WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive map formation

  1. A Semantically Automated Protocol Adapter for Mapping SOAP Web Services to RESTful HTTP Format to Enable the Web Infrastructure, Enhance Web Service Interoperability and Ease Web Service Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doheny

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS are Web Service (WS descriptions augmented with semantic information. SWS enable intelligent reasoning and automation in areas such as service discovery, composition, mediation, ranking and invocation. This paper applies SWS to a previous protocol adapter which, operating within clearly defined constraints, maps SOAP Web Services to RESTful HTTP format. However, in the previous adapter, the configuration element is manual and the latency implications are locally based. This paper applies SWS technologies to automate the configuration element and the latency tests are conducted in a more realistic Internet based setting.

  2. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    We present ASDF, the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a modern and practical data format for all branches of seismology and beyond. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power opens avenues to tackle larger and more complex problems. Current bottlenecks include inefficient resource usage and insufficient data organization. Properly scaling a problem requires the resolution of both these challenges, and existing data formats are no longer up to the task. ASDF stores any number of synthetic, processed or unaltered waveforms in a single file. A key improvement compared to existing formats is the inclusion of comprehensive meta information, such as event or station information, in the same file. Additionally, it is also usable for any non-waveform data, for example, cross-correlations, adjoint sources or receiver functions. Last but not least, full provenance information can be stored alongside each item of data, thereby enhancing reproducibility and accountability. Any data set in our proposed format is self-describing and can be readily exchanged with others, facilitating collaboration. The utilization of the HDF5 container format grants efficient and parallel I/O operations, integrated compression algorithms and check sums to guard against data corruption. To not reinvent the wheel and to build upon past developments, we use existing standards like QuakeML, StationXML, W3C PROV and HDF5 wherever feasible. Usability and tool support are crucial for any new format to gain acceptance. We developed mature C/Fortran and Python based APIs coupling ASDF to the widely used SPECFEM3D_GLOBE and ObsPy toolkits.

  3. Adaptive typography for dynamic mapping environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Didier

    1991-08-01

    When typography moves across a map, it passes over areas of different colors, densities, and textures. In such a dynamic environment, the aspect of typography must be constantly adapted to provide disernibility for every new background. Adaptive typography undergoes two adaptive operations: background control and contrast control. The background control prevents the features of the map (edges, lines, abrupt changes of densities) from destroying the integrity of the letterform. This is achieved by smoothing the features of the map in the area where a text label is displayed. The modified area is limited to the space covered by the characters of the label. Dispositions are taken to insure that the smoothing operation does not introduce any new visual noise. The contrast control assures that there are sufficient lightness differences between the typography and its ever-changing background. For every new situation, background color and foreground color are compared and the foreground color lightness is adjusted according to a chosen contrast value. Criteria and methods of choosing the appropriate contrast value are presented as well as the experiments that led to them.

  4. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  5. Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

    2001-12-01

    The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

  6. Synchronization of generalized Henon map by using adaptive fuzzy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Yueju E-mail: xueyj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Yang Shiyuan E-mail: ysy-dau@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy control method is presented to synchronize model-unknown discrete-time generalized Henon map. The proposed method is robust to approximate errors and disturbances, because it integrates the merits of adaptive fuzzy and the variable structure control. Moreover, it can realize the synchronizations of non-identical chaotic systems. The simulation results of synchronization of generalized Henon map show that it not only can synchronize model-unknown generalized Henon map but also is robust against the noise of the systems. These merits are advantageous for engineering realization.

  7. Synchronization of generalized Henon map by using adaptive fuzzy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yueju; Yang Shiyuan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy control method is presented to synchronize model-unknown discrete-time generalized Henon map. The proposed method is robust to approximate errors and disturbances, because it integrates the merits of adaptive fuzzy and the variable structure control. Moreover, it can realize the synchronizations of non-identical chaotic systems. The simulation results of synchronization of generalized Henon map show that it not only can synchronize model-unknown generalized Henon map but also is robust against the noise of the systems. These merits are advantageous for engineering realization

  8. Data Sprints: A Collaborative Format in Digital Controversy Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Tommaso, Venturini; Meunier, Axel

    2017-01-01

    driven by a desire to provide navigational aids to actors faced with the challenge of making sense of complicated techno-scientific problems. Natively digital media technologies have thus been re-appropriated by STS researchers specifically for the purpose of mapping controversies in a way that would...... experiences with various forms of public engagement and participation. Through a concrete reappropriation of a collaborative format that is indeed native to the digital domain - namely the hackathon - we will show how digital methods can make a difference in participatory STS research. The data sprint, as we...... in amsterdam. Through a mix of digital methods ranging from web cartography and text mining to scientometrics and social media analysis we took on questions related to climate adaptation funding, vulnerability assessment, project management, and dynamics of the international negotiations. The sprints hardwired...

  9. Map Matching for Intelligent Speed Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens; Lahrmann, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems enables sophisticated vehicle guidance and advisory systems such as Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems. In ISA systems, it is essential to be able to position vehicles within a road network. Because digital road networks as well as G...

  10. Space Mapping With Adaptive Response Correction for Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, S.; Bandler, J.W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    at which the term was calculated, as in the surrogate model optimization process. In this paper, an adaptive response correction scheme is presented to work in conjunction with space-mapping optimization algorithms. This technique is designed to alleviate the difficulties of the standard output space......Output space mapping is a technique introduced to enhance the robustness of the space-mapping optimization process in case the space-mapped coarse model cannot provide sufficient matching with the fine model. The technique often works very well; however, in some cases it fails. Especially...

  11. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Formations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  12. Color encryption scheme based on adapted quantum logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Alaa; Zhang, Tiejun; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new color image encryption scheme based on quantum chaotic system. In this scheme, a new encryption scheme is accomplished by generating an intermediate chaotic key stream with the help of quantum chaotic logistic map. Then, each pixel is encrypted by the cipher value of the previous pixel and the adapted quantum logistic map. The results show that the proposed scheme has adequate security for the confidentiality of color images.

  13. Effect of visuomotor-map uncertainty on visuomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Naoki; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    Vision and proprioception contribute to generating hand movement. If a conflict between the visual and proprioceptive feedback of hand position is given, reaching movement is disturbed initially but recovers after training. Although previous studies have predominantly investigated the adaptive change in the motor output, it is unclear whether the contributions of visual and proprioceptive feedback controls to the reaching movement are modified by visuomotor adaptation. To investigate this, we focused on the change in proprioceptive feedback control associated with visuomotor adaptation. After the adaptation to gradually introduce visuomotor rotation, the hand reached the shifted position of the visual target to move the cursor to the visual target correctly. When the cursor feedback was occasionally eliminated (probe trial), the end point of the hand movement was biased in the visual-target direction, while the movement was initiated in the adapted direction, suggesting the incomplete adaptation of proprioceptive feedback control. Moreover, after the learning of uncertain visuomotor rotation, in which the rotation angle was randomly fluctuated on a trial-by-trial basis, the end-point bias in the probe trial increased, but the initial movement direction was not affected, suggesting a reduction in the adaptation level of proprioceptive feedback control. These results suggest that the change in the relative contribution of visual and proprioceptive feedback controls to the reaching movement in response to the visuomotor-map uncertainty is involved in visuomotor adaptation, whereas feedforward control might adapt in a manner different from that of the feedback control.

  14. Bifurcation of learning and structure formation in neuronal maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Faust-Ellsässer, Carmen; Starke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    to map formation in the laminar nucleus of the barn owl's auditory system. Using equation-free methods, we perform a bifurcation analysis of spatio-temporal structure formation in the associated synaptic-weight matrix. This enables us to analyze learning as a bifurcation process and follow the unstable...... states as well. A simple time translation of the learning window function shifts the bifurcation point of structure formation and goes along with traveling waves in the map, without changing the animal's sound localization performance....

  15. The Use of Format Adaptation in Danish Public Service Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates Danish public service broadcasters’ use of format adaptations over a 12-year period in order to examine claims that formats constitute a potential threat to public service broadcasting and the national Danish television industry and culture. The article’s findings, howeve...... service orientation. Instead the article argues, following German sociologist Ulrich Beck, that format adaptation can represent a form of ‘banal transnationalism’, pointing to the fact that the world is no longer exclusively defined by national boundaries.......The article investigates Danish public service broadcasters’ use of format adaptations over a 12-year period in order to examine claims that formats constitute a potential threat to public service broadcasting and the national Danish television industry and culture. The article’s findings, however......, bear little evidence to support these claims. The practice of format adaptation constitutes a comparatively small proportion of the overall production of Danish public service content, and, more importantly, most of the formats adapted by the public broadcasters have a comparatively solid public...

  16. Facilitating participation in formative evaluation supported by effect map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that formative evaluation should be an integrated part of system implementation in order to improve the outcome of system use. In a design project an approach combining participatory design (PD) and formative evaluation has shown a great potential for improving the design of...... map is applied in an action research study in the Danish health care sector aiming at improving the medication process and the use of the electronic medication record supporting the medication process. ...... designed effect map. The purpose of the effect map is twofold: a) To encourage user participation in the early activities of formative evaluation b) The effects specified can be used as formative evaluation measures and guidance in the process of improving the system. The evaluation approach and the effect...

  17. Multiwavelength Mapping of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio; ESO Workshop

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of astronomical observation have dramatically increased over the last decade. Major satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra and XMM Newton, are complemented by numerous large ground-based observatories, from 8m-10m optical telescopes to sub-mm and radio facilities. As a result, observational astronomy has access to virtually the whole electromagnetic spectrum of galaxies, even at high redshifts. Theoretical models of galaxy formation and cosmological evolution now face a serious challenge to match the plethora of observational data. In October 2003, over 170 astronomers from 15 countries met for a 4-day workshop to extensively illustrate and discuss all major observational projects and ongoing theoretical efforts to model galaxy formation and evolution. This volume contains the complete proceedings of this meeting and is therefore a unique and timely overview of the current state of research in this rapidly evolving field.

  18. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  19. Danish and Australian Television: The Impact of Format Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2007-01-01

    influences local television markets and leads to changes according to local competitive, financial, cultural and political conditions. It explores the impact of format adaptation on Danish and Australian prime-time schedules between 1995 and 2004/05, and its effect on local content and genres among the main......Format adaptation plays an increasingly important part in international television. Formats such as Dancing with the Stars and Idol are screened in many territories. The article presents an in-depth case study of how this relatively new and highly internationalised production and business model...

  20. MARIANE: MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadika, Zacharia; Dede, Elif; Govindaraju, Madhusudhan; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-07-06

    MapReduce is increasingly becoming a popular framework, and a potent programming model. The most popular open source implementation of MapReduce, Hadoop, is based on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). However, as HDFS is not POSIX compliant, it cannot be fully leveraged by applications running on a majority of existing HPC environments such as Teragrid and NERSC. These HPC environments typicallysupport globally shared file systems such as NFS and GPFS. On such resourceful HPC infrastructures, the use of Hadoop not only creates compatibility issues, but also affects overall performance due to the added overhead of the HDFS. This paper not only presents a MapReduce implementation directly suitable for HPC environments, but also exposes the design choices for better performance gains in those settings. By leveraging inherent distributed file systems' functions, and abstracting them away from its MapReduce framework, MARIANE (MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments) not only allows for the use of the model in an expanding number of HPCenvironments, but also allows for better performance in such settings. This paper shows the applicability and high performance of the MapReduce paradigm through MARIANE, an implementation designed for clustered and shared-disk file systems and as such not dedicated to a specific MapReduce solution. The paper identifies the components and trade-offs necessary for this model, and quantifies the performance gains exhibited by our approach in distributed environments over Apache Hadoop in a data intensive setting, on the Magellan testbed at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  1. Adaptive multiresolution method for MAP reconstruction in electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Erman, E-mail: erman.acar@tut.fi [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere University of Technology, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Peltonen, Sari; Ruotsalainen, Ulla [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere University of Technology, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    3D image reconstruction with electron tomography holds problems due to the severely limited range of projection angles and low signal to noise ratio of the acquired projection images. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods have been successful in compensating for the missing information and suppressing noise with their intrinsic regularization techniques. There are two major problems in MAP reconstruction methods: (1) selection of the regularization parameter that controls the balance between the data fidelity and the prior information, and (2) long computation time. One aim of this study is to provide an adaptive solution to the regularization parameter selection problem without having additional knowledge about the imaging environment and the sample. The other aim is to realize the reconstruction using sequences of resolution levels to shorten the computation time. The reconstructions were analyzed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency using a simulated biological phantom and publically available experimental datasets of electron tomography. The numerical and visual evaluations of the experiments show that the adaptive multiresolution method can provide more accurate results than the weighted back projection (WBP), simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT), and sequential MAP expectation maximization (sMAPEM) method. The method is superior to sMAPEM also in terms of computation time and usability since it can reconstruct 3D images significantly faster without requiring any parameter to be set by the user. - Highlights: • An adaptive multiresolution reconstruction method is introduced for electron tomography. • The method provides more accurate results than the conventional reconstruction methods. • The missing wedge and noise problems can be compensated by the method efficiently.

  2. Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control

    OpenAIRE

    Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    We investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose a perturbative model for the light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85Rb2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find for optimized pulse shapes an improvement for the formation of ground state molecules by more than ...

  3. Danish and Australian Television: The Impact of Format Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2007-01-01

    influences local television markets and leads to changes according to local competitive, financial, cultural and political conditions. It explores the impact of format adaptation on Danish and Australian prime-time schedules between 1995 and 2004/05, and its effect on local content and genres among the main...

  4. Study maps as a tool for the adaptive tests construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Dlabolová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of students’ knowledge is an essential part of the educational process. Teachers on universities often use computer-based tests to testing a large number of students in a short time. The question is, what kind of information these tests provide, and if it is possible to classify students on this basis. Praxis shows that the scalar test results in the form of simple numbers cannot be plainly interpreted as the level of knowledge; moreover it is not easy to build such tests, which detect the necessary information. In the first part of the article we present the results of pedagogical experiment focused on the difference between information obtained through the computer-based test and a teacher’s interview with the same students. Possible starting point to improve information from computer-based tests in non-scalar form is a construction of an adaptive test, adapting test items to identify knowledge similar to a conversation with a teacher. As a tool for the design of the adaptive tests we use so called study maps, which are described in the second part of the article.

  5. Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose, a perturbative model for light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85 Rb 2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find that optimized pulse shapes may maximize the formation of ground state molecules in a specific vibrational state at a pump-dump delay time for which unshaped pulses lead to a minimum of the formation rate. Compared to the maximum formation rate obtained for unshaped pulses at the optimum pump-dump delay, the optimized pulses lead to a significant improvement of about 40% for the target level population. Since our model yields the spectral amplitudes and phases of the optimized pulses, the results are directly applicable in pulse shaping experiments

  6. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format for Modern Scientific Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Bozdag, E.; Krischer, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Podhorszki, N.; Tromp, J.

    2013-12-01

    Data storage, exchange, and access play a critical role in modern seismology. Current seismic data formats, such as SEED, SAC, and SEG-Y, were designed with specific applications in mind and are frequently a major bottleneck in implementing efficient workflows. We propose a new modern parallel format that can be adapted for a variety of seismic workflows. The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) features high-performance parallel read and write support and the ability to store an arbitrary number of traces of varying sizes. Provenance information is stored inside the file so that users know the origin of the data as well as the precise operations that have been applied to the waveforms. The design of the new format is based on several real-world use cases, including earthquake seismology and seismic interferometry. The metadata is based on the proven XML schemas StationXML and QuakeML. Existing time-series analysis tool-kits are easily interfaced with this new format so that seismologists can use robust, previously developed software packages, such as ObsPy and the SAC library. ADIOS, netCDF4, and HDF5 can be used as the underlying container format. At Princeton University, we have chosen to use ADIOS as the container format because it has shown superior scalability for certain applications, such as dealing with big data on HPC systems. In the context of high-performance computing, we have implemented ASDF into the global adjoint tomography workflow on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's supercomputer Titan.

  7. Adaptive lesion formation using dual mode ultrasound array system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Casper, Andrew; Haritonova, Alyona; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results from an ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound platform designed to perform real-time monitoring and control of lesion formation. Real-time signal processing of echogenicity changes during lesion formation allows for identification of signature events indicative of tissue damage. The detection of these events triggers the cessation or the reduction of the exposure (intensity and/or time) to prevent overexposure. A dual mode ultrasound array (DMUA) is used for forming single- and multiple-focus patterns in a variety of tissues. The DMUA approach allows for inherent registration between the therapeutic and imaging coordinate systems providing instantaneous, spatially-accurate feedback on lesion formation dynamics. The beamformed RF data has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity to tissue changes during lesion formation, including in vivo. In particular, the beamformed echo data from the DMUA is very sensitive to cavitation activity in response to HIFU in a variety of modes, e.g. boiling cavitation. This form of feedback is characterized by sudden increase in echogenicity that could occur within milliseconds of the application of HIFU (see http://youtu.be/No2wh-ceTLs for an example). The real-time beamforming and signal processing allowing the adaptive control of lesion formation is enabled by a high performance GPU platform (response time within 10 msec). We present results from a series of experiments in bovine cardiac tissue demonstrating the robustness and increased speed of volumetric lesion formation for a range of clinically-relevant exposures. Gross histology demonstrate clearly that adaptive lesion formation results in tissue damage consistent with the size of the focal spot and the raster scan in 3 dimensions. In contrast, uncontrolled volumetric lesions exhibit significant pre-focal buildup due to excessive exposure from multiple full-exposure HIFU shots. Stopping or reducing the HIFU exposure upon the detection of such an

  8. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  9. Multiple Concurrent Visual-Motor Mappings: Implications for Models of Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H. A.; Welch, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Previous research on adaptation to visual-motor rearrangement suggests that the central nervous system represents accurately only 1 visual-motor mapping at a time. This idea was examined in 3 experiments where subjects tracked a moving target under repeated alternations between 2 initially interfering mappings (the 'normal' mapping characteristic of computer input devices and a 108' rotation of the normal mapping). Alternation between the 2 mappings led to significant reduction in error under the rotated mapping and significant reduction in the adaptation aftereffect ordinarily caused by switching between mappings. Color as a discriminative cue, interference versus decay in adaptation aftereffect, and intermanual transfer were also examined. The results reveal a capacity for multiple concurrent visual-motor mappings, possibly controlled by a parametric process near the motor output stage of processing.

  10. Television Format As a Site of Cultural Negotiation: Studying the Structures, Agencies and Practices of Format Adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keinonen, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    abstractDespite the growing number of publications on television formats, specific theorisations regarding formats and format adaptation, in particular, are still rare. In this article, I introduce a synthesizing approach for studying format appropriation. Drawing on format study, media industry

  11. Mapping Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: progress in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storie, Judith M.

    2018-05-01

    Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) strategies in Africa are on the increase. South Africa is no different, and a number of strategies have seen the light in aid of reducing disaster risk and adapting to cli-mate change. The DRR and CCA processes include the mapping of location and extent of known and potential hazards, vulnerable communities and environments, and opportunities that may exist to manage these risks. However, the mapping of often fast-changing urban and rural spaces in a standardized manner presents challenges that relate to processes, scales of data capture, level of detail recorded, software and compatibility related to data formats and net-works, human resources skills and understanding, as well as differences in approaches to the nature in which the map-ping processes are executed and spatial data is managed. As a result, projects and implementation of strategies that re-late to the use of such data is affected, and the success of activities based on the data may therefore be uncertain. This paper investigates data custodianship and data categories that is processed and managed across South Africa. It explores the process and content management of disaster risk and climate change related information and defines the challenges that exist in terms of governance. The paper also comments on the challenges and potential solutions for the situation as it gives rise to varying degrees of accuracy, effectiveness for use, and applicability of the spatial data available to affect DRR and improve the value of CCA programmes in the region.

  12. Adaptation to copper stress influences biofilm formation in Alteromonas macleodii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Dale, Jason R; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Little, Brenda J; Biffinger, Justin C

    2017-07-01

    An Alteromonas macleodii strain was isolated from copper-containing coupons incubated in surface seawater (Key West, FL, USA). In addition to the original isolate, a copper-adapted mutant was created and maintained with 0.78 mM Cu 2+ . Biofilm formation was compared between the two strains under copper-amended and low-nutrient conditions. Biofilm formation was significantly increased in the original isolate under copper amendment, while biofilm formation was significantly higher in the mutant under low-nutrient conditions. Biofilm expression profiles of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) genes, as well as genes involved in secretion, differed between the strains. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that both strains possessed a large number of gene attachment harboring cyclic di-GMP synthesis and/or degradation domains. One of the DGC genes, induced at very high levels in the mutant, possessed a degradation domain in the original isolate that was lacking in the mutant. The genetic and transcriptional mechanisms contributing to biofilm formation are discussed.

  13. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest formation and land cover maps for several Caribbean islands were developed from Landsat ETM+ imagery as part of a multi-organizational project. The spatially explicit data on forest formation types will permit more refined estimates of some forest attributes. The woody vegetation classification scheme relates closely to that of Areces-Malea et al. (1), who classify Caribbean vegetation according to standards of the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 1997), with modifications similar to those in Helmer et al. (2). For several of the islands, we developed image mosaics that filled cloudy parts of scenes with data from other scene dates after using regression tree normalization (3). The regression tree procedure permitted us to develop mosaics for wet and drought seasons for a few of the islands. The resulting multiseason imagery facilitated separation between classes such as seasonal evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest (including semi-evergreen forest), and drought deciduous forest or woodland formations. We used decision tree classification methods to classify the Landsat image mosaics to detailed forest formations and land cover for Puerto Rico (4), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada. The decision trees classified a stack of raster layers for each mapping area that included the Landsat image bands and various ancillary raster data layers. For Puerto Rico, for example, the ancillary data included climate parameters (5). For some islands, the ancillary data included topographic derivatives such as aspect, slope and slope position, SRTM (6) or other topographic data. Mapping forest formations with decision tree classifiers, ancillary geospatial data, and cloud-free image mosaics, accurately distinguished spectrally similar forest formations, without the aid of ecological zone maps, on the islands where the approach was used. The approach resulted in maps of forest formations with comparable or better detail

  14. MAPPING CHILDREN'S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2012-03-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children's geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively "always already" positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or "rational" speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children's political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children's politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau's notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin's concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children's representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10-13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors.

  15. Adaptive proxy map server for efficient vector spatial data rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The rapid transmission of vector map data over the Internet is becoming a bottleneck of spatial data delivery and visualization in web-based environment because of increasing data amount and limited network bandwidth. In order to improve both the transmission and rendering performances of vector spatial data over the Internet, we propose a proxy map server enabling parallel vector data fetching as well as caching to improve the performance of web-based map servers in a dynamic environment. Proxy map server is placed seamlessly anywhere between the client and the final services, intercepting users' requests. It employs an efficient parallelization technique based on spatial proximity and data density in case distributed replica exists for the same spatial data. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is proved at the end of the article by the application of creating map images enriched with earthquake seismic data records.

  16. Channel Compensation for Speaker Recognition using MAP Adapted PLDA and Denoising DNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    05 Jabra Cellphone Earwrap Mic 06 Motorola Cellphone Earbud 07 Olympus Pearlcorder 08 Radio Shack Computer Desktop Mic Table 1: Mixer 1 and 2...EER and min DCF vs λ for 2cov map adapt PLDA the MAP adapted PLDA model using a λ of 0.5. The remain- ing rows demonstrate the impact of the feature...degrading perfor- mance on conversational telephone speech. To assess the per- formance impact of the denoising DNN on telephony data we evaluated the

  17. DyKOSMap: A framework for mapping adaptation between biomedical knowledge organization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Pruski, Cédric; Da Silveira, Marcos; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) and their associated mappings play a central role in several decision support systems. However, by virtue of knowledge evolution, KOS entities are modified over time, impacting mappings and potentially turning them invalid. This requires semi-automatic methods to maintain such semantic correspondences up-to-date at KOS evolution time. We define a complete and original framework based on formal heuristics that drives the adaptation of KOS mappings. Our approach takes into account the definition of established mappings, the evolution of KOS and the possible changes that can be applied to mappings. This study experimentally evaluates the proposed heuristics and the entire framework on realistic case studies borrowed from the biomedical domain, using official mappings between several biomedical KOSs. We demonstrate the overall performance of the approach over biomedical datasets of different characteristics and sizes. Our findings reveal the effectiveness in terms of precision, recall and F-measure of the suggested heuristics and methods defining the framework to adapt mappings affected by KOS evolution. The obtained results contribute and improve the quality of mappings over time. The proposed framework can adapt mappings largely automatically, facilitating thus the maintenance task. The implemented algorithms and tools support and minimize the work of users in charge of KOS mapping maintenance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those re...

  19. Adapted Boolean network models for extracellular matrix formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollbold Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rapid data accumulation on pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammation, there is an increasing demand for approaches to analyse the underlying regulatory networks. For example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by joint destruction and perpetuated by activated synovial fibroblasts (SFB. These abnormally express and/or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, collagens causing joint fibrosis, or tissue-degrading enzymes resulting in destruction of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We applied three methods to analyse ECM regulation: data discretisation to filter out noise and to reduce complexity, Boolean network construction to implement logic relationships, and formal concept analysis (FCA for the formation of minimal, but complete rule sets from the data. Results First, we extracted literature information to develop an interaction network containing 18 genes representing ECM formation and destruction. Subsequently, we constructed an asynchronous Boolean network with biologically plausible time intervals for mRNA and protein production, secretion, and inactivation. Experimental gene expression data was obtained from SFB stimulated by TGFβ1 or by TNFα and discretised thereafter. The Boolean functions of the initial network were improved iteratively by the comparison of the simulation runs to the experimental data and by exploitation of expert knowledge. This resulted in adapted networks for both cytokine stimulation conditions. The simulations were further analysed by the attribute exploration algorithm of FCA, integrating the observed time series in a fine-tuned and automated manner. The resulting temporal rules yielded new contributions to controversially discussed aspects of fibroblast biology (e.g., considerable expression of TNF and MMP9 by fibroblasts stimulation and corroborated previously known facts (e.g., co-expression of collagens and MMPs after TNF

  20. Recognizing lexical and semantic change patterns in evolving life science ontologies to inform mapping adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Dinh, Duy; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Mappings established between life science ontologies require significant efforts to maintain them up to date due to the size and frequent evolution of these ontologies. In consequence, automatic methods for applying modifications on mappings are highly demanded. The accuracy of such methods relies on the available description about the evolution of ontologies, especially regarding concepts involved in mappings. However, from one ontology version to another, a further understanding of ontology changes relevant for supporting mapping adaptation is typically lacking. This research work defines a set of change patterns at the level of concept attributes, and proposes original methods to automatically recognize instances of these patterns based on the similarity between attributes denoting the evolving concepts. This investigation evaluates the benefits of the proposed methods and the influence of the recognized change patterns to select the strategies for mapping adaptation. The summary of the findings is as follows: (1) the Precision (>60%) and Recall (>35%) achieved by comparing manually identified change patterns with the automatic ones; (2) a set of potential impact of recognized change patterns on the way mappings is adapted. We found that the detected correlations cover ∼66% of the mapping adaptation actions with a positive impact; and (3) the influence of the similarity coefficient calculated between concept attributes on the performance of the recognition algorithms. The experimental evaluations conducted with real life science ontologies showed the effectiveness of our approach to accurately characterize ontology evolution at the level of concept attributes. This investigation confirmed the relevance of the proposed change patterns to support decisions on mapping adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  2. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  3. Mapping Haplotype-haplotype Interactions with Adaptive LASSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic etiology of complex diseases in human has been commonly viewed as a complex process involving both genetic and environmental factors functioning in a complicated manner. Quite often the interactions among genetic variants play major roles in determining the susceptibility of an individual to a particular disease. Statistical methods for modeling interactions underlying complex diseases between single genetic variants (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs have been extensively studied. Recently, haplotype-based analysis has gained its popularity among genetic association studies. When multiple sequence or haplotype interactions are involved in determining an individual's susceptibility to a disease, it presents daunting challenges in statistical modeling and testing of the interaction effects, largely due to the complicated higher order epistatic complexity. Results In this article, we propose a new strategy in modeling haplotype-haplotype interactions under the penalized logistic regression framework with adaptive L1-penalty. We consider interactions of sequence variants between haplotype blocks. The adaptive L1-penalty allows simultaneous effect estimation and variable selection in a single model. We propose a new parameter estimation method which estimates and selects parameters by the modified Gauss-Seidel method nested within the EM algorithm. Simulation studies show that it has low false positive rate and reasonable power in detecting haplotype interactions. The method is applied to test haplotype interactions involved in mother and offspring genome in a small for gestational age (SGA neonates data set, and significant interactions between different genomes are detected. Conclusions As demonstrated by the simulation studies and real data analysis, the approach developed provides an efficient tool for the modeling and testing of haplotype interactions. The implementation of the method in R codes can be

  4. A Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Approach to the Evolution of Aesthetic Maps for a RTS Game

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Cabrera, Raúl; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández-Leiva, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    Procedural content generation (PCG) is a research eld on the rise,with numerous papers devoted to this topic. This paper presents a PCG method based on a self-adaptive evolution strategy for the automatic generation of maps for the real-time strategy (RTS) game PlanetWars. These maps are generated in order to ful ll the aesthetic preferences of the user, as implied by her assessment of a collection of maps used as training set. A topological approach is used for the characterization of th...

  5. Distributed Consensus-Based Robust Adaptive Formation Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots with Partial Known Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the distributed consensus-based robust adaptive formation control for nonholonomic mobile robots with partially known dynamics. Firstly, multirobot formation control problem has been converted into a state consensus problem. Secondly, the practical control strategies, which incorporate the distributed kinematic controllers and the robust adaptive torque controllers, are designed for solving the formation control problem. Thirdly, the specified reference trajectory for the geometric centroid of the formation is assumed as the trajectory of a virtual leader, whose information is available to only a subset of the followers. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approaches.

  6. Mapping world cultures: Cluster formation, sources and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Simcha Ronen; Oded Shenkar

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends and builds on Ronen and Shenkar’s synthesized cultural clustering of countries based on similarity and dissimilarity in work-related attitudes. The new map uses an updated dataset, and expands coverage to world areas that were non-accessible at the time. Cluster boundaries are drawn empirically rather than intuitively, and the plot obtained is triple nested, indicating three levels of similarity across given country pairs. Also delineated are cluster adjacency and cluster c...

  7. Application of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to ground subsidence hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inhye; Choi, Jaewon; Jin Lee, Moung; Lee, Saro

    2012-11-01

    We constructed hazard maps of ground subsidence around abandoned underground coal mines (AUCMs) in Samcheok City, Korea, using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a geographical information system (GIS). To evaluate the factors related to ground subsidence, a spatial database was constructed from topographic, geologic, mine tunnel, land use, and ground subsidence maps. An attribute database was also constructed from field investigations and reports on existing ground subsidence areas at the study site. Five major factors causing ground subsidence were extracted: (1) depth of drift; (2) distance from drift; (3) slope gradient; (4) geology; and (5) land use. The adaptive ANFIS model with different types of membership functions (MFs) was then applied for ground subsidence hazard mapping in the study area. Two ground subsidence hazard maps were prepared using the different MFs. Finally, the resulting ground subsidence hazard maps were validated using the ground subsidence test data which were not used for training the ANFIS. The validation results showed 95.12% accuracy using the generalized bell-shaped MF model and 94.94% accuracy using the Sigmoidal2 MF model. These accuracy results show that an ANFIS can be an effective tool in ground subsidence hazard mapping. Analysis of ground subsidence with the ANFIS model suggests that quantitative analysis of ground subsidence near AUCMs is possible.

  8. Mapping HL7 CDA R2 Formatted Mass Screening Data to OpenEHR Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Kume, Naoto; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Mass screening of adults was performed to manage employee healthcare. The screening service defined the data collection format as HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) R2. To capture mass screening data for nationwide electronic health records (her), we programmed a model within the CDA format and mapped the data items to the ISO13606/openEHR archetype for semantic interoperabiilty.

  9. QTL mapping in white spruce: gene maps and genomic regions underlying adaptive traits across pedigrees, years and environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    association genetic studies of adaptation and growth in Picea taxa. The putative QTNs identified will be tested for associations in natural populations, with potential applications in molecular breeding and gene conservation programs. QTLs mapping consistently across years and environments could also be the most important targets for breeding, because they represent genomic regions that may be least affected by G × E interactions. PMID:21392393

  10. Mapping the Mayo-Portland adaptability inventory to the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexell, Jan; Malec, James F; Jacobsson, Lars J

    2012-01-01

    To examine the contents of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) by mapping it to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Each of the 30 scoreable items in the MPAI-4 was mapped to the most precise ICF categories. All 30 items could be mapped to components and categories in the ICF. A total of 88 meaningful concepts were identified. There were, on average, 2.9 meaningful concepts per item, and 65% of all concepts could be mapped. Items in the Ability and Adjustment subscales mapped to categories in both the Body Functions and Activity/Participation components of the ICF, whereas all except 1 in the Participation subscale were to categories in the Activity/Participation component. The items could also be mapped to 34 (13%) of the 258 Environmental Factors in the ICF. This mapping provides better definition through more concrete examples (as listed in the ICF) of the types of body functions, activities, and participation indicators that are represented by the 30 scoreable MPAI-4 items. This may assist users throughout the world in understanding the intent of each item, and support further development and the possibility to report results in the form of an ICF categorical profile, making it universally interpretable.

  11. Spontaneous formation of dynamical groups in an adaptive networked system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Menghui; Guan Shuguang; Lai, C-H

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we investigate a model of an adaptive networked dynamical system, where the coupling strengths among phase oscillators coevolve with the phase states. It is shown that in this model the oscillators can spontaneously differentiate into two dynamical groups after a long time evolution. Within each group, the oscillators have similar phases, while oscillators in different groups have approximately opposite phases. The network gradually converts from the initial random structure with a uniform distribution of connection strengths into a modular structure that is characterized by strong intra-connections and weak inter-connections. Furthermore, the connection strengths follow a power-law distribution, which is a natural consequence of the coevolution of the network and the dynamics. Interestingly, it is found that if the inter-connections are weaker than a certain threshold, the two dynamical groups will almost decouple and evolve independently. These results are helpful in further understanding the empirical observations in many social and biological networks.

  12. Adaptive PID formation control of nonholonomic robots without leader's velocity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongbin; Sun, Weijie; Sun, Zhendong

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive proportional integral derivative (PID) algorithm to solve a formation control problem in the leader-follower framework where the leader robot's velocities are unknown for the follower robots. The main idea is first to design some proper ideal control law for the formation system to obtain a required performance, and then to propose the adaptive PID methodology to approach the ideal controller. As a result, the formation is achieved with much more enhanced robust formation performance. The stability of the closed-loop system is theoretically proved by Lyapunov method. Both numerical simulations and physical vehicle experiments are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive PID algorithm. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pattern formation and firing synchronization in networks of map neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingyun; Duan Zhisheng; Huang Lin; Chen Guanrong; Lu Qishao

    2007-01-01

    Patterns and collective phenomena such as firing synchronization are studied in networks of nonhomogeneous oscillatory neurons and mixtures of oscillatory and excitable neurons, with dynamics of each neuron described by a two-dimensional (2D) Rulkov map neuron. It is shown that as the coupling strength is increased, typical patterns emerge spatially, which propagate through the networks in the form of beautiful target waves or parallel ones depending on the size of networks. Furthermore, we investigate the transitions of firing synchronization characterized by the rate of firing when the coupling strength is increased. It is found that there exists an intermediate coupling strength; firing synchronization is minimal simultaneously irrespective of the size of networks. For further increasing the coupling strength, synchronization is enhanced. Since noise is inevitable in real neurons, we also investigate the effects of white noise on firing synchronization for different networks. For the networks of oscillatory neurons, it is shown that firing synchronization decreases when the noise level increases. For the missed networks, firing synchronization is robust under the noise conditions considered in this paper. Results presented in this paper should prove to be valuable for understanding the properties of collective dynamics in real neuronal networks

  14. Interregional synaptic maps among engram cells underlie memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Sim, Su-Eon; Kim, Ji-Il; Choi, Dong Il; Oh, Jihae; Ye, Sanghyun; Lee, Jaehyun; Kim, TaeHyun; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2018-04-27

    Memory resides in engram cells distributed across the brain. However, the site-specific substrate within these engram cells remains theoretical, even though it is generally accepted that synaptic plasticity encodes memories. We developed the dual-eGRASP (green fluorescent protein reconstitution across synaptic partners) technique to examine synapses between engram cells to identify the specific neuronal site for memory storage. We found an increased number and size of spines on CA1 engram cells receiving input from CA3 engram cells. In contextual fear conditioning, this enhanced connectivity between engram cells encoded memory strength. CA3 engram to CA1 engram projections strongly occluded long-term potentiation. These results indicate that enhanced structural and functional connectivity between engram cells across two directly connected brain regions forms the synaptic correlate for memory formation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  15. Improved liver R2* mapping by pixel-wise curve fitting with adaptive neighborhood regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changqing; Zhang, Xinyuan; Liu, Xiaoyun; He, Taigang; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Qianjin; Feng, Yanqiu

    2018-08-01

    To improve liver R2* mapping by incorporating adaptive neighborhood regularization into pixel-wise curve fitting. Magnetic resonance imaging R2* mapping remains challenging because of the serial images with low signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we proposed to exploit the neighboring pixels as regularization terms and adaptively determine the regularization parameters according to the interpixel signal similarity. The proposed algorithm, called the pixel-wise curve fitting with adaptive neighborhood regularization (PCANR), was compared with the conventional nonlinear least squares (NLS) and nonlocal means filter-based NLS algorithms on simulated, phantom, and in vivo data. Visually, the PCANR algorithm generates R2* maps with significantly reduced noise and well-preserved tiny structures. Quantitatively, the PCANR algorithm produces R2* maps with lower root mean square errors at varying R2* values and signal-to-noise-ratio levels compared with the NLS and nonlocal means filter-based NLS algorithms. For the high R2* values under low signal-to-noise-ratio levels, the PCANR algorithm outperforms the NLS and nonlocal means filter-based NLS algorithms in the accuracy and precision, in terms of mean and standard deviation of R2* measurements in selected region of interests, respectively. The PCANR algorithm can reduce the effect of noise on liver R2* mapping, and the improved measurement precision will benefit the assessment of hepatic iron in clinical practice. Magn Reson Med 80:792-801, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Vector Topographic Map Data over the BOREAS NSA and SSA in SIF Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains vector contours and other features of individual topographic map sheets from the National Topographic Series (NTS). The map sheet files were received in Standard Interchange Format (SIF) and cover the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. The individual files are stored in compressed Unix tar archives.

  17. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Highfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI. We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt to increase an intervention’s fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI’s essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness. We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1 assess needs and organizational capacity; (2 find EBIs; (3 plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4 make adaptations; (5 plan for implementation; and (6 plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI.

  18. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A; Fernandez, Maria E; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness). We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1) assess needs and organizational capacity; (2) find EBIs; (3) plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4) make adaptations; (5) plan for implementation; and (6) plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI.

  19. Adaptation of the MapMan ontology to biotic stress responses: application in solanaceous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stitt Mark

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of transcriptome microarray analysis are usually presented as a list of differentially expressed genes. As these lists can be long, it is hard to interpret the desired experimental treatment effect on the physiology of analysed tissue, e.g. via selected metabolic or other pathways. For some organisms, gene ontologies and data visualization software have been implemented to overcome this problem, whereas for others, software adaptation is yet to be done. Results We present the classification of tentative potato contigs from the potato gene index (StGI available from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI into the MapMan ontology to enable the application of the MapMan family of tools to potato microarrays. Special attention has been focused on mapping genes that could not be annotated based on similarity to Arabidopsis genes alone, thus possibly representing genes unique for potato. 97 such genes were classified into functional BINs (i.e. functional classes after manual annotation. A new pathway, focusing on biotic stress responses, has been added and can be used for all other organisms for which mappings have been done. The BIN representation on the potato 10 k cDNA microarray, in comparison with all putative potato gene sequences, has been tested. The functionality of the prepared potato mapping was validated with experimental data on plant response to viral infection. In total 43,408 unigenes were mapped into 35 corresponding BINs. Conclusion The potato mappings can be used to visualize up-to-date, publicly available, expressed sequence tags (ESTs and other sequences from GenBank, in combination with metabolic pathways. Further expert work on potato annotations will be needed with the ongoing EST and genome sequencing of potato. The current MapMan application for potato is directly applicable for analysis of data obtained on potato 10 k cDNA microarray by TIGR (The Institute for Genomic Research but can also be used

  20. Factors of Innate and Adaptive Local Immunity in Children with Primary Deficiencies of Antibody Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Chernyshova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 40 children with various types of primary immunodeficiencies (PID of antibody formation we examined factors of local immunity in saliva. It is found that in the saliva of children with PID of antibody formation in comparison with immunocompetent children the concentration of factors of adaptive immunity is significantly reduced. Lack of adaptive immunity in the PID of antibody formation to some extent is compensated by increased concentrations of innate immune factors on the mucous membranes — the free Sc, as well as lactoferrin in selective immunodeficiency of IgA. At PID of antibody formation we observed increased TNF-α level in the saliva, which may indicate the persistence of local inflammation on the membranes of the respiratory tract.

  1. Modelling and mapping the suitability of European forest formations at 1-km resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casalegno, Stefano; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    factors. Here, we used the bootstrap-aggregating machine-learning ensemble classifier Random Forest (RF) to derive a 1-km resolution European forest formation suitability map. The statistical model use as inputs more than 6,000 field data forest inventory plots and a large set of environmental variables...

  2. Using Adaptive Tone Mapping to Enhance Edge-Preserving Color Image Automatically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Min-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One common characteristic of most high-contrast images is the coexistence of dark shadows and bright light source in one scene. It is very difficult to present details in both dark and bright areas simultaneously on most display devices. In order to resolve this problem, a new method utilizing bilateral filter combined with adaptive tone-mapping method is proposed to improve image quality. First of all, bilateral filter is used to decompose image into two layers: large-scale layer and detail layer. Then, the large-scale layer image is divided into three regions: bright, mid-tone, and dark region. Finally, an appropriate tone-mapping method is chosen to process each region according to its individual property. Only large-scale layer image is enhanced by using adaptive tone mapping; therefore, the details of the original image can be preserved. The experiment results demonstrate the success of proposed method. Furthermore, the proposed method can also avoid posterization produced by methods using histogram equalization.

