winstanley, Craig; Godfrey, Scott A C; Levy, Stuart B; Jackson, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Members of the genus Pseudomonas inhabit a wide variety of environments, which is reflected in their versatile metabolic capacity and broad potential for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Here, we examine and compare the genomes of a range of Pseudomonas spp. encompassing plant, insect and human pathogens, and environmental saprophytes. In addition to a large number of allelic differences of common genes that confer regulatory and metabolic flexibility, genome analysis suggests that many other factors contribute to the diversity and adaptability of Pseudomonas spp. Horizontal gene transfer has impacted the capability of pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. in terms of disease severity (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specificity (Pseudomonas syringae). Genome rearrangements likely contribute to adaptation, and a considerable complement of unique genes undoubtedly contributes to strain- and species-specific activities by as yet unknown mechanisms. Because of the lack of conserved phenotypic differences, the classification of the genus has long been contentious. DNA hybridization and genome-based analyses show close relationships among members of P. aeruginosa, but that isolates within the Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae species are less closely related and may constitute different species. Collectively, genome sequences of Pseudomonas spp. have provided insights into pathogenesis and the genetic basis for diversity and adaptation.

  10. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  11. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study's conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author)

  12. Unique flexibility in energy metabolism allows mycobacteria to combat starvation and hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Berney

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria are a group of obligate aerobes that require oxygen for growth, but paradoxically have the ability to survive and metabolize under hypoxia. The mechanisms responsible for this metabolic plasticity are unknown. Here, we report on the adaptation of Mycobacterium smegmatis to slow growth rate and hypoxia using carbon-limited continuous culture. When M. smegmatis is switched from a 4.6 h to a 69 h doubling time at a constant oxygen saturation of 50%, the cells respond through the down regulation of respiratory chain components and the F1Fo-ATP synthase, consistent with the cells lower demand for energy at a reduced growth rate. This was paralleled by an up regulation of molecular machinery that allowed more efficient energy generation (i.e. Complex I and the use of alternative electron donors (e.g. hydrogenases and primary dehydrogenases to maintain the flow of reducing equivalents to the electron transport chain during conditions of severe energy limitation. A hydrogenase mutant showed a 40% reduction in growth yield highlighting the importance of this enzyme in adaptation to low energy supply. Slow growing cells at 50% oxygen saturation subjected to hypoxia (0.6% oxygen saturation responded by switching on oxygen scavenging cytochrome bd, proton-translocating cytochrome bc1-aa3 supercomplex, another putative hydrogenase, and by substituting NAD+-dependent enzymes with ferredoxin-dependent enzymes thus highlighting a new pattern of mycobacterial adaptation to hypoxia. The expression of ferredoxins and a hydrogenase provides a potential conduit for disposing of and transferring electrons in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors. The use of ferredoxin-dependent enzymes would allow the cell to maintain a high carbon flux through its central carbon metabolism independent of the NAD+/NADH ratio. These data demonstrate the remarkable metabolic plasticity of the mycobacterial cell and provide a new framework for understanding their

  13. Computational Studies on the Evolution of Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Living organisms throughout evolution have developed desired properties, such as the ability of maintaining functionality despite changes in the environment or their inner structure, the formation of functional modules, from metabolic pathways to organs, and most essentially the capacity to adapt and evolve in a process called natural selection. It can be observed in the metabolic networks of modern organisms that many key pathways such as the citric acid cycle, glycolysis, or ...

  14. Metabolic Response of Pakchoi Leaves to Amino Acid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; YU Wen-juan; ZHOU Qian; HAN Rui-feng; HUANG Dan-feng

    2014-01-01

    Different nitrogen (N) forms may cause changes in the metabolic profiles of plants. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of amino acid-N on plant metabolic proifles. The main objective of this study was to identify primary metabolites associated with amino acid-N (Gly, Gln and Ala) through metabolic proifle analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plants of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.), Huawang and Wuyueman cultivars, were grown with different nitrogen forms (i.e., Gly, Gln, Ala, NO3--N, and N starvation) applied under sterile hydroponic conditions. The fresh weight and plant N accumulation of Huawang were greater than those of Wuyueman, which indicates that the former exhibited better N-use efficiency than the latter. The physiological performances of the applied N forms were generally in the order of NO3--N>Gln>Gly>Ala. The metabolic analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 30 amino acid N-responsive metabolites in the two pakchoi cultivars, mainly consisting of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. Changes in the carbon metabolism of pakchoi leaves under amino acid treatments occurred via the accumulation of fructose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Disruption of amino acid metabolism resulted in accumulation of endogenous Gly in Gly treatment, Pro in Ala treatment, and Asn in three amino acid (Gly, Gln and Ala) treatments. By contrast, the levels of endogenous Gln and Leu decreased. However, this reduction varied among cultivars and amino acid types. Amino acid-N supply also affected the citric acid cycle, namely, the second stage of respiration, where leaves in Gly, Gln and Ala treatments contained low levels of malic, citric and succinic acids compared with leaves in NO3--N treatments. No signiifcant difference in the metabolic responses was observed between the two cultivars which differed in their capability to use N. The response of primary metabolites in pakchoi leaves to amino acid-N supply

  15. Global Metabolic Reconstruction and Metabolic Gene Evolution in the Cattle Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woonsu; Park, Hyesun; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of cattle genome provided a valuable opportunity to systematically link genetic and metabolic traits of cattle. The objectives of this study were 1) to reconstruct genome-scale cattle-specific metabolic pathways based on the most recent and updated cattle genome build and 2) to identify duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome for better understanding of metabolic adaptations in cattle. A bioinformatic pipeline of an organism for amalgamating genomic annotations from multiple sources was updated. Using this, an amalgamated cattle genome database based on UMD_3.1, was created. The amalgamated cattle genome database is composed of a total of 33,292 genes: 19,123 consensus genes between NCBI and Ensembl databases, 8,410 and 5,493 genes only found in NCBI or Ensembl, respectively, and 266 genes from NCBI scaffolds. A metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome and cattle pathway genome database (PGDB) was also developed using Pathway Tools, followed by an intensive manual curation. The manual curation filled or revised 68 pathway holes, deleted 36 metabolic pathways, and added 23 metabolic pathways. Consequently, the curated cattle PGDB contains 304 metabolic pathways, 2,460 reactions including 2,371 enzymatic reactions, and 4,012 enzymes. Furthermore, this study identified eight duplicated genes in 12 metabolic pathways in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse. Some of these duplicated genes are related with specific hormone biosynthesis and detoxifications. The updated genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is a useful tool for understanding biology and metabolic characteristics in cattle. There has been significant improvements in the quality of cattle genome annotations and the MetaCyc database. The duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse implies evolutionary changes in the cattle genome and provides a useful information for further research on understanding metabolic adaptations of cattle.