  3. Landscape Hazards in Yukon Communities: Geological Mapping for Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K.; Kinnear, L.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is considered to be a significant challenge for northern communities where the effects of increased temperature and climate variability are beginning to affect infrastructure and livelihoods (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 2004). Planning for and adapting to ongoing and future changes in climate will require the identification and characterization of social, economic, cultural, political and biophysical vulnerabilities. This pilot project addresses physical landscape vulnerabilities in two communities in the Yukon Territory through community-scale landscape hazard mapping and focused investigations of community permafrost conditions. Landscape hazards are identified by combining pre-existing data from public utilities and private-sector consultants with new geophysical techniques (ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity), shallow drilling, surficial geological mapping, and permafrost characterization. Existing landscape vulnerabilities are evaluated based on their potential for hazard (low, medium or high) under current climate conditions, as well as under future climate scenarios. Detailed hazard maps and landscape characterizations for both communities will contribute to overall adaptation plans and allow for informed development, planning and mitigation of potentially threatening hazards in and around the communities.

  4. Exploring the dusty star-formation in the early Universe using intensity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, it has become clear that the dust-enshrouded star formation contributes significantly to early galaxy evolution. Detection of dust is therefore essential in determining the properties of galaxies in the high-redshift universe. This requires observations at the (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. Unfortunately, sensitivity and background confusion of single dish observations on the one hand, and mapping efficiency of interferometers on the other hand, pose unique challenges to observers. One promising route to overcome these difficulties is intensity mapping of fluctuations which exploits the confusion-limited regime and measures the collective light emission from all sources, including unresolved faint galaxies. We discuss in this contribution how 2D and 3D intensity mapping can measure the dusty star formation at high redshift, through the Cosmic Infrared Background (2D) and [CII] fine structure transition (3D) anisotropies.

  5. Soil mapping and processes models to support climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Jordan, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    As agreed in Paris in December 2015, global average temperature is to be limited to "well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels" and efforts will be made to "limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors becomes critical and appropriate sustainable land management practices need to be taken (Pereira et al., 2017). Mitigation strategies focus on reducing the rate and magnitude of climate change by reducing its causes. Complementary to mitigation, adaptation strategies aim to minimise impacts and maximize the benefits of new opportunities. The adoption of both practices will require developing system models to integrate and extrapolate anticipated climate changes such as global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs). Furthermore, integrating climate models driven by socio-economic scenarios in soil process models has allowed the investigation of potential changes and threats in soil characteristics and functions in future climate scenarios. One of the options with largest potential for climate change mitigation is sequestering carbon in soils. Therefore, the development of new methods and the use of existing tools for soil carbon monitoring and accounting have therefore become critical in a global change context. For example, soil C maps can help identify potential areas where management practices that promote C sequestration will be productive and guide the formulation of policies for climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Despite extensive efforts to compile soil information and map soil C, many uncertainties remain in the determination of soil C stocks, and the reliability of these estimates depends upon the quality and resolution of the spatial datasets used for its calculation. Thus, better estimates of soil C pools and dynamics are needed to advance understanding of the C balance and the potential of soils for climate change mitigation. Here

  6. Financing urban adaptation to climate change impacts mapping of existing initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschalier, Claire; Leseur, Alexia; Archambault, Sabrina; Joubert, Marion; Larrue, Clement; Rossin, Nicolas; Salenson, Irene

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, CDC Climat research, in partnership with AFD, published a mapping of the types of initiatives available for the financing of urban adaptation to climate change, offering additional options to more conventional sources of funding for climate change and sustainable development (national budget transfers, Official Development Aid, etc.). Based on the review of 27 main initiatives, the report shows a strong prevalence of initiatives supporting soft adaptation measures (strategy planning, capacity building, project design, technical assistance, etc). These are in a position to help support the development of a coherent portfolio of bankable projects. The mapping also reveals that local intermediaries (regional and local banks, national development funds, etc.) play a significant role in financing urban adaptation to climate change. Several key factor of success for the cities' access to these sources of funding are also identified, among which liaising with international development stakeholders (such as multilateral and bilateral donors) at the local level, and the identification of various co-benefits and synergies between the economic, environmental and climate impacts. (authors)

  7. An optical modulation format generation scheme based on spectral filtering and frequency-to-time mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ai-ling; ZHANG Yue; SONG Hong-yun; YAO Yuan; PAN Hong-gang

    2018-01-01

    An optical modulation format generation scheme based on spectral filtering and frequency-to-time mapping is experimentally demonstrated.Many modulation formats with continuously adjustable duty radio and bit rate can be formed by changing the dispersion of dispersion element and the bandwidth of shaped spectrum in this scheme.In the experiment,non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal with bit rate of 29.41 Gbit/s and 1/2 duty ratio return-to-zero (RZ) signal with bit rate of 13.51 Gbit/s are obtained.The maximum bit rate of modulation format signal is also analyzed.

  8. ADAPTIVE CARTOGRAPHY FOR THE MODERN INFORMATION SOCIETY: FROM MULTI-PURPOSE MAP RESOURCE TO «SMART» MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Dyshlyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the conceptual foundations of cartography was influenced by the needs of human activities and possibilities of technical realization of basic processes. In the midtwentieth century, the international community understood the science of cartography maps as a specific way of modeling and image of the surrounding space, their creation and use. At the same time, which is very important, cartography has been focused on the visual perception of the world through map compositions in the form of specific figurative-symbolic metric model. This model served as an information product, had a number of useful properties, characterized by a set of assumed functions, but have some limitations [Lissitzky, 2015; strategic, 2015]. Card, as the basic product of cartography, is a specific information model of the earth's surface, surfaces of other celestial bodies, has a number of properties and characteristics, primarily the metric precision, the imagery, the symbolism, scalability, ability of the display with minimal distortion in the plane of the lengths, angles, areas, shapes of the objects and the surface. Many years of research and industrial practice brought the properties of modern cards to perfection, close to the idea of a «perfect map» [Ibañez, 2014], meet the requirements of consumers. However, in recent years the situation has changed significantly. The information (postindustrial era, accompanying scientific and technical progress in the field of Internet, mobile communication, portable computer technology led to the rapid pace of Informatization of humanity, leading eventually to the formation of the information society [Castells M., 2010].

  9. An associative model of adaptive inference for learning word-referent mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2012-04-01

    People can learn word-referent pairs over a short series of individually ambiguous situations containing multiple words and referents (Yu & Smith, 2007, Cognition 106: 1558-1568). Cross-situational statistical learning relies on the repeated co-occurrence of words with their intended referents, but simple co-occurrence counts cannot explain the findings. Mutual exclusivity (ME: an assumption of one-to-one mappings) can reduce ambiguity by leveraging prior experience to restrict the number of word-referent pairings considered but can also block learning of non-one-to-one mappings. The present study first trained learners on one-to-one mappings with varying numbers of repetitions. In late training, a new set of word-referent pairs were introduced alongside pretrained pairs; each pretrained pair consistently appeared with a new pair. Results indicate that (1) learners quickly infer new pairs in late training on the basis of their knowledge of pretrained pairs, exhibiting ME; and (2) learners also adaptively relax the ME bias and learn two-to-two mappings involving both pretrained and new words and objects. We present an associative model that accounts for both results using competing familiarity and uncertainty biases.

  10. Adapting Idols: Authenticity, Identity and Performance in a Global Television Format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost de Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2012-01-01

    Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production contexts, resulting in a plethora of

  11. The self-adaptation to dynamic failures for efficient virtual organization formations in grid computing context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Liangxiu

    2009-01-01

    Grid computing aims to enable 'resource sharing and coordinated problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations (VOs)'. However, due to the nature of heterogeneous and dynamic resources, dynamic failures in the distributed grid environment usually occur more than in traditional computation platforms, which cause failed VO formations. In this paper, we develop a novel self-adaptive mechanism to dynamic failures during VO formations. Such a self-adaptive scheme allows an individual and member of VOs to automatically find other available or replaceable one once a failure happens and therefore makes systems automatically recover from dynamic failures. We define dynamic failure situations of a system by using two standard indicators: mean time between failures (MTBF) and mean time to recover (MTTR). We model both MTBF and MTTR as Poisson distributions. We investigate and analyze the efficiency of the proposed self-adaptation mechanism to dynamic failures by comparing the success probability of VO formations before and after adopting it in three different cases: (1) different failure situations; (2) different organizational structures and scales; (3) different task complexities. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can automatically adapt to dynamic failures and effectively improve the dynamic VO formation performance in the event of node failures, which provide a valuable addition to the field.

  12. Dynamic maps of UV damage formation and repair for the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinchuan; Adebali, Ogun; Adar, Sheera; Sancar, Aziz

    2017-06-27

    Formation and repair of UV-induced DNA damage in human cells are affected by cellular context. To study factors influencing damage formation and repair genome-wide, we developed a highly sensitive single-nucleotide resolution damage mapping method [high-sensitivity damage sequencing (HS-Damage-seq)]. Damage maps of both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] from UV-irradiated cellular and naked DNA revealed that the effect of transcription factor binding on bulky adducts formation varies, depending on the specific transcription factor, damage type, and strand. We also generated time-resolved UV damage maps of both CPDs and (6-4)PPs by HS-Damage-seq and compared them to the complementary repair maps of the human genome obtained by excision repair sequencing to gain insight into factors that affect UV-induced DNA damage and repair and ultimately UV carcinogenesis. The combination of the two methods revealed that, whereas UV-induced damage is virtually uniform throughout the genome, repair is affected by chromatin states, transcription, and transcription factor binding, in a manner that depends on the type of DNA damage.

  13. The Effects of Individual Factors on the Formation of Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alinam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human’s weakened bond to residential areas, compromised identity and stability of residents in residential areas, have resulted in higher rate of transfer. Individual and collective understanding of the environment could be seen as a major force in shaping that environment through the action of human choices and behavior. In this regard, Cognitive maps are of great theoretical and practical importance for understanding how humans interact with their environment. This research is aimed to investigate the effects of the individual factors on the formation of cognitive maps in the neighborhood. Research seeks to answer the question: "How and to what extent the individual factors affect the cognitive and metal maps of the residents in the neighborhood?" Research is a combination of qualitative (interview and quantitative (questionnaire methods which is conducted on 297 residents of a neighborhood in the city of Tabriz. Results indicate that individual characteristics such as gender, age, occupational status, housing ownership status, length of residence, transport mode and duration of walking have a significant relationship within the formation of three components of cognitive map (landmark, route-road and survey knowledge. Educational status is the only variable that does not interact significantly with the cognition knowledge of the neighborhood. Achievement of this research is to introduce the effective individual factors in the formation of cognitive and mental image within the neighborhood and effectiveness rate of each in this process.

  14. Online unsupervised formation of cell assemblies for the encoding of multiple cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Utku; Bersini, Hugues; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Molter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Since their introduction sixty years ago, cell assemblies have proved to be a powerful paradigm for brain information processing. After their introduction in artificial intelligence, cell assemblies became commonly used in computational neuroscience as a neural substrate for content addressable memories. However, the mechanisms underlying their formation are poorly understood and, so far, there is no biologically plausible algorithms which can explain how external stimuli can be online stored in cell assemblies. We addressed this question in a previous paper [Salihoglu, U., Bersini, H., Yamaguchi, Y., Molter, C., (2009). A model for the cognitive map formation: Application of the retroaxonal theory. In Proc. IEEE international joint conference on neural networks], were, based on biologically plausible mechanisms, a novel unsupervised algorithm for online cell assemblies' creation was developed. The procedure involved simultaneously, a fast Hebbian/anti-Hebbian learning of the network's recurrent connections for the creation of new cell assemblies, and a slower feedback signal which stabilized the cell assemblies by learning the feedforward input connections. Here, we first quantify the role played by the retroaxonal feedback mechanism. Then, we show how multiple cognitive maps, composed by a set of orthogonal input stimuli, can be encoded in the network. As a result, when facing a previously learned input, the system is able to retrieve the cognitive map it belongs to. As a consequence, ambiguous inputs which could belong to multiple cognitive maps can be disambiguated by the knowledge of the context, i.e. the cognitive map.

  15. Impacts of palatal coverage on bolus formation during mastication and swallowing and subsequent adaptive changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Furuya, J; Tamada, Y; Kondo, H

    2013-10-01

    Palatal coverage is often required for elderly edentulous patients with complete dentures. The purpose of this study was to clarify impacts of palatal coverage on bolus formation and subsequent adaptive changes. Subjects were 18 healthy young dentulous adults who wore 1·5-mm-thick palatal plates. Subjects were asked to feed 12 g of bicoloured rice as usual, and the bolus formation by mastication and swallowing in the pharynx was observed using a nasal videoendoscopy. The bolus formation index (BFI), number of mastication strokes until swallowing, visual analogue scale about swallowing easiness and masticatory performance using colour-changeable gum were measured under three conditions: before placement of the palatal plate (day 0), immediately after placement (day 1) and after 7 days of wearing the plate (day 7). BFI and visual analogue scale on day 1 were significantly lower than those on day 0, but those on day 7 significantly recovered to the level of day 0. The number of mastication strokes did not change from day 0 to day 1, however, that on day 7 was significantly higher. Masticatory performance on days 1 and 7 was significantly lower than that on day 0. Although palatal coverage inhibits bolus formation during feeding, subjects increased the number of mastication strokes until swallowing threshold as they adapted to palatal coverage over time. This adaptive change was due to compensate for the lowered masticatory performance to achieve bolus formation for comfortable swallowing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Use of Television Format Adaptation in Denmark: Public Service Broadcasters Compared to Commercial Broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    brought about major changes in both production and scheduling. This paper evaluates the impact that format adaptation has had in Denmark on public service broadcasters (PSBs) compared to commercial broadcasters. To illustrate transnational differences, references are made to Germany and Australia. First......, a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...

  17. Spatial relationship between bone formation and mechanical stimulus within cortical bone: Combining 3D fluorochrome mapping and poroelastic finite element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieroa, A; Pereirab, A F; Wilson, A J; Castagno, S; Javaheri, B; Pitsillides, A A; Marenzana, M; Shefelbine, S J

    2018-06-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue and adapts its architecture in response to biological and mechanical factors. Here we investigate how cortical bone formation is spatially controlled by the local mechanical environment in the murine tibia axial loading model (C57BL/6). We obtained 3D locations of new bone formation by performing 'slice and view' 3D fluorochrome mapping of the entire bone and compared these sites with the regions of high fluid velocity or strain energy density estimated using a finite element model, validated with ex-vivo bone surface strain map acquired ex-vivo using digital image correlation. For the comparison, 2D maps of the average bone formation and peak mechanical stimulus on the tibial endosteal and periosteal surface across the entire cortical surface were created. Results showed that bone formed on the periosteal and endosteal surface in regions of high fluid flow. Peak strain energy density predicted only the formation of bone periosteally. Understanding how the mechanical stimuli spatially relates with regions of cortical bone formation in response to loading will eventually guide loading regime therapies to maintain or restore bone mass in specific sites in skeletal pathologies.

  18. Self-organizing adaptive map: autonomous learning of curves and surfaces from point samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piastra, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Competitive Hebbian Learning (CHL) (Martinetz, 1993) is a simple and elegant method for estimating the topology of a manifold from point samples. The method has been adopted in a number of self-organizing networks described in the literature and has given rise to related studies in the fields of geometry and computational topology. Recent results from these fields have shown that a faithful reconstruction can be obtained using the CHL method only for curves and surfaces. Within these limitations, these findings constitute a basis for defining a CHL-based, growing self-organizing network that produces a faithful reconstruction of an input manifold. The SOAM (Self-Organizing Adaptive Map) algorithm adapts its local structure autonomously in such a way that it can match the features of the manifold being learned. The adaptation process is driven by the defects arising when the network structure is inadequate, which cause a growth in the density of units. Regions of the network undergo a phase transition and change their behavior whenever a simple, local condition of topological regularity is met. The phase transition is eventually completed across the entire structure and the adaptation process terminates. In specific conditions, the structure thus obtained is homeomorphic to the input manifold. During the adaptation process, the network also has the capability to focus on the acquisition of input point samples in critical regions, with a substantial increase in efficiency. The behavior of the network has been assessed experimentally with typical data sets for surface reconstruction, including suboptimal conditions, e.g. with undersampling and noise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. Adaptive Capacity Mapping of Semarang Offshore Territory by the Increasing of Water Level and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifan Ridlo Suhelm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tidal inundation, flood and land subsidence are the problems faced by Semarang city related to climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC predicted the increase of sea level rise 18-59 cm during 1990-2100 while the temperature increase 0,6°C to 4°C during the same period. The Semarang coastal city was highly vulnerable to sea level rise and it increased with two factors, topography and land subsidence. The purpose of this study was to map the adaptive capacity of coastal areas in the face of the threat of disasters caused by climate change. The parameters used are Network Number, Employee based educational background, Source Main Livelihoods, Health Facilities, and Infrastructure Road. Adaptive capacity of regions classified into 3 (three classes, namely low, medium and high. The results of the study showed that most of the coastal area of Semarang have adaptive capacities ranging from low to moderate, while the village with low capacity totaling 58 villages (58.62% of the total coastal district in the city of Semarang.

  1. A national scale flood hazard mapping methodology: The case of Greece - Protection and adaptation policy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2017-12-01

    The present work introduces a national scale flood hazard assessment methodology, using multi-criteria analysis and artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques in a GIS environment. The proposed methodology was applied in Greece, where flash floods are a relatively frequent phenomenon and it has become more intense over the last decades, causing significant damages in rural and urban sectors. In order the most prone flooding areas to be identified, seven factor-maps (that are directly related to flood generation) were combined in a GIS environment. These factor-maps are: a) the Flow accumulation (F), b) the Land use (L), c) the Altitude (A), b) the Slope (S), e) the soil Erodibility (E), f) the Rainfall intensity (R), and g) the available water Capacity (C). The name to the proposed method is "FLASERC". The flood hazard for each one of these factors is classified into five categories: Very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The above factors are combined and processed using the appropriate ANN algorithm tool. For the ANN training process spatial distribution of historical flooded points in Greece within the five different flood hazard categories of the aforementioned seven factor-maps were combined. In this way, the overall flood hazard map for Greece was determined. The final results are verified using additional historical flood events that have occurred in Greece over the last 100years. In addition, an overview of flood protection measures and adaptation policy approaches were proposed for agricultural and urban areas located at very high flood hazard areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping the Holocene forest formations with the use of key climate indicators – heat and moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methodology of mapping the Holocene forest formations on the basis of the DEM and the key indicators of the climate – heat and moisture. The work is carried out by means of GIS. The test site is located within the boundaries of the axial West Sayan district of mountain taiga forests, which ensures homogeneity of natural and climatic conditions. Stages of the method: creation of rasters on groups of absolute heights, exposures and inclinations with their subsequent combination into a single Combine raster; obtaining the regularities of spatial distribution of heat and moisture and their representation in the form of rasters (digital models; and interactive mapping of the Holocene forests with various combinations of heat and moisture. The use of Combine raster makes it possible to refuse to use any other contours as – landscape, geomorphological, forest inventory. To determine parameters of climatic boundaries of forest formations, the types of forests are linked to the heat and moisture indicators. As a result of linking, a graphic image is produced, where forest formations and their productivity are located in a certain order. The mapping technique involves creating a dBASE table with a field containing information about forest formations. The row-wise change in the records of forest formations as they move to other values of heat and moisture is performed interactively. Each next combination of heat and moisture on maps corresponds to a certain distribution of forest formations and site productivity (bonitet classes. (1900 ± 65 years ago the river valleys were treeless, flat meadows occupied meadows, and the slopes were steppes. As the hypsometric level increases, larch stands, spruce-Siberian stone pine with an admixture of larch, Siberian stone pine-larch with an admixture of fir, and the Siberian stone pine formations appear. (2200 ± 100 years ago the tundra prevailed. Larch forests of V–Va classes of

  3. An application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to landslide susceptibility mapping (Klang valley, Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Ebru; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2010-05-01

    Landslides are one of the recurrent natural hazard problems throughout most of Malaysia. Recently, the Klang Valley area of Selangor state has faced numerous landslide and mudflow events and much damage occurred in these areas. However, only little effort has been made to assess or predict these events which resulted in serious damages. Through scientific analyses of these landslides, one can assess and predict landslide-susceptible areas and even the events as such, and thus reduce landslide damages through proper preparation and/or mitigation. For this reason , the purpose of the present paper is to produce landslide susceptibility maps of a part of the Klang Valley areas in Malaysia by employing the results of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) analyses. Landslide locations in the study area were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by extensive field surveys. Landsat TM satellite imagery was used to map vegetation index. Maps of topography, lineaments and NDVI were constructed from the spatial datasets. Seven landslide conditioning factors such as altitude, slope angle, plan curvature, distance from drainage, soil type, distance from faults and NDVI were extracted from the spatial database. These factors were analyzed using an ANFIS to construct the landslide susceptibility maps. During the model development works, total 5 landslide susceptibility models were obtained by using ANFIS results. For verification, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Additionally, the ROC curves for all landslide susceptibility models were drawn and the area under curve values was calculated. Landslide locations were used to validate results of the landslide susceptibility map and the verification results showed 98% accuracy for the model 5 employing all parameters produced in the present study as the landslide conditioning factors. The validation results showed sufficient

  4. Achieving Extreme Resolution in Numerical Cosmology Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Resolving Primordial Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L. Bryan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As an entry for the 2001 Gordon Bell Award in the "special" category, we describe our 3-d, hybrid, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR code Enzo designed for high-resolution, multiphysics, cosmological structure formation simulations. Our parallel implementation places no limit on the depth or complexity of the adaptive grid hierarchy, allowing us to achieve unprecedented spatial and temporal dynamic range. We report on a simulation of primordial star formation which develops over 8000 subgrids at 34 levels of refinement to achieve a local refinement of a factor of 1012 in space and time. This allows us to resolve the properties of the first stars which form in the universe assuming standard physics and a standard cosmological model. Achieving extreme resolution requires the use of 128-bit extended precision arithmetic (EPA to accurately specify the subgrid positions. We describe our EPA AMR implementation on the IBM SP2 Blue Horizon system at the San Diego Supercomputer Center.

  5. Adaptively loaded IM/DD optical OFDM based on set-partitioned QAM formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Chen, Lian-Kuan

    2017-04-17

    We investigate the constellation design and symbol error rate (SER) of set-partitioned (SP) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) formats. Based on the SER analysis, we derive the adaptive bit and power loading algorithm for SP QAM based intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM/DD) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). We experimentally show that the proposed system significantly outperforms the conventional adaptively-loaded IM/DD OFDM and can increase the data rate from 36 Gbit/s to 42 Gbit/s in the presence of severe dispersion-induced spectral nulls after 40-km single-mode fiber. It is also shown that the adaptive algorithm greatly enhances the tolerance to fiber nonlinearity and allows for more power budget.

  6. Adapting the emergency first aid responder course for Zambia through curriculum mapping and blueprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigoga, Jennifer L; Cunningham, Charmaine; Kafwamfwa, Muhumpu; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-12-10

    Community members are often the first to witness and respond to medical and traumatic emergencies, making them an essential first link to emergency care systems. The Emergency First Aid Responder (EFAR) programme is short course originally developed to help South Africans manage emergencies at the community level, pending arrival of formal care providers. EFAR was implemented in two rural regions of Zambia in 2015, but no changes were originally made to tailor the course to the new setting. We undertook this study to identify potential refinements in the original EFAR curriculum, and to adapt it to the local context in Zambia. The EFAR curriculum was mapped against available chief complaint data. An expert group used information from the map, in tandem with personal knowledge, to rank each course topic for potential impact on patient outcomes and frequency of use in practice. Individual blueprints were compiled to generate a refined EFAR curriculum, the time breakdown of which reflects the relative weight of each topic. This study was conducted based on data collected in Kasama, a rural region of Zambia's Northern Province. An expert group of five physicians practising emergency medicine was selected; all reviewers have expertise in the Zambian context, EFAR programme and/or curriculum development. The range of emergencies that Zambian EFARs encounter indicates that the course must be broad in scope. The refined curriculum covers 54 topics (seven new) and 25 practical skills (five new). Practical and didactic time devoted to general patient care and scene management increased significantly, while time devoted to most other clinical, presentation-based categories (eg, trauma care) decreased. Discrepancies between original and refined curricula highlight a mismatch between the external curriculum and local context. Even with limited data and resources, curriculum mapping and blueprinting are possible means of resolving these contextual issues. © Article author

  7. Adaptive Kalman filtering for real-time mapping of the visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B. Douglas; Janik, John; Mazaheri, Yousef; Ma, Yan; DeYoe, Edgar A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of real-time mapping of the visual field for clinical applications. Specifically, three aspects of this problem were considered: (1) experimental design, (2) statistical analysis, and (3) display of results. Proper experimental design is essential to achieving a successful outcome, particularly for real-time applications. A random-block experimental design was shown to have less sensitivity to measurement noise, as well as greater robustness to error in modeling of the hemodynamic impulse response function (IRF) and greater flexibility than common alternatives. In addition, random encoding of the visual field allows for the detection of voxels that are responsive to multiple, not necessarily contiguous, regions of the visual field. Due to its recursive nature, the Kalman filter is ideally suited for real-time statistical analysis of visual field mapping data. An important feature of the Kalman filter is that it can be used for nonstationary time series analysis. The capability of the Kalman filter to adapt, in real time, to abrupt changes in the baseline arising from subject motion inside the scanner and other external system disturbances is important for the success of clinical applications. The clinician needs real-time information to evaluate the success or failure of the imaging run and to decide whether to extend, modify, or terminate the run. Accordingly, the analytical software provides real-time displays of (1) brain activation maps for each stimulus segment, (2) voxel-wise spatial tuning profiles, (3) time plots of the variability of response parameters, and (4) time plots of activated volume. PMID:22100663

  8. A learning heuristic for space mapping and searching self-organizing systems using adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.

    2014-09-01

    In a complex self-organizing system, small changes in the interactions between the system's components can result in different emergent macrostructures or macrobehavior. In chemical engineering and material science, such spontaneously self-assembling systems, using polymers, nanoscale or colloidal-scale particles, DNA, or other precursors, are an attractive way to create materials that are precisely engineered at a fine scale. Changes to the interactions can often be described by a set of parameters. Different contiguous regions in this parameter space correspond to different ordered states. Since these ordered states are emergent, often experiment, not analysis, is necessary to create a diagram of ordered states over the parameter space. By issuing queries to points in the parameter space (e.g., performing a computational or physical experiment), ordered states can be discovered and mapped. Queries can be costly in terms of resources or time, however. In general, one would like to learn the most information using the fewest queries. Here we introduce a learning heuristic for issuing queries to map and search a two-dimensional parameter space. Using a method inspired by adaptive mesh refinement, the heuristic iteratively issues batches of queries to be executed in parallel based on past information. By adjusting the search criteria, different types of searches (for example, a uniform search, exploring boundaries, sampling all regions equally) can be flexibly implemented. We show that this method will densely search the space, while preferentially targeting certain features. Using numerical examples, including a study simulating the self-assembly of complex crystals, we show how this heuristic can discover new regions and map boundaries more accurately than a uniformly distributed set of queries.

  9. An adaptive semantic matching paradigm for reliable and valid language mapping in individuals with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Yen, Melodie; Eriksson, Dana K

    2018-04-17

    Research on neuroplasticity in recovery from aphasia depends on the ability to identify language areas of the brain in individuals with aphasia. However, tasks commonly used to engage language processing in people with aphasia, such as narrative comprehension and picture naming, are limited in terms of reliability (test-retest reproducibility) and validity (identification of language regions, and not other regions). On the other hand, paradigms such as semantic decision that are effective in identifying language regions in people without aphasia can be prohibitively challenging for people with aphasia. This paper describes a new semantic matching paradigm that uses an adaptive staircase procedure to present individuals with stimuli that are challenging yet within their competence, so that language processing can be fully engaged in people with and without language impairments. The feasibility, reliability and validity of the adaptive semantic matching paradigm were investigated in sixteen individuals with chronic post-stroke aphasia and fourteen neurologically normal participants, in comparison to narrative comprehension and picture naming paradigms. All participants succeeded in learning and performing the semantic paradigm. Test-retest reproducibility of the semantic paradigm in people with aphasia was good (Dice coefficient = 0.66), and was superior to the other two paradigms. The semantic paradigm revealed known features of typical language organization (lateralization; frontal and temporal regions) more consistently in neurologically normal individuals than the other two paradigms, constituting evidence for validity. In sum, the adaptive semantic matching paradigm is a feasible, reliable and valid method for mapping language regions in people with aphasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A systematic review of concept mapping-based formative assessment processes in primary and secondary science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Stevenson, Matt P.; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    assessment: firstly, concept mapping should be constructed in teaching, preferably on repeated occasions. Secondly, concept mapping should be carried out individually if personal understanding is to be elicited; however, collaborative concept mapping might foster discussions valuable for developing students......’ understanding and for activating them as instructional resources and owners of their own learning. Thirdly, low-directed mapping seems most suitable for formative assessment. Fourthly, technology-based or peer assessments are useful strategies likely to reduce the load of interpretation for the educator......In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a systematic review of concept mapping-based interventions in primary and secondary science education. We identified the following recommendations for science educators on how to successfully apply concept mapping as a method for formative...

  11. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Peninsular Florida Volume 2, maps in portable document format (pdf) (NODC Accession 0006394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of lower West Peninsular Florida (to...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: East Florida, maps in portable document format, Volume 1, Volume 2 (NODC Accession 0004150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of East Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  13. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  14. Flood susceptibility mapping using novel ensembles of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and metaheuristic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Termeh, Seyed Vahid; Kornejady, Aiding; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia

    2018-02-15

    Flood is one of the most destructive natural disasters which cause great financial and life losses per year. Therefore, producing susceptibility maps for flood management are necessary in order to reduce its harmful effects. The aim of the present study is to map flood hazard over the Jahrom Township in Fars Province using a combination of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) with different metaheuristics algorithms such as ant colony optimization (ACO), genetic algorithm (GA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) and comparing their accuracy. A total number of 53 flood locations areas were identified, 35 locations of which were randomly selected in order to model flood susceptibility and the remaining 16 locations were used to validate the models. Learning vector quantization (LVQ), as one of the supervised neural network methods, was employed in order to estimate factors' importance. Nine flood conditioning factors namely: slope degree, plan curvature, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), distance from river, land use/land cover, rainfall, and lithology were selected and the corresponding maps were prepared in ArcGIS. The frequency ratio (FR) model was used to assign weights to each class within particular controlling factor, then the weights was transferred into MATLAB software for further analyses and to combine with metaheuristic models. The ANFIS-PSO was found to be the most practical model in term of producing the highly focused flood susceptibility map with lesser spatial distribution related to highly susceptible classes. The chi-square result attests the same, where the ANFIS-PSO had the highest spatial differentiation within flood susceptibility classes over the study area. The area under the curve (AUC) obtained from ROC curve indicated the accuracy of 91.4%, 91.8%, 92.6% and 94.5% for the respective models of FR, ANFIS-ACO, ANFIS-GA, and ANFIS-PSO ensembles. So, the ensemble of ANFIS-PSO was introduced as the

  15. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. In

  16. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. Inthisstudyweexploredlinkagedisequilibrium(LD)mappingof traits in a set of modernbarleycultivars. LDbetweenmolecularmarkerswasfoundup to a distance of 10 centimorgan,whichislargecomparedtootherspecies.Thelarge distancemightbeinducedb...

  17. An adaptive community-based participatory approach to formative assessment with high schools for obesity intervention*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L

    2012-03-01

    In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  18. ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY FORMATION: EXPLORING NUMERICAL AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Bryan, Greg L.

    2012-01-01

    We carry out adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations of Milky Way mass halos in order to investigate the formation of disk-like galaxies in a Λ-dominated cold dark matter model. We evolve a suite of five halos to z = 0 and find a gas disk formation in each; however, in agreement with previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations (that did not include a subgrid feedback model), the rotation curves of all halos are centrally peaked due to a massive spheroidal component. Our standard model includes radiative cooling and star formation, but no feedback. We further investigate this angular momentum problem by systematically modifying various simulation parameters including: (1) spatial resolution, ranging from 1700 to 212 pc; (2) an additional pressure component to ensure that the Jeans length is always resolved; (3) low star formation efficiency, going down to 0.1%; (4) fixed physical resolution as opposed to comoving resolution; (5) a supernova feedback model that injects thermal energy to the local cell; and (6) a subgrid feedback model which suppresses cooling in the immediate vicinity of a star formation event. Of all of these, we find that only the last (cooling suppression) has any impact on the massive spheroidal component. In particular, a simulation with cooling suppression and feedback results in a rotation curve that, while still peaked, is considerably reduced from our standard runs.

  19. XML-BSPM: an XML format for storing Body Surface Potential Map recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Raymond R; Finlay, Dewar D; Nugent, Chris D; Moore, George

    2010-05-14

    The Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM) is an electrocardiographic method, for recording and displaying the electrical activity of the heart, from a spatial perspective. The BSPM has been deemed more accurate for assessing certain cardiac pathologies when compared to the 12-lead ECG. Nevertheless, the 12-lead ECG remains the most popular ECG acquisition method for non-invasively assessing the electrical activity of the heart. Although data from the 12-lead ECG can be stored and shared using open formats such as SCP-ECG, no open formats currently exist for storing and sharing the BSPM. As a result, an innovative format for storing BSPM datasets has been developed within this study. The XML vocabulary was chosen for implementation, as opposed to binary for the purpose of human readability. There are currently no standards to dictate the number of electrodes and electrode positions for recording a BSPM. In fact, there are at least 11 different BSPM electrode configurations in use today. Therefore, in order to support these BSPM variants, the XML-BSPM format was made versatile. Hence, the format supports the storage of custom torso diagrams using SVG graphics. This diagram can then be used in a 2D coordinate system for retaining electrode positions. This XML-BSPM format has been successfully used to store the Kornreich-117 BSPM dataset and the Lux-192 BSPM dataset. The resulting file sizes were in the region of 277 kilobytes for each BSPM recording and can be deemed suitable for example, for use with any telemonitoring application. Moreover, there is potential for file sizes to be further reduced using basic compression algorithms, i.e. the deflate algorithm. Finally, these BSPM files have been parsed and visualised within a convenient time period using a web based BSPM viewer. This format, if widely adopted could promote BSPM interoperability, knowledge sharing and data mining. This work could also be used to provide conceptual solutions and inspire existing formats

  20. MRI volumetric measurement of hippocampal formation based on statistic parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jianming; Jiang Biao; Zhou Jiong; Zhang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study MRI volumetric measurement of hippocampal formation using statistic parametric mapping (SPM) software and to discuss the value of the method applied to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: The SPM software was used to divide the three-dimensional MRI brain image into gray matter, white matter and CSF separately. The bilateral hippocampal formations in both AD group and normal control group were delineated and the volumes were measured. The SPM method was compared with conventional method based on region of interest (ROI), which was the gold standard of volume measurement. The time used in measuring the volume by these two methods were respectively recorded and compared by two independent samples't test. Moreover, 7 physicians measured the left hippocampal formation of one same control with both of the two methods. The frequency distribution and dispersion of data acquired with the two methods were evaluated using standard deviation coefficient. Results (1) The volume of the bilateral hippocampal formations with SPM method was (1.88 ± 0.07) cm 3 and (1.93 ± 0.08) cm 3 respectively in the AD group, while was (2.99 ± 0.07) cm 3 and (3.02 ± 0.06) cm 3 in the control group. The volume of bilateral hippocampal formations measured by ROI method was (1.87 ± 0.06) cm 3 and (1.91 ± 0.09) cm 3 in the AD group, while was (2.97 ± 0.08) cm 3 and (3.00 ± 0.05) cm 3 in the control group. There was no significant difference between SPM method and conventional ROI method in the AD group and the control group (t=1.500, 1.617, 1.095, 1.889, P>0.05). However, the time used for delineation and volume measurement was significantly different. The time used in SPM measurement was (38.1 ± 2.0) min, while that in ROI measurement was (55.4 ± 2.4) min (t=-25.918, P 3 respectively. The frequency distribution of hippocampal formation volume measured by SPM method and ROI method was different. The CV SPM was 7% and the CV ROI was 19%. Conclusions: The borders of

  1. Formation of model-free motor memories during motor adaptation depends on perturbation schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Motor adaptation to an external perturbation relies on several mechanisms such as model-based, model-free, strategic, or repetition-dependent learning. Depending on the experimental conditions, each of these mechanisms has more or less weight in the final adaptation state. Here we focused on the conditions that lead to the formation of a model-free motor memory (Huang VS, Haith AM, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Neuron 70: 787-801, 2011), i.e., a memory that does not depend on an internal model or on the size or direction of the errors experienced during the learning. The formation of such model-free motor memory was hypothesized to depend on the schedule of the perturbation (Orban de Xivry JJ, Ahmadi-Pajouh MA, Harran MD, Salimpour Y, Shadmehr R. J Neurophysiol 109: 124-136, 2013). Here we built on this observation by directly testing the nature of the motor memory after abrupt or gradual introduction of a visuomotor rotation, in an experimental paradigm where the presence of model-free motor memory can be identified (Huang VS, Haith AM, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Neuron 70: 787-801, 2011). We found that relearning was faster after abrupt than gradual perturbation, which suggests that model-free learning is reduced during gradual adaptation to a visuomotor rotation. In addition, the presence of savings after abrupt introduction of the perturbation but gradual extinction of the motor memory suggests that unexpected errors are necessary to induce a model-free motor memory. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that different perturbation schedules do not lead to a more or less stabilized motor memory but to distinct motor memories with different attributes and neural representations. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Distributed Adaptive Finite-Time Approach for Formation-Containment Control of Networked Nonlinear Systems Under Directed Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujuan; Song, Yongduan; Ren, Wei

    2017-07-06

    This paper presents a distributed adaptive finite-time control solution to the formation-containment problem for multiple networked systems with uncertain nonlinear dynamics and directed communication constraints. By integrating the special topology feature of the new constructed symmetrical matrix, the technical difficulty in finite-time formation-containment control arising from the asymmetrical Laplacian matrix under single-way directed communication is circumvented. Based upon fractional power feedback of the local error, an adaptive distributed control scheme is established to drive the leaders into the prespecified formation configuration in finite time. Meanwhile, a distributed adaptive control scheme, independent of the unavailable inputs of the leaders, is designed to keep the followers within a bounded distance from the moving leaders and then to make the followers enter the convex hull shaped by the formation of the leaders in finite time. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is confirmed by the simulation.

  3. The Use of Social Ecological Hotspots Mapping: Co-Developing Adaptation Strategies for Resource Management by Communities and Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessa, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, adaptation is based on a set of trade-offs rather than optimal conditions, something that is rarely seen in messy social ecological systems (SES). In this talk, we discuss the role of spatial hot-spot mapping using social and biophysical data to understand the feedbacks in SES. We review the types of data needed, their means of acquisition and the analytic methods involved. In addition, we outline the challenges faced in co-developing this type of inquiry based on lessons learned from several long-term programs. Finally, we present the utility of SES hotspots in developing adaptation strategies on the ground by communities and policy makers.