  16. Analysis of the metatranscriptome of microbial communities of an alkaline hot sulfur spring revealed different gene encoding pathway enzymes associated with energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Samanta, Mrinal; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline sulfur hot springs notable for their specialized and complex ecosystem powered by geothermal energy are abundantly rich in different chemotrophic and phototrophic thermophilic microorganisms. Survival and adaptation of these organisms in the extreme environment is specifically related to energy metabolism. To gain a better understanding of survival mechanism of the organisms in these ecosystems, we determined the different gene encoding enzymes associated with anaerobic pathways of energy metabolism by applying the metatranscriptomics approach. The analysis of the microbial population of hot sulfur spring revealed the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms indicating dual mode of lifestyle of the community members. Proteobacteria (28.1 %) was the most dominant community. A total of 988 reads were associated with energy metabolism, out of which 33.7 % of the reads were assigned to nitrogen, sulfur, and methane metabolism based on KEGG classification. The major lineages of hot spring communities were linked with the anaerobic pathways. Different gene encoding enzymes (hao, nir, nar, cysH, cysI, acs) showed the involvement of microbial members in nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and methane generation. This study enhances our understanding of important gene encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism, required for the survival and adaptation of microbial communities in the hot spring.

  17. Indolealkylamine metabolism: synthesis of deuterated indolealkylamines as metabolic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of the deuterium labeled, endogenously occurring, indolealkylamine hallucinogens N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine via reduction of amide intermediates with lithium aluminum deuteride is described. The compounds were characterized with 1H, 2H and 13C NMR. These compounds were synthesized for use as probes for investigating the metabolism of these compounds by MAO via the in vivo kinetic isotope effect. (Author)

  18. Adaptive GA-ADRC in Torque Ripple Reduction of Brushless DC Motor%自适应GA-ADRC在无刷直流电机转矩脉动抑制中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧博; 王静

    2012-01-01

    提出一种新型的无刷直流电机电磁转矩脉动抑制方法,该方法通过控制无刷直流电机导通相线电流跟踪给定电流来抑制电机的电磁转矩脉动.首先分析无刷直流电机数学模型,建立基于自适应遗传算法的无刷直流电机控制系统模型,由于自适应GA-ADRC控制器不需要无刷直流电机模型参数就可以实现干扰补偿,因此可以独立设计自适应GA-ADRC控制器.对文中所提出自适应GA-ADRC控制算法与经典PID控制算法的控制效果对比分析,控制效果明显优于传统PID控制效果.%The traditional PID control algorithm cannot satisfy the performance index of the brushless DC motor system because of the disadvantages of electromagnetic torque ripple, high complexity of detection method and control algorithm, and higher cost of current brushless DC motor. A novel electromagnet torque ripple suppression method of brushless DC motor was proposed in this paper. By virtue of controlling the conduction phase current of the brushless DC motor to track the given current, the motor electromagnet torque ripple was suppressed. The mathematical model of the motor was analyzed and a control system model of the brushless DC motor based on adaptive genetic algorithm was established. Since the adaptive GA-ADRC controller can realize disturbance compensation without model parameters of brushless DC motor, the GA-ADRC controller was independently designed. The comparative analysis shows that the proposed GA-ADRC control algorithm is obviously superior to that of the classical PID control algorithm.

  19. Proteomic Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in the Hydrogen-Producing Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Jung Moon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 has been shown to produce H2 when using CO, formate, or starch as a growth substrate. This strain can also utilize elemental sulfur as a terminal electron acceptor for heterotrophic growth. To gain insight into sulfur metabolism, the proteome of T. onnurineus NA1 cells grown under sulfur culture conditions was quantified and compared with those grown under H2-evolving substrate culture conditions. Using label-free nano-UPLC-MSE-based comparative proteomic analysis, approximately 38.4% of the total identified proteome (589 proteins was found to be significantly up-regulated (≥1.5-fold under sulfur culture conditions. Many of these proteins were functionally associated with carbon fixation, Fe–S cluster biogenesis, ATP synthesis, sulfur reduction, protein glycosylation, protein translocation, and formate oxidation. Based on the abundances of the identified proteins in this and other genomic studies, the pathways associated with reductive sulfur metabolism, H2-metabolism, and oxidative stress defense were proposed. The results also revealed markedly lower expression levels of enzymes involved in the sulfur assimilation pathway, as well as cysteine desulfurase, under sulfur culture condition. The present results provide the first global atlas of proteome changes triggered by sulfur, and may facilitate an understanding of how hyperthermophilic archaea adapt to sulfur-rich, extreme environments.

  20. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. Additionally, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium. PMID:25902522

  1. Adaptive capacity to bacterial diet modulates aging in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Shanshan; Curran, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Diet has a substantial impact on cellular metabolism and physiology. Animals must sense different food sources and utilize distinct strategies to adapt to diverse diets. Here we show that C. elegans lifespan is regulated by their adaptive capacity to different diets, which is controlled by alh-6, a conserved proline metabolism gene. alh-6 mutants age prematurely when fed an E. coli OP50 but not HT115 diet. Remarkably, this diet-dependent aging phenotype is determined by exposure to food durin...

  2. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... a management framework, as well as of identified challenges and pathologies, are needed. Further discussion and systematic assessment of the approach is required, together with greater attention to its definition and description, enabling the assessment of new approaches to managing uncertainty, and AM itself.......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...

  3. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  4. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  5. Metabolism and virulence in Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eSchoen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding question in infection biology addresses the genetic basis for invasive behaviour in commensal pathogens. A prime example for such a pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis. On the one hand it is a harmless commensal bacterium exquisitely adapted to humans, and on the other hand it sometimes behaves like a ferocious pathogen causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute bacterial meningitis. Despite the lack of a classical repertoire of virulence genes in N. meningitidis separating commensal from invasive strains, molecular epidemiology suggests that carriage and invasive strains belong to genetically distinct populations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that metabolic adaptation enables meningococci to exploit host resources, supporting the concept of nutritional virulence as a crucial determinant of invasive capability. Here, we discuss the contribution of core metabolic pathways in the context of colonization and invasion with special emphasis on results from genome-wide surveys. The metabolism of lactate, the oxidative stress response, and, in particular, glutathione metabolism as well as the denitrification pathway provide examples of how meningococcal metabolism is intimately linked to pathogenesis. We further discuss evidence from genome-wide approaches regarding potential metabolic differences between strains from hyperinvasive and carriage lineages and present new data assessing in vitro growth differences of strains from these two populations. We hypothesize that strains from carriage and hyperinvasive lineages differ in the expression of regulatory genes involved particularly in stress responses and amino acid metabolism under infection conditions.

  6. Metabolism and virulence in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Christoph; Kischkies, Laura; Elias, Johannes; Ampattu, Biju Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A longstanding question in infection biology addresses the genetic basis for invasive behavior in commensal pathogens. A prime example for such a pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis. On the one hand it is a harmless commensal bacterium exquisitely adapted to humans, and on the other hand it sometimes behaves like a ferocious pathogen causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute bacterial meningitis. Despite the lack of a classical repertoire of virulence genes in N. meningitidis separating commensal from invasive strains, molecular epidemiology suggests that carriage and invasive strains belong to genetically distinct populations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that metabolic adaptation enables meningococci to exploit host resources, supporting the concept of nutritional virulence as a crucial determinant of invasive capability. Here, we discuss the contribution of core metabolic pathways in the context of colonization and invasion with special emphasis on results from genome-wide surveys. The metabolism of lactate, the oxidative stress response, and, in particular, glutathione metabolism as well as the denitrification pathway provide examples of how meningococcal metabolism is intimately linked to pathogenesis. We further discuss evidence from genome-wide approaches regarding potential metabolic differences between strains from hyperinvasive and carriage lineages and present new data assessing in vitro growth differences of strains from these two populations. We hypothesize that strains from carriage and hyperinvasive lineages differ in the expression of regulatory genes involved particularly in stress responses and amino acid metabolism under infection conditions. PMID:25191646

  7. Efeitos da redução de peso superior a 5% nos perfis hemodinâmico, metabólico e neuroendócrino de obesos grau I Effects of greater-than-5% weight reduction on hemodynamic, metabolic and neuroendocrine profiles of grade I obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Biancardini Gomes Barbato

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da redução de peso superior a 5% nos perfis hemodinâmico, metabólico e neuroendócrino de obesos grau I. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional com 47 obesos grau I, média de idade de 33 anos, submetidos a orientação mensal quanto a dieta, exercício físico e comportamento alimentar, durante quatro meses. A pressão arterial, pelo método auscultatório, e a freqüência cardíaca, pelo método palpatório, foram avaliadas mensalmente, enquanto as seguintes variáveis (e respectivos métodos foram medidas no início e final do estudo: colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL-colesterol (enzimático, LDL-colesterol (fórmula de Friedwald, glicemia (enzimático hexoquinase, leptina, adiponectina, renina, aldosterona, insulina (radioimunoensaio e índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA. RESULTADOS: Observamos, após ajuste para outras variáveis, reduções significativas de 6 mmHg na pressão arterial diastólica, 7 pg/ml na renina, 13 mg/dl no colesterol total e 12 mg/dl no LDL-colesterol, no grupo com redução de peso superior a 5%. Notamos, também nesse grupo, tendência ao aumento de maior magnitude da adiponectina ao final do estudo, bem como diminuição três vezes maior dos níveis de glicemia, insulina e HOMA, e seis vezes maior da leptina. CONCLUSÃO: Medidas não-farmacológicas capazes de promover redução de peso superior a 5% produzem efeitos hemodinâmicos, metabólicos e neuroendócrinos que melhoram o risco cardiovascular de obesos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a greater-than-5% weight reduction in hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine profiles of grade I obese subjects. METHODS: Observational study with 47 grade I obese subjects, with mean age of 33 years who received monthly orientation regarding diet, physical exercises, and eating behavior for four months. Blood pressure using the auscultatory method and pulse rate were assessed monthly, whereas the following variables (and

  8. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  9. Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at multiple levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A.J.; Brown, G.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gow, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal dr

  10. Colonization-Induced Host-Gut Microbial Metabolic Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claus, S.P.; Ellero, S.L.; Berger, B.; Krause, L.; Bruttin, A.; Molina, J.; Paris, A.; Want, E.J.; Waziers, de I.; Cloarec, O.; Richards, S.E.; Wang, Y.; Dumas, M.E.; Ross, A.; Rezzi, S.; Kochhar, S.; Bladeren, van P.J.; LindOn, J.C.; Holmes, E.; Nicholson, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The gut microbiota enhances the host’s metabolic capacity for processing nutrients and drugs and modulate the activities of multiple pathways in a variety of organ systems. We have probed the systemic metabolic adaptation to gut colonization for 20 days following exposure of axenic mice (n = 35) to

  11. Blueberries and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...

  12. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  13. Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at multiple levels

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair J P Brown; Brown, Gordon D.; Netea, Mihai G.; Gow, Neil A R

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal drugs, the expression of key virulence factors, and fungal vulnerability to innate immune defences. These effects, which are driven by complex regulatory networks linking metabolism, morphogenesis, s...