  4. BAUM: Improving genome assembly by adaptive unique mapping and local overlap-layout-consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Zhanyu; Li, Zheng; Li, Lei M

    2018-01-15

    It is highly desirable to assemble genomes of high continuity and consistency at low cost. The current bottleneck of draft genome continuity using the Second Generation Sequencing (SGS) reads is primarily caused by uncertainty among repetitive sequences. Even though the Single-Molecule Real-Time sequencing technology is very promising to overcome the uncertainty issue, its relatively high cost and error rate add burden on budget or computation. Many long-read assemblers take the overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) paradigm, which is less sensitive to sequencing errors, heterozygosity and variability of coverage. However, current assemblers of SGS data do not sufficiently take advantage of the OLC approach. Aiming at minimizing uncertainty, the proposed method BAUM, breaks the whole genome into regions by adaptive unique mapping; then the local OLC is used to assemble each region in parallel. BAUM can: (1) perform reference-assisted assembly based on the genome of a close species; (2) or improve the results of existing assemblies that are obtained based on short or long sequencing reads. The tests on two eukaryote genomes, a wild rice Oryza longistaminata and a parrot Melopsittacus undulatus, show that BAUM achieved substantial improvement on genome size and continuity. Besides, BAUM reconstructed a considerable amount of repetitive regions that failed to be assembled by existing short read assemblers. We also propose statistical approaches to control the uncertainty in different steps of BAUM. http://www.zhanyuwang.xin/wordpress/index.php/2017/07/21/baum. lilei@amss.ac.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  6. MAPPING CHILDREN’S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2015-01-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children’s geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively “always already” positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or “rational” speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children’s political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children’s politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau’s notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children’s representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10–13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors. PMID:25642017

  7. ASDF: A New Adaptable Data Format for Seismology Suitable for Large-Scale Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, L.; Smith, J. A.; Spinuso, A.; Tromp, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in the amounts of available data as well as computational power opens the possibility to tackle ever larger and more complex problems. This comes with a slew of new problems, two of which are the need for a more efficient use of available resources and a sensible organization and storage of the data. Both need to be satisfied in order to properly scale a problem and both are frequent bottlenecks in large seismic inversions using ambient noise or more traditional techniques.We present recent developments and ideas regarding a new data format, named ASDF (Adaptable Seismic Data Format), for all branches of seismology aiding with the aforementioned problems. The key idea is to store all information necessary to fully understand a set of data in a single file. This enables the construction of self-explaining and exchangeable data sets facilitating collaboration on large-scale problems. We incorporate the existing metadata standards FDSN StationXML and QuakeML together with waveform and auxiliary data into a common container based on the HDF5 standard. A further critical component of the format is the storage of provenance information as an extension of W3C PROV, meaning information about the history of the data, assisting with the general problem of reproducibility.Applications of the proposed new format are numerous. In the context of seismic tomography it enables the full description and storage of synthetic waveforms including information about the used model, the solver, the parameters, and other variables that influenced the final waveforms. Furthermore, intermediate products like adjoint sources, cross correlations, and receiver functions can be described and most importantly exchanged with others.Usability and tool support is crucial for any new format to gain acceptance and we additionally present a fully functional implementation of this format based on Python and ObsPy. It offers a convenient way to discover and analyze data sets as well as making

  8. Aperiodic dynamics in a deterministic adaptive network model of attitude formation in social groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan A.; Grindrod, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Adaptive network models, in which node states and network topology coevolve, arise naturally in models of social dynamics that incorporate homophily and social influence. Homophily relates the similarity between pairs of nodes' states to their network coupling strength, whilst social influence causes coupled nodes' states to convergence. In this paper we propose a deterministic adaptive network model of attitude formation in social groups that includes these effects, and in which the attitudinal dynamics are represented by an activato-inhibitor process. We illustrate that consensus, corresponding to all nodes adopting the same attitudinal state and being fully connected, may destabilise via Turing instability, giving rise to aperiodic dynamics with sensitive dependence on initial conditions. These aperiodic dynamics correspond to the formation and dissolution of sub-groups that adopt contrasting attitudes. We discuss our findings in the context of cultural polarisation phenomena. Social influence. This reflects the fact that people tend to modify their behaviour and attitudes in response to the opinions of others [22-26]. We model social influence via diffusion: agents adjust their state according to a weighted sum (dictated by the evolving network) of the differences between their state and the states of their neighbours. Homophily. This relates the similarity of individuals' states to their frequency and strength of interaction [27]. Thus in our model, homophily drives the evolution of the weighted ‘social' network. A precise formulation of our model is given in Section 2. Social influence and homophily underpin models of social dynamics [21], which cover a wide range of sociological phenomena, including the diffusion of innovations [28-32], complex contagions [33-36], collective action [37-39], opinion dynamics [19,20,40,10,11,13,15,41,16], the emergence of social norms [42-44], group stability [45], social differentiation [46] and, of particular relevance

  9. FORMATION OF INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review examines in a comparative perspective the key moments of formation of innate and adaptive immune responses to different types of current flavivirus vaccines: live attenuated against yellow fever virus and inactivated whole virus against tick-borne encephalitis virus. Particular attention is paid to the ability of these different vaccines, containing exogenous pathogen-associated molecular structures, to stimulate innate immunity. Live attenuated vaccine by infecting several subtypes of dendritic cells activates them through various pattern-recognition receptors, such as Tolland RIG-I-like receptors, which leads to significant production of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon-α primary mediator of innate antiviral immunity. By simulating natural viral infection, this vaccine quickly spreads over the vascular network, and the dendritic cells, activated by it, migrate to the draining lymph nodes and trigger multiple foci of Tand B-cell activation. Inactivated vaccine stimulates the innate immunity predominantly at the injection site, and for the sufficient activation requires the presence in its composition of an adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, which effects the formation and activation of inflammasomes, ensuring the formation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 that, in turn, trigger a cascade of cellular and humoral innate immune responses. We demonstrated the possibility of involvement in the induction of innate immunity, mediated by the inactivated vaccine, endogenous pathogenassociated molecular patterns (uric acid and host cell DNA, forming at the vaccine injection site. We discuss the triggering of Band T-cell responses by flavivirus vaccines that determine various duration of protection against various pathogens. A single injection of the live vaccine against yellow fever virus induces polyvalent adaptive immune response, including the production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, Th1and Th2-cells and neutralizing antibodies

  10. The Salient Map Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method: Powerful potential as a formative assessment in the biomedical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Laura Anne

    This dissertation consists of two studies: 1) development and characterization of the Salient Map Analysis for Research and Teaching (SMART) method as a formative assessment tool and 2) a case study exploring how a paramedic instructor's beliefs about learners affect her utilization of the SMART method and vice versa. The first study explored: How can a novel concept map analysis method be designed as an effective formative assessment tool? The SMART method improves upon existing concept map analysis methods because it does not require hierarchically structured concept maps and it preserves the rich content of the maps instead of reducing each map down to a numerical score. The SMART method is performed by comparing a set of students' maps to each other and to an instructor's map. The resulting composite map depicts, in percentages and highlighted colors, the similarities and differences between all of the maps. Some advantages of the SMART method as a formative assessment tool include its ability to highlight changes across time, problematic or alternative conceptions, and patterns of student responses at a glance. Study two explored: How do a paramedic instructor's beliefs about students and learning affect---and become affected by---her use of the SMART method as a formative assessment tool? This case study of Angel, an expert paramedic instructor, begins to address a gap in the emergency medical services (EMS) education literature, which contains almost no research on teachers or pedagogy. Angel and I worked together as participant co-researchers (Heron & Reason, 1997) exploring the affordances of the SMART method. This study, based on those interactions with Angel, involved using open coding to identify themes (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) from Angel's views of students and use of the SMART method. Angel views learning as a sense-making process. She has a multi-faceted view of her students as novices and invests substantial time trying to understand their concept

  11. Probabilistic Mapping of Storm-induced Coastal Inundation for Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Yamazaki, Y.; Roeber, V.; Cheung, K. F.; Chock, G.

    2016-02-01

    Global warming is posing an imminent threat to coastal communities worldwide. Under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, we utilize hurricane events downscaled from a CMIP5 global climate model using the stochastic-deterministic method of Emanuel (2013, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.) in a pilot study to develop an inundation map with projected sea-level rise for the urban Honolulu coast. The downscaling is performed for a 20-year period from 2081 to 2100 to capture the ENSO, which strongly influences the hurricane activity in the Pacific. A total of 50 simulations provide a quasi-stationary dataset of 1000 years for probabilistic analysis of the flood hazards toward the end of the century. We utilize the meta-model Hakou, which is based on precomputed hurricane scenarios using ADCIRC, SWAN, and a 1D Boussinesq model (Kennedy et al., 2012, Ocean Modelling), to estimate the annual maximum inundation along the project coastline at the present sea level. Screening of the preliminary results identifies the most severe three events for detailed inundation modeling using the package of Li et al. (2014, Ocean Modelling) at the projected sea level. For each event, the third generation spectral model WAVEWATCH III of Tolman (2008, Ocean Modelling) provides the hurricane waves and the circulation model NEOWAVE of Yamazaki et al. (2009, 2011, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids) computes the surge using a system of telescopic nested grids from the open ocean to the project coastline. The output defines the boundary conditions and initial still-water elevation for computation of phase-resolving surf-zone and inundation processes using the 2D Boussinesq model of Roeber and Cheung (2012, Coastal Engineering). Each computed inundation event corresponds to an annual maximum, and with 1000 years of data, has an occurrence probability of 0.1% in a given year. Barring the tail of the distribution, aggregation of the three computed events allow delineation of the inundation zone with annual exceedance probability

  12. MAPPING THE RECENT STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE DISK OF M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleida, Catherine; Scowen, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data acquired as part of a unique Hubble Heritage imaging program of broadband colors of the interacting spiral system M51/NGC 5195, we have conducted a photometric study of the stellar associations across the entire disk of the galaxy in order to assess trends in size, luminosity, and local environment associated with the recent star formation (SF) activity in the system. Starting with a sample of over 900 potential associations, we have produced color-magnitude and color-color diagrams for the 120 associations that were deemed to be single-aged. It has been found that main-sequence (MS) turnoffs are not evident for the vast majority of the stellar associations in our set, potentially due to the overlap of isochronal tracks at the high mass end of the MS, and the limited depth of our images at the distance of M51. In order to obtain ages for more of our sample, we produced model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to fit to the data from the GALEXEV simple stellar population models of Bruzual and Charlot. These SEDs can be used to determine age, size, mass, metallicity, and dust content of each association via a simple χ 2 minimization to each association's B-, V-, and I-band fluxes. The derived association properties are mapped as a function of location, and recent trends in SF history of the galaxy are explored in light of these results. This work is the first phase in a program that will compare these stellar systems with their environments using ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and infrared data from Spitzer, and ultimately we plan to apply the same stellar population mapping methodology to other nearby face-on spiral galaxies.

  13. An LPV Adaptive Observer for Updating a Map Applied to an MAF Sensor in a Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Changhui

    2015-10-23

    In this paper, a new method for mass air flow (MAF) sensor error compensation and an online updating error map (or lookup table) due to installation and aging in a diesel engine is developed. Since the MAF sensor error is dependent on the engine operating point, the error model is represented as a two-dimensional (2D) map with two inputs, fuel mass injection quantity and engine speed. Meanwhile, the 2D map representing the MAF sensor error is described as a piecewise bilinear interpolation model, which can be written as a dot product between the regression vector and parameter vector using a membership function. With the combination of the 2D map regression model and the diesel engine air path system, an LPV adaptive observer with low computational load is designed to estimate states and parameters jointly. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is proven under the conditions of persistent excitation and given inequalities. The observer is validated against the simulation data from engine software enDYNA provided by Tesis. The results demonstrate that the operating point-dependent error of the MAF sensor can be approximated acceptably by the 2D map from the proposed method.

  14. Flood susceptibility mapping using novel ensembles of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and metaheuristic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razavi Termeh, Seyed Vahid; Kornejady, Aiding; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Flood is one of the most destructive natural disasters which cause great financial and life losses per year. Therefore, producing susceptibility maps for flood management are necessary in order to reduce its harmful effects. The aim of the present study is to map flood hazard over the Jahrom

  15. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. Extraction, Mapping, and Evaluation of Expressive Acoustic Features for Adaptive Digital Audio Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfelt, Jonas; Csapo, Gergely; Andersson, Nikolaj Schwab

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time adaptive digital audio effect with an emphasis on using expressive audio features that control effect param- eters. Research in adaptive digital audio effects is cov- ered along with studies about expressivity and important...

  17. Characterizing semantic mappings adaptation via biomedical KOS evolution: a case study investigating SNOMED CT and ICD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Pruski, Cédric; Da Silveira, Marcos; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Mappings established between Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) increase semantic interoperability between biomedical information systems. However, biomedical knowledge is highly dynamic and changes affecting KOS entities can potentially invalidate part or the totality of existing mappings. Understanding how mappings evolve and what the impacts of KOS evolution on mappings are is therefore crucial for the definition of an automatic approach to maintain mappings valid and up-to-date over time. In this article, we study variations of a specific KOS complex change (split) for two biomedical KOS (SNOMED CT and ICD-9-CM) through a rigorous method of investigation for identifying and refining complex changes, and for selecting representative cases. We empirically analyze and explain their influence on the evolution of associated mappings. Results point out the importance of considering various dimensions of the information described in KOS, like the semantic structure of concepts, the set of relevant information used to define the mappings and the change operations interfering with this set of information.

  18. Tree species mapping in tropical forests using multi-temporal imaging spectroscopy: Wavelength adaptive spectral mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, B.; Asner, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The use of imaging spectroscopy for florisic mapping of forests is complicated by the spectral similarity among co-existing species. Here we evaluated an alternative spectral unmixing strategy combining a time series of EO-1 Hyperion images and an automated feature selection in Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). The temporal analysis provided a way to incorporate species phenology while feature selection indicated the best phenological time and best spectral feature set to optimize the separability between tree species. Instead of using the same set of spectral bands throughout the image which is the standard approach in MESMA, our modified Wavelength Adaptive Spectral Mixture Analysis (WASMA) approach allowed the spectral subsets to vary on a per pixel basis. As such we were able to optimize the spectral separability between the tree species present in each pixel. The potential of the new approach for floristic mapping of tree species in Hawaiian rainforests was quantitatively assessed using both simulated and actual hyperspectral image time-series. With a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.65, WASMA provided a more accurate tree species map compared to conventional MESMA (Kappa = 0.54; p-value < 0.05. The flexible or adaptive use of band sets in WASMA provides an interesting avenue to address spectral similarities in complex vegetation canopies.

  19. GALEX: a UV telescope to map the star formation history of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliard, Bruno; Grange, Robert; Martin, Christopher; Schiminovich, David

    2017-11-01

    The NASA Small Mission EXplorer GALEX (PI: C.Martin, Caltech) is under development at JPL for launch late 2001. It has been designed to map the history of star formation in the Universe over the redshift range 0-2, a major era where galaxies and gas content evolved dramatically. The expected depth and imaging quality matches the Palomar Observatory Surveys, allowing GALEX to provide the astronomical community with a database of FUV photometric and spectroscopic observations of several million galaxies in the nearby and distant Universe. The 1.24 degree FOV, 50 cm aperture compact Ritchey-Chrétien telescope is equipped with two 65 mm photon-counting detectors. It will perform several surveys of different coverage and depths, that will take advantage of a high throughput UV-transmissive Grism newly developed in France to easily switch between imagery and field spectroscopy modes. A thin aspherized fused silica dichroic component provides simultaneous observations in two UV bands (135-185 nm and 185-300 nm) as well as correction for field aberrations. We shall briefly present the mission science goals, and will describe the optical concept, along with the guidelines and compromises used for its optimization in the context of the "Faster, Better, Cheaper" NASA philosophy, and give a brief development status report.

  20. MapX: 2D XRF for Planetary Exploration - Image Formation and Optic Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Gailhanou, M.; Marchis, F.; Chalumeau, C.; Webb, S.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2018-04-01

    Map-X is a planetary instrument concept for 2D X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during the measurement. The formation of XRF images on the CCD detector relies on a multichannel optic configured for 1:1 imaging and can be analyzed through the point spread function (PSF) of the optic. The PSF can be directly measured using a micron-sized monochromatic X-ray source in place of the sample. Such PSF measurements were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron and are compared with ray tracing simulations. It is shown that artifacts are introduced by the periodicity of the PSF at the channel scale and the proximity of the CCD pixel size and the optic channel size. A strategy of sub-channel random moves was used to cancel out these artifacts and provide a clean experimental PSF directly usable for XRF image deconvolution.

  1. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  2. Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, John D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Kraus, Stefan; Baron, Fabien; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Dong, Ruobing; Isella, Andrea; Merand, Antoine; Michael, Ernest; Minardi, Stefano; Mozurkewich, David; Petrov, Romain; Rinehart, Stephen; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Vasisht, Gautam; Wishnow, Ed; Young, John; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-08-01

    The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) Project has formed a Technical Working Group (TWG) to explore possible facility architectures to meet the primary PFI science goal of imaging planet formation in situ in nearby starforming regions. The goals of being sensitive to dust emission on solar system scales and resolving the Hill-sphere around forming giant planets can best be accomplished through sub-milliarcsecond imaging in the thermal infrared. Exploiting the 8-13 micron atmospheric window, a ground-based long-baseline interferometer with approximately 20 apertures including 10km baselines will have the necessary resolution to image structure down 0.1 milliarcseconds (0.014 AU) for T Tauri disks in Taurus. Even with large telescopes, this array will not have the sensitivity to directly track fringes in the mid-infrared for our prime targets and a fringe tracking system will be necessary in the near-infrared. While a heterodyne architecture using modern mid-IR laser comb technology remains a competitive option (especially for the intriguing 24 and 40μm atmospheric windows), the prioritization of 3-5μm observations of CO/H2O vibrotational levels by the PFI-Science Working Group (SWG) pushes the TWG to require vacuum pipe beam transport with potentially cooled optics. We present here a preliminary study of simulated L- and N-band PFI observations of a realistic 4-planet disk simulation, finding 21x2.5m PFI can easily detect the accreting protoplanets in both L and N-band but can see non-accreting planets only in L band. We also find that even an ambitious PFI will lack sufficient surface brightness sensitivity to image details of the fainter emission from dust structures beyond 5 AU, unless directly illuminated or heated by local energy sources. That said, the utility of PFI at N-band is highly dependent on the stage of planet formation in the disk and we require additional systematic studies in conjunction with the PFI-SWG to better understand the science capabilities

  3. In Lactobacillus pentosus, the olive brine adaptation genes are required for biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetuini, G; Pham-Hoang, B N; Scornec, H; Tofalo, R; Schirone, M; Suzzi, G; Cavin, J F; Waché, Y; Corsetti, A; Licandro-Seraut, H

    2016-01-04

    Lactobacillus pentosus is one of the few lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species capable of surviving in olive brine, and thus desirable during table olive fermentation. We have recently generated mutants of the efficient strain L. pentosus C11 by transposon mutagenesis and identified five mutants unable to survive and adapt to olive brine conditions. Since biofilm formation represents one of the main bacterial strategy to survive in stressful environments, in this study, the capacity of adhesion and formation of biofilm on olive skin was investigated for this strain and five derivative mutants which are interrupted in metabolic genes (enoA1 and gpi), and in genes of unknown function ("oba" genes). Confocal microscopy together with bacteria count revealed that the sessile state represented the prevailing L. pentosus C11 life-style during table olive fermentation. The characterization of cell surface properties showed that mutants present less hydrophobic and basic properties than the wild type (WT). In fact, their ability to adhere to both abiotic (polystyrene plates) and biotic (olive skin) surfaces was lower than that of the WT. Confocal microscopy revealed that mutants adhered sparsely to the olive skin instead of building a thin, multilayer biofilm. Moreover, RT-qPCR showed that the three genes enoA1, gpi and obaC were upregulated in the olive biofilm compared to the planktonic state. Thus enoA1, gpi and "oba" genes are necessary in L. pentosus to form an organized biofilm on the olive skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping the Intangible: On Adaptivity and Relational Prototyping in Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolbroe, Cameline

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, new computing technologies in architecture have led to the possibility of designing architecture with non-static qualities, which affords the architectural designer with a whole new opportunity space to explore. At the same time, this opportunity space challenges both...... to meet the challenges of designing with adaptivity in architecture, I propose a particular method specifically tailored for adaptive architectural design. The method, relational prototyping, is founded on the idea of inhabitation as an act. Relational prototyping adapts techniques from performance...

  5. Social adaptation following intestinal stoma formation in people living at home: a longitudinal phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Gabrielle; McArthur, Maggie

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal stoma formation profoundly changes the relationship between a person and their social world. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of living with a new stoma; this paper explores the theme "disrupted social world," highlighting how stoma-forming surgery impacts on individuals' abilities to participate and interact socially over time. A longitudinal phenomenological approach. Twelve participants with a new stoma were recruited using purposeful sampling. Data were collected at three, nine and 15 months following surgery through in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using a bespoke iterative framework. Three categories were identified: participation in the social environment; interpersonal relationships: changes and challenges; and setting and achieving goals. Stoma-forming surgery changes the ways people relate to their social environment and connect with others, creating self-consciousness and impeding social confidence and autonomy. Understanding the social implications of stoma-forming surgery can help clinicians to provide responsive and appropriate support to facilitate social rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Assisting people with a stoma to develop competent stoma self-care skills will promote social adaptation and self-acceptance. Clinicians should promote access to others with a stoma, an important source of support for many people adjusting to a new stoma. Graded exposure to social participation can engender feelings of control and confidence for people with a stoma. Clinicians can help individuals with a stoma to set realistic goals for their recovery, while encouraging a range of positive coping strategies.

  6. Formative evaluation of an adaptive game for engaging learners of programming concepts in K-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny S. N. Lindberg

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As the global demand for programmers is soaring, several countries have integrated programming into their K-12 curricula. Finding effective ways to engage children in programming education is an important objective. One effective method for this can be presenting learning materials via games, which are known to increase engagement and motivation. Current programming education games often focus on a single genre and offer one-size-fits-all experience to heterogeneous learners. In this study, we presented Minerva, a multi-genre (adventure, action, puzzle game to engage elementary school students in learning programming concepts. The game content is adapted to play and learning styles of the player to personalize the gameplay. We conducted a formative mixed-method evaluation of Minerva with 32 Korean 6th grade students who played the game and compared their learning outcomes with 32 6th grade students who studied the same concepts using handouts. The results indicated that, in terms of retention, learning was equally effective in both groups. Furthermore, the game was shown to facilitate engagement among the students. These results, together with uncovered issues, will guide Minerva’s further development.

  7. Landslide susceptibility mapping at Hoa Binh province (Vietnam) using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien Bui, Dieu; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lofman, Owe; Revhaug, Inge; Dick, Oystein B.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate a potential application of the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) as a relatively new approach for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Hoa Binh province of Vietnam. Firstly, a landslide inventory map with a total of 118 landslide locations was constructed from various sources. Then the landslide inventory was randomly split into a testing dataset 70% (82 landslide locations) for training the models and the remaining 30% (36 landslides locations) was used for validation purpose. Ten landslide conditioning factors such as slope, aspect, curvature, lithology, land use, soil type, rainfall, distance to roads, distance to rivers, and distance to faults were considered in the analysis. The hybrid learning algorithm and six different membership functions (Gaussmf, Gauss2mf, Gbellmf, Sigmf, Dsigmf, Psigmf) were applied to generate the landslide susceptibility maps. The validation dataset, which was not considered in the ANFIS modeling process, was used to validate the landslide susceptibility maps using the prediction rate method. The validation results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for six ANFIS models vary from 0.739 to 0.848. It indicates that the prediction capability depends on the membership functions used in the ANFIS. The models with Sigmf (0.848) and Gaussmf (0.825) have shown the highest prediction capability. The results of this study show that landslide susceptibility mapping in the Hoa Binh province of Vietnam using the ANFIS approach is viable. As far as the performance of the ANFIS approach is concerned, the results appeared to be quite satisfactory, the zones determined on the map being zones of relative susceptibility.

  8. [Impact to Z-score Mapping of Hyperacute Stroke Images by Computed Tomography in Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shota; Sakaguchi, Kenta; Hosono, Makoto; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction method on Z-score mapping of hyperacute stroke in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images. We used a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction [adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR)] implemented in a CT system (Optima CT660 Pro advance, GE Healthcare). With 15 normal brain cases, we reconstructed CT images with a filtered back projection (FBP) and ASiR with a blending factor of 100% (ASiR100%). Two standardized normal brain data were created from normal databases of FBP images (FBP-NDB) and ASiR100% images (ASiR-NDB), and standard deviation (SD) values in basal ganglia were measured. The Z-score mapping was performed for 12 hyperacute stroke cases by using FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB, and compared Z-score value on hyperacute stroke area and normal area between FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB. By using ASiR-NDB, the SD value of standardized brain was decreased by 16%. The Z-score value of ASiR-NDB on hyperacute stroke area was significantly higher than FBP-NDB (pASiR100% for Z-score mapping had potential to improve the accuracy of Z-score mapping.

  9. System level mechanisms of adaptation, learning, memory formation and evolvability: the role of chaperone and other networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurko, David M; Soti, Csaba; Stetak, Attila; Csermely, Peter

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, network approaches became a powerful tool to describe protein structure and dynamics. Here, we describe first the protein structure networks of molecular chaperones, then characterize chaperone containing sub-networks of interactomes called as chaperone-networks or chaperomes. We review the role of molecular chaperones in short-term adaptation of cellular networks in response to stress, and in long-term adaptation discussing their putative functions in the regulation of evolvability. We provide a general overview of possible network mechanisms of adaptation, learning and memory formation. We propose that changes of network rigidity play a key role in learning and memory formation processes. Flexible network topology provides ' learning-competent' state. Here, networks may have much less modular boundaries than locally rigid, highly modular networks, where the learnt information has already been consolidated in a memory formation process. Since modular boundaries are efficient filters of information, in the 'learning-competent' state information filtering may be much smaller, than after memory formation. This mechanism restricts high information transfer to the 'learning competent' state. After memory formation, modular boundary-induced segregation and information filtering protect the stored information. The flexible networks of young organisms are generally in a 'learning competent' state. On the contrary, locally rigid networks of old organisms have lost their 'learning competent' state, but store and protect their learnt information efficiently. We anticipate that the above mechanism may operate at the level of both protein-protein interaction and neuronal networks.

  10. Mujeres Fuertes y Corazones Saludables: adaptation of the StrongWomen -healthy hearts program for rural Latinas using an intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; McCalmont, Jean C; Ward, Judy P; Menelas, Hannah-Dulya K; Jackson, Christie; De Witz, Jazmyne R; Solanki, Emma; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-12-28

    To describe our use of intervention mapping as a systematic method to adapt an evidence-based physical activity and nutrition program to reflect the needs of rural Latinas. An intervention mapping process involving six steps guided the adaptation of an evidence based physical activity and nutrition program, using a community-based participatory research approach. We partnered with a community advisory board of rural Latinas throughout the adaptation process. A needs assessment and logic models were used to ascertain which program was the best fit for adaptation. Once identified, we collaborated with one of the developers of the original program (StrongWomen - Healthy Hearts) during the adaptation process. First, essential theoretical methods and program elements were identified, and additional elements were added or adapted. Next, we reviewed and made changes to reflect the community and cultural context of the practical applications, intervention strategies, program curriculum, materials, and participant information. Finally, we planned for the implementation and evaluation of the adapted program, Mujeres Fuertes y Corazones Saludables, within the context of the rural community. A pilot study will be conducted with overweight, sedentary, middle-aged, Spanish-speaking Latinas. Outcome measures will assess change in weight, physical fitness, physical activity, and nutrition behavior. The intervention mapping process was feasible and provided a systematic approach to balance fit and fidelity in the adaptation of an evidence-based program. Collaboration with community members ensured that the components of the curriculum that were adapted were culturally appropriate and relevant within the local community context.

  11. Geophysical mapping of the subsurface to support climate adaption in development areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou

    ha is high-densely mapped with multi-configuration Ground Conductivity Meter (DualEM421) and supplemented with Airborne Electro Magnetic surveys, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and boreholes. The depth of investigation for the DUALEM421 system is between 5 to 8 m and the horizontal...... correlation between the deposits’ electric resistivity and the infiltration capabilities. Based on the soil types’ different infiltration capabilities, it will be possible to produce a detailed infiltration potential map for the development areas. The project is conducted in collaboration with Horsens...

  12. Predicting knee cartilage loss using adaptive partitioning of cartilage thickness maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Dan Richter; Dam, Erik Bjørnager; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether measures of knee cartilage thickness can predict future loss of knee cartilage. A slow and a rapid progressor group was determined using longitudinal data, and anatomically aligned cartilage thickness maps were extracted from MRI at baseline. A novel machine learning...... framework was then trained using these maps. Compared to measures of mean cartilage plate thickness, group separation was increased by focusing on local cartilage differences. This result is central for clinical trials where inclusion of rapid progressors may help reduce the period needed to study effects...

  13. THE FORMATION OF SUBJECTIVITY AND NORMS IN THE PROCESS OF ADAPTATION OF YOUNG EMPLOYEES AT THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is to determine the interrelation of the formation of subjective qualities and norms process of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise.Methods. The research methodology involves a comprehensive combination of the theoretical analysis and the results of applied research at the enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region. The dialectical method and comparative analysis are used.Results and theoretical novelty. The questions of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise are considered. The concepts of «subjectivity» and «norms» in philosophy are analyzed. Subjectivity is presented as a personal basis of social activity of the young worker at the entity; regulations – as a method of adaptation of the personality, individual to that community in which it emerged to be. The characteristics of the youth working at the industrial enterprise are disclosed on the basis of socio-philosophical analysis; youth policy at the industrial enterprises is described; the formation of values and norms of young workers in the process of adapting the enterprise is observed. The personal subjectivity as the basis of social activity of the young worker in the enterprise is demonstrated. It is shown that relevance of subject qualities forming and regulations at youth is caused not only by the need of development of the identity of young workers, but also by economic safety of industrial enterprises wellbeing where their working career begins.Practical significance consists in the social-philosophical substantiation of interrelation of formation of subjective qualities and norms in the process of adaptation of young employees in the company, of the main provisions for the development of programs of adaptation of young employees at the enterprise; in providing the teaching social and humanitarian disciplines for bachelors and masters majoring in «Organization of Work with Youth». 

  14. An integrated linkage map reveals candidate genes underlying adaptive variation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mckinney, G. J.; Seeb, L. W.; Larson, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonids are an important cultural and ecological resource exhibiting near worldwide distribution between their native and introduced range. Previous research has generated linkage maps and genomic resources for several species as well as genome assemblies for two species. We first leveraged...

  15. Mapping large areas of radioactively contaminated land with a self adapted, handheld, GPS coupled, scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, Johan

    2008-01-01

    In Belgium, during several decennia, a phosphate plant discharged radium chloride containing waste water into two small rivers. One of those is part of a hydrographically very complex ecosystem with lots of small tributaries and hundreds of hectares of flooding zones. Hence, the river banks and large parts of these flooding zones have become contaminated with radium, heavy metals and chlorides. During a foot campaign, using a home made portable data logging system, consisting of a commercial 2.5 kg NaI detector, a computer mouse sized GPS, and a small pocket PC, the radioactive contamination of about 600 ha of sometimes very rough terrain was measured and mapped. The resulting very detailed radium contamination maps shed a whole new light on the water flow patterns of the ecosystem. The apparatus can also be used for efficiently guiding sampling campaigns for investigating other types of contamination. The ground maps are also compared to existing maps from helicopter measurements, evaluating strengths and weaknesses from both methods

  16. Multispectral Thermal Imagery and Its Application to the Geologic Mapping of the Koobi Fora Formation, Northwestern Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mary K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The Koobi Fora Formation in northwestern Kenya has yielded more hominin fossils dated between 2.1 and 1.2 Ma than any other location on Earth. This research was undertaken to discover the spectral signatures of a portion of the Koobi Fora Formation using imagery from the DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite. Creation of a digital geologic map from MTI imagery was a secondary goal of this research. MTI is unique amongst multispectral satellites in that it co-collects data from 15 spectral bands ranging from the visible to the thermal infrared with a ground sample distance of 5 meters per pixel in the visible and 20 meters in the infrared. The map was created in two stages. The first was to correct the base MTI image using spatial accuracy assessment points collected in the field. The second was to mosaic various MTI images together to create the final Koobi Fora map. Absolute spatial accuracy of the final map product is 73 meters. The geologic classification of the Koobi Fora MTI map also took place in two stages. The field work stage involved location of outcrops of different lithologies within the Koobi Fora Formation. Field descriptions of these outcrops were made and their locations recorded. During the second stage, a linear spectral unmixing algorithm was applied to the MTI mosaic. In order to train the linear spectra unmixing algorithm, regions of interest representing four different classes of geologic material (tuff, alluvium, carbonate, and basalt), as well as a vegetation class were defined within the MTI mosaic. The regions of interest were based upon the aforementioned field data as well as overlays of geologic maps from the 1976 Iowa State mapping project. Pure spectra were generated for each class from the regions of interest, and then the unmixing algorithm classified each pixel according to relative percentage of classes found within the pixel based upon the pure spectra values. A total of four unique combinations of geologic

  17. Formative use of select-and-fill-in concept maps in online instruction: Implications for students of different learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Charles William

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the formative use of Select and Fill-In (SAFI) maps in online instruction and the cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses of students to their use. In particular, the implications of their use with students of different learning styles was considered. The research question investigated in this qualitative study was: How do students of different learning styles respond to online instruction in which SAFI maps are utilized? This question was explored by using an emergent, collective case study. Each case consisted of community college students who shared a dominant learning style and were enrolled in an online course in environmental studies. Cases in the study were determined using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Seven forms of data were collected during the study. During the first phase of data collection, dominant learning style and background information on student experience with concept mapping and online instruction was determined. In the second phase of data collection, participants completed SAFI maps and quiz items that corresponded to the content of the maps. Achievement data on the map activities and quiz and student responses to a post-SAFI survey and questionnaire were recorded to identify learner cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses to the tasks. Upon completion of data collection, cases were constructed and compared across learning styles. Cases are presented using the trends, across participants sharing the same dominant learning style, in achievement, behaviors and attitudes as seen in the evidence present in the data. Triangulation of multiple data sources increased reliability and validity, through cross-case analyses, and produced a thick description of the relationship between the cases for each learning style. Evidence suggesting a cognitive response to the SAFI tasks was inconsistent across cases. However, learners with an affinity towards reflective learning

  18. Adapting the HSV polarization-color mapping for regions with low irradiance and high polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyo, J; Ratliff, Bradley M; Alenin, Andrey S

    2016-10-15

    Many mappings from polarization into color have been developed so that polarization information can be displayed. One of the most common of these maps the angle of linear polarization into color hue and degree of linear polarization into color saturation, while preserving the irradiance information from the polarization data. While this strategy enjoys wide popularity, there is a large class of polarization images for which it is not ideal. It is common to have images where the strongest polarization signatures (in terms of degree of polarization) occur in regions of relatively low irradiance: either in shadow in reflective bands or in cold regions in emissive bands. Since the irradiance is low, the chromatic properties of the resulting images are generally not apparent. Here we present an alternate mapping that uses the statistics of the angle of polarization as a measure of confidence in the polarization signature, then amplifies the irradiance in regions of high confidence, and leaves it unchanged in regions of low confidence. Results are shown from an LWIR and a visible spectrum imager.

  19. Adaptive bone formation in acellular vertebrae of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Cleynenbreugel, van T.; Schipper, H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian bone is an active tissue in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts balance bone mass. This process of adaptive modelling and remodelling is probably regulated by strain-sensing osteocytes. Bone of advanced teleosts is acellular yet, despite the lack of osteocytes, it is capable of an adaptive

  20. THE USE OF DIGITAL EDUCATIONAL NARRATIVES FOR THE FORMATION OF ADAPTIVE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS – FUTURE ECONOMISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna A. Kovalchuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the materials of the thematic study of the possibilities of electronic services for the implementation of the narrative approach in the professional training of students - future economists, the formation of their adaptive competence, the development of self-regulation skills and self-management in the learning process. The possibilities of electronic services for the formation of adaptive competence of future specialists are shown. Different features of the educational narrative are described. There have been presented the examples of simulation of digital educational professional stories in comics which realize a combination of academic activity and creative activity of participants of the educational process for their professional development. The example of tasks for independent work of students on socio-economic disciplines demonstrated the use of the didactic method "History in Pictures" a generalization of self-examination of students on the results of their narrative training.

  1. Modelling and mapping climate change adaptability in the historic tourism region of the Salzkammergut in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stefan; Lang, Stefan; Pernkopf, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Climate change adaptability of a region due to climate change (CC) is of growing concern due to its irreversible character and the multitude of factors supporting or hampering the capability to adapt. Research on climate change adaptation, in its complex character and its global (in terms of both societal and environmental implications), involves several schools according to [Miller et al. 2010]: (1) the 'vulnerability' community with its two to three main pillars (exposure, adaptive capacity, sensitivity) following the actor-oriented IPCC approach [IPCC 2007], investigating the degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change; and (2) the 'resilience' community emerging from the (eco-)systems approach with its dual function [Folke 2006] of absorbing disturbance and self-renewal/-organisation. The concept of 'transformability' seems to be the appropriate overarching one to accommodate either notion. Here we treat climate change (CC) adaptability/transformability as a latent phenomenon to be operationalized by decomposition [Weinberg 1975]. After this we re-compose a meta-indicator based on a scale-specific spatial set of regions characterised by uniform response to the phenomenon under concern. In [Lang et al. 2014] we showed how gridded fine-scale data being integrated and regionalised can support ambitious policy interventions in the so-called geon approach. Spatializing a multi-dimensional indicator set using scale-specific regionalisation shall aim for a policy-driven 'unitisation' of the intervention space. We focus our study on a tourism region called Salzkammergut, situated in inner Austria and historically grown. Nowadays intersecting three federal states without an explicit administrative body, this region can be considered 'latent' itself. The region, a historic tourism area since the Austrian Empire has received its recognition since the early 19th century. Then being confined to an area around the

  2. Maine Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) Atlas, Maine - 2007, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0036827)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This four volume set of Environmental Vulnerability Index Maps depicts environmental resources along the coast of Maine most at risk from oil spilled into the marine...

  3. An adaptive scheme for robot localization and mapping with dynamically configurable inter-beacon range measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martinez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2014-04-25

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM) and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively) than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16%) and similar beacon energy consumption.

  4. An adaptive map-matching algorithm based on hierarchical fuzzy system from vehicular GPS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Tang

    Full Text Available An improved hierarchical fuzzy inference method based on C-measure map-matching algorithm is proposed in this paper, in which the C-measure represents the certainty or probability of the vehicle traveling on the actual road. A strategy is firstly introduced to use historical positioning information to employ curve-curve matching between vehicle trajectories and shapes of candidate roads. It improves matching performance by overcoming the disadvantage of traditional map-matching algorithm only considering current information. An average historical distance is used to measure similarity between vehicle trajectories and road shape. The input of system includes three variables: distance between position point and candidate roads, angle between driving heading and road direction, and average distance. As the number of fuzzy rules will increase exponentially when adding average distance as a variable, a hierarchical fuzzy inference system is then applied to reduce fuzzy rules and improve the calculation efficiency. Additionally, a learning process is updated to support the algorithm. Finally, a case study contains four different routes in Beijing city is used to validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  5. One-Shot Learning of Human Activity With an MAP Adapted GMM and Simplex-HMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Mario; Orrite, Carlos; Medrano, Carlos; Makris, Dimitrios

    2016-05-10

    This paper presents a novel activity class representation using a single sequence for training. The contribution of this representation lays on the ability to train an one-shot learning recognition system, useful in new scenarios where capturing and labeling sequences is expensive or impractical. The method uses a universal background model of local descriptors obtained from source databases available on-line and adapts it to a new sequence in the target scenario through a maximum a posteriori adaptation. Each activity sample is encoded in a sequence of normalized bag of features and modeled by a new hidden Markov model formulation, where the expectation-maximization algorithm for training is modified to deal with observations consisting in vectors in a unit simplex. Extensive experiments in recognition have been performed using one-shot learning over the public datasets Weizmann, KTH, and IXMAS. These experiments demonstrate the discriminative properties of the representation and the validity of application in recognition systems, achieving state-of-the-art results.

  6. Evaluation of Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models for Groundwater Potential Mapping Using R and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped and analyzed groundwater potential using two different models, logistic regression (LR and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and compared the results. A spatial database was constructed for groundwater well data and groundwater influence factors. Groundwater well data with a high potential yield of ≥70 m3/d were extracted, and 859 locations (70% were used for model training, whereas the other 365 locations (30% were used for model validation. We analyzed 16 groundwater influence factors including altitude, slope degree, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, distance from drainage, drainage density, lithology, distance from fault, fault density, distance from lineament, lineament density, and land cover. Groundwater potential maps (GPMs were constructed using LR and MARS models and tested using a receiver operating characteristics curve. Based on this analysis, the area under the curve (AUC for the success rate curve of GPMs created using the MARS and LR models was 0.867 and 0.838, and the AUC for the prediction rate curve was 0.836 and 0.801, respectively. This implies that the MARS model is useful and effective for groundwater potential analysis in the study area.

  7. Adaptive Fuzzy Output Regulation for Formation Control of Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shaobao; Er, Meng Joo; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the formation control problem of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) is investigated. Unlike the classical formation control problem where the reference signal is required to be second-order differentiable with respect to time, we consider a more general autonomous dynamic system...

  8. Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: Estimates of selection and QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Jon; Oakley, Christopher G; Lundemo, Sverre; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic trade-offs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL). There was strong selection for early flowering in Italy, but weak selection in Sweden. Eleven distinct flowering time QTL were detected, and for each the Italian genotype caused earlier flowering. Twenty-seven candidate genes were identified, two of which (FLC and VIN3) appear under major flowering time QTL in Italy. Seven of eight QTL in Italy with narrow credible intervals colocalized with previously reported fitness QTL, in comparison to three of four in Sweden. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of selection on flowering time differs strikingly between our study populations, that the genetic basis of flowering time variation is multigenic with some QTL of large effect, and suggest that divergence in flowering time between ecotypes is due mainly to conditional neutrality. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Genome Sequencing and Mapping Reveal Loss of Heterozygosity as a Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation in the Vegetable Pathogen Phytophthora capsici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamour, Kurt H.; Mudge, Joann; Gobena, Daniel; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Kuo, Alan; Miller, Neil A.; Rice, Brandon J.; Raffaele, Sylvain; Cano, Liliana M.; Bharti, Arvind K.; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Finely, Sabra; Huitema, Edgar; Hulvey, Jon; Platt, Darren; Salamov, Asaf; Savidor, Alon; Sharma, Rahul; Stam, Remco; Sotrey, Dylan; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Haas, Brian J.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Jenkins, Jerry; Knight, James R.; Affourtit, Jason P.; Han, Cliff S.; Chertkov, Olga; Lindquist, Erika A.; Detter, Chris; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kamoun, Sophien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2012-02-07

    The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic or genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in diverse isolates. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30percent of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single-nucleotide variant sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici.

  10. Reducing sick leave of Dutch vocational school students: adaptation of a sick leave protocol using the intervention mapping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bulthuis, Jozien; Mulder, Wico; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Since the extent of sick leave and the problems of vocational school students are relatively large, we aimed to tailor a sick leave protocol at Dutch lower secondary education schools to the particular context of vocational schools. Four steps of the iterative process of Intervention Mapping (IM) to adapt this protocol were carried out: (1) performing a needs assessment and defining a program objective, (2) determining the performance and change objectives, (3) identifying theory-based methods and practical strategies and (4) developing a program plan. Interviews with students using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders, a literature research and, finally, a pilot implementation were carried out. A sick leave protocol was developed that was feasible and acceptable for all stakeholders. The main barriers for widespread implementation are time constraints in both monitoring and acting upon sick leave by school and youth health care. The iterative process of IM has shown its merits in the adaptation of the manual 'A quick return to school is much better' to a sick leave protocol for vocational school students.

  11. Information-Fusion Methods Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Robot Adapting to Search and Rescue Postdisaster Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first application of utilizing unique information-fusion SLAM (IF-SLAM methods is developed for mobile robots performing simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM adapting to search and rescue (SAR environments in this paper. Several fusion approaches, parallel measurements filtering, exploration trajectories fusing, and combination sensors’ measurements and mobile robots’ trajectories, are proposed. The novel integration particle filter (IPF and optimal improved EKF (IEKF algorithms are derived for information-fusion systems to perform SLAM task in SAR scenarios. The information-fusion architecture consists of multirobots and multisensors (MAM; multiple robots mount on-board laser range finder (LRF sensors, localization sonars, gyro odometry, Kinect-sensor, RGB-D camera, and other proprioceptive sensors. This information-fusion SLAM (IF-SLAM is compared with conventional methods, which indicates that fusion trajectory is more consistent with estimated trajectories and real observation trajectories. The simulations and experiments of SLAM process are conducted in both cluttered indoor environment and outdoor collapsed unstructured scenario, and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed information-fusion methods in improving SLAM performances adapting to SAR scenarios.

  12. Systems Analysis of Adaptive Responses to MAP Kinase Pathway Blockade in BRAF Mutant Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Capaldo

    Full Text Available Fifty percent of cutaneous melanomas are driven by activated BRAFV600E, but tumors treated with RAF inhibitors, even when they respond dramatically, rapidly adapt and develop resistance. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify the major mechanisms of intrinsic and adaptive resistance and develop drug combinations that target these resistance mechanisms. In a combinatorial drug screen on a panel of 12 treatment-naïve BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cell lines of varying levels of resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway inhibition, we identified the combination of PLX4720, a targeted inhibitor of mutated BRaf, and lapatinib, an inhibitor of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, as synergistically cytotoxic in the subset of cell lines that displayed the most resistance to PLX4720. To identify potential mechanisms of resistance to PLX4720 treatment and synergy with lapatinib treatment, we performed a multi-platform functional genomics analysis to profile the genome as well as the transcriptional and proteomic responses of these cell lines to treatment with PLX4720. We found modest levels of resistance correlated with the zygosity of the BRAF V600E allele and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK mutational status. Layered over base-line resistance was substantial upregulation of many ErbB pathway genes in response to BRaf inhibition, thus generating the vulnerability to combination with lapatinib. The transcriptional responses of ErbB pathway genes are associated with a number of transcription factors, including ETS2 and its associated cofactors that represent a convergent regulatory mechanism conferring synergistic drug susceptibility in the context of diverse mutational landscapes.

  13. Selected Data for Wells and Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Janet M

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota...

  14. A knowledge representation approach using fuzzy cognitive maps for better navigation support in an adaptive learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysafiadi, Konstantina; Virvou, Maria

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a knowledge representation approach of an adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system is presented. The domain knowledge should be represented in a more realistic way in order to allow the adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system to deliver the learning material to each individual learner dynamically taking into account her/his learning needs and her/his different learning pace. To succeed this, the domain knowledge representation has to depict the possible increase or decrease of the learner's knowledge. Considering that the domain concepts that constitute the learning material are not independent from each other, the knowledge representation approach has to allow the system to recognize either the domain concepts that are already partly or completely known for a learner, or the domain concepts that s/he has forgotten, taking into account the learner's knowledge level of the related concepts. In other words, the system should be informed about the knowledge dependencies that exist among the domain concepts of the learning material, as well as the strength on impact of each domain concept on others. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) seem to be an ideal way for representing graphically this kind of information. The suggested knowledge representation approach has been implemented in an e-learning adaptive system for teaching computer programming. The particular system was used by the students of a postgraduate program in the field of Informatics in the University of Piraeus and was compared with a corresponding system, in which the domain knowledge was represented using the most common used technique of network of concepts. The results of the evaluation were very encouraging.

  15. The semantic connectivity map: an adapting self-organising knowledge discovery method in data bases. Experience in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Grossi, Enzo

    2008-01-01

    We describe here a new mapping method able to find out connectivity traces among variables thanks to an artificial adaptive system, the Auto Contractive Map (AutoCM), able to define the strength of the associations of each variable with all the others in a dataset. After the training phase, the weights matrix of the AutoCM represents the map of the main connections between the variables. The example of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease data base is extremely useful to figure out how this new approach can help to re-design the overall structure of factors related to complex and specific diseases description.

  16. System and method for the adaptive mapping of matrix data to sets of polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, David (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for converting bitmapped data, for example, weather data or thermal imaging data, to polygons is disclosed. The conversion of the data into polygons creates smaller data files. The invention is adaptive in that it allows for a variable degree of fidelity of the polygons. Matrix data is obtained. A color value is obtained. The color value is a variable used in the creation of the polygons. A list of cells to check is determined based on the color value. The list of cells to check is examined in order to determine a boundary list. The boundary list is then examined to determine vertices. The determination of the vertices is based on a prescribed maximum distance. When drawn, the ordered list of vertices create polygons which depict the cell data. The data files which include the vertices for the polygons are much smaller than the corresponding cell data files. The fidelity of the polygon representation can be adjusted by repeating the logic with varying fidelity values to achieve a given maximum file size or a maximum number of vertices per polygon.

  17. Health risk in the context of climate change and adaptation - Concept and mapping as an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienberger, S.; Notenbaert, A.; Zeil, P.; Bett, B.; Hagenlocher, M.; Omolo, A.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change has been stated as being one of the greatest challenges to global health in the current century. Climate change impacts on human health and the socio-economic and related poverty consequences are however still poorly understood. While epidemiological issues are strongly coupled with environmental and climatic parameters, the social and economic circumstances of populations might be of equal or even greater importance when trying to identify vulnerable populations and design appropriate and well-targeted adaptation measures. The inter-linkage between climate change, human health risk and socio-economic impacts remains an important - but largely outstanding - research field. We present an overview on how risk is traditionally being conceptualised in the human health domain and reflect critically on integrated approaches as being currently used in the climate change context. The presentation will also review existing approaches, and how they can be integrated towards adaptation tools. Following this review, an integrated risk concept is being presented, which has been currently adapted under the EC FP7 research project (HEALTHY FUTURES; http://www.healthyfutures.eu/). In this approach, health risk is not only defined through the disease itself (as hazard) but also by the inherent vulnerability of the system, population or region under study. It is in fact the interaction of environment and society that leads to the development of diseases and the subsequent risk of being negatively affected by it. In this conceptual framework vulnerability is being attributed to domains of lack of resilience as well as underlying preconditions determining susceptibilities. To fulfil a holistic picture vulnerability can be associated to social, economic, environmental, institutional, cultural and physical dimensions. The proposed framework also establishes the important nexus to adaptation and how different measures can be related to avoid disease outbreaks, reduce

  18. Effectiveness of Adaptive Concept Maps for Promoting Conceptual Understanding: Findings from a Design-Based Case Study of a Learner-Centered Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jacob; Williams, Christopher B.; North, Christopher; Johri, Aditya; Paretti, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Traditional instructional materials such as textbooks contain significant educational content, but the navigational mechanisms to access that content are limited and, more importantly, not designed with learning in mind. To address this gap, we present the Adaptive Map, a novel organization and navigation tool designed to help students better…

  19. Adapted Intervention Mapping: A Strategic Planning Process for Increasing Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Opportunities in Schools via Environment and Policy Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belansky, Elaine S.; Cutforth, Nick; Chavez, Robert; Crane, Lori A.; Waters, Emily; Marshall, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School environment and policy changes have increased healthy eating and physical activity; however, there has been modest success in translating research ?ndings to practice. The School Environment Project tested whether an adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) resulted in school change. Methods: Using a pair randomized design,…

  20. SNPFile - A software library and file format for large scale association mapping and population genetics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper; Mailund, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background High-throughput genotyping technology has enabled cost effective typing of thousands of individuals in hundred of thousands of markers for use in genome wide studies. This vast improvement in data acquisition technology makes it an informatics challenge to efficiently store and manipul......Background High-throughput genotyping technology has enabled cost effective typing of thousands of individuals in hundred of thousands of markers for use in genome wide studies. This vast improvement in data acquisition technology makes it an informatics challenge to efficiently store...... together with any kind of additional data, using a flexible serialisation mechanism. The format is designed to be IO efficient for the access patterns of most multi-locus analysis methods. Conclusion The new file format has been very useful for our own studies where it has significantly reduced...... by a scripting interfaces that makes it easy to write converters to and from the format....

  1. Selection of a site adapted to the realization of an underground laboratory in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvegnu, F.

    1984-01-01

    Research carried out in Italy by ENEA for site selection of an underground laboratory in a clay formation are presented. Mine roadways, abandoned tunnels, natural or artificial escarpments are prospected. The Pasquasia potash mine in Sicily was selected. The decline reach the lower pliocen starta from -110m to -200m below surface through a clay formation. The site selected for the laboratory is 160 m deep. A 50 meter-long horizontal tunnel will be dug. Experiments planned include thermal, hydrological, mechanical and thermomechanical behavior of clays. Data on temperature variations, interstitial fluid pressure, total pressure, deformations produced by a heater placed in clay will be obtained. Data related to mechanical behavior of formation will be recorded before, during and after the construction of the gallerie. Convergence of borehole will be also studied

  2. Mapping Variability in the Medusae Fossae Formation: Yardang Morphologies, Fluvial Reworking, and Crater Depth to Diameter Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuller, A. R.; Kerber, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a voluminous, fine-grained deposit thought to be of pyroclastic origin. While it contains widespread, well-preserved inverted fluvial features, its pervasive cover of dust means that little is known about its composition, and indirect means must be used to characterize its material properties. This project aims to correlate fluvial features in the Western MFF with other indicators of material strength: yardang morphology and crater depth-to-diameter ratios. For this work, Context Camera (CTX) images were used to map features of fluvial origin (inverted channels, sinuous ridges, alluvial fans). The presence of rounded, meso-yardangs in close proximity to fluvial features was also mapped. Crater depth-diameter (d/D) ratios (for craters 1-512km) were analyzed using a global Mars crater database (Robbins and Hynek, 2012) as a proxy for material strength. Approximately 1400 fluvial segments were mapped, with the most populous cluster located in Aeolis and Zephyria Plana. Rounded meso-yardangs were found to be common in areas that also have fluvial features. In agreement with previous work (Barlow, 1993), MFF craters were found to have a greater d/D ratio (0.0523) than the global mean (0.0511). Ratios between MFF lobes differ significantly, providing insight into the heterogeneity of induration within the formation. The deepest craters are found in Eumenides Dorsum and the shallowest in Aeolis Planum, consistent with a greater degree of induration and reworking in the western part of the formation where the fluvial features and "salt-playa" meso-yardangs are found. It also suggests that Eumenides, which is the tallest MFF outcrop, could also be the least compacted. The presence of long, complex, and sometimes overlapping branching networks imply multiple relative episodes of channel formation. Rounded meso-yardangs, which are associated with salt playa surfaces on Earth, provide additional evidence for the presence of liquid water

  3. The effect of shyness on children's formation and retention of novel word-object mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Matt; Westermann, Gert

    2017-11-01

    This study set out to examine whether shyness, an aversion to novelty and unfamiliar social situations, can affect the processes that underlie early word learning. Twenty-four-month-old children (n =32) were presented with sets of one novel and two familiar objects, and it was found that shyer children were less likely to select a novel object as the referent of a novel label. Furthermore, not-shy children then showed evidence of retaining these novel mappings, but shy children did not. These findings suggest that shy children's aversion to novelty and to the unfamiliar context can impact on their word learning.

  4. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  5. Assessment of fusion facility dose rate map using mesh adaptivity enhancements of hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Wilson, Paul P.; Sawan, Mohamed E.; Mosher, Scott W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Calculate the prompt dose rate everywhere throughout the entire fusion energy facility. •Utilize FW-CADIS to accurately perform difficult neutronics calculations for fusion energy systems. •Develop three mesh adaptivity algorithms to enhance FW-CADIS efficiency in fusion-neutronics calculations. -- Abstract: Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer

  6. Nucleotide synthesis is regulated by cytoophidium formation during neurodevelopment and adaptive metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel N. Aughey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential metabolic enzyme CTP synthase (CTPsyn can be compartmentalised to form an evolutionarily-conserved intracellular structure termed the cytoophidium. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the enzymatic activity of CTPsyn is attenuated by incorporation into cytoophidia in bacteria and yeast cells. Here we demonstrate that CTPsyn is regulated in a similar manner in Drosophila tissues in vivo. We show that cytoophidium formation occurs during nutrient deprivation in cultured cells, as well as in quiescent and starved neuroblasts of the Drosophila larval central nervous system. We also show that cytoophidia formation is reversible during neurogenesis, indicating that filament formation regulates pyrimidine synthesis in a normal developmental context. Furthermore, our global metabolic profiling demonstrates that CTPsyn overexpression does not significantly alter CTPsyn-related enzymatic activity, suggesting that cytoophidium formation facilitates metabolic stabilisation. In addition, we show that overexpression of CTPsyn only results in moderate increase of CTP pool in human stable cell lines. Together, our study provides experimental evidence, and a mathematical model, for the hypothesis that inactive CTPsyn is incorporated into cytoophidia.

  7. Formation and adaptation of memory : Neurobiological mechanisms underlying learning and reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region that plays a critical role in memory formation. In addition, it has been suggested that this brain region is important for ‘updating’ information that is incorrect or outdated. The main goal of this thesis project was to investigate which neurobiological processes

  8. Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Lakshmi Planum is a high-standing plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing crustal plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes and played an important role in Venus geologic history. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 and Magellan data, resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual topographic and morphologic characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, formation of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of formation and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit predictions about the type and sequence of major events during formation and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological mapping can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological mapping (the V-7 quadrangle, 50-75degN, 300-360degE; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi.

  9. Maps of Fe-Al phases formation kinetics parameters during isothermal sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochec, Ewelina, E-mail: epochec@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology (Poland); Jozwiak, Stanislaw; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Bojar, Zbigniew [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology (Poland)

    2012-10-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sintering temperature and compaction pressure have a strong influence on the sinters structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measurements confirmed the presence of the high-aluminium phases from Fe-Al equilibrium system in tested sinters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetics of Fe-Al phase formation can be described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami modelling. - Abstract: The influence of technological parameters (compaction pressure and sintering temperature) on Fe-Al phase formation was investigated. The kinetics of phase transformation preceding and during an SHS reaction was studied in isothermal conditions by DSC using the JMA (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami) model. This model allowed us to determine basic kinetic parameters, including the Avrami exponent, which characterises the rate and manner of particular phase nucleation. The activation energy (E{sub a}) of particular phase formation was determined by the Kissinger method. XRD analysis and SEM observations of sintered material showed that not only Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} phase and low-aluminium solid solution in iron but also aluminium-rich FeAl{sub 2} and FeAl{sub 3} phases are formed during the sintering of an FeAl50 elementary powder mixture in isothermal conditions with an SHS reaction. The above conclusions were confirmed by iron-based solid solution lattice parameter studies and microhardness measurements.

  10. RLAM: A Dynamic and Efficient Reinforcement Learning-Based Adaptive Mapping Scheme in Mobile WiMAX Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Louta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access constitutes a candidate networking technology towards the 4G vision realization. By adopting the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA technique, the latest IEEE 802.16x amendments manage to provide QoS-aware access services with full mobility support. A number of interesting scheduling and mapping schemes have been proposed in research literature. However, they neglect a considerable asset of the OFDMA-based wireless systems: the dynamic adjustment of the downlink-to-uplink width ratio. In order to fully exploit the supported mobile WiMAX features, we design, develop, and evaluate a rigorous adaptive model, which inherits its main aspects from the reinforcement learning field. The model proposed endeavours to efficiently determine the downlink-to-uplinkwidth ratio, on a frame-by-frame basis, taking into account both the downlink and uplink traffic in the Base Station (BS. Extensive evaluation results indicate that the model proposed succeeds in providing quite accurate estimations, keeping the average error rate below 15% with respect to the optimal sub-frame configurations. Additionally, it presents improved performance compared to other learning methods (e.g., learning automata and notable improvements compared to static schemes that maintain a fixed predefined ratio in terms of service ratio and resource utilization.

  11. Database of the Geologic Map of North America - Adapted from the Map by J.C. Reed, Jr. and others (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Soller, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The Geological Society of America's (GSA) Geologic Map of North America (Reed and others, 2005; 1:5,000,000) shows the geology of a significantly large area of the Earth, centered on North and Central America and including the submarine geology of parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This map is now converted to a Geographic Information System (GIS) database that contains all geologic and base-map information shown on the two printed map sheets and the accompanying explanation sheet. We anticipate this map database will be revised at some unspecified time in the future, likely through the actions of a steering committee managed by the Geological Society of America (GSA) and staffed by scientists from agencies including, but not limited to, those responsible for the original map compilation (U.S. Geological Survey, Geological Survey of Canada, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute). Regarding the use of this product, as noted by the map's compilers: 'The Geologic Map of North America is an essential educational tool for teaching the geology of North America to university students and for the continuing education of professional geologists in North America and elsewhere. In addition, simplified maps derived from the Geologic Map of North America are useful for enlightening younger students and the general public about the geology of the continent.' With publication of this database, the preparation of any type of simplified map is made significantly easier. More important perhaps, the database provides a more accessible means to explore the map information and to compare and analyze it in conjunction with other types of information (for example, land use, soils, biology) to better understand the complex interrelations among factors that affect Earth resources, hazards, ecosystems, and climate.

  12. Formative study conducted in five countries to adapt the community popular opinion leader intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    To obtain information about the social and cultural factors related to health behaviors influencing HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission in study communities in China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe so that the assessment and intervention of the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial could be adapted appropriately. Field observations, focus groups, in-depth interviews with key informants, and an observation of community social dynamics were conducted as part of a rapid ethnographic assessment. All five sites reported a power dynamic tilted towards men, which rendered women particularly vulnerable to HIV and other STDs. Women's relative lack of power was exemplified by a double standard for extramarital sex, women's limited ability to negotiate sex or condom use, and sexual and physical violence against women. In all sites except Russia, extramarital sex is tolerated for men but proscribed for women. In Peru, power dynamics between men who have sex with men were tilted towards men who self-identified as heterosexual. Condom use (reported to be low across all sites) was often linked to having sex with only those perceived as high-risk partners. Regardless of site or study population, participants agreed on the following characteristics of an ideal community popular opinion leader (C-POL): respectable, credible, experienced (life and sexual), trustworthy, empathetic, well-spoken, and self-confident. The ethnographic studies provided critical information that enabled the study teams to adapt elements of the Trial in culturally appropriate ways in diverse international settings.

  13. Adaptive panoramic tomography with a circular rotational movement for the formation of multifocal image layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. S.; Cho, H. S.; Park, Y. O.; Je, U. K.; Hong, D. K.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Panoramic radiography with which only structures within a certain image layer are in focus and others out of focus on the panoramic image has become a popular imaging technique especially in dentistry. However, the major drawback to the technique is a mismatch between the structures to be focused and the predefined image layer mainly due to the various shapes and sizes of dental arches and/or to malpositioning of the patient. These result in image quality typically inferior to that obtained using intraoral radiographic techniques. In this paper, to overcome these difficulties, we suggest a new panoramic reconstruction algorithm, the so-called adaptive panoramic tomography (APT), capable of reconstructing multifocal image layers with no additional exposure. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies with a circular rotational movement and investigated the image performance.

  14. A mathematical model for adaptive vein formation during exploratory migration of Physarum polycephalum: routing while scouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenz, Daniel; Shima, Yasuaki; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2017-11-01

    Exploring free space (scouting) efficiently is a non-trivial task for organisms of limited perception, such as the amoeboid Physarum polycephalum. However, the strategy behind its exploratory behaviour has not yet been characterised. In this organism, as the extension of the frontal part into free space is directly supported by the transport of body mass from behind, the formation of transport channels (routing) plays the main role in that strategy. Here, we study the organism’s exploration by letting it expand through a corridor of constant width. When turning at a corner of the corridor, the organism constructed a main transport vein tracing a centre-in-centre line. We argue that this is efficient for mass transport due to its short length, and check this intuition with a new algorithm that can predict the main vein’s position from the frontal tip’s progression. We then present a numerical model that incorporates reaction-diffusion dynamics for the behaviour of the organism’s growth front and current reinforcement dynamics for the formation of the vein network in its wake, as well as interactions between the two. The accuracy of the model is tested against the behaviour of the real organism and the importance of the interaction between growth tip dynamics and vein network development is analysed by studying variants of the model. We conclude by offering a biological interpretation of the well-known current reinforcement rule in the context of the natural exploratory behaviour of Physarum polycephalum.

  15. Olfactory map formation in the Drosophila brain: genetic specificity and neuronal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochtrup, Anna; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The development of the Drosophila olfactory system is a striking example of how genetic programs specify a large number of different neuron types and assemble them into functional circuits. To ensure precise odorant perception, each sensory neuron has to not only select a single olfactory receptor (OR) type out of a large genomic repertoire but also segregate its synaptic connections in the brain according to the OR class identity. Specification and patterning of second-order interneurons in the olfactory brain center occur largely independent of sensory input, followed by a precise point-to-point matching of sensory and relay neurons. Here we describe recent progress in the understanding of how cell-intrinsic differentiation programs and context-dependent cellular interactions generate a stereotyped sensory map in the Drosophila brain. Recent findings revealed an astonishing morphological diversity among members of the same interneuron class, suggesting an unexpected variability in local microcircuits involved in insect sensory processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CSO BOLOCAM 1.1 mm CONTINUUM MAPPING OF THE BRAID NEBULA STAR FORMATION REGION IN CYGNUS OB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, Colin; Beck, Tracy L.; Davis, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.1 mm map of the Braid Nebula star formation region in Cygnus OB7 taken using Bolocam on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Within the 1 deg 2 covered by the map, we have detected 55 cold dust clumps all of which are new detections. A number of these clumps are coincident with IRAS point sources although the majority are not. Some of the previously studied optical/near-IR sources are detected at 1.1 mm. We estimate total dust/gas masses for the 55 clumps together with peak visual extinctions. We conclude that over the whole region, approximately 20% of the clumps are associated with IRAS sources suggesting that these are protostellar objects. The remaining 80% are classed as starless clumps. In addition, both FU Orionis (FUor) like objects in the field, the Braid Star and HH 381 IRS, are associated with strong millimeter emission. This implies that FUor eruptions can occur at very early stages of pre-main-sequence life. Finally, we determine that the cumulative clump mass function for the region is very similar to that found in both the Perseus and ρ Ophiuchus star-forming regions.

  17. Use of intervention mapping to adapt a health behavior change intervention for endometrial cancer survivors: the shape-up following cancer treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutoukidis, Dimitrios A; Lopes, Sonia; Atkins, Lou; Croker, Helen; Knobf, M Tish; Lanceley, Anne; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2018-03-27

    About 80% of endometrial cancer survivors (ECS) are overweight or obese and have sedentary behaviors. Lifestyle behavior interventions are promising for improving dietary and physical activity behaviors, but the constructs associated with their effectiveness are often inadequately reported. The aim of this study was to systematically adapt an evidence-based behavior change program to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in ECS. Following a review of the literature, focus groups and interviews were conducted with ECS (n = 16). An intervention mapping protocol was used for the program adaptation, which consisted of six steps: a needs assessment, formulation of matrices of change objectives, selection of theoretical methods and practical applications, program production, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning. Social Cognitive Theory and Control Theory guided the adaptation of the intervention. The process consisted of eight 90-min group sessions focusing on shaping outcome expectations, knowledge, self-efficacy, and goals about healthy eating and physical activity. The adapted performance objectives included establishment of regular eating, balanced diet, and portion sizes, reduction in sedentary behaviors, increase in lifestyle and organized activities, formulation of a discrepancy-reducing feedback loop for all above behaviors, and trigger management. Information on managing fatigue and bowel issues unique to ECS were added. Systematic intervention mapping provided a framework to design a cancer survivor-centered lifestyle intervention. ECS welcomed the intervention and provided essential feedback for its adaptation. The program has been evaluated through a randomized controlled trial.

  18. A Python package for parsing, validating, mapping and formatting sequence variants using HGVS nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Reece K; Rico, Rudolph; Hare, Emily; Garcia, John; Westbrook, Jody; Fusaro, Vincent A

    2015-01-15

    Biological sequence variants are commonly represented in scientific literature, clinical reports and databases of variation using the mutation nomenclature guidelines endorsed by the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS). Despite the widespread use of the standard, no freely available and comprehensive programming libraries are available. Here we report an open-source and easy-to-use Python library that facilitates the parsing, manipulation, formatting and validation of variants according to the HGVS specification. The current implementation focuses on the subset of the HGVS recommendations that precisely describe sequence-level variation relevant to the application of high-throughput sequencing to clinical diagnostics. The package is released under the Apache 2.0 open-source license. Source code, documentation and issue tracking are available at http://bitbucket.org/hgvs/hgvs/. Python packages are available at PyPI (https://pypi.python.org/pypi/hgvs). Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. MAPPING THE SHORES OF THE BROWN DWARF DESERT. II. MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION IN TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Martinache, Frantz; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution imaging study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region in order to characterize the primordial outcome of multiple star formation and the extent of the brown dwarf desert. Our survey identified 16 new binary companions to primary stars with masses of 0.25-2.5 M sun , raising the total number of binary pairs (including components of high-order multiples) with separations of 3-5000 AU to 90. We find that ∼2/3-3/4 of all Taurus members are multiple systems of two or more stars, while the other ∼1/4-1/3 appear to have formed as single stars; the distribution of high-order multiplicity suggests that fragmentation into a wide binary has no impact on the subsequent probability that either component will fragment again. The separation distribution for solar-type stars (0.7-2.5 M sun ) is nearly log-flat over separations of 3-5000 AU, but lower-mass stars (0.25-0.7 M sun ) show a paucity of binary companions with separations of ∼>200 AU. Across this full mass range, companion masses are well described with a linear-flat function; all system mass ratios (q = M B /M A ) are equally probable, apparently including substellar companions. Our results are broadly consistent with the two expected modes of binary formation (free-fall fragmentation on large scales and disk fragmentation on small scales), but the distributions provide some clues as to the epochs at which the companions are likely to form.

  20. Genetic adaptation of Streptococcus mutans during biofilm formation on different types of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharoni Reuven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular modifications occurring during in vitro biofilm development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 on several different dental surfaces. Results Growth analysis of the immobilized bacterial populations generated on the different surfaces shows that the bacteria constructed a more confluent and thick biofilms on a hydroxyapatite surface compared to the other tested surfaces. Using DNA-microarray technology we identified the differentially expressed genes of S. mutans, reflecting the physiological state of biofilms formed on the different biomaterials tested. Eight selected genes were further analyzed by real time RT-PCR. To further determine the impact of the tested material surfaces on the physiology of the bacteria, we tested the secretion of AI-2 signal by S. mutans embedded on those biofilms. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated on changes in the S. mutans genome in biofilms formed onto different types of surfaces and enabled us to identify genes most differentially expressed on those surfaces. In addition, the levels of autoinducer-2 in biofilms from the various tested surfaces were different. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gene expression of S. mutans differs in biofilms formed on tested surfaces, which manifest the physiological state of bacteria influenced by the type of surface material they accumulate onto. Moreover, the stressful circumstances of adjustment to the surface may persist in the bacteria enhancing intercellular signaling and surface dependent biofilm formation.

  1. Adaptation of the perfect linear model for ion beam formation to the case of plasma sources with electron electrostatic containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, Ph.; Aubert, J.; Lejeune, C.

    1991-01-01

    The extensive development of ion beam technologies in the last years, in particular for thin film deposition and etching, poses the problem of predicting the behaviour of the ion beam from convenient models. One of the existing models, the 'perfect linear model', is easy to use and provides information about the geometrical parameters of the ion beam envelope. In this model, however, the plasma potential must be close to the plasma electrode potential. Now, ion sources with electrostatic containment of the ionizing electrons -very attractive because of their improved ionization efficiency - have a plasma potential higher than the plasma electrode potential. Thus, a space-charge sheath with a non-negligible thickness exists, which modifies the equilibrium conditions of the plasma meniscus and, therefore, the initial divergence of the ion beam. In this paper an adaptation of the perfect linear model for ion beam formation to the case of plasma sources with electron electrostatic containment is presented. (author)

  2. The Formation of Rational and Irrational Behaviors in Risky Investment Decision Making: Laboratory Experiment of Coping Theory Implication in Investors’ Adaptation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Wendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the stock investor's rational and irrational behavior formation through Investor's Adaptation model. Hypotheses testings were conducted by manipulating four market conditions using between-subject experimental design. The results supported the hypotheses proposed in this study. When given treatment one (opportunity-high control, investors tended to adapt the profit maximizing strategy (rational. Meanwhile, when given treatment two (opportunity-low control, three (threat-high control and four (threat-low control, they tended to adapt the profit satisfying strategy (rational-emotional, bad news handling strategy (emotional-rational, and self-preserving strategy (irrational respectively. The application of rational strategies are intended to obtain personal benefits and profit, while adapting irrational strategy is intended to recover emotional stability and reduce some other tensions. Another finding showed that for the investors, the relatively irrational decision formation was "harder" than that of rational.

  3. Vascular Adaptation: Pattern Formation and Cross Validation between an Agent Based Model and a Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbey, Marc; Casarin, Stefano; Berceli, Scott A

    2017-09-21

    Myocardial infarction is the global leading cause of mortality (Go et al., 2014). Coronary artery occlusion is its main etiology and it is commonly treated by Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery (Wilson et al, 2007). The long-term outcome remains unsatisfactory (Benedetto, 2016) as the graft faces the phenomenon of restenosis during the post-surgery, which consists of re-occlusion of the lumen and usually requires secondary intervention even within one year after the initial surgery (Harskamp, 2013). In this work, we propose an extensive study of the restenosis phenomenon by implementing two mathematical models previously developed by our group: a heuristic Dynamical System (DS) (Garbey and Berceli, 2013), and a stochastic Agent Based Model (ABM) (Garbey et al., 2015). With an extensive use of the ABM, we retrieved the pattern formations of the cellular events that mainly lead the restenosis, especially focusing on mitosis in intima, caused by alteration in shear stress, and mitosis in media, fostered by alteration in wall tension. A deep understanding of the elements at the base of the restenosis is indeed crucial in order to improve the final outcome of vein graft bypass. We also turned the ABM closer to the physiological reality by abating its original assumption of circumferential symmetry. This allowed us to finely replicate the trigger event of the restenosis, i.e. the loss of the endothelium in the early stage of the post-surgical follow up (Roubos et al., 1995) and to simulate the encroachment of the lumen in a fashion aligned with histological evidences (Owens et al., 2015). Finally, we cross-validated the two models by creating an accurate matching procedure. In this way we added the degree of accuracy given by the ABM to a simplified model (DS) that can serve as powerful predictive tool for the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Formation of Rational and Irrational Behaviors in Risky Investment Decision Making: Laboratory Experiment of Coping Theory Implication in Investors' Adaptation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Wendy; Marwan Asri; Jogiyanto Hartono

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the stock investor's rational and irrational behavior formation through Investor's Adaptation model. Hypotheses testings were conducted by manipulating four market conditions using between-subject experimental design. The results supported the hypotheses proposed in this study. When given treatment one (opportunity-high control), investors tended to adapt the profit maximizing strategy (rational). Meanwhile, when given treatment two (opportunity-low control), three (threat-...

  5. SPITZER MAPPING OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN PURE ROTATIONAL LINES IN NGC 1333: A DETAILED STUDY OF FEEDBACK IN STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maret, Sebastien; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neufeld, David A.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Yuan Yuan; Green, Joel D.; Watson, Dan M.; Harwit, Martin O.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker; Werner, Michael W.; Willacy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectral maps of the NGC 1333 star-forming region, obtained with the infrared spectrometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. Eight pure H 2 rotational lines, from S(0) to S(7), are detected and mapped. The H 2 emission appears to be associated with the warm gas shocked by the multiple outflows present in the region. A comparison between the observed intensities and the predictions of detailed shock models indicates that the emission arises in both slow (12-24 km s -1 ) and fast (36-53 km s -1 ) C-type shocks with an initial ortho-to-para ratio (opr) ∼ 2 opr exhibits a large degree of spatial variations. In the postshocked gas, it is usually about 2, i.e., close to the equilibrium value (∼3). However, around at least two outflows, we observe a region with a much lower (∼0.5) opr. This region probably corresponds to gas which has been heated up recently by the passage of a shock front, but whose ortho-to-para has not reached equilibrium yet. This, together with the low initial opr needed to reproduce the observed emission, provide strong evidence that H 2 is mostly in para form in cold molecular clouds. The H 2 lines are found to contribute to 25%-50% of the total outflow luminosity, and thus can be used to ascertain the importance of star formation feedback on the natal cloud. From these lines, we determine the outflow mass loss rate and, indirectly, the stellar infall rate, the outflow momentum and the kinetic energy injected into the cloud over the embedded phase. The latter is found to exceed the binding energy of individual cores, suggesting that outflows could be the main mechanism for core disruption.

  6. MAPS OF MASSIVE CLUMPS IN THE EARLY STAGE OF CLUSTER FORMATION: TWO MODES OF CLUSTER FORMATION, COEVAL OR NON-COEVAL?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Aya E.; Saito, Masao; Mauersberger, Rainer; Kawabe, Ryohei [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Kurono, Yasutaka; Naoi, Takahiro, E-mail: ahiguchi@alma.cl [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-10

    We present maps of seven young massive molecular clumps within five target regions in C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) line emission, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. These clumps, which are not associated with clusters, lie at distances between 0.7 and 2.1 kpc. We find C{sup 18}O clumps with radii of 0.5-1.7 pc, masses of 470-4200 M{sub Sun }, and velocity widths of 1.4-3.3 km s{sup -1}. All of the clumps are massive and approximately in virial equilibrium, suggesting they will potentially form clusters. Three of our target regions are associated with H II regions (CWHRs), while the other two are unassociated with H II regions (CWOHRs). The C{sup 18}O clumps can be classified into two morphological types: CWHRs with a filamentary or shell-like structure and spherical CWOHRs. The two CWOHRs have systematic velocity gradients. Using the publicly released WISE database, Class I and Class II protostellar candidates are identified within the C{sup 18}O clumps. The fraction of Class I candidates among all YSO candidates (Class I+Class II) is {>=}50% in CWHRs and {<=}50% in CWOHRs. We conclude that effects from the H II regions can be seen in (1) the spatial distributions of the clumps: filamentary or shell-like structure running along the H II regions; (2) the velocity structures of the clumps: large velocity dispersion along shells; and (3) the small age spreads of YSOs. The small spreads in age of the YSOs show that the presence of H II regions tends to trigger coeval cluster formation.

  7. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...

  8. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.; Iqbal, M.A.; Farid, A.; Shabih, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio

  9. MAPPING SPATIAL/TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF GREEN MACROALGAE IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL ESTUARY VIA SMALL FORMAT COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small format 35 mm hand-held camera with color infrared slide film was used to map blooms of benthic green macroalgae upon mudflats of Yaquina Bay estuary on the central Oregon coast, U.S.A. Oblique photographs were taken during a series of low tide events, when the intertidal...

  10. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.

    2011-02-24

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson\\'s ratio) are analysed after a detailed sequence stratigraphic study. Sequence stratigraphy helps to comprehend the depositional model of sand and shale. Conformity has been established between seismic stratigraphy and the pattern achieved from rock physics investigations, which further helped in the identification of gas saturation zones for the reservoir. Rheological studies have been done to map the shear strain occurring in the area. This involves the contouring of shear strain values throughout the area under consideration. Contour maps give a picture of shear strain over the Lower Goru Formation. The identified and the productive zones are described by sands, high reflection strengths, rock physical anomalous areas and low shear strain.

  11. Adaptation of regulatory information and knowledge through knowledge maps in the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority within the framework of nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahab, Martin; Dawyd, Noelia

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the new framework of nuclear renaissance in the world in general, and in Argentina in particular, proper and efficient management of information and knowledge produced in the past and to be produced during renaissance becomes critically important. The fact that in the nuclear sector across the world human resources are going through significant change as a result of the massive number of experts who are retiring from the workforce, the ensuing general gap, the new generation of workers who are joining the nuclear rank and file with different training, values and cultural beliefs, and the slow information and knowledge transfer process call for carefully considering and assessing new methods to manage information and knowledge. This paper discusses the topic of knowledge maps as a method to adapt historical information and knowledge and to make it more readily available for future workers; the paper also deals with a new management approach to such information. Knowledge maps probably represent an up-to-date method to manage both historical and new information and knowledge, adapting to a number of new cultural features, including but not limited to the intensive use of information technologies and the tendency to summarize and integrate concepts. A distinguishing feature of this new method of organizing information and knowledge is the need for a closer interrelation across the organisation's sectors. As a result, knowledge maps help create and improve manuals and procedures related to the specific tasks performed in the institution, based on the analysis carried out by those creating the maps. This tool also helps better analyze the tasks already conducted or to be conducted by workers, all of which optimizes the job description process in the area of human resources. Another benefit of knowledge maps is that they help preserve the information and knowledge that can be used to train the staff in merely technical or induction issues as well as in an

  12. The World Starts With Me: using intervention mapping for the systematic adaptation and transfer of school-based sexuality education from Uganda to Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Reinders, Jo; Darwisyah, Wati; Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programmes, including HIV/AIDS prevention and sexuality education programmes, are often transferred to other cultures, priority groups and implementation settings. Challenges in this process include the identification of retaining core elements that relate to the programme's effectiveness while making changes that enhances acceptance in the new context and for the new priority group. This paper describes the use of a systematic approach to programme adaptation using a case study as an example. Intervention Mapping, a protocol for the development of evidence-based behaviour change interventions, was used to adapt the comprehensive school-based sexuality education programme 'The World Starts With Me'. The programme was developed for a priority population in Uganda and adapted to a programme for Indonesian secondary school students. The approach helped to systematically address the complexity and challenges of programme adaptation and to find a balance between preservation of essential programme elements (i.e. logic models) that may be crucial to the programme's effectiveness, including key objectives and theoretical behaviour change methods, and the adaptation of the programme to be acceptable to the new priority group and the programme implementers.

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Profile Fitness Mapping Neck Questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese: Internal Consistency, Reliability, and Construct and Structural Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana Cândido; Björklund, Martin; Dach, Fabiola; Chaves, Thais Cristina

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the ProFitMap-neck to Brazilian Portuguese. The cross-cultural adaptation consisted of 5 stages, and 180 female patients with chronic neck pain participated in the study. A subsample (n = 30) answered the pretest, and another subsample (n = 100) answered the questionnaire a second time. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity (hypothesis testing and structural validity) were estimated. For construct validity, the scores of the questionnaire were correlated with the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency was determined by adequate Cronbach's α values (α > 0.70). Strong reliability was identified by high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC > 0.75). Construct validity was identified by moderate and strong correlations of the Br-ProFitMap-neck with total NDI score (-0.56 50%, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index > 0.50, eigenvalue > 1, and factor loadings > 0.2. Br-ProFitMap-neck had adequate psychometric properties and can be used in clinical settings, as well as research, in patients with chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M K ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency

  15. Using Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Algorithms to Evolve Dynamism-Oriented Maps for a Real Time Strategy Game

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Cabrera, Raúl; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández Leiva, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a procedural content generation system that uses an evolutionary algorithm in order to generate interesting maps for a real-time strategy game, called Planet Wars. Interestingness is here captured by the dynamism of games (i.e., the extent to which they are action-packed). We consider two different approaches to measure the dynamism of the games resulting from these generated maps, one based on fluctuations in the resources controlled by either player and another one based ...

  16. Livelihood asset maps: a multidimensional approach to measuring risk-management capacity and adaptation policy targeting—a case study in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor

    2013-01-01

    to the fact that some areas facing increased level of climate-related risks lack access to productive and human capital, while other areas facing a similar situation have relatively insufficient access to financial assets. This again shows that any non-targeted policy aiming at improving households’ risk-management......The application of a livelihood asset-based approach to adaptation policy targeting is presented through the creation of maps highlighting the spatial contrasts of access to various types of livelihood assets utilizing primary household data. Thus, the livelihood maps provide policy......-makers with a tool to quickly identify areas with limited access to certain types of assets, making the latter less able to react to a changing level of climaterelated risks. In the case of Bhutan, distinct spatial patterns of asset endowments is identified using five different asset indicators drawing attention...

  17. Framework for mapping the drivers of coastal vulnerability and spatial decision making for climate-change adaptation: A case study from Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Pandian; Ananthan, Pachampalayam Shanmugam; Purvaja, Ramachandran; Joyson Joe Jeevamani, Jeyapaul; Amali Infantina, John; Srinivasa Rao, Cherukumalli; Anand, Arur; Mahendra, Ranganalli Somashekharappa; Sekar, Iyyapa; Kareemulla, Kalakada; Biswas, Amit; Kalpana Sastry, Regulagedda; Ramesh, Ramachandran

    2018-05-31

    The impacts of climate change are of particular concern to the coastal region of tropical countries like India, which are exposed to cyclones, floods, tsunami, seawater intrusion, etc. Climate-change adaptation presupposes comprehensive assessment of vulnerability status. Studies so far relied either on remote sensing-based spatial mapping of physical vulnerability or on certain socio-economic aspects with limited scope for upscaling or replication. The current study is an attempt to develop a holistic and robust framework to assess the vulnerability of coastal India at different levels. We propose and estimate cumulative vulnerability index (CVI) as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, at the village level, using nationally comparable and credible datasets. The exposure index (EI) was determined at the village level by decomposing the spatial multi-hazard maps, while sensitivity (SI) and adaptive capacity indices (ACI) were estimated using 23 indicators, covering social and economic aspects. The indicators were identified through the literature review, expert consultations, opinion survey, and were further validated through statistical tests. The socio-economic vulnerability index (SEVI) was constructed as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity for planning grassroot-level interventions and adaptation strategies. The framework was piloted in Sindhudurg, a coastal district in Maharashtra, India. It comprises 317 villages, spread across three taluks viz., Devgad, Malvan and Vengurla. The villages in Sindhudurg were ranked based on this multi-criteria approach. Based on CVI values, 92 villages (30%) in Sindhudurg were identified as highly vulnerable. We propose a decision tool for identifying villages vulnerable to changing climate, based on their level of sensitivity and adaptive capacity in a two-dimensional matrix, thus aiding in planning location-specific interventions. Here, vulnerability indicators are classified and designated as

  18. Complete-proteome mapping of human influenza A adaptive mutations: implications for human transmissibility of zoonotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Olivo; Heiny, A T; Albrecht, Randy; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Tan, Tin Wee; August, J Thomas; Brusic, Vladimir

    2010-02-03

    There is widespread concern that H5N1 avian influenza A viruses will emerge as a pandemic threat, if they become capable of human-to-human (H2H) transmission. Avian strains lack this capability, which suggests that it requires important adaptive mutations. We performed a large-scale comparative analysis of proteins from avian and human strains, to produce a catalogue of mutations associated with H2H transmissibility, and to detect their presence in avian isolates. We constructed a dataset of influenza A protein sequences from 92,343 public database records. Human and avian sequence subsets were compared, using a method based on mutual information, to identify characteristic sites where human isolates present conserved mutations. The resulting catalogue comprises 68 characteristic sites in eight internal proteins. Subtype variability prevented the identification of adaptive mutations in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. The high number of sites in the ribonucleoprotein complex suggests interdependence between mutations in multiple proteins. Characteristic sites are often clustered within known functional regions, suggesting their functional roles in cellular processes. By isolating and concatenating characteristic site residues, we defined adaptation signatures, which summarize the adaptive potential of specific isolates. Most adaptive mutations emerged within three decades after the 1918 pandemic, and have remained remarkably stable thereafter. Two lineages with stable internal protein constellations have circulated among humans without reassorting. On the contrary, H5N1 avian and swine viruses reassort frequently, causing both gains and losses of adaptive mutations. Human host adaptation appears to be complex and systemic, involving nearly all influenza proteins. Adaptation signatures suggest that the ability of H5N1 strains to infect humans is related to the presence of an unusually high number of adaptive mutations. However, these mutations appear

  19. A possible role of midbrain dopamine neurons in short- and long-term adaptation of saccades to position-reward mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Yoriko; Kawagoe, Reiko; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2004-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons respond to sensory stimuli that predict reward. To understand how DA neurons acquire such ability, we trained monkeys on a one-direction-rewarded version of memory-guided saccade task (1DR) only when we recorded from single DA neurons. In 1DR, position-reward mapping was changed across blocks of trials. In the early stage of training of 1DR, DA neurons responded to reward delivery; in the later stages, they responded predominantly to the visual cue that predicted reward or no reward (reward predictor) differentially. We found that such a shift of activity from reward to reward predictor also occurred within a block of trials after position-reward mapping was altered. A main effect of long-term training was to accelerate the within-block reward-to-predictor shift of DA neuronal responses. The within-block shift appeared first in the intermediate stage, but was slow, and DA neurons often responded to the cue that indicated reward in the preceding block. In the advanced stage, the reward-to-predictor shift occurred quickly such that the DA neurons' responses to visual cues faithfully matched the current position-reward mapping. Changes in the DA neuronal responses co-varied with the reward-predictive differentiation of saccade latency both in short-term (within-block) and long-term adaptation. DA neurons' response to the fixation point also underwent long-term changes until it occurred predominantly in the first trial within a block. This might trigger a switch between the learned sets. These results suggest that midbrain DA neurons play an essential role in adapting oculomotor behavior to frequent switches in position-reward mapping.