  14. Mechanisms of β-cell functional adaptation to changes in workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, M; Sander, M

    2016-09-01

    Insulin secretion must be tightly coupled to nutritional state to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. To this end, pancreatic β-cells sense and respond to changes in metabolic conditions, thereby anticipating insulin demands for a given physiological context. This is achieved in part through adjustments of nutrient metabolism, which is controlled at several levels including allosteric regulation, post-translational modifications, and altered expression of metabolic enzymes. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of β-cell metabolic and functional adaptation in the context of two physiological states that alter glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: fasting and insulin resistance. We review current knowledge of metabolic changes that occur in the β-cell during adaptation and specifically discuss transcriptional mechanisms that underlie β-cell adaptation. A more comprehensive understanding of how β-cells adapt to changes in nutrient state could identify mechanisms to be co-opted for therapeutically modulating insulin secretion in metabolic disease. PMID:27615135

  15. Optimization of cardiac metabolism in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Yoshimura, Michihiro; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2011-12-01

    The derangement of the cardiac energy substrate metabolism plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates, such as fatty acids, is the predominant metabolic pathway in the normal heart, because this provides the highest energy yield per molecule of substrate metabolized. In contrast, glucose becomes an important preferential substrate for metabolism and ATP generation under specific pathological conditions, because it can provide greater efficiency in producing high energy products per oxygen consumed compared to fatty acids. Manipulations that shift energy substrate utilization away from fatty acids toward glucose can improve the cardiac function and slow the progression of heart failure. However, insulin resistance, which is highly prevalent in the heart failure population, impedes this adaptive metabolic shift. Therefore, the acceleration of the glucose metabolism, along with the restoration of insulin sensitivity, would be the ideal metabolic therapy for heart failure. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of modifying substrate utilization to optimize cardiac metabolism in heart failure. PMID:21933140

  16. Towards a metabolic therapy of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Martina; Ottaviani, Laura; Bianchi, Massimiliano G; Franchi-Gazzola, Renata; Bussolati, Ovidio

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that cancer cells must be endowed with specific metabolic adaptations to support enhanced growth and to ensure survival under stressful conditions. On the other hand, many oncogenic mutations of protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes directly cause metabolic derangements and, conversely, mutations of enzymes have been found to underlie several forms of cancer. Thus, cancer-specific metabolic alterations are now considered among the hallmarks of malignant tumors. Most commonly, cancer cells exhibit enhanced glycolysis under aerobic conditions (the Warburg effect) but alterations in the metabolism of amino acids, such as glutamine, serine and proline are increasingly described as important metabolic features of selected tumor types. In theory, all these deranged cancer-specific metabolic pathways may constitute novel therapeutic targets, although the only "metabolic" drug in clinical use is still represented by the enzyme L-asparaginase. However, the increasing amount of experimental evidence, as well as the number of trials in progress, suggests that metabolic drugs will soon complement standard anti-cancer chemotherapy and modern biological drugs. PMID:23762991

  17. Metabolic polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G; Stanley, L A; Sim, E; Strange, R C; Wolf, C R

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of cancers arise as a consequence of exposure to environmental agents that are toxic or mutagenic. In response to this, all higher organisms have evolved complex mechanisms by which they can protect themselves from environmental challenge. In many cases, this involves an adaptive response in which the levels of expression of enzymes active in the metabolism and detoxification of the foreign chemical are induced. The best characterized of these enzyme systems are the cytochrome P450s, the GSTs and the NATs. An unfortunate consequence of many of these reactions, however, is the creation of a toxic or mutagenic reaction product from chemicals that require metabolic activation before realizing their full carcinogenic potential. Altered expression of one or more of these drug metabolizing enzymes can therefore be predicted to have profound toxicological consequences. Genetic polymorphisms with well defined associated phenotypes have now been characterized in P450, GST and NAT genes. Indeed, many of these polymorphisms have been associated with decreased or increased metabolism of many tumour promoters and chemical carcinogens and hence offer protection against or increased susceptibility to many distinct tumour types.

  18. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi

    2006-01-01

    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  19. Metabolism of oligosaccharides and starch in lactobacilli: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eGänzle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides, compounds that are composed of 2 – 10 monosaccharide residues, are major carbohydrate sources in habitats populated by lactobacilli. Moreover, oligosaccharide metabolism is essential for ecological fitness of lactobacilli. Disaccharide metabolism by lactobacilli is well understood; however, few data on the metabolism of higher oligosaccharides are available. Research on the ecology of intestinal microbiota as well as the commercial application of prebiotics has shifted the interest from (digestible disaccharides to (indigestible higher oligosaccharides. This review provides an overview on oligosaccharide metabolism in lactobacilli. Emphasis is placed on maltodextrins, isomalto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, and raffinose-family oligosaccharides. Starch is also considered. Metabolism is discussed on the basis of metabolic studies related to oligosaccharide metabolism, information on the cellular location and substrate specificity of carbohydrate transport systems, glycosyl hydrolases and phorphorylases, and the presence of metabolic genes in genomes of 28 strains of lactobacilli. Metabolic pathways for disaccharide metabolism often also enable the metabolism of tri- and tetrasaccharides. However, with the exception of amylase and levansucrase, metabolic enzymes for oligosaccharide conversion are intracellular and oligosaccharide metabolism is limited by transport. This general restriction to intracellular glycosyl hydrolases differentiates lactobacilli from other bacteria that adapted to intestinal habitats, particularly Bifidobacterium spp.