  20. Rescuing the Cahoon Mine drill cores: Opportunities for modern mapping of the ca. 1.7 Ga Freedom Formation in southern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, V.; Stewart, E.

    2016-12-01

    Rock cores collected during historic mineral exploration can provide invaluable data for modern analyses, but only if the samples are properly curated. The Cahoon Mine operated in Baraboo, WI during the 1910's and produced iron ore from the ca. 1.7 Ga Freedom Formation. The Freedom Formation is part of the well-known Baraboo-interval stratigraphy and is only present in the subsurface of Wisconsin (Weidman, 1904). Seventeen exploratory drill cores were rescued by Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) from the original drying house at the mine site. The condition of the containers endangered the stratigraphic context of the collection; identifiers and depth markings were often obscured or lost. The individual core pieces were coated in residue and dust. Most of what is known about the Freedom Formation is from core logs and master's theses from the early 1900's (Leith, 1935; Schmidt, 1951). Ongoing subsurface mapping of the Baraboo-interval sediments and underlying basement of southern Wisconsin integrates new and existing subsurface and regional geophysical datasets. Mapping involves calibrating unique signals in regional aeromagnetic data to known lithology from drill core and cuttings. The Freedom Formation is especially important in this process as its iron-rich composition and regional continuity causes it to have a somewhat unique signal in regional aeromagnetic data. The Cahoon Mine cores in the WGNHS repository are the most extensive collection of physical samples from the Freedom Formation still in existence. We are in the process of curating the cores to facilitate their use in ongoing bedrock mapping. Today the cost and logistics of extensive sampling of this unit makes the existing core collection irreplaceable. We transferred the material to new containers, digitally recorded metadata, and created archival labels. As a result of this effort, the Cahoon Mine cores are now stored in a format that is physically and digitally accessible.

  1. Non-homologous end joining dependency of {gamma}-irradiation-induced adaptive frameshift mutation formation in cell cycle-arrested yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, Erich [Institute of Cancer Research, Division of Molecular Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: erich.heidenreich@meduniwien.ac.at; Eisler, Herfried [Institute of Cancer Research, Division of Molecular Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2004-11-22

    There is a strong selective pressure favoring adaptive mutations which relieve proliferation-limiting adverse living conditions. Due to their importance for evolution and pathogenesis, we are interested in the mechanisms responsible for the formation of such adaptive, gain-of-fitness mutations in stationary-phase cells. During previous studies on the occurrence of spontaneous reversions of an auxotrophy-causing frameshift allele in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we noticed that about 50% of the adaptive reversions depended on a functional non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we show that the occasional NHEJ component Pol4, which is the yeast ortholog of mammalian DNA polymerase lambda, is not required for adaptive mutagenesis. An artificially imposed excess of DSBs by {gamma}-irradiation resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of adaptive, cell cycle arrest-releasing frameshift reversions. By the use of DNA ligase IV-deficient strains we detected that the majority of the {gamma}-induced adaptive mutations were also dependent on a functional NHEJ pathway. This suggests that the same mutagenic NHEJ mechanism acts on spontaneously arising as well as on ionizing radiation-induced DSBs. Inaccuracy of the NHEJ repair pathway may extensively contribute to the incidence of frameshift mutations in resting (non-dividing) eukaryotic cells, and thus act as a driving force in tumor development.

  2. Non-homologous end joining dependency of γ-irradiation-induced adaptive frameshift mutation formation in cell cycle-arrested yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, Erich; Eisler, Herfried

    2004-01-01

    There is a strong selective pressure favoring adaptive mutations which relieve proliferation-limiting adverse living conditions. Due to their importance for evolution and pathogenesis, we are interested in the mechanisms responsible for the formation of such adaptive, gain-of-fitness mutations in stationary-phase cells. During previous studies on the occurrence of spontaneous reversions of an auxotrophy-causing frameshift allele in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we noticed that about 50% of the adaptive reversions depended on a functional non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we show that the occasional NHEJ component Pol4, which is the yeast ortholog of mammalian DNA polymerase lambda, is not required for adaptive mutagenesis. An artificially imposed excess of DSBs by γ-irradiation resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of adaptive, cell cycle arrest-releasing frameshift reversions. By the use of DNA ligase IV-deficient strains we detected that the majority of the γ-induced adaptive mutations were also dependent on a functional NHEJ pathway. This suggests that the same mutagenic NHEJ mechanism acts on spontaneously arising as well as on ionizing radiation-induced DSBs. Inaccuracy of the NHEJ repair pathway may extensively contribute to the incidence of frameshift mutations in resting (non-dividing) eukaryotic cells, and thus act as a driving force in tumor development

  3. A Road Map Towards High pH Adaptability: Phenomic and Genomic Approaches to Azalea Breeding (Rhododendron sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research grant from the Azalea Society of America has enabled us to collect and begin evaluating diverse Rhododendron viscosum germplasm to identify genetic and phenotypic variation for pH adaptability. During the Spring of 2014, we developed novel, in vitro screening methods for Rhododendron to ...

  4. The 'partial resonance' of the ring in the NLO crystal melaminium formate: study using vibrational spectra, DFT, HOMO-LUMO and MESP mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binoy, J; Marchewka, M K; Jayakumar, V S

    2013-03-01

    The molecular geometry and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium formate, a potential material known for toxicity and NLO activity, has been performed. The FT IR and FT Raman spectral investigations of melaminium formate is performed aided by the computed spectra of melaminium formate, triazine, melamine, melaminium and formate ion, along with bond orders and PED, computed using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set and XRD data, to reveal intermolecular interactions of amino groups with neighbor formula units in the crystal, intramolecular H⋯H repulsion of amino group hydrogen with protonating hydrogen, consequent loss of resonance in the melaminium ring, restriction of resonance to N(3)C(1)N(1) moiety leading to special type resonance of the ring and the resonance structure of CO(2) group of formate ion. The 3D matrix of hyperpolarizability tensor components has been computed to quantify NLO activity of melamine, melaminium and melaminium formate and the hyperpolarizability enhancement is analyzed using computed plots of HOMO and LUMO orbitals. A new mechanism of proton transfer responsible for NLO activity has been suggested, based on anomalous IR spectral bands in the high wavenumber region. The computed MEP contour maps have been used to analyze the interaction of melaminium and formate ions in the crystal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The `partial resonance' of the ring in the NLO crystal melaminium formate: Study using vibrational spectra, DFT, HOMO-LUMO and MESP mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binoy, J.; Marchewka, M. K.; Jayakumar, V. S.

    2013-03-01

    The molecular geometry and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium formate, a potential material known for toxicity and NLO activity, has been performed. The FT IR and FT Raman spectral investigations of melaminium formate is performed aided by the computed spectra of melaminium formate, triazine, melamine, melaminium and formate ion, along with bond orders and PED, computed using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set and XRD data, to reveal intermolecular interactions of amino groups with neighbor formula units in the crystal, intramolecular H⋯H repulsion of amino group hydrogen with protonating hydrogen, consequent loss of resonance in the melaminium ring, restriction of resonance to N3C1N1 moiety leading to special type resonance of the ring and the resonance structure of CO2 group of formate ion. The 3D matrix of hyperpolarizability tensor components has been computed to quantify NLO activity of melamine, melaminium and melaminium formate and the hyperpolarizability enhancement is analyzed using computed plots of HOMO and LUMO orbitals. A new mechanism of proton transfer responsible for NLO activity has been suggested, based on anomalous IR spectral bands in the high wavenumber region. The computed MEP contour maps have been used to analyze the interaction of melaminium and formate ions in the crystal.

  6. Adaptive monitoring of emissions in energy boilers using self-organizing maps: An application to a biomass-fired CFB (circulating fluidized bed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liukkonen, M.; Hiltunen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency, reduction of operating costs, and reduction of harmful emissions released into the atmosphere are issues of major concern in modern energy plants. While air emissions have to be restricted due to tightening environmental legislation, at the same time it is ever more important to be able to respond quickly to any changes in the load demand or fuel quality. As unpredictability increases with changing fuel quality and more complex operational strategies, undesired phenomena such as increased emission release rates may become more likely. Therefore, it is crucial that emission monitoring systems are able to adapt to varying conditions, and advanced methodologies are needed for monitoring and decision-support. In this paper a novel approach for advanced monitoring of emissions in CFB (circulating fluidized bed) boilers is described. In this approach a model based on SOM (self-organizing maps) is updated regularly to respond to the prevailing condition of the boiler. After creating each model a new set of measurements is input to the system, and the current state of the process is determined using vector distance calculation. Finally, the system evaluates the current condition and may alert if a preset limit defined for each emission component is exceeded. - Highlights: • An adaptive monitoring approach based on self-organizing maps is presented. • The system can monitor the current state of a combustion process and its emissions. • The system is designed to alert when the preset limits defined for emissions are exceeded. • Due to regular updating routine the system is able to adapt to changing conditions. • The application is demonstrated using data from a biomass-fired energy boiler

  7. An eHealth Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Social Network of Single, Chronically Impaired Older Adults: Adaptation of an Existing Intervention Using Intervention Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Janet M; Peels, Denise A; Berendsen, Brenda Aj; Bolman, Catherine Aw; Lechner, Lilian

    2017-11-23

    Especially for single older adults with chronic diseases, physical inactivity and a poor social network are regarded as serious threats to their health and independence. The Active Plus intervention is an automated computer-tailored eHealth intervention that has been proven effective to promote physical activity (PA) in the general population of adults older than 50 years. The aim of this study was to report on the methods and results of the systematic adaptation of Active Plus to the wishes and needs of the subgroup of single people older than 65 years who have one or more chronic diseases, as this specific target population may encounter specific challenges regarding PA and social network. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was used to systematically adapt the existing intervention to optimally suit this specific target population. A literature study was performed, and quantitative as well as qualitative data were derived from health care professionals (by questionnaires, n=10) and the target population (by focus group interviews, n=14), which were then systematically integrated into the adapted intervention. As the health problems and the targeted behavior are largely the same in the original and adapted intervention, the outcome of the needs assessment was that the performance objectives remained the same. As found in the literature study and in data derived from health professionals and focus groups, the relative importance and operationalization of the relevant psychosocial determinants related to these objectives are different from the original intervention, resulting in a refinement of the change objectives to optimally fit the specific target population. This refinement also resulted in changes in the practical applications, program components, intervention materials, and the evaluation and implementation strategy for the subgroup of single, chronically impaired older adults. This study demonstrates that the adaptation of an existing intervention is an

  8. Apparatus-Program Complexes Processing and Creation of Essentially non-Format Documents on the Basis of Technology Auto-Adaptive Fonts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Andrianova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to translate paper documents into electronic form demanded a development of methods and algorithms for automatic processing systems and web publishing unformatted graphic documents of on-line libraries. Translation of scanned images into modern formats of electronic documents using OCR programmes faces serious difficulties. These difficulties are connected with the standardization set of fonts and design of printed documents. There is also a need to maintain the original form of electronic format of such documents. The article discusses the possibility for building an extensible adaptive dictionary of graphic objects, which constitute unformatted graphics documents. Dictionary automatically adjusted as graphics processing and accumulation of statistical information for each new document. This adaptive extensible dictionary of graphic letters, fonts, and other objects of automated particular document processing is called "auto-adaptive font", and a set of its application methods is named "auto-adaptive font technology."Based on the theory of estimation algorithms, a mathematical model is designed. It allows us to represent all objects of unformatted graphic document in a unified manner to build a feature vector for each object, and evaluate a similarity of these objects in the selected metric. The algorithm of the adaptive models of graphic images is developed and a criterion for combining similar properties in one element to build an auto-adaptive font is offered thus allowing us to build a software core of hardware-software complex for processing the unformatted graphic documents. A standard block diagram of hardware-software complex is developed to process the unformatted graphic documents. The article presents a description of all the blocks of this complex, including document processing station and its interaction with the web server of publishing electronic documents.

  9. Putting Climate Adaptation on the Map: Developing Spatial Management Strategies for Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Kathryn B.; Hansen, Andrew J.; Keane, Robert E.; Legg, Kristin; Gump, Robert L.

    2018-06-01

    Natural resource managers face the need to develop strategies to adapt to projected future climates. Few existing climate adaptation frameworks prescribe where to place management actions to be most effective under anticipated future climate conditions. We developed an approach to spatially allocate climate adaptation actions and applied the method to whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). WBP is expected to be vulnerable to climate-mediated shifts in suitable habitat, pests, pathogens, and fire. We spatially prioritized management actions aimed at mitigating climate impacts to WBP under two management strategies: (1) current management and (2) climate-informed management. The current strategy reflected management actions permissible under existing policy and access constraints. Our goal was to understand how consideration of climate might alter the placement of management actions, so the climate-informed strategies did not include these constraints. The spatial distribution of actions differed among the current and climate-informed management strategies, with 33-60% more wilderness area prioritized for action under climate-informed management. High priority areas for implementing management actions include the 1-8% of the GYE where current and climate-informed management agreed, since this is where actions are most likely to be successful in the long-term and where current management permits implementation. Areas where climate-informed strategies agreed with one another but not with current management (6-22% of the GYE) are potential locations for experimental testing of management actions. Our method for spatial climate adaptation planning is applicable to any species for which information regarding climate vulnerability and climate-mediated risk factors is available.

  10. Mapping the fitness landscape of gene expression uncovers the cause of antagonism and sign epistasis between adaptive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Chou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available How do adapting populations navigate the tensions between the costs of gene expression and the benefits of gene products to optimize the levels of many genes at once? Here we combined independently-arising beneficial mutations that altered enzyme levels in the central metabolism of Methylobacterium extorquens to uncover the fitness landscape defined by gene expression levels. We found strong antagonism and sign epistasis between these beneficial mutations. Mutations with the largest individual benefit interacted the most antagonistically with other mutations, a trend we also uncovered through analyses of datasets from other model systems. However, these beneficial mutations interacted multiplicatively (i.e., no epistasis at the level of enzyme expression. By generating a model that predicts fitness from enzyme levels we could explain the observed sign epistasis as a result of overshooting the optimum defined by a balance between enzyme catalysis benefits and fitness costs. Knowledge of the phenotypic landscape also illuminated that, although the fitness peak was phenotypically far from the ancestral state, it was not genetically distant. Single beneficial mutations jumped straight toward the global optimum rather than being constrained to change the expression phenotypes in the correlated fashion expected by the genetic architecture. Given that adaptation in nature often results from optimizing gene expression, these conclusions can be widely applicable to other organisms and selective conditions. Poor interactions between individually beneficial alleles affecting gene expression may thus compromise the benefit of sex during adaptation and promote genetic differentiation.

  11. Commercial surrogacy in India: The presumption of adaptive preference formation, the possibility of autonomy and the persistence of exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Fellowes, Melanie G.

    2017-01-01

    India’s proposed 2016 Bill on the regulation of surrogacy is its latest attempt to respond to criticism regarding the lack of protection given to those entering into a commercial surrogacy arrangement. Adaptive preference theorists presume that a decision made in an oppressive environment, which is inconsistent with the woman’s well-being, is not autonomous and that she is therefore exploited. This article challenges this presumption, arguing that some decisions may be suspected as adaptive p...

  12. Sequence Stratigraphy of lower zones of Asmari Formation in Marun Oilfield by using of microfacies analysis, isolith maps and γ- Ray log

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oligo- Miocene Asmari Formation is one of the most important reservoir units of the Marun Oilfield in Dezful Embayment SW Iran, deposited in Zagros foreland basin. The goal of this study is to interpret depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of lower zones of the Asmari Formation in Well No.281, 342 and 312in Marun Oilfield based on changes in the shape of γ- Ray, isolith maps and microfacies properties. Accordingly, identification of 9 carbonate microfacies and 2 siliciclastic petrofacies were identified that are deposited in four depositional environment including open marine, barrier, lagoon and tidal flat in a homoclinal ramp (consisting of outer, middle and inner ramp. Also, based on the shape of γ- Ray log, There sediment were deposited in marine environment. In open marine and barrier environments, The shape of γ- Ray log is serrated bell-shaped, serrated funnel-shaped, left bow-shaped, serrated shape and right boxcar shape, Whole in the beach environment it is cylinder and funnel shape and in lagoon and tidal flat environment can be seen on right bow to cylinder-shaped. Based on the isolith maps, sandstone of lower zones of the Asmari Formation in Marun Oilfield expanded by deltaic system along the southwestern margin of the basin and influenced by changes in sea level constantly. Sequence stratigraphic analysis led to identification of three third- order (DS1, DS2 and DS3 depositional sequences.

  13. Sequence Stratigraphy of lower zones of Asmari Formation in Marun Oilfield by using of microfacies analysis, isolith maps and γ- Ray log

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirmarghabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Oligo- Miocene Asmari Formation is one of the most important reservoir units of the Marun Oilfield in Dezful Embayment SW Iran, deposited in Zagros foreland basin. The goal of this study is to interpret depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of lower zones of the Asmari Formation in Well No.281, 342 and 312in Marun Oilfield based on changes in the shape of γ- Ray, isolith maps and microfacies properties. Accordingly, identification of 9 carbonate microfacies and 2 siliciclastic petrofacies were identified that are deposited in four depositional environment including open marine, barrier, lagoon and tidal flat in a homoclinal ramp (consisting of outer, middle and inner ramp. Also, based on the shape of γ- Ray log, There sediment were deposited in marine environment. In open marine and barrier environments, The shape of γ- Ray log is serrated bell-shaped, serrated funnel-shaped, left bow-shaped, serrated shape and right boxcar shape, Whole in the beach environment it is cylinder and funnel shape and in lagoon and tidal flat environment can be seen on right bow to cylinder-shaped. Based on the isolith maps, sandstone of lower zones of the Asmari Formation in Marun Oilfield expanded by deltaic system along the southwestern margin of the basin and influenced by changes in sea level constantly. Sequence stratigraphic analysis led to identification of three third- order (DS1, DS2 and DS3 depositional sequences.

  14. Cardiac MOLLI T1 mapping at 3.0 T: comparison of patient-adaptive dual-source RF and conventional RF transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasper, Michael; Nadjiri, Jonathan; Sträter, Alexandra S; Settles, Marcus; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Rummeny, Ernst J; Huber, Armin M

    2017-06-01

    To prospectively compare image quality and myocardial T 1 relaxation times of modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) imaging at 3.0 T (T) acquired with patient-adaptive dual-source (DS) and conventional single-source (SS) radiofrequency (RF) transmission. Pre- and post-contrast MOLLI T 1 mapping using SS and DS was acquired in 27 patients. Patient wise and segment wise analysis of T 1 times was performed. The correlation of DS MOLLI measurements with a reference spin echo sequence was analysed in phantom experiments. DS MOLLI imaging reduced T 1 standard deviation in 14 out of 16 myocardial segments (87.5%). Significant reduction of T 1 variance could be obtained in 7 segments (43.8%). DS significantly reduced myocardial T 1 variance in 16 out of 25 patients (64.0%). With conventional RF transmission, dielectric shading artefacts occurred in six patients causing diagnostic uncertainty. No according artefacts were found on DS images. DS image findings were in accordance with conventional T 1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Phantom experiments demonstrated good correlation of myocardial T 1 time between DS MOLLI and spin echo imaging. Dual-source RF transmission enhances myocardial T 1 homogeneity in MOLLI imaging at 3.0 T. The reduction of signal inhomogeneities and artefacts due to dielectric shading is likely to enhance diagnostic confidence.

  15. Functional annotation of the mesophilic-like character of mutants in a cold-adapted enzyme by self-organising map analysis of their molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Tiberti, Matteo; Pandini, Alessandro; Bonati, Laura; Papaleo, Elena

    2012-10-01

    Multiple comparison of the Molecular Dynamics (MD) trajectories of mutants in a cold-adapted α-amylase (AHA) could be used to elucidate functional features required to restore mesophilic-like activity. Unfortunately it is challenging to identify the different dynamic behaviors and correctly relate them to functional activity by routine analysis. We here employed a previously developed and robust two-stage approach that combines Self-Organising Maps (SOMs) and hierarchical clustering to compare conformational ensembles of proteins. Moreover, we designed a novel strategy to identify the specific mutations that more efficiently convert the dynamic signature of the psychrophilic enzyme (AHA) to that of the mesophilic counterpart (PPA). The SOM trained on AHA and its variants was used to classify a PPA MD ensemble and successfully highlighted the relationships between the flexibilities of the target enzyme and of the different mutants. Moreover the local features of the mutants that mostly influence their global flexibility in a mesophilic-like direction were detected. It turns out that mutations of the cold-adapted enzyme to hydrophobic and aromatic residues are the most effective in restoring the PPA dynamic features and could guide the design of more mesophilic-like mutants. In conclusion, our strategy can efficiently extract specific dynamic signatures related to function from multiple comparisons of MD conformational ensembles. Therefore, it can be a promising tool for protein engineering.

  16. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Intervention Targeting High-Risk Migrant Workers: The Process and Outcome of Formative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman eShrestha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHistorically, HIV prevention efforts in Nepal have primarily focused on heterosexual transmission, particularly, among female sex workers (FSWs and their male clients, with little acknowledgment of the contribution of migrant workers to the epidemic. The very few HIV prevention efforts that have been attempted with migrants have been unsuccessful primarily due to stigma, discrimination, and insufficient availability of culturally relevant evidence-based interventions (EBIs. As an initial step toward addressing this unmet need, we conducted formative research aimed at adapting an evidence-based HIV risk reduction intervention for implementation among migrants in Nepal.MethodsOur formative work involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews with members of the target population and key stakeholders. Between July and August, 2014, we conducted structured one-on-one interview with migrants (n = 5 and key stakeholder (e.g., counselors, field workers, and project coordinator; n = 5, which focused on the HIV risk profiles of the migrants and on ways to optimize intervention content, delivery, and placement within the community-based settings. Data analysis followed a thematic analysis approach utilizing several qualitative data analysis techniques, including inductive analysis, cross-case analysis, and analytical coding of textual data.ResultsBased on formative research, we adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP, an EBI, to consist of four 30-minute sessions that cover a range of topics relevant to migrants in Nepal. The intervention was adapted with flexibility so that it could be provided in an individual format, implemented within or outside the CBO, and can be delivered in either consecutive or weekly sessions based on time constraints. ConclusionsThis paper provides a detailed description of the formative research process

  17. Prevention of: self harm in British South Asian women: study protocol of an exploratory RCT of culturally adapted manual assisted Problem Solving Training (C- MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Diwaker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. In the UK suicide is the second most common cause of death in people aged 15-24 years. Self harm is one of the commonest reasons for medical admission in the UK. In the year following a suicide attempt the risk of a repeat attempt or death by suicide may be up to 100 times greater than in people who have never attempted suicide. Research evidence shows increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide among British South Asian women. There are concerns about the current service provision and its appropriateness for this community due to the low numbers that get involved with the services. Both problem solving and interpersonal forms of psychotherapy are beneficial in the treatment of patients who self harm and could potentially be helpful in this ethnic group. The paper describes the trial protocol of adapting and evaluating a culturally appropriate psychological treatment for the adult British South Asian women who self harm. Methods We plan to test a culturally adapted Problem Solving Therapy (C- MAP in British South Asian women who self harm. Eight sessions of problem solving each lasting approximately 50 minutes will be delivered over 3 months. The intervention will be assessed using a prospective rater blind randomized controlled design comparing with treatment as usual (TAU. Outcome assessments will be carried out at 3 and 6 months. A sub group of the participants will be invited for qualitative interviews. Discussion This study will test the feasibility and acceptability of the C- MAP in British South Asian women. We will be informed on whether a culturally adapted brief psychological intervention compared with treatment as usual for self-harm results in decreased hopelessness and suicidal ideation. This will also enable us to collect necessary information on recruitment, effect size, the optimal delivery method and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a

  18. Prevention of: self harm in British South Asian women: study protocol of an exploratory RCT of culturally adapted manual assisted Problem Solving Training (C- MAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Durairaj, Steevart V; Chaudhry, Imran; Khan, Sarah; Husain, Meher; Nagaraj, Diwaker; Naeem, Farooq; Waheed, Waquas

    2011-06-21

    Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide. In the UK suicide is the second most common cause of death in people aged 15-24 years. Self harm is one of the commonest reasons for medical admission in the UK. In the year following a suicide attempt the risk of a repeat attempt or death by suicide may be up to 100 times greater than in people who have never attempted suicide. Research evidence shows increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide among British South Asian women. There are concerns about the current service provision and its appropriateness for this community due to the low numbers that get involved with the services. Both problem solving and interpersonal forms of psychotherapy are beneficial in the treatment of patients who self harm and could potentially be helpful in this ethnic group.The paper describes the trial protocol of adapting and evaluating a culturally appropriate psychological treatment for the adult British South Asian women who self harm. We plan to test a culturally adapted Problem Solving Therapy (C- MAP) in British South Asian women who self harm. Eight sessions of problem solving each lasting approximately 50 minutes will be delivered over 3 months. The intervention will be assessed using a prospective rater blind randomized controlled design comparing with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcome assessments will be carried out at 3 and 6 months. A sub group of the participants will be invited for qualitative interviews. This study will test the feasibility and acceptability of the C- MAP in British South Asian women. We will be informed on whether a culturally adapted brief psychological intervention compared with treatment as usual for self-harm results in decreased hopelessness and suicidal ideation. This will also enable us to collect necessary information on recruitment, effect size, the optimal delivery method and acceptability of the intervention in preparation for a definitive RCT using repetition of self harm and cost

  19. Mapping the ER Interactome: The P Domains of Calnexin and Calreticulin as Plurivalent Adapters for Foldases and Chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Castro, Karla; Gehring, Kalle

    2017-09-05

    The lectin chaperones calreticulin (CRT) and calnexin (CNX) contribute to the folding of glycoproteins in the ER by recruiting foldases such as the protein disulfide isomerase ERp57 and the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase CypB. Recently, CRT was shown to interact with the chaperone ERp29. Here, we show that ERp29 directly binds to the P domain of CNX. Crystal structures of the D domain of ERp29 in complex with the P domains from CRT and calmegin, a tissue-specific CNX homolog, reveal a commonality in the mechanism of binding whereby the tip of the P domain functions as a plurivalent adapter to bind a variety of folding factors. We show that mutation of a single residue, D348 in CNX, abrogates binding to ERp29 as well as ERp57 and CypB. The structural diversity of the accessory factors suggests that these chaperones became specialized for glycoprotein folding through convergent evolution of their P-domain binding sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Forging the 10th Mountain Division for War, 1940-1945: How Innovation Created a Highly Adaptive Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Mount Rainer to film and capture 128 Interview “Historical Officer with Brigadier General Rolfe, 7 Jan...neighboring post of command and further establish liaison with 2 French batteries, visiting their position so frequently that he was mainly responsible...collective effort to improve capability. If units embody the philosophy of innovation in peacetime, their ability to adapt in the face of unforeseen

  1. Using simulated maps to interpret the geochemistry, formation and quality of the Blue Gem Coal Bed, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Engle, Mark A.; Martin-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study presents geostatistical simulations of coal-quality parameters, major oxides and trace metals for an area covering roughly 812 km2 of the Blue Gem coal bed in southeastern Kentucky, USA. The Blue Gem, characterized by low ash yield and low sulfur content, is an important economic resource. Past studies have characterized the Blue Gem's geochemistry, palynology and petrography and inferred a depositional setting of a planar peat deposit that transitioned to slightly domed later in its development. These studies have focused primarily on vertical geochemical trends within the coal bed. Simulated maps of chemical elements derived from 45 measured sample locations across the study area provide an opportunity to observe changes in the horizontal direction within the coal bed. As the Blue Gem coal bed shows significant vertical chemical trends, care was taken in this study to try to select samples from a single, middle portion of the coal. By revealing spatial distribution patterns of elements across the middle of the bed, associations between different components of the coal can be seen. The maps therefore help to provide a picture of the coal-forming peat bog at an instant in geologic time and allow interpretation of a depositional setting in the horizontal direction. Results from this middle portion of the coal suggest an association of SiO2 with both K2O and TiO2 in different parts of the study area. Further, a pocket in the southeast of the study area shows elevated concentrations of elements attributable to observed carbonate-phase minerals (MgO, CaO, Ba and Sr) as well as elements commonly associated with sulfide-phase minerals (Cu, Mo and Ni). Areas of relatively high ash yield are observed in the north and south of the mapped area, in contrast to the low ash yields seen towards the east. Additionally, we present joint probability maps where multiple coal-quality parameters are plotted simultaneously on one figure. This application allows researchers

  2. Model of adaptive dialogue in intelligent information systems for the formation of a given set of competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инесса Анатольевна Воробьёва

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To implement the adaptive dialogue with a wide range of subjects in the most rational use of the composition of different types of models of complex information dialog procedures which may be prepared by combining them in various ways. The article defined this operation on the graph dialogue procedures (GFC, which allows the synthesis of the Count of GFC policy, taking into account the linguistic aspect. What is included in the GFC lists messages that are exchanged between the system and the subject of the dialogue process.

  3. Adaptation to diverse nitrogen-limited environments by deletion or extrachromosomal element formation of the GAP1 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gresham, D.; Usaite, Renata; Germann, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    and deletions at the GAP1 locus. GAP1 encodes the general amino acid permease, which transports amino acids across the plasma membrane. We identified a self-propagating extrachromosomal circular DNA molecule that results from intrachromosomal recombination between long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking GAP1....... Extrachromosomal DNA circles (GAP1(circle)) contain GAP1, the replication origin ARS1116, and a single hybrid LTR derived from recombination between the two flanking LTRs. Formation of the GAP1(circle) is associated with deletion of chromosomal GAP1 (gap1 Delta) and production of a single hybrid LTR at the GAP1...

  4. Optical UWB pulse generator using an N tap microwave photonic filter and phase inversion adaptable to different pulse modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-30

    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally an optical architecture for flexible Ultra-Wideband pulse generation. It is based on an N-tap reconfigurable microwave photonic filter fed by a laser array by using phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. Since a large number of positive and negative coefficients can be easily implemented, UWB pulses fitted to the FCC mask requirements can be generated. As an example, a four tap pulse generator is experimentally demonstrated which complies with the FCC regulation. The proposed pulse generator allows different pulse modulation formats since the amplitude, polarity and time delay of generated pulse is controlled.

  5. Multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...

  6. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  7. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  8. Study of pattern formation in multilayer adaptive network of phase oscillators in application to brain dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsanov, Daniil V.; Nedaivozov, Vladimir O.; Makarov, Vladimir V.; Goremyko, Mikhail V.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2017-04-01

    In the report we study the mechanisms of phase synchronization in the model of adaptive network of Kuramoto phase oscillators and discuss the possibility of the further application of the obtained results for the analysis of the neural network of brain. In our theoretical study the model network represents itself as the multilayer structure, in which the links between the elements belonging to the different layers are arranged according to the competitive rule. In order to analyze the dynamical states of the multilayer network we calculate and compare the values of local and global order parameter, which describe the degree of coherence between the neighboring nodes and the elements over whole network, respectively. We find that the global synchronous dynamics takes place for the large values of the coupling strength and are characterized by the identical topology of the interacting layers and a homogeneous distribution of the link strength within each layer. We also show that the partial (or cluster) synchronization, occurs for the small values of the coupling strength, lead to the emergence of the scale-free topology, within the layers.

  9. High throughput analysis of red wine and grape phenolics-adaptation and validation of methyl cellulose precipitable tannin assay and modified Somers color assay to a rapid 96 well plate format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2007-06-13

    The methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and a modified version of the Somers and Evans color assay were adapted to high-throughput (HTP) analysis. To improve efficiency of the MCP tannin assay, a miniaturized 1 mL format and a HTP format using 96 well plates were developed. The Somers color assay was modified to allow the standardization of pH and ethanol concentrations of wine samples in a simple one-step dilution with a buffer solution, thus removing inconsistencies between wine matrices prior to analysis and allowing for its adaptation to a HTP format. Validation studies showed that all new formats were efficient, and results were reproducible and analogous to the original formats.

  10. Isolation and molecular analysis of inv dup(15) and construction of a physical map of a common breakpoint in order to elucidate their mechanism of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandstrat, A E; Schwartz, S

    2000-11-01

    An inverted duplication of chromosome 15 [inv dup(15)] is the most common supernumerary marker chromosome, comprising approximately 50% of all chromosomes in this class. Structurally, the inv dup(15) is a mirror image with the central axis defining a distal break within either the heterochromatic alpha-satellite array or along the euchromatin in the long (q) arm of the chromosome. There are several types of inv dup(15), classified by the amount of euchromatic material present. Generally, they are bisatellited, pseudodicentric and have a breakpoint in 15q11-q14. A suggested mechanism of formation of inv dup(15) involves illegitimate recombination between homologous chromosomes followed by nondisjunction and centromere inactivation. The proximal portion of chromosome 15 contains several low-copy repeat sequence families and it has been hypothesized that errors in pairing among these repeats may result in structural rearrangements of this chromosome including the inv dup(15). To test this hypothesis and to determine the mechanism of formation, the inv dup(15) from four cases was isolated in somatic cell hybrids and polymerase chain reaction microsatellite markers were used to determine the origin of exchange. Two appeared to result from interchromosomal and two from intrachromosomal exchange, one of which occurred post-recombination. In addition, a detailed physical map of the breakpoint region in the largest inv dup(15) was constructed placing eight new sequence-tagged sites and ten new bacterial artificial chromosome markers in the region.

  11. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR is required for interaction with clover, biofilm formation and adaptation to the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piersiak Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    bacterial stress adaptation and in the symbiotic relationship between clover and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii 24.2.

  12. Adaptation of six shallots varieties to phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the flower formation, seeds fromation, and yields on the lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triharyanto, E.; Sudadi; Rawandari, S.

    2018-03-01

    Using seeds as planting materials is a solution to improve the quality and quantity of shallot. This study aims to determine the interaction between shallot varieties and Phosphate- Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) on the flowering and shallot yield on the lowlands. The research was conducted in Mijil Village, Jaten, Karanganyar, 98 m altitude with Vertisol-type soil order in June to December 2016, using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two factors. Shallot varieties used as factors are Bima, Manjung, Ilokos, Bima (bulb seeds), Mentes and Rubaru. PSB factors are control and with PSB inoculation. Observed variables included plant height, number of leaves, flowering percentage, seed formation and shallot bulb yield. Results showed that there was no interaction between varieties and PSB inoculation on all observed variables. However, PSB inoculation were able to increase the number of flowering plants and seed weight per plot. Bima variety have the highest average yield compared to other varieties in terms of number of leaves, number of bulbs per plant and bulb weight per plot (fresh harvest weight 317.74 g equivalent to 17.65 ton per hectare and dry weight 288.16 g consumption equivalent to 16 ton per hectare).

  13. Can Process Understanding Help Elucidate The Structure Of The Critical Zone? Comparing Process-Based Soil Formation Models With Digital Soil Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, T.; Román, A.; Peña, A.; Laguna, A.; Giráldez, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    There is a need for better understanding the processes influencing soil formation and the resulting distribution of soil properties in the critical zone. Soil properties can exhibit strong spatial variation, even at the small catchment scale. Especially soil carbon pools in semi-arid, mountainous areas are highly uncertain because bulk density and stoniness are very heterogeneous and rarely measured explicitly. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in key soil properties (soil carbon stocks, stoniness, bulk density and soil depth) as a function of processes shaping the critical zone (weathering, erosion, soil water fluxes and vegetation patterns). We also compare the potential of traditional digital soil mapping versus a mechanistic soil formation model (MILESD) for predicting these key soil properties. Soil core samples were collected from 67 locations at 6 depths. Total soil organic carbon stocks were 4.38 kg m-2. Solar radiation proved to be the key variable controlling soil carbon distribution. Stone content was mostly controlled by slope, indicating the importance of erosion. Spatial distribution of bulk density was found to be highly random. Finally, total carbon stocks were predicted using a random forest model whose main covariates were solar radiation and NDVI. The model predicts carbon stocks that are double as high on north versus south-facing slopes. However, validation showed that these covariates only explained 25% of the variation in the dataset. Apparently, present-day landscape and vegetation properties are not sufficient to fully explain variability in the soil carbon stocks in this complex terrain under natural vegetation. This is attributed to a high spatial variability in bulk density and stoniness, key variables controlling carbon stocks. Similar results were obtained with the mechanistic soil formation model MILESD, suggesting that more complex models might be needed to further explore this high spatial variability.

  14. DELIVERABLE 1.1.1 REGIONAL PARADOX FORMATION STRUCTURE AND ISOCHORE MAPS, BLANDING SUB-BASIN, UTAH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, Kevin; Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m 3 ) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m 3 ) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field (figure 1). However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m 3 ) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

  15. Mapping gas-phase organic reactivity and concomitant secondary organic aerosol formation: chemometric dimension reduction techniques for the deconvolution of complex atmospheric data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, K. P.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Rickard, A. R.; McFiggans, G. B.; Jenkin, M. E.; Bloss, W. J.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    Highly non-linear dynamical systems, such as those found in atmospheric chemistry, necessitate hierarchical approaches to both experiment and modelling in order to ultimately identify and achieve fundamental process-understanding in the full open system. Atmospheric simulation chambers comprise an intermediate in complexity, between a classical laboratory experiment and the full, ambient system. As such, they can generate large volumes of difficult-to-interpret data. Here we describe and implement a chemometric dimension reduction methodology for the deconvolution and interpretation of complex gas- and particle-phase composition spectra. The methodology comprises principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and positive least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). These methods are, for the first time, applied to simultaneous gas- and particle-phase composition data obtained from a comprehensive series of environmental simulation chamber experiments focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) photooxidation and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We primarily investigated the biogenic SOA precursors isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, linalool and β-caryophyllene. The chemometric analysis is used to classify the oxidation systems and resultant SOA according to the controlling chemistry and the products formed. Results show that "model" biogenic oxidative systems can be successfully separated and classified according to their oxidation products. Furthermore, a holistic view of results obtained across both the gas- and particle-phases shows the different SOA formation chemistry, initiating in the gas-phase, proceeding to govern the differences between the various BVOC SOA compositions. The results obtained are used to describe the particle composition in the context of the oxidised gas-phase matrix. An extension of the technique, which incorporates into the statistical models data from anthropogenic (i

  16. Interactions Between Snow-Adapted Organisms, Minerals and Snow in a Mars-Analog Environment, and Implications for the Possible Formation of Mineral Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, E.; Bartlett, C. L.; Garcia, A. H.; Tschauner, O. D.; Murray, A. E.; Raymond, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that icy environments on bodies such as Mars, Europa, and Enceladus may be important potential habitats in our solar system. Life in icy environments faces many challenges, including water limitation, temperature extremes, and nutrient limitation. Understanding how life has adapted to withstand these challenges on Earth may help understand potential life on other icy worlds, and understanding the interactions of such life with minerals may help shed light on the detection of possible mineral biosignatures. Snow environments, being particularly nutrient limited, may require specific adaptations by the microbiota living there. Previous observations have suggested that associated minerals and microorganisms play an important role in snow algae micronutrient acquisition. Here, in order to interpret micronutrient uptake by snow algae, and potential formation of mineral biosignatures, we present observations of interactions between snow algae and associated microorganisms and minerals in both natural, Mars-analog environments, and laboratory experiments. Samples of snow, dust, snow algae, and microorganisms were collected from Mount Anderson Ridge, CA. Some samples were DAPI-stained and analyzed by epifluorescent microscopy, and others were freeze-dried and examined by scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Xenic cultures of the snow alga Chloromonas brevispina were also grown under Fe-limiting conditions with and without the Fe-containing mineral nontronite to determine impacts of the mineral on algal growth. Observations from epifluorescent microscopy show bacteria closely associated with the snow algae, consistent with a potential role in micronutrient acquisition. Particles are also present on the algal cell walls, and synchrotron-XRD and XRF observations indicate that they are Fe-rich, and may therefore be a micronutrient source. Laboratory experiments indicated

  17. Mapas conceituais e avaliação formativa: tecendo aproximações Conceptual maps and formative evaluation: drawing relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Aparecida de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendo a avaliação formativa como pano de fundo e a aprendizagem significativa como horizonte possível, o texto intenta evidenciar o mapa conceitual como ferramenta particularmente relevante às intenções formativas, porque favorável à regulação do ensino e à autorregulação da aprendizagem e pertinente enquanto estratégia de ensino/aprendizagem. Revisitar o referencial teórico relativo à temática favoreceu: (a contemplar a utilidade do mapa conceitual - empreendido enquanto estratégia de ensino e/ou avaliação - sob diferentes perspectivas: a daquele que ensina/avalia e a daquele que aprende/é avaliado; (b aquilatar o quanto se valer dos mapas conceituais é criar alternativas para a organização do conhecimento, pela promoção de experiências educativas que incitem não somente a reflexão, a busca de compreensão e o processamento profundo da informação, mas também o desenvolvimento da autorregulação, da meta cognição e do aprender a aprender; (c repensar a importância dos meios utilizados para avaliar a aprendizagem, que não podem ser quaisquer meios, mas aqueles que favoreçam uma percepção clara das aprendizagens edificadas e daquelas ainda em curso, orientando e viabilizando ações de superação; e, (d conferir novo sentido à tarefa de ensinar a aprender, compreendida como auxílio permanente na elaboração do saber, pelo desvelamento das razões que subjazem às dificuldades a serem superadas.Having formative evaluation as its backdrop, and significant learning as its possible horizon, the text aims at exposing conceptual maps as a particularly relevant tool for formative purposes, due to its positive influence on the regulation of teaching and to the self-regulation of learning, and pertinent as a teaching/learning strategy. Revisiting the theoretical framework related to this theme made it possible: (a to contemplate the usefulness of conceptual maps - used as a teaching and/or evaluating strategy

  18. Asian International Students at an Australian University: Mapping the Paths between Integrative Motivation, Competence in L2 Communication, Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Persistence with Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of integrative motivation, competence in second language (L2) communication, sociocultural adaptation, academic adaptation and persistence of international students at an Australian university. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that the integrative motivation of international students has a…

  19. Road map towards a climate-proof Netherlands. Quickscan. Knowledge supply and gaps in climate stability. Effects, adaptation strategies and societal embedding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veraart, J.; Makaske, B.; Opdam, P.; Nijburg, C.

    2006-12-01

    This quick scan provides an overview of knowledge development with regard to adaptation to climate change within the Dutch BSIK schemes (Investing in Knowledge Infrastructure Scheme) and related research at knowledge institutes. This is done for the National Programme 'Spatial Planning and Adaptation to Climate Change' (ARK). [mk] [nl

  20. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  1. A computational atlas of the hippocampal formation using ex vivo, ultra-high resolution MRI: Application to adaptive segmentation of in vivo MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Augustinack, Jean C; Nguyen, Khoa; Player, Christopher M; Player, Allison; Wright, Michelle; Roy, Nicole; Frosch, Matthew P; McKee, Ann C; Wald, Lawrence L; Fischl, Bruce; Van Leemput, Koen

    2015-07-15

    Automated analysis of MRI data of the subregions of the hippocampus requires computational atlases built at a higher resolution than those that are typically used in current neuroimaging studies. Here we describe the construction of a statistical atlas of the hippocampal formation at the subregion level using ultra-high resolution, ex vivo MRI. Fifteen autopsy samples were scanned at 0.13 mm isotropic resolution (on average) using customized hardware. The images were manually segmented into 13 different hippocampal substructures using a protocol specifically designed for this study; precise delineations were made possible by the extraordinary resolution of the scans. In addition to the subregions, manual annotations for neighboring structures (e.g., amygdala, cortex) were obtained from a separate dataset of in vivo, T1-weighted MRI scans of the whole brain (1mm resolution). The manual labels from the in vivo and ex vivo data were combined into a single computational atlas of the hippocampal formation with a novel atlas building algorithm based on Bayesian inference. The resulting atlas can be used to automatically segment the hippocampal subregions in structural MRI images, using an algorithm that can analyze multimodal data and adapt to variations in MRI contrast due to differences in acquisition hardware or pulse sequences. The applicability of the atlas, which we are releasing as part of FreeSurfer (version 6.0), is demonstrated with experiments on three different publicly available datasets with different types of MRI contrast. The results show that the atlas and companion segmentation method: 1) can segment T1 and T2 images, as well as their combination, 2) replicate findings on mild cognitive impairment based on high-resolution T2 data, and 3) can discriminate between Alzheimer's disease subjects and elderly controls with 88% accuracy in standard resolution (1mm) T1 data, significantly outperforming the atlas in FreeSurfer version 5.3 (86% accuracy) and

  2. Efficacy of interpersonal therapy-group format adapted to post-traumatic stress disorder: an open-label add-on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Rosaly F B; Schoedl, Aline F; Pupo, Mariana C; Costa, Ana Clara H; Krupnick, Janice L; Mello, Marcelo F

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent condition, yet available treatments demonstrate only modest efficacy. Exposure therapies, considered by many to be the "gold-standard" therapy for PTSD, are poorly tolerated by many patients and show high attrition. We evaluated interpersonal therapy, in a group format, adapted to PTSD (IPT-G PTSD), as an adjunctive treatment for patients who failed to respond to conventional psychopharmacological treatment. Research participants included 40 patients who sought treatment through a program on violence in the department of psychiatry of Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). They had received conventional psychopharmacological treatment for at least 12 weeks and failed to have an adequate clinical response. After signing an informed consent, approved earlier by the UNIFESP Ethics Review Board, they received a semi-structured diagnostic interview (SCID-I), administered by a trained mental health worker, to confirm the presence of a PTSD diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria. Other instruments were administered, and patients completed out self-report instruments at baseline, and endpoint to evaluate clinical outcomes. Thirty-three patients completed the trial, but all had at least one second outcome evaluation. There were significant improvements on all measures, with large effect sizes. IPT-G PTSD was effective not only in decreasing symptoms of PTSD, but also in decreasing symptoms of anxiety and depression. It led to significant improvements in social adjustment and quality of life. It was well tolerated and there were few dropouts. Our results are very preliminary; they need further confirmation through randomized controlled clinical trials.

  3. Mapping the Paths from Styles of Anger Experience and Expression to Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms: The Moderating Roles of Family Cohesion and Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Cuilian; Zhao, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016. The subjects completed self-report inventories, including the Symptom Check List-90, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (Chinese version), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (Chinese Version). Controlling for age, one-child family status, ethnicity, family income, current depression, and anxiety, our analyses showed that the association between anger proneness and OC symptoms was moderated by family cohesion among men and that family adaptability moderated the connection between anger suppression and OC complaints among women. The findings imply that a more cohesive and empathic family environment may protect male students with high levels of anger proneness from developing OC behaviors or thoughts. The results suggest that for female subjects who are accustomed to suppressing angry feelings, flexible family coping strategies and communication atmospheres would reduce their vulnerability to OC symptoms. The findings are somewhat consistent with those of previous studies on psychotherapy outcomes that showed that OCD patients benefitted from psychotherapeutic interventions that cultivated the clients’ family cohesion and adaptability. PMID:28512441

  4. Mapping the Paths from Styles of Anger Experience and Expression to Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms: The Moderating Roles of Family Cohesion and Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016. The subjects completed self-report inventories, including the Symptom Check List-90, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (Chinese version, and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (Chinese Version. Controlling for age, one-child family status, ethnicity, family income, current depression, and anxiety, our analyses showed that the association between anger proneness and OC symptoms was moderated by family cohesion among men and that family adaptability moderated the connection between anger suppression and OC complaints among women. The findings imply that a more cohesive and empathic family environment may protect male students with high levels of anger proneness from developing OC behaviors or thoughts. The results suggest that for female subjects who are accustomed to suppressing angry feelings, flexible family coping strategies and communication atmospheres would reduce their vulnerability to OC symptoms. The findings are somewhat consistent with those of previous studies on psychotherapy outcomes that showed that OCD patients benefitted from psychotherapeutic interventions that cultivated the clients’ family cohesion and adaptability.

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: South Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of South Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puerto Rico - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0006584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of North Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  8. Development of a dual luciferase activity and fluorescamine protein assay adapted to a 384 micro-well plate format: Reducing variability in human luciferase transactivation cell lines aimed at endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jennifer; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2018-01-01

    There is a need to adapt cell bioassays to 384-well and 1536-well formats instead of the traditional 96-well format as high-throughput screening (HTS) demands increase. However, the sensitivity and performance of the bioassay must be re-verified in these higher micro-well plates, and verification of cell health must also be HT (high-throughput). We have adapted two commonly used human breast luciferase transactivation cell bioassays, the recently re-named estrogen agonist/antagonist screening VM7Luc4E2 cell bioassay (previously designated BG1Luc4E2) and the androgen/glucocorticoid screening MDA-kb2 cell bioassay, to 384-well formats for HTS of endocrine-active substances (EASs). This cost-saving adaptation includes a fast, accurate, and easy measurement of protein amount in each well via the fluorescamine assay with which to normalize luciferase activity of cell lysates without requiring any transfer of the cell lysates. Here we demonstrate that by accounting for protein amount in the cell lysates, antagonistic agents can easily be distinguished from cytotoxic agents in the MDA-kb2 and VM7Luc4E2 cell bioassays. Additionally, we demonstrate via the fluorescamine assay improved interpretation of luciferase activity in wells along the edge of the plate (the so-called “edge effect”), thereby increasing usable wells to the entire plate, not just interior wells.

  9. The World Starts With Me: using intervention mapping for the systematic adaptation and transfer of school-based sexuality education from Uganda to Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Reinders, Jo; Darwisyah, Wati; Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based health promotion programmes, including HIV/AIDS prevention and sexuality education programmes, are often transferred to other cultures, priority groups and implementation settings. Challenges in this process include the identification of retaining core elements that relate to the programme’s effectiveness while making changes that enhances acceptance in the new context and for the new priority group. This paper describes the use of a systematic approach to programme adaptation ...

  10. Introduction: Adapting Idols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction book Adapting Idols Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production

  11. IDRC at the Adaptation Futures Conference | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-06-07

    Jun 7, 2018 ... Mapping the frontiers of adaptation research in the Global South: Identifying ... from climate insurance and risk pooling research in Africa and Asia ... and private investment in adaptation and mainstreaming adaptation finance.

  12. Fungal communication requires the MAK-2 pathway elements STE-20 and RAS-2, the NRC-1 adapter STE-50 and the MAP kinase scaffold HAM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Anne; Heilig, Yvonne; Valerius, Oliver; Ludwig, Sarah; Seiler, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Intercellular communication is critical for the survival of unicellular organisms as well as for the development and function of multicellular tissues. Cell-to-cell signaling is also required to develop the interconnected mycelial network characteristic of filamentous fungi and is a prerequisite for symbiotic and pathogenic host colonization achieved by molds. Somatic cell-cell communication and subsequent cell fusion is governed by the MAK-2 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in the filamentous ascomycete model Neurospora crassa, yet the composition and mode of regulation of the MAK-2 pathway are currently unclear. In order to identify additional components involved in MAK-2 signaling we performed affinity purification experiments coupled to mass spectrometry with strains expressing functional GFP-fusion proteins of the MAPK cascade. This approach identified STE-50 as a regulatory subunit of the Ste11p homolog NRC-1 and HAM-5 as cell-communication-specific scaffold protein of the MAPK cascade. Moreover, we defined a network of proteins consisting of two Ste20-related kinases, the small GTPase RAS-2 and the adenylate cyclase capping protein CAP-1 that function upstream of the MAK-2 pathway and whose signals converge on the NRC-1/STE-50 MAP3K complex and the HAM-5 scaffold. Finally, our data suggest an involvement of the striatin interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, the casein kinase 2 heterodimer, the phospholipid flippase modulators YPK-1 and NRC-2 and motor protein-dependent vesicle trafficking in the regulation of MAK-2 pathway activity and function. Taken together, these data will have significant implications for our mechanistic understanding of MAPK signaling and for homotypic cell-cell communication in fungi and higher eukaryotes.

  13. Catalytic-site mapping of pyruvate formate lyase. Hypophosphite reaction on the acetyl-enzyme intermediate affords carbon-phosphorus bond synthesis (1-hydroxyethylphosphonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, W; Frank, R; Knappe, J

    1988-12-15

    Pyruvate formate-lyase of Escherichia coli cells, a homodimeric protein of 2 x 85 kDa, is distinguished by the property of containing a stable organic free radical (g = 2.0037) in its resting state. The enzyme (E-SH) achieves pyruvate conversion to acetyl-CoA via two distinct half-reactions (E-SH + pyruvate in equilibrium E-S-acetyl + formate; E-S-acetyl + CoA in equilibrium E-SH + acetyl-CoA), the first of which has been proposed to involve reversible homolytic carbon-carbon bond cleavage [J. Knappe et al. (1984) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 81, 1332-1335]. Present studies identified Cys-419 as the covalent-catalytic cysteinyl residue via CNBr fragmentation of E-S-[14C]acetyl and radio-sequencing of the isolated peptide CB-Ac (amino acid residues 406-423). Reaction of the formate analogue hypophosphite with E-S-acetyl was investigated and found to produce 1-hydroxyethylphosphonate with a thioester linkage to the adjacent Cys-418. The structure was determined from the chymotryptic peptide CH-P (amino acid residues 415-425), using 31P-NMR spectroscopy (delta = 44 ppm) and by chemical characterisation through degradation into 1-hydroxyethylphosphonate with phosphodiesterase or bromine. This novel P-C-bond synthesis involves the enzyme-based free radical and is proposed to resemble the physiological C-C-bond synthesis (pyruvate production) from formate and E-S-acetyl. These findings are interpreted as proof of a radical mechanism for the action of pyruvate formate-lyase. The central Cys-418/Cys-419 pair of the active site shows a distinctive thiolate property even in the inactive (nonradical) form of the enzyme, as determined using an iodoacetate probe.

  14. Effects of Alternate Format In-Service Delivery on Teacher Knowledge Base and Problem-Solving Related to Autism & Adaptations: What Teachers Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Marie Diane

    2010-01-01

    This study's purpose was to explore effectiveness of alternate format in-service delivery for what teachers needed to know to effectively teach their students with Autism Spectrum Disorder/High Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome (ASD/HFA/AS) in the general education setting. The study's research questions included: Did participants learn…

  15. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user's ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies

  16. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Spanish-speaking Latinos: A Formative Study of a Model-Driven Cultural Adaptation of the Manual to Enhance Implementation in a Usual Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Sarah E; Borba, Christina P C; Dixon, Louise; Vaewsorn, Adin S; Guajardo, Julia Gallegos; Resick, Patricia A; Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Marques, Luana

    2017-03-01

    As part of a larger implementation trial for cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a community health center, we used formative evaluation to assess relations between iterative cultural adaption (for Spanish-speaking clients) and implementation outcomes (appropriateness and acceptability) for CPT. Qualitative data for the current study were gathered through multiple sources (providers: N = 6; clients: N = 22), including CPT therapy sessions, provider fieldnotes, weekly consultation team meetings, and researcher fieldnotes. Findings from conventional and directed content analysis of the data informed refinements to the CPT manual. Data-driven refinements included adaptations related to cultural context (i.e., language, regional variation in wording), urban context (e.g., crime/violence), and literacy level. Qualitative findings suggest improved appropriateness and acceptability of CPT for Spanish-speaking clients. Our study reinforces the need for dual application of cultural adaptation and implementation science to address the PTSD treatment needs of Spanish-speaking clients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  18. X-ray color maps of the zoned garnets from Silgará Formation metamorphic rocks,SantanderMassif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takasu Akira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The metamorphic rocks of the Lower Paleozoic Silgará Formation of the Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia, were affected by a Barrovian-type metamorphism under low to high temperature and medium pressure conditions. These rocks contain garnet porphyroblasts, which show several kinds of chemical zoning patterns. The garnet grains behave as closed systems with respect to the rock matrix. Most of the observed zoning patterns are due to gradual changes in physicochemical conditions during growth. However, some garnet grains show complex zoning patterns during multiple deformation and metamorphic events.

  19. Mapping resistance to powdery mildew in barley reveals a large-effect nonhost resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Cynara C T; Vermeulen, Jasper P; Vels, Anton; Himmelbach, Axel; Mascher, Martin; Niks, Rients E

    2018-05-01

    Resistance factors against non-adapted powdery mildews were mapped in barley. Some QTLs seem effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others also play a role in defense against the adapted form. The durability and effectiveness of nonhost resistance suggests promising practical applications for crop breeding, relying upon elucidation of key aspects of this type of resistance. We investigated which genetic factors determine the nonhost status of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to powdery mildews (Blumeria graminis). We set out to verify whether genes involved in nonhost resistance have a wide effectiveness spectrum, and whether nonhost resistance genes confer resistance to the barley adapted powdery mildew. Two barley lines, SusBgt SC and SusBgt DC , with some susceptibility to the wheat powdery mildew B. graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) were crossed with cv Vada to generate two mapping populations. Each population was assessed for level of infection against four B. graminis ff.spp, and QTL mapping analyses were performed. Our results demonstrate polygenic inheritance for nonhost resistance, with some QTLs effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others play a role against adapted and non-adapted forms. Histology analyses of nonhost interaction show that most penetration attempts are stopped in association with papillae, and also suggest independent layers of defence at haustorium establishment and conidiophore formation. Nonhost resistance of barley to powdery mildew relies mostly on non-hypersensitive mechanisms. A large-effect nonhost resistance QTL mapped to a 1.4 cM interval is suitable for map-based cloning.

  20. Mapping of Temporal Surface-water Resources Availability and Agricultural Adaptability due to Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activity in a Hot Semi-arid Region of Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Inamdar, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Major part of Godavari River Basin is intensely drought prone and climate vulnerable in the Western Maharashtra State, India. The economy of the state depends on the agronomic productivity of this region. So, it is necessary to regulate the effects of existing and upcoming hydro-meteorological advances in various strata. This study investigates and maps the surface water resources availability and vegetation, their decadal deviations with multi-temporal LANDSAT images; and finally quantifies the agricultural adaptations. This work involves the utilization of Remote Sensing and GIS with Hydrological modeling. First, climatic trend analysis is carried out with NCEP dataset. Then, multi-temporal LANDSAT images are classified to determine the decadal LULC changes and correlated to the community level hydrological demand. Finally, NDVI, NDWI and SWAT model analysis are accomplished to determine irrigated and non-irrigated cropping area for identifying the agricultural adaptations. The analysis shows that the mean value of annual and monsoon rainfall is significantly decreasing, whereas the mean value of annual and summer temperature is increasing significantly and the winter temperature is decreasing. The analysis of LANDSAT images shows that the surface water availability is highly dependent on climatic conditions. Barren-lands are most dynamic during the study period followed by, vegetation, and water bodies. The spatial extent of barren-lands is increased drastically during the climate vulnerable years replacing the vegetation and surface water bodies. Hence, the barren lands are constantly increasing and the vegetation cover is linearly decreasing, whereas the water extent is changing either way in a random fashion. There appears a positive correlation between surface water and vegetation occurrence; as they are fluctuating in a similar fashion in all the years. The vegetation cover is densely replenished around the dams and natural water bodies which serve as the

  1. Formation of 17-18 yrs age girl students’ visual performance by means of visual training at stage of adaptation to learning loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko S.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related training influence of basketball and volleyball elements on functional state of 1 st year students’ visual analyzers in period of adaptation to learning loads with expressed visual component. Material: in experiment 29 students of 17-18 year age without visual pathologies participated. Indicators of visual performance were determined by correction table of Tagayeva and processed by Weston methodic. Accommodative function was tested by method of mechanical proximetry. Results: the authors worked out and tested two programs of visual training. Influence of visual trainings on visual performance’s main components (quickness, quality, integral indicators was studied as well as eye’s accommodative function (by dynamic of position of the nearest point of clear vision. Conclusions: Application of visual trainings at physical education classes permits to improve indicators of visual analyzer’s performance as well as minimize negative influence of intensive learning loads on eye’ accommodative function.

  2. Furosin, an ellagitannin, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function through inhibition of MAP kinase activation and actin ring formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eui Kyun; Kim, Myung Sunny; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Kyung Hee; Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, In-Seon; Woo, Je-Tae; Jung, Jae-Chang; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2004-01-01

    Phenolic compounds including tannins and flavonoids have been implicated in suppression of osteoclast differentiation/function and prevention of bone diseases. However, the effects of hydrolysable tannins on bone metabolism remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that furosin, a hydrolysable tannin, markedly decreased the differentiation of both murine bone marrow mononuclear cells and Raw264.7 cells into osteoclasts, as revealed by the reduced number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and decreased TRAP activity. Furosin appears to target at the early stage of osteoclastic differentiation while having no cytotoxic effect on osteoclast precursors. Analysis of the inhibitory mechanisms of furosin revealed that it inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activating protein-1 (AP-1). Furthermore, furosin reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, which was accompanied by disruption of the actin rings. Taken together, these results demonstrate that naturally occurring furosin has an inhibitory activity on both osteoclast differentiation and function through mechanisms involving inhibition of the RANKL-induced p38MAPK and JNK/AP-1 activation as well as actin ring formation

  3. Using 3D Culture of Primary Mammary Epithelial Cells to Define Molecular Entities Required for Acinus Formation: Analyzing MAP Kinase Phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Malgorzata; McNally, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures on reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) enable the study of complex interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) components and epithelial cells, which are crucial for the establishment of cell polarity and functional development of epithelia. 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) on Matrigel (a laminin-rich ECM derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) murine tumor) promote interactions of MECs with the matrix via integrins, leading to formation of spherical monolayers of polarized cells surrounding a hollow lumen (acini). Acini closely resemble mammary alveoli found in the mammary gland. Thus, it is possible to study ECM-cell interactions and signalling pathways that regulate formation and maintenance of tissue-specific shape and functional differentiation of MECs in 3D under in vitro conditions. Here we present experimental protocols used to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases (MKPs) during development of the alveoli-like structures by primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (PMMEC) cultured on Matrigel. We present detailed protocols for PMMEC isolation, and establishment of 3D cultures using an "on top" method, use of specific kinase and phosphatases inhibitors (PD98059 and pervanadate, respectively) administered at different stages of acinus development, and give examples of analyses carried out post-culture (Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, and confocal imaging).

  4. LOW-MASS GALAXY FORMATION IN COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SIMULATIONS: THE EFFECTS OF VARYING THE SUB-GRID PHYSICS PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ColIn, Pedro; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ceverino, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present numerical simulations aimed at exploring the effects of varying the sub-grid physics parameters on the evolution and the properties of the galaxy formed in a low-mass dark matter halo (∼7 x 10 10 h -1 M sun at redshift z = 0). The simulations are run within a cosmological setting with a nominal resolution of 218 pc comoving and are stopped at z = 0.43. For simulations that cannot resolve individual molecular clouds, we propose the criterion that the threshold density for star formation, n SF , should be chosen such that the column density of the star-forming cells equals the threshold value for molecule formation, N ∼ 10 21 cm -2 , or ∼8 M sun pc -2 . In all of our simulations, an extended old/intermediate-age stellar halo and a more compact younger stellar disk are formed, and in most cases, the halo's specific angular momentum is slightly larger than that of the galaxy, and sensitive to the SF/feedback parameters. We found that a non-negligible fraction of the halo stars are formed in situ in a spheroidal distribution. Changes in the sub-grid physics parameters affect significantly and in a complex way the evolution and properties of the galaxy: (1) lower threshold densities n SF produce larger stellar effective radii R e , less peaked circular velocity curves V c (R), and greater amounts of low-density and hot gas in the disk mid-plane; (2) when stellar feedback is modeled by temporarily switching off radiative cooling in the star-forming regions, R e increases (by a factor of ∼2 in our particular model), the circular velocity curve becomes flatter, and a complex multi-phase gaseous disk structure develops; (3) a more efficient local conversion of gas mass to stars, measured by a stellar particle mass distribution biased toward larger values, increases the strength of the feedback energy injection-driving outflows and inducing burstier SF histories; (4) if feedback is too strong, gas loss by galactic outflows-which are easier to produce in low

  5. Concept Maps and Language: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci

    2003-01-01

    Concept maps are being used by an increasing number of educators in Europe and the US. This paper has four goals. First, it discusses problems in developing Novak's style concept maps in Turkish caused by linguistic differences between Turkish and English. Second, it reports the findings of a research study conducted to adapt concept maps to…

  6. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  7. Adaptive scaling of reward in episodic memory:a replication study

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Alice; Ludwig, Casimir; Farrell, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Reward is thought to enhance episodic memory formation via dopaminergic consolidation. Bunzeck, Dayan, Dolan, and Duzel [(2010). A common mechanism for adaptive scaling of reward and novelty. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1380–1394] provided functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioural evidence that reward and episodic memory systems are sensitive to the contextual value of a reward—whether it is relatively higher or lower—as opposed to absolute value or prediction error. We carrie...

  8. Control over the Strength of Connections Between Modules: A Double Dissociation Between Stimulus Format and Task Revealed by Granger Causality Mapping in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt eAnderson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on theoretical and computational work with the localist Dual Route reading model and results from behavioral studies, Besner, Moroz, and O'Malley (2011 proposed that the ability to perform tasks that require overriding stimulus-specific defaults (e.g., semantics when naming Arabic numerals, and phonology when evaluating the parity of number words necessitate the ability to modulate the strength of connections between cognitive modules for lexical representation, semantics, and phonology on a task- and stimulus-specific basis. We used fMRI to evaluate this account by assessing changes in functional connectivity while participants performed tasks that did and did not require such stimulus-task default overrides. The occipital region showing the greatest modulation of BOLD signal strength for the two stimulus types was used as the seed region for Granger Causality Mapping (GCM. Our GCM analysis revealed a region of rostromedial frontal cortex with a crossover interaction. When participants performed tasks that required overriding stimulus type defaults (i.e., parity judgments of number words and naming Arabic numerals functional connectivity between the occipital region and rostromedial frontal cortex was present. Statistically significant functional connectivity was absent when the tasks were the default for the stimulus type (i.e., parity judgments of Arabic numerals and reading number words. This frontal region (BA 10 has previously been shown to be involved in goal-directed behaviour and maintenance of a specific task-set. We conclude that overriding stimulus-task defaults requires a modulation of connection strengths between cognitive modules and that the override mechanism predicted from cognitive theory is instantiated by frontal modulation of neural activity of brain regions specialized for sensory processing.

  9. The role of biological activity of hydrohumate, produced from peat, in formation of adaptive response of rats under influence of chronic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyanna, O. L.; Chorna, V. I.; Stepchenko, L. M.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that humic compounds are the most distributed in nature among the organic matter. It is believed that humic polyphenol preparations, produced from the peat, represent adaptogenes and immunomodulators. But the total mechanism of their adaptogenic action is still completely unclear. In response to extraordinary irritant action, one of the most sensitive to stress and highly reactive systems of organism, endosomal-lysosomal cellular apparatus takes part. It is believed that humic compounds are able to penetrate through plasmatic membrane and by this way to affect on lysosomal proteases function. Among the wide range of lysosomal proteases, cysteine cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) was in interest due to its powerful endopeptidase activity and widespread localization. Purpose. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of humic acids on intracellular proteolysis in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats in adaptive-restorative processes developing in rat organisms as a result of chronic stress action. The experiment was held on Wistar's rats (160-200 g weight) which were divided into 4 groups: 1 - the control group; 2 - the animals which were received the hydrohumate with water (10 mg hydrohumate (0,1% solution) per 1 kg of weight) during 3 weeks; 3 - the group of stressed rats (test "forced swimming" for 2 hours); 4 - the stressed rats which received the hydrohumate. The activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L was determined spectrophotometrically by usage 1% azocasein, denaturated by 3 M urea, as substrate. It was obtained that under hydrohumate influence the activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L in rat blood plasma changed on 20% in comparison with control group that is suggested to be caused by leakage of tissue cathepsins from organs and tissues and kidneys' filtration of these cysteine enzymes in urine. In rat heart tissues it was obtained that cathepsin L activity level was on 26,8% higher in rats which were under stress influence in

  10. TESTING THE GLOBAL STAR FORMATION RELATION: AN HCO+ (3-2) MAPPING STUDY OF RED MSX SOURCES IN THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenck, David E.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Reiter, Megan; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and mass of dense gas in Galactic clumps and nearby galaxies. Using the bolometric luminosity as a measure of SFR and the molecular line luminosity of HCO + (3-2) as a measure of dense gas mass, we find that the relation between SFR and M dense is approximately linear. This is similar to published results derived using HCN (1-0) as a dense gas tracer. HCO + (3-2) and HCN (1-0) have similar conditions for excitation. Our work includes 16 Galactic clumps that are in both the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and the Red MSX Source Survey, 27 water maser sources from the literature, and the aforementioned HCN (1-0) data. Our results agree qualitatively with predictions of recent theoretical models which state that the nature of the relation should depend on how the critical density of the tracer compares with the mean density of the gas.

  11. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common...... object definitions are essential for the standards. Technical as well as topographical map information is exchangeable through the Danish developed “Standard for Exchange of Digital Map Information”, known as the DSFL-format....

  12. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  13. Adaptive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1979-01-01

    Schools have devised several ways to adapt instruction to a wide variety of student abilities and needs. Judged by criteria for what adaptive education should be, most learning for mastery programs look good. (Author/JM)

  14. Increasing the availability of national mapping products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, J.I.; Ogilvie, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion of the means employed by the US Geological Survey to facilitate map usage, covering aspects of project Map Accessibility Program including special rolled and folded map packaging, new market testing, parks and campgrounds program, expanded map dealer program, new booklet-type State sales index and catalog and new USGS map reference code. The USGS is seen as the producer of a tremendous nation-wide inventory of topographic and related map products available in unprecedented types, formats and scales, and as endeavouring to increase access to its products. The new USGS map reference code is appended. -J.C.Stone

  15. Comparative EPMA and μXRF methods for mapping micro-scale distribution of iodine in bio-carbonates of the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation at Bure, Eastern part of the Paris Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, C.; Claret, F.; Wille, G.; Beny, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C.; Denecke, M.A.; Falkenberg, G.; Ramboz, C.; Giffaut, E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A pluri-disciplinary approach was applied on carbonate shells of the Callovian-Oxfordian (160 Ma) clayey formation from the ANDRA Underground Research Laboratory at Bure. The overall aim of this natural analog investigation was to define the iodine speciation and immobilization mechanisms by carbonates in a natural carbonate-bearing clayey formation. In this study, sequential chemical extraction data have shown that ∼66 % of the low iodine content of the clay stone (1-5 ppm) is associated with the carbonate fraction and ∼33 % with organic matter. EPMA analyses have been performed on detrital and different generations of diagenetic carbonates observed in thin sections and have provided evidence of low and heterogeneously distributed iodine contents measured in bio-clasts (up to 1300 ppm), but also in less amounts in diagenetic euhedral calcite and dolomite (up to 620 ppm). EPMA analyses to measure iodine is especially challenging due to spectral interference between calcium K and iodine L emission lines and to the relatively high detection limits (∼150 ppm). We therefore applied a synchrotron micro-focused beam at energies above the I K absorption in the present study. Two entire and centimeter-sized shells, a bivalve and a brachiopod (Rhynchonella) were separated in a clay stone sample from Gallery level of the URL at Bure. They were cut along two perpendicular directions to obtain thin polished sections of the bio-clast shells. A dry polishing procedure was performed to avoid any partial dissolution of calcite and done by hand to avoid any heating and volatilization of iodine. Combined results from optical microscopy, SEM, cathodoluminescence and infra-red spectrometry performed on both bio-clasts showed that the Rhynchonella shell has a well-preserved organic structure and dominantly consists of bio-calcite, whereas the bivalve shell is entirely recrystallized into diagenetic calcite, with inclusions of

  16. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  17. Understanding map projections: Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Kent, Alexander J.; Vujakovic, Peter

    2018-01-01

    It has probably never been more important in the history of cartography than now that people understand how maps work. With increasing globalization, for example, world maps provide a key format for the transmission of information, but are often poorly used. Examples of poor understanding and use of projections and the resultant maps are many; for instance, the use of rectangular world maps in the United Kingdom press to show Chinese and Korean missile ranges as circles, something which can only be achieved on equidistant projections and then only from one launch point (Vujakovic, 2014).

  18. Map-based mobile services design, interaction and usability

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Liqiu; Winter, Stephan; Popovich, Vasily

    2008-01-01

    This book reports the newest research and technical achievements on the following theme blocks: Design of mobile map services and its constraints; Typology and usability of mobile map services; Visualization solutions on small displays for time-critical tasks; Mobile map users; Interaction and adaptation in mobile environments; and Applications of map-based mobile services.

  19. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  20. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  1. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  2. Map as a Service: A Framework for Visualising and Maximising Information Return from Multi-ModalWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hammoudeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed information extraction and visualisation service, called the mapping service, for maximising information return from large-scale wireless sensor networks. Such a service would greatly simplify the production of higher-level, information-rich, representations suitable for informing other network services and the delivery of field information visualisations. The mapping service utilises a blend of inductive and deductive models to map sense data accurately using externally available knowledge. It utilises the special characteristics of the application domain to render visualisations in a map format that are a precise reflection of the concrete reality. This service is suitable for visualising an arbitrary number of sense modalities. It is capable of visualising from multiple independent types of the sense data to overcome the limitations of generating visualisations from a single type of sense modality. Furthermore, the mapping service responds dynamically to changes in the environmental conditions, which may affect the visualisation performance by continuously updating the application domain model in a distributed manner. Finally, a distributed self-adaptation function is proposed with the goal of saving more power and generating more accurate data visualisation. We conduct comprehensive experimentation to evaluate the performance of our mapping service and show that it achieves low communication overhead, produces maps of high fidelity, and further minimises the mapping predictive error dynamically through integrating the application domain model in the mapping service.

  3. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  4. Mapping racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  5. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the connection between contract duration, relational mechanisms, and premature relationship termination. Based on an analysis of a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service-provider industry, we argue that investments in either longer contract duration or more in...... ambiguous reference points for adaption and thus increase the likelihood of premature termination by restricting the parties' set of adaptive actions....

  6. Climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  7. Adaptive steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Li, Grace; Memon, Nasir D.

    2002-04-01

    Steganalysis techniques attempt to differentiate between stego-objects and cover-objects. In recent work we developed an explicit analytic upper bound for the steganographic capacity of LSB based steganographic techniques for a given false probability of detection. In this paper we look at adaptive steganographic techniques. Adaptive steganographic techniques take explicit steps to escape detection. We explore different techniques that can be used to adapt message embedding to the image content or to a known steganalysis technique. We investigate the advantages of adaptive steganography within an analytical framework. We also give experimental results with a state-of-the-art steganalysis technique demonstrating that adaptive embedding results in a significant number of bits embedded without detection.

  8. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  9. MAP as a model for practice-based learning and improvement in child psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Sheryl H; Podell, Jennifer L; Zima, Bonnie T; Best, Karin; Sidhu, Shawn; Jura, Martha Bates

    2014-01-01

    Not only is there a growing literature demonstrating the positive outcomes that result from implementing evidence based treatments (EBTs) but also studies that suggest a lack of delivery of these EBTs in "usual care" practices. One way to address this deficit is to improve the quality of psychotherapy teaching for clinicians-in-training. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires all training programs to assess residents in a number of competencies including Practice-Based Learning and Improvements (PBLI). This article describes the piloting of Managing and Adapting Practice (MAP) for child psychiatry fellows, to teach them both EBT and PBLI skills. Eight child psychiatry trainees received 5 full days of MAP training and are delivering MAP in a year-long outpatient teaching clinic. In this setting, MAP is applied to the complex, multiply diagnosed psychiatric patients that present to this clinic. This article describes how MAP tools and resources assist in teaching trainees each of the eight required competency components of PBLI, including identifying deficits in expertise, setting learning goals, performing learning activities, conducting quality improvement methods in practice, incorporating formative feedback, using scientific studies to inform practice, using technology for learning, and participating in patient education. A case example illustrates the use of MAP in teaching PBLI. MAP provides a unique way to teach important quality improvement and practice-based learning skills to trainees while training them in important psychotherapy competence.

  10. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  11. Adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data compression, storage, and formatting system. It also incorporates capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be utilized for the collection of environmental, bi-level, analog and video data. The output of the system is digital tapes formatted for direct data reduction on a CDC 6400 computer, and video tapes containing timed tagged information that can be correlated with the digital data

  12. Introduction to "Mapping Vietnameseness"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam and China are currently engaged in a map war, with each country using ancient maps to buttress its claims to territorial sovereignty over some uninhabited islands in the South China Sea (in Chinese terminology, also known as the Eastern Sea (in Vietnamese. But what do maps in fact represent? What is meant by “territory”? How are territorial limits conceived? These questions were raised in a May 2015 workshop inspired by Thongchai Winichakul’s Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation (1994, a groundbreaking book that traces the transformation of Thai geographical consciousness as a result of Siam’s encounter with Western powers in the nineteenth century. While many of Thongchai’s insights apply to the Vietnamese case, as the first of the three articles included in this special issue of Cross-Currents shows, some of the 2015 workshop participants’ conclusions departed from his, especially regarding the formation of a Vietnamese geographical consciousness before the colonial period.[i] This is true of the other two papers, which focus specifically on the construction of borders and the associated production of maps in the nineteenth century before French colonial conquest... Notes 1 Thanks are due to the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Change in Gottingen, Germany, for its gracious hosting and generous funding of the conference, together with the Asia Center of Harvard University.

  13. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  14. Maintaining Mappings Valid between Dynamic KOS

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Reis , Julio Cesar

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) and the existing mappings between them have become extremely relevant in semantic-enabled systems especially for interoperability reasons. KOS may have a dynamic nature since knowledge in a lot of domains evolves fast, and thus KOS evolution can potentially impact mappings, turning them unreliable. A still open research problem is how to adapt mappings in the course of KOS evolution without re- computing semantic correspondences bet...

  15. An overview of adaptive model theory: solving the problems of redundancy, resources, and nonlinear interactions in human movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Peter D; Neilson, Megan D

    2005-09-01

    Adaptive model theory (AMT) is a computational theory that addresses the difficult control problem posed by the musculoskeletal system in interaction with the environment. It proposes that the nervous system creates motor maps and task-dependent synergies to solve the problems of redundancy and limited central resources. These lead to the adaptive formation of task-dependent feedback/feedforward controllers able to generate stable, noninteractive control and render nonlinear interactions unobservable in sensory-motor relationships. AMT offers a unified account of how the nervous system might achieve these solutions by forming internal models. This is presented as the design of a simulator consisting of neural adaptive filters based on cerebellar circuitry. It incorporates a new network module that adaptively models (in real time) nonlinear relationships between inputs with changing and uncertain spectral and amplitude probability density functions as is the case for sensory and motor signals.

  16. Temporal dimensions of human environmental research: Adaptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the past, oral histories were conducted with elderly people in four villages to acquire information about past adaptive strategies. For the future, focus groups and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) of household participants in a workshop setting were conducted so as to understand what adaptations they envisage. We found ...

  17. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing Climate Change Adaptation in Africa through Participatory Action Research. A Regional Observatory ... while the average annual rainfall recorded between. 1968 and 1999 was .... the region of Thies. For sustainability reasons, the.

  18. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    adaptation to climate change from various regions of the Sahel. Their .... This simple system, whose cost and maintenance were financially sustainable, brought ... method that enables him to learn from experience and save time, which he ...

  19. A Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program for National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Beavers, Rebecca; Brock, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program directed the initiation of a benthic habitat mapping program in ocean and coastal parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. With 74 ocean and Great Lakes parks stretching over more than 5,000 miles of coastline across 26 States and territories, this Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) is essential. This program will deliver benthic habitat maps and their associated inventory reports to NPS managers in a consistent, servicewide format to support informed management and protection of 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. The NPS and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop June 3-5, 2008, in Lakewood, Colo., to discuss the goals and develop the design of the NPS SBMP with an assembly of experts (Moses and others, 2010) who identified park needs and suggested best practices for inventory and mapping of bathymetry, benthic cover, geology, geomorphology, and some water-column properties. The recommended SBMP protocols include servicewide standards (such as gap analysis, minimum accuracy, final products) as well as standards that can be adapted to fit network and park unit needs (for example, minimum mapping unit, mapping priorities). SBMP Mapping Process. The SBMP calls for a multi-step mapping process for each park, beginning with a gap assessment and data mining to determine data resources and needs. An interagency announcement of intent to acquire new data will provide opportunities to leverage partnerships. Prior to new data acquisition, all involved parties should be included in a scoping meeting held at network scale. Data collection will be followed by processing and interpretation, and finally expert review and publication. After publication, all digital materials will be archived in a common format. SBMP Classification Scheme. The SBMP will map using the Coastal and Marine Ecological

  20. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  1. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  2. 'TV Format Protection through Marketing Strategies?'

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukhpreet

    2008-01-01

    Commercially successful programme ideas are often imitated or adapted. Television formats, in particular, are routinely copied. Starting from radio formats in the 1950s to game shows and reality programme formats of today, producers have accused others of “stealing”. Although formats constitute one of the most important exports for British TV producers, there is still no certainty about the legal protection of TV formats from copycat versions. Since TV formats fail to fall neatly within the d...

  3. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  4. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  5. Necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data associated with geographic regions is nowadays globally available in large amounts and hence automated methods to visually display these data are in high demand. There are several well-established thematic map types for quantitative data on the ratio-scale associated with regions:

  6. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  7. Consensus formation on coevolving networks: groups' formation and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, Balazs; Barrat, Alain

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of adaptivity on a social model of opinion dynamics and consensus formation. We analyse how the adaptivity of the network of contacts between agents to the underlying social dynamics affects the size and topological properties of groups and the convergence time to the stable final state. We find that, while on static networks these properties are determined by percolation phenomena, on adaptive networks the rewiring process leads to different behaviors: adaptive rewiring fosters group formation by enhancing communication between agents of similar opinion, though it also makes possible the division of clusters. We show how the convergence time is determined by the characteristic time of link rearrangement. We finally investigate how the adaptivity yields nontrivial correlations between the internal topology and the size of the groups of agreeing agents

  8. Reflexive cartography a new perspective in mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Casti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Reflexive Cartography addresses the adaptation of cartography, including its digital forms (GIS, WebGIS, PPGIS), to the changing needs of society, and outlines the experimental context aimed at mapping a topological space. Using rigorous scientific analysis based on statement consistency, relevance of the proposals, and model accessibility, it charts the transition from topographical maps created by state agencies to open mapping produced by citizens. Adopting semiotic theory to uncover the complex communicative mechanisms of maps and to investigate their ability to produce their own messages and new perspectives, Reflexive Cartography outlines a shift in our way of conceptualizing maps: from a plastic metaphor of reality, as they are generally considered, to solid tools that play the role of agents, assisting citizens as they think and plan their own living place and make sense of the current world. Applies a range of technologies to theoretical perspectives on mapping to innovatively map the world's geogr...

  9. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    . Terrestrial geologic maps published by the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of project-specific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well (e.g., Hare and others, 2009). Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically (e.g., Wilhelms, 1972, 1990; Tanaka and others, 1994). As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program s Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group s (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  10. Strategy Maps in University Management: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Zhong, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the conceptual use of the strategy map approach and the strategy map which it produces have been adapted from the business sector and introduced as tools for achieving more effective strategic planning and management in higher education institutions (HEIs). This study discusses the development of strategy maps as transformational…

  11. A microsatellite linkage map of Drosophila mojavensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schully Sheri

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila mojavensis has been a model system for genetic studies of ecological adaptation and speciation. However, despite its use for over half a century, no linkage map has been produced for this species or its close relatives. Results We have developed and mapped 90 microsatellites in D. mojavensis, and we present a detailed recombinational linkage map of 34 of these microsatellites. A slight excess of repetitive sequence was observed on the X-chromosome relative to the autosomes, and the linkage groups have a greater recombinational length than the homologous D. melanogaster chromosome arms. We also confirmed the conservation of Muller's elements in 23 sequences between D. melanogaster and D. mojavensis. Conclusions The microsatellite primer sequences and localizations are presented here and made available to the public. This map will facilitate future quantitative trait locus mapping studies of phenotypes involved in adaptation or reproductive isolation using this species.