  20. (Mal adaptações metabólicas ao treinamento contínuo: concepções não consensuais de terminologia e diagnóstico Metabolic (mal adaptations to training continuum: misconceptions of terminology and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Homero Paganini Burini

    2010-10-01

    . Isto é devido, parcialmente, à variabilidade das respostas individuais ao treinamento e à falta de ambos instrumentos diagnósticos e estudos bem controlados.Sports top-level performance requires heavy training loads that provide a stimulus to sport-specific adaptation. Competitive training involving high workload is generally accompanied by minor fatigue and acute performance reduction, but when followed by appropriate recovery periods results in training-metabolic supercompensation reflected as increase in aerobic capacity and muscular strength. When the intensified training process leading to supercompensation and related-stress is seen as a continuum, the increased stress or overload might result in disruption of homeostasis and temporary decrease in function (overreaching - OR or functional overreaching - FOR. When excessive overload is combined with inadequate recovery, a state of overtraining (OT or non-functional overreaching (NFOR is installed. OT exceeds OR and the OR peak is also the OT threshold, resulting in stark physiological maladaptations and chronically reduced exercise performance. The chronic form of physiological maladaptation to training is called overtraining syndrome (OTS. The expression of the syndrome emphasizes the multifactorial etiology of the state and acknowledges that exercise (training is not necessarily the sole causative factor. There is no objective biomarker for OTS besides the diagnosis based on performance recovery. Other distinctions between NFOR (extreme OT and OTS depend on clinical outcome and exclusion diagnosis of organic diseases more common in OTS. Additionally, the difference between OR and OT is subtle and none of their biochemical markers should be considered universal. There is no evidence to confirm that OR will develop into OT or that OT symptoms are worse than those of OR. It is presently not possible to differentiate OR and OT states from the acute fatigue and decreased performance experienced from isolated

  1. Metabolic cost of lateral stabilization during walking in people with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, J H; Wu, M; Gordon, K E

    2015-02-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) expend considerable energy to walk, which can lead to rapid fatigue and limit community ambulation. Selecting locomotor patterns that enhance lateral stability may contribute to this population's elevated cost of transport. The goal of the current study was to quantify the metabolic energy demands of maintaining lateral stability during gait in people with iSCI. To quantify this metabolic cost, we observed ten individuals with iSCI walking with and without external lateral stabilization. We hypothesized that with external lateral stabilization, people with iSCI would adapt their gait by decreasing step width, which would correspond with a substantial decrease in cost of transport. Our findings support this hypothesis. Subjects significantly (p<0.05) decreased step width by 22%, step width variability by 18%, and minimum lateral margin of stability by 25% when they walked with external lateral stabilization compared to unassisted walking. Metabolic cost of transport also decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 10% with external lateral stabilization. These findings suggest that this population is capable of adapting their gait to meet changing demands placed on balance. The percent reduction in cost of transport when walking with external lateral stabilization was strongly correlated with functional impairment level as assessed by subjects' scores on the Berg Balance Scale (r=0.778) and lower extremity motor score (r=0.728). These relationships suggest that as functional balance and strength decrease, the amount of metabolic energy used to maintain lateral stability during gait will increase.

  2. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Junyu; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Xinhua; Chen, Binglin; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL) and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll (LSCB) of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79) and salt-sensitive (Simian 3) cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1) both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2) carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) in both the MSL and LSCB; 3) but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress. PMID:27228029

  3. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    Full Text Available This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. boll (LSCB of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79 and salt-sensitive (Simian 3 cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1 both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2 carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SuSy in both the MSL and LSCB; 3 but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress.

  4. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  5. SIRT1 and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mac-Marcjanek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two major components of metabolic syndrome, become healthepidemics in the world. Over the past decade, advances in understanding the role of some regulators participatingin lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis have been made.Of them, SIRT1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Sir2 protein has been identified. SIRT1 is a nuclearNAD+-dependent deacetylase that targets many transcriptional modulators, including PPAR-α and -γ (peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors α and γ, PGC-1α (PPAR-γ coactivator-1α, FOXO (forkhead box O proteins,and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, thereby this enzyme mediates a wide range of physiological processes like apoptosis,fat metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and neurodegeneration.In this article, we discuss how SIRT1 regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and insulin secretion indifferent metabolic organs/tissue, including liver, muscle, pancreas, and fat. Additionally, the role of this enzymein reduction of inflammatory signalling is highlighted.

  6. Alcohol Metabolism and Epigenetics Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites, including those generated during ethanol metabolism, can impact disease states by binding to transcription factors and/or modifying chromatin structure, thereby altering gene expression patterns. For example, the activities of enzymes involved in epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation and histone acetylation, are influenced by the levels of metabolites such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Chronic alcohol consumption leads to significant reductions in SAM levels, thereby contributing to DNA hypomethylation. Similarly, ethanol metabolism alters the ratio of NAD+ to reduced NAD (NADH) and promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species and acetate, all of which impact epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. In addition to altered carbohydrate metabolism, induction of cell death, and changes in mitochondrial permeability transition, these metabolism-related changes can lead to modulation of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Understanding the nature of these epigenetic changes will help researchers design novel medications to treat or at least ameliorate alcohol-induced organ damage. PMID:24313160

  7. Spatial adaptation on video display terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhouse, D.S.; Bailey, I.L.; Howarth, P.A.; Berman, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Spatial adaptation, in the form of a frequency-specific reduction in contrast sensitivity, can occur when the visual system is exposed to certain stimuli. We employed vertical sinusoidal test gratings to investigate adaptation to the horizontal structure of text presented on a standard video display terminal. The parameters of the contrast sensitivity test were selected on the basis of waveform analysis of spatial luminance scans of the text stimulus. We found that subjects exhibited a small, but significant, frequency-specific adaptation consistent with the spatial frequency spectrum of the stimulus. Theoretical and practical significance of this finding are discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Effects of SO2 and sulfite on stromal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SO2 appears to have multiple effects on chloroplast stromal metabolism. What is unique about metabolism in the chloroplast is reductive modulation of enzyme activity. The evidence summarized here implicates both the components of the modulation process and the light modulated enzymes and ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase in SO2-sensitivity. Interference with electron transport, acidification of the stroma, and depletion of phosphates will further complicate metabolism in the photosynthesizing chloroplast when sensitive plants are exposed to SO2. 35 refs., 6 figs

  9. A SELF-ADAPTIVE TRUST REGION ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Hei

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose a self-adaptive trust region algorithm. The trust region radius is updated at a variable rate according to the ratio between the actual reduction and the predicted reduction of the objective function, rather than by simply enlarging or reducing the original trust region radius at a constant rate. We show that this new algorithm preserves the strong convergence property of traditional trust region methods. Numerical results are also presented.