  12. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  13. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  14. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  15. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.

  16. 2004 Harrison County, Mississippi Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the topographic mapping of Harrison County, Mississippi in March of 2004. Products generated include lidar point clouds in .LAS format...

  17. Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling. ... will be constructed The area under study is within the Abakaliki Shales Geologic Formation. ... micaceous sandstone; micaceous siltstone, sandy shales and shelly limestone.

  18. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  19. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  20. Torus Breakdown in Noninvertible Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maistrenko, V.; Maistrenko, Yu.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We propose a criterion for the destruction of a two-dimensional torus through the formation of an infinite set of cusp points on the closed invariant curves defining the resonance torus. This mechanism is specific to noninvertible maps. The cusp points arise when the tangent to the torus at the p......We propose a criterion for the destruction of a two-dimensional torus through the formation of an infinite set of cusp points on the closed invariant curves defining the resonance torus. This mechanism is specific to noninvertible maps. The cusp points arise when the tangent to the torus...... at the point of intersection with the critical curve L-0 coincides with the eigendirection corresponding to vanishing eigenvalue for the noninvertible map. Further parameter changes lead typically to the generation of loops (self-intersections of the invariant manifolds) followed by the transformation...

  1. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  2. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  3. Adapting comics to storyboard language

    OpenAIRE

    Manhães Ricardo; Milton Luiz Horn Vieira; Carolina Cesar Coral

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the practical differences between the language of comics and the storyboard, in adapting a format to the other. The result of this adjustment will be applied in an animation. Graphics solutions used in each of these languages, the expression of their contents, were compared descriptively. Features such as the horizontal format, the vignette, audio, kinetic figures, visual metaphors and subtitles, when placed side by side, highlight the differences and similarities betwee...

  4. NeatMap--non-clustering heat map alternatives in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Satwik; Oono, Yoshi

    2010-01-22

    The clustered heat map is the most popular means of visualizing genomic data. It compactly displays a large amount of data in an intuitive format that facilitates the detection of hidden structures and relations in the data. However, it is hampered by its use of cluster analysis which does not always respect the intrinsic relations in the data, often requiring non-standardized reordering of rows/columns to be performed post-clustering. This sometimes leads to uninformative and/or misleading conclusions. Often it is more informative to use dimension-reduction algorithms (such as Principal Component Analysis and Multi-Dimensional Scaling) which respect the topology inherent in the data. Yet, despite their proven utility in the analysis of biological data, they are not as widely used. This is at least partially due to the lack of user-friendly visualization methods with the visceral impact of the heat map. NeatMap is an R package designed to meet this need. NeatMap offers a variety of novel plots (in 2 and 3 dimensions) to be used in conjunction with these dimension-reduction techniques. Like the heat map, but unlike traditional displays of such results, it allows the entire dataset to be displayed while visualizing relations between elements. It also allows superimposition of cluster analysis results for mutual validation. NeatMap is shown to be more informative than the traditional heat map with the help of two well-known microarray datasets. NeatMap thus preserves many of the strengths of the clustered heat map while addressing some of its deficiencies. It is hoped that NeatMap will spur the adoption of non-clustering dimension-reduction algorithms.

  5. An Adaptable Neuromorphic Model of Orientation Selectivity Based On Floating Gate Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti eGupta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge that the neuromorphic community faces today is to build systems that can be considered truly cognitive. Adaptation and self-organization are the two basic principles that underlie any cognitive function that the brain performs. If we can replicate this behavior in hardware, we move a step closer to our goal of having cognitive neuromorphic systems. Adaptive feature selectivity is a mechanism by which nature optimizes resources so as to have greater acuity for more abundant features. Developing neuromorphic feature maps can help design generic machines that can emulate this adaptive behavior. Most neuromorphic models that have attempted to build self-organizing systems, follow the approach of modeling abstract theoretical frameworks in hardware. While this is good from a modeling and analysis perspective, it may not lead to the most efficient hardware. On the other hand, exploiting hardware dynamics to build adaptive systems rather than forcing the hardware to behave like mathematical equations, seems to be a more robust methodology when it comes to developing actual hardware for real world applications. In this paper we use a novel time-staggered Winner Take All circuit, that exploits the adaptation dynamics of floating gate transistors, to model an adaptive cortical cell that demonstrates Orientation Selectivity, a well-known biological phenomenon observed in the visual cortex. The cell performs competitive learning, refining its weights in response to input patterns resembling different oriented bars, becoming selective to a particular oriented pattern. Different analysis performed on the cell such as orientation tuning, application of abnormal inputs, response to spatial frequency and periodic patterns reveal close similarity between our cell and its biological counterpart. Embedded in a RC grid, these cells interact diffusively exhibiting cluster formation, making way for adaptively building orientation selective maps

  6. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  7. Arctic Basemaps In Google Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muggah, J.; Mioc, Darka

    2010-01-01

    The Ocean Mapping Group has been collecting data in the Arctic since 2003 and there are approximately 2,000 basemaps. In the current online storage format used by the OMG, it is difficult to view the data and users cannot easily pan and zoom. The purpose of this research is to investigate...... the advantages of the use of Google Maps, to display the OMG's Arctic data. The map should should load the large Artic dataset in a reasonable time. The bathymetric images were created using software in Linux written by the OMG, and a step-by-step process was used to create images from the multibeam data...... collected by the OMG in the Arctic. The website was also created using Linux operating system. The projection needed to be changed from Lambert Conformal Conic (useful at higher Latitudes) to Mercator (used by Google Maps) and the data needed to have a common colour scheme. After creating and testing...

  8. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  9. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  10. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  11. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  12. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  13. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles.......This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...

  14. Making Pedagogical Adaptability Less Obvious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I try to make pedagogical adaptability a bit less obvious. In particular, I use some post-structural philosophical ideas and some concepts at the intersections of social class and race to re-interpret Dylan Wiliam's conception of formative assessment. I suggest that this interpretation can provide opportunities to resist the urge…

  15. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  16. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  17. Beebook: light field mapping app

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Di Pietro, Gianfranco; Rinnone, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade the mobile systems for field digital mapping were developed (see Wikipedia for "Digital geologic mapping"), also against many skeptic traditional geologists. Until now, hardware was often heavy (tablet PC) and software sometime difficult also for expert GIS users. At present, the advent of light tablet and applications makes things easier, but we are far to find a whole solution for a complex survey like the geological one where you have to manage complexities such information, hypothesis, data, interpretation. Beebook is a new app for Android devices, has been developed for fast ad easy mapping work in the field trying to try to solve this problem. The main features are: • off-line raster management, GeoTIFF ed other raster format using; • on-line map visualisation (Google Maps, OSM, WMS, WFS); • SR management and conversion using PROJ.4; • vector file mash-up (KML and SQLite format); • editing of vector data on the map (lines, points, polygons); • augmented reality using "Mixare" platform; • export of vector data in KML, CSV, SQLite (Spatialite) format; • note: GPS or manual point inserting linked to other application files (pictures, spreadsheet, etc.); • form: creation, edition and filling of customized form; • GPS: status control, tracker and positioning on map; • sharing: synchronization and sharing of data, forms, positioning and other information can be done among users. The input methods are different from digital keyboard to fingers touch, from voice recording to stylus. In particular the most efficient way of inserting information is the stylus (or pen): field geologists are familiar with annotation and sketches. Therefore we suggest the use of devices with stylus. The main point is that Beebook is the first "transparent" mobile GIS for tablet and smartphone deriving from previous experience as traditional mapping and different previous digital mapping software ideation and development (MapIT, BeeGIS, Geopaparazzi

  18. Landscape structure and the speed of adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudino, Elder S.; Campos, Paulo R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The role of fragmentation in the adaptive process is addressed. We investigate how landscape structure affects the speed of adaptation in a spatially structured population model. As models of fragmented landscapes, here we simulate the percolation maps and the fractal landscapes. In the latter the degree of spatial autocorrelation can be suited. We verified that fragmentation can effectively affect the adaptive process. The examination of the fixation rates and speed of adaptation discloses the dichotomy exhibited by percolation maps and fractal landscapes. In the latter, there is a smooth change in the pace of the adaptation process, as the landscapes become more aggregated higher fixation rates and speed of adaptation are obtained. On the other hand, in random percolation the geometry of the percolating cluster matters. Thus, the scenario depends on whether the system is below or above the percolation threshold. - Highlights: • The role of fragmentation on the adaptive process is addressed. • Our approach makes the linkage between population genetics and landscape ecology. • Fragmentation affects gene flow and thus influences the speed of adaptation. • The level of clumping determines how the speed of adaptation is influenced

  19. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  20. Partially Adaptive STAP Algorithm Approaches to functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lejian; Thompson, Elizabeth A.; Schmithorst, Vincent; Holland, Scott K.; Talavage, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the architectures of three partially adaptive STAP algorithms are introduced, one of which is explored in detail, that reduce dimensionality and improve tractability over fully adaptive STAP when used in construction of brain activation maps in fMRI. Computer simulations incorporating actual MRI noise and human data analysis indicate that element space partially adaptive STAP can attain close to the performance of fully adaptive STAP while significantly decreasing processing tim...

  1. Adaptive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Silva, Ariosto S; Gillies, Robert J; Frieden, B Roy

    2009-06-01

    A number of successful systemic therapies are available for treatment of disseminated cancers. However, tumor response is often transient, and therapy frequently fails due to emergence of resistant populations. The latter reflects the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment as well as the evolutionary capacity of cancer phenotypes to adapt to therapeutic perturbations. Although cancers are highly dynamic systems, cancer therapy is typically administered according to a fixed, linear protocol. Here we examine an adaptive therapeutic approach that evolves in response to the temporal and spatial variability of tumor microenvironment and cellular phenotype as well as therapy-induced perturbations. Initial mathematical models find that when resistant phenotypes arise in the untreated tumor, they are typically present in small numbers because they are less fit than the sensitive population. This reflects the "cost" of phenotypic resistance such as additional substrate and energy used to up-regulate xenobiotic metabolism, and therefore not available for proliferation, or the growth inhibitory nature of environments (i.e., ischemia or hypoxia) that confer resistance on phenotypically sensitive cells. Thus, in the Darwinian environment of a cancer, the fitter chemosensitive cells will ordinarily proliferate at the expense of the less fit chemoresistant cells. The models show that, if resistant populations are present before administration of therapy, treatments designed to kill maximum numbers of cancer cells remove this inhibitory effect and actually promote more rapid growth of the resistant populations. We present an alternative approach in which treatment is continuously modulated to achieve a fixed tumor population. The goal of adaptive therapy is to enforce a stable tumor burden by permitting a significant population of chemosensitive cells to survive so that they, in turn, suppress proliferation of the less fit but chemoresistant

  2. Geologic mapping procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Geologic mapping will provide a baseline record of the subsurface geology in the shafts and drifts of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). This information will be essential in confirming the specific repository horizon, selecting representative locations for the in situ tests, providing information for construction and decommissioning seal designs, documenting the excavation effects, and in providing information for performance assessment, which relates to the ultimate suitability of the site as a nuclear waste repository. Geologic mapping will be undertaken on the walls and roof, and locally on the floor within the completed At-Depth Facility (ADF) and on the walls of the two access shafts. Periodic mapping of the exposed face may be conducted during construction of the ADF. The mapping will be oriented toward the collection and presentation of geologic information in an engineering format and the portrayal of detailed stratigraphic information which may be useful in confirmation of drillhole data collected as part of the surface-based testing program. Geologic mapping can be considered as a predictive tool as well as a means of checking design assumptions. This document provides a description of the required procedures for geologic mapping for the ESF. Included in this procedure is information that qualified technical personnel can use to collect the required types of geologic descriptions, at the appropriate level of detail. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. The evolution of the cognitive map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lucia F

    2003-01-01

    The hippocampal formation of mammals and birds mediates spatial orientation behaviors consistent with a map-like representation, which allows the navigator to construct a new route across unfamiliar terrain. This cognitive map thus appears to underlie long-distance navigation. Its mediation by the hippocampal formation and its presence in birds and mammals suggests that at least one function of the ancestral medial pallium was spatial navigation. Recent studies of the goldfish and certain reptile species have shown that the medial pallium homologue in these species can also play an important role in spatial orientation. It is not yet clear, however, whether one type of cognitive map is found in these groups or indeed in all vertebrates. To answer this question, we need a more precise definition of the map. The recently proposed parallel map theory of hippocampal function provides a new perspective on this question, by unpacking the mammalian cognitive map into two dissociable mapping processes, mediated by different hippocampal subfields. If the cognitive map of non-mammals is constructed in a similar manner, the parallel map theory may facilitate the analysis of homologies, both in behavior and in the function of medial pallium subareas. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Participatory mapping new data, new cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Plantin, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for applications of online digital mapping, called mashups (or composite application), and to analyze the mapping practices in online socio-technical controversies. The hypothesis put forward is that the ability to create an online map accompanies the formation of online audience and provides support for a position in a debate on the Web.The first part provides a study of the map: - a combination of map and statistical reason- crosses between map theories and CIS theories- recent developments in scanning the map, from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Web map.The second part is based on a corpus of twenty "mashup" maps, and offers a techno-semiotic analysis highlighting the "thickness of the mediation" they are in a process of communication on the Web. Map as a device to "make do" is thus replaced through these stages of creation, ranging from digital data in their viewing, before describing the construction of the map as a tool for visual evidence in public debates, and ending wit...

  5. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...

  6. Rate Adaptive OFDMA Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    operates on the effective SNR value that is obtained using Mutual Information Effective SNR Mapping (MIESM). We also propose a novel rate selection scheme for the SCW termed as Recursive Mutual Information Effective SNR mapping (R-MIESM) scheme and compare it against the MIESM scheme using Turbo codes. The R-MIESM scheme provides further goodput performance gains over the MIESM scheme. In the simulations the SCW is compared against the PFA where we fix the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) over a given frame. The simulations show that the proposed adaptive puncturing method of SCW is superior to the PFA and MCWs structure using Turbo or Convolutional codes.

  7. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  8. Latin American Centre for Outcome Mapping - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Final technical report / Latin American Centre for Outcome Mapping (CLAMA) ... Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC is pleased to ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  9. The Inhibitor of wax 1 locus (Iw1) prevents formation of β- and OH-β-diketones in wheat cuticular waxes and maps to a sub-cM interval on chromosome arm 2BS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamski, Nikolai; Bush, Maxwell; Simmonds, James

    2013-01-01

    not previously been described in wheat waxes were identified. Using six pairs of BC2 F3 near-isogenic lines, we show that Iw1 inhibits the formation of β- and hydroxy-β-diketones in the peduncle and flag leaf blade cuticles. This inhibitory effect is independent of genetic background or tissue...

  10. Second-generation speed limit map updating applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Adaptation is an Intelligent Transport System developed to significantly improve road safety in helping car drivers maintain appropriate driving behaviour. The system works in connection with the speed limits on the road network. It is thus essential to keep the speed limit map...... used in the Intelligent Speed Adaptation scheme updated. The traditional method of updating speed limit maps on the basis of long time interval observations needed to be replaced by a more efficient speed limit updating tool. In a Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation trial a web-based tool was therefore...... for map updating should preferably be made on the basis of a commercial map provider, 2 such as Google Maps and that the real challenge is to oblige road authorities to carry out updates....

  11. Climate Change: Resilience and Adaptation in New England (RAINE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This database catalogs vulnerability, resilience and adaptation reports, plans and webpages at the state, regional and community level. It provides links, maps and reports for basic and advanced searches. It includes a comment box for more information.

  12. DistMap: a toolkit for distributed short read mapping on a Hadoop cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vinay Pandey

    Full Text Available With the rapid and steady increase of next generation sequencing data output, the mapping of short reads has become a major data analysis bottleneck. On a single computer, it can take several days to map the vast quantity of reads produced from a single Illumina HiSeq lane. In an attempt to ameliorate this bottleneck we present a new tool, DistMap - a modular, scalable and integrated workflow to map reads in the Hadoop distributed computing framework. DistMap is easy to use, currently supports nine different short read mapping tools and can be run on all Unix-based operating systems. It accepts reads in FASTQ format as input and provides mapped reads in a SAM/BAM format. DistMap supports both paired-end and single-end reads thereby allowing the mapping of read data produced by different sequencing platforms. DistMap is available from http://code.google.com/p/distmap/

  13. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  14. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  15. Snapshots for Semantic Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Ricks, Bob; Goodrich, Michael A; Bruemmer, David; Few, Doug; Walton, Miles

    2004-01-01

    .... Semantic maps are a relatively new approach to information presentation. Semantic maps provide more detail about an environment than typical maps because they are augmented by icons or symbols that provide meaning for places or objects of interest...

  16. Performance analysis of different database in new internet mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xing; Su, Wei; Gao, Shuai

    2017-03-01

    In the Mapping System of New Internet, Massive mapping entries between AID and RID need to be stored, added, updated, and deleted. In order to better deal with the problem when facing a large number of mapping entries update and query request, the Mapping System of New Internet must use high-performance database. In this paper, we focus on the performance of Redis, SQLite, and MySQL these three typical databases, and the results show that the Mapping System based on different databases can adapt to different needs according to the actual situation.

  17. a Model Study of Small-Scale World Map Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Yin, Y.; Li, C. M.; Wu, W.; Guo, P. P.; Ma, X. L.; Hu, F. M.

    2018-04-01

    With the globalization and rapid development every filed is taking an increasing interest in physical geography and human economics. There is a surging demand for small scale world map in large formats all over the world. Further study of automated mapping technology, especially the realization of small scale production on a large scale global map, is the key of the cartographic field need to solve. In light of this, this paper adopts the improved model (with the map and data separated) in the field of the mapmaking generalization, which can separate geographic data from mapping data from maps, mainly including cross-platform symbols and automatic map-making knowledge engine. With respect to the cross-platform symbol library, the symbol and the physical symbol in the geographic information are configured at all scale levels. With respect to automatic map-making knowledge engine consists 97 types, 1086 subtypes, 21845 basic algorithm and over 2500 relevant functional modules.In order to evaluate the accuracy and visual effect of our model towards topographic maps and thematic maps, we take the world map generalization in small scale as an example. After mapping generalization process, combining and simplifying the scattered islands make the map more explicit at 1 : 2.1 billion scale, and the map features more complete and accurate. Not only it enhance the map generalization of various scales significantly, but achieve the integration among map-makings of various scales, suggesting that this model provide a reference in cartographic generalization for various scales.

  18. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nourmohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.

  19. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  20. Mapping innovation processes: Visual techniques for opening and presenting the black box of service innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Rørbæk

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues for the usefulness of visual mapping techniques for performing qualitative analysis of complex service innovation processes. Different mapping formats are presented, namely, matrices, networks, process maps, situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps....... For the purpose of researching service innovation processes, the three latter formats are argued to be particularly interesting. Process maps can give an overview of different periods and milestones in a process in one carefully organized location. Situational analysis maps and temporal situational analysis maps...... can open up complexities of service innovation processes, as well as close them down for presentational purposes. The mapping formats presented are illustrated by displaying maps from an exemplary research project, and the chapter is concluded with a brief discussion of the limitations and pitfalls...

  1. Dynamic plasticity in coupled avian midbrain maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Gurinder Singh

    2004-12-01

    Internal mapping of the external environment is carried out using the receptive fields of topographic neurons in the brain, and in a normal barn owl the aural and visual subcortical maps are aligned from early experiences. However, instantaneous misalignment of the aural and visual stimuli has been observed to result in adaptive behavior, manifested by functional and anatomical changes of the auditory processing system. Using methods of information theory and statistical mechanics a model of the adaptive dynamics of the aural receptive field is presented and analyzed. The dynamics is determined by maximizing the mutual information between the neural output and the weighted sensory neural inputs, admixed with noise, subject to biophysical constraints. The reduced costs of neural rewiring, as in the case of young barn owls, reveal two qualitatively different types of receptive field adaptation depending on the magnitude of the audiovisual misalignment. By letting the misalignment increase with time, it is shown that the ability to adapt can be increased even when neural rewiring costs are high, in agreement with recent experimental reports of the increased plasticity of the auditory space map in adult barn owls due to incremental learning. Finally, a critical speed of misalignment is identified, demarcating the crossover from adaptive to nonadaptive behavior.

  2. A format for phylogenetic placements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick A Matsen

    Full Text Available We have developed a unified format for phylogenetic placements, that is, mappings of environmental sequence data (e.g., short reads into a phylogenetic tree. We are motivated to do so by the growing number of tools for computing and post-processing phylogenetic placements, and the lack of an established standard for storing them. The format is lightweight, versatile, extensible, and is based on the JSON format, which can be parsed by most modern programming languages. Our format is already implemented in several tools for computing and post-processing parsimony- and likelihood-based phylogenetic placements and has worked well in practice. We believe that establishing a standard format for analyzing read placements at this early stage will lead to a more efficient development of powerful and portable post-analysis tools for the growing applications of phylogenetic placement.

  3. Passive mapping and intermittent exploration for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engleson, Sean P.

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive state space architecture is combined with diktiometric representation to provide the framework for designing a robot mapping system with flexible navigation planning tasks. This involves indexing waypoints described as expectations, geometric indexing, and perceptual indexing. Matching and updating the robot's projected position and sensory inputs with indexing waypoints involves matchers, dynamic priorities, transients, and waypoint restructuring. The robot's map learning can be opganized around the principles of passive mapping.

  4. Indirect adaptive control of discrete chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salarieh, Hassan; Shahrokhi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an indirect adaptive control algorithm is proposed to stabilize the fixed points of discrete chaotic systems. It is assumed that the functionality of the chaotic dynamics is known but the system parameters are unknown. This assumption is usually applicable to many chaotic systems, such as the Henon map, logistic and many other nonlinear maps. Using the recursive-least squares technique, the system parameters are identified and based on the feedback linearization method an adaptive controller is designed for stabilizing the fixed points, or unstable periodic orbits of the chaotic maps. The stability of the proposed scheme has been shown and the effectiveness of the control algorithm has been demonstrated through computer simulations

  5. US Topo: topographic maps for the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    US Topo is the next generation of topographic maps from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Arranged in the familiar 7.5-minute quadrangle format, digital US Topo maps are designed to look and feel (and perform) like the traditional paper topographic maps for which the USGS is so well known. In contrast to paper-based maps, US Topo maps provide modern technical advantages that support faster, wider public distribution and enable basic, on-screen geographic analysis for all users. The US Topo quadrangle map has been redesigned so that map elements are visually distinguishable with the imagery turned on and off, while keeping the file size as small as possible. The US Topo map redesign includes improvements to various display factors, including symbol definitions (color, line thickness, line symbology, area fills), layer order, and annotation fonts. New features for 2013 include the following: a raster shaded relief layer, military boundaries, cemeteries and post offices, and a US Topo cartographic symbols legend as an attachment. US Topo quadrangle maps are available free on the Web. Each map quadrangle is constructed in GeoPDF® format using key layers of geographic data (orthoimagery, roads, geographic names, topographic contours, and hydrographic features) from The National Map databases. US Topo quadrangle maps can be printed from personal computers or plotters as complete, full-sized, maps or in customized sections, in a user-desired specific format. Paper copies of the maps can also be purchased from the USGS Store. Download links and a users guide are featured on the US Topo Web site. US Topo users can turn geographic data layers on and off as needed; they can zoom in and out to highlight specific features or see a broader area. File size for each digital 7.5-minute quadrangle, about 30 megabytes. Associated electronic tools for geographic analysis are available free for download. The US Topo provides the Nation with a topographic product that users can

  6. Opportunities for adaptive online collaboration to enhance rural land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumber, Alex; Metternicht, Graciela; Ampt, Peter; Cross, Rebecca; Berry, Emily

    2018-08-01

    Cross-property cooperation has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of environmental management actions that cut across property boundaries. Online tools can facilitate this and overcome barriers to landholder engagement in collaborative management. However, collaborative online tools need to be designed and tailored to users' needs and values, and landholder participation in the development process is critical to ensuring uptake and long-term use. This article presents a case study from the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia, where landholders have been involved in participatory development of a new online collaboration tool. The case study results highlight the significance of issues such as internet access, privacy, technical proficiency and differing stakeholder objectives. A landholder survey identified mapping and the uploading of monitoring data as important functions for the online tool, but these were not rated as highly as functions relating to data security, sharing settings and key term searches. Consequently, we recommend that a future online collaboration tool for the region is not framed specifically as a mapping or citizen science tool, but rather as an adaptive collaboration and communication tool that can incorporate a variety of data types and formats and be modified over time in line with changing landholder needs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supporting Adaptive and Adaptable Hypermedia Presentation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); L. Rutledge (Lloyd); L. Hardman (Lynda); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractHaving the content of a presentation adapt to the needs, resources and prior activities of a user can be an important benefit of electronic documents. While part of this adaptation is related to the encodings of individual data streams, much of the adaptation can/should be guided by the

  8. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  9. Adaptive scaling of reward in episodic memory: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alice; Ludwig, Casimir; Farrell, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Reward is thought to enhance episodic memory formation via dopaminergic consolidation. Bunzeck, Dayan, Dolan, and Duzel [(2010). A common mechanism for adaptive scaling of reward and novelty. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1380-1394] provided functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioural evidence that reward and episodic memory systems are sensitive to the contextual value of a reward-whether it is relatively higher or lower-as opposed to absolute value or prediction error. We carried out a direct replication of their behavioural study and did not replicate their finding that memory performance associated with reward follows this pattern of adaptive scaling. An effect of reward outcome was in the opposite direction to that in the original study, with lower reward outcomes leading to better memory than higher outcomes. There was a marginal effect of reward context, suggesting that expected value affected memory performance. We discuss the robustness of the reward memory relationship to variations in reward context, and whether other reward-related factors have a more reliable influence on episodic memory.

  10. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  11. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... is available in different formats and is accompanied by an extensive documentation of the floristic, physiognomic and other characteristics of the different vegetation types and useful woody species in the 8 countries. It is complemented by a species selection tool, which can be used to 'find the right tree...

  12. Tensegrity Models and Shape Control of Vehicle Formations

    OpenAIRE

    Nabet, Benjamin; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich

    2009-01-01

    Using dynamic models of tensegrity structures, we derive provable, distributed control laws for stabilizing and changing the shape of a formation of vehicles in the plane. Tensegrity models define the desired, controlled, multi-vehicle system dynamics, where each node in the tensegrity structure maps to a vehicle and each interconnecting strut or cable in the structure maps to a virtual interconnection between vehicles. Our method provides a smooth map from any desired planar formation shape ...

  13. 7. Annex II: Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-states-15-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-counties-16-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  14. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  15. Differential maps, difference maps, interpolated maps, and long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1988-06-01

    Mapping techniques may be thought to be attractive for the long term prediction of motion in accelerators, especially because a simple map can approximately represent an arbitrarily complicated lattice. The intention of this paper is to develop prejudices as to the validity of such methods by applying them to a simple, exactly solveable, example. It is shown that a numerical interpolation map, such as can be generated in the accelerator tracking program TEAPOT, predicts the evolution more accurately than an analytically derived differential map of the same order. Even so, in the presence of ''appreciable'' nonlinearity, it is shown to be impractical to achieve ''accurate'' prediction beyond some hundreds of cycles of oscillation. This suggests that the value of nonlinear maps is restricted to the parameterization of only the ''leading'' deviation from linearity. 41 refs., 6 figs

  16. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  17. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  18. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  19. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  20. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  1. Cerebellar anodal tDCS increases implicit learning when strategic re-aiming is suppressed in sensorimotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Marinovic, Welber; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    formation of new visuomotor maps that correct perturbations in sensory feedback, even when explicit processes are suppressed during sensorimotor adaptation.

  2. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  3. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  4. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    the northern and southern parts of the map area are the result of right-lateral motion on strands of the San Gregorio Fault system. In the south, headlands near Pescadero Point have been uplifted by motion along the west strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Frijoles Fault), which separates rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation south of the fault from rocks of the Purisima Formation north of the fault. The regional uplift in this map area has caused relatively shallow water depths within California's State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed offshore in the central part of the map area, in the shelter of the headlands north of the east strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Coastways Fault) around Miramontes Point (about 5 km north of the map area) and also on the outer half of the California's State Waters shelf in the south where depths exceed 40 m. Sediment in the outer shelf of California's State Waters is rippled, indicating some mobility. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the "Oregonian province" or the "northern California ecoregion." This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 350 km south of the map area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off of central California has experienced a warming

  5. Adaptive treatment-length optimization in spatiobiologically integrated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Ali; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2018-04-01

    Recent theoretical research on spatiobiologically integrated radiotherapy has focused on optimization models that adapt fluence-maps to the evolution of tumor state, for example, cell densities, as observed in quantitative functional images acquired over the treatment course. We propose an optimization model that adapts the length of the treatment course as well as the fluence-maps to such imaged tumor state. Specifically, after observing the tumor cell densities at the beginning of a session, the treatment planner solves a group of convex optimization problems to determine an optimal number of remaining treatment sessions, and a corresponding optimal fluence-map for each of these sessions. The objective is to minimize the total number of tumor cells remaining (TNTCR) at the end of this proposed treatment course, subject to upper limits on the biologically effective dose delivered to the organs-at-risk. This fluence-map is administered in future sessions until the next image is available, and then the number of sessions and the fluence-map are re-optimized based on the latest cell density information. We demonstrate via computer simulations on five head-and-neck test cases that such adaptive treatment-length and fluence-map planning reduces the TNTCR and increases the biological effect on the tumor while employing shorter treatment courses, as compared to only adapting fluence-maps and using a pre-determined treatment course length based on one-size-fits-all guidelines.

  6. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  7. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  8. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...

  9. Resilience through adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten Guus; Voorn, van George A.K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations

  10. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of projectspecific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well. Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically. As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program's Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group's (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  11. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  12. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  13. Meso(topoclimatic maps and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Plánka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric characteristics can be studied from many points of view, most often we talk about time and spatial standpoint. Application of time standpoint leads either to different kinds of the synoptic and prognostic maps production, which presents actual state of atmosphere in short time section in the past or in the near future or to the climatic maps production which presents longterm weather regime. Spatial standpoint then differs map works according to natural phenomenon proportions, whereas the scale of their graphic presentation can be different. It depends on production purpose of each work.In the paper there are analysed methods of mapping and climatic maps production, which display longterm regime of chosen atmospheric features. These athmosphere features are formed in interaction with land surface and also have direct influence on people and their activities throughout the country. At the same time they’re influenced by anthropogenic intervention to the landscape.

  14. Smart "geomorphological" map browsing - a tale about geomorphological maps and the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilhausen, M.; Otto, J.-C.

    2012-04-01

    With the digital production of geomorphological maps, the dissemination of research outputs now extends beyond simple paper products. Internet technologies can contribute to both, the dissemination of geomorphological maps and access to geomorphologic data and help to make geomorphological knowledge available to a greater public. Indeed, many national geological surveys employ end-to-end digital workflows from data capture in the field to final map production and dissemination. This paper deals with the potential of web mapping applications and interactive, portable georeferenced PDF maps for the distribution of geomorphological information. Web mapping applications such as Google Maps have become very popular and widespread and increased the interest and access to mapping. They link the Internet with GIS technology and are a common way of presenting dynamic maps online. The GIS processing is performed online and maps are visualised in interactive web viewers characterised by different capabilities such as zooming, panning or adding further thematic layers, with the map refreshed after each task. Depending on the system architecture and the components used, advanced symbology, map overlays from different applications and sources and their integration into a Desktop GIS are possible. This interoperability is achieved through the use of international open standards that include mechanisms for the integration and visualisation of information from multiple sources. The portable document format (PDF) is commonly used for printing and is a standard format that can be processed by many graphic software and printers without loss of information. A GeoPDF enables the sharing of geospatial maps and data in PDF documents. Multiple, independent map frames with individual spatial reference systems are possible within a GeoPDF, for example, for map overlays or insets. Geospatial functionality of a GeoPDF includes scalable map display, layer visibility control, access to attribute

  15. An analysis of adaptation negotiations in Poznan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaud, B.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) by the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). These NAPAs are meant to provide LDCs the means to identify pressing adaptation needs at the national level, 'those whose further delay could increase vulnerability, or lead to increased costs at a later stage'. On negotiations more specifically, Bali helped emphasizing adaptation by giving it an important place on the road-map to Copenhagen. (author)

  16. An analysis of adaptation negotiations in Poznan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnaud, B

    2009-07-01

    National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) by the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). These NAPAs are meant to provide LDCs the means to identify pressing adaptation needs at the national level, 'those whose further delay could increase vulnerability, or lead to increased costs at a later stage'. On negotiations more specifically, Bali helped emphasizing adaptation by giving it an important place on the road-map to Copenhagen. (author)

  17. Global mapping of transposon location.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abram Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Transposable genetic elements are ubiquitous, yet their presence or absence at any given position within a genome can vary between individual cells, tissues, or strains. Transposable elements have profound impacts on host genomes by altering gene expression, assisting in genomic rearrangements, causing insertional mutations, and serving as sources of phenotypic variation. Characterizing a genome's full complement of transposons requires whole genome sequencing, precluding simple studies of the impact of transposition on interindividual variation. Here, we describe a global mapping approach for identifying transposon locations in any genome, using a combination of transposon-specific DNA extraction and microarray-based comparative hybridization analysis. We use this approach to map the repertoire of endogenous transposons in different laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrate that transposons are a source of extensive genomic variation. We also apply this method to mapping bacterial transposon insertion sites in a yeast genomic library. This unique whole genome view of transposon location will facilitate our exploration of transposon dynamics, as well as defining bases for individual differences and adaptive potential.

  18. Renormalization in area-preserving maps

    CERN Document Server

    MacKay, R S

    1993-01-01

    This book is adapted and revised from the author's seminal PhD thesis, in which two forms of asymptotically universal structure were presented and explained for area-preserving maps. Area-preserving maps are the discrete-time analogue of two degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems. How they work and much of their dynamics are described in this book. The asymptotically universal structure is found on small scales in phase-space and long time-scales. The key to understanding it is renormalisation, that is, looking at a system on successively smaller phase-space and longer time scales. Having prese

  19. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  20. Using maps in genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    In genealogical research, maps can provide clues to where our ancestors may have lived and where to look for written records about them. Beginners should master basic genealogical research techniques before starting to use topographic maps.

  1. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  2. National Pipeline Mapping System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NPMS Public Map Viewer allows the general public to view maps of transmission pipelines, LNG plants, and breakout tanks in one selected county. Distribution and...

  3. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  4. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  5. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  6. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  8. Planimetric Features Generalization for the Production of Small-Scale Map by Using Base Maps and the Existing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartographic maps are representations of the Earth upon a flat surface in the smaller scale than it’s true. Large scale maps cover relatively small regions in great detail and small scale maps cover large regions such as nations, continents and the whole globe. Logical connection between the features and scale map must be maintained by changing the scale and it is important to recognize that even the most accurate maps sacrifice a certain amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user. Cartographic generalization, or map generalization, is the method whereby information is selected and represented on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map, not necessarily preserving all intricate geographical or other cartographic details. Due to the problems facing small-scale map production process and the need to spend time and money for surveying, today’s generalization is used as executive approach. The software is proposed in this paper that converted various data and information to certain Data Model. This software can produce generalization map according to base map using the existing algorithm. Planimetric generalization algorithms and roles are described in this article. Finally small-scale maps with 1:100,000, 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 scale are produced automatically and they are shown at the end.

  9. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  10. Mapping specific soil functions based on digital soil property maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Fodor, Nándor; Farkas-Iványi, Kinga; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Koós, Sándor

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil functions and services is a great challenge in itself even if the spatial relevance is supposed to be identified and regionalized. Proxies and indicators are widely used in ecosystem service mapping. Soil services could also be approximated by elementary soil features. One solution is the association of soil types with services as basic principle. Soil property maps however provide quantified spatial information, which could be utilized more versatilely for the spatial inference of soil functions and services. In the frame of the activities referred as "Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary" (DOSoReMI.hu) numerous soil property maps have been compiled so far with proper DSM techniques partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of its predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.). The elaborated maps have been further utilized, since even DOSoReMI.hu was intended to take steps toward the regionalization of higher level soil information (secondary properties, functions, services). In the meantime the recently started AGRAGIS project requested spatial soil related information in order to estimate agri-environmental related impacts of climate change and support the associated vulnerability assessment. One of the most vulnerable services of soils in the context of climate change is their provisioning service. In our work it was approximated by productivity, which was estimated by a sequential scenario based crop modelling. It took into consideration long term (50 years) time series of both measured and predicted climatic parameters as well as accounted for the potential differences in agricultural practice and crop production. The flexible parametrization and multiple results of modelling was then applied for the spatial assessment of sensitivity, vulnerability, exposure and adaptive capacity of soils in the context of the forecasted changes in

  11. Engineering geological mapping of Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two basic maps were prepared, namely, geomorphological and geological map depicts the spatial extent of the Neogene geological formations. Three distinct sandstone terraces could be distinguished in Dar es Salaam region at 0-15 m and 30 – 40 m above sea level. The terraces comprised sandstones fringed by coral ...

  12. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of Martian Terraced Fan Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, J. M.; Patterson, A. B.; Smith, S. D.; Robbins, N. N.

    2018-06-01

    This abstract documents our initial progress (year 1) mapping terraced fan features on Mars. Our objective is to investigate the role of fluids during fan formation and produce the first high-resolution geologic map (1:18k) of a terraced fan.

  13. Digitised Maps in the Danish Map Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Annie Lenschau-Teglers; Vivi Gade Rønsberg

    2005-01-01

    As in the rest of the library world, The Royal Library in Copenhagen is in the process of digitising its collections. At the moment we are mainly working on the handwritten manual catalogue - but digitising the material is also a major working assignment. The Map Collection at The Royal Library has today divided the effort in digitising its materials into 3 groups: 1. Digitised maps as a vital addition to the records in our bibliographic database REX 2. Digitised maps presented as a Digital F...

  14. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  15. A hybrid genetic linkage map of two ecologically and morphologically divergent Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus spp.) obtained by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ddRADSeq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Hans; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are an excellent model system for studying speciation and the formation of adaptive radiations because of their tremendous species richness and astonishing phenotypic diversity. Most research has focused on African rift lake fishes, although Neotropical cichlid species display much variability as well. Almost one dozen species of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) have been described so far and have formed repeated adaptive radiations in several Nicaraguan crater lakes. Here we apply double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing to obtain a high-density linkage map of an interspecific cross between the benthic Amphilophus astorquii and the limnetic Amphilophus zaliosus, which are sympatric species endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. A total of 755 RAD markers were genotyped in 343 F(2) hybrids. The map resolved 25 linkage groups and spans a total distance of 1427 cM with an average marker spacing distance of 1.95 cM, almost matching the total number of chromosomes (n = 24) in these species. Regions of segregation distortion were identified in five linkage groups. Based on the pedigree of parents to F(2) offspring, we calculated a genome-wide mutation rate of 6.6 × 10(-8) mutations per nucleotide per generation. This genetic map will facilitate the mapping of ecomorphologically relevant adaptive traits in the repeated phenotypes that evolved within the Midas cichlid lineage and, as the first linkage map of a Neotropical cichlid, facilitate comparative genomic analyses between African cichlids, Neotropical cichlids and other teleost fishes.

  16. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  17. Geologic Map of the Derain (H-10) Quadrangle on Mercury: The Challenges of Consistently Mapping the Intercrater Plains Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, J. L.; Fassett, C. I.; Ostrach, L. R.

    2018-06-01

    We present the initial mapping of the H-10 quadrangle on Mercury, a region that was imaged for the first time by MESSENGER. Geologic map with assist with further characterization of the intercrater plains and their possible formation mechanism(s).

  18. Partially Adaptive STAP Algorithm Approaches to functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lejian; Thompson, Elizabeth A.; Schmithorst, Vincent; Holland, Scott K.; Talavage, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the architectures of three partially adaptive STAP algorithms are introduced, one of which is explored in detail, that reduce dimensionality and improve tractability over fully adaptive STAP when used in construction of brain activation maps in fMRI. Computer simulations incorporating actual MRI noise and human data analysis indicate that element space partially adaptive STAP can attain close to the performance of fully adaptive STAP while significantly decreasing processing time and maximum memory requirements, and thus demonstrates potential in fMRI analysis. PMID:19272913

  19. Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Morris

    2018-04-01

    Modern observational techniques are still not powerful enough to directly view planet formation, and so it is necessary to rely on theory. However, observations do give two important clues to the formation process. The first is that the most primitive form of material in interstellar space exists as a dilute gas. Some of this gas is unstable against gravitational collapse, and begins to contract. Because the angular momentum of the gas is not zero, it contracts along the spin axis, but remains extended in the plane perpendicular to that axis, so that a disk is formed. Viscous processes in the disk carry most of the mass into the center where a star eventually forms. In the process, almost as a by-product, a planetary system is formed as well. The second clue is the time required. Young stars are indeed observed to have gas disks, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, surrounding them, and observations tell us that these disks dissipate after about 5 to 10 million years. If planets like Jupiter and Saturn, which are very rich in hydrogen and helium, are to form in such a disk, they must accrete their gas within 5 million years of the time of the formation of the disk. Any formation scenario one proposes must produce Jupiter in that time, although the terrestrial planets, which don't contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium, could have taken longer to build. Modern estimates for the formation time of the Earth are of the order of 100 million years. To date there are two main candidate theories for producing Jupiter-like planets. The core accretion (CA) scenario supposes that any solid materials in the disk slowly coagulate into protoplanetary cores with progressively larger masses. If the core remains small enough it won't have a strong enough gravitational force to attract gas from the surrounding disk, and the result will be a terrestrial planet. If the core grows large enough (of the order of ten Earth masses), and the disk has not yet dissipated, then

  20. Mapping of wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Віліна Пересадько; Надія Максименко; Катерина Біла

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very un...

  1. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  2. PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhmakhchyan, L.; Shepelyansky, D.

    2013-12-01

    We consider a PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks, generated by the intermittency map and the typical Chirikov map. The Ulam networks generated by these maps have certain similarities with such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW), showing an algebraic decay of the PageRank probability. We find that the opinion formation process on Ulam networks has certain similarities but also distinct features comparing to the WWW. We attribute these distinctions to internal differences in network structure of the Ulam and WWW networks. We also analyze the process of opinion formation in the frame of generalized Sznajd model which protects opinion of small communities.

  3. Designframework for an Adaptive, Hybrid MOOC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The research project has developed a design framework for an adaptive hybrid MOOC that complements the MOOC format with blended learning. The design framework consists of a design model and a series of pedagogical design principles that can be used to design courses for teacher professional...

  4. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  5. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  6. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  7. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  8. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  9. Habit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  10. Adaptive integral equation methods in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive multilevel algorithm for integral equations is described that has been developed with the Chandrasekhar H equation and its generalizations in mind. The algorithm maintains good performance when the Frechet derivative of the nonlinear map is singular at the solution, as happens in radiative transfer with conservative scattering and in critical neutron transport. Numerical examples that demonstrate the algorithm's effectiveness are presented

  11. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...... submissions. The papers cover topics of state of the art contributions, features and classification, location context, language and semantics, music retrieval, and adaption and HCI....

  12. Adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmin, J.; Tierney, K.; Chu, E.; Hunter, L.M.; Roberts, J.T.; Shi, L.; Dunlap, R.E.; Brulle, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the

  13. Adaptation and Cultural Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of adaptation in cultural diffusion. Explains that adaptation theory recognizes the lack of independence between innovations and their environmental settings. Discusses testing and selection, modification, motivation, and cognition. Suggests that adaptation effects are pervasive in cultural diffusion but require a broader, more…

  14. Adaptive user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing and building adaptive user interfaces developed in the large AID project undertaken by the contributors.Key Features* Describes one of the few large-scale adaptive interface projects in the world* Outlines the principles of adaptivity in human-computer interaction

  15. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelšvartas, Julius; Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-01-01

    Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.

  16. 3D Maps Representation Using GNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Morell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current RGB-D sensors provide a big amount of valuable information for mobile robotics tasks like 3D map reconstruction, but the storage and processing of the incremental data provided by the different sensors through time quickly become unmanageable. In this work, we focus on 3D maps representation and propose the use of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG network as a model to represent 3D input data. GNG method is able to represent the input data with a desired amount of neurons or resolution while preserving the topology of the input space. Experiments show how GNG method yields a better input space adaptation than other state-of-the-art 3D map representation methods.

  17. Experience mapping and multifunctional golf course development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Ole H.; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl

    This report describes the development of a method for mapping and describing recreational experiences on golf courses. The objective is to provide a planning tool that can facilitate development of a broader multifunctional use of the golf course landscape. The project has produced several results....... The main output is this report, which provides a detailed description of the mapping procedure. This process is illustrated using examples from five test golf courses. In addition to this mapping report, a catalogue has been developed providing hands-on guidance for adapting the method in a golf club...... without the use of a specialist. During the project period, the research team has participated in a number of workshops that included representatives from golf courses, STERF, the Norwegian Golf Federation and the Danish Golf Union. At these workshops, the method was presented and discussed. This has been...

  18. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-01-01

    Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities. PMID:29686827

  19. Projection Mapping User Interface for Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Gelšvartas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.

  20. Specification for the U.S. Geological Survey Historical Topographic Map Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allord, Gregory J.; Walter, Jennifer L.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Shea, Gale A.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides the detailed requirements for producing, archiving, and disseminating a comprehensive digital collection of topographic maps for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Historical Topographic Map Collection (HTMC). The HTMC is a digital archive of about 190,000 printed topographic maps published by the USGS from the inception of the topographic mapping program in 1884 until the last paper topographic map using lithographic printing technology was published in 2006. The HTMC provides a comprehensive digital repository of all scales and all editions of USGS printed topographic maps that is easily discovered, browsed, and downloaded by the public at no cost. The HTMC provides ready access to maps that are no longer available for distribution in print. A digital file representing the original paper historical topographic map is produced for each historical map in the HTMC in georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF) format (a portable document format [PDF] with a geospatial extension).

  1. On palaeogeographic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Zhao Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic map is a graphic representation of physical geographical characteristics in geological history periods and human history periods. It is the most important result of palaeogeographic study. The author, as the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Palaeogeography, Chinese Edition and English Edition, aimed at the problems of the articles submitted to and published in the Journal of Palaeogeography in recent years and the relevant papers and books of others, and integrated with his practice of palaeogeographic study and mapping, wrote this paper. The content mainly includes the data of palaeogeographic mapping, the problems of palaeogeographic mapping method, the “Single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method —— Methodology of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography”, i.e., the “4 steps mapping method”, the nomenclature of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of significance of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, the evaluative standards of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, and the self-evaluation. Criticisms and corrections are welcome.

  2. Mapping Urban Social Divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ball

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of increased levels of interest in space and images beyond the field of geography, this article (re- introduces earlier work on the semiotics of maps undertaken by geographers in the 1960s. The data limitations, purpose and cultural context in which a user interprets a map's codes and conventions are highlighted in this work, which remains relevant to the interpretation of maps—new and old—forty years later. By means of drawing on geography's contribution to the semiotics of maps, the article goes on to examine the concept of urban social divisions as represented in map images. Using a small number of map images, including two of the most widely known maps of urban social division in Europe and North America, the roles of context, data and purpose in the production and interpretation of maps are discussed. By presenting the examples chronologically the article shows that although advances in data collection and manipulation have allowed researchers to combine different social variables in maps of social division, and to interact with map images, work by geographers on the semiotics of maps is no less relevant today than when it was first proposed forty years ago. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002372

  3. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working...... with a system. Sometimes potentially handful data are available as a part of user model from a system used by the student before. The usage of external user modeling information is troublesome because of differences in system architecture, knowledge representation, modeling constraints, etc. In this paper, we...... argue that the implementation of underlying knowledge models in a sharable format, as domain ontologies - along with application of automatic ontology mapping techniques for model alignment - can help to overcome the "new-user" problem and will greatly widen opportunities for student model translation...

  4. Three dimensional mapping of strontium in bone by dual energy K-edge subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D M L; Chapman, L D; Carter, Y; Zhouping, W; Wu, Y; Panahifar, A; Duke, M J M; Doschak, M; Britz, H M; Bewer, B

    2012-01-01

    The bones of many terrestrial vertebrates, including humans, are continually altered through an internal process of turnover known as remodeling. This process plays a central role in bone adaptation and disease. The uptake of fluorescent tetracyclines within bone mineral is widely exploited as a means of tracking new tissue formation. While investigation of bone microarchitecture has undergone a dimensional shift from 2D to 3D in recent years, we lack a 3D equivalent to fluorescent labeling. In the current study we demonstrate the ability of synchrotron radiation dual energy K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging to map the 3D distribution of elemental strontium within rat vertebral samples. This approach has great potential for ex vivo analysis of preclinical models and human tissue samples. KES also represents a powerful tool for investigating the pharmokinetics of strontium-based drugs recently approved in many countries around the globe for the treatment of osteoporosis. (paper)

  5. Distribution of tubulin, kinesin, and dynein in light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J M; Elfarissi, H; De Velasco, B; Ochoa, G H; Miller, A M; Clark, Y M; Matsumoto, B; Robles, L J

    2000-01-01

    Cephalopod retinas exhibit several responses to light and dark adaptation, including rhabdom size changes, photopigment movements, and pigment granule migration. Light- and dark-directed rearrangements of microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletal transport pathways could drive these changes. Recently, we localized actin-binding proteins in light-/dark-adapted octopus rhabdoms and suggested that actin cytoskeletal rearrangements bring about the formation and degradation of rhabdomere microvilli subsets. To determine if the microtubule cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins control the other light/dark changes, we used immunoblotting and immunocytochemical procedures to map the distribution of tubulin, kinesin, and dynein in dorsal and ventral halves of light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas. Immunoblots detected alpha- and beta-tubulin, dynein intermediate chain, and kinesin heavy chain in extracts of whole retinas. Epifluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that the tubulin proteins were distributed throughout the retina with more immunoreactivity in retinas exposed to light. Kinesin localization was heavy in the pigment layer of light- and dark-adapted ventral retinas but was less prominent in the dorsal region. Dynein distribution also varied in dorsal and ventral retinas with more immunoreactivity in light- and dark-adapted ventral retinas and confocal microscopy emphasized the granular nature of this labeling. We suggest that light may regulate the distribution of microtubule cytoskeletal proteins in the octopus retina and that position, dorsal versus ventral, also influences the distribution of motor proteins. The microtubule cytoskeleton is most likely involved in pigment granule migration in the light and dark and with the movement of transport vesicles from the photoreceptor inner segments to the rhabdoms.

  6. MO-E-BRD-01: Adapt-A-Thon - Texas Hold’em Invitational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, M; Brock, K; Pouliot, J; Dong, L [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Software tools for image-based adaptive radiotherapy such as deformable image registration, contour propagation and dose mapping have progressed beyond the research setting and are now commercial products available as part of both treatment planning systems and stand-alone applications. These software tools are used together to create clinical workflows to detect, track and evaluate changes in the patient and to accumulate dose. Deviations uncovered in this process are used to guide decisions about replanning/adaptation with the goal of keeping the delivery of prescribed dose “on target” throughout the entire course of radiotherapy. Since the output from one step of the adaptive process is used as an input for another, it is essential to understand and document the uncertainty associated with each of the step and how these uncertainties are propagated. This in turn requires an understanding how the underlying tools work. Unfortunately, important details about the algorithms used to implement these tools are scarce or incomplete, too often for competitive reasons. This is in contrast to the situation involving other basic treatment planning algorithms such as dose calculations, where the medical physics community essentially requires vendors to provide physically important details about their underlying theory and clinical implementation. Vendors should adopt this same level of information sharing when it comes to the tools and techniques for image guided adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this session is to start this process by inviting vendors and medical physicists to discuss and demonstrate the available tools and describe how they are intended to be used in clinical practice. The format of the session will involve a combination of formal presentations, interactive demonstrations, audience participation and some friendly “Texas style” competition. Learning Objectives: Understand the components of the image-based adaptive radiotherapy process. Understand

  7. MO-E-BRD-01: Adapt-A-Thon - Texas Hold’em Invitational

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M; Brock, K; Pouliot, J; Dong, L

    2014-01-01

    Software tools for image-based adaptive radiotherapy such as deformable image registration, contour propagation and dose mapping have progressed beyond the research setting and are now commercial products available as part of both treatment planning systems and stand-alone applications. These software tools are used together to create clinical workflows to detect, track and evaluate changes in the patient and to accumulate dose. Deviations uncovered in this process are used to guide decisions about replanning/adaptation with the goal of keeping the delivery of prescribed dose “on target” throughout the entire course of radiotherapy. Since the output from one step of the adaptive process is used as an input for another, it is essential to understand and document the uncertainty associated with each of the step and how these uncertainties are propagated. This in turn requires an understanding how the underlying tools work. Unfortunately, important details about the algorithms used to implement these tools are scarce or incomplete, too often for competitive reasons. This is in contrast to the situation involving other basic treatment planning algorithms such as dose calculations, where the medical physics community essentially requires vendors to provide physically important details about their underlying theory and clinical implementation. Vendors should adopt this same level of information sharing when it comes to the tools and techniques for image guided adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this session is to start this process by inviting vendors and medical physicists to discuss and demonstrate the available tools and describe how they are intended to be used in clinical practice. The format of the session will involve a combination of formal presentations, interactive demonstrations, audience participation and some friendly “Texas style” competition. Learning Objectives: Understand the components of the image-based adaptive radiotherapy process. Understand

  8. Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new version of surface mineral maps derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data collected over Afghanistan in the fall of 2007. This report also describes the processing steps applied to the imaging spectrometer data. The 218 individual flight lines composing the Afghanistan dataset, covering more than 438,000 square kilometers, were georeferenced to a mosaic of orthorectified Landsat images. The HyMap data were converted from radiance to reflectance using a radiative transfer program in combination with ground-calibration sites and a network of cross-cutting calibration flight lines. The U.S. Geological Survey Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to generate two thematic maps of surface minerals: a map of iron-bearing minerals and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the shorter wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range, and a map of carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the longer wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range. In contrast to the original version, version 2 of these maps is provided at full resolution of 23-meter pixel size. The thematic maps, MICA summary images, and the material fit and depth images are distributed in digital files linked to this report, in a format readable by remote sensing software and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The digital files can be downloaded from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/787/downloads/.

  9. Resilience through adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus A Ten Broeke

    Full Text Available Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  10. Resilience through adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Broeke, Guus A; van Voorn, George A K; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  11. Behavioural strategy: Adaptability context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piórkowska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology. Moreover, the paper concerns to some extent a multi-level approach in strategic management involving individual, team, and organizational level. The aim of the paper is to contribute to extend, on one hand, the ascertainment set in the field of behavioural strategy as behavioural strategy encompasses a mindboggling diversity of topics and methods and its conceptual unity has been hard to achieve (Powell, Lovallo, Fox 2011, p. 1371, and on the other hand, to order mixed approaches to adaptability especially to gain insights on micro-level adapting processes (individual adaptability and adaptive performance in terms of the multi-level approach. The method that has been used is literature studies and the interference is mostly deductive. The structure of the manuscript is four-fold. The first part involves the considerations in the field of adaptability and adaptive performance at the individual level. The issues of adaptability and adaptive performance at the team level have been presented in the second part. The third part encompasses the organizational adaptability assertions. Finally, the conclusion, limitations of the considerations highlighted as well as the future research directions have been emphasized. The overarching key finding is that the behavioural strategy concept may constitute the boundary spanner in exploring and explaining adaptability phenomenon at different levels of analysis.

  12. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  13. Reference Device-Assisted Adaptive Location Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjin Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Location fingerprinting suffers in dynamic environments and needs recalibration from time to time to maintain system performance. This paper proposes an adaptive approach for location fingerprinting. Based on real-time received signal strength indicator (RSSI samples measured by a group of reference devices, the approach applies a modified Universal Kriging (UK interpolant to estimate adaptive temporal and environmental radio maps. The modified UK can take the spatial distribution characteristics of RSSI into account. In addition, the issue of device heterogeneity caused by multiple reference devices is further addressed. To compensate the measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices, differential RSSI metric is employed. Extensive experiments were conducted in an indoor field and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach not only adapts to dynamic environments and the situation of changing APs’ positions, but it is also robust toward measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices.

  14. Introduction to "Mapping Vietnameseness"

    OpenAIRE

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam and China are currently engaged in a map war, with each country using ancient maps to buttress its claims to territorial sovereignty over some uninhabited islands in the South China Sea (in Chinese terminology), also known as the Eastern Sea (in Vietnamese). But what do maps in fact represent? What is meant by “territory”? How are territorial limits conceived? These questions were raised in a May 2015 workshop inspired by Thongchai Winichakul’s Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body o...

  15. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  16. Open land use map

    OpenAIRE

    Mildorf, T.; Charvát, K.; Jezek, J.; Templer, Simon; Malewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed ...

  17. Adaptive behavior of neighboring neurons during adaptation-induced plasticity of orientation tuning in V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumikhina Svetlana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory neurons display transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation. In adult cat primary visual cortex, orientation-selective neurons shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. The direction of those shifts, towards (attractive or away (repulsive from the adapter depends mostly on adaptation duration. How the adaptive behavior of a neuron is related to that of its neighbors remains unclear. Results Here we show that in most cases (75%, cells shift their preferred orientation in the same direction as their neighbors. We also found that cells shifting preferred orientation differently from their neighbors (25% display three interesting properties: (i larger variance of absolute shift amplitude, (ii wider tuning bandwidth and (iii larger range of preferred orientations among the cluster of cells. Several response properties of V1 neurons depend on their location within the cortical orientation map. Our results suggest that recording sites with both attractive and repulsive shifts following adaptation may be located in close proximity to iso-orientation domain boundaries or pinwheel centers. Indeed, those regions have a more diverse orientation distribution of local inputs that could account for the three properties above. On the other hand, sites with all cells shifting their preferred orientation in the same direction could be located within iso-orientation domains. Conclusions Our results suggest that the direction and amplitude of orientation preference shifts in V1 depend on location within the orientation map. This anisotropy of adaptation-induced plasticity, comparable to that of the visual cortex itself, could have important implications for our understanding of visual adaptation at the psychophysical level.

  18. Identification of lithofacies using Kohonen self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.-C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Chen, H.-C.

    2002-01-01

    Lithofacies identification is a primary task in reservoir characterization. Traditional techniques of lithofacies identification from core data are costly, and it is difficult to extrapolate to non-cored wells. We present a low-cost automated technique using Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOMs) to identify systematically and objectively lithofacies from well log data. SOMs are unsupervised artificial neural networks that map the input space into clusters in a topological form whose organization is related to trends in the input data. A case study used five wells located in Appleton Field, Escambia County, Alabama (Smackover Formation, limestone and dolomite, Oxfordian, Jurassic). A five-input, one-dimensional output approach is employed, assuming the lithofacies are in ascending/descending order with respect to paleoenvironmental energy levels. To consider the possible appearance of new logfacies not seen in training mode, which may potentially appear in test wells, the maximum number of outputs is set to 20 instead of four, the designated number of lithosfacies in the study area. This study found eleven major clusters. The clusters were compared to depositional lithofacies identified by manual core examination. The clusters were ordered by the SOM in a pattern consistent with environmental gradients inferred from core examination: bind/boundstone, grainstone, packstone, and wackestone. This new approach predicted lithofacies identity from well log data with 78.8% accuracy which is more accurate than using a backpropagation neural network (57.3%). The clusters produced by the SOM are ordered with respect to paleoenvironmental energy levels. This energy-related clustering provides geologists and petroleum engineers with valuable geologic information about the logfacies and their interrelationships. This advantage is not obtained in backpropagation neural networks and adaptive resonance theory neural networks. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Affective Interface Adaptations in the Musickiosk Interactive Entertainment Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, L.; Raouzaiou, A.; Pearce, L.; Karpouzis, K.

    The current work presents the affective interface adaptations in the Musickiosk application. Adaptive interaction poses several open questions since there is no unique way of mapping affective factors of user behaviour to the output of the system. Musickiosk uses a non-contact interface and implicit interaction through emotional affect rather than explicit interaction where a gesture, sound or other input directly maps to an output behaviour - as in traditional entertainment applications. PAD model is used for characterizing the different affective states and emotions.

  20. The PSML format and library for norm-conserving pseudopotential data curation and interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alberto; Verstraete, Matthieu J.; Pouillon, Yann; Junquera, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Norm-conserving pseudopotentials are used by a significant number of electronic-structure packages, but the practical differences among codes in the handling of the associated data hinder their interoperability and make it difficult to compare their results. At the same time, existing formats lack provenance data, which makes it difficult to track and document computational workflows. To address these problems, we first propose a file format (PSML) that maps the basic concepts of the norm-conserving pseudopotential domain in a flexible form and supports the inclusion of provenance information and other important metadata. Second, we provide a software library (libPSML) that can be used by electronic structure codes to transparently extract the information in the file and adapt it to their own data structures, or to create converters for other formats. Support for the new file format has been already implemented in several pseudopotential generator programs (including ATOM and ONCVPSP), and the library has been linked with SIESTA and ABINIT, allowing them to work with the same pseudopotential operator (with the same local part and fully non-local projectors) thus easing the comparison of their results for the structural and electronic properties, as shown for several example systems. This methodology can be easily transferred to any other package that uses norm-conserving pseudopotentials, and offers a proof-of-concept for a general approach to interoperability.

  1. Spatiotemporal chaos in coupled logistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varella Guedes, Andre; Amorim Savi, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of coupled logistic maps. These maps are prototypes of high-dimensional dynamical systems and have been used to describe the evolution and pattern formation in different systems. Here, the logistic map lattice is coupled by a power law and, therefore, each map is influenced by other maps in its neighborhood. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy density is employed to quantify the complexity of system behavior, permitting a general qualitative understanding of different aspects of system dynamics. Three kinds of boundary conditions are treated and the influence of initial conditions is also of concern. Non-homogeneous maps are investigated, showing interesting aspects of spatiotemporal dynamics. The idea is to analyze the spatial interaction between two qualitative different types of behavior from a grid that is split into two parts. Numerical simulations show what types of conditions present a greater tendency to develop chaotic, periodic and synchronized responses. It should be highlighted that non-homogeneous grids have situations where a chaotic pattern can emerge from two periodic responses and also situations where a periodic pattern can emerge from chaos.

  2. Global Geological Map of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The Magellan SAR images provide sufficient data to compile a geological map of nearly the entire surface of Venus. Such a global and selfconsistent map serves as the base to address the key questions of the geologic history of Venus. 1) What is the spectrum of units and structures that makes up the surface of Venus [1-3]? 2) What volcanic/tectonic processes do they characterize [4-7]? 3) Did these processes operated locally, regionally, or globally [8- 11]? 4) What are the relationships of relative time among the units [8]? 5) At which length-scale these relationships appear to be consistent [8-10]? 6) What is the absolute timing of formation of the units [12-14]? 7) What are the histories of volcanism, tectonics and the long-wavelength topography on Venus? 7) What model(s) of heat loss and lithospheric evolution [15-21] do these histories correspond to? The ongoing USGS program of Venus mapping has already resulted in a series of published maps at the scale 1:5M [e.g. 22-30]. These maps have a patch-like distribution, however, and are compiled by authors with different mapping philosophy. This situation not always results in perfect agreement between the neighboring areas and, thus, does not permit testing geological hypotheses that could be addressed with a self-consistent map. Here the results of global geological mapping of Venus at the scale 1:10M is presented. The map represents a contiguous area extending from 82.5oN to 82.5oS and comprises ~99% of the planet. Mapping procedure: The map was compiled on C2- MIDR sheets, the resolution of which permits identifying the basic characteristics of previously defined units. The higher resolution images were used during the mapping to clarify geologic relationships. When the map was completed, its quality was checked using published USGS maps [e.g., 22-30] and the catalogue of impact craters [31]. The results suggest that the mapping on the C2-base provided a highquality map product. Units and

  3. On circle map coupled map lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, E

    2002-01-01

    Circle map in one and two dimensions is studied. Both its stability, synchronization using bounded control and persistence is discussed. This work is expected to be applicable in ecology where spatial effects are known to be important. Also it will be relevant to systems where delay effects are not negligible.

  4. Multi-standard adaptive wireless communication receivers: adaptive applications mapped on heterogeneous dynamically reconfigurable hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, G.K.

    2008-01-01

    Today the world is overwhelmed with portable devices like handheld computers, mobile telephones and portable navigation systems. These devices will eventually be integrated into multi-functional devices that can perform all kinds of functions in one single system. Ultimately, portable devices will

  5. Genotyping-by-Sequencing derived High-Density Linkage Map and its Application to QTL Mapping of Flag Leaf Traits in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard red winter wheat parents ‘Harry’ (drought tolerant) and ‘Wesley’ (drought susceptible) was used to develop a recombinant inbred population to identify genomic regions associated with drought and adaptation. To precisely map genomic regions high-density linkage maps are a prerequisite. In this s...

  6. Signal Processing, Pattern Formation and Adaptation in Neural Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    rhythmic patterns. As such, our models are appropriate for describing various phenomena in the auditory system, including critical nonlinear...several distinct intrinsic behaviors available near a Hopf bifurcation or a Bautin (a.k.a. double limit cycle) bifurcation. Stability analysis shows...example the perception of pitch at event timescales (Meddis & O’Mard, 2006) and the perception of pulse and meter at rhythmic timescales (Large

  7. Teamwork to Enhance Adapted Teaching and Formative Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Engh, Knut Roar

    2012-01-01

    This article has as its main focus the contextual factors connected with teachers' teamwork. Firstly, it deals with the question of how to create reflections among teachers on the topic of teamwork. Their written answers function as empirical data for researchers and also as contributions to the further professional development of teamwork. Secondly, the authors discuss the content of teamwork in the sense of how teachers as a community might support the individual teacher's work with both ad...

  8. Teamwork to Enhance Adapted Teaching and Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsrud, Halvor; Engh, Roar

    2012-01-01

    This article has as its main focus the contextual factors connected with teachers' teamwork. Firstly, it deals with the question of how to create reflections among teachers on the topic of teamwork. Their written answers function as empirical data for researchers and also as contributions to the further professional development of teamwork.…

  9. Mapping online consumer search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  10. Map of Nasca Geoglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Pavelka, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany) work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  11. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  12. MAP OF NASCA GEOGLYPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Technical University in Prague in the cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences in Dresden (Germany work on the Nasca Project. The cooperation started in 2004 and much work has been done since then. All work is connected with Nasca lines in southern Peru. The Nasca project started in 1995 and its main target is documentation and conservation of the Nasca lines. Most of the project results are presented as WebGIS application via Internet. In the face of the impending destruction of the soil drawings, it is possible to preserve this world cultural heritage for the posterity at least in a digital form. Creating of Nasca lines map is very useful. The map is in a digital form and it is also available as a paper map. The map contains planimetric component of the map, map lettering and altimetry. Thematic folder in this map is a vector layer of the geoglyphs in Nasca/Peru. Basis for planimetry are georeferenced satellite images, altimetry is created from digital elevation model. This map was created in ArcGis software.

  13. Maps between Grassmann manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameswaran Sankaran Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India sankaran@imsc.res.in Indian Academy of Sciences Platinum Jubilee Meeting Hyderabad

    2009-07-02

    Jul 2, 2009 ... Classification of all manifolds (or maps between them) is an impossible task. The coarser, homotopical classification, is relatively easier–but only relatively! Homotopy is, roughly speaking, the study of properties of spaces and maps invariant under continuous deformations. Denote by [X, Y ] the set of all ...

  14. Constructing Maps Collaboratively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinhardt, Gaea; Stainton, Catherine; Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a study that maintains that students who work together in small groups had a better understanding of map concepts. Discusses why making maps in groups can enhance students' conceptual geographic understanding and offers suggestions for improving geography instructions using small group configurations. Includes statistical and graphic…

  15. Algorithms for necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Necklace maps visualize quantitative data associated with regions by placing scaled symbols, usually disks, without overlap on a closed curve (the necklace) surrounding the map regions. Each region is projected onto an interval on the necklace that contains its symbol. In this paper we address the

  16. Text 2 Mind Map

    OpenAIRE

    Iona, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a review of the web resource 'Text 2 Mind Map' www.Text2MindMap.com. It covers what the resource is, and how it might be used in Library and education context, in particular for School Librarians.

  17. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... ome/transcriptome/proteome, experimental induced maps that are intentionally designed and con- ... genetic maps imposed their application in nearly all fields of medical genetics including ..... or genes located adjacent to, or near, them. ...... types of markers, e.g., clinical markers (eye color), genomic.

  18. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  19. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  20. Analcite formation in the Agades Region (Niger)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-06-01

    A study based mainly upon field mapping and drill cores examination, followed by a laboratory survey allows us to support a genetic hypothesis upon the formation of analcime in the 'Continental intercalaire' of Agades (Niger). Analcime could be generated from an early diagenesis of argillaceous sediments influenced by high soda content fossil waters inside confined continental sedimentary basins. (authors) [fr

  1. Geologic Map of the Thaumasia Region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Janes M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Hare, Trent M.

    2001-01-01

    The geology of the Thaumasia region (fig. 1, sheet 3) includes a wide array of rock materials, depositional and erosional landforms, and tectonic structures. The region is dominated by the Thaumasia plateau, which includes central high lava plains ringed by highly deformed highlands; the plateau may comprise the ancestral center of Tharsis tectonism (Frey, 1979; Plescia and Saunders, 1982). The extensive structural deformation of the map region, which is without parallel on Mars in both complexity and diversity, occurred largely throughout the Noachian and Hesperian periods (Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Scott and Dohm, 1990a). The deformation produced small and large extensional and contractional structures (fig. 2, sheet 3) that resulted from stresses related to the formation of Tharsis (Frey, 1979; Wise and others, 1979; Plescia and Saunders, 1982; Banerdt and others, 1982, 1992; Watters and Maxwell, 1986; Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Francis, 1988; Watters, 1993; Schultz and Tanaka, 1994), from magmatic-driven uplifts, such as at Syria Planum (Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Dohm and others, 1998; Dohm and Tanaka, 1999) and central Valles Marineris (Dohm and others, 1998, Dohm and Tanaka, 1999), and from the Argyre impact (Wilhelms, 1973; Scott and Tanaka, 1986). In addition, volcanic, eolian, and fluvial processes have highly modified older surfaces in the map region. Local volcanic and tectonic activity often accompanied episodes of valley formation. Our mapping depicts and describes the diverse terrains and complex geologic history of this unique ancient tectonic region of Mars. The geologic (sheet 1), paleotectonic (sheet 2), and paleoerosional (sheet 3) maps of the Thaumasia region were compiled on a Viking 1:5,000,000-scale digital photomosaic base. The base is a combination of four quadrangles: the southeast part of Phoenicis Lacus (MC–17), most of the southern half of Coprates (MC–18), a large part of Thaumasia (MC–25), and the northwest margin of Argyre (MC–26

  2. Bodily maps of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  3. Application of ecological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables

  4. The projective heat map

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a simple dynamical model for a planar heat map that is invariant under projective transformations. The map is defined by iterating a polygon map, where one starts with a finite planar N-gon and produces a new N-gon by a prescribed geometric construction. One of the appeals of the topic of this book is the simplicity of the construction that yet leads to deep and far reaching mathematics. To construct the projective heat map, the author modifies the classical affine invariant midpoint map, which takes a polygon to a new polygon whose vertices are the midpoints of the original. The author provides useful background which makes this book accessible to a beginning graduate student or advanced undergraduate as well as researchers approaching this subject from other fields of specialty. The book includes many illustrations, and there is also a companion computer program.

  5. Mapping shape to visuomotor mapping: learning and generalisation of sensorimotor behaviour based on contextual information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes C J van Dam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans can learn and store multiple visuomotor mappings (dual-adaptation when feedback for each is provided alternately. Moreover, learned context cues associated with each mapping can be used to switch between the stored mappings. However, little is known about the associative learning between cue and required visuomotor mapping, and how learning generalises to novel but similar conditions. To investigate these questions, participants performed a rapid target-pointing task while we manipulated the offset between visual feedback and movement end-points. The visual feedback was presented with horizontal offsets of different amounts, dependent on the targets shape. Participants thus needed to use different visuomotor mappings between target location and required motor response depending on the target shape in order to "hit" it. The target shapes were taken from a continuous set of shapes, morphed between spiky and circular shapes. After training we tested participants performance, without feedback, on different target shapes that had not been learned previously. We compared two hypotheses. First, we hypothesised that participants could (explicitly extract the linear relationship between target shape and visuomotor mapping and generalise accordingly. Second, using previous findings of visuomotor learning, we developed a (implicit Bayesian learning model that predicts generalisation that is more consistent with categorisation (i.e. use one mapping or the other. The experimental results show that, although learning the associations requires explicit awareness of the cues' role, participants apply the mapping corresponding to the trained shape that is most similar to the current one, consistent with the Bayesian learning model. Furthermore, the Bayesian learning model predicts that learning should slow down with increased numbers of training pairs, which was confirmed by the present results. In short, we found a good correspondence between the

  6. METHOD OF ADAPTIVE MAGNETOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Rudyk, Valentine Yu.; Tereshchenko, Mykola F.; Rudyk, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    Practical realization of adaptive control in magnetotherapy apparatus acquires an actual importance on the modern stage of development of magnetotherapy.The structural scheme of method of adaptive impulsive magnetotherapy and algorithm of adaptive control of feed-back signal during procedure of magnetotherapy is represented.A feed-back in magnetotherapy complex will be realized with control of magnetic induction and analysis of man's physiological indexes (temperature, pulse, blood prassure, ...

  7. Brain mapping in tumors: intraoperative or extraoperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues

    2013-12-01

    In nontumoral epilepsy surgery, the main goal for all preoperative investigation is to first determine the epileptogenic zone, and then to analyze its relation to eloquent cortex, in order to control seizures while avoiding adverse postoperative neurologic outcome. To this end, in addition to neuropsychological assessment, functional neuroimaging and scalp electroencephalography, extraoperative recording, and electrical mapping, especially using subdural strip- or grid-electrodes, has been reported extensively. Nonetheless, in tumoral epilepsy surgery, the rationale is different. Indeed, the first aim is rather to maximize the extent of tumor resection while minimizing postsurgical morbidity, in order to increase the median survival as well as to preserve quality of life. As a consequence, as frequently seen in infiltrating tumors such as gliomas, where these lesions not only grow but also migrate along white matter tracts, the resection should be performed according to functional boundaries both at cortical and subcortical levels. With this in mind, extraoperative mapping by strips/grids is often not sufficient in tumoral surgery, since in essence, it allows study of the cortex but cannot map subcortical pathways. Therefore, intraoperative electrostimulation mapping, especially in awake patients, is more appropriate in tumor surgery, because this technique allows real-time detection of areas crucial for cerebral functions--eloquent cortex and fibers--throughout the resection. In summary, rather than choosing one or the other of different mapping techniques, methodology should be adapted to each pathology, that is, extraoperative mapping in nontumoral epilepsy surgery and intraoperative mapping in tumoral surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Lunar UV-visible-IR mapping interferometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Hayden; Haskin, L.; Korotev, R.; Arvidson, R.; Mckinnon, W.; Hapke, B.; Larson, S.; Lucey, P.

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet-visible-infrared mapping digital array scanned interferometers for lunar compositional surveys was developed. The research has defined a no-moving-parts, low-weight and low-power, high-throughput, and electronically adaptable digital array scanned interferometer that achieves measurement objectives encompassing and improving upon all the requirements defined by the LEXSWIG for lunar mineralogical investigation. In addition, LUMIS provides a new, important, ultraviolet spectral mapping, high-spatial-resolution line scan camera, and multispectral camera capabilities. An instrument configuration optimized for spectral mapping and imaging of the lunar surface and provide spectral results in support of the instrument design are described.

  9. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  10. Adaptation in Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yuhai; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2018-03-01

    Adaptation refers to the biological phenomenon where living systems change their internal states in response to changes in their environments in order to maintain certain key functions critical for their survival and fitness. Adaptation is one of the most ubiquitous and arguably one of the most fundamental properties of living systems. It occurs throughout all biological scales, from adaptation of populations of species over evolutionary time to adaptation of a single cell to different environmental stresses during its life span. In this article, we review some of the recent progress made in understanding molecular mechanisms of cellular-level adaptation. We take the minimalist (or the physicist) approach and study the simplest systems that exhibit generic adaptive behaviors, namely chemotaxis in bacterium cells (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic cells (Dictyostelium). We focus on understanding the basic biochemical interaction networks that are responsible for adaptation dynamics. By combining theoretical modeling with quantitative experimentation, we demonstrate universal features in adaptation as well as important differences in different cellular systems. Future work in extending the modeling framework to study adaptation in more complex systems such as sensory neurons is also discussed.

  11. The purpose of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy

    2017-10-06

    A central feature of Darwin's theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasize the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin's theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to Fisher's 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adaptation is achieved in the context of social evolution, with reference to inclusive fitness and superorganisms.

  12. Outcome mapping for health system integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsasis P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter Tsasis,1 Jenna M Evans,2 David Forrest,3 Richard Keith Jones4 1School of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, Canada; 2Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; 3Global Vision Consulting Ltd, Victoria, Canada; 4R Keith Jones and Associates, Victoria, Canada Abstract: Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcome-mapping exercise we conducted at a Local Health Integration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. Keywords: integrated care, integrated delivery systems, complex adaptive systems, social capital

  13. EXISTENCE OF TRADITIONAL FORMATS AND SELF SERVICE IN RETAIL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betzaida Oliveros de Sarmiento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research determines the concept of store format; revises the definition of each format and trade strategy which characterizes it as a result of adaptation to the type of consumer who is headed. There are commercial sectors in Venezuela where the traditional and self-formats coexist due to the adaptation of each store to your target consumer; this process must be continued to ensure the sustainability of the shop in the market. It is suggested that there are numerous alternatives for future research to determine the success of different formats in specific sectors of Venezuelan retail trade.

  14. SVAMP: Sequence variation analysis, maps and phylogeny

    KAUST Repository

    Naeem, Raeece

    2014-04-03

    Summary: SVAMP is a stand-alone desktop application to visualize genomic variants (in variant call format) in the context of geographical metadata. Users of SVAMP are able to generate phylogenetic trees and perform principal coordinate analysis in real time from variant call format (VCF) and associated metadata files. Allele frequency map, geographical map of isolates, Tajima\\'s D metric, single nucleotide polymorphism density, GC and variation density are also available for visualization in real time. We demonstrate the utility of SVAMP in tracking a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak from published next-generation sequencing data across 15 countries. We also demonstrate the scalability and accuracy of our software on 245 Plasmodium falciparum malaria isolates from three continents. Availability and implementation: The Qt/C++ software code, binaries, user manual and example datasets are available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/svamp. © The Author 2014.

  15. Composite mapping experiences in airborne gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, B.

    2014-01-01

    During an international intercomparison exercise of airborne gamma spectrometry held in Switzerland 2007 teams from Germany, France and Switzerland were proving their capabilities. One of the tasks was the composite mapping of an area around Basel. Each team was mainly covering the part of its own country at its own flying procedures. They delivered the evaluated data in a data format agreed in advance. The quantities to be delivered were also defined in advance. Nevertheless, during the process to put the data together a few questions raised: Which dose rate was meant? Had the dose rate to be delivered with or without cosmic contribution? Activity per dry or wet mass? Which coordinate system was used? Finally, the data could be put together in one map. For working procedures in case of an emergency, quantities of interest and exchange data format have to be defined in advance. But the procedures have also to be proved regularly. (author)

  16. Transport maps and dimension reduction for Bayesian computation

    KAUST Repository

    Marzouk, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new framework for efficient sampling from complex probability distributions, using a combination of optimal transport maps and the Metropolis-Hastings rule. The core idea is to use continuous transportation to transform typical Metropolis proposal mechanisms (e.g., random walks, Langevin methods) into non-Gaussian proposal distributions that can more effectively explore the target density. Our approach adaptively constructs a lower triangular transport map—an approximation of the Knothe-Rosenblatt rearrangement—using information from previous MCMC states, via the solution of an optimization problem. This optimization problem is convex regardless of the form of the target distribution. It is solved efficiently using a Newton method that requires no gradient information from the target probability distribution; the target distribution is instead represented via samples. Sequential updates enable efficient and parallelizable adaptation of the map even for large numbers of samples. We show that this approach uses inexact or truncated maps to produce an adaptive MCMC algorithm that is ergodic for the exact target distribution. Numerical demonstrations on a range of parameter inference problems show order-of-magnitude speedups over standard MCMC techniques, measured by the number of effectively independent samples produced per target density evaluation and per unit of wallclock time. We will also discuss adaptive methods for the construction of transport maps in high dimensions, where use of a non-adapted basis (e.g., a total order polynomial expansion) can become computationally prohibitive. If only samples of the target distribution, rather than density evaluations, are available, then we can construct high-dimensional transformations by composing sparsely parameterized transport maps with rotations of the parameter space. If evaluations of the target density and its gradients are available, then one can exploit the structure of the variational

  17. Transport maps and dimension reduction for Bayesian computation

    KAUST Repository

    Marzouk, Youssef

    2015-01-07

    We introduce a new framework for efficient sampling from complex probability distributions, using a combination of optimal transport maps and the Metropolis-Hastings rule. The core idea is to use continuous transportation to transform typical Metropolis proposal mechanisms (e.g., random walks, Langevin methods) into non-Gaussian proposal distributions that can more effectively explore the target density. Our approach adaptively constructs a lower triangular transport map—an approximation of the Knothe-Rosenblatt rearrangement—using information from previous MCMC states, via the solution of an optimization problem. This optimization problem is convex regardless of the form of the target distribution. It is solved efficiently using a Newton method that requires no gradient information from the target probability distribution; the target distribution is instead represented via samples. Sequential updates enable efficient and parallelizable adaptation of the map even for large numbers of samples. We show that this approach uses inexact or truncated maps to produce an adaptive MCMC algorithm that is ergodic for the exact target distribution. Numerical demonstrations on a range of parameter inference problems show order-of-magnitude speedups over standard MCMC techniques, measured by the number of effectively independent samples produced per target density evaluation and per unit of wallclock time. We will also discuss adaptive methods for the construction of transport maps in high dimensions, where use of a non-adapted basis (e.g., a total order polynomial expansion) can become computationally prohibitive. If only samples of the target distribution, rather than density evaluations, are available, then we can construct high-dimensional transformations by composing sparsely parameterized transport maps with rotations of the parameter space. If evaluations of the target density and its gradients are available, then one can exploit the structure of the variational

  18. Usability evaluation of intradermal adapters (IDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsals, Izrail

    2017-03-27

    Intradermal adapter device technology minimizes the complexity of the Mantoux technique, thereby providing predictable, reproducible intradermal (ID) injections and removing the concerns regarding the ease and reliability of Mantoux technique when using conventional needle and syringe. The technology employs a simple device with geometry designed to gently deform the skin surface and the subcutaneous tissue, providing the ideal angle and depth of needle insertion for consistently successful intradermal injections. The results of this development were presented at the First, Second and Third Skin Vaccination Summits in 2011, 2013 and 2015 respectively [1,2,3]. The current publication addresses the performance of intradermal adapters (IDA) evaluated in three preclinical studies. The evaluations were based on the assessment of bleb formation in a skin model, an accepted indicator of ID injection success. All evaluated devices share the same proprietary dermal interface technology. Devices instituting this design are easy to use, require minimal training, and employ conventionally molded parts and cannula. These studies evaluated IDAs of initial design integral with luer lock needles, IDAs for use with conventional syringes, and intradermal adapters for use with auto disable syringes (ADID adapters). The evaluated ID adapters were intended to consistently place the lancet of the needle at a depth of 0.75mm from the skin's surface. This placement depth addresses the variation in the skin thickness at immunization sites for the majority of patients independent of many other variables. Most participants preferred the intradermal adapter method over the traditional Mantoux and identified a need for the adapter at their workplace. Evaluation of IDAs by registered nurses indicated these devices increase success of bleb formation. The use of IDA increased the success of forming blebs by about 30%. Nurses felt the injections were much easier to perform, in particular by

  19. USGS Topo Base Map from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Topographic Base Map from The National Map. This tile cached web map service combines the most current data services (Boundaries, Names, Transportation,...

  20. Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by