  10. Redox state, reactive oxygen species and adaptive growth in colonial hydroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, N W

    2001-06-01

    Colonial metazoans often encrust surfaces over which the food supply varies in time or space. In such an environment, adaptive colony development entails adjusting the timing and spacing of feeding structures and gastrovascular connections to correspond to this variable food supply. To investigate the possibility of such adaptive growth, within-colony differential feeding experiments were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Indeed, such colonies strongly exhibited adaptive growth, developing dense arrays of polyps (feeding structures) and gastrovascular connections in areas that were fed relative to areas that were starved, and this effect became more consistent over time. To investigate mechanisms of signaling between the food supply and colony development, measurements were taken of metabolic parameters that have been implicated in signal transduction in other systems, particularly redox state and levels of reactive oxygen species. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy of P. carnea cells in vivo, simultaneous measurements of redox state [using NAD(P)H] and hydrogen peroxide (using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) were taken. Both measures focused on polyp epitheliomuscular cells, since these exhibit the greatest metabolic activity. Colonies 3-5h after feeding were relatively oxidized, with low levels of peroxide, while colonies 24h after feeding were relatively reduced, with high levels of peroxide. The functional role of polyps in feeding and generating gastrovascular flow probably produced this dichotomy. Polyps 3-5h after feeding contract maximally, and this metabolic demand probably shifts the redox state in the direction of oxidation and diminishes levels of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, 24h after feeding, polyps are quiescent, and this lack of metabolic demand probably shifts the redox state in the direction of reduction and increases levels of reactive oxygen species. Within-colony differential feeding experiments were carried out on

  11. Adaptation to climate change in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first comments some data and facts illustrating climate change. It discusses its various impacts (extreme meteorological events, dramatic impacts on ecosystems with the possible disappearance of some vegetal and animal species, crisis regarding food resources, health risks, population migrations notably because of sea level rise), and briefly evokes these impacts in France. It outlines the need for adaptation and describes the different adaptation principles: reduction of vulnerability, and anticipation of changes and of their impacts. It comments how adaptation and mitigation are two complementary approaches. It presents the French State strategy with its national adaptation strategy, its national adaptation plan, the mandatory elaboration of regional schemes for climate, air and energy, and the action of local communities

  12. METABOLISM OF SULFATE-REDUCING PROKARYOTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HANSEN, TA

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is carried out by a heterogeneous group of bacteria and archaea that occur in environments with temperatures up to 105 degrees C. As a group together they have the capacity to metabolize a wide variety of compounds ranging from hydrogen via typical organic fermentatio

  13. Combined MIMO adaptive and decentralized controllers for broadband active noise and vibration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.; Wesselink, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent implementations of multiple-input multiple-output adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations provide considerably improved performance over traditional adaptive algorithms. The most significant performance improvements are in terms of speed of convergence, the amount

  14. Dissolution and reduction of magnetite by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, J E; Nealson, K H

    1995-10-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is an iron oxide of mixed oxidation state [Fe(II), Fe(III)] that contributes largely to geomagnetism and plays a significant role in diagenesis in marine and freshwater sediments. Magnetic data are the primary evidence for ocean floor spreading and accurate interpretation of the sedimentary magnetic record depends on an understanding of the conditions under which magnetite is stable. Though chemical reduction of magnetite by dissolved sulfide is well known, biological reduction has not been considered likely based upon thermodynamic considerations. This study shows that marine and freshwater strains of the bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens are capable of the rapid dissolution and reduction of magnetite, converting millimolar amounts to soluble Fe(II)in a few days at room temperature. Conditions under which magnetite reduction is optimal (pH 5-6, 22-37 degrees C) are consistent with an enzymatic process and not with simple chemical reduction. Magnetite reduction requires viable cells and cell contact, and it appears to be coupled to electron transport and growth. In a minimal medium with formate or lactate as the electron donor, more than 10 times the amount of magnetite was reduced over no carbon controls. These data suggest that magnetite reduction is coupled to carbon metabolism in S. putrefaciens. Bacterial reduction rates of magnetite are of the same order of magnitude as those estimated for reduction by sulfide. If such remobilization of magnetite occurs in nature, it could have a major impact on sediment magnetism and diagenesis. PMID:11539843

  15. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s...

  16. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  17. Formation and Regulation of Adaptive Response in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-L. Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All organisms respond to environmental stresses (e.g., heavy metal, heat, UV irradiation, hyperoxia, food limitation, etc. with coordinated adjustments in order to deal with the consequences and/or injuries caused by the severe stress. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans often exerts adaptive responses if preconditioned with low concentrations of agents or stressor. In C. elegans, three types of adaptive responses can be formed: hormesis, cross-adaptation, and dietary restriction. Several factors influence the formation of adaptive responses in nematodes, and some mechanisms can explain their response formation. In particular, antioxidation system, heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, glutathione, signaling transduction, and metabolic signals may play important roles in regulating the formation of adaptive responses. In this paper, we summarize the published evidence demonstrating that several types of adaptive responses have converged in C. elegans and discussed some possible alternative theories explaining the adaptive response control.

  18. Vowel Reduction in Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirai; Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the result that vowel reduction occurs in Japanese and vowel reduction is the part of the language universality.Compared with English,the effect of the vowel reduction in Japanese is relatively weak might because of the absence of stress in Japanese.Since spectral vowel reduction occurs in Japanese,various types of researches would be possible.

  19. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  20. Skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility : The roles of AMP-activated protein kinase and calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Yun Chau

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers differ considerably in their metabolic and physiological properties. The metabolic properties of skeletal muscle display a high degree of flexibility which adapts to various physiological demands by shifting energy substrate metabolism. Studies were conducted to evaluate the roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcineurin in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Fasting elicited a coordinated expression of genes involved in lipid ...

  1. Genome analysis of three Pneumocystis species reveals adaptation mechanisms to life exclusively in mammalian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Chen, Zehua; Huang, Da Wei; Kutty, Geetha; Ishihara, Mayumi; Wang, Honghui; Abouelleil, Amr; Bishop, Lisa; Davey, Emma; Deng, Rebecca; Deng, Xilong; Fan, Lin; Fantoni, Giovanna; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gogineni, Emile; Goldberg, Jonathan M; Handley, Grace; Hu, Xiaojun; Huber, Charles; Jiao, Xiaoli; Jones, Kristine; Levin, Joshua Z; Liu, Yueqin; Macdonald, Pendexter; Melnikov, Alexandre; Raley, Castle; Sassi, Monica; Sherman, Brad T; Song, Xiaohong; Sykes, Sean; Tran, Bao; Walsh, Laura; Xia, Yun; Yang, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zheng, Xin; Stephens, Robert; Nusbaum, Chad; Birren, Bruce W; Azadi, Parastoo; Lempicki, Richard A; Cuomo, Christina A; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major cause of life-threatening pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients including transplant recipients and those with HIV/AIDS, yet surprisingly little is known about the biology of this fungal pathogen. Here we report near complete genome assemblies for three Pneumocystis species that infect humans, rats and mice. Pneumocystis genomes are highly compact relative to other fungi, with substantial reductions of ribosomal RNA genes, transporters, transcription factors and many metabolic pathways, but contain expansions of surface proteins, especially a unique and complex surface glycoprotein superfamily, as well as proteases and RNA processing proteins. Unexpectedly, the key fungal cell wall components chitin and outer chain N-mannans are absent, based on genome content and experimental validation. Our findings suggest that Pneumocystis has developed unique mechanisms of adaptation to life exclusively in mammalian hosts, including dependence on the lungs for gas and nutrients and highly efficient strategies to escape both host innate and acquired immune defenses. PMID:26899007

  2. Genome analysis of three Pneumocystis species reveals adaptation mechanisms to life exclusively in mammalian hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Chen, Zehua; Huang, Da Wei; Kutty, Geetha; Ishihara, Mayumi; Wang, Honghui; Abouelleil, Amr; Bishop, Lisa; Davey, Emma; Deng, Rebecca; Deng, Xilong; Fan, Lin; Fantoni, Giovanna; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gogineni, Emile; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Handley, Grace; Hu, Xiaojun; Huber, Charles; Jiao, Xiaoli; Jones, Kristine; Levin, Joshua Z.; Liu, Yueqin; Macdonald, Pendexter; Melnikov, Alexandre; Raley, Castle; Sassi, Monica; Sherman, Brad T.; Song, Xiaohong; Sykes, Sean; Tran, Bao; Walsh, Laura; Xia, Yun; Yang, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zheng, Xin; Stephens, Robert; Nusbaum, Chad; Birren, Bruce W.; Azadi, Parastoo; Lempicki, Richard A.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major cause of life-threatening pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients including transplant recipients and those with HIV/AIDS, yet surprisingly little is known about the biology of this fungal pathogen. Here we report near complete genome assemblies for three Pneumocystis species that infect humans, rats and mice. Pneumocystis genomes are highly compact relative to other fungi, with substantial reductions of ribosomal RNA genes, transporters, transcription factors and many metabolic pathways, but contain expansions of surface proteins, especially a unique and complex surface glycoprotein superfamily, as well as proteases and RNA processing proteins. Unexpectedly, the key fungal cell wall components chitin and outer chain N-mannans are absent, based on genome content and experimental validation. Our findings suggest that Pneumocystis has developed unique mechanisms of adaptation to life exclusively in mammalian hosts, including dependence on the lungs for gas and nutrients and highly efficient strategies to escape both host innate and acquired immune defenses. PMID:26899007

  3. Compact genome of the Antarctic midge is likely an adaptation to an extreme environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joanna L.; Peyton, Justin T.; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Teets, Nicholas M.; Yee, Muh-Ching; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Lee, Richard E.; Denlinger, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The midge, Belgica antarctica, is the only insect endemic to Antarctica, and thus it offers a powerful model for probing responses to extreme temperatures, freeze tolerance, dehydration, osmotic stress, ultraviolet radiation and other forms of environmental stress. Here we present the first genome assembly of an extremophile, the first dipteran in the family Chironomidae, and the first Antarctic eukaryote to be sequenced. At 99 megabases, B. antarctica has the smallest insect genome sequenced thus far. Although it has a similar number of genes as other Diptera, the midge genome has very low repeat density and a reduction in intron length. Environmental extremes appear to constrain genome architecture, not gene content. The few transposable elements present are mainly ancient, inactive retroelements. An abundance of genes associated with development, regulation of metabolism and responses to external stimuli may reflect adaptations for surviving in this harsh environment. PMID:25118180

  4. Epistasis and maternal effects in experimental adaptation to chronic nutritional stress in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, R K; Kawecki, T J

    2013-12-01

    Based on ecological and metabolic arguments, some authors predict that adaptation to novel, harsh environments should involve alleles showing negative (diminishing return) epistasis and/or that it should be mediated in part by evolution of maternal effects. Although the first prediction has been supported in microbes, there has been little experimental support for either prediction in multicellular eukaryotes. Here we use a line-cross design to study the genetic architecture of adaptation to chronic larval malnutrition in a population of Drosophila melanogaster that evolved on an extremely nutrient-poor larval food for 84 generations. We assayed three fitness-related traits (developmental rate, adult female weight and egg-to-adult viability) under the malnutrition conditions in 14 crosses between this selected population and a nonadapted control population originally derived from the same base population. All traits showed a pattern of negative epistasis between alleles improving performance under malnutrition. Furthermore, evolutionary changes in maternal traits accounted for half of the 68% increase in viability and for the whole of 8% reduction in adult female body weight in the selected population (relative to unselected controls). These results thus support both of the above predictions and point to the importance of nonadditive effects in adaptive microevolution.

  5. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in fi

  6. Coordinated and interactive expression of genes of lipid metabolism and inflammation in adipose tissue and liver during metabolic overload.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic metabolic overload results in lipid accumulation and subsequent inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT, often accompanied by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. In response to metabolic overload, the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes is adapted. However, it still remains unknown how these adaptations in gene expression in expanding WAT and liver are orchestrated and whether they are interrelated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed HFD or chow for different periods up to 12 weeks. Gene expression in WAT and liver over time was evaluated by micro-array analysis. WAT hypertrophy and inflammation were analyzed histologically. Bayesian hierarchical cluster analysis of dynamic WAT gene expression identified groups of genes ('clusters' with comparable expression patterns over time. HFD evoked an immediate response of five clusters of 'lipid metabolism' genes in WAT, which did not further change thereafter. At a later time point (>6 weeks, inflammatory clusters were induced. Promoter analysis of clustered genes resulted in specific key regulators which may orchestrate the metabolic and inflammatory responses in WAT. Some master regulators played a dual role in control of metabolism and inflammation. When WAT inflammation developed (>6 weeks, genes of lipid metabolism and inflammation were also affected in corresponding livers. These hepatic gene expression changes and the underlying transcriptional responses in particular, were remarkably similar to those detected in WAT. CONCLUSION: In WAT, metabolic overload induced an immediate, stable response on clusters of lipid metabolism genes and induced inflammatory genes later in time. Both processes may be controlled and interlinked by specific transcriptional regulators. When WAT inflammation began, the hepatic response to HFD resembled that in WAT. In all, WAT and liver respond to metabolic overload by

  7. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  8. 'Sarcobesity': a metabolic conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B; Coffey, Vernon G; Hawley, John A

    2013-02-01

    Two independent but inter-related conditions that have a growing impact on healthy life expectancy and health care costs in developed nations are an age-related loss of muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and obesity. Sarcopenia is commonly exacerbated in overweight and obese individuals. Progression towards obesity promotes an increase in fat mass and a concomitant decrease in muscle mass, producing an unfavourable ratio of fat to muscle. The coexistence of diminished muscle mass and increased fat mass (so-called 'sarcobesity') is ultimately manifested by impaired mobility and/or development of life-style-related diseases. Accordingly, the critical health issue for a large proportion of adults in developed nations is how to lose fat mass while preserving muscle mass. Lifestyle interventions to prevent or treat sarcobesity include energy-restricted diets and exercise. The optimal energy deficit to reduce body mass is controversial. While energy restriction in isolation is an effective short-term strategy for rapid and substantial weight loss, it results in a reduction of both fat and muscle mass and therefore ultimately predisposes one to an unfavourable body composition. Aerobic exercise promotes beneficial changes in whole-body metabolism and reduces fat mass, while resistance exercise preserves lean (muscle) mass. Current evidence strongly supports the inclusion of resistance and aerobic exercise to complement mild energy-restricted high-protein diets for healthy weight loss as a primary intervention for sarcobesity. PMID:23201324

  9. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... values for glucose and creatinine can vary with age. Normal value ranges for all tests may vary ...

  10. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  11. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism - inborn errors of ... Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 205. Rezvani I, Rezvani G. An ...

  12. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs ...

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Amit; Marmura, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent and costly conditions. The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, ...

  14. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  15. Applying Acylated Fucose Analogues to Metabolic Glycoengineering

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Rosenlöcher; Verena Böhrsch; Michael Sacharjat; Véronique Blanchard; Christoph Giese; Volker Sandig; Christian P R Hackenberger; Stephan Hinderlich

    2015-01-01

    Manipulations of cell surface glycosylation or glycan decoration of selected proteins hold immense potential for exploring structure-activity relations or increasing glycoprotein quality. Metabolic glycoengineering describes the strategy where exogenously supplied sugar analogues intercept biosynthetic pathways and are incorporated into glycoconjugates. Low membrane permeability, which so far limited the large-scale adaption of this technology, can be addressed by the introduction of acylated...

  16. Metabolic changes in cardiomyocytes during sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, James J; Keith R Walley

    2013-01-01

    Different types of shock induce distinct metabolic changes. The myocardium at rest utilizes free fatty acids as its primary energy source, a mechanism that changes to aerobic glycolysis during sepsis and is in contrast to hemorrhagic shock. The immune system also uses this mechanism, changing its substrate utilization to activate innate and adaptive cells. Cardiomyocytes share a number of features similar to antigen-presenting cells and may use this mechanism to augment the immune response at...

  17. Hypoxia. 2. Hypoxia regulates cellular metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wheaton, William W.; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation to lowering oxygen levels (hypoxia) requires coordinated downregulation of metabolic demand and supply to prevent a mismatch in ATP utilization and production that might culminate in a bioenergetic collapse. Hypoxia diminishes ATP utilization by downregulating protein translation and the activity of the Na-K-ATPase. Hypoxia diminishes ATP production in part by lowering the activity of the electron transport chain through activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible fact...

  18. Exercise and the Regulation of Hepatic Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Trefts, Elijah; Williams, Ashley S.; Wasserman, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The accelerated metabolic demands of the working muscle cannot be met without a robust response from the liver. If not for the hepatic response, sustained exercise would be impossible. The liver stores, releases, and recycles potential energy. Exercise would result in hypoglycemia if it were not for the accelerated release of energy as glucose. The energetic demands on the liver are largely met by increased oxidation of fatty acids mobilized from adipose tissue. Adaptations immediately follow...

  19. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  20. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst