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Sample records for adaptive life simulator

  1. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  2. Adaptive core simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany Samy

    The work presented in this thesis is a continuation of a master's thesis research project conducted by the author to gain insight into the applicability of inverse methods to developing adaptive simulation capabilities for core physics problems. Use of adaptive simulation is intended to improve the fidelity and robustness of important core attributes predictions such as core power distribution, thermal margins and core reactivity. Adaptive simulation utilizes a selected set of past and current reactor measurements of reactor observables, i.e. in-core instrumentations readings, to adapt the simulation in a meaningful way. A meaningful adaption will result in high fidelity and robust adapted core simulators models. To perform adaption, we propose an inverse theory approach in which the multitudes of input data to core simulators, i.e. reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic data, are to be adjusted to improve agreement with measured observables while keeping core simulators models unadapted. At a first glance, devising such adaption for typical core simulators models would render the approach impractical. This follows, since core simulators are based on very demanding computational models, i.e. based on complex physics models with millions of input data and output observables. This would spawn not only several prohibitive challenges but also numerous disparaging concerns. The challenges include the computational burdens of the sensitivity-type calculations required to construct Jacobian operators for the core simulators models. Also, the computational burdens of the uncertainty-type calculations required to estimate the uncertainty information of core simulators input data presents a demanding challenge. The concerns however are mainly related to the reliability of the adjusted input data. We demonstrate that the power of our proposed approach is mainly driven by taking advantage of this unfavorable situation. Our contribution begins with the realization that to obtain

  3. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R

    2007-07-09

    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  4. Life History Adaptations to Seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpe, Øystein

    2017-11-01

    Seasonality creates a template for many natural processes and evolutionary adaptations. Organisms are often faced with an annual cycle consisting of a productive (favorable) and unproductive period. This yearly cycle along with other seasonal variations in abiotic factors and associated biotic interactions form strong selection pressures shaping the scheduling of annual activities and the developmental stages and modes of life through the year. Annual decisions impact trade-offs that involve both current and future reproductive value (RV), and life history theory provides the foundation to understand these linkages between phenology and an organism's full life. Annual routine models further allow for multiple annual decisions to be optimized and predicted with respect to lifetime consequences. Studies of life history adaptations to seasonality are concerned with questions such as: within the productive season, should growth come first, followed by reproduction, or the other way around? What is the best time to diapause or migrate, and how will this timing impact other life history traits? Should energy reserves be built, to transfer resources from 1 year to the next, and allow for the spatial and temporal freedom of capital breeding? If offspring value is low during parts of the productive season, what is then the best alternative to reproduction: accumulate stores, grow, or wait in safety? To help answer these and other questions, I provide an overview of key theoretical concepts and some of the main life schedules, annual routines, and trade-offs involved. Adaptations to the unproductive period include diapause (dormancy), embryonic resting stages (eggs, seeds), energy reserves, and seasonal migrations. Adaptations to the productive window include rapid growth, high reproductive effort, capital breeding, and reproduction entrained to the annual cycle and with precise timing. Distinct annual routines, large body size, energy storage capacities, and parental care

  5. Stress, Adaptive Coping, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Juleen K.; Kearney, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between stress, adaptive coping, and life satisfaction among college students who reported having a friend or family member with eating disorder symptomatology. A hierarchical regression confirmed the study's hypotheses. Higher stress was linked with less life satisfaction. After stress was controlled, plan…

  6. Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, H

    2011-08-23

    This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).

  7. Time Simulation of Bone Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The structural adaptation of a three-dimensional finite element model ofthe proximal femur is considered. Presuming the bone possesses the optimalstructure under the given loads, the bone material distribution is foundby minimizing the strain energy averaged over ten load cases with avolume...

  8. Link Dependent Adaptive Radio Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    of Electrical and Computer Engineering Morgan State University ABSTRACT This paper shows the optimized Link Dependent Adaptive Radio (LDAR...Instrumentation (PEO STRI ). 9 9. REFERENCES [1] M. Elrais, B. Mengiste, B. Gautam and E. Dambia, "Variable OFDM Performance on Aeronautical

  9. Predicting life-history adaptations to pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Animals may adapt to pollutant stress so that individuals from polluted environments are less susceptible than those from unpolluted environments. In addition to such direct adaptations, animals may respond to pollutant stress by life-history modifications; so-called indirect adaptations. This paper will demonstrate how, by combining life-history theory and toxicological data, it is possible to predict stress-induced alterations in reproductive output and offspring size. Pollutant-induced alterations in age-specific survival in favor of adults and reductions in juvenile growth, conditions are predicted to select for reduced investment in reproduction and the allocation of this investment into fewer, larger offspring. Field observations on the freshwater crustaceans, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus pulex, support these predictions. Females from metal-polluted sites had lower investment in reproduction and produced larger offspring than females of the same species from unpolluted sites. Moreover, interpopulation differences in reproductive biology persisted in laboratory cultures indicating that they had a genetic basis and were therefore due to adaptation rather than acclimation. The general applicability of this approach will be considered.

  10. Fully Adaptive Radar Modeling and Simulation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    have developed a MATLAB-based modeling and simulation (M&S) architecture for distributed fully adaptive radar (FAR) that will enable algorithm...development and testing on simulated, previously collected, and real-time streaming data. The architecture is coded in MATLAB using an object oriented...programming approach. The architecture includes a FAR engine to control the operation of the perception-action cycle and software objects that determine the

  11. The behaviour of adaptive boneremodeling simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, H.; Huiskes, R.; Grootenboer, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The process of adaptive bone remodeling can be described mathematically and simulated in a computer model, integrated with the finite element method. In the model discussed here, cortical and trabecular bone are described as continuous materials with variable density. The remodeling rule applied to

  12. A simple turbulence simulator for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandrine

    2004-10-01

    In this article, I describe a new, inexpensive way to make transparent phase screens. I list available technologies of physical turbulence simulation and describe the transparent phase-plate screens that were produced by the laquer-spray technique and characterized in the laboratory. The spatial spectrum of phase perturbations is a reasonable match to the Kolmogorov law with r0 around 0.5 mm at 0.633 μm over spatial frequencies from 0.75 to 5 mm-1. A turbulence simulator using two such rotating screens and destined for the adaptive optics instrument for the 4.1-m SOAR telescope is described.

  13. Statistical mechanics of Hamiltonian adaptive resolution simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, P; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Everaers, R; Potestio, R; Donadio, D; Kremer, K

    2015-02-14

    The Adaptive Resolution Scheme (AdResS) is a hybrid scheme that allows to treat a molecular system with different levels of resolution depending on the location of the molecules. The construction of a Hamiltonian based on the this idea (H-AdResS) allows one to formulate the usual tools of ensembles and statistical mechanics. We present a number of exact and approximate results that provide a statistical mechanics foundation for this simulation method. We also present simulation results that illustrate the theory.

  14. Simulation analysis of adaptive cruise prediction control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Cui, Sheng Min

    2017-09-01

    Predictive control is suitable for multi-variable and multi-constraint system control.In order to discuss the effect of predictive control on the vehicle longitudinal motion, this paper establishes the expected spacing model by combining variable pitch spacing and the of safety distance strategy. The model predictive control theory and the optimization method based on secondary planning are designed to obtain and track the best expected acceleration trajectory quickly. Simulation models are established including predictive and adaptive fuzzy control. Simulation results show that predictive control can realize the basic function of the system while ensuring the safety. The application of predictive and fuzzy adaptive algorithm in cruise condition indicates that the predictive control effect is better.

  15. Simulation of DKIST solar adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jose; Carlisle, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Solar adaptive optics (AO) simulations are a valuable tool to guide the design and optimization process of current and future solar AO and multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) systems. Solar AO and MCAO systems rely on extended object cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to measure the wavefront. Accurate solar AO simulations require computationally intensive operations, which have until recently presented a prohibitive computational cost. We present an update on the status of a solar AO and MCAO simulation tool being developed at the National Solar Observatory. The simulation tool is a multi-threaded application written in the C++ language that takes advantage of current large multi-core CPU computer systems and fast ethernet connections to provide accurate full simulation of solar AO and MCAO systems. It interfaces with KAOS, a state of the art solar AO control software developed by the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, that provides reliable AO control. We report on the latest results produced by the solar AO simulation tool.

  16. Adaptive System Modeling for Spacecraft Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This invention introduces a methodology and associated software tools for automatically learning spacecraft system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques were used to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). Evaluation on historical ISS telemetry data shows that adaptive system modeling reduces simulation error anywhere from 50 to 90 percent over existing approaches. The purpose of the methodology is to outline how someone can create accurate system models from sensor (telemetry) data. The purpose of the software is to support the methodology. The software provides analysis tools to design the adaptive models. The software also provides the algorithms to initially build system models and continuously update them from the latest streaming sensor data. The main strengths are as follows: Creates accurate spacecraft system models without in-depth system knowledge or any assumptions about system behavior. Automatically updates/calibrates system models using the latest streaming sensor data. Creates device specific models that capture the exact behavior of devices of the same type. Adapts to evolving systems. Can reduce computational complexity (faster simulations).

  17. Dynamically adaptive data-driven simulation of extreme hydrological flows

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar Jain, Pushkar

    2017-12-27

    Hydrological hazards such as storm surges, tsunamis, and rainfall-induced flooding are physically complex events that are costly in loss of human life and economic productivity. Many such disasters could be mitigated through improved emergency evacuation in real-time and through the development of resilient infrastructure based on knowledge of how systems respond to extreme events. Data-driven computational modeling is a critical technology underpinning these efforts. This investigation focuses on the novel combination of methodologies in forward simulation and data assimilation. The forward geophysical model utilizes adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), a process by which a computational mesh can adapt in time and space based on the current state of a simulation. The forward solution is combined with ensemble based data assimilation methods, whereby observations from an event are assimilated into the forward simulation to improve the veracity of the solution, or used to invert for uncertain physical parameters. The novelty in our approach is the tight two-way coupling of AMR and ensemble filtering techniques. The technology is tested using actual data from the Chile tsunami event of February 27, 2010. These advances offer the promise of significantly transforming data-driven, real-time modeling of hydrological hazards, with potentially broader applications in other science domains.

  18. Mental simulation and meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytz, Adam; Hershfield, Hal E; Tamir, Diana I

    2015-02-01

    Mental simulation, the process of self-projection into alternate temporal, spatial, social, or hypothetical realities is a distinctively human capacity. Numerous lines of research also suggest that the tendency for mental simulation is associated with enhanced meaning. The present research tests this association specifically examining the relationship between two forms of simulation (temporal and spatial) and meaning in life. Study 1 uses neuroimaging to demonstrate that enhanced connectivity in the medial temporal lobe network, a subnetwork of the brain's default network implicated in prospection and retrospection, correlates with self-reported meaning in life. Study 2 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think about the past or future versus the present enhances self-reported meaning in life, through the generation of more meaningful events. Study 3 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think specifically versus generally about the past or future enhances self-reported meaning in life. Study 4 turns to spatial simulation to demonstrate that experimentally inducing people to think specifically about an alternate spatial location (from the present location) increases meaning derived from this simulation compared to thinking generally about another location or specifically about one's present location. Study 5 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think about an alternate spatial location versus one's present location enhances meaning in life, through meaning derived from this simulation. Study 6 demonstrates that simply asking people to imagine completing a measure of meaning in life in an alternate location compared with asking them to do so in their present location enhances reports of meaning. This research sheds light on an important determinant of meaning in life and suggests that undirected mental simulation benefits psychological well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive resolution simulations of biomolecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Bevc, Staš; Praprotnik, Matej

    2017-12-01

    In this review article, we discuss and analyze some recently developed hybrid atomistic-mesoscopic solvent models for multiscale biomolecular simulations. We focus on the biomolecular applications of the adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS), which allows solvent molecules to change their resolution back and forth between atomistic and coarse-grained representations according to their positions in the system. First, we discuss coupling of atomistic and coarse-grained models of salt solution using a 1-to-1 molecular mapping-i.e., one coarse-grained bead represents one water molecule-for development of a multiscale salt solution model. In order to make use of coarse-grained molecular models that are compatible with the MARTINI force field, one has to resort to a supramolecular mapping, in particular to a 4-to-1 mapping, where four water molecules are represented with one coarse-grained bead. To this end, bundled atomistic water models are employed, i.e., the relative movement of water molecules that are mapped to the same coarse-grained bead is restricted by employing harmonic springs. Supramolecular coupling has recently also been extended to polarizable coarse-grained water models with explicit charges. Since these coarse-grained models consist of several interaction sites, orientational degrees of freedom of the atomistic and coarse-grained representations are coupled via a harmonic energy penalty term. The latter aligns the dipole moments of both representations. The reviewed multiscale solvent models are ready to be used in biomolecular simulations, as illustrated in a few examples.

  20. Friendship and adaption across the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartup, W.W.; Stevens, N.L.

    1999-01-01

    Friends foster self-esteem and a sense of well-being, socialize one another, and support one another in coping with developmental transitions and life stress. Friends engage in different activities with one another across the life span, but friendship is conceived similarly by children and adults.

  1. The evolution of predictive adaptive responses in human life history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nettle, D.; Frankenhuis, W.E.; Rickard, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in humans have shown that adverse experience in early life is associated with accelerated reproductive timing, and there is comparative evidence for similar effects in other animals. There are two different classes of adaptive explanation for associations between early-life adversity

  2. Adaptation Strategies and Cultural Life Styles of Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Diego

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the adaptation strategies of Mexican American adolescents in order to determine the effect of environment on acculturation. Describes the characteristics and similarities of Mexican-, Chicano-, and Anglo-oriented life-styles. Describes the manifestation of each life-style in an urban and suburban high school setting. (SB)

  3. Friendships and adaptation in the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartup, W.W.; Stevens, N.L.

    1997-01-01

    To consider friendships and their significance through the life course requires, first, differentiation of deep structure (i.e., reciprocity) from surface structure (i.e., the social exchange) and, second, assessment within a multifaceted framework that simultaneously emphasizes having friends, the

  4. Active adaptive sound control in a duct - A computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J. C.

    1981-09-01

    A digital computer simulation of adaptive closed-loop control for a specific application (sound cancellation in a duct) is discussed. The principal element is an extension of Sondhi's adaptive echo canceler and Widrow's adaptive noise canceler from signal processing to control. Thus, the adaptive algorithm is based on the LMS gradient search method. The simulation demonstrates that one or more pure tones can be canceled down to the computer bit noise level (-120 dB). When additive white noise is present, pure tones can be canceled to at least 10 dB below the noise spectrum level for SNRs down to at least 0 dB. The underlying theory suggests that the algorithm allows tracking tones with amplitudes and frequencies that change more slowly with time than the adaptive filter adaptation rate. It also implies that the method can cancel narrow-band sound in the presence of spectrally overlapping broadband sound.

  5. Neuromuscular adaptation to actual and simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The chronic "unloading" of the neuromuscular system during spaceflight has detrimental functional and morphological effects. Changes in the metabolic and mechanical properties of the musculature can be attributed largely to the loss of muscle protein and the alteration in the relative proportion of the proteins in skeletal muscle, particularly in the muscles that have an antigravity function under normal loading conditions. These adaptations could result in decrements in the performance of routine or specialized motor tasks, both of which may be critical for survival in an altered gravitational field, i.e., during spaceflight and during return to 1 G. For example, the loss in extensor muscle mass requires a higher percentage of recruitment of the motor pools for any specific motor task. Thus, a faster rate of fatigue will occur in the activated muscles. These consequences emphasize the importance of developing techniques for minimizing muscle loss during spaceflight, at least in preparation for the return to 1 G after spaceflight. New insights into the complexity and the interactive elements that contribute to the neuromuscular adaptations to space have been gained from studies of the role of exercise and/or growth factors as countermeasures of atrophy. The present chapter illustrates the inevitable interactive effects of neural and muscular systems in adapting to space. It also describes the considerable progress that has been made toward the goal of minimizing the functional impact of the stimuli that induce the neuromuscular adaptations to space.

  6. ADAPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HERONS PLUMAGE FOR THEIR WAY OF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Koshelev V. A.; Peresadko L. V.; Furmanova V. I.; Koshelev A. I.

    2011-01-01

    Feather cover of each bird species reflects spectra of species, age, sex and environmental attributes defined the phylogeny of taxa, habitat and life patterns. In turn, many ecological phenomena in the birds’ life patterns are directly dependent on the state of plumage (e.g., time of breeding, seasonal migration, roost flights). For the first time the quantitative characterization of six heron species' plumage were done as well as the description of powder down feathers. The adaptive feature...

  7. Adaptive optics simulation performance improvements using reconfigurable logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, Alastair

    2007-02-20

    A technique used to accelerate an adaptive optics simulation platform using reconfigurable logic is described. The performance of parts of this simulation has been improved by up to 600 times (reducing computation times by this factor) by implementing algorithms within hardware and enables adaptive optics simulations to be carried out in a reasonable time scale. This demonstrates that it is possible to use reconfigurable logic to accelerate computational codes by very large factors when compared with conventional software approaches, and this has relevance for many computationally intensive applications. The use of reconfigurable logic for high performance computing is currently in its infancy and has never before been applied to this field.

  8. ADAPTIVE QUASICONTINUUM SIMULATION OF ELASTIC-BRITTLE DISORDERED LATTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Mikeš

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The quasicontinuum (QC method is a computational technique that can efficiently handle atomistic lattices by combining continuum and atomistic approaches. In this work, the QC method is combined with an adaptive algorithm, to obtain correct predictions of crack trajectories in failure simulations. Numerical simulations of crack propagation in elastic-brittle disordered lattices are performed for a two-dimensional example. The obtained results are compared with the fully resolved particle model. It is shown that the adaptive QC simulation provides a significant reduction of the computational demand. At the same time, the macroscopic crack trajectories and the shape of the force-displacement diagram are very well captured.

  9. An adaptive simulation tool for evacuation scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Formolo, Daniel; van der Wal, C. Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Building useful and efficient models and tools for a varied audience, such as evacuation simulators for scientists, engineers and crisis managers, can be tricky. Even good models can fail in providing information when the user’s tools for the model are scarce of resources. The aim of this work is to

  10. Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma A; Franks, Daniel W; Mazzi, Sonia; Darden, Safi K; Balcomb, Ken C; Ford, John K B; Croft, Darren P

    2012-09-14

    Prolonged life after reproduction is difficult to explain evolutionarily unless it arises as a physiological side effect of increased longevity or it benefits related individuals (i.e., increases inclusive fitness). There is little evidence that postreproductive life spans are adaptive in nonhuman animals. By using multigenerational records for two killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in which females can live for decades after their final parturition, we show that postreproductive mothers increase the survival of offspring, particularly their older male offspring. This finding may explain why female killer whales have evolved the longest postreproductive life span of all nonhuman animals.

  11. The evolution of predictive adaptive responses in human life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E; Rickard, Ian J

    2013-09-07

    Many studies in humans have shown that adverse experience in early life is associated with accelerated reproductive timing, and there is comparative evidence for similar effects in other animals. There are two different classes of adaptive explanation for associations between early-life adversity and accelerated reproduction, both based on the idea of predictive adaptive responses (PARs). According to external PAR hypotheses, early-life adversity provides a 'weather forecast' of the environmental conditions into which the individual will mature, and it is adaptive for the individual to develop an appropriate phenotype for this anticipated environment. In internal PAR hypotheses, early-life adversity has a lasting negative impact on the individual's somatic state, such that her health is likely to fail more rapidly as she gets older, and there is an advantage to adjusting her reproductive schedule accordingly. We use a model of fluctuating environments to derive evolveability conditions for acceleration of reproductive timing in response to early-life adversity in a long-lived organism. For acceleration to evolve via the external PAR process, early-life cues must have a high degree of validity and the level of annual autocorrelation in the individual's environment must be almost perfect. For acceleration to evolve via the internal PAR process requires that early-life experience must determine a significant fraction of the variance in survival prospects in adulthood. The two processes are not mutually exclusive, and mechanisms for calibrating reproductive timing on the basis of early experience could evolve through a combination of the predictive value of early-life adversity for the later environment and its negative impact on somatic state.

  12. Adaptive LES Methodology for Turbulent Flow Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleg V. Vasilyev

    2008-06-12

    Although turbulent flows are common in the world around us, a solution to the fundamental equations that govern turbulence still eludes the scientific community. Turbulence has often been called one of the last unsolved problem in classical physics, yet it is clear that the need to accurately predict the effect of turbulent flows impacts virtually every field of science and engineering. As an example, a critical step in making modern computational tools useful in designing aircraft is to be able to accurately predict the lift, drag, and other aerodynamic characteristics in numerical simulations in a reasonable amount of time. Simulations that take months to years to complete are much less useful to the design cycle. Much work has been done toward this goal (Lee-Rausch et al. 2003, Jameson 2003) and as cost effective accurate tools for simulating turbulent flows evolve, we will all benefit from new scientific and engineering breakthroughs. The problem of simulating high Reynolds number (Re) turbulent flows of engineering and scientific interest would have been solved with the advent of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) techniques if unlimited computing power, memory, and time could be applied to each particular problem. Yet, given the current and near future computational resources that exist and a reasonable limit on the amount of time an engineer or scientist can wait for a result, the DNS technique will not be useful for more than 'unit' problems for the foreseeable future (Moin & Kim 1997, Jimenez & Moin 1991). The high computational cost for the DNS of three dimensional turbulent flows results from the fact that they have eddies of significant energy in a range of scales from the characteristic length scale of the flow all the way down to the Kolmogorov length scale. The actual cost of doing a three dimensional DNS scales as Re{sup 9/4} due to the large disparity in scales that need to be fully resolved. State-of-the-art DNS calculations of isotropic

  13. Simulation and Rapid Prototyping of Adaptive Control Systems using the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller...... implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally found in adaptive controllers is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller...... design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown....

  14. Numerical Simulation of Solidification Microstructure based on Adaptive Octree Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Y.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main work of this paper focuses on the simulation of binary alloy solidification using the phase field model and adaptive octree grids. Ni-Cu binary alloy is used as an example in this paper to do research on the numerical simulation of isothermal solidification of binary alloy. Firstly, the WBM model, numerical issues and adaptive octree grids have been explained. Secondary, the numerical simulation results of three dimensional morphology of the equiaxed grain and concentration variations are given, taking the efficiency advantage of the adaptive octree grids. The microsegregation of binary alloy has been analysed emphatically. Then, numerical simulation results of the influence of thermophysical parameters on the growth of the equiaxed grain are also given. At last, a simulation experiment of large scale and long-time has been carried out. It is found that increases of initial temperature and initial concentration will make grain grow along certain directions and adaptive octree grids can effectively be used in simulations of microstructure.

  15. Entropy and Selection: Life as an Adaptation for Universe Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Price

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection is the strongest known antientropic process in the universe when operating at the biological level and may also operate at the cosmological level. Consideration of how biological natural selection creates adaptations may illuminate the consequences and significance of cosmological natural selection. An organismal trait is more likely to constitute an adaptation if characterized by more improbable complex order, and such order is the hallmark of biological selection. If the same is true of traits created by selection in general, then the more improbably ordered something is (i.e., the lower its entropy, the more likely it is to be a biological or cosmological adaptation. By this logic, intelligent life (as the least-entropic known entity is more likely than black holes or anything else to be an adaptation designed by cosmological natural selection. This view contrasts with Smolin’s suggestion that black holes are an adaptation designed by cosmological natural selection and that life is the by-product of selection for black holes. Selection may be the main or only ultimate antientropic process in the universe/multiverse; that is, much or all observed order may ultimately be the product or by-product of biological and cosmological selection.

  16. An adaptive synchronization protocol for parallel discrete event simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-12-01

    Simulation, especially discrete event simulation (DES), is used in a variety of disciplines where numerical methods are difficult or impossible to apply. One problem with this method is that a sufficiently detailed simulation may take hours or days to execute, and multiple runs may be needed in order to generate the desired results. Parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) has been explored for many years as a method to decrease the time taken to execute a simulation. Many protocols have been developed which work well for particular types of simulations, but perform poorly when used for other types of simulations. Often it is difficult to know a priori whether a particular protocol is appropriate for a given problem. In this work, an adaptive synchronization method (ASM) is developed which works well on an entire spectrum of problems. The ASM determines, using an artificial neural network (ANN), the likelihood that a particular event is safe to process.

  17. SIMULATION OF PULSED BREAKDOWN IN HELIUM BY ADAPTIVE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Eliseev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the processes occurring during electrical breakdown in gases as well as numerical simulation of these processes using adaptive mesh refinement methods. Discharge between needle electrodes in helium at atmospheric pressure is selected for the test simulation. Physical model of the accompanying breakdown processes is based on self- consistent system of continuity equations for streams of charged particles (electrons and positive ions and Poisson equation for electric potential. Sharp plasma heterogeneity in the area of streamers requires the usage of adaptive algorithms for constructing of computational grids for modeling. The method for grid adaptive construction together with justification of its effectiveness for significantly unsteady gas breakdown simulation at atmospheric pressure is described. Upgraded version of Gerris package is used for numerical simulation of electrical gas breakdown. Software package, originally focused on solution of nonlinear problems in fluid dynamics, appears to be suitable for processes modeling in non-stationary plasma described by continuity equations. The usage of adaptive grids makes it possible to get an adequate numerical model for the breakdown development in the system of needle electrodes. Breakdown dynamics is illustrated by contour plots of electron densities and electric field intensity obtained in the course of solving. Breakdown mechanism of positive and negative (orientated to anode streamers formation is demonstrated and analyzed. Correspondence between adaptive building of computational grid and generated plasma gradients is shown. Obtained results can be used as a basis for full-scale numerical experiments on electric breakdown in gases.

  18. Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both

  19. The behavior of adaptive bone-remodeling simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Weinans (Harrie); R. Huiskes (Rik); H.J. Grootenboer

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe process of adaptive bone remodeling can be described mathematically and simulated in a computer model, integrated with the finite element method. In the model discussed here, cortical and trabecular bone are described as continuous materials with variable density. The remodeling rule

  20. Advanced Dynamically Adaptive Algorithms for Stochastic Simulations on Extreme Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Dongbin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The focus of the project is the development of mathematical methods and high-performance computational tools for stochastic simulations, with a particular emphasis on computations on extreme scales. The core of the project revolves around the design of highly efficient and scalable numerical algorithms that can adaptively and accurately, in high dimensional spaces, resolve stochastic problems with limited smoothness, even containing discontinuities.

  1. Adaptive thinking & leadership simulation game training for special forces officers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Mendini, Kip (USA JFKSWCS DOTD, Ft. Bragg, NC); Heneghan, Jerry; Deagle, Edwin (USA JFKSWCS DOTD, Ft. Bragg, NC)

    2005-07-01

    Complex problem solving approaches and novel strategies employed by the military at the squad, team, and commander level are often best learned experimentally. Since live action exercises can be costly, advances in simulation game training technology offer exciting ways to enhance current training. Computer games provide an environment for active, critical learning. Games open up possibilities for simultaneous learning on multiple levels; players may learn from contextual information embedded in the dynamics of the game, the organic process generated by the game, and through the risks, benefits, costs, outcomes, and rewards of alternative strategies that result from decision making. In the present paper we discuss a multiplayer computer game simulation created for the Adaptive Thinking & Leadership (ATL) Program to train Special Forces Team Leaders. The ATL training simulation consists of a scripted single-player and an immersive multiplayer environment for classroom use which leverages immersive computer game technology. We define adaptive thinking as consisting of competencies such as negotiation and consensus building skills, the ability to communicate effectively, analyze ambiguous situations, be self-aware, think innovatively, and critically use effective problem solving skills. Each of these competencies is an essential element of leader development training for the U.S. Army Special Forces. The ATL simulation is used to augment experiential learning in the curriculum for the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center & School (SWCS) course in Adaptive Thinking & Leadership. The school is incorporating the ATL simulation game into two additional training pipelines (PSYOPS and Civil Affairs Qualification Courses) that are also concerned with developing cultural awareness, interpersonal communication adaptability, and rapport-building skills. In the present paper, we discuss the design, development, and deployment of the training simulation, and emphasize how the

  2. Development of an adaptive genetic algorithm for simulation optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Carvalho Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods in discrete-event simulation have become widespread in numerous applications. However, the methods´ performance falls sharply in terms of computational time when more than one decision variable is handled. Current assay develops an adaptive genetic algorithm for the simulation optimization capable of achieving satisfactory results in time efficiency and response quality when compared to optimization software packages on the market. A series of experiments was elaborated to define the algorithm’s most significant parameters and to propose adaptations. According to the results, the most significant parameters are population size and number of generations. Further, adaptive strategies were proposed for these parameters which enabled the algorithm to obtain good results in response quality and time necessary to converge when compared to a commercial software package.

  3. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  4. Adaptive simulations of drop/interface impact and rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Lowengrub, John; Longmire, Ellen; Cristini, Vittorio

    2002-11-01

    We present an algorithm for simulations of topology transitions (e.g., breakup and coalescence) in complex multiphase fluids. The algorithm is based on a finite element unstructured triangulated mesh, and on a diffuse-interface representation of the interfaces. During a simulation, the computational mesh is automatically adapted to describe accurately the complex morphology associated to the topology transitions and the narrow lubrication gaps between the interfaces. We apply this algorithm to study the impact and coalescence of viscous drops on solid and fluid-fluid interfaces. We compare our simulations to experimental results.

  5. Effect of vergence adaptation on convergence-accommodation: model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R; Irving, Elizabeth L; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2009-10-01

    Several theoretical control models depict the adaptation effects observed in the accommodation and vergence mechanisms of the human visual system. Two current quantitative models differ in their approach of defining adaptation and in identifying the effect of controller adaptation on their respective cross-links between the vergence and accommodative systems. Here, we compare the simulation results of these adaptation models with empirical data obtained from emmetropic adults when they performed sustained near task through + 2D lens addition. The results of our experimental study showed an initial increase in exophoria (a divergent open-loop vergence position) and convergence-accommodation (CA) when viewing through +2D lenses. Prolonged fixation through the near addition lenses initiated vergence adaptation, which reduced the lens-induced exophoria and resulted in a concurrent reduction of CA. Both models showed good agreement with empirical measures of vergence adaptation. However, only one model predicted the experimental time course of reduction in CA. The pattern of our empirical results seem to be best described by the adaptation model that indicates the total vergence response to be a sum of two controllers, phasic and tonic, with the output of phasic controller providing input to the cross-link interactions.

  6. Simulation for noise cancellation using LMS adaptive filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Haw; Ooi, Lu-Ean; Ko, Ying-Hao; Teoh, Choe-Yung

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the fundamental algorithm of noise cancellation, Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is studied and enhanced with adaptive filter. The simulation of the noise cancellation using LMS adaptive filter algorithm is developed. The noise corrupted speech signal and the engine noise signal are used as inputs for LMS adaptive filter algorithm. The filtered signal is compared to the original noise-free speech signal in order to highlight the level of attenuation of the noise signal. The result shows that the noise signal is successfully canceled by the developed adaptive filter. The difference of the noise-free speech signal and filtered signal are calculated and the outcome implies that the filtered signal is approaching the noise-free speech signal upon the adaptive filtering. The frequency range of the successfully canceled noise by the LMS adaptive filter algorithm is determined by performing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the signals. The LMS adaptive filter algorithm shows significant noise cancellation at lower frequency range.

  7. Selection for autochthonous bifidobacteial isolates adapted to simulated gastrointestinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Jamalifar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Bifidobacterial strains are excessively sensitive to acidic conditions and this can affect their living ability in the stomach and fermented foods, and as a result, restrict their use as live probiotic cultures. The aim of the present study was to obtain bifidobacterial isolates with augmented tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal condition using cross-protection method. "nMethods: Individual bifidobacterial strains were treated in acidic environment and also in media containing bile salts and NaCl. Viability of the acid and acid-bile-NaCl tolerant isolates was further examined in simulated gastric and small intestine by subsequent incubation of the probiotic bacteria in the corresponding media for 120 min. Antipathogenic activities of the adapted isolates were compared with those of the original strains. "nResults and major conclusion: The acid and acid-bile-NaCl adapted isolates showed improved viabilities significantly (p<0.05 in simulated gastric fluid compared to their parent strains. The levels of reduction in bacterial count (Log cfu/ml of the acid and acid-bile-NaCl adapted isolates obtained in simulated gastric fluid ranged from 0.64-3.06 and 0.36-2.43 logarithmic units after 120 min of incubation. There was no significant difference between the viability of the acid-bile-NaCl-tolerant isolates and the original strains in simulated small intestinal condition except for Bifidobacterium adolescentis (p<0.05. The presence of 15 ml of supernatants of acid-bile-NaCl-adapted isolates and also those of the initial Bifidobacterium strains inhibited pathogenic bacterial growth for 24 hrs. Probiotic bacteria with improved ability to survive in harsh gastrointestinal environment could be obtained by subsequent treatment of the strains in acid, bile salts and NaCl environments.

  8. Adaptive midlife defense mechanisms and late-life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C; Cohen, Shiri; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Waldinger, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of research suggests that personality characteristics relate to physical health; however, this relation ship has primarily been tested in cross-sectional studies that have not followed the participants into old age. The present study utilizes data from a 70-year longitudinal study to prospectively examine the relationship between the adaptive defense mechanisms in midlife and objectively assessed physical health in late life. In addition to examining the direct effect, we test whether social support mediates this relation ship. The sample consisted of 90 men who were followed for over seven decades beginning in late adolescence. Health ratings from medical records were made at three time points (ages 70, 75, and 80). Defense mechanisms were coded from narratives by trained independent raters (Vaillant, Bond, & Vaillant, 1986). Independent raters assessed social supports between ages 50 and 70. More adaptive defenses in midlife were associated with better physical health at all three time points in late life. These relationships were partially mediated by social support. Findings are consistent with the theory that defense maturity is important for building social relationships, which in turn contribute to better late-life physical health. Psychological interventions aimed at improving these domains may be beneficial for physical health.

  9. Career Adaptability: An Integrative Construct for Life-Span, Life-Space Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the origin and current status of lifespan, life-space theory and proposes one way in which to integrate its three segments. Discusses a functionalist strategy for theory construction and the outcomes and consequences of this strategy. Discusses future directions for theory development, such as career adaptability and planful attitudes.…

  10. Improving the Adaptability of Simulated Evolutionary Swarm Robots in Dynamically Changing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Marchal, Kathleen; Van de Peer, Yves

    2014-01-01

    One of the important challenges in the field of evolutionary robotics is the development of systems that can adapt to a changing environment. However, the ability to adapt to unknown and fluctuating environments is not straightforward. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of simulated swarm robots that contain a genomic encoding of a bio-inspired gene regulatory network (GRN). An artificial genome is combined with a flexible agent-based system, representing the activated part of the regulatory network that transduces environmental cues into phenotypic behaviour. Using an artificial life simulation framework that mimics a dynamically changing environment, we show that separating the static from the conditionally active part of the network contributes to a better adaptive behaviour. Furthermore, in contrast with most hitherto developed ANN-based systems that need to re-optimize their complete controller network from scratch each time they are subjected to novel conditions, our system uses its genome to store GRNs whose performance was optimized under a particular environmental condition for a sufficiently long time. When subjected to a new environment, the previous condition-specific GRN might become inactivated, but remains present. This ability to store ‘good behaviour’ and to disconnect it from the novel rewiring that is essential under a new condition allows faster re-adaptation if any of the previously observed environmental conditions is reencountered. As we show here, applying these evolutionary-based principles leads to accelerated and improved adaptive evolution in a non-stable environment. PMID:24599485

  11. Adaptive implicit method for thermal compositional reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, A.; Tchelepi, H.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., Palo Alto (United States)

    2008-10-15

    As the global demand for oil increases, thermal enhanced oil recovery techniques are becoming increasingly important. Numerical reservoir simulation of thermal methods such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is complex and requires a solution of nonlinear mass and energy conservation equations on a fine reservoir grid. The most currently used technique for solving these equations is the fully IMplicit (FIM) method which is unconditionally stable, allowing for large timesteps in simulation. However, it is computationally expensive. On the other hand, the method known as IMplicit pressure explicit saturations, temperature and compositions (IMPEST) is computationally inexpensive, but it is only conditionally stable and restricts the timestep size. To improve the balance between the timestep size and computational cost, the thermal adaptive IMplicit (TAIM) method uses stability criteria and a switching algorithm, where some simulation variables such as pressure, saturations, temperature, compositions are treated implicitly while others are treated with explicit schemes. This presentation described ongoing research on TAIM with particular reference to thermal displacement processes such as the stability criteria that dictate the maximum allowed timestep size for simulation based on the von Neumann linear stability analysis method; the switching algorithm that adapts labeling of reservoir variables as implicit or explicit as a function of space and time; and, complex physical behaviors such as heat and fluid convection, thermal conduction and compressibility. Key numerical results obtained by enhancing Stanford's General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS) were also presented along with a list of research challenges. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs., 1 appendix.

  12. Adaptive scapula bone remodeling computational simulation: Relevance to regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Gulshan B., E-mail: gbsharma@ucalgary.ca [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Spine and Orthopaedic Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); University of Calgary, Schulich School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Robertson, Douglas D., E-mail: douglas.d.robertson@emory.edu [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Spine and Orthopaedic Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty success has been attributed to many factors including, bone quality, soft tissue balancing, surgeon experience, and implant design. Improved long-term success is primarily limited by glenoid implant loosening. Prosthesis design examines materials and shape and determines whether the design should withstand a lifetime of use. Finite element (FE) analyses have been extensively used to study stresses and strains produced in implants and bone. However, these static analyses only measure a moment in time and not the adaptive response to the altered environment produced by the therapeutic intervention. Computational analyses that integrate remodeling rules predict how bone will respond over time. Recent work has shown that subject-specific two- and three dimensional adaptive bone remodeling models are feasible and valid. Feasibility and validation were achieved computationally, simulating bone remodeling using an intact human scapula, initially resetting the scapular bone material properties to be uniform, numerically simulating sequential loading, and comparing the bone remodeling simulation results to the actual scapula’s material properties. Three-dimensional scapula FE bone model was created using volumetric computed tomography images. Muscle and joint load and boundary conditions were applied based on values reported in the literature. Internal bone remodeling was based on element strain-energy density. Initially, all bone elements were assigned a homogeneous density. All loads were applied for 10 iterations. After every iteration, each bone element’s remodeling stimulus was compared to its corresponding reference stimulus and its material properties modified. The simulation achieved convergence. At the end of the simulation the predicted and actual specimen bone apparent density were plotted and compared. Location of high and low predicted bone density was comparable to the actual specimen. High predicted bone density was greater than

  13. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  14. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  15. Advanced Dynamically Adaptive Algorithms for Stochastic Simulations on Extreme Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Dongbin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-06-21

    The focus of the project is the development of mathematical methods and high-performance com- putational tools for stochastic simulations, with a particular emphasis on computations on extreme scales. The core of the project revolves around the design of highly e cient and scalable numer- ical algorithms that can adaptively and accurately, in high dimensional spaces, resolve stochastic problems with limited smoothness, even containing discontinuities.

  16. ADAPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HERONS PLUMAGE FOR THEIR WAY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshelev V. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feather cover of each bird species reflects spectra of species, age, sex and environmental attributes defined the phylogeny of taxa, habitat and life patterns. In turn, many ecological phenomena in the birds’ life patterns are directly dependent on the state of plumage (e.g., time of breeding, seasonal migration, roost flights. For the first time the quantitative characterization of six heron species' plumage were done as well as the description of powder down feathers. The adaptive features of feathers and various types of heron’s plumages were discussed.The structure of contour feathers of herons is related to the peculiarities of species life pattern. All the species have a relatively small number of contour feathers, despite their large body size. According to this index the herons are more similar to typical wading birds (gulls, sandpipers than for waterfowl. The total number of heron feathers slightly increase in winter, because they are migratory species. Structure of contour feathers of herons corresponds to that of other waterbirds. The rod is not bent, the feathers are large, and the mounting angle to the surface of the body is little. The cores of abdominal feather fracts reduce heat transfer and can be regarded as an adaptation factor to aquatic environment.Buoyancy is provided by heron’s feathers insignificantly, in contrast to the typical waterfowl species. Significant subcutaneous fat stores are typical for herons in spring, autumn and winter, increased buoyancy and being the energy reserves provide thermoregulation in cold environment. Our data indicate weak adaptation of herons’ plumage to aquatic environments, but also confirm its insulating properties, which is prove the herons semi-aquatic rather than aquatic life patterns.Due to color of plumage some three groups of herons were considered: white, mottled and camouflaged. Coloration of second and third group performs a protective function. We didn’t found a clear

  17. An adaptive nonlinear solution scheme for reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, G.S. [Scientific Software - Intercomp, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerical reservoir simulation involves solving large, nonlinear systems of PDE with strongly discontinuous coefficients. Because of the large demands on computer memory and CPU, most users must perform simulations on very coarse grids. The average properties of the fluids and rocks must be estimated on these grids. These coarse grid {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} properties are costly to determine, and risky to use, since their optimal values depend on the fluid flow being simulated. Thus, they must be found by trial-and-error techniques, and the more coarse the grid, the poorer the results. This paper describes a numerical reservoir simulator which accepts fine scale properties and automatically generates multiple levels of coarse grid rock and fluid properties. The fine grid properties and the coarse grid simulation results are used to estimate discretization errors with multilevel error expansions. These expansions are local, and identify areas requiring local grid refinement. These refinements are added adoptively by the simulator, and the resulting composite grid equations are solved by a nonlinear Fast Adaptive Composite (FAC) Grid method, with a damped Newton algorithm being used on each local grid. The nonsymmetric linear system of equations resulting from Newton`s method are in turn solved by a preconditioned Conjugate Gradients-like algorithm. The scheme is demonstrated by performing fine and coarse grid simulations of several multiphase reservoirs from around the world.

  18. Creating a computer adaptive test version of the late-life function and disability instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Alan M; Haley, Stephen M; Ni, Pengsheng; Olarsch, Sippy; Moed, Richard

    2008-11-01

    This study applied item response theory (IRT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) methodologies to develop a prototype function and disability assessment instrument for use in aging research. Herein, we report on the development of the CAT version of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Late-Life FDI) and evaluate its psychometric properties. We used confirmatory factor analysis, IRT methods, validation, and computer simulation analyses of data collected from 671 older adults residing in residential care facilities. We compared accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of scores from CAT versions of two Late-Life FDI scales with scores from the fixed-form instrument. Score estimates from the prototype CAT versus the original instrument were compared in a sample of 40 older adults. Distinct function and disability domains were identified within the Late-Life FDI item bank and used to construct two prototype CAT scales. Using retrospective data, scores from computer simulations of the prototype CAT scales were highly correlated with scores from the original instrument. The results of computer simulation, accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of the CATs closely approximated those of the fixed-form scales, especially for the 10- or 15-item CAT versions. In the prospective study, each CAT was administered in FDI were highly comparable to those obtained from the full-length instrument with a small loss in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change.

  19. Force oscillations simulating breathing maneuvers do not prevent force adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Chris; Jiao, Yuekan; Seow, Chun Y; Paré, Peter D; Bossé, Ynuk

    2012-07-01

    Airway inflammation in patients with asthma exposes the airway smooth muscle (ASM) to a variety of spasmogens. These spasmogens increase ASM tone, which can lead to force adaptation. Length oscillations of ASM, which occur in vivo due to breathing maneuvers, can attenuate force adaptation. However, in the presence of tone, the force oscillations required to achieve these length oscillations may be unphysiologic (i.e., magnitude greater than the ones achieved due to the swings in transpulmonary pressure required for breathing). In the present study, we applied force oscillations simulating the tension oscillations experienced by the wall of a fourth-generation airway during tidal breathing with or without deep inspirations (DI) to ASM. The goal was to investigate whether force adaptation occurs in conditions mimicking breathing maneuvers. Tone was induced by carbachol (average, 20 nM), and the force-generating capacity of the ASM was assessed at 5-minute intervals before and after carbachol administration using electrical field stimulations (EFS). The results show that force oscillations applied before the introduction of tone had a small effect on the force produced by EFS (declined to 96.8% [P > 0.05] and 92.3% [P breathing oscillations (25%). These force oscillations did not prevent force adaptation (gain of force of 11.2 ± 2.2 versus 13.5 ± 2.7 and 11.2 ± 3.0% in static versus dynamic conditions with or without DI, respectively). The lack of effect of simulated breathing maneuvers on force adaptation suggests that this gain in ASM force may occur in vivo and could contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.

  20. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  1. Visualization of Octree Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in Astrophysical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadens, M.; Chapon, D.; Pomaréde, D.; Teyssier, R.

    2012-09-01

    Computer simulations are important in current cosmological research. Those simulations run in parallel on thousands of processors, and produce huge amount of data. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to reduce the computing cost while keeping good numerical accuracy in regions of interest. RAMSES is a cosmological code developed by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (English: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) which uses Octree adaptive mesh refinement. Compared to grid based AMR, the Octree AMR has the advantage to fit very precisely the adaptive resolution of the grid to the local problem complexity. However, this specific octree data type need some specific software to be visualized, as generic visualization tools works on Cartesian grid data type. This is why the PYMSES software has been also developed by our team. It relies on the python scripting language to ensure a modular and easy access to explore those specific data. In order to take advantage of the High Performance Computer which runs the RAMSES simulation, it also uses MPI and multiprocessing to run some parallel code. We would like to present with more details our PYMSES software with some performance benchmarks. PYMSES has currently two visualization techniques which work directly on the AMR. The first one is a splatting technique, and the second one is a custom ray tracing technique. Both have their own advantages and drawbacks. We have also compared two parallel programming techniques with the python multiprocessing library versus the use of MPI run. The load balancing strategy has to be smartly defined in order to achieve a good speed up in our computation. Results obtained with this software are illustrated in the context of a massive, 9000-processor parallel simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy.

  2. Design of a Mobile Agent-Based Adaptive Communication Middleware for Federations of Critical Infrastructure Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görbil, Gökçe; Gelenbe, Erol

    The simulation of critical infrastructures (CI) can involve the use of diverse domain specific simulators that run on geographically distant sites. These diverse simulators must then be coordinated to run concurrently in order to evaluate the performance of critical infrastructures which influence each other, especially in emergency or resource-critical situations. We therefore describe the design of an adaptive communication middleware that provides reliable and real-time one-to-one and group communications for federations of CI simulators over a wide-area network (WAN). The proposed middleware is composed of mobile agent-based peer-to-peer (P2P) overlays, called virtual networks (VNets), to enable resilient, adaptive and real-time communications over unreliable and dynamic physical networks (PNets). The autonomous software agents comprising the communication middleware monitor their performance and the underlying PNet, and dynamically adapt the P2P overlay and migrate over the PNet in order to optimize communications according to the requirements of the federation and the current conditions of the PNet. Reliable communications is provided via redundancy within the communication middleware and intelligent migration of agents over the PNet. The proposed middleware integrates security methods in order to protect the communication infrastructure against attacks and provide privacy and anonymity to the participants of the federation. Experiments with an initial version of the communication middleware over a real-life networking testbed show that promising improvements can be obtained for unicast and group communications via the agent migration capability of our middleware.

  3. End of life care simulation: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Pauline C; Jeong, Sarah; van der Riet, Pamela J

    2014-05-01

    Simulation is an evolving pedagogical approach to teaching in many undergraduate nursing curricula, however, there is little published literature on end of life care simulation as an effective means of teaching nursing students about end of life care. To examine available literature on end of life care simulation. An extensive literature search on end of life care simulation in the undergraduate nursing curriculum was conducted in CINAHL, Mosby's Index, Cochrane Database, Scopus, Eric via Proquest, and Medline. 6 research articles and 10 descriptive articles published between 2009 and 2013 that met the selection criteria are included in the review. Findings of these 16 articles are reported under 4 main themes: 1) Increased knowledge of end of life care through 'experiential learning'; 2) Impact of family presence on student learning; 3) the Debriefing imperative, and 4) Methodological issues raised from studies. The findings of the studies reviewed support end of life care simulation as a strong and viable pedagogical approach to learning for its positive effects on knowledge acquisition, communication skills, self-confidence, student satisfaction and level of engagement in learning. However, the important factors including psychological safety of students and the costs involved require careful consideration. Research on the use of simulation in nursing is still in its infancy, further research using various research designs is required to adequately explore the issues surrounding end of life care simulation. © 2013.

  4. The impact of psychosocial adaptation status on quality of life for Chinese patients with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-jie; Wang, Ai-ping; Yin, An-chun

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the association of psychosocial adaptation with quality of life and to examine the influential factors for Chinese people with visual impairments. The status of psychosocial adaptation is the main influential factor for quality of life. The correlation between psychosocial adaptation and quality of life for various diseases has been studied previously. However, there have been few reports on the impact of psychosocial adaptation on quality of life in people with visual impairments. Survey. In this study, subjects with visual impairment (n = 213) were interviewed to assess their demographics, disease-related information, psychosocial adaptation status and quality of life. The psychosocial adaptation questionnaire and quality of life scale for visually impaired patients were used to survey psychosocial adaptation and quality of life. Correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were used to study the association of psychosocial adaptation with quality of life in visually impaired patients. Psychosocial adaptation was significantly associated with quality of life, including the sense of belonging and psychological dimensions. The results also showed that there was statistical significance for the impact of occupational status, payment, monthly income (family), vision classification and psychosocial adaptation on quality of life, and the status of psychosocial adaptation was the main factor affecting the quality of life in people with visual impairments. It was found that the status of psychosocial adaptation was conspicuously associated with multiple dimensions of quality of life. Therefore, psychosocial adaptation status should be given close attention in clinical care. Our results could be used to guide nurses in making a plan for health education and nursing that improves the quality of life for the visually impaired. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Comparison of continuously recorded sensor and sinus rates during daily life activities and standardized exercise testing : Efficacy of automatically optimized rate adaptive dual sensor pacing to simulate sinus rhythm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lau, CP; Leung, SK; Guerola, M; Crijns, HJGM

    1996-01-01

    The normal sinus rhythm remains the gold standard to compare the rate response of a rate adaptive pacemaker. The aim of this study was to assess an automatically optimized dual sensor system by continuous comparison of the normal sinus (SR) and sensor indicated rates (SLR). Twelve patients with

  6. A parallel adaptive finite difference algorithm for petroleum reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Hai Minh

    2005-07-01

    Adaptive finite differential for problems arising in simulation of flow in porous medium applications are considered. Such methods have been proven useful for overcoming limitations of computational resources and improving the resolution of the numerical solutions to a wide range of problems. By local refinement of the computational mesh where it is needed to improve the accuracy of solutions, yields better solution resolution representing more efficient use of computational resources than is possible with traditional fixed-grid approaches. In this thesis, we propose a parallel adaptive cell-centered finite difference (PAFD) method for black-oil reservoir simulation models. This is an extension of the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) methodology first developed by Berger and Oliger (1984) for the hyperbolic problem. Our algorithm is fully adaptive in time and space through the use of subcycling, in which finer grids are advanced at smaller time steps than the coarser ones. When coarse and fine grids reach the same advanced time level, they are synchronized to ensure that the global solution is conservative and satisfy the divergence constraint across all levels of refinement. The material in this thesis is subdivided in to three overall parts. First we explain the methodology and intricacies of AFD scheme. Then we extend a finite differential cell-centered approximation discretization to a multilevel hierarchy of refined grids, and finally we are employing the algorithm on parallel computer. The results in this work show that the approach presented is robust, and stable, thus demonstrating the increased solution accuracy due to local refinement and reduced computing resource consumption. (Author)

  7. Aplikasi Game Life Simulation Peternakan Domba Menggunakan Metode Fuzzy

    OpenAIRE

    Njoto, Evelyn; Liliana, Liliana; Intan, Rolly

    2016-01-01

    Many people are eager to learn more about the world of farming, not just knowing the name and shape of the animal. However, not everyone can travel to the farm to learn about the life cycle of the animal. One way that can be used to provide a learning experience about the life cycle of living beings in the fastest way is through a game. One of the game's genres that can be used to provide entertainment and educational aspects to the players is a life simulation. As a life simulation game, the...

  8. Scale Adaptive Simulation Model for the Darrieus Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowski, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Maroński, R.

    2016-01-01

    the scale adaptive simulation (SAS) approach for performance analysis of a one-bladed Darrieus wind turbine working at a tip speed ratio of 5 and at a blade Reynolds number of 40 000. The three-dimensional incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are used. Numerical results of aerodynamic loads......Accurate prediction of aerodynamic loads for the Darrieus wind turbine using more or less complex aerodynamic models is still a challenge. One of the problems is the small amount of experimental data available to validate the numerical codes. The major objective of the present study is to examine...

  9. Scale Adaptive Simulation Model for the Darrieus Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Rogowski, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Maroński, R.; Lichota, P.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of aerodynamic loads for the Darrieus wind turbine using more or less complex aerodynamic models is still a challenge. One of the problems is the small amount of experimental data available to validate the numerical codes. The major objective of the present study is to examine the scale adaptive simulation (SAS) approach for performance analysis of a one-bladed Darrieus wind turbine working at a tip speed ratio of 5 and at a blade Reynolds number of 40 000. The three-dimen...

  10. Simulated Guide Stars: Adapting the Robo-AO Telescope Simulator to UH 88”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Jaren; Baranec, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    Robo-AO is an autonomous adaptive optics system that is in development for the UH 88” Telescope on the Mauna Kea Observatory. This system is capable of achieving near diffraction limited imaging for astronomical telescopes, and has seen successful deployment and use at the Palomar and Kitt Peak Observatories previously. A key component of this system, the telescope simulator, will be adapted from the Palomar Observatory design to fit the UH 88” Telescope. The telescope simulator will simulate the exit pupil of the UH 88” telescope so that the greater Robo-AO system can be calibrated before observing runs. The system was designed in Code V, and then further improved upon in Zemax for later development. Alternate design forms were explored for the potential of adapting the telescope simulator to the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, where simulating the exit pupil of the telescope proved to be more problematic. A proposed design composed of solely catalog optics was successfully produced for both telescopes, and they await assembly as time comes to construct the new Robo-AO system.

  11. Adaptive resolution simulation of polarizable supramolecular coarse-grained water models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel N.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale simulations methods, such as adaptive resolution scheme, are becoming increasingly popular due to their significant computational advantages with respect to conventional atomistic simulations. For these kind of simulations, it is essential to develop accurate multiscale water models that

  12. Adaptive and predictive control of a simulated robot arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Garrido, Jesús A; Luque, Niceto R; Ros, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a basic cerebellar neural layer and a machine learning engine are embedded in a recurrent loop which avoids dealing with the motor error or distal error problem. The presented approach learns the motor control based on available sensor error estimates (position, velocity, and acceleration) without explicitly knowing the motor errors. The paper focuses on how to decompose the input into different components in order to facilitate the learning process using an automatic incremental learning model (locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) algorithm). LWPR incrementally learns the forward model of the robot arm and provides the cerebellar module with optimal pre-processed signals. We present a recurrent adaptive control architecture in which an adaptive feedback (AF) controller guarantees a precise, compliant, and stable control during the manipulation of objects. Therefore, this approach efficiently integrates a bio-inspired module (cerebellar circuitry) with a machine learning component (LWPR). The cerebellar-LWPR synergy makes the robot adaptable to changing conditions. We evaluate how this scheme scales for robot-arms of a high number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) using a simulated model of a robot arm of the new generation of light weight robots (LWRs).

  13. Developing models and simulations from a life-cycle point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Wayne; Barger, Millard

    2001-09-01

    When designing models and simulations, adopting a life-cycle perspective at the outset is the most effective and efficient course of action for both developer and end-user. Experience in software programs for the defense and commercial sectors reveals that change is a constant. This is so especially for the analytic simulations that, if proven useful, will see multiple applications over their lifetimes. The inevitable shifts in analytical focus exert pressure for the tool to adapt if it is to remain useful and relevant. Accommodating this evolution in the past has been difficult and expensive. In most cases, costs after initial operational capability are predominant in the simulation life cycle. This is particularly true for large-scale simulations, as complexity grows exponentially with size. Accommodating this change demands a software design concept that provides flexibility and modularity as well as a software implementation approach that loosely couples components and elements to make adaptation possible and practical. One approach, called the Common Analytical Simulation Architecture (CASA), is examined as a contemporary software design and development paradigm for military M&S that employs best commercial practices to effect in this regard. Simulations constructed in this manner are not only cost-effective in and of themselves, but can extend significant savings to other simulation efforts through the practical re-use of infrastructure. Consequently, it behooves all parties to such programs to recognize the inevitability of change and to employ a design and development paradigm that anticipates and accommodates the need to evolve.

  14. Creating a Computer Adaptive Test Version of the Late-Life Function & Disability Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Alan M.; Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Olarsch, Sippy; Moed, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background This study applied Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) methodologies to develop a prototype function and disability assessment instrument for use in aging research. Herein, we report on the development of the CAT version of the Late-Life Function & Disability instrument (Late-Life FDI) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods We employed confirmatory factor analysis, IRT methods, validation, and computer simulation analyses of data collected from 671 older adults residing in residential care facilities. We compared accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of scores from CAT versions of two Late-Life FDI scales with scores from the fixed-form instrument. Score estimates from the prototype CAT versus the original instrument were compared in a sample of 40 older adults. Results Distinct function and disability domains were identified within the Late-Life FDI item bank and used to construct two prototype CAT scales. Using retrospective data, scores from computer simulations of the prototype CAT scales were highly correlated with scores from the original instrument. The results of computer simulation, accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change of the CATs closely approximated those of the fixed-form scales, especially for the 10- or 15-item CAT versions. In the prospective study each CAT was administered in less than 3 minutes and CAT scores were highly correlated with scores generated from the original instrument. Conclusions CAT scores of the Late-Life FDI were highly comparable to those obtained from the full-length instrument with a small loss in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to change. PMID:19038841

  15. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale…

  16. Shape control and whole-life energy assessment of an ‘infinitely stiff’ prototype adaptive structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Gennaro; Duffour, Philippe; Winslow, Pete; Wise, Chris

    2018-01-01

    A previously developed design methodology produces optimum adaptive structures that minimise the whole-life energy which is made of an embodied part in the material and an operational part for structural adaptation. Planar and complex spatial reticular structures designed with this method and simulations showed that the adaptive solution achieves savings as high as 70% in the whole-life energy compared to optimised passive solutions. This paper describes a large-scale prototype adaptive structure built to validate the numerical findings and investigate the practicality of the design method. Experimental results show that (1) shape control can be used to achieve ‘infinite stiffness’ (i.e. to reduce displacements completely) in real-time without predetermined knowledge regarding position, direction and magnitude (within limits) of the external load; (2) the whole-life energy of the structure is in good agreement with that predicted by numerical simulations. This result confirms the proposed design method is reliable and that adaptive structures can achieve substantive total energy savings compared to passive structures.

  17. Using Adaptive Mesh Refinment to Simulate Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandli, K. T.; Dawson, C.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal hazards related to strong storms such as hurricanes and typhoons are one of the most frequently recurring and wide spread hazards to coastal communities. Storm surges are among the most devastating effects of these storms, and their prediction and mitigation through numerical simulations is of great interest to coastal communities that need to plan for the subsequent rise in sea level during these storms. Unfortunately these simulations require a large amount of resolution in regions of interest to capture relevant effects resulting in a computational cost that may be intractable. This problem is exacerbated in situations where a large number of similar runs is needed such as in design of infrastructure or forecasting with ensembles of probable storms. One solution to address the problem of computational cost is to employ adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms. AMR functions by decomposing the computational domain into regions which may vary in resolution as time proceeds. Decomposing the domain as the flow evolves makes this class of methods effective at ensuring that computational effort is spent only where it is needed. AMR also allows for placement of computational resolution independent of user interaction and expectation of the dynamics of the flow as well as particular regions of interest such as harbors. The simulation of many different applications have only been made possible by using AMR-type algorithms, which have allowed otherwise impractical simulations to be performed for much less computational expense. Our work involves studying how storm surge simulations can be improved with AMR algorithms. We have implemented relevant storm surge physics in the GeoClaw package and tested how Hurricane Ike's surge into Galveston Bay and up the Houston Ship Channel compares to available tide gauge data. We will also discuss issues dealing with refinement criteria, optimal resolution and refinement ratios, and inundation.

  18. Preliminary study of the space adaptation of the MELiSSA life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.; Duatis, Jordi; Podhajsky, Sandra; Guirado, Víctor; Poughon, Laurent

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an European Space Agency (ESA) project focused on the development of a closed regenerative life support system to aid the development of technologies for future life support systems for long term manned planetary missions, e.g. a lunar base or missions to Mars. In order to understand the potential evolution of the MELiSSA concept towards its future use in the referred manned planetary mission context the MELiSSA Space Adaptation (MSA) activity has been undertaken. MSA's main objective is to model the different MELiSSA compartments using EcosimPro R , a specialized simulation tool for life support applications, in order to define a preliminary MELiSSA implementation for service in a man-tended lunar base scenario, with a four-member crew rotating in six-month increments, and performing the basic LSS functions of air revitalization, food production, and waste and water recycling. The MELiSSA EcosimPro R Model features a dedicated library for the different MELiSSA elements (bioreactors, greenhouse, crew, interconnecting elements, etc.). It is used to dimension the MELiSSA system in terms of major parameters like mass, volume and energy needs, evaluate the accuracy of the results and define the strategy for a progressive loop closure from the initial required performance (approx.100 The MELiSSA configuration(s) obtained through the EcosimPro R simulation are further analysed using the Advanced Life Support System Evaluation (ALISSE) metric, relying on mass, energy, efficiency, human risk, system reliability and crew time, for trade-off and optimization of results. The outcome of the MSA activity is, thus, a potential Life Support System architecture description, based on combined MELiSSA and other physico-chemical technologies, defining its expected performance, associated operational conditions and logistic needs.

  19. Simulation of random events for adaptive control systems calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăgoi Mircea Viorel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a mathematical model that simulates the random occurrence of events during cutting processes by milling. The evolution of certain parameters that typify the cutting processes depends on predictable and non-predictable variables. In this context, either the material hardness that varies in different sides of billet, or cutting depth, can act as non-predictable variables. In order to design a response in terms of cutting parameters to non-predictable variations of inputs, a simulation of such phenomena is very useful. A mathematical model that generates random events, both in terms of non-uniform frequency and intensity is here described. A virtual instrument built in LabVIEW generates (pseudo random events based on a combination of random numbers, as the evolution of the simulated process to be much like a real one. Furthermore the user of virtual instrument can generate himself events at certain moments and of certain intensity. This can be a useful tool to study the algorithms of designing the response which should re-balance the process within adaptive control systems.

  20. Adaptive Performance-Constrained in Situ Visualization of Atmospheic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorier, Matthieu; Sisneros, Roberto; Bautista Gomez, Leonard; Peterka, Tom; Orf, Leigh; Rahmani, Lokman; Antoniu, Gabriel; Bouge, Luc

    2016-09-12

    While many parallel visualization tools now provide in situ visualization capabilities, the trend has been to feed such tools with large amounts of unprocessed output data and let them render everything at the highest possible resolution. This leads to an increased run time of simulations that still have to complete within a fixed-length job allocation. In this paper, we tackle the challenge of enabling in situ visualization under performance constraints. Our approach shuffles data across processes according to its content and filters out part of it in order to feed a visualization pipeline with only a reorganized subset of the data produced by the simulation. Our framework leverages fast, generic evaluation procedures to score blocks of data, using information theory, statistics, and linear algebra. It monitors its own performance and adapts dynamically to achieve appropriate visual fidelity within predefined performance constraints. Experiments on the Blue Waters supercomputer with the CM1 simulation show that our approach enables a 5 speedup with respect to the initial visualization pipeline and is able to meet performance constraints.

  1. Adaptation of the US Army's After-Action Review for simulation debriefing in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Taylor Lee; Deering, Shad

    2013-12-01

    Postsimulation debriefing is a critical component of effective learning in simulation-based health care education. Numerous formats in which to conduct the debriefing have been proposed. In this report, we describe the adaptation the US Army's After-Action Review (AAR) debriefing format for postsimulation debriefing in health care. The Army's AAR format is based on sound educational theory and has been used with great success in the US Army and civilian organizations for decades. Debriefing using the health care simulation AAR process requires planning, preparation, and follow-up. Conducting a postsimulation debriefing using the health care simulation AAR debriefing format includes 7 sequential steps as follows: (1) define the rules of the debriefing, (2) explain the learning objectives of the simulation, (3) benchmark performance, (4) review what was supposed to happen during the simulation, (5) identify what actually happened, (6) examine why events occurred the way they did, and (7) formalize learning by reviewing with the group what went well, what did not go well and what they would do differently if faced with a similar situation in real life. We feel that the use of the health care simulation AAR debriefing format provides a structured and supported method to conduct an effective postsimulation debriefing, with a focus on the learning objectives and reliance on preidentified performance standards.

  2. ALADYN - a spatially explicit, allelic model for simulating adaptive dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, Katja H; Travis, Justin Mj

    2014-12-01

    ALADYN is a freely available cross-platform C++ modeling framework for stochastic simulation of joint allelic and demographic dynamics of spatially-structured populations. Juvenile survival is linked to the degree of match between an individual's phenotype and the local phenotypic optimum. There is considerable flexibility provided for the demography of the considered species and the genetic architecture of the traits under selection. ALADYN facilitates the investigation of adaptive processes to spatially and/or temporally changing conditions and the resulting niche and range dynamics. To our knowledge ALADYN is so far the only model that allows a continuous resolution of individuals' locations in a spatially explicit landscape together with the associated patterns of selection.

  3. Scale Adaptive Simulation Model for the Darrieus Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, K.; Hansen, M. O. L.; Maroński, R.; Lichota, P.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate prediction of aerodynamic loads for the Darrieus wind turbine using more or less complex aerodynamic models is still a challenge. One of the problems is the small amount of experimental data available to validate the numerical codes. The major objective of the present study is to examine the scale adaptive simulation (SAS) approach for performance analysis of a one-bladed Darrieus wind turbine working at a tip speed ratio of 5 and at a blade Reynolds number of 40 000. The three-dimensional incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are used. Numerical results of aerodynamic loads and wake velocity profiles behind the rotor are compared with experimental data taken from literature. The level of agreement between CFD and experimental results is reasonable.

  4. Slower adaptation to driving simulator and simulator sickness in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Naoko; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Aleksic, Branko; Noda, Akiko; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-06-01

    Methods of assessing driving abilities in the elderly are urgently needed. Although the driving simulator (DS) appears to be a safe and cost-effective method of objectively evaluating driving performance, it may pose adaptation problems for elderly adults. In this study, we examined age-related adaptation deficits on the DS. Healthy young adults (n=15) and healthy elderly persons (n=17) completed some neuropsychological tests, and then performed a road-tracking task with the DS, which was repeated four times (Trials 1-4). After simulated driving in DS, simulator sickness (SS) was observed in 18.8% of participants. The frequency of SS was 29.4% in elderly adults and 6.7% in young adults, and 17.6% of the elderly participants dropped out of the experiment. Performance on the Necker cube copying task was significantly correlated with the onset of SS. Driving performance also showed a significant interaction between group and trial, for both driving accuracy and vehicle speed. In addition, the performance of elderly adults significantly improved between trials 1 and 4, reaching a plateau in trial 4, whereas that of young adults did not change across trials. This study provides preliminary evidence of slower adaptation to a DS-based driving task by older adults, which was associated with cognitive aging. Age affected driving accuracy and velocity when a road-tracking task was simply repeated. It is concluded that the capacity of elderly people to adapt to DS environments should be taken into consideration when evaluating their performance on DS tasks.

  5. Improving Life Cycle Management Through Simulation and Efficient Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Designed and developed by Clockwork Solutions, the Total Life Cycle Management Assessment Tool (TLCM-AT) is a probabilistic modeling and simulation...analysis tool that uses computer models to represent a fleet of systems. TLCM-AT helps Program Managers to better understand how decisions involving...In fact, Department of Defense (DoD) leadership believes so strongly in the value that modeling and simulation (M&S) brings to LCM that DoD

  6. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to Life at Extreme Potassium Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Jan; Herzberg, Christina; Hertel, Dietrich; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Link, Hannes; Stülke, Jörg

    2017-07-05

    Potassium is the most abundant metal ion in every living cell. This ion is essential due to its requirement for the activity of the ribosome and many enzymes but also because of its role in buffering the negative charge of nucleic acids. As the external concentrations of potassium are usually low, efficient uptake and intracellular enrichment of the ion is necessary. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis possesses three transporters for potassium, KtrAB, KtrCD, and the recently discovered KimA. In the absence of the high-affinity transporters KtrAB and KimA, the bacteria were unable to grow at low potassium concentrations. However, we observed the appearance of suppressor mutants that were able to overcome the potassium limitation. All these suppressor mutations affected amino acid metabolism, particularly arginine biosynthesis. In the mutants, the intracellular levels of ornithine, citrulline, and arginine were strongly increased, suggesting that these amino acids can partially substitute for potassium. This was confirmed by the observation that the supplementation with positively charged amino acids allows growth of B. subtilis even at the extreme potassium limitation that the bacteria experience if no potassium is added to the medium. In addition, a second class of suppressor mutations allowed growth at extreme potassium limitation. These mutations result in increased expression of KtrAB, the potassium transporter with the highest affinity and therefore allow the acquisition and accumulation of the smallest amounts of potassium ions from the environment.IMPORTANCE Potassium is essential for every living cell as it is required for the activity for many enzymes and for maintaining the intracellular pH by buffering the negative charge of the nucleic acids. We have studied the adaptation of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to life at low potassium concentrations. If the major high-affinity transporters are missing, the bacteria are unable to grow unless

  7. Adapting data collection methods in the Australian Life Histories and Health Survey: a retrospective life course study

    OpenAIRE

    Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E; O'Loughlin, Kate; Nazroo, James Y; Mishra, Gita; Noone, Jack; Loh, Vanessa; Forder, Peta M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ideally, life course data are collected prospectively through an ongoing longitudinal study. We report adaptive multimethod fieldwork procedures that gathered life history data by mail survey and telephone interview, comparable with the face-to-face methods employed in the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA). Design The Australian Life Histories and Health (LHH) Survey was a substudy of the Australian 45 and Up Study, with data collection methods modified from the ELSA Study...

  8. Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Pertoldi, C.

    2008-01-01

      Knowledge of local adaptation and adaptive potential of natural populations is becoming increasingly relevant due to anthropogenic changes in the environment, such as climate change. The concern is that populations will be negatively affected by increasing temperatures without the capacity...... and heritable variation in phenotypic plasticity suggest that although increasing temperatures are likely to affect some populations negatively, they may have the potential to adapt to changing temperature regimes.  ...... traits, indicating local adaptation. A temperature effect was observed for three traits. However, this effect varied among populations due to locally adapted reaction norms, corresponding to the temperature regimes experienced by the populations in their native environments. Additive genetic variance...

  9. Monte Carlo simulation by computer for life-cycle costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralow, F. H.; Larson, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Prediction of behavior and support requirements during the entire life cycle of a system enables accurate cost estimates by using the Monte Carlo simulation by computer. The system reduces the ultimate cost to the procuring agency because it takes into consideration the costs of initial procurement, operation, and maintenance.

  10. Adaptive low Mach number simulations of nuclear flame microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.A.

    2003-03-20

    We introduce a numerical model for the simulation of nuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. This model is based on a low Mach number formulation that analytically removes acoustic wave propagation while retaining the compressibility effects resulting from nuclear burning. The formulation presented here generalizes low Mach number models used in combustion that are based on an ideal gas approximation to the arbitrary equations of state such as those describing the degenerate matter found in stellar material. The low Mach number formulation permits time steps that are controlled by the advective time scales resulting in a substantial improvement in computational efficiency compared to a compressible formulation. We briefly discuss the basic discretization methodology for the low Mach number equations and their implementation in an adaptive projection framework. We present validation computations in which the computational results from the low Mach number model are compared to a compressible code and present an application of the methodology to the Landau-Darrieus instability of a carbon flame.

  11. READING SIMULATION IN YANN MARTEL’S LIFE OF PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nurhidayah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yann Martel’s Life of Pi tells a story of a survivor boy floating on a lifeboat with a Bengal tiger passing Pacific Ocean with the brutal show between animals. He is insisted to tell about more realistic story, thus he tells it contains of similar conflicts with different characters; the animals are changed into humans. Here, it shows two stories in one story which blurs the true story behind it. This is what Baudrillard the process of simulation over simulacra; the reproduced false representation of the true reality. The two stories can be both true and thus, the questions can be problematized are; (1 How is simulation understood in Yann Martel’s Life of Pi? (2 What is the hyper-reality resulted as the impact of simulation represented in Yann Martel’s Life of Pi? The used method is objective approach (textually and based on the analysis, the two stories are connected to each other, animal story represents human story while human story represents the animal story. The animal story can be seen as the false copy of the true story because it copies the human story, so can human story. This is simulation and this simulation results on the two true stories which are hyper-reality.

  12. Ostomy: Adapting to Life After Colostomy, Ileostomy or Urostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ostomy. Use this information to boost your self-esteem and help you adapt to your ostomy. By ... surgery you have, you may experience some temporary sexual side effects, such as erectile dysfunction or vaginal ...

  13. Entropy and Selection: Life as an Adaptation for Universe Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Natural selection is the strongest known antientropic process in the universe when operating at the biological level and may also operate at the cosmological level. Consideration of how biological natural selection creates adaptations may illuminate the consequences and significance of cosmological natural selection. An organismal trait is more likely to constitute an adaptation if characterized by more improbable complex order, and such order is the hallmark of biological selection. If the s...

  14. The Family Adaptation Model: A Life Course Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    L. (1986). Intergenerational occupational inheritance in the military: A reexamination. Adolescence , 21, 623-629. Bowen, G. L. (1987a). An ecosystem...Family Action Plans (1984-1989) by developing a con- ceptual model of factors that influence the adaptation of service members and their families to...conceptual model of factors that influence the adaptation of service members and their families to the multiplicity of role demands they face from occupy

  15. FATIGUE LIFE EVALUATION OF SUSPENSION KNUCKLE USING MULTIBODY SIMULATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.A. Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspension is part of automotive systems, providing both vehicle control and passenger comfort. The knuckle is an important part within the suspension system, constantly encountering the cyclic loads subjecting it to fatigue failure. This paper presents an evaluation of the fatigue characteristics of a knuckle using multibody simulation (MBS techniques. Load time history extracted from the MBS is used for stress analysis. An actual road profile of road bumps was used as the input to MBS. The stress fluctuations for fatigue simulations are considered with the road profile. The strain-life method is utilized to assess the fatigue life. The instantaneous stress distributions and maximum principal stress are used for fatigue life predictions. Mesh sensitivity analysis has been performed. The results show that the steering link in the knuckle is found to be the most susceptible region for fatigue failure. The number of times the knuckle can manage a road bump at 40 km/hr is determined to be approximately 371 times with a 50% certainty of survival. The proposed method of using the loading time history extracted from MBS simulation for fatigue life estimation is found to be very promising for the accurate evaluation of the performance of suspension system components.

  16. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Qiang; Zhang, Guojie; Ma, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) provide meat and other necessities for Tibetans living at high altitude on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and in adjacent regions. Comparison between yak and the closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus) is informative in studying animal adaptation to high altitude...... of protein domains involved in sensing the extracellular environment and hypoxic stress. Positively selected and rapidly evolving genes in the yak lineage are also found to be significantly enriched in functional categories and pathways related to hypoxia and nutrition metabolism. These findings may have...... important implications for understanding adaptation to high altitude in other animal species and for hypoxia-related diseases in humans....

  17. Adapting data collection methods in the Australian Life Histories and Health Survey: a retrospective life course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E; O'Loughlin, Kate; Nazroo, James Y; Mishra, Gita; Noone, Jack; Loh, Vanessa; Forder, Peta M

    2014-03-24

    Ideally, life course data are collected prospectively through an ongoing longitudinal study. We report adaptive multimethod fieldwork procedures that gathered life history data by mail survey and telephone interview, comparable with the face-to-face methods employed in the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA). The Australian Life Histories and Health (LHH) Survey was a substudy of the Australian 45 and Up Study, with data collection methods modified from the ELSA Study. A self-complete questionnaire and life history calendar were completed by the participants, followed by a computer-assisted telephone interview recording key life events. The LHH survey developed and tested procedures and instruments that gathered rich life history data within an ongoing Australian longitudinal survey on ageing. Data collection proved to be economical. The use of a self-complete questionnaire in conjunction with a life history calendar and coordinated computer-assisted telephone interview was successful in collecting retrospective life course information, in terms of being thorough, practical and efficient. This study has a diverse collection of data covering the life course, starting with early life experiences and continuing with socioeconomic and health exposures and outcomes during adult life. Mail and telephone methodology can accurately and economically add a life history dimension to an ongoing longitudinal survey. The method is particularly valuable for surveying widely dispersed populations. The results will facilitate understanding of the social determinants of health by gathering data on earlier life exposures as well as comparative data across geographical and societal contexts.

  18. (YIP 2011) Unsteady Output-based Adaptive Simulation of Separated and Transitional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-19

    quantified, unsteady CFD simulations are not robust: using possibly-inaccurate results in a broader context such as design bears risk. As computations...for public release Figure 2: . Adaptive simulations of laminar viscous flow over a NACA 0004 airfoil at M = 0.5, Re = 50, 000. A comparison of DG and...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0277 UNSTEADY OUTPUT-BASED ADAPTIVE SIMULATION OF SEPARATED AND TRANSITIONAL FLOWS Krzysztof Fidkowski UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

  19. Quality of life and psychological adaptation in siblings of paediatric cancer patients, 2 years after diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, B. A.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Caron, H. N.; Last, B. F.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on sibling psychosocial adaptation to cancer in a brother or sister, but little is known on how the long-term adaptation of siblings to the illness develops. The concept quality of life has primarily been applied in research on the effects of chronic illness on

  20. A Qualitative Study of the Adaptation of Rural College Students to College Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiquan, Zhang; Yijie, Wang

    2015-01-01

    We conducted interview via email with nine college students from rural areas. Data about their adaptation to college life was collected. We found that they did not adapt well and how distress, confusion, anxiety, resentment, and uneasiness in colleges. [This article was translated by Jeff Keller.

  1. Numerical simulations for investigating EMC problems in industrial life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Jaekel W.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of current EMC problems and the necessity to solve them in an accurate, reliable and efficient way require various analysis techniques. Numerical simulations can be considered as one of the most powerful tools for performing EMC analysis. Computational electromagnetics is used within basic research for example at universities as well as during nearly all phases of a product or system development process occurring in industrial life. Especially here, several challenges result from the application of numerical simulations. The most important ones are described and discussed in this paper. An exemplary interference problem is presented demonstrating the relevance and impact of those challenges.

  2. PHYSICAL ADAPTATION OF CHILDREN TO LIFE AT HIGH-ALTITUDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEER, K; HEYMANS, HSA; ZIJLSTRA, WG

    Children permanently exposed to hypoxia at altitudes of > 3000 m above sea level show a phenotypical form of adaptation. Under these environmental conditions, oxygen uptake in the lungs is enhanced by increases in ventilation, lung compliance, and pulmonary diffusion. Lung and thorax volumes in

  3. Learner-Adaptive Educational Technology for Simulation in Healthcare: Foundations and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberry, Matthew; Dev, Parvati; Lane, H Chad; Talbot, Thomas B

    2018-01-17

    Despite evidence that learners vary greatly in their learning needs, practical constraints tend to favor "one-size-fits-all" educational approaches, in simulation-based education as elsewhere. Adaptive educational technologies - devices and/or software applications that capture and analyze relevant data about learners to select and present individually tailored learning stimuli - are a promising aid in learners' and educators' efforts to provide learning experiences that meet individual needs. In this article, we summarize and build upon the 2017 Society for Simulation in Healthcare Research Summit panel discussion on adaptive learning. First, we consider the role of adaptivity in learning broadly. We then outline the basic functions that adaptive learning technologies must implement and the unique affordances and challenges of technology-based approaches for those functions, sharing an illustrative example from healthcare simulation. Finally, we consider future directions for accelerating research, development, and deployment of effective adaptive educational technology and techniques in healthcare simulation.

  4. Recurrent horizontal transfer of arsenite methyltransferase genes facilitated adaptation of life to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song-Can; Sun, Guo-Xin; Rosen, Barry P; Zhang, Si-Yu; Deng, Ye; Zhu, Bo-Kai; Rensing, Christopher; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-08-10

    The toxic metalloid arsenic has been environmentally ubiquitous since life first arose nearly four billion years ago and presents a challenge for the survival of all living organisms. Its bioavailability has varied dramatically over the history of life on Earth. As life spread, biogeochemical and climate changes cyclically increased and decreased bioavailable arsenic. To elucidate the history of arsenic adaptation across the tree of life, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the arsM gene that encodes the As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferase. Our results suggest that life successfully moved into arsenic-rich environments in the late Archean Eon and Proterozoic Eon, respectively, by the spread of arsM genes. The arsM genes of bacterial origin have been transferred to other kingdoms of life on at least six occasions, and the resulting domesticated arsM genes promoted adaptation to environmental arsenic. These results allow us to peer into the history of arsenic adaptation of life on our planet and imply that dissemination of genes encoding diverse adaptive functions to toxic chemicals permit adaptation to changes in concentrations of environmental toxins over evolutionary history.

  5. A computer simulation of an adaptive noise canceler with a single input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Stuart D.

    1991-06-01

    A description of an adaptive noise canceler using Widrows' LMS algorithm is presented. A computer simulation of canceler performance (adaptive convergence time and frequency transfer function) was written for use as a design tool. The simulations, assumptions, and input parameters are described in detail. The simulation is used in a design example to predict the performance of an adaptive noise canceler in the simultaneous presence of both strong and weak narrow-band signals (a cosited frequency hopping radio scenario). On the basis of the simulation results, it is concluded that the simulation is suitable for use as an adaptive noise canceler design tool; i.e., it can be used to evaluate the effect of design parameter changes on canceler performance.

  6. Career Adaptability, Hope, Optimism, and Life Satisfaction in Italian and Swiss Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Sara; Marcionetti, Jenny; Rochat, Shékina; Rossier, Jérôme; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of economic crisis are different from one European context to the other. Based on life design (LD) approach, the present study focused on two variables--career adaptability and a positive orientation toward future (hope and optimism)--relevant to coping with the current work context and their role in affecting life satisfaction. A…

  7. Defense Waste Processing Facility Process Simulation Package Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, K.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to immobilize high level liquid radioactive waste into safe, stable, and manageable solid form. The complexity and classification of the facility requires that a performance based operator training to satisfy Department of Energy orders and guidelines. A major portion of the training program will be the application and utilization of Process Simulation Packages to assist in training the Control Room Operators on the fluctionality of the process and the application of the Distribution Control System (DCS) in operating and managing the DWPF process. The packages are being developed by the DWPF Computer and Information Systems Simulation Group. This paper will describe the DWPF Process Simulation Package Life Cycle. The areas of package scope, development, validation, and configuration management will be reviewed and discussed in detail.

  8. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bekalo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  9. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Bekalo

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  10. Adaptive Training Considerations for Use in Simulation-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    partial and non-AT ( Tennyson & Rothen, 1977). Trainees also showed an increase in motor skills with AT (Cote, Williges, & Williges, 1981; Johnson...Aptitudes, learner control and adaptive instruction. Educational Psychologist, 15, 151-158. * Tennyson , R. D., & Rothen, W. (1977). Pretask and on-task...also adapting the instruction to the student by changing such conditions as display time, sequence, format of examples, etc. ( Tennyson et al, 1998

  11. APPLICATION OF MULTIBODY SIMULATION FOR FATIGUE LIFE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In automobile design, the safety of passengers is of prime concern to the manufacturers. Suspension is one of the safety-related automotive systems which is responsible for maintaining traction between the road and tires, and offers a comfortable ride experience to the passengers by absorbing disturbances. One of the critical components of the suspension system is the knuckle, which constantly faces cyclic loads subjecting it to fatigue failure. This paper presents an evaluation of the fatigue characteristics of a knuckle using a gravel road profile acquired using a data acquisition system and standard SAE profiles for the suspension (SAESUS, bracket (SAEBRAKT and transmission (SAETRN. The gravel road profile was applied as the input to a multi body simulation (MBS, and the load history for various mounting points of the knuckle is extracted. Fatigue life is predicted using the strain-life method. The instantaneous stress distributions and maximum principal stress are used for fatigue life predictions. From the results, the strut connection is found to be the critical region for fatigue failure. The fatigue life from loading extracted from gravel road MBS agreed well with the life prediction when standard SAE profiles were used. This close agreement shows the effectiveness of the load extraction technique from MBS. This method can also be effectively used for more complex loading conditions that occur during real driving environments.

  12. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Storme, Veronique; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN) that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population. PMID:28028477

  13. Adaptive resolution simulation of liquid para-hydrogen: testing the robustness of the quantum-classical adaptive coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, A B; Delle Site, L

    2011-06-14

    Adaptive resolution simulations for classical systems are currently made within a reasonably consistent theoretical framework. Recently we have extended this approach to the quantum-classical coupling by mapping the quantum nature of an atom onto a classical polymer ring representation within the path integral approach [Poma & Delle Site, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2010, 104, 250201]. In this way the process of interfacing adaptively a quantum representation to a classical one corresponds to the problem of interfacing two regions with a different number of effective "classical" degrees of freedom; thus the classical formulation of the adaptive algorithm applies straightforwardly to the quantum-classical problem. In this work we show the robustness of such an approach for a liquid of para-hydrogen at low temperature. This system represents a highly challenging conceptual and technical test for the adaptive approach due to the extreme thermodynamical conditions where quantum effects play a central role. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  14. Adaptive responses of energy storage and fish life histories to climatic gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Henrique C; Shuter, Brian J

    2013-12-21

    Energy storage is a common adaptation of fish living in seasonal environments. For some species, the energy accumulated during the growing season, and stored primarily as lipids, is crucial to preventing starvation mortality over winter. Thus, in order to understand the adaptive responses of fish life history to climate, it is important to determine how energy should be allocated to storage and how it trades off with the other body components that contribute to fitness. In this paper, we extend previous life history theory to include an explicit representation of how the seasonal allocation of energy to storage acts as a constraint on fish growth. We show that a strategy that privileges allocation to structural mass in the first part of the growing season and switches to storage allocation later on, as observed empirically in several fish species, is the strategy that maximizes growth efficiency and hence is expected to be favored by natural selection. Stochastic simulations within this theoretical framework demonstrate that the relative performance of this switching strategy is robust to a wide range of fluctuations in growing season length, and to moderate short-term (i.e., daily) fluctuations in energy intake and/or expenditure within the growing season. We then integrate this switching strategy with a biphasic growth modeling framework to predict typical growth rates of walleye Sander vitreus, a cool water species, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, a cold water specialist, across a climatic gradient in North America. As predicted, growth rates increased linearly with the duration of the growing season. Regression line intercepts were negative, indicating that growth can only occur when growing season length exceeds a threshold necessary to produce storage for winter survival. The model also reveals important differences between species, showing that observed growth rates of lake trout are systematically higher than those of walleye in relatively colder lakes

  15. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  16. Adaptively trained reduced-order model for acceleration of oscillatory flow simulations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oxtoby, Oliver F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an adaptively trained Reduced-Order Model (ROM) to dramatically speed up flow simulations of an oscillatory nature. Such repetitive flowfields are frequently encountered in fluid-structure interaction modelling, aeroelastic flutter being...

  17. Parameter-Adaptive Model-Following for In-Flight Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    MODEL-FOLLOWING FOR IN-FLIGHT SIMULATION I. Introduction 1.1 Background Flight simulation plays an essential role in the development of modern day...identification algorithms play a crucial role for many problems, not only in adaptive control, but also for adaptive signal processing, and for general...increasingly tight and deco, pled centrol witn ir..c-easin gain. It is obvious then that by propter selectcn of the elements of the Z seihting matrix the

  18. Adaptive resolution simulation of supramolecular water : The concurrent making, breaking, and remaking of water bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Marrink, Siewert J; Praprotnik, Matej

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) is a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach that can concurrently couple atomistic (AT) and coarse-grained (CG) resolution regions, i.e., the molecules can freely adapt their resolution according to their current position in the system. Coupling to

  19. Developing adaptive user interfaces using a game-based simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, G.M. te; Greef, T.E. de; Lindenberg, J.; Rypkema, J.A.; Smets-Noor, N.J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In dynamic settings, user interfaces can provide more optimal support if they adapt to the context of use. Providing adaptive user interfaces to first responders may therefore be fruitful. A cognitive engineering method that incorporates development iterations in both a simulated and a real-world

  20. Logs Analysis of Adapted Pedagogical Scenarios Generated by a Simulation Serious Game Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Sophie; Gravel, Mathieu; Beaudry, Eric; Basque, Josianne

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture designed for simulation serious games, which automatically generates game-based scenarios adapted to learner's learning progression. We present three central modules of the architecture: (1) the learner model, (2) the adaptation module and (3) the logs module. The learner model estimates the progression of the…

  1. Survival and Adaptation of the Thermophilic Species Geobacillus thermantarcticus in Simulated Spatial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Paola; Romano, Ida; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Poli, Annarita; Orlando, Pierangelo; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Astrobiology studies the origin and evolution of life on Earth and in the universe. According to the panspermia theory, life on Earth could have emerged from bacterial species transported by meteorites, that were able to adapt and proliferate on our planet. Therefore, the study of extremophiles, i.e. bacterial species able to live in extreme terrestrial environments, can be relevant to Astrobiology studies. In this work we described the ability of the thermophilic species Geobacillus thermantarcticus to survive after exposition to simulated spatial conditions including temperature's variation, desiccation, X-rays and UVC irradiation. The response to the exposition to the space conditions was assessed at a molecular level by studying the changes in the morphology, the lipid and protein patterns, the nucleic acids. G. thermantarcticus survived to the exposition to all the stressing conditions examined, since it was able to restart cellular growth in comparable levels to control experiments carried out in the optimal growth conditions. Survival was elicited by changing proteins and lipids distribution, and by protecting the DNA's integrity.

  2. Theory, modelling and simulation in origins of life studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Peter V; Swadling, Jacob B; Wattis, Jonathan A D; Greenwell, H Christopher

    2012-08-21

    Origins of life studies represent an exciting and highly multidisciplinary research field. In this review we focus on the contributions made by theory, modelling and simulation to addressing fundamental issues in the domain and the advances these approaches have helped to make in the field. Theoretical approaches will continue to make a major impact at the "systems chemistry" level based on the analysis of the remarkable properties of nonlinear catalytic chemical reaction networks, which arise due to the auto-catalytic and cross-catalytic nature of so many of the putative processes associated with self-replication and self-reproduction. In this way, we describe inter alia nonlinear kinetic models of RNA replication within a primordial Darwinian soup, the origins of homochirality and homochiral polymerization. We then discuss state-of-the-art computationally-based molecular modelling techniques that are currently being deployed to investigate various scenarios relevant to the origins of life.

  3. Toward a practical method for adaptive QM/MM simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulo, R.E.; Ensing, B.; Sikkema, J.; Visscher, L.

    2009-01-01

    We present an accurate adaptive multiscale molecular dynamics method that will enable the detailed study of large molecular systems that mimic experiment. The method treats the reactive regions at the quantum mechanical level and the inactive environment regions at lower levels of accuracy, while at

  4. The New England Climate Adaptation Project: Enhancing Local Readiness to Adapt to Climate Change through Role-Play Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumore, D.; Kirshen, P. H.; Susskind, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite scientific consensus that the climate is changing, local efforts to prepare for and manage climate change risks remain limited. How we can raise concern about climate change risks and enhance local readiness to adapt to climate change's effects? In this presentation, we will share the lessons learned from the New England Climate Adaptation Project (NECAP), a participatory action research project that tested science-based role-play simulations as a tool for educating the public about climate change risks and simulating collective risk management efforts. NECAP was a 2-year effort involving the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Consensus Building Institute, the National Estuarine Research Reserve System, and four coastal New England municipalities. During 2012-2013, the NECAP team produced downscaled climate change projections, a summary risk assessment, and a stakeholder assessment for each partner community. Working with local partners, we used these assessments to create a tailored, science-based role-play simulation for each site. Through a series of workshops in 2013, NECAP engaged between 115-170 diverse stakeholders and members of the public in each partner municipality in playing the simulation and a follow up conversation about local climate change risks and possible adaptation strategies. Data were collected through before-and-after surveys administered to all workshop participants, follow-up interviews with 25 percent of workshop participants, public opinion polls conducted before and after our intervention, and meetings with public officials. This presentation will report our research findings and explain how science-based role-play simulations can be used to help communicate local climate change risks and enhance local readiness to adapt.

  5. Freshmen adaptation to university life: depressive symptoms, stress, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rachael; Renk, Kimberly

    2006-10-01

    Attending a university for the first time can be a stressful experience for many new college students. This study examines the relationships among femininity and masculinity, depressive symptomatology, levels of stress, and the types of coping strategies used by college freshmen. Results of this study suggest that these variables were related uniquely for first-year college students. Masculinity and femininity significantly predicted problem-focused coping, and femininity significantly predicted emotion-focused coping. Further, the levels of family and college stress reported by college students, as well as their endorsement of avoidant coping, significantly predicted their levels of depressive symptoms. Overall, the results of this study suggest that understanding the relationships among the gender role, the levels of depressive symptomatology, and the levels of stress exhibited by college freshmen may be important in facilitating their transition and adjustment to university life. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mandela’s Meanings: a Translated and Adapted Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli Coetzee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the seeming ubiquity of representations of Nelson Mandela, and contrasts this with the years of silence and facelessness that have entered the mythological sphere - the 18 years he spent on Robben Island. The period when Mandela (through text or image circulated the least has now in fact become the centrepiece of the narrative of his life. In this paper, I reconstitute some of the literary and photographic fragments of that era, one for which the biographical record is strikingly consistent ad repetitive. One anecdote that has been retold by every biographer is that of Mandela performing the role of King Creon in a production of Antigone. Interpreters typically cast this small incident in mythical and allegorical terms. Through reconstituting the scattered references to the performance, I show that these interpretations typically exaggerate and misread the anecdote. Thus the Antigone performance provides us instead, I argue, with an instance of a retrospective reading that exceeds the event.

  7. SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYASIS OF ADAPTIVE FILTER IN NOISE CANCELLATION

    OpenAIRE

    RAJ KUMAR THENUA,; S.K. AGARWAL

    2010-01-01

    Noise problems in the environment have gained attention due to the tremendous growth of technology that has led to noisy engines, heavy machinery, high speed wind buffeting and other noise sources. The problem of controlling the noise level has become the focus of a tremendous amount of research over the years. In last few years various adaptive algorithms are developed for noise cancellation. In this paper we present an implementation of LMS (Least Mean Square), NLMS (Normalized Least Mean S...

  8. A Model for Capturing Team Adaptation in Simulated Emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Musaeus, Peter

    2013-01-01

    changes, adjust priorities and implement adjusted strategies were more likely to perform successfully in environments with unforeseen changes, in other words adaptability is the generalization of trained knowledge and skills to new, more difficult and more complex tasks. An interpretative approach...... is required to meaningfully account for communication exchanges in context. As such, this theoretical framework might provide a vocabulary for operationalizing the differences between "effective and ineffective" communication. Moving beyond counting communication events or the frequency of certain...

  9. A new adaptive time step method for unsteady flow simulations in a human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenández-Tena, Ana; Marcos, Alfonso C; Martínez, Cristina; Keith Walters, D

    2017-06-01

    The innovation presented is a method for adaptive time-stepping that allows clustering of time steps in portions of the cycle for which flow variables are rapidly changing, based on the concept of using a uniform step in a relevant dependent variable rather than a uniform step in the independent variable time. A user-defined function was developed to adapt the magnitude of the time step (adaptive time step) to a defined rate of change in inlet velocity. Quantitative comparison indicates that the new adaptive time stepping method significantly improves accuracy for simulations using an equivalent number of time steps per cycle.

  10. Environmental Adaptation from the Origin of Life to the Last Universal Common Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Marjorie D; Fournier, Gregory P

    2018-03-01

    Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA. Cellularity provides motility and permits Darwinian evolution by connecting genetic material and its products, and thus establishing heredity and lineage. Considering the importance of compartmentalization and motility, we propose that the early emergence of cellularity is required for environmental dispersal and diversification during these transitions. Early diversification and the emergence of ecology before LUCA could be an important pre-adaptation for life's persistence on a changing planet.

  11. Environmental Adaptation from the Origin of Life to the Last Universal Common Ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Marjorie D.; Fournier, Gregory P.

    2018-03-01

    Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA. Cellularity provides motility and permits Darwinian evolution by connecting genetic material and its products, and thus establishing heredity and lineage. Considering the importance of compartmentalization and motility, we propose that the early emergence of cellularity is required for environmental dispersal and diversification during these transitions. Early diversification and the emergence of ecology before LUCA could be an important pre-adaptation for life's persistence on a changing planet.

  12. Environmental Adaptation from the Origin of Life to the Last Universal Common Ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Marjorie D.; Fournier, Gregory P.

    2017-07-01

    Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA. Cellularity provides motility and permits Darwinian evolution by connecting genetic material and its products, and thus establishing heredity and lineage. Considering the importance of compartmentalization and motility, we propose that the early emergence of cellularity is required for environmental dispersal and diversification during these transitions. Early diversification and the emergence of ecology before LUCA could be an important pre-adaptation for life's persistence on a changing planet.

  13. Visual Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluid’s velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Sport Games, Sport Movements, and Adaptations to Training (Dagstuhl Seminar 15382)

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Ricardo; Eskofier, Björn; Rumpf, Martin; Wiemeyer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 15382 "Modeling and Simulation of Sport Games, Sport Movements, and Adaptations to Training". The primary goal of the seminar was the continuation of the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinarity research in sports and computer science with the emphasis on modeling and simulation technologies. In this seminar, experts on modeling and simulation from computer science, sport science, and industry were invited to discuss rece...

  15. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  16. Models and Methods for Adaptive Management of Individual and Team-Based Training Using a Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsyna, L. S.; Smetyuh, N. P.; Golikov, S. P.

    2017-05-01

    Research of adaptive individual and team-based training has been analyzed and helped find out that both in Russia and abroad, individual and team-based training and retraining of AASTM operators usually includes: production training, training of general computer and office equipment skills, simulator training including virtual simulators which use computers to simulate real-world manufacturing situation, and, as a rule, the evaluation of AASTM operators’ knowledge determined by completeness and adequacy of their actions under the simulated conditions. Such approach to training and re-training of AASTM operators stipulates only technical training of operators and testing their knowledge based on assessing their actions in a simulated environment.

  17. Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Subsurface Flow Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Esch, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural geological formations generally show multiscale structural and functional heterogeneity evolving over many orders of magnitude in space and time. In subsurface hydrological simulations the geological model focuses on the structural hierarchy of physical sub units and the flow model addresses

  18. The Adaptability of Life on Earth and the Diversity of Planetary Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Airo, Alessandro; Schirmack, Janosch

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary adaptability of life to extreme environments is astounding given that all life on Earth is based on the same fundamental biochemistry. The range of some physicochemical parameters on Earth exceeds the ability of life to adapt, but stays within the limits of life for other parameters. Certain environmental conditions such as low water availability in hyperarid deserts on Earth seem to be close to the limit of biological activity. A much wider range of environmental parameters is observed on planetary bodies within our Solar System such as Mars or Titan, and presumably even larger outside of our Solar System. Here we review the adaptability of life as we know it, especially regarding temperature, pressure, and water activity. We use then this knowledge to outline the range of possible habitable environments for alien planets and moons and distinguish between a variety of planetary environment types. Some of these types are present in our Solar System, others are hypothetical. Our schematic categorization of alien habitats is limited to life as we know it, particularly regarding to the use of solvent (water) and energy source (light and chemical compounds).

  19. The Adaptability of Life on Earth and the Diversity of Planetary Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schulze-Makuch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary adaptability of life to extreme environments is astounding given that all life on Earth is based on the same fundamental biochemistry. The range of some physicochemical parameters on Earth exceeds the ability of life to adapt, but stays within the limits of life for other parameters. Certain environmental conditions such as low water availability in hyperarid deserts on Earth seem to be close to the limit of biological activity. A much wider range of environmental parameters is observed on planetary bodies within our Solar System such as Mars or Titan, and presumably even larger outside of our Solar System. Here we review the adaptability of life as we know it, especially regarding temperature, pressure, and water activity. We use then this knowledge to outline the range of possible habitable environments for alien planets and moons and distinguish between a variety of planetary environment types. Some of these types are present in our Solar System, others are hypothetical. Our schematic categorization of alien habitats is limited to life as we know it, particularly regarding to the use of solvent (water and energy source (light and chemical compounds.

  20. Cultural Adaptation Quality of Family Life Scale for the Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Bianca Miguel; Levy, Cilmara Cristina Alves da Costa; Granato, Lídio

    2015-01-01

    To culturally adapt the Family Quality of Life Scale to the Brazilian Portuguese version and evaluate the instrument reliability and family quality of life of those who have children with hearing loss. The process of cultural adaptation of the scale followed the steps of the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measure. It was conducted in three stages: translation, back translation, and application in a pilot sample, as a way to check the comprehension difficulties of the items. After it had been completed, it was administered to 41 families who have children with hearing loss and, with their results, the quality of life and reliability were analyzed based on the Cronbach's alpha statistical test. In the first version (translation), among the 25 items, there were differences between the translators only in four items; after the corrections, the second version was done (back translation), in which other four more differences were found. Finally, after the final corrections, the last version was developed and used in the pilot sample without differences. Thus, it was applied to families with deaf children, who believe to be satisfied as to their quality of life. The Cronbach's alpha test found that the scale shows a satisfactory reliability. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Family Quality of Life Scale is a tool of easy use and satisfactory reliability. The families are satisfied with their family quality of life.

  1. Cartesian Off-Body Grid Adaption for Viscous Time- Accurate Flow Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    An improved solution adaption capability has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid CFD code. Building on the Cartesian off-body approach inherent in OVERFLOW and the original adaptive refinement method developed by Meakin, the new scheme provides for automated creation of multiple levels of finer Cartesian grids. Refinement can be based on the undivided second-difference of the flow solution variables, or on a specific flow quantity such as vorticity. Coupled with load-balancing and an inmemory solution interpolation procedure, the adaption process provides very good performance for time-accurate simulations on parallel compute platforms. A method of using refined, thin body-fitted grids combined with adaption in the off-body grids is presented, which maximizes the part of the domain subject to adaption. Two- and three-dimensional examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the adaption scheme.

  2. Simulation of Fuzzy Adaptive PI Controlled Grid Interactive Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmi ALTIN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a voltage source grid interactive inverter is modeled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. Inverter is designed as current controlled and a fuzzy-PI current controller used for the generation of switching pattern to shape the inverter output current. The grid interactive inverter consists of a line frequency transformer and a LC type filter. Galvanic isolation between the grid and renewable energy source is obtained by the line frequency transformer and LC filter is employed to filter the high frequency harmonic components in current waveform due to PWM switching and to reduce the output current THD. Results of the MATLAB/Simulink simulation show that inverter output current is in sinusoidal waveform and in phase with line voltage, and current harmonics are in the limits of international standards (

  3. Adaptation of MCORTEX to the AEGIS Simulation Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    real-time functions of the AEGIS weapons system and incorporation of valid simulation procesos for test and evaluation of the total system. The INTFL...the target system, disconnect the transfer catle, connect the target syste, terminals , and pass control to Oi<E on each processor. See .Ref. 2: Appendix...SEC, and connect the terminal prepared earlier. B. Pt the newly connected terminal type ,FFD4:4<r \\ . The CRT will not echo this entry. Responrd to

  4. Family Quality of Life: Adaptation to Spanish Population of Several Family Support Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells-Balcells, A.; Gine, C.; Guardia-Olmos, J.; Summers, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The concept of family quality of life has emerged as a decisive construct in the last decades to improve the capabilities of families and to assess the outcomes of the services and supports they get. The goal of this research is to adapt three instruments to the Spanish population: the "Beach Center Family Quality of Life…

  5. The Role of Social Support and Age in Emotional Life Adaptation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the role of social support and age in emotional life adaptation among widows. Two hundred and eighty two subjects comprising 137 widows and 145 non-widows (control group) all drawn from Nigerian Universities participated in the study. The widowed subjects consisted of younger widows (18 – 37 ...

  6. The Predictive Adaptive Response: Modeling the Life-History Evolution of the Butterfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.; Saastamoinen, M.; Brakefield, P.M.; Kirkwood, T.B.; Zwaan, B.J.; Shanley, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    A predictive adaptive response (PAR) is a type of developmental plasticity where the response to an environmental cue is not immediately advantageous but instead is later in life. The PAR is a way for organisms to maximize fitness in varying environments. Insects living in seasonal environments are

  7. Personality prior to disability determines adaptation: agreeable individuals recover lost life satisfaction faster and more completely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2011-11-01

    Personality traits prior to the onset of illness or disability may influence how well an individual psychologically adjusts after the illness or disability has occurred. Previous research has shown that after the onset of a disability, people initially experience sharp drops in life satisfaction, and the ability to regain lost life satisfaction is at best partial. However, such research has not investigated the role of individual differences in adaptation to disability. We suggest that predisability personality determines the speed and extent of adaptation. We analyzed measures of personality traits in a sample of 11,680 individuals, 307 of whom became disabled over a 4-year period. We show that although becoming disabled has a severe impact on life satisfaction, this effect is significantly moderated by predisability personality. After 4 years of disability, moderately agreeable individuals had levels of life satisfaction 0.32 standard deviations higher than those of moderately disagreeable individuals. Agreeable individuals adapt more quickly and fully to disability; disagreeable individuals may need additional support to adapt.

  8. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  9. Adapting and Evaluating a Tree of Life Group for Women with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle-Phillips, Cathy; Farquhar, Sarah; Thomas, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes how a specific narrative therapy approach called 'the tree of life' was adapted to run a group for women with learning disabilities. The group consisted of four participants and ran for five consecutive weeks. Materials and Methods: Participants each constructed a tree to represent their lives and presented their…

  10. Association between Subjective School Adaptation and Life Skills in Elementary School Children with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.

  11. LOGIC SIMULATION OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM COMPONENT IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Marchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article proposed the use of simulation methods for evaluating the effectiveness of a stepped fan engine speed control while maintaining the air flow volume in the set boundaries of the «fan-filter» system. A detailed algorithm of the program made on the basis of an Any Logic software package. Is analyzed the possibility of using the proposed method in the design of ventilation systems.The proposed method allows at the design stage to determine the maximum replacement intervals of the systems filter elements, as well as to predict the time to switch the fan motor speeds. Using of the technique allows to refuse the complex air flow systems and maximize the life of the filter elements set.Methods of logical processes modeling allows to reduce construction costs and improve energy efficiency of buildings. 

  12. A simulator for depicting and comparing adaptive algorithms in signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddala, Sainath; Kumar Reddy B, Sandeep

    2011-10-01

    In real time applications signal characteristic and signal noise cannot be determined and predicted which makes very hard while designing digital filters for noise suppression. To outstrip these problem adaptive filters are preferable in which filter coefficients are designed based on the situation by using adaptive algorithms. In this paper a simulator containing adaptive algorithms(Least Mean Square(LMS), Normalized Least Mean Square(NLMS), Recursive Least Square(RLS) , Signed Least Mean Square(SLMS), Signed Normalized Least Mean Square(SNLMS)) using different applications was developed in MATLAB using Graphical User Interphone(GUI). Performance of all algorithms had been observed and some of the results obtained for different applications had been depicted by using real time noise corrupted voice signal. This proposed simulator helps the end user for depicting and comparing adaptive algorithms for real time applications. Pros and cons of each algorithm are observed manually without any motive of mathematical and paper results.

  13. Adaptive complementary fuzzy self-recurrent wavelet neural network controller for the electric load simulator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexities existing in the electric load simulator, this article develops a high-performance nonlinear adaptive controller to improve the torque tracking performance of the electric load simulator, which mainly consists of an adaptive fuzzy self-recurrent wavelet neural network controller with variable structure (VSFSWC and a complementary controller. The VSFSWC is clearly and easily used for real-time systems and greatly improves the convergence rate and control precision. The complementary controller is designed to eliminate the effect of the approximation error between the proposed neural network controller and the ideal feedback controller without chattering phenomena. Moreover, adaptive learning laws are derived to guarantee the system stability in the sense of the Lyapunov theory. Finally, the hardware-in-the-loop simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in different working styles.

  14. Adaptive Time Stepping for Transient Network Flow Simulation in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; Ravindran, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid and thermal transients found in rocket propulsion systems such as propellant feedline system is a complex process involving fast phases followed by slow phases. Therefore their time accurate computation requires use of short time step initially followed by the use of much larger time step. Yet there are instances that involve fast-slow-fast phases. In this paper, we present a feedback control based adaptive time stepping algorithm, and discuss its use in network flow simulation of fluid and thermal transients. The time step is automatically controlled during the simulation by monitoring changes in certain key variables and by feedback. In order to demonstrate the viability of time adaptivity for engineering problems, we applied it to simulate water hammer and cryogenic chill down in pipelines. Our comparison and validation demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this adaptive strategy.

  15. Life history trait differentiation and local adaptation in invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Meng; She, Deng-Ying; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2015-03-01

    Local adaptation has been suggested to play an important role in range expansion, particularly among invasive species. However, the extent to which local adaptation affects the success of an invasive species and the factors that contribute to local adaptation are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate a case of population divergence that may have contributed to the local adaptation of invasive populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in China. Common garden experiments in seven populations indicated clinal variations along latitudinal gradients, with plants from higher latitudes exhibiting earlier flowering and smaller sizes at flowering. In reciprocal transplant experiments, plants of a northern Beijing origin produced more seeds at their home site than plants of a southern Wuhan origin, and the Wuhan-origin plants had grown taller at flowering than the Beijing-origin plants in Wuhan, which is believed to facilitate pollen dispersal. These results suggest that plants of Beijing origin may be locally adapted through female fitness and plants from Wuhan possibly locally adapted through male fitness. Selection and path analysis suggested that the phenological and growth traits of both populations have been influenced by natural selection and that flowering time has played an important role through its direct and indirect effects on the relative fitness of each individual. This study evidences the life history trait differentiation and local adaptation during range expansion of invasive A. artemisiifolia in China.

  16. Cluster Optimization and Parallelization of Simulations with Dynamically Adaptive Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Schreiber, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper studies solvers for partial differential equations that work on dynamically adaptive grids stemming from spacetrees. Due to the underlying tree formalism, such grids efficiently can be decomposed into connected grid regions (clusters) on-the-fly. A graph on those clusters classified according to their grid invariancy, workload, multi-core affinity, and further meta data represents the inter-cluster communication. While stationary clusters already can be handled more efficiently than their dynamic counterparts, we propose to treat them as atomic grid entities and introduce a skip mechanism that allows the grid traversal to omit those regions completely. The communication graph ensures that the cluster data nevertheless are kept consistent, and several shared memory parallelization strategies are feasible. A hyperbolic benchmark that has to remesh selected mesh regions iteratively to preserve conforming tessellations acts as benchmark for the present work. We discuss runtime improvements resulting from the skip mechanism and the implications on shared memory performance and load balancing. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Using statistical sensitivities for adaptation of a best-estimate thermo-hydraulic simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.J., E-mail: xiaojingliu@sjtu.edu.c [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kerner, A. [Institute for Energy Economy and Application Technology, Technical University of Munich, Walther-Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schaefer, A. [ISaR Institute for Safety and Reliability at Technical University of Munich, Walther-Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    On-line adaptation of best-estimate simulations of NPP behaviour to time-dependent measurement data can be used to insure that simulations performed in parallel to plant operation develop synchronously with the real plant behaviour even over extended periods of time. This opens a range of applications including operator support in non-standard-situations, improving diagnostics and validation of measurements in real plants or experimental facilities. A number of adaptation methods have been proposed and successfully applied to control problems. However, these methods are difficult to be applied to best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes, such as TRACE and ATHLET, with their large nonlinear differential equation systems and sophisticated time integration techniques. This paper presents techniques to use statistical sensitivity measures to overcome those problems by reducing the number of parameters subject to adaptation. It describes how to identify the most significant parameters for adaptation and how this information can be used by combining: -decomposition techniques splitting the system into a small set of component parts with clearly defined interfaces where boundary conditions can be derived from the measurement data, -filtering techniques to insure that the time frame for adaptation is meaningful, -numerical sensitivities to find minimal error conditions. The suitability of combining those techniques is shown by application to an adaptive simulation of the PKL experiment.

  18. Multi-level adaptive simulation of transient two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chueh, C.C.

    2010-10-01

    An implicit pressure and explicit saturation (IMPES) finite element method (FEM) incorporating a multi-level shock-type adaptive refinement technique is presented and applied to investigate transient two-phase flow in porous media. Local adaptive mesh refinement is implemented seamlessly with state-of-the-art artificial diffusion stabilization allowing simulations that achieve both high resolution and high accuracy. Two benchmark problems, modelling a single crack and a random porous medium, are used to demonstrate the robustness of the method and illustrate the capabilities of the adaptive refinement technique in resolving the saturation field and the complex interaction (transport phenomena) between two fluids in heterogeneous media. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Crops and climate change: progress, trends, and challenges in simulating impacts and informing adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Andrew J; Ewert, Frank; Arnold, Steve; Simelton, Elisabeth; Fraser, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Assessments of the relationships between crop productivity and climate change rely upon a combination of modelling and measurement. As part of this review, this relationship is discussed in the context of crop and climate simulation. Methods for linking these two types of models are reviewed, with a primary focus on large-area crop modelling techniques. Recent progress in simulating the impacts of climate change on crops is presented, and the application of these methods to the exploration of adaptation options is discussed. Specific advances include ensemble simulations and improved understanding of biophysical processes. Finally, the challenges associated with impacts and adaptation research are discussed. It is argued that the generation of knowledge for policy and adaptation should be based not only on syntheses of published studies, but also on a more synergistic and holistic research framework that includes: (i) reliable quantification of uncertainty; (ii) techniques for combining diverse modelling approaches and observations that focus on fundamental processes; and (iii) judicious choice and calibration of models, including simulation at appropriate levels of complexity that accounts for the principal drivers of crop productivity, which may well include both biophysical and socio-economic factors. It is argued that such a framework will lead to reliable methods for linking simulation to real-world adaptation options, thus making practical use of the huge global effort to understand and predict climate change.

  20. Life-time Romantic Attachment Style and Social Adaptation in Late-Onset Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Sergio; Naridze, Rachelle; Holm-Brown, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Background Measuring social adjustment (including attachment style and current social adaptation) in late-life depression may support planning secondary prevention, rehabilitation and treatment. Insecure attachment style is a risk factor for developing new depression, and social adjustment may constitute a problem after symptoms abatement. Few studies have examined attachment style and social adjustment in late-onset depression. Design Subjects 50 years of age and older with early-onset (n=35), late-onset DSM-IV unipolar depression (n=38) and never depressed volunteers (n=47) were assessed with a widely-used measure of attachment style (the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale). Social adjustment was measured using the Social Adjustment Scale. Results Both early- and late-onset patients with depression showed greater insecure attachment and poorer social adaptation compared to never depressed volunteers. No difference was found between early- and late-onset patients with depression on attachment style or social adjustment. There were no significant differences between late-life depression in remission or current on attachment or social adaptation. Conclusion Insecure attachment style may be a risk factor for late-life depression irrespective of the age of onset. Social maladaptation may persist among individuals with late-life depression in remission. PMID:22147292

  1. Time-and-Spatially Adapting Simulations for Efficient Dynamic Stall Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    SIMULATIONS FOR EFFICIENTDYNAMIC STALL PREDICTIONS The ability to accurately and efficiently predict the occurrence and severity of dynamic stall ...reduce the cost of these dynamic stall simulations for airfoils and finite wings are investigated. Temporal error controllers, variable time step sizes...and feature-based near-body mesh adaptation are evaluated for their ability to more cost-effectively predict dynamic stall on three different

  2. Dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shallow water flows with the Peano framework

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2015-09-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. We present a dynamically adaptive Lattice Boltzmann (LB) implementation for solving the shallow water equations (SWEs). Our implementation extends an existing LB component of the Peano framework. We revise the modular design with respect to the incorporation of new simulation aspects and LB models. The basic SWE-LB implementation is validated in different breaking dam scenarios. We further provide a numerical study on stability of the MRT collision operator used in our simulations.

  3. Numerical simulations of multicomponent ecological models with adaptive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Kolade M; Patidar, Kailash C

    2016-01-08

    The study of dynamic relationship between a multi-species models has gained a huge amount of scientific interest over the years and will continue to maintain its dominance in both ecology and mathematical ecology in the years to come due to its practical relevance and universal existence. Some of its emergence phenomena include spatiotemporal patterns, oscillating solutions, multiple steady states and spatial pattern formation. Many time-dependent partial differential equations are found combining low-order nonlinear with higher-order linear terms. In attempt to obtain a reliable results of such problems, it is desirable to use higher-order methods in both space and time. Most computations heretofore are restricted to second order in time due to some difficulties introduced by the combination of stiffness and nonlinearity. Hence, the dynamics of a reaction-diffusion models considered in this paper permit the use of two classic mathematical ideas. As a result, we introduce higher order finite difference approximation for the spatial discretization, and advance the resulting system of ODE with a family of exponential time differencing schemes. We present the stability properties of these methods along with the extensive numerical simulations for a number of multi-species models. When the diffusivity is small many of the models considered in this paper are found to exhibit a form of localized spatiotemporal patterns. Such patterns are correctly captured in the local analysis of the model equations. An extended 2D results that are in agreement with Turing typical patterns such as stripes and spots, as well as irregular snakelike structures are presented. We finally show that the designed schemes are dynamically consistent. The dynamic complexities of some ecological models are studied by considering their linear stability analysis. Based on the choices of parameters in transforming the system into a dimensionless form, we were able to obtain a well-balanced system that

  4. Adaptation of a widespread epiphytic fern to simulated climate change conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, R.C.C.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2014-01-01

    The response of species to climate change is generally studied using ex situ manipulation of microclimate or by modeling species range shifts under simulated climate scenarios. In contrast, a reciprocal transplant experiment was used to investigate the in situ adaptive response of the elevationally

  5. Improving Adaptive Importance Sampling Simulation of Markovian Queueing Models using Non-parametric Smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudt, Edwin; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on state-dependent adaptive importance sampling techniques for the simulation of rare events in Markovian queueing models used either no smoothing or a parametric smoothing technique, which was known to be non-optimal. In this paper, we introduce the use of kernel smoothing in this

  6. Largenet2: an object-oriented programming library for simulating large adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschaler, Gerd; Gross, Thilo

    2013-01-15

    The largenet2 C++ library provides an infrastructure for the simulation of large dynamic and adaptive networks with discrete node and link states. The library is released as free software. It is available at http://biond.github.com/largenet2. Largenet2 is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. gerd@biond.org

  7. Parental antagonism and parent-offspring co-adaptation interact to shape family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-10-07

    The family is an arena for conflicts between offspring, mothers and fathers that need resolving to promote the evolution of parental care and the maintenance of family life. Co-adaptation is known to contribute to the resolution of parent-offspring conflict over parental care by selecting for combinations of offspring demand and parental supply that match to maximize the fitness of family members. However, multiple paternity and differences in the level of care provided by mothers and fathers can generate antagonistic selection on offspring demand (mediated, for example, by genomic imprinting) and possibly hamper co-adaptation. While parent-offspring co-adaptation and parental antagonism are commonly considered two major processes in the evolution of family life, their co-occurrence and the evolutionary consequences of their joint action are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the simultaneous and entangled effects of these two processes on outcomes of family interactions, using a series of breeding experiments in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect species with uniparental female care. As predicted from parental antagonism, we show that paternally inherited effects expressed in offspring influence both maternal care and maternal investment in future reproduction. However, and as expected from the entangled effects of parental antagonism and co-adaptation, these effects critically depended on postnatal interactions with caring females and maternally inherited effects expressed in offspring. Our results demonstrate that parent-offspring co-adaptation and parental antagonism are entangled key drivers in the evolution of family life that cannot be fully understood in isolation.

  8. Materials learning from life: concepts for active, adaptive and autonomous molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merindol, Rémi; Walther, Andreas

    2017-09-18

    Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems. Focusing on principles that enable new levels of functionalities (temporal control, autonomous structures, motion and work generation, information processing) rather than on specific material classes, we outline key cross-disciplinary concepts that emerge in this challenging field. Ultimately, the goal is to inspire and support new generations of autonomous and adaptive molecular devices fueled by self-regulating chemistry.

  9. Simulation Research on Adaptive Control of a Six-degree-of-freedom Material-testing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive controller equipped with a stiffness estimation method for a novel material-testing machine, in order to alleviate the performance depression caused by the stiffness variance of the tested specimen. The dynamic model of the proposed machine is built using the Kane method, and kinematic model is established with a closed-form solution. The stiffness estimation method is developed based on the recursive least-squares method and the proposed stiffness equivalent matrix. Control performances of the adaptive controller are simulated in detail. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller can greatly improve the control performance of the target material-testing machine by online stiffness estimation and adaptive parameter tuning, especially in low-cycle fatigue (LCF and high-cycle fatigue (HCF tests.

  10. Control and adaptation strategies for invasive species with different life history

    OpenAIRE

    Elofsson, Katarina; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The issue of timing and scope of policies to manage invasive species has achieved considerable attention in the economic literature. Whereas many earlier studies compare prevention and control for a single invading species, we focus instead on the optimal balance of adaptation and control when an invasive species competes for scarce resources with a resident species. In particular, we focus on the role that species’ life history, i.e. the degree of evolutionary specialization in survival or r...

  11. Life-closing spirituality and the philosophic assumptions of the Roy adaptation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2004-10-01

    Secondary analysis of data from a previous study that referenced spirituality was coded, categorized, and grouped into themes. Life-closing spirituality for 44 (45.4%) of 97 total participants was shaped by a core theme of believing that was central to dying persons. Believing was linked to six other themes: comforting, releasing, connecting, giving, reframing, and requesting. These themes supported the philosophic assumptions and principles of humanism and veritivity as defined in the Roy adaptation model.

  12. PROACTIVE COPING AS A PERSONAL POTENTIAL RESOURCE IN THE PROCESS OF ADAPTATION TO NEW LIFE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Pilishvili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of proactive coping as the generation of individual mental resources in personality in the situation of forced adaptation to the new living conditions in the refugee camp. It demonstrates the possibility to generate authentic personal activity by means of coping, focused on the future. The relationship of different coping types with the difficult life situation and the nature of adaptation to new life conditions by the example of the Syrian adolescents is analyzed. Proactive coping is being seen as the efforts to create a shared resource to facilitate the achievement of future goals as well as general vision. It is shown that proactive coping is associated with effective adaptation, suggesting a lack of communication difficulties, high self-confidence and orientation towards the future. Gender differences in adapting to the new conditions are demonstrated, taking into account the factor structure of the Syrian boys and girls samples as the members of specific ethnic - cultural group. An association is found out between the proactive coping and estrangement in girls, in particular, which means the possibility of abstracting from the problem situation emotional experiences, that is less characteristic of the boys of the study sample. Possible future ways of activity development as the formation of subjectivity in the objectives management, contrary to the traditional risk management in difficult situations within the reactive coping are denoted.

  13. Life history trade-offs in human growth: adaptation or pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Silva, Maria Inês Varela; Rios, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Human beings growing-up in adverse biocultural environments, including undernutrition, exposure to infection, economic oppression/poverty, heavy workloads, high altitude, war, racism, and religious/ethnic oppression, may be stunted, have asymmetric body proportions, be wasted, be overweight, and be at greater risk for disease. One group of researchers explains this as a consequence of "developmental programming" (DP). Another group uses the phrase "predictive adaptive response" (PAR). The DP group tends to view the alterations as having permanent maladaptive effects that place people at risk for disease. The PAR group considers the alterations at two levels of adaptation: (1) "short-term adaptive responses for immediate survival" and (2) "predictive responses required to ensure postnatal survival to reproductive age." The differences between the DP and PAR hypotheses are evaluated in this article. A life history theory analysis rephrases the DP versus PAR debate from disease or adaptation to the concept of "trade-offs." Even under good conditions, the stages of human life history are replete with trade-offs for survival, productivity, and reproduction. Under adverse conditions, trade-offs result in reduced survival, poor growth, constraints on physical activity, and poor reproductive outcomes. Models of human development may need to be refined to accommodate a greater range of the biological and cultural sources of adversity as well as their independent and interactive influences. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida Rocha Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to adapt the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese and to measure its psychometric properties: reliability and validity. Method: the cultural adaptation was undertaken following the stages of translation, synthesis of the translations, back translation, committee of specialists, pre-test and focus group. A total of 200 patients participated in the study. These were recruited in Primary Care Centers, Family Health Strategy Centers, in a philanthropic hospital and in a teaching hospital. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and stability. Validity was ascertained through the correlation of the instrument's values with those of the domains of the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index - Wound Version and with the quality of life score of the visual analog scale. Results: the instrument presented adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86 and high stability in the test and retest (0.93. The validity presented correlations of moderate and significant magnitude (-0.24 to -0.48, p<0.0001. Conclusion: the results indicated that the adapted version presented reliable and valid psychometric measurements for the population with chronic wounds in the Brazilian culture.

  15. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Elaine Aparecida Rocha; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa; da Silva, José Vitor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to adapt the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese and to measure its psychometric properties: reliability and validity. Method: the cultural adaptation was undertaken following the stages of translation, synthesis of the translations, back translation, committee of specialists, pre-test and focus group. A total of 200 patients participated in the study. These were recruited in Primary Care Centers, Family Health Strategy Centers, in a philanthropic hospital and in a teaching hospital. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and stability. Validity was ascertained through the correlation of the instrument's values with those of the domains of the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index - Wound Version and with the quality of life score of the visual analog scale. Results: the instrument presented adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86) and high stability in the test and retest (0.93). The validity presented correlations of moderate and significant magnitude (-0.24 to -0.48, p<0.0001). Conclusion: the results indicated that the adapted version presented reliable and valid psychometric measurements for the population with chronic wounds in the Brazilian culture. PMID:27143539

  16. Control of suspended low-gravity simulation system based on self-adaptive fuzzy PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Qu, Jiangang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an active suspended low-gravity simulation system is proposed to follow the vertical motion of the spacecraft. Firstly, working principle and mathematical model of the low-gravity simulation system are shown. In order to establish the balance process and suppress the strong position interference of the system, the idea of self-adaptive fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. It combines the PID controller with a fuzzy controll strategy, the control system can be automatically adjusted by changing the proportional parameter, integral parameter and differential parameter of the controller in real-time. At last, we use the Simulink tools to verify the performance of the controller. The results show that the system can reach balanced state quickly without overshoot and oscillation by the method of the self-adaptive fuzzy PID, and follow the speed of 3m/s, while simulation degree of accuracy of system can reach to 95.9% or more.

  17. Neural correlates of adaptive social responses to real-life frustrating situations: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Sassa, Yuko; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-03-13

    Frustrating situations are encountered daily, and it is necessary to respond in an adaptive fashion. A psychological definition states that adaptive social behaviors are "self-performing" and "contain a solution." The present study investigated the neural correlates of adaptive social responses to frustrating situations by assessing the dimension of causal attribution. Based on attribution theory, internal causality refers to one's aptitudes that cause natural responses in real-life situations, whereas external causality refers to environmental factors, such as experimental conditions, causing such responses. To investigate the issue, we developed a novel approach that assesses causal attribution under experimental conditions. During fMRI scanning, subjects were required to engage in virtual frustrating situations and play the role of protagonists by verbalizing social responses, which were socially adaptive or non-adaptive. After fMRI scanning, the subjects reported their causal attribution index of the psychological reaction to the experimental condition. We performed a correlation analysis between the causal attribution index and brain activity. We hypothesized that the brain region whose activation would have a positive and negative correlation with the self-reported index of the causal attributions would be regarded as neural correlates of internal and external causal attribution of social responses, respectively. We found a significant negative correlation between external causal attribution and neural responses in the right anterior temporal lobe for adaptive social behaviors. This region is involved in the integration of emotional and social information. These results suggest that, particularly in adaptive social behavior, the social demands of frustrating situations, which involve external causality, may be integrated by a neural response in the right anterior temporal lobe.

  18. Introducing Molecular Life Science Students to Model Building Using Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Kettenis, Dik; Sessink, Olivier; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton; Janssen, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Computer simulations can facilitate the building of models of natural phenomena in research, such as in the molecular life sciences. In order to introduce molecular life science students to the use of computer simulations for model building, a digital case was developed in which students build a model of a pattern formation process in…

  19. Adaptive finite element simulation of flow and transport applications on parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Benjamin Shelton

    The subject of this work is the adaptive finite element simulation of problems arising in flow and transport applications on parallel computers. Of particular interest are new contributions to adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in this parallel high-performance context, including novel work on data structures, treatment of constraints in a parallel setting, generality and extensibility via object-oriented programming, and the design/implementation of a flexible software framework. This technology and software capability then enables more robust, reliable treatment of multiscale--multiphysics problems and specific studies of fine scale interaction such as those in biological chemotaxis (Chapter 4) and high-speed shock physics for compressible flows (Chapter 5). The work begins by presenting an overview of key concepts and data structures employed in AMR simulations. Of particular interest is how these concepts are applied in the physics-independent software framework which is developed here and is the basis for all the numerical simulations performed in this work. This open-source software framework has been adopted by a number of researchers in the U.S. and abroad for use in a wide range of applications. The dynamic nature of adaptive simulations pose particular issues for efficient implementation on distributed-memory parallel architectures. Communication cost, computational load balance, and memory requirements must all be considered when developing adaptive software for this class of machines. Specific extensions to the adaptive data structures to enable implementation on parallel computers is therefore considered in detail. The libMesh framework for performing adaptive finite element simulations on parallel computers is developed to provide a concrete implementation of the above ideas. This physics-independent framework is applied to two distinct flow and transport applications classes in the subsequent application studies to illustrate the flexibility of the

  20. Influence of adapted sports on quality of life and life satisfaction in sport participants and non-sport participants with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Kamil; Yavuz, Ferdi; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2012-10-01

    The lack of controlled trials in the relationship between participation in adapted sports, and quality of life (QoL) and life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities encouraged us to consider conducting this study. The aim of this study was to compare the QoL and life satisfaction scores between people with physical disabilities who participated in adapted sports and those who did not participate in any adapted sports. This cross-sectional controlled study included 60 individuals with physical disabilities (paraplegia and amputee). Participants were divided into two groups based on sports participation and non-sports participation. Group one included 30 disabled elite athletes who participated in adapted sports. The control group included 30 disabled individuals not involved in any adapted sports. We compared scores on the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQoL-BREF) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) between the two groups. Participation in the community and QoL was examined as a reflection of participant's priority on sports participation. We found that WHOQoL-BREF physical, psychological, and social domain scores were significantly higher in group one than in the control group (p sports had significantly higher QoL and life satisfaction scores compared to people with physical disabilities not involved in any adapted sports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recognizing lexical and semantic change patterns in evolving life science ontologies to inform mapping adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Dinh, Duy; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Mappings established between life science ontologies require significant efforts to maintain them up to date due to the size and frequent evolution of these ontologies. In consequence, automatic methods for applying modifications on mappings are highly demanded. The accuracy of such methods relies on the available description about the evolution of ontologies, especially regarding concepts involved in mappings. However, from one ontology version to another, a further understanding of ontology changes relevant for supporting mapping adaptation is typically lacking. This research work defines a set of change patterns at the level of concept attributes, and proposes original methods to automatically recognize instances of these patterns based on the similarity between attributes denoting the evolving concepts. This investigation evaluates the benefits of the proposed methods and the influence of the recognized change patterns to select the strategies for mapping adaptation. The summary of the findings is as follows: (1) the Precision (>60%) and Recall (>35%) achieved by comparing manually identified change patterns with the automatic ones; (2) a set of potential impact of recognized change patterns on the way mappings is adapted. We found that the detected correlations cover ∼66% of the mapping adaptation actions with a positive impact; and (3) the influence of the similarity coefficient calculated between concept attributes on the performance of the recognition algorithms. The experimental evaluations conducted with real life science ontologies showed the effectiveness of our approach to accurately characterize ontology evolution at the level of concept attributes. This investigation confirmed the relevance of the proposed change patterns to support decisions on mapping adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the Actinic Keratosis Quality of Life questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo Imedio, Isabel; Serra-Guillén, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    While there are questionnaires for evaluating the effects of skin cancer on patient quality of life, there are no specific questionnaires available in Spanish for evaluating quality of life in patients with actinic keratosis. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Actinic Keratosis Quality of Life (AKQoL) questionnaire into Spanish. The original questionnaire was translated into Spanish following the guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Several measures of general reliability and validity were calculated, including Cronbach α for internal consistency and the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient and a Bland-Altman plot for test-retest reliability. To test concurrent validity, we used the Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the correlation between AKQoL and Skindex-29 scores. The final version of the questionnaire was administered to 621 patients with actinic keratosis, who scored a mean (SD) of 5.25 (4.73) points (total possible score, 0-25). The Cronbach α reliability coefficient analysis was 0.84. The correlation between the mean (SD) score on the Skindex-29 (1.87 [4.07]) and on the AKQoL (1.97 [2.98] was 0.344 (P=.002, Spearman's rho), with a proportion of shared variance of 11.8%. The translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the original AKQoL produced a reliable, easily understandable questionnaire for evaluating the impact of actinic keratosis on the quality of life of patients in our setting. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D design and electric simulation of a silicon drift detector using a spiral biasing adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-yun; Xiong, Bo; Li, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    The detector system of combining a spiral biasing adapter (SBA) with a silicon drift detector (SBA-SDD) is largely different from the traditional silicon drift detector (SDD), including the spiral SDD. It has a spiral biasing adapter of the same design as a traditional spiral SDD and an SDD with concentric rings having the same radius. Compared with the traditional spiral SDD, the SBA-SDD separates the spiral's functions of biasing adapter and the p-n junction definition. In this paper, the SBA-SDD is simulated using a Sentaurus TCAD tool, which is a full 3D device simulation tool. The simulated electric characteristics include electric potential, electric field, electron concentration, and single event effect. Because of the special design of the SBA-SDD, the SBA can generate an optimum drift electric field in the SDD, comparable with the conventional spiral SDD, while the SDD can be designed with concentric rings to reduce surface area. Also the current and heat generated in the SBA are separated from the SDD. To study the single event response, we simulated the induced current caused by incident heavy ions (20 and 50 μm penetration length) with different linear energy transfer (LET). The SBA-SDD can be used just like a conventional SDD, such as X-ray detector for energy spectroscopy and imaging, etc.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury - Version III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Alencar Mendes Reis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To translate and culturally adapt to Portuguese the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury - Version III and characterize the sample in relation to sociodemographic and clinical aspects. METHOD A methodological study with view to cross-cultural adaptation, following the particular steps of this method: initial translation, translation synthesis, back-translation (translation back to the original language, review by a committee of judges and pretest of the final version. The pretest was carried out with 30 patients with spinal cord injury. RESULTS An index of 74 items divided into two parts (satisfaction/importance was obtained. The criteria of semantic equivalence were evaluated as very adequate translation, higher than 87%, and vocabulary and were grammar higher than 86%. Idiomatic equivalence was higher than 74%, experimental greater than 78% and conceptual was greater than 70%. CONCLUSION After cross-cultural adaptation, the instrument proved semantic, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual adequacy, in addition to helping the evaluation of the quality of life of people with spinal cord injury.

  5. Reinforcement learning for adaptive threshold control of restorative brain-computer interfaces: a Bayesian simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Restorative brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are increasingly used to provide feedback of neuronal states in a bid to normalize pathological brain activity and achieve behavioral gains. However, patients and healthy subjects alike often show a large variability, or even inability, of brain self-regulation for BCI control, known as BCI illiteracy. Although current co-adaptive algorithms are powerful for assistive BCIs, their inherent class switching clashes with the operant conditioning goal of restorative BCIs. Moreover, due to the treatment rationale, the classifier of restorative BCIs usually has a constrained feature space, thus limiting the possibility of classifier adaptation. In this context, we applied a Bayesian model of neurofeedback and reinforcement learning for different threshold selection strategies to study the impact of threshold adaptation of a linear classifier on optimizing restorative BCIs. For each feedback iteration, we first determined the thresholds that result in minimal action entropy and maximal instructional efficiency. We then used the resulting vector for the simulation of continuous threshold adaptation. We could thus show that threshold adaptation can improve reinforcement learning, particularly in cases of BCI illiteracy. Finally, on the basis of information-theory, we provided an explanation for the achieved benefits of adaptive threshold setting.

  6. Reinforcement learning for adaptive threshold control of restorative brain-computer interfaces: a Bayesian simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBauer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Restorative brain-computer interfaces (BCI are increasingly used to provide feedback of neuronal states in a bid to normalize pathological brain activity and achieve behavioral gains. However, patients and healthy subjects alike often show a large variability, or even inability, of brain self-regulation for BCI control, known as BCI illiteracy. Although current co-adaptive algorithms are powerful for assistive BCIs, their inherent class switching clashes with the operant conditioning goal of restorative BCIs. Moreover, due to the treatment rationale, the classifier of restorative BCIs usually has a constrained feature space, thus limiting the possibility of classifier adaptation.In this context, we applied a Bayesian model of neurofeedback and reinforcement learning for different threshold selection strategies to study the impact of threshold adaptation of a linear classifier on optimizing restorative BCIs. For each feedback iteration, we first determined the thresholds that result in minimal action entropy and maximal instructional efficiency. We then used the resulting vector for the simulation of continuous threshold adaptation. We could thus show that threshold adaptation can improve reinforcement learning, particularly in cases of BCI illiteracy. Finally, on the basis of information-theory, we provided an explanation for the achieved benefits of adaptive threshold setting.

  7. Australian nursing students' stories of end-of-life care simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Pauline Catherine; van der Riet, Pamela; Jeong, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Because nurses are at the forefront of end-of-life care, it is imperative that nursing students are prepared for this role upon graduation. Research suggests that many nursing students are unprepared to deliver compassionate and quality end-of-life care. There have been many attempts to address this need; one emerging method is end-of-life care simulation. This paper explores the experiences of 18 undergraduate nursing students of end-of-life care simulation. Participants' stories were obtained via observation during end-of-life care simulation, audio-recorded post simulation debriefing, and semi-structured interviews. Using Clandinin and Connolly's three dimensions of Narrative Inquiry (temporality, spatiality, and sociality) participants' stories reflected convergence of time, place, and person. Findings revealed three distinct plotlines along a time continuum, specifically surrounding time of death: (i) "The privilege of end-of-life care;" (ii) "Witnessing death as surreal;" and (iii) "The honor of providing after-death care." Participants' narratives suggest that end-of-life care simulation is an important means of preparing students for clinical end-of-life care experiences. This has implications for nursing educators wishing to consider simulation in end-of-life care education. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Negotiated meanings of disability simulations in an adapted physical activity course: learning from student reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jennifer; Goodwin, Donna

    2014-04-01

    Disability simulations have been used as a pedagogical tool to simulate the functional and cultural experiences of disability. Despite their widespread application, disagreement about their ethical use, value, and efficacy persists. The purpose of this study was to understand how postsecondary kinesiology students experienced participation in disability simulations. An interpretative phenomenological approach guided the study's collection of journal entries and clarifying one-on-one interviews with four female undergraduate students enrolled in a required adapted physical activity course. The data were analyzed thematically and interpreted using the conceptual framework of situated learning. Three themes transpired: unnerving visibility, negotiating environments differently, and tomorrow I'll be fine. The students described emotional responses to the use of wheelchairs as disability artifacts, developed awareness of environmental barriers to culturally and socially normative activities, and moderated their discomfort with the knowledge they could end the simulation at any time.

  9. Controlling the weights of simulation particles: adaptive particle management using k-d trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2014-02-01

    In particle simulations, the weights of particles determine how many physical particles they represent. Adaptively adjusting these weights can greatly improve the efficiency of the simulation, without creating severe nonphysical artifacts. We present a new method for the pairwise merging of particles, in which two particles are combined into one. To find particles that are ‘close' to each other, we use a k-d tree data structure. With a k-d tree, close neighbors can be searched for efficiently, and independently of the mesh used in the simulation. The merging can be done in different ways, conserving for example momentum or energy. We introduce probabilistic schemes, which set properties for the merged particle using random numbers. The effect of various merge schemes on the energy distribution, the momentum distribution and the grid moments is compared. We also compare their performance in the simulation of the two-stream instability.

  10. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  11. Evaluation of a Comprehensive, Adaptable, Life- Affirming, Longitudinal (CALL) palliative care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Marla R; McSkimming, Sylvia; Drew, Nicholas; Quinn, Carroll; Carney, Bridget

    2005-12-01

    Many persons with life-threatening illnesses require services before they begin receiving hospice or hospital-based palliative care. Although health care professionals focus on diagnosis, treatment, and comfort care, patients and families view the illness as it impacts their whole life. Evaluating a Comprehensive, Adaptable, Life-Affirming, Longitudinal (CALL) intervention to patients with life-threatening cancer, cardiac illness, respiratory conditions or dementia. The CALL Care interventions are consistent with the 2004 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care. Prospective observational study. Eleven sites (1 primary care, 8 acute care, and 2 long term care) located around the United States. Two hundred ninety-five patients and families enrolled in the study; many were enrolled for over 12 months. Patient self-reported Modified City of Hope Questionnaire addressing physical, psychosocial, emotional, and spiritual status and health care experiences; completed at enrollment and every three months. Family members completed Modified City of Hope Bereaved Family Questionnaire, with contents similar to the patient questionnaire. Sites compiled health care and community services utilization data regularly. Participants reported improved pain and symptom management. Fewer than one third were hospitalized (29%), and 7% had a critical care admission while enrolled. In addition, participants had high use of hospice (48% of those who died), and were likely to die at home (38% of those who died). CALL Care is an effective interdisciplinary intervention approach to individualize care for people living with life-threatening illness.

  12. A rectangular tetrahedral adaptive mesh based corotated finite element model for interactive soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiromi T

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a rectangular tetrahedral adaptive mesh based corotated finite element model for interactive soft tissue simulation. Our approach consists of several computation reduction techniques. They are as follows: 1) an efficient calculation approach for computing internal forces of nodes of elastic objects to take advantage of the rectangularity of the tetrahedral adaptive mesh; 2) fast shape matching approach by using a new scaling of polar decomposition; 3) an approach for the reduction of the number of times of shape matching by using the hierarchical structure. We implemented the approach into our surgery simulator and compared the accuracy of the deformation and the computation time among 1) proposed approach, 2) L-FE), and 3) NL-FEM. Finally, we show the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  13. Adaptation and validation of stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39) scale to Hindi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ishita H; Krishnan, Gopee

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a major detriment to the quality of life (QOL) in its victims. Several functional limitations following stroke contribute to the denigrated QOL in this population. Aphasia, a disturbance in the comprehension, processing, and/or expression of language, is a common consequence of stroke. Yet, in most Indian languages, including the national language (Hindi), there are no published tools to measure the QOL of persons with stroke-aphasia. The current study was carried out to adapt and validate a well-known tool to measure the QOL (i.e., Stroke-Aphasia Quality of Life-39; SAQOL-39) to Hindi. We presented the original (English) version of the SAQOL-39 to a group of six Hindi-speaking Speech Language Pathologists hailing from the central and northern regions of India to examine the sociocultural suitability of items and indicate modifications, if any. The linguistic adaptation was performed through a forward-backward translation scheme. The socioculturally and linguistically adapted (to Hindi) version was then administered on a group of 84 Hindi-speaking persons with aphasia to examine the acceptability, test-retest reliability as well as the internal consistency of the instrument. The SAQOL-39 in Hindi exhibited high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.9) as well as acceptability with minimal missing data. This instrument exhibited high internal consistency (Chronbach's ∝ = 0.98) as well as the both item-to-total and inter-domain correlations. The socioculturally and linguistically adapted Hindi version of SAQOL-39 is a robust tool to measure the QOL of persons with stroke-aphasia. It may serve as an essential tool to measure the QOL in this population for both clinical and research purposes.

  14. Adaptation and validation of stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39 scale to Hindi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita H Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is a major detriment to the quality of life (QOL in its victims. Several functional limitations following stroke contribute to the denigrated QOL in this population. Aphasia, a disturbance in the comprehension, processing, and/or expression of language, is a common consequence of stroke. Yet, in most Indian languages, including the national language (Hindi, there are no published tools to measure the QOL of persons with stroke-aphasia. Objective: The current study was carried out to adapt and validate a well-known tool to measure the QOL (i.e., Stroke-Aphasia Quality of Life-39; SAQOL-39 to Hindi. Materials and Methods: We presented the original (English version of the SAQOL-39 to a group of six Hindi-speaking Speech Language Pathologists hailing from the central and northern regions of India to examine the sociocultural suitability of items and indicate modifications, if any. The linguistic adaptation was performed through a forward-backward translation scheme. The socioculturally and linguistically adapted (to Hindi version was then administered on a group of 84 Hindi-speaking persons with aphasia to examine the acceptability, test-retest reliability as well as the internal consistency of the instrument. Results: The SAQOL-39 in Hindi exhibited high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.9 as well as acceptability with minimal missing data. This instrument exhibited high internal consistency (Chronbach′s ∝ = 0.98 as well as the both item-to-total and inter-domain correlations. Conclusions: The socioculturally and linguistically adapted Hindi version of SAQOL-39 is a robust tool to measure the QOL of persons with stroke-aphasia. It may serve as an essential tool to measure the QOL in this population for both clinical and research purposes.

  15. Adaptation and validation of stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39 scale to Malayalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Raju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aphasia, an acquired inability to understand and/or speak language, is a common repercussion of stroke that denigrates the quality of life (QOL in the affected persons. Several languages in India experience the dearth of instruments to measure the QOL of persons with aphasia. Malayalam, the language spoken by more than 33 million people in Kerala, the southern state of India, is not an exception to this. Objective: This study aimed to adapt and validate the widely-used stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39 scale to Malayalam. Materials and Methods: We required seven Malayalam-speaking Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs, hailing from different regions of Kerala, to examine the socio-cultural suitability of the original items in SAQOL-39 and indicate modifications, wherever necessary. Subsequently, the linguistic adaptation was performed through a forward-backward translation scheme. The socio-culturally and linguistically adapted Malayalam version was then administered on a group of 48 Malayalam-speaking persons with aphasia to examine the test-retest reliability, acceptability, as well as the internal consistency of the instrument. Results: The Malayalam SAQOL-39 scale showed high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.91 as well as acceptability with minimal missing data (0.52%. Further, it yielded high internal consistency (Chronbach′s ∝ = 0.98 as well as item-to-total and inter-domain correlations. Conclusions: The Malayalam version of SAQOL-39 is the first socio-culturally and linguistically adapted tool to measure the QOL of persons with stroke-aphasia speaking this language. It may serve as a potential tool to measure the QOL of this population in both clinical practice and future research endeavors.

  16. Electromagnetic compatibility of WLAN adapters with life-supporting medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagnini, G; Mattei, E; Censi, F; Triventi, M; Lo Sterzo, R; Marchetta, E; Bartolini, P

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the electromagnetic compatibility of 45 critical care medical devices (infusion pumps, defibrillators, monitors, lung ventilators, anesthesia machines and external pacemakers) with various types of wireless local area network (WLAN, IEEE 802.11 b/g, 2.45 GHz, 100 mW) adapters. Interference is evaluated by performing ad-hoc tests according to the ANSI C63.18 recommended practice. The behavior of the devices during the tests was monitored using patient simulators/device testers specific for each device class. Electromagnetic interference cases were observed in three of 45 devices at a maximum distance of 5 cm. In two cases the interference caused malfunctions that may have clinical consequences for the patient. The authors' findings show that the use of these wireless local area network adapters can be considered reasonably safe, although interference may occur if they are operated at very close distance (<10 cm) to the medical devices.

  17. Adaptive modulation of behavioural profiles by social stress during early phases of life and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Norbert; Hennessy, Michael B; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2011-06-01

    The development of individual behavioural profiles can be powerfully influenced by stressful social experiences. Using a comparative approach, we focus on the role of social stressors for the modulation of behavioural profile during early phases of life and adolescence. For gregarious species, the stability of the social environment in which the pregnant and lactating female lives is of major importance for foetal brain development and the behavioural profile of the offspring in later life. Social instability during these critical periods of development generally brings about a behavioural and neuroendocrine masculinisation in daughters and a less pronounced expression of male-typical traits in sons. Moreover, when mothers live in a socially threatening world during this time, anxiety-like behaviour of their offspring often is elevated in adulthood. These effects of the social environment are likely to be mediated by maternal hormones and/or maternal behaviour. In addition, they can be modulated significantly by offspring genotype. We favour the hypothesis that the behavioural effects of social stress during this phase of life are not necessarily "pathological" (nonadaptive) consequences or constraints of adverse social conditions. Rather, mothers could be adjusting the offspring to their environment in an adaptive way. Adolescence is another period in which behavioural development is particularly susceptible to social influences. There is some evidence that stressful social events experienced at this time alter and canalize behaviour in an adaptive fashion, so that earlier influences on behavioural profile development can be complemented and readjusted, if necessary, to meet current environmental conditions. In terms of underlying neuroendocrine mechanism, a central role for the interaction of testosterone and stress hormones is suggested. In summary, the modulation of behavioural profiles by social stress from the prenatal phase through adolescence appears to

  18. Unstructured Adaptive Grid Flow Simulations of Inert and Reactive Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira da Silva, L. F.; Azevedo, João L. F.; Korzenowski, Heidi

    2000-05-01

    Unstructured adaptive grid flow simulation is applied to the calculation of high-speed compressible flows of inert and reactive gas mixtures. In the present case, the flowfield is simulated using the 2-D Euler equations, which are discretized in a cell-centered finite volume procedure on unstructured triangular meshes. Interface fluxes are calculated by a Liou flux vector splitting scheme which has been adapted to an unstructured grid context by the authors. Physicochemical properties are functions of the local mixture composition, temperature, and pressure, which are computed using the CHEMKIN-II subroutines. Computational results are presented for the case of premixed hydrogen-air supersonic flow over a 2-D wedge. In such a configuration, combustion may be triggered behind the oblique shock wave and transition to an oblique detonation wave is eventually obtained. It is shown that the solution adaptive procedure implemented is able to correctly define the important wave fronts. A parametric analysis of the influence of the adaptation parameters on the computed solution is performed.

  19. Aeroacoustic Simulation of Nose Landing Gear on Adaptive Unstructured Grids With FUN3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Park, Michael A.; Lockard, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida's open-jet acoustic facility known as the UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center, is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. Starting with a coarse grid, a series of successively finer grids were generated using the adaptive gridding methodology available in the FUN3D code. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions obtained on these grids are compared with the measured data. In general, the correlation with the experimental data improves with grid refinement. A similar trend is observed for sound pressure levels obtained by using these CFD solutions as input to a FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the farfield noise levels. In general, the numerical solutions obtained on adapted grids compare well with the hand-tuned enriched fine grid solutions and experimental data. In addition, the grid adaption strategy discussed here simplifies the grid generation process, and results in improved computational efficiency of CFD simulations.

  20. Adaptive physical activity improves mobility function and quality of life in chronic hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, Richard F; Benvenuti, Francesco; Stanhope, Steven; Macellari, Velio; Taviani, Antonia; Nesi, Barbara; Weinrich, Michael; Stuart, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an adaptive physical activity (APA) program on mobility function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic stroke patients. Twenty subjects with chronic hemiparesis completed a 2-month, combined group, class-home exercise regimen that emphasized mobility training. APA improved Berg Balance Scale scores (35 +/- 2 vs 45 +/- 2, p = 0.001), 6-minute walk distances (114 +/- 15 vs 142 +/- 7 m, p APA (p APA has the potential to improve gait, balance, and basic but not instrumental activities of daily living profiles in individuals with chronic stroke. Improved depression and SIS scores suggest APA improves stroke-specific outcomes related to QOL.

  1. Grappling with Gravity How Will Life Adapt to Living in Space?

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Grappling with Gravity explores the physiological changes that will occur in humans and the plants and animals that accompany humans as we move to new worlds, whether it be to a colony in the emptiness of space or settlements on the moon, Mars, or other moons or planets. This book focuses on the biomedical aspects, while not ignoring other life-changing influences of space living. For example, what happens to people physiologically in the microgravity of space, where weight and the direction "up" are meaningless? Adapting to microgravity represents the greatest physical challenge that human life will have encountered since our ancestors moved from the seas to solid Earth. It will be the next great adventure!

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Behçet's disease quality of life questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menassa Jeanine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is one Behçet's disease (BD specific self reporting questionnaire developed and published in the literature, The Leeds BD-quality of life (QoL. We conducted a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Leeds BD-QoL Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 41 consecutive patients attending rheumatology clinics at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between June and December 2007. The BD-QoL questionnaire, the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL questionnaires were co-administered during the same visit, and severity scores were calculated. Cross-cultural adaptation of BD-QoL was performed using forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the final version were determined. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA was used to assess the dimensionality of the scale items. External construct validity was examined by correlating Arabic BD-QoL with the severity score, ADL and IADL. Results The 30 items of the adapted Arabic BD-QoL showed a high internal consistency (KR-20 coefficient 0.89 and test-retest reliability (Spearman's test 0.91. The convergence of all 30 items suggests that the 30-item adapted Arabic BD-QoL scale is unidimensional. BD-QoL did not correlate with any of the patients' demographics. Still, it was positively correlated with patient severity score (r 0.4, p 0.02, and IADL (but not ADL. Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Arabic BD-QoL questionnaire that is now available for use in clinical settings and in research studies, among Arabic speaking patients.

  3. Goal-Oriented Self-Adaptive hp Finite Element Simulation of 3D DC Borehole Resistivity Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2011-05-14

    In this paper we present a goal-oriented self-adaptive hp Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) with shared data structures and a parallel multi-frontal direct solver. The algorithm automatically generates (without any user interaction) a sequence of meshes delivering exponential convergence of a prescribed quantity of interest with respect to the number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of meshes is generated from a given initial mesh, by performing h (breaking elements into smaller elements), p (adjusting polynomial orders of approximation) or hp (both) refinements on the finite elements. The new parallel implementation utilizes a computational mesh shared between multiple processors. All computational algorithms, including automatic hp goal-oriented adaptivity and the solver work fully in parallel. We describe the parallel self-adaptive hp-FEM algorithm with shared computational domain, as well as its efficiency measurements. We apply the methodology described to the three-dimensional simulation of the borehole resistivity measurement of direct current through casing in the presence of invasion.

  4. The Cultural Adaptation of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research Version for Latino Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Ligia M.; Matias-Carrelo, Leida; Barrio, Concepcion; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed the Spanish translation of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research Version (YQOL-R) and culturally adapted the measure with Puerto Rican and Mexican American children and adolescents. The YQOL-R is a self-reported measure that includes four domains: Sense of Self, Social Relationships, Environment, and General Quality of Life. A…

  5. Translation to Portuguese and cultural adaptation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, M; Silva, D; Piedade, S; Borrego, Lm; Flokstra-de Blok, B; Dunn Galvin, A; Morais-Almeida, M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a health problem with significant negative impact in Quality of Life (QoL). We aimed to translate into Portuguese and culturally adapt to our population the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). Cross-cultural translation was performed according to

  6. The roles of life-history selection and sexual selection in the adaptive evolution of mating behavior in a beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Cayetano, Luis; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2010-05-01

    Although there is continuing debate about whether sexual selection promotes or impedes adaptation to novel environments, the role of mating behavior in such adaptation remains largely unexplored. We investigated the evolution of mating behavior (latency to mating, mating probability and duration) in replicate populations of seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus subjected to selection on life-history ("Young" vs. "Old" reproduction) under contrasting regimes of sexual selection ("Monogamy" vs. "Polygamy"). Life-history selection is predicted to favor delayed mating in "Old" females, but sexual conflict under polygamy can potentially retard adaptive life-history evolution. We found that life-history selection yielded the predicted changes in mating behavior, but sexual selection regime had no net effect. In within-line crosses, populations selected for late reproduction showed equally reduced early-life mating probability regardless of mating system. In between-line crosses, however, the effect of life-history selection on early-life mating probability was stronger in polygamous lines than in monogamous ones. Thus, although mating system influenced male-female coevolution, removal of sexual selection did not affect the adaptive evolution of mating behavior. Importantly, our study shows that the interaction between sexual selection and life-history selection can result in either increased or decreased reproductive divergence depending on the ecological context.

  7. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: Preliminary Analysis of a Conceptual and Theoretical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Malachy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes and presents an initial analysis of a quality-of-life?based model of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability. This model, termed disability centrality, represents a conceptual and theoretical synthesis of several existing theories and models, drawn from the quality-of life, rehabilitation counseling, and…

  8. The Cultural Adaptation Process of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students on Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Nathan William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short-term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout…

  9. A prospective study of lip adaptation during six months of simulated mandibular dental arch expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhart, W C; Moawad, M I; Matheny, J; Paterson, R L; Hicks, E P

    1997-01-01

    The stability of dental arch expansion with conventional orthodontic treatments is disappointing. An increase in labial soft tissue pressure resulting from the expansion may contribute to this instability. An 8-month study of lip pressure changes resulting from lip bumper wear has been conducted, but no long-term studies have been conducted on pressure changes resulting from conventional expansion using fixed appliances. The purpose of the current study was to investigate changes in labial soft tissue pressures when conventional expansion was simulated. Twenty-two subjects wore a stent simulating mandibular dental arch expansion. They were instructed to wear the stent full-time. Lip pressure was recorded initially at 1 week, and monthly for 6 months. A repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. A statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in pressure was documented after initial insertion of the expansion-simulating stent. The increase was not maintained, suggesting an adaptation of the labial soft tissues.

  10. Simulating streamer discharges in 3D with the parallel adaptive Afivo framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2017-11-01

    We present an open-source plasma fluid code for 2D, cylindrical and 3D simulations of streamer discharges. The code is based on the Afivo framework, which features adaptive mesh refinement on quadtree/octree grids, geometric multigrid methods for Poisson’s equation, and OpenMP parallelism. We describe the numerical implementation of a fluid model of the drift-diffusion-reaction type, combined with the local field approximation. Then we demonstrate its functionality with 3D simulations of long positive streamers in nitrogen in undervolted gaps. Three examples are presented. The first one shows how a stochastic background density affects streamer propagation and branching. The second one focuses on the interaction of a streamer with preionized regions, and the third one investigates the interaction between two streamers. The simulations use up to 108 grid cells and run in less than a day; without mesh refinement they would require more than 1012 grid cells.

  11. Simulation of tsunamis generated by landslides using adaptive mesh refinement on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Asunción, M.; Castro, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a widely used technique to accelerate computationally intensive simulations, which consists of dynamically increasing the spatial resolution of the areas of interest of the domain as the simulation advances. During the last years there have appeared many publications that tackle the implementation of AMR-based applications in GPUs in order to take advantage of their massively parallel architecture. In this paper we present the first AMR-based application implemented on GPU for the simulation of tsunamis generated by landslides by using a two-layer shallow water system. We also propose a new strategy for the interpolation and projection of the values of the fine cells in the AMR algorithm based on the fluctuations of the state values instead of the usual approach of considering the current state values. Numerical experiments on artificial and realistic problems show the validity and efficiency of the solver.

  12. Life-cycle energy impacts for adapting an urban water supply system to droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Lane, Joe L; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks. Our work highlights the energy burden of alternative water supply strategies which added approximately 24% life-cycle energy use to the existing supply system (with surface water sources) in SEQ even for a current post-drought low utilisation status. Over half of this additional life-cycle energy use was from the centralised alternative supply strategies. Rainwater tanks contributed an estimated 3% to regional water supply, but added over 10% life-cycle energy use to the existing system. In the future scenario analysis, we compare the life-cycle energy use between "Normal", "Dry", "High water demand" and "Design capacity" scenarios. In the "Normal" scenario, a long-term low utilisation of the desalination system and the water recycling system has greatly reduced the energy burden of these centralised strategies to only 13%. In contrast, higher utilisation in the unlikely "Dry" and "Design capacity" scenarios add 86% and 140% to life-cycle energy use of the existing system respectively. In the "High water demand" scenario, a 20% increase in per capita water use over 20 years "consumes" more energy than is used by the four alternative strategies in the "Normal" scenario. This research provides insight for developing more realistic long-term scenarios to evaluate and compare life-cycle energy impacts of drought-adaptation infrastructure and regional decentralised water sources. Scenario building for life-cycle assessments of water supply

  13. Computerized adaptive testing of population psychological distress: simulation-based evaluation of GHQ-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J

    2016-06-01

    Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) items are frequently used to assess psychological distress but no study to date has investigated the GHQ-30's potential for adaptive administration. In computerized adaptive testing (CAT) items are matched optimally to the targeted distress level of respondents instead of relying on fixed-length versions of instruments. We therefore calibrate GHQ-30 items and report a simulation study exploring the potential of this instrument for adaptive administration in a longitudinal setting. GHQ-30 responses of 3445 participants with 2 completed assessments (baseline, 7-year follow-up) in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey were calibrated using item response theory. Our simulation study evaluated the efficiency of CAT administration of the items, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with different estimators, item selection methods, and measurement precision criteria. To yield accurate distress measurements (marginal reliability at least 0.90) nearly all GHQ-30 items need to be administered to most survey respondents in general population samples. When lower accuracy is permissible (marginal reliability of 0.80), adaptive administration saves approximately 2/3 of the items. For longitudinal applications, change scores based on the complete set of GHQ-30 items correlate highly with change scores from adaptive administrations. The rationale for CAT-GHQ-30 is only supported when the required marginal reliability is lower than 0.9, which is most likely to be the case in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies assessing mean changes in populations. Precise measurement of psychological distress at the individual level can be achieved, but requires the deployment of all 30 items.

  14. Quality of life and psychological adaptation of Korean adolescents with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Kim, D-Y; Whang, S-H; Lee, J-H; Hann, S-K; Shin, Y-J

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of vitiligo on the quality of life and psychological adaptation in a Korean adolescent population. Fifty-seven adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with vitiligo were evaluated using self-report scales, namely the Skindex-29, Piers-Harris self-concept, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). Mean Skindex-29 subscales were as follow; 21.8 (global), 16.3 (symptom), 18.6 (function) and 29.5 (emotion). Several clinical variables, such as duration of vitiligo, facial involvement, history of previous treatment, and patient-assessed severity, affected the Skindex-29 subscales in various ways. However, differences in Skindex-29 scores according to the type of vitiligo, extent of involvement, and family history were not observed. The Piers-Harris self-concept scores showed a negative correlation with Skindex-29 scores, while other psychological measures (CES-D and RCMAS) were positively correlated. The quality of life of adolescents with vitiligo is closely related to the patients' apprehensions about their disease, psychosocial adjustment, and psychiatric morbidity, rather than the clinical severity of the condition itself. Clinicians should recognize and deal with psychological adaptation along with medical intervention when treating adolescent patients with vitiligo.

  15. Family quality of life and ASD: the role of child adaptive functioning and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily, Gardiner; Grace, Iarocci

    2015-04-01

    The family is the key support network for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in many cases into adulthood. The Family Quality of Life (FQOL) construct encompasses family satisfaction with both internal and external dynamics, as well as support availability. Therefore, although these families face considerable risk in raising a child with a disability, the FQOL outcome is conceptualized as representative of a continuum of family adaptation. This study examined the role of child characteristics, including adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, in relation to FQOL. Eighty-four caregivers of children and adolescents (range = 6-18 years) with ASD participated, completing questionnaires online and by telephone. Adaptive functioning, and specifically daily living skills, emerged as a significant predictor of FQOL satisfaction, after accounting for behavioural and demographic characteristics, including child age, gender, perceived disability severity, and behavioural problems, as well as family income. Furthermore, there were significant differences across each domain of FQOL when groups were separated by daily living skill functioning level ('low,' 'moderately low,' and 'adequate'). The results suggest that intervention strategies targeting daily living skills will likely have beneficial effects for both individual and family well-being, and may reduce family support demands. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Whole genome sequencing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Antonio; Robledo, Diego; Corvelo, André; Hermida, Miguel; Pereiro, Patricia; Rubiolo, Juan A; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Carreté, Laia; Bello, Xabier; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Galán, Beatriz; García, José Luis; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Pardo, Belen G; Taboada, Xoana; Fernández, Carlos; Vlasova, Anna; Hermoso-Pulido, Antonio; Guigó, Roderic; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Viñas, Ana; Maside, Xulio; Gabaldón, Toni; Novoa, Beatriz; Bouza, Carmen; Alioto, Tyler; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-06-01

    The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  17. A Multilevel Adaptive Reaction-splitting Simulation Method for Stochastic Reaction Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2016-07-07

    In this work, we present a novel multilevel Monte Carlo method for kinetic simulation of stochastic reaction networks characterized by having simultaneously fast and slow reaction channels. To produce efficient simulations, our method adaptively classifies the reactions channels into fast and slow channels. To this end, we first introduce a state-dependent quantity named level of activity of a reaction channel. Then, we propose a low-cost heuristic that allows us to adaptively split the set of reaction channels into two subsets characterized by either a high or a low level of activity. Based on a time-splitting technique, the increments associated with high-activity channels are simulated using the tau-leap method, while those associated with low-activity channels are simulated using an exact method. This path simulation technique is amenable for coupled path generation and a corresponding multilevel Monte Carlo algorithm. To estimate expected values of observables of the system at a prescribed final time, our method bounds the global computational error to be below a prescribed tolerance, TOL, within a given confidence level. This goal is achieved with a computational complexity of order O(TOL-2), the same as with a pathwise-exact method, but with a smaller constant. We also present a novel low-cost control variate technique based on the stochastic time change representation by Kurtz, showing its performance on a numerical example. We present two numerical examples extracted from the literature that show how the reaction-splitting method obtains substantial gains with respect to the standard stochastic simulation algorithm and the multilevel Monte Carlo approach by Anderson and Higham. © 2016 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. Brownian motion with adaptive drift for remaining useful life prediction: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Tsui, Kwok-Leung

    2018-01-01

    Linear Brownian motion with constant drift is widely used in remaining useful life predictions because its first hitting time follows the inverse Gaussian distribution. State space modelling of linear Brownian motion was proposed to make the drift coefficient adaptive and incorporate on-line measurements into the first hitting time distribution. Here, the drift coefficient followed the Gaussian distribution, and it was iteratively estimated by using Kalman filtering once a new measurement was available. Then, to model nonlinear degradation, linear Brownian motion with adaptive drift was extended to nonlinear Brownian motion with adaptive drift. However, in previous studies, an underlying assumption used in the state space modelling was that in the update phase of Kalman filtering, the predicted drift coefficient at the current time exactly equalled the posterior drift coefficient estimated at the previous time, which caused a contradiction with the predicted drift coefficient evolution driven by an additive Gaussian process noise. In this paper, to alleviate such an underlying assumption, a new state space model is constructed. As a result, in the update phase of Kalman filtering, the predicted drift coefficient at the current time evolves from the posterior drift coefficient at the previous time. Moreover, the optimal Kalman filtering gain for iteratively estimating the posterior drift coefficient at any time is mathematically derived. A discussion that theoretically explains the main reasons why the constructed state space model can result in high remaining useful life prediction accuracies is provided. Finally, the proposed state space model and its associated Kalman filtering gain are applied to battery prognostics.

  19. The Intrauterine Growth Restriction Phenotype: Fetal Adaptations and Potential Implications for Later Life Insulin Resistance and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Stephanie R.; Rozance, Paul J.; Brown, Laura D.; Hay, William W.

    2011-01-01

    The intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetus develops unique metabolic adaptations in response to exposure to reduced nutrient supply. These adaptations provide survival value for the fetus by enhancing the capacity of the fetus to take up and use nutrients, thereby reducing the need for nutrient supply. Each organ and tissue in the fetus adapts differently, with the brain showing the greatest capacity for maintaining nutrient supply and growth. Such adaptations, if persistent, also have the potential in later life to promote nutrient uptake and storage, which directly lead to complications of obesity, insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21710398

  20. Online body schema adaptation based on internal mental simulation and multisensory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eVicente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a novel approach to obtain automatic adaptation of the robot body schema and to improve the robot perceptual and motor skills based on this body knowledge. Predictions obtained through a mental simulation of the body are combined with the real sensory feedback to achieve two objectives simultaneously: body schema adaptation and markerless 6D hand pose estimation. The body schema consists of a computer graphics simulation of the robot, which includes the arm and head kinematics (adapted online during the movements and an appearance model of the hand shape and texture. The mental simulation process generates predictions on how the hand will appear in the robot camera images, based on the body schema and the proprioceptive information (i.e. motor encoders. These predictions are compared to the actual images using Sequential Monte Carlo techniques to feed a particle-based Bayesian estimation method to estimate the parameters of the body schema. The updated body schema will improve the estimates of the 6D hand pose, which is thenused in a closed-loop control scheme (i.e. visual servoing, enabling precise reaching. We report experiments with the iCub humanoid robot that support the validity of our approach. A number of simulations with precise ground-truth were performed to evaluate the estimation capabilities of the proposed framework. Then, we show how the use of high-performance GPU programming and an edge-based algorithm for visual perception allow for real-time implementation in real world scenarios.

  1. Accelerating Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation by differential evolution with self-adaptive randomized subspace sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hyman, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Bruce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, Dave [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NETHERLANDS; Diks, Cees G H [UNIV OF AMSTERDAM

    2008-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have found widespread use in many fields of study to estimate the average properties of complex systems, and for posterior inference in a Bayesian framework. Existing theory and experiments prove convergence of well constructed MCMC schemes to the appropriate limiting distribution under a variety of different conditions. In practice, however this convergence is often observed to be disturbingly slow. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves in the Markov Chain. Here we show that significant improvements to the efficiency of MCMC simulation can be made by using a self-adaptive Differential Evolution learning strategy within a population-based evolutionary framework. This scheme, entitled DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis or DREAM, runs multiple different chains simultaneously for global exploration, and automatically tunes the scale and orientation of the proposal distribution in randomized subspaces during the search. Ergodicity of the algorithm is proved, and various examples involving nonlinearity, high-dimensionality, and multimodality show that DREAM is generally superior to other adaptive MCMC sampling approaches. The DREAM scheme significantly enhances the applicability of MCMC simulation to complex, multi-modal search problems.

  2. Adaptive enhanced sampling with a path-variable for the simulation of protein folding and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Emanuel K.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we present a novel adaptive enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD) method for the accelerated simulation of protein folding and aggregation. We introduce a path-variable L based on the un-biased momenta p and displacements dq for the definition of the bias s applied to the system and derive 3 algorithms: general adaptive bias MD, adaptive path-sampling, and a hybrid method which combines the first 2 methodologies. Through the analysis of the correlations between the bias and the un-biased gradient in the system, we find that the hybrid methodology leads to an improved force correlation and acceleration in the sampling of the phase space. We apply our method on SPC/E water, where we find a conservation of the average water structure. We then use our method to sample dialanine and the folding of TrpCage, where we find a good agreement with simulation data reported in the literature. Finally, we apply our methodologies on the initial stages of aggregation of a hexamer of Alzheimer's amyloid β fragment 25-35 (Aβ 25-35) and find that transitions within the hexameric aggregate are dominated by entropic barriers, while we speculate that especially the conformation entropy plays a major role in the formation of the fibril as a rate limiting factor.

  3. Translation and cultural adaptation of quality of life questionnaires: an evaluation of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mota Falcão, Dircilene; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the methodological steps currently proposed in translation and cultural adaptation of quality of life questionnaires. Fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis were invited to participate. Two versions each of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the MOS 36 Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS-2) were administered: version 1 was a literal translation of the questionnaire; version 2 resulted from a process of translation and cultural adaptation following internationally accepted guidelines. For each patient we applied 2 questionnaires before and after consultation. The questionnaire, the order of administration, and the version were randomly assigned. The interviews were performed by a single interviewer. Several clinical and laboratory outcome measures were assessed simultaneously. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to characterize the data. Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to evaluate reliability and validity of each version of each questionnaire. Patients' mean (SD) age was 47 (12) years and mean (SD) disease duration was 10 (7) years. The differences of the mean in the physical and affective AIMS-2 components between the literal and adapted versions (0.21 and 0.11, respectively) were similar to the differences in the intraobserver application of the same version of culturally adapted AIMS-2 components (0.03 and 0.20) (the component scores range from 0 to 10). The same results were observed when considering other components of AIMS and SF-36, as well as HAQ scores. Version 1 and 2 presented a similar clinically and statistically significant correlation with clinical and laboratory measures used in the validation process of the questionnaires. The complex methodologies proposed in the translation and validation of the questionnaires should be carefully reevaluated. The simplification of this methodology should be studied.

  4. Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire: translation, cultural adaptation and validation into Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Anabela; Ambrósio, Catarina; Pereira da Silva, J A; McKenna, Stephen; Wilburn, Jeanette; Lopes Ferreira, Pedro

    2018-02-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has a strong negative impact on the quality of life of patients. The Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL) questionnaire is a disease-specific instrument developed to measure the quality of life in patients with PsA. The aims of this study were to culturally adapt the questionnaire for Portugal and evaluate its reliability and validity in patients with PsA. The original UK English version of the PsAQoL was translated into Portuguese by a bilingual and lay panel. Structured cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with ten PsA patients. The Portuguese PsAQoL was subsequently applied to PsA patients followed at the Rheumatology Department of Centro Hospitalar do Baixo Vouga, E.P.E. To assess reproducibility, 30 patients with PsA completed the Portuguese PsAQoL on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. A larger sample was recruited to determine internal consistency and construct validity. The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used as a comparator instrument. Translation and adaptation were successful. Cronbach´s alpha for the Portuguese version of the PsAQoL was 0.91 and the test-retest reliability was 0.93. The PsAQoL could distinguish between groups of patients defined by self-reported general health status, self-reported severity of PsA and flare of arthritis. There was a positive correlation between the total score of the PsAQoL and each of the sections of the NHP. The Portuguese version of the PsAQoL was found to be relevant, understandable and easy to complete, reliable and valid.

  5. Selective adaptation in networks of heterogeneous populations: model, simulation, and experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Wallach

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems often change their responsiveness when subject to persistent stimulation, a phenomenon termed adaptation. In neural systems, this process is often selective, allowing the system to adapt to one stimulus while preserving its sensitivity to another. In some studies, it has been shown that adaptation to a frequent stimulus increases the system's sensitivity to rare stimuli. These phenomena were explained in previous work as a result of complex interactions between the various subpopulations of the network. A formal description and analysis of neuronal systems, however, is hindered by the network's heterogeneity and by the multitude of processes taking place at different time-scales. Viewing neural networks as populations of interacting elements, we develop a framework that facilitates a formal analysis of complex, structured, heterogeneous networks. The formulation developed is based on an analysis of the availability of activity dependent resources, and their effects on network responsiveness. This approach offers a simple mechanistic explanation for selective adaptation, and leads to several predictions that were corroborated in both computer simulations and in cultures of cortical neurons developing in vitro. The framework is sufficiently general to apply to different biological systems, and was demonstrated in two different cases.

  6. Methodology for Simulation and Analysis of Complex Adaptive Supply Network Structure and Dynamics Using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rodewald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply networks existing today in many industries can behave as complex adaptive systems making them more difficult to analyze and assess. Being able to fully understand both the complex static and dynamic structures of a complex adaptive supply network (CASN are key to being able to make more informed management decisions and prioritize resources and production throughout the network. Previous efforts to model and analyze CASN have been impeded by the complex, dynamic nature of the systems. However, drawing from other complex adaptive systems sciences, information theory provides a model-free methodology removing many of those barriers, especially concerning complex network structure and dynamics. With minimal information about the network nodes, transfer entropy can be used to reverse engineer the network structure while local transfer entropy can be used to analyze the network structure’s dynamics. Both simulated and real-world networks were analyzed using this methodology. Applying the methodology to CASNs allows the practitioner to capitalize on observations from the highly multidisciplinary field of information theory which provides insights into CASN’s self-organization, emergence, stability/instability, and distributed computation. This not only provides managers with a more thorough understanding of a system’s structure and dynamics for management purposes, but also opens up research opportunities into eventual strategies to monitor and manage emergence and adaption within the environment.

  7. Simulation and Evaluation of Urban Growth for Germany Including Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hoymann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers in the fields of urban and regional planning in Germany face new challenges. High rates of urban sprawl need to be reduced by increased inner-urban development while settlements have to adapt to climate change and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. In this study, we analyze conflicts in the management of urban areas and develop integrated sustainable land use strategies for Germany. The spatial explicit land use change model Land Use Scanner is used to simulate alternative scenarios of land use change for Germany for 2030. A multi-criteria analysis is set up based on these scenarios and based on a set of indicators. They are used to measure whether the mitigation and adaptation objectives can be achieved and to uncover conflicts between these aims. The results show that the built-up and transport area development can be influenced both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Strengthening the inner-urban development is particularly effective in terms of reducing built-up and transport area development. It is possible to reduce built-up and transport area development to approximately 30 ha per day in 2030, which matches the sustainability objective of the German Federal Government for the year 2020. In the case of adaptation to climate change, the inclusion of extreme flood events in the context of spatial planning requirements may contribute to a reduction of the damage potential.

  8. Life-history consequences of adaptation to pollution. "Daphnia longispina clones historically exposed to copper".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Ana Raquel; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess life history effects of adaptation to pollution in Daphnia longispina clones historically exposed to an acid mine drainage from an abandoned pyrite mine. Four sensitive and resistant clones from reference and impacted populations were exposed to a range of copper exposure levels and their life history and physiological responses in terms of survival, reproduction, respiration and feeding rates compared. The most resistant clone was from 16 to 48 fold more tolerant to copper in terms of LC(50) and population growth rates than sensitive ones, respectively. The genetic differences between the resistant and sensitive clones were that in the polluted environment individuals of the resistant clone survived 50% better, reproduced 3 days earlier, grew 20% better, produced three more offspring per day and had population growth rates 45% greater. In the unpolluted environment, however, individuals from the resistant clone had the lowest reproduction and somatic growth rates but equivalent population growth rates, than sensitive daphnids. Thus, these life history changes did not translate into lower fitness in unpolluted environments in terms of population growth rates. Observed higher respiration rates of the most resistant clone support in part the energy cost hypothesis of tolerance, whereas increase feeding, reproduction and growth rates across copper exposure levels may also, indicate that resistant individuals need copper to fulfil they physiological demands thus supporting the metal deficiency hypothesis as well. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  9. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora, E-mail: rexha.vry@gmail.com [Master Program of Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  10. Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden density currents with adaptive, discontinuous finite elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Parkinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier–Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two and three dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring model performance in capturing the range of dynamics on a range of meshes. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. The use of adaptive mesh optimisation is shown to reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude in comparison with fixed, uniform mesh simulations. This leads to a substantial reduction in computational cost. The computational savings and flexibility afforded by adaptivity along with the flexibility of FE methods make this model well suited to simulating turbidity currents in complex domains.

  11. An adaptive tau-leaping method for stochastic simulations of reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Jill M. A.; Ilie, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    Stochastic modelling is critical for studying many biochemical processes in a cell, in particular when some reacting species have low population numbers. For many such cellular processes the spatial distribution of the molecular species plays a key role. The evolution of spatially heterogeneous biochemical systems with some species in low amounts is accurately described by the mesoscopic model of the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation. The Inhomogeneous Stochastic Simulation Algorithm provides an exact strategy to numerically solve this model, but it is computationally very expensive on realistic applications. We propose a novel adaptive time-stepping scheme for the tau-leaping method for approximating the solution of the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation. This technique combines effective strategies for variable time-stepping with path preservation to reduce the computational cost, while maintaining the desired accuracy. The numerical tests on various examples arising in applications show the improved efficiency achieved by the new adaptive method.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Quantum Mechanics / Molecular Mechanics and Adaptive Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2018-02-13

    Direct molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods is very powerful for studying the mechanism of chemical reactions in complex environment but very time consuming. The computational cost on QM/MM calculations during MD simulations can be reduced significantly using semiempirical QM/MM methods with lower accuracy. To achieve higher accuracy at the ab initio QM/MM level, a correction on the existing semiempirical QM/MM model is an attractive way. Recently, we reported a neural network (NN) method as QM/MM-NN to predict the potential energy difference between semiempirical and ab initio QM/MM approaches. The high-level results can be obtained using neural network based on semiempirical QM/MM MD simulations, but the lack of direct MD samplings at the ab initio QM/MM level is still a deficiency that limits the applications of QM/MM-NN. In the present paper, we developed a dynamic scheme of QM/MM-NN for direct MD simulations on the NN-predicted potential energy surface to approximate ab initio QM/MM MD. Since some configurations excluded from the database for NN training were encountered during simulations, which may cause some difficulties on MD samplings, an adaptive procedure inspired by the selection scheme reported by Behler was employed with some adaptions to update NN and carry out MD iteratively. We further applied the adaptive QM/MM-NN MD method to the free energy calculation and transition path optimization on chemical reactions in water. The results at the ab initio QM/MM level can be well reproduced using this method after 2-4 iteration cycles. The saving in computational cost is about 2 orders of magnitude. It demonstrates that the QM/MM-NN with direct MD simulations has great potentials not only for the calculation of thermodynamic properties but also for the characterization of reaction dynamics, which provides a useful tool to study chemical or biochemical systems in solution or enzymes.

  13. Bringing Reality into Calculus Classrooms: Mathematizing a Real-life Problem Simulated in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Shipulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores how students, who had completed the AP calculus course, mathematized the optimal navigation real-life problem simulated in the Second Life Virtual Environment. The particular research interest was to investigate whether/how students’ empirical activity in VE influences the way of their mathematizing.

  14. A widespread chromosomal inversion polymorphism contributes to a major life-history transition, local adaptation, and reproductive isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lowry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and speciation is controversial. Historically, inversions were thought to contribute to these processes either by directly causing hybrid sterility or by facilitating the maintenance of co-adapted gene complexes. Because inversions suppress recombination when heterozygous, a recently proposed local adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation and consequent ecological reproductive isolation has not to our knowledge been demonstrated in nature. In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. Replicated crosses between the prezygotically reproductively isolated annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, revealed that alternative chromosomal inversion arrangements are associated with life-history divergence over thousands of kilometers across North America. The inversion polymorphism affected adaptive flowering time divergence and other morphological traits in all replicated crosses between four pairs of annual and perennial populations. To determine if the inversion contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation in natural populations, we conducted a novel reciprocal transplant experiment involving outbred lines, where alternative arrangements of the inversion were reciprocally introgressed into the genetic backgrounds of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and

  15. A Widespread Chromosomal Inversion Polymorphism Contributes to a Major Life-History Transition, Local Adaptation, and Reproductive Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, David B.; Willis, John H.

    2010-01-01

    The role of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and speciation is controversial. Historically, inversions were thought to contribute to these processes either by directly causing hybrid sterility or by facilitating the maintenance of co-adapted gene complexes. Because inversions suppress recombination when heterozygous, a recently proposed local adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation and consequent ecological reproductive isolation has not to our knowledge been demonstrated in nature. In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. Replicated crosses between the prezygotically reproductively isolated annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, revealed that alternative chromosomal inversion arrangements are associated with life-history divergence over thousands of kilometers across North America. The inversion polymorphism affected adaptive flowering time divergence and other morphological traits in all replicated crosses between four pairs of annual and perennial populations. To determine if the inversion contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation in natural populations, we conducted a novel reciprocal transplant experiment involving outbred lines, where alternative arrangements of the inversion were reciprocally introgressed into the genetic backgrounds of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and multiple reproductive

  16. Spatially adaptive radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation during cosmological reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Andreas H.; Schaye, Joop; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    We present a suite of cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the assembly of galaxies driving the reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z ≳ 6. The simulations account for the hydrodynamical feedback from photoionization heating and the explosion of massive stars as supernovae (SNe). Our reference simulation, which was carried out in a box of size 25 h-1 comovingMpc using 2 × 5123 particles, produces a reasonable reionization history and matches the observed UV luminosity function of galaxies. Simulations with different box sizes and resolutions are used to investigate numerical convergence, and simulations in which either SNe or photoionization heating or both are turned off, are used to investigate the role of feedback from star formation. Ionizing radiation is treated using accurate radiative transfer at the high spatially adaptive resolution at which the hydrodynamics is carried out. SN feedback strongly reduces the star formation rates (SFRs) over nearly the full mass range of simulated galaxies and is required to yield SFRs in agreement with observations. Photoheating helps to suppress star formation in low-mass galaxies, but its impact on the cosmic SFR is small. Because the effect of photoheating is masked by the strong SN feedback, it does not imprint a signature on the UV galaxy luminosity function, although we note that our resolution is insufficient to model star-forming minihaloes cooling through molecular hydrogen transitions. Photoheating does provide a strong positive feedback on reionization because it smooths density fluctuations in the IGM, which lowers the IGM recombination rate substantially. Our simulations demonstrate a tight non-linear coupling of galaxy formation and reionization, motivating the need for the accurate and simultaneous inclusion of photoheating and SN feedback in models of the early Universe.

  17. Reinforcement Corrosion: Numerical Simulation and Service Life Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander

    Modelling of deterioration processes in concrete structures plays an increasing role in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Large sums are spent every year to ensure the durability of concrete structures, especially towards reinforcement corrosion. Improved durability provides increased...... structural reliability, economical improvements in form of less need for maintenance and repair as well as increased sustainability due to an increased energy and resource efficiency. Several service life prediction models dealing with reinforcement corrosion in concrete structurescan be found...... in the literature. However, the applicability of these models to determine the service life of concrete structures in aggressive environments needs to be investigated as the majority of the models a) assume an initial pristine state of the reinforced concrete structure neglecting the presence of cracks and other...

  18. Psychological adaptation and quality of life of adult intestinal transplant recipients: University of Bologna experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfieri, L; Lauro, A; Tossani, E; Sirri, L; Venturoli, A; Dazzi, A; Zanfi, C; Zanello, M; Vetrone, G; Cucchetti, A; Ercolani, G; Vivarelli, M; Del Gaudio, M; Ravaioli, M; Cescon, M; Grazi, G L; Faenza, S; Grandi, S; Pinna, A D

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has become an accepted therapy for individuals permanently dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with life-threatening complications. Quality of life and psychological well-being can be seen as important outcome measures of transplantation surgery. We evaluated 24 adult intestinal transplant recipients and 24 healthy subjects (a control group). All subjects were administered the Italian Version of the Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB) by C. Ryff, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) by R. Kellner and G.A. Fava, a symptomatology scale. Quality of life and psychological well-being were assessed in transplant recipients in relationship to the number of rejections, the number of admissions, and the immunosuppressive protocol. Intestinal transplant recipients reported significantly higher scores in the "personal growth" category (P = .036) and lower scores in the "positive relation with others" (P = .013) and "autonomy" (P = .007) dimensions of PWB, compared with the controls. In the WHOQOL, the scores of transplant recipients were lower only in the psychological domain (P = .011). Transplant recipients reported significantly higher scores in the "somatic symptom" (P = .027) and "hostility" (P = .018) dimensions of the SQ, compared with the controls. Transplant recipients with number of admissions >8 reported higher scores in "anxiety" (P = .019) and "depression" (P = .021) scales of the SQ, and the patients with a Daclizumab protocol reported higher scores in "depression" (P = .000) and "somatic symptom" (P = .008) of the SQ. There were no significant differences regarding number of rejections and socio-demographic variables. Improvement of psychological well-being in the transplant population may be related to the achievement of the goal of transplantation: recovery of bowel function. But the data confirmed that the transplant experience required a long and difficult

  19. Social adaptation and quality of life in reproductive-aged women with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Viktorovna Dmitrenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality-of-life indicators are integral characteristics of treatment and diagnostic measures in modern epileptology.Objective: to assess the social adaptation and quality of life in reproductive-aged women with epilepsy.Subjects and methods. A sociological survey using the Quality of Life Satisfaction questionnaire and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D was carried out in 352 women living in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.Results. At the time of the study, 21.3% of the patients were unemployed. Disability related to epilepsy was in 13.1% of women, mainly in those with cryptogenic (22.3% and symptomatic (14.4% epilepsy. Most of the women were unsatisfied with their job activity (55.1%, financial status (64.6%, and physical health (65.3%. Mainly the patients with symptomatic epilepsy reported dissatisfaction with their psychological status. The patients had employment problems (12.5%, inability to work in their specialty (12.5% and to get the desired specialty (10.3%, and labor maladaptation (8.8%. There was a preponderance of women with higher education (40.3% and 21.3% continued their studies. Warm family relations and help from relatives and friends (65.4%, hope for their recovery (50.7%, contacts with their friends (30.1%, and plans for future (34.6% were important for the women to control the disease.Conclusions. The findings suggest that family, personal, maternity problems are more important causes of social maladaptation in epileptic women.

  20. Adaptive Resolution Simulations: Applications and New Developments towards Open Systems MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    2013-03-01

    The relation between atomistic structure, architecture, molecular weight and material properties is a basic concern of modern soft matter science. A typical additional focus is on surface interface aspects or the relation between structure and function in nanoscopic molecular assemblies. Here computer simulations on different levels of resolution play an increasingly important role. To progress further adaptive schemes are being developed, which allow for a free exchange of particles (atoms, molecules) between the different levels of resolution. The lecture will concentrate on these methods, however will also include first approaches to connect particle based simulations to continuum as well as to include quantum effects. Furthermore the extension to open systems MD as well as new recent methodology advances will be explained. A general review on the first part can be found in M. Praprotnik et al. Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59, 2008 and recent advances in S. Fritsch et al. PRL 108, 170602 (2012)

  1. Open Boundary Simulations of Proteins and Their Hydration Shells by Hamiltonian Adaptive Resolution Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarenzi, Thomas; Calandrini, Vania; Potestio, Raffaello; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Carloni, Paolo

    2017-11-14

    The recently proposed Hamiltonian adaptive resolution scheme (H-AdResS) allows the performance of molecular simulations in an open boundary framework. It allows changing, on the fly, the resolution of specific subsets of molecules (usually the solvent), which are free to diffuse between the atomistic region and the coarse-grained reservoir. So far, the method has been successfully applied to pure liquids. Coupling the H-AdResS methodology to hybrid models of proteins, such as the molecular mechanics/coarse-grained (MM/CG) scheme, is a promising approach for rigorous calculations of ligand binding free energies in low-resolution protein models. Toward this goal, here we apply for the first time H-AdResS to two atomistic proteins in dual-resolution solvent, proving its ability to reproduce structural and dynamic properties of both the proteins and the solvent, as obtained from atomistic simulations.

  2. Adaptive MANET Multipath Routing Algorithm Based on the Simulated Annealing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize network topologies without any preexisting communication infrastructure. Due to characteristics like temporary topology and absence of centralized authority, routing is one of the major issues in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a new multipath routing scheme is proposed by employing simulated annealing approach. The proposed metaheuristic approach can achieve greater and reciprocal advantages in a hostile dynamic real world network situation. Therefore, the proposed routing scheme is a powerful method for finding an effective solution into the conflict mobile ad hoc network routing problem. Simulation results indicate that the proposed paradigm adapts best to the variation of dynamic network situations. The average remaining energy, network throughput, packet loss probability, and traffic load distribution are improved by about 10%, 10%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, more than the existing schemes.

  3. CONFIG - Adapting qualitative modeling and discrete event simulation for design of fault management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Basham, Bryan D.

    1989-01-01

    CONFIG is a modeling and simulation tool prototype for analyzing the normal and faulty qualitative behaviors of engineered systems. Qualitative modeling and discrete-event simulation have been adapted and integrated, to support early development, during system design, of software and procedures for management of failures, especially in diagnostic expert systems. Qualitative component models are defined in terms of normal and faulty modes and processes, which are defined by invocation statements and effect statements with time delays. System models are constructed graphically by using instances of components and relations from object-oriented hierarchical model libraries. Extension and reuse of CONFIG models and analysis capabilities in hybrid rule- and model-based expert fault-management support systems are discussed.

  4. Adaptive learning in agents behaviour: A framework for electricity markets simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Sousa, Tiago M.

    2014-01-01

    Electricity markets are complex environments, involving a large number of different entities, playing in a dynamic scene to obtain the best advantages and profits. MASCEM (Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets) is a multi-agent electricity market simulator that models market...... players and simulates their operation in the market. Market players are entities with specific characteristics and objectives, making their decisions and interacting with other players. This paper presents a methodology to provide decision support to electricity market negotiating players. This model...... allows integrating different strategic approaches for electricity market negotiations, and choosing the most appropriate one at each time, for each different negotiation context. This methodology is integrated in ALBidS (Adaptive Learning strategic Bidding System) – a multiagent system that provides...

  5. An Adaptive Semi-Implicit Scheme for Simulations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Crutchfield, William Y.; Bell, John B.; Colella, Phillip

    1995-01-01

    A numerical scheme for simulation of unsteady, viscous, compressible flows is considered. The scheme employs an explicit discretization of the inviscid terms of the Navier-Stokes equations and an implicit discretization of the viscous terms. The discretization is second order accurate in both space and time. Under appropriate assumptions, the implicit system of equations can be decoupled into two linear systems of reduced rank. These are solved efficiently using a Gauss-Seidel method with multigrid convergence acceleration. When coupled with a solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique, the hybrid explicit-implicit scheme provides an effective methodology for accurate simulations of unsteady viscous flows. The methodology is demonstrated for both body-fitted structured grids and for rectangular (Cartesian) grids.

  6. Greek adaptation and validation of the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J E; Rouse, M; Twiss, J; McKenna, S P; Vidalis, A A

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic rheumatic disease that has a significant impact on patient's quality of life (QoL). The Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) questionnaire is a disease-specific patient-reported outcome measure for assessing QoL in AS. While the ASQoL has been adapted for use in 46 countries worldwide, a Greek language version of the measure has not been available and was required for an international clinical trial. The aim was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a Greek language version of the ASQoL. The adaptation of the ASQoL into Greek involved three procedures: translation, assessment of face and content validity, and formal validation. The measure was translated into Greek using two translation panels. Cognitive debriefing interviews were employed to determine face and content validity. Finally, the translation's psychometric properties were examined by administering it on two occasions, with a 14-day interval. The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used as a comparator measure. The ASQoL proved straightforward to translate into Greek and interviewees found it relevant, comprehensible and easy to complete.  The measure had good internal consistency (α =0.92) and test-retest reliability (r =0.98). Predicted correlations with the NHP provided evidence of the convergent validity of the two measures. Construct validity was confirmed by the measure's ability to distinguish groups of AS patients varying by perceived disease severity and general health. The Greek ASQoL has been shown to be well-accepted, reliable and valid and can be recommended for use in clinical studies and routine clinical practice in AS. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):119-124.

  7. Adaptive Splitting Integrators for Enhancing Sampling Efficiency of Modified Hamiltonian Monte Carlo Methods in Molecular Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmatskaya, Elena; Fernández-Pendás, Mario; Radivojević, Tijana; Sanz-Serna, J M

    2017-10-24

    The modified Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (MHMC) methods, i.e., importance sampling methods that use modified Hamiltonians within a Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) framework, often outperform in sampling efficiency standard techniques such as molecular dynamics (MD) and HMC. The performance of MHMC may be enhanced further through the rational choice of the simulation parameters and by replacing the standard Verlet integrator with more sophisticated splitting algorithms. Unfortunately, it is not easy to identify the appropriate values of the parameters that appear in those algorithms. We propose a technique, that we call MAIA (Modified Adaptive Integration Approach), which, for a given simulation system and a given time step, automatically selects the optimal integrator within a useful family of two-stage splitting formulas. Extended MAIA (or e-MAIA) is an enhanced version of MAIA, which additionally supplies a value of the method-specific parameter that, for the problem under consideration, keeps the momentum acceptance rate at a user-desired level. The MAIA and e-MAIA algorithms have been implemented, with no computational overhead during simulations, in MultiHMC-GROMACS, a modified version of the popular software package GROMACS. Tests performed on well-known molecular models demonstrate the superiority of the suggested approaches over a range of integrators (both standard and recently developed), as well as their capacity to improve the sampling efficiency of GSHMC, a noticeable method for molecular simulation in the MHMC family. GSHMC combined with e-MAIA shows a remarkably good performance when compared to MD and HMC coupled with the appropriate adaptive integrators.

  8. Life cycle assessment of stormwater management in the context of climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Expected increases in pluvial flooding, due to climatic changes, require large investments in the retrofitting of cities to keep damage at an acceptable level. Many cities have investigated the possibility of implementing stormwater management (SWM) systems which are multi-functional and consist of different elements interacting to achieve desired safety levels. Typically, an economic assessment is carried out in the planning phase, while environmental sustainability is given little or no attention. In this paper, life cycle assessment is used to quantify environmental impacts of climate change adaptation strategies. The approach is tested using a climate change adaptation strategy for a catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark. A stormwater management system, using green infrastructure and local retention measures in combination with planned routing of stormwater on the surfaces to manage runoff, is compared to a traditional, sub-surface approach. Flood safety levels based on the Three Points Approach are defined as the functional unit to ensure comparability between systems. The adaptation plan has significantly lower impacts (3-18 person equivalents/year) than the traditional alternative (14-103 person equivalents/year) in all analysed impact categories. The main impacts are caused by managing rain events with return periods between 0.2 and 10 years. The impacts of handling smaller events with a return period of up to 0.2 years and extreme events with a return period of up to 100 years are lower in both alternatives. The uncertainty analysis shows the advantages of conducting an environmental assessment in the early stages of the planning process, when the design can still be optimised, but it also highlights the importance of detailed and site-specific data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life Questionnaire" into Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life (EoE-QoL-A Questionnaire" was developed in English as a valid, reliable, and disease-specific health-related QoL measure. This research aims to adapt and validate this questionnaire for Spanish-speaking patients. Patients and methods: A multicenter, observational, prospective study was conducted at 8 Spanish hospitals. The cultural adaptation of the original EoE-QoL-A questionnaire was undertaken through a standardized 3-phase procedure: 1. Translation; 2. Retrotranslation; and 3. Pilot study. Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Short Form (SF-12, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ, and the adapted EoE-QoL-A, with a retest 3 months later. Statistical analysis included construct validity, internal consistency, criterion validity, and reproducibility. Results: One hundred and seventy adult EoE patients (73.5 % male; aged 33.5 ± 11.4-y were included in the study. With regard to internal validity, all Cronbach alpha values were > 0.75. A significant correlation between items assessed in the SF-12, BIPQ and EoE-QoL-A questionnaires (p < 0.001 was observed. Correlations with the HADS were stronger for anxiety than for depression levels. Anxiety related to disease diagnosis and choking were the most affected dimensions; less affected were the dimensions related to eating, social, and emotional development. Intraclass correlation coefficients between the test and retest assessments were acceptable for all questionnaires, with the highest values (0.73-0.84 calculated for the EoE-QoL-A Spanish version. Conclusion: The Spanish version of the EoE-QoL-A is a reliable, valid, and responsive questionnaire. Diagnosis and choking anxiety were the most affected dimensions in the health-related QoL in adult EoE patients.

  10. Is life-history buffering or lability adaptive in stochastic environments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David N.; Pavard, Samuel; Baudisch, Annette

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly thought that temporal fluctuations in demographic parameters should be selected against because of the deleterious impacts variation can have on fitness. A critical underpinning of this prediction is the assumption that changes in environmental conditions map linearly into changes...... in demographic parameters over time. We detail why this assumption may often break down and why selection should not always favor buffering of demographic parameters against environmental stochasticity. To the contrary, nonlinear relationships between the environment and demographic performance can produce...... asymmetric temporal variation in demographic parameters that actually enhances fitness. We extend this result to structured populations using simulation and show that 'demographic lability' rather than 'buffering' may be adaptive, particularly in organisms with low juvenile or adult survival. Finally, we...

  11. Simulating the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Rogge, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs...... and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance...... is quantified in terms of the group’s system failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories. The underlying system model accounts for the structural redundancy of the frames and the interdependence among their failure events due to similar loading conditions. The model also...

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  13. Adaptive Optics Simulation for the World's Largest Telescope on Multicore Architectures with Multiple GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2016-06-02

    We present a high performance comprehensive implementation of a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) simulation on multicore architectures with hardware accelerators in the context of computational astronomy. This implementation will be used as an operational testbed for simulating the de- sign of new instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), the world\\'s biggest eye and one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. The simulation corresponds to a multi-step multi-stage pro- cedure, which is fed, near real-time, by system and turbulence data coming from the telescope environment. Based on the PLASMA library powered by the OmpSs dynamic runtime system, our implementation relies on a task-based programming model to permit an asynchronous out-of-order execution. Using modern multicore architectures associated with the enormous computing power of GPUS, the resulting data-driven compute-intensive simulation of the entire MOAO application, composed of the tomographic reconstructor and the observing sequence, is capable of coping with the aforementioned real-time challenge and stands as a reference implementation for the computational astronomy community.

  14. Simulated apoptosis/neurogenesis regulates learning and memory capabilities of adaptive neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R Andrew; Potenza, Marc N; Hoffman, Ralph E; Miranker, Willard

    2004-04-01

    Characterization of neuronal death and neurogenesis in the adult brain of birds, humans, and other mammals raises the possibility that neuronal turnover represents a special form of neuroplasticity associated with stress responses, cognition, and the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Multilayer neural network models capable of learning alphabetic character representations via incremental synaptic connection strength changes were used to assess additional learning and memory effects incurred by simulation of coordinated apoptotic and neurogenic events in the middle layer. Using a consistent incremental learning capability across all neurons and experimental conditions, increasing the number of middle layer neurons undergoing turnover increased network learning capacity for new information, and increased forgetting of old information. Simulations also showed that specific patterns of neural turnover based on individual neuronal connection characteristics, or the temporal-spatial pattern of neurons chosen for turnover during new learning impacts new learning performance. These simulations predict that apoptotic and neurogenic events could act together to produce specific learning and memory effects beyond those provided by ongoing mechanisms of connection plasticity in neuronal populations. Regulation of rates as well as patterns of neuronal turnover may serve an important function in tuning the informatic properties of plastic networks according to novel informational demands. Analogous regulation in the hippocampus may provide for adaptive cognitive and emotional responses to novel and stressful contexts, or operate suboptimally as a basis for psychiatric disorders. The implications of these elementary simulations for future biological and neural modeling research on apoptosis and neurogenesis are discussed.

  15. Neural and Behavioral Evidence for the Role of Mental Simulation in Meaning in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waytz, Adam; Hershfield, Hal E; Tamir, Diana I

    2014-01-01

    Mental simulation, the process of self-projection into alternate temporal, spatial, social, or hypothetical realities is a distinctively human capacity. Numerous lines of research also suggest that the tendency for mental simulation is associated with enhanced meaning. The present research tests this association specifically examining the relationship between two forms of simulation (temporal and spatial) and meaning in life. Study 1 uses neuroimaging to demonstrate that enhanced connectivity in the medial temporal lobe network, a subnetwork of the brain’s default network implicated in prospection and retrospection, correlates with self-reported meaning in life. Study 2 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think about the past or future versus the present enhances self-reported meaning in life, through the generation of more meaningful events. Study 3 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think specifically versus generally about the past or future enhances self-reported meaning in life. Study 4 turns to spatial simulation to demonstrate that experimentally inducing people to think specifically about an alternate spatial location (from the present) increases meaning derived from this simulation compared to thinking generally about another location or specifically about one’s present location. Study 5 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think about an alternate spatial location versus one’s present location enhances meaning in life, through meaning derived from this simulation. Study 6 demonstrates that simply asking people to imagine completing a measure of meaning in life in an alternate location compared to asking them to do so in their present location enhances reports of meaning. This research sheds light on an important determinant of meaning in life and suggests that undirected mental simulation benefits psychological well-being. PMID:25603379

  16. Adaptation of non-technical skills behavioural markers for delivery room simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Fabrizio; Masini, Michele; De Tonetti, Gabriele; Brogioni, Francesca; Amidani, Arianna; Monichino, Sara; Maltoni, Alessandra; Dato, Andrea; Grattarola, Claudia; Cordone, Massimo; Torre, Giancarlo; Launo, Claudio; Chiorri, Carlo; Celleno, Danilo

    2017-03-17

    Simulation in healthcare has proved to be a useful method in improving skills and increasing the safety of clinical operations. The debriefing session, after the simulated scenario, is the core of the simulation, since it allows participants to integrate the experience with the theoretical frameworks and the procedural guidelines. There is consistent evidence for the relevance of non-technical skills (NTS) for the safe and efficient accomplishment of operations. However, the observation, assessment and feedback on these skills is particularly complex, because the process needs expert observers and the feedback is often provided in judgmental and ineffective ways. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and test a set of observation and rating forms for the NTS behavioural markers of multi-professional teams involved in delivery room emergency simulations (MINTS-DR, Multi-professional Inventory for Non-Technical Skills in the Delivery Room). The MINTS-DR was developed by adapting the existing tools and, when needed, by designing new tools according to the literature. We followed a bottom-up process accompanied by interviews and co-design between practitioners and psychology experts. The forms were specific for anaesthetists, gynaecologists, nurses/midwives, assistants, plus a global team assessment tool. We administered the tools in five editions of a simulation training course that involved 48 practitioners. Ratings on usability and usefulness were collected. The mean ratings of the usability and usefulness of the tools were not statistically different to or higher than 4 on a 5-point rating scale. In either case no significant differences were found across professional categories. The MINTS-DR is quick and easy to administer. It is judged to be a useful asset in maximising the learning experience that is provided by the simulation.

  17. Application of combined analytical/FEA coupled aero-structure simulation in design of wind turbine adaptive blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheri, Alireza; Noroozi, Siamak; Vinney, John [Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    This paper demonstrates the application of combined analytical/FEA coupled aero-structure simulation in design of bend-twist adaptive blades. A genetic algorithm based design tool, in which the power curve is predicted through a combined coupled aero-structure simulation, has been developed. A bend-twist adaptive blade has been designed to be used on the rotor of a constant speed stall regulated wind turbine. The bend-twist adaptive blade is assumed to be made out of anisotropic composite materials. The designed blade has the same aerofoil and chord distribution as the original blade used on the wind turbine, but with a different pre-twist distribution. The simulated results show a significant improvement in the average power of the studied stall regulated wind turbine when employing the designed adaptive blades. (author)

  18. ADRC or adaptive controller--A simulation study on artificial blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Zheng, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has gained popularity because it requires little knowledge about the system to be controlled, has the inherent disturbance rejection ability, and is easy to tune and implement in practical systems. In this paper, the authors compared the performance of an ADRC and an adaptive controller for an artificial blood pump for end-stage congestive heart failure patients using only the feedback signal of pump differential pressure. The purpose of the control system was to provide sufficient perfusion when the patients' circulation system goes through different pathological and activity variations. Because the mean arterial pressure is equal to the total peripheral flow times the total peripheral resistance, this goal was converted to an expression of making the mean aortic pressure track a reference signal. The simulation results demonstrated that the performance of the ADRC is comparable to that of the adaptive controller with the saving of modeling and computational effort and fewer design parameters: total peripheral flow and mean aortic pressure with ADRC fall within the normal physiological ranges in activity variation (rest to exercise) and in pathological variation (left ventricular strength variation), similar to those values of adaptive controller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation hydrodynamics using characteristics on adaptive decomposed domains for massively parallel star formation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntemeyer, Lars; Banerjee, Robi; Peters, Thomas; Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2016-02-01

    We present an algorithm for solving the radiative transfer problem on massively parallel computers using adaptive mesh refinement and domain decomposition. The solver is based on the method of characteristics which requires an adaptive raytracer that integrates the equation of radiative transfer. The radiation field is split into local and global components which are handled separately to overcome the non-locality problem. The solver is implemented in the framework of the magneto-hydrodynamics code FLASH and is coupled by an operator splitting step. The goal is the study of radiation in the context of star formation simulations with a focus on early disc formation and evolution. This requires a proper treatment of radiation physics that covers both the optically thin as well as the optically thick regimes and the transition region in particular. We successfully show the accuracy and feasibility of our method in a series of standard radiative transfer problems and two 3D collapse simulations resembling the early stages of protostar and disc formation.

  20. Novel applications of an adaptive optics visual simulator in the clinical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald R.; Abdala, Alexandra; Rocha, Karolinne; Chateau, Nicolas; Vabre, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical benefit of using an adaptive optics visual simulator (AOVS) and its impact in different clinical settings. Methods: An adaptive optics visual simulator performed the experimental procedure and was used to optically introduce aberrations in 9 normal eyes for visual acuity (VA) change, and in 10 cyclopleged eyes for enhancing depth of focus (DoF). AOVS was also used to correct 20 highly aberrated eyes. Results: The correction/induction of high order aberrations (HOA) alters the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) by a mean of ~1 to 1.5 lines compared to the best spectacle correction. The depth of focus (DoF) was most enhanced (~2.0 D) with the introduction of negative and positive spherical aberration of 0.6 μm magnitude. The correction of HOAs in highly aberrated eyes improved BCVA by a mean of ~1.5 to 2 lines in two groups of pathological eyes. Conclusions: Aberrations have differing effects according to their clinical use. The AOVS defines the clinical response of HOAs on VA, visual perceptions and DoF.

  1. Life Adaptation Skills Training (LAST) for persons with depression: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Ling; Pan, Ay-Woan; Hsiung, Ping-Chuan; Chung, Lyinn; Lai, Jin-Shei; Shur-Fen Gau, Susan; Chen, Tsyr-Jang

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the "Life Adaptation Skills Training (LAST)" program for persons with depression. Sixty-eight subjects with depressive disorder were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in Taipei city and were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (N=33), or a control group (N=35). The intervention group received 24-sessions of the LAST program, as well as phone contact mainly related to support for a total of 24 times. The control group only received phone contact 24 times. The primary outcome measure utilized was the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF-Taiwan version. Secondary outcome measures included the Occupational self-assessment, the Mastery scale, the Social support questionnaire, the Beck anxiety inventory, the Beck depression inventory-II, and the Beck scale for suicide ideation. The mixed-effects linear model was applied to analyze the incremental efficacy of the LAST program, and the partial eta squared (ηp(2)) was used to examine the within- and between- group effect size. The subjects who participated in the LAST program showed significant incremental improvements with moderate to large between-group effect sizes on their level of anxiety (-5.45±2.34, pskills enhancement, could significantly improve the level of anxiety and suicidal ideations for persons with depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Older Adults Making End of Life Decisions: An Application of Roy's Adaptation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that influenced completion of advanced directives in the context of adaptation from national data in older adults. Knowledge gained from this study would help us identify factors that might influence end of life discussions and shed light on strategies on effective communication on advance care planning. Design and Method. A model-testing design and path analysis were used to examine secondary data from 938 participants. Items were extracted from the data set to correspond to variables for this study. Scales were constructed and reliabilities were tested. Results. The final path model showed that physical impairment, self-rated health, continuing to work, and family structure had direct and indirect effects on completion of advanced directives. Five percent of the variance was accounted for by the path analysis. Conclusion. The variance accounted for by the model was small. This could have been due to the use of secondary data and limitations imposed for measurement. However, health care providers and families should explore patient’s perception of self-health as well as their family and work situation in order to strategize a motivational discussion on advance directive or end of life care planning.

  3. In Patients with Cirrhosis, Driving Simulator Performance is Associated With Real-life Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Enok Munk; Thacker, Leroy R; White, Melanie B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been linked to higher real-life rates of automobile crashes and poor performance in driving simulation studies, but the link between driving simulator performance and real-life automobile crashes has not been clearly established. Further...... months) seen at the Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, from November 2008 through April 2014. All participants were given paper-pencil tests to diagnose MHE (98 had MHE, 48%), and 163 patients completed a standardized driving simulation. Data were....... The driving simulator measured crashes, run-time, road center and edge excursions, and illegal turns during navigation; before and after each driving simulation session, patients were asked to rate their overall driving skills. Drivers were classified as safe or unsafe based on crashes and violations reported...

  4. Maintaining everyday life in a family with a dying parent: Teenagers' experiences of adapting to responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Ulrica; Sandell, Rolf; Henriksson, Anette

    2015-12-01

    Teenagers are living through a turbulent period in their development, when they are breaking away from the family to form their own identities, and so they are particularly vulnerable to the stressful situation of having a parent affected by a progressive and incurable illness. The current study sought to gain more knowledge about the ways that teenagers themselves describe living in a family with a seriously ill and dying parent. More specifically, the aims were to describe how teenagers are emotionally affected by everyday life in a family with a dying parent and to determine how they attempt to adapt to this situation. The study employed a descriptive and interpretive design using qualitative content analysis. A total of 10 teenagers (aged 14-19 years, 7 boys and 3 girls) participated through repeated, individual, informal interviews that were carried out as free-ranging conversations. While contending with their own vulnerable developmental period of life, the teenagers were greatly affected by their parent's illness and took on great responsibility for supporting their parents and siblings, and for maintaining family life. Lacking sufficient information and support left them rather unprepared, having to guess and to interpret the vague signs of failing health on their own, with feelings of uncertainty and loneliness as a consequence. Support from healthcare professionals should be designed to help and encourage parents to have open communications about their illness with their teenaged children. Our results add further support to the literature, reinforcing the need for an approach that uses a systemic perspective and considers the family to be the appropriate unit of care and offers a suitable support system.

  5. Adaptation to Spanish language and validation of the fecal incontinence quality of life scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Miguel; Garrigues, Vicente; Soria, Maria Jose; Andreu, Montserrat; Mearin, Fermin; Clave, Pere

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale in the Spanish language. Eleven hospitals in Spain participated in the study, which included 118 patients with active fecal incontinence. All the patients filled out a questionnaire on the severity of their incontinence, a general questionnaire of health (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form), and a Spanish translation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal), which consists of 29 items in four domains: lifestyle, behavior, depression, and embarrassment. On a second visit, patients repeated the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. For each domain, an evaluation was made of temporal reliability, internal reliability, the convergent validity with the generic questionnaire of health, and the discriminant validity correlating the domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal with the severity of fecal incontinence. For cultural adaptation, the answer alternatives for 14 items were modified. A total of 111 patients (94 percent) completed the study adequately. Temporal reliability (test-retest) was good for all domains except for embarrassment, which showed significant differences (P 0.80, between 0.84 and 0.96). The four domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal significantly correlated with the domains of the generic questionnaire on health (P Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal correlated negatively with the need to wear pads (P Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal incorporates sufficient requirements of reliability and validity to be applied to patients with fecal incontinence.

  6. Effect of imperfect detectability on adaptive and conventional sampling: simulated sampling of freshwater mussels in the upper Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R; Gray, Brian R; Newton, Teresa J; Nichols, Doug

    2010-11-01

    Adaptive sampling designs are recommended where, as is typical with freshwater mussels, the outcome of interest is rare and clustered. However, the performance of adaptive designs has not been investigated when outcomes are not only rare and clustered but also imperfectly detected. We address this combination of challenges using data simulated to mimic properties of freshwater mussels from a reach of the upper Mississippi River. Simulations were conducted under a range of sample sizes and detection probabilities. Under perfect detection, efficiency of the adaptive sampling design increased relative to the conventional design as sample size increased and as density decreased. Also, the probability of sampling occupied habitat was four times higher for adaptive than conventional sampling of the lowest density population examined. However, imperfect detection resulted in substantial biases in sample means and variances under both adaptive sampling and conventional designs. The efficiency of adaptive sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Also, the probability of encountering an occupied unit during adaptive sampling, relative to conventional sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Thus, the potential gains in the application of adaptive sampling to rare and clustered populations relative to conventional sampling are reduced when detection is imperfect. The results highlight the need to increase or estimate detection to improve performance of conventional and adaptive sampling designs.

  7. Effect of imperfect detectability on adaptive and conventional sampling: Simulated sampling of freshwater mussels in the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Gray, B.R.; Newton, T.J.; Nichols, D.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive sampling designs are recommended where, as is typical with freshwater mussels, the outcome of interest is rare and clustered. However, the performance of adaptive designs has not been investigated when outcomes are not only rare and clustered but also imperfectly detected. We address this combination of challenges using data simulated to mimic properties of freshwater mussels from a reach of the upper Mississippi River. Simulations were conducted under a range of sample sizes and detection probabilities. Under perfect detection, efficiency of the adaptive sampling design increased relative to the conventional design as sample size increased and as density decreased. Also, the probability of sampling occupied habitat was four times higher for adaptive than conventional sampling of the lowest density population examined. However, imperfect detection resulted in substantial biases in sample means and variances under both adaptive sampling and conventional designs. The efficiency of adaptive sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Also, the probability of encountering an occupied unit during adaptive sampling, relative to conventional sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Thus, the potential gains in the application of adaptive sampling to rare and clustered populations relative to conventional sampling are reduced when detection is imperfect. The results highlight the need to increase or estimate detection to improve performance of conventional and adaptive sampling designs.

  8. High resolution crop growth simulation for identification of potential adaptation strategies under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Yoo, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Impact assessment of climate change on crop production would facilitate planning of adaptation strategies. Because socio-environmental conditions would differ by local areas, it would be advantageous to assess potential adaptation measures at a specific area. The objectives of this study was to develop a crop growth simulation system at a very high spatial resolution, e.g., 30 m, and to assess different adaptation options including shift of planting date and use of different cultivars. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model was used to predict yields of soybean and maize in Korea. Gridded data for climate and soil were used to prepare input data for the DSSAT model. Weather input data were prepared at the resolution of 30 m using bilinear interpolation from gridded climate scenario data. Those climate data were obtained from Korean Meteorology Administration. Spatial resolution of temperature and precipitation was 1 km whereas that of solar radiation was 12.5 km. Soil series data at the 30 m resolution were obtained from the soil database operated by Rural Development Administration, Korea. The SOL file, which is a soil input file for the DSSAT model was prepared using physical and chemical properties of a given soil series, which were available from the soil database. Crop yields were predicted by potential adaptation options based on planting date and cultivar. For example, 10 planting dates and three cultivars were used to identify ideal management options for climate change adaptation. In prediction of maize yield, combination of 20 planting dates and two cultivars was used as management options. Predicted crop yields differed by site even within a relatively small region. For example, the maximum of average yields for 2001-2010 seasons differed by sites In a county of which areas is 520 km2 (Fig. 1). There was also spatial variation in the ideal management option in the region (Fig. 2). These results suggested that local

  9. Parallel Adaptive High-Order CFD Simulations Characterizing Cavity Acoustics for the Complete SOFIA Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Michael F.; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.; Biswas, Rupak

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents one-of-a-kind MPI-parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA is an airborne, 2.5-meter infrared telescope mounted in an open cavity in the aft of a Boeing 747SP. These simulations focus on how the unsteady flow field inside and over the cavity interferes with the optical path and mounting of the telescope. A temporally fourth-order Runge-Kutta, and spatially fifth-order WENO-5Z scheme was used to perform implicit large eddy simulations. An immersed boundary method provides automated gridding for complex geometries and natural coupling to a block-structured Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement framework. Strong scaling studies using NASA's Pleiades supercomputer with up to 32,000 cores and 4 billion cells shows excellent scaling. Dynamic load balancing based on execution time on individual AMR blocks addresses irregularities caused by the highly complex geometry. Limits to scaling beyond 32K cores are identified, and targeted code optimizations are discussed.

  10. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  11. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life Scale for European Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roque dos Reis

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: This adaptation of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire for European Portuguese speakers should be considered a good tool for evaluation of the level of satisfaction of hearing aid users, and until now, is the only available scale for speakers of European Portuguese.

  12. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Validate Online Game Players' Motivations Relative to Self-Concept and Life Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Huang, Chiao Ling

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a systematic instrument to measure online players' motivations for playing online games (MPOG) and examine how the interplay of differential motivations impacts young gamers' self-concept and life adaptation. Confirmatory factor analysis determined that a hierarchical model with a two-factor structure of…

  13. Artificial Cells: Synthetic Compartments with Life-like Functionality and Adaptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddingh', Bastiaan C; van Hest, Jan C M

    2017-04-18

    Cells are highly advanced microreactors that form the basis of all life. Their fascinating complexity has inspired scientists to create analogs from synthetic and natural components using a bottom-up approach. The ultimate goal here is to assemble a fully man-made cell that displays functionality and adaptivity as advanced as that found in nature, which will not only provide insight into the fundamental processes in natural cells but also pave the way for new applications of such artificial cells. In this Account, we highlight our recent work and that of others on the construction of artificial cells. First, we will introduce the key features that characterize a living system; next, we will discuss how these have been imitated in artificial cells. First, compartmentalization is crucial to separate the inner chemical milieu from the external environment. Current state-of-the-art artificial cells comprise subcompartments to mimic the hierarchical architecture of eukaryotic cells and tissue. Furthermore, synthetic gene circuits have been used to encode genetic information that creates complex behavior like pulses or feedback. Additionally, artificial cells have to reproduce to maintain a population. Controlled growth and fission of synthetic compartments have been demonstrated, but the extensive regulation of cell division in nature is still unmatched. Here, we also point out important challenges the field needs to overcome to realize its full potential. As artificial cells integrate increasing orders of functionality, maintaining a supporting metabolism that can regenerate key metabolites becomes crucial. Furthermore, life does not operate in isolation. Natural cells constantly sense their environment, exchange (chemical) signals, and can move toward a chemoattractant. Here, we specifically explore recent efforts to reproduce such adaptivity in artificial cells. For instance, synthetic compartments have been produced that can recruit proteins to the membrane upon an

  14. Reactively and Anticipatory Behaving Agents for Artificial Life Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Karel; Nahodil, Pavel

    2010-11-01

    Reactive behavior is still considered and the exact opposite for the anticipatory one. Despite the advances on the field of anticipation there are little thoughts on relation with the reactive behavior, the similarities and where the boundary is. In this article we will present our viewpoint and we will try to show that reactive and anticipatory behavior can be combined. This is the basic ground of our unified theory for anticipatory behavior architecture. We still miss such compact theory, which would integrate multiple aspects of anticipation. My multi-level anticipatory behavior approach is based on the current understanding of anticipation from both the artificial intelligence and biology point of view. As part of the explanation we will also elaborate on the topic of weak and strong artificial life. Anticipation is not matter of a single mechanism in a living organism. It was noted already that it happens on many different levels even in the very simple creatures. What we consider to be important for our work and what is our original though is that it happens even without voluntary control. We believe that this is novelty though for the anticipation theory. Naturally research of anticipation was in the beginning of this decade focused on the anticipatory principles bringing advances on the field itself. This allowed us to build on those, look at them from higher perspective, and use not one but multiple levels of anticipation in a creature design. This presents second original though and that is composition of the agent architecture that has anticipation built in almost every function. In this article we will focus only on first two levels within the 8-factor anticipation framework. We will introduce them as defined categories of anticipation and describe them from theory and implementation algorithm point of view. We will also present an experiment conducted, however this experiment serves more as explanatory example. These first two levels may seem trivial

  15. High correlation between performance on a virtual-reality simulator and real-life cataract surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Smith, Phillip; Subhi, Yousif

    2017-01-01

    antitremor training, forceps training, bimanual training, capsulorhexis and phaco divide and conquer. RESULTS: Eleven surgeons were enrolled. After a designated warm-up period, the proficiency-based test on the EyeSi simulator was strongly correlated to real-life performance measured by motion......-tracking software of cataract surgical videos with a Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.70 (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Performance on the EyeSi simulator is significantly and highly correlated to real-life surgical performance. However, it is recommended that performance assessments are made using multiple data...

  16. SU-F-J-110: MRI-Guided Single-Session Simulation, Online Adaptation, and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P; Geurts, M; Mittauer, K; Bayouth, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a combined simulation and treatment workflow for MRI-guided radiation therapy using the ViewRay treatment planning and delivery system. Methods: Several features of the ViewRay MRIdian planning and treatment workflows are used to simulate and treat patients that require emergent radiotherapy. A simple “pre-plan” is created on diagnostic imaging retrieved from radiology PACS, where conformal fields are created to target a volume defined by a physician based on review of the diagnostic images and chart notes. After initial consult in radiation oncology, the patient is brought to the treatment room, immobilized, and imaged in treatment position with a volumetric MR. While the patient rests on the table, the pre-plan is applied to the treatment planning MR and dose is calculated in the treatment geometry. After physician review, modification of the plan may include updating the target definition, redefining fields, or re-balancing beam weights. Once an acceptable treatment plan is finalized and approved, the patient is treated. Results: Careful preparation and judicious choices in the online planning process allow conformal treatment plans to be created and delivered in a single, thirty-minute session. Several advantages have been identified using this process as compared to conventional urgent CT simulation and delivery. Efficiency gains are notable, as physicians appreciate the predictable time commitment and patient waiting time for treatment is decreased. MR guidance in a treatment position offers both enhanced contrast for target delineation and reduction of setup uncertainties. The MRIdian system tools designed for adaptive radiotherapy are particularly useful, enabling plan changes to be made in minutes. Finally, the resulting plans, typically 6 conformal beams, are delivered as quickly as more conventional AP/PA beam arrangements with comparatively superior dose distributions. Conclusion: The ViewRay treatment planning software and

  17. Adaptive Finite Element Method Assisted by Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic models of chemical systems are often analyzed by solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation, which is a drift-diffusion partial differential equation for the probability distribution function. Efficient numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation requires adaptive mesh refinements. In this paper, we present a mesh refinement approach which makes use of a stochastic simulation of the underlying chemical system. By observing the stochastic trajectory for a relatively short amount of time, the areas of the state space with nonnegligible probability density are identified. By refining the finite element mesh in these areas, and coarsening elsewhere, a suitable mesh is constructed and used for the computation of the stationary probability density. Numerical examples demonstrate that the presented method is competitive with existing a posteriori methods. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. Repeatability of a Commercially Available Adaptive Optics Visual Simulator and Aberrometer in Normal and Keratoconic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rohit; Kochar, Shruti; Grover, Tushar; Khamar, Pooja; Kusumgar, Pallak; Sainani, Kanchan; Sinha Roy, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of aberration measurement obtained by a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer combined with a visual adaptive optics simulator in normal and keratoconic eyes. One hundred fifteen normal eyes and 92 eyes with grade I and II keratoconus, as per the Amsler-Krumeich classification, were included in the study. To evaluate the repeatability, three consecutive measurements of ocular aberrations were obtained by a single operator. Zernike analyses up to the 5th order for a pupil size of 4.5 mm were performed. Statistical analyses included the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject standard deviation (SD). For intrasession repeatability, the ICC value for sphere and cylinder was 0.94 and 0.93 in normal eyes and 0.98 and 0.97 in keratoconic eyes, respectively. The ICC for root mean square of higher order aberrations (HOARMS) was 0.82 in normal and 0.98 in keratoconic eyes. For 3rd order aberrations (trefoil and coma), the ICC values were greater than 0.87 for normal eyes and greater than 0.92 for keratoconic eyes. The ICC for spherical aberration was 0.92 and 0.90 in normal and keratoconic eyes, respectively. Visual adaptive optics provided repeatable aberrometry data in both normal and keratoconic eyes. For most of the parameters, the repeatability in eyes with early keratoconus was somewhat better than that for normal eyes. The repeatability of the Zernike terms was acceptable for 3rd order (trefoil and coma) and spherical aberrations. Therefore, visual adaptive optics was a suitable tool to perform repeatable aberrometric measurements. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(11):769-772.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Initial reconstruction results from a simulated adaptive small animal C shaped PET/MR insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimiou, Nikos [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Kostou, Theodora; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras (Greece); Charalampos, Tsoumpas [Division of Biomedical Imaging, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Loudos, George [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    Traditionally, most clinical and preclinical PET scanners, rely on full cylindrical geometry for whole body as well as dedicated organ scans, which is not optimized with regards to sensitivity and resolution. Several groups proposed the construction of dedicated PET inserts for MR scanners, rather than the construction of new integrated PET/MR scanners. The space inside an MR scanner is a limiting factor which can be reduced further with the use of extra coils, and render the use of non-flexible cylindrical PET scanners difficult if not impossible. The incorporation of small SiPM arrays, can provide the means to design adaptive PET scanners to fit in tight locations, which, makes imaging possible and improve the sensitivity, due to the closer approximation to the organ of interest. In order to assess the performance of such a device we simulated the geometry of a C shaped PET, using GATE. The design of the C-PET was based on a realistic SiPM-BGO scenario. In order reconstruct the simulated data, with STIR, we had to calculate system probability matrix which corresponds to this non standard geometry. For this purpose we developed an efficient multi threaded ray tracing technique to calculate the line integral paths in voxel arrays. One of the major features is the ability to automatically adjust the size of FOV according to the geometry of the detectors. The initial results showed that the sensitivity improved as the angle between the detector arrays increases, thus better angular sampling the scanner's field of view (FOV). The more complete angular coverage helped in improving the shape of the source in the reconstructed images, as well. Furthermore, by adapting the FOV to the closer to the size of the source, the sensitivity per voxel is improved.

  20. Nasal airflow simulations suggest convergent adaptation in Neanderthals and modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, S; González, M F; Cintas, C; Ramallo, V; Quinto-Sánchez, M; Márquez, F; Hünemeier, T; Paschetta, C; Ruderman, A; Navarro, P; Pazos, B A; Silva de Cerqueira, C C; Velan, O; Ramírez-Rozzi, F; Calvo, N; Castro, H G; Paz, R R; González-José, R

    2017-10-30

    Both modern humans (MHs) and Neanderthals successfully settled across western Eurasian cold-climate landscapes. Among the many adaptations considered as essential to survival in such landscapes, changes in the nasal morphology and/or function aimed to humidify and warm the air before it reaches the lungs are of key importance. Unfortunately, the lack of soft-tissue evidence in the fossil record turns difficult any comparative study of respiratory performance. Here, we reconstruct the internal nasal cavity of a Neanderthal plus two representatives of climatically divergent MH populations (southwestern Europeans and northeastern Asians). The reconstruction includes mucosa distribution enabling a realistic simulation of the breathing cycle in different climatic conditions via computational fluid dynamics. Striking across-specimens differences in fluid residence times affecting humidification and warming performance at the anterior tract were found under cold/dry climate simulations. Specifically, the Asian model achieves a rapid air conditioning, followed by the Neanderthals, whereas the European model attains a proper conditioning only around the medium-posterior tract. In addition, quantitative-genetic evolutionary analyses of nasal morphology provided signals of stabilizing selection for MH populations, with the removal of Arctic populations turning covariation patterns compatible with evolution by genetic drift. Both results indicate that, departing from important craniofacial differences existing among Neanderthals and MHs, an advantageous species-specific respiratory performance in cold climates may have occurred in both species. Fluid dynamics and evolutionary biology independently provided evidence of nasal evolution, suggesting that adaptive explanations regarding complex functional phenotypes require interdisciplinary approaches aimed to quantify both performance and evolutionary signals on covariation patterns. Published under the PNAS license.

  1. An adaptive evolutionary multi-objective approach based on simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Landa-Silva, D

    2011-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization problem can be solved by decomposing it into one or more single objective subproblems in some multi-objective metaheuristic algorithms. Each subproblem corresponds to one weighted aggregation function. For example, MOEA/D is an evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) algorithm that attempts to optimize multiple subproblems simultaneously by evolving a population of solutions. However, the performance of MOEA/D highly depends on the initial setting and diversity of the weight vectors. In this paper, we present an improved version of MOEA/D, called EMOSA, which incorporates an advanced local search technique (simulated annealing) and adapts the search directions (weight vectors) corresponding to various subproblems. In EMOSA, the weight vector of each subproblem is adaptively modified at the lowest temperature in order to diversify the search toward the unexplored parts of the Pareto-optimal front. Our computational results show that EMOSA outperforms six other well established multi-objective metaheuristic algorithms on both the (constrained) multi-objective knapsack problem and the (unconstrained) multi-objective traveling salesman problem. Moreover, the effects of the main algorithmic components and parameter sensitivities on the search performance of EMOSA are experimentally investigated.

  2. Verification and validation of impinging round jet simulations using an adaptive FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Dominique; Turgeon, Éric; Tremblay, Dominique

    2004-03-01

    This paper illustrates the use of an adaptive finite element method as a means of achieving verification of codes and simulations of impinging round jets, that is obtaining numerical predictions with controlled accuracy. Validation of these grid-independent solution is then performed by comparing predictions to measurements. We adopt the standard and accepted definitions of verification and validation (Technical Report AIAA-G-077-1998, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1998; Verification and Validation in Computational Science and Engineering. Hermosa Publishers: Albuquerque, NM, 1998). Mesh adaptation is used to perform the systematic and rigorous grid refinement studies required for both verification and validation in CFD. This ensures that discrepancies observed between predictions and measurements are due to deficiencies in the mathematical model of the flow. Issues in verification and validation are discussed. The paper presents an example of code verification by the method of manufactured solution. Examples of successful and unsuccessful validation for laminar and turbulent impinging jets show that agreement with experiments is achieved only with a good mathematical model of the flow physics combined with accurate numerical solution of the differential equations. The paper emphasizes good CFD practice to systematically achieve verification so that validation studies are always performed on solid grounds.

  3. Application of adaptive hierarchical sparse grid collocation to the uncertainty quantification of nuclear reactor simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankov, A.; Downar, T. [University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent efforts in the application of uncertainty quantification to nuclear systems have utilized methods based on generalized perturbation theory and stochastic sampling. While these methods have proven to be effective they both have major drawbacks that may impede further progress. A relatively new approach based on spectral elements for uncertainty quantification is applied in this paper to several problems in reactor simulation. Spectral methods based on collocation attempt to couple the approximation free nature of stochastic sampling methods with the determinism of generalized perturbation theory. The specific spectral method used in this paper employs both the Smolyak algorithm and adaptivity by using Newton-Cotes collocation points along with linear hat basis functions. Using this approach, a surrogate model for the outputs of a computer code is constructed hierarchically by adaptively refining the collocation grid until the interpolant is converged to a user-defined threshold. The method inherently fits into the framework of parallel computing and allows for the extraction of meaningful statistics and data that are not within reach of stochastic sampling and generalized perturbation theory. This paper aims to demonstrate the advantages of spectral methods-especially when compared to current methods used in reactor physics for uncertainty quantification-and to illustrate their full potential. (authors)

  4. Clustering of tethered satellite system simulation data by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Pemmaraju, Surya

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in neuro-fuzzy systems indicate that the concepts of adaptive pattern recognition, when used to identify appropriate control actions corresponding to clusters of patterns representing system states in dynamic nonlinear control systems, may result in innovative designs. A modular, unsupervised neural network architecture, in which fuzzy learning rules have been embedded is used for on-line identification of similar states. The architecture and control rules involved in Adaptive Fuzzy Leader Clustering (AFLC) allow this system to be incorporated in control systems for identification of system states corresponding to specific control actions. We have used this algorithm to cluster the simulation data of Tethered Satellite System (TSS) to estimate the range of delta voltages necessary to maintain the desired length rate of the tether. The AFLC algorithm is capable of on-line estimation of the appropriate control voltages from the corresponding length error and length rate error without a priori knowledge of their membership functions and familarity with the behavior of the Tethered Satellite System.

  5. The morphing method as a flexible tool for adaptive local/non-local simulation of static fracture

    KAUST Repository

    Azdoud, Yan

    2014-04-19

    We introduce a framework that adapts local and non-local continuum models to simulate static fracture problems. Non-local models based on the peridynamic theory are promising for the simulation of fracture, as they allow discontinuities in the displacement field. However, they remain computationally expensive. As an alternative, we develop an adaptive coupling technique based on the morphing method to restrict the non-local model adaptively during the evolution of the fracture. The rest of the structure is described by local continuum mechanics. We conduct all simulations in three dimensions, using the relevant discretization scheme in each domain, i.e., the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method in the peridynamic domain and the continuous finite element method in the local continuum mechanics domain. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Evaluating climate change adaptation options for urban flooding in Copenhagen based on new high‐end emission scenario simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Leonhardsen, Lykke; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Climate change adaptation studies on urban flooding are often based on a model chain approach from climate forcing scenarios to analysis of adaptation measures. Previous analyses of impacts in Denmark using ensemble projections of the A1B scenario are supplemented by two high‐end scenario simulations. These include a regional climate model projection forced to a global temperature increase of 6 degrees as well as a projection based on the RCP8.5 scenario. With these scenarios projected impact...

  7. [Cross-cultural adaptation of LIFE-H 3.1: an instrument for assessing social participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Fernanda Sabine Nunes de; Faria-Fortini, Iza de; Basílio, Marluce Lopes; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Carvalho, Augusto Cesinando de; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2016-06-20

    Restrictions in participation cause serious problems for individuals with chronic disabling conditions. The use of questionnaires to assess participation allows studying the impact of such chronic conditions on functionality, besides potentially improving intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to translate the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H 3.1) into Brazilian Portuguese language and adapt the questionnaire to the Brazilian culture. The cross-cultural adaptation followed standard guidelines and was conducted in five stages: translation, back-translation, summary of the translations, expert committee consultation, and testing the pre-final version. The final version of the LIFE-H 3.1 for use in Brazil showed satisfactory semantic, linguistic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. Future studies should continue the process of validating the questionnaire.

  8. Behavioural adaptations of argulid parasites (Crustacea: Branchiura) to major challenges in their life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V N; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

    2015-07-25

    Fish lice (Argulus spp.) are obligate ectoparasites, which contrary to most aquatic parasites, retain the ability to swim freely throughout the whole of their life. In fish farms, they can quickly increase in numbers and without effective control cause argulosis, which results in the reduced growth and survival of their fish hosts. The morphology of Argulus spp, including their sensory organs, is suitable for both parasitism and free-swimming. By spending a considerable amount of time away from their host, these parasites risk being excessively dispersed, which could endanger mating success. Here we present a review of recent studies on the behaviour of Argulus spp, especially the aggregative behaviour that mitigates the dilution of the parasite population. Aggregation of parasites, which is especially important during the period of reproduction, occurs on different scales and involves both the aggregation of the host and the aggregation of the parasites on the host. The main behavioural adaptations of Argulus spp, including searches for hosts and mates, host manipulation and host choice, are all focused on the fish. As these ectoparasites repeatedly change hosts and inflict skin damage, they can act as vectors for fish pathogens. The development of environmentally friendly measures for the control and prevention of argulosis needs to take into account the behaviour of the parasites.

  9. Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Simulation: Effects on Student Motivation and Life Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that a teaching strategy integrating problem-based learning and simulation may be superior to traditional lecture. The purpose of this study was to assess learner motivation and life skills before and after taking a course involving problem-based learning and simulation. The design used repeated measures with a convenience sample of 83 second-year nursing students who completed the integrated course. Data from a self-administered questionnaire measuring learner motivation and life skills were collected at pretest, post-problem-based learning, and post-simulation time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined that the mean scores for total learner motivation (F=6.62, P=.003), communication (F=8.27, Plearning (F=4.45, P=.016) differed significantly between time points. Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that total learner motivation and total life skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation and from post-problem-based learning test to postsimulation test. Subscales of learner motivation and life skills, intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem-solving skills, and self-directed learning skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation test and from post-problem-based learning test to post-simulation test. The results demonstrate that an integrating problem-based learning and simulation course elicits significant improvement in learner motivation and life skills. Simulation plus problem-based learning is more effective than problem-based learning alone at increasing intrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem solving, and self-directed learning.

  10. Adaptive style and differences in parent and child report of health-related quality of life in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurbergs, Nichole; Russell, Kathryn M W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with cancer, and the consistency between child and parent reports of child HRQL, as a function of the child's adaptive style. Participants included 199 children with cancer, 108 healthy children, and their parents. Children completed self-report measures of HRQL and adaptive style. Measures of adaptive style were used to categorize children as high anxious, low anxious, defensive high anxious or repressor. Parents completed measures reporting their children's HRQL. Adaptive style was a significant predictor of child-reported HRQL, particularly on the psychosocial scales, with children identified as repressors reporting the best HRQL. Adaptive style was also predictive of discrepancies between parent and child report of child HRQL. Repressor and low anxious children reported better HRQL than did their parents, while high anxious children reported poorer HRQL, regardless of health status. Adaptive style is a significant determinant of self-reported HRQL in children, particularly in psychosocial domains, while health status (i.e. cancer patient vs healthy control) is predictive only of physical health domains. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of the impact of child adaptive style when assessing HRQL outcomes using self- or parent report.

  11. Annual Research Review: The Neurobiology and Physiology of Resilience and Adaptation across the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatoreos, Ilia N.; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adaptation is key to survival. An organism must adapt to environmental challenges in order to be able to thrive in the environment in which they find themselves. Resilience can be thought of as a measure of the ability of an organism to adapt, and to withstand challenges to its stability. In higher animals, the brain is a key player in…

  12. Is the advanced trauma life support simulation exam more stressful for the surgeon than emergency department trauma care?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Paula Quilici; Renato Sergio Pogetti; Belchor Fontes; Luis Fernando Correa Zantut; Eliana Torrea Chaves; Dario Birolini

    2005-01-01

    ...: To compare stress levels affecting surgical residents during the simulated initial assessment and management in the Advanced Trauma Life Support practical exam vs initial assessment and management of...

  13. Is the advanced trauma life support simulation exam more stressful for the surgeon than emergency department trauma care?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quilici, Ana Paula; Pogetti, Renato Sergio; Fontes, Belchor; Zantut, Luis Fernando Correa; Chaves, Eliana Torrea; Birolini, Dario

    2005-01-01

    ...: To compare stress levels affecting surgical residents during the simulated initial assessment and management in the Advanced Trauma Life Support practical exam vs initial assessment and management...

  14. Implantable collamer lens and femtosecond laser for myopia: comparison using an adaptive optics visual simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Pérez-Vives

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare optical and visual quality of implantable collamer lens (ICL implantation and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (F-LASIK for myopia. Methods: The CRX1 adaptive optics visual simulator (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France was used to simulate the wavefront aberration pattern after the two surgical procedures for -3-diopter (D and -6-D myopia. Visual acuity at different contrasts and contrast sensitivities at 10, 20, and 25 cycles/degree (cpd were measured for 3-mm and 5-mm pupils. The modulation transfer function (MTF and point spread function (PSF were calculated for 5-mm pupils. Results: F-LASIK MTF was worse than ICL MTF, which was close to diffraction-limited MTF. ICL cases showed less spread out of PSF than F-LASIK cases. ICL cases showed better visual acuity values than F-LASIK cases for all pupils, contrasts, and myopic treatments (p0.05. For -6-D myopia, however, statistically significant differences in contrast sensitivities were found for both pupils for all evaluated spatial frequencies (p<0.05. Contrast sensitivities were better after ICL implantation than after F-LASIK. Conclusions: ICL implantation and F-LASIK provide good optical and visual quality, although the former provides better outcomes of MTF, PSF, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity, especially for cases with large refractive errors and pupil sizes. These outcomes are related to the F-LASIK producing larger high-order aberrations.

  15. Performance evaluation of GPU parallelization, space-time adaptive algorithms, and their combination for simulating cardiac electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachetto Oliveira, Rafael; Martins Rocha, Bernardo; Burgarelli, Denise; Meira, Wagner; Constantinides, Christakis; Weber Dos Santos, Rodrigo

    2018-02-01

    The use of computer models as a tool for the study and understanding of the complex phenomena of cardiac electrophysiology has attained increased importance nowadays. At the same time, the increased complexity of the biophysical processes translates into complex computational and mathematical models. To speed up cardiac simulations and to allow more precise and realistic uses, 2 different techniques have been traditionally exploited: parallel computing and sophisticated numerical methods. In this work, we combine a modern parallel computing technique based on multicore and graphics processing units (GPUs) and a sophisticated numerical method based on a new space-time adaptive algorithm. We evaluate each technique alone and in different combinations: multicore and GPU, multicore and GPU and space adaptivity, multicore and GPU and space adaptivity and time adaptivity. All the techniques and combinations were evaluated under different scenarios: 3D simulations on slabs, 3D simulations on a ventricular mouse mesh, ie, complex geometry, sinus-rhythm, and arrhythmic conditions. Our results suggest that multicore and GPU accelerate the simulations by an approximate factor of 33×, whereas the speedups attained by the space-time adaptive algorithms were approximately 48. Nevertheless, by combining all the techniques, we obtained speedups that ranged between 165 and 498. The tested methods were able to reduce the execution time of a simulation by more than 498× for a complex cellular model in a slab geometry and by 165× in a realistic heart geometry simulating spiral waves. The proposed methods will allow faster and more realistic simulations in a feasible time with no significant loss of accuracy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Fast simulation of transport and adaptive permeability estimation in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berre, Inga

    2005-07-01

    The focus of the thesis is twofold: Both fast simulation of transport in porous media and adaptive estimation of permeability are considered. A short introduction that motivates the work on these topics is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the governing equations for one- and two-phase flow in porous media are presented. Overall numerical solution strategies for the two-phase flow model are also discussed briefly. The concepts of streamlines and time-of-flight are introduced in Chapter 3. Methods for computing streamlines and time-of-flight are also presented in this chapter. Subsequently, in Chapters 4 and 5, the focus is on simulation of transport in a time-of-flight perspective. In Chapter 4, transport of fluids along streamlines is considered. Chapter 5 introduces a different viewpoint based on the evolution of isocontours of the fluid saturation. While the first chapters focus on the forward problem, which consists in solving a mathematical model given the reservoir parameters, Chapters 6, 7 and 8 are devoted to the inverse problem of permeability estimation. An introduction to the problem of identifying spatial variability in reservoir permeability by inversion of dynamic production data is given in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, adaptive multiscale strategies for permeability estimation are discussed. Subsequently, Chapter 8 presents a level-set approach for improving piecewise constant permeability representations. Finally, Chapter 9 summarizes the results obtained in the thesis; in addition, the chapter gives some recommendations and suggests directions for future work. Part II In Part II, the following papers are included in the order they were completed: Paper A: A Streamline Front Tracking Method for Two- and Three-Phase Flow Including Capillary Forces. I. Berre, H. K. Dahle, K. H. Karlsen, and H. F. Nordhaug. In Fluid flow and transport in porous media: mathematical and numerical treatment (South Hadley, MA, 2001), volume 295 of Contemp. Math., pages 49

  17. Can multi-generational exposure to ocean warming and acidification lead to the adaptation of life history and physiology in a marine metazoan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbin, Emma M; Chakravarti, Leela J; Jarrold, Michael D; Christen, Felix; Turpin, Vincent; Massamba N'Siala, Gloria; Blier, Pierre U; Calosi, Piero

    2017-02-15

    Ocean warming and acidification are concomitant global drivers that are currently threatening the survival of marine organisms. How species will respond to these changes depends on their capacity for plastic and adaptive responses. Little is known about the mechanisms that govern plasticity and adaptability or how global changes will influence these relationships across multiple generations. Here, we exposed the emerging model marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica to conditions simulating ocean warming and acidification, in isolation and in combination over five generations to identify: (i) how multiple versus single global change drivers alter both juvenile and adult life-history traits; (ii) the mechanistic link between adult physiological and fitness-related life-history traits; and (iii) whether the phenotypic changes observed over multiple generations are of plastic and/or adaptive origin. Two juvenile (developmental rate; survival to sexual maturity) and two adult (average reproductive body size; fecundity) life-history traits were measured in each generation, in addition to three physiological (cellular reactive oxygen species content, mitochondrial density, mitochondrial capacity) traits. We found that multi-generational exposure to warming alone caused an increase in juvenile developmental rate, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial density, decreases in average reproductive body size and fecundity, and fluctuations in mitochondrial capacity, relative to control conditions. Exposure to ocean acidification alone had only minor effects on juvenile developmental rate. Remarkably, when both drivers of global change were present, only mitochondrial capacity was significantly affected, suggesting that ocean warming and acidification act as opposing vectors of stress across multiple generations. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. DOCIS :a Model to Simulate Carbohydrate Balance and Development of Inflorescence during Vase Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Peppel, van de A.; Gelder, van H.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of a dynamic and deterministic model (DOCIS) was developed to simulate post harvest development of an inflorescence during vase life based on carbohydrate content at harvest. The model was partly parameterized using lily ‘Enchantment’. The inflorescence as a system was defined by the

  19. The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

  20. The Game of Social Life: An Assessment of a Multidimensional Poverty Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramesfeld, Kosha D.; Good, Arla

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the development of a new simulation activity, the Game of Social Life. The activity introduces students to concepts of social stratification based on multiple dimensions of poverty, including inequalities related to housing, education, occupational status, social power, and health outcomes. The game was administered to…

  1. The fuel cell model of abiogenesis: a new approach to origin-of-life simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Kee, Terence P; Doloboff, Ivria J; Hampton, Joshua M P; Ismail, Mohammed; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; Zeytounian, John; Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Lin, Chung-Kuang; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss how prebiotic geo-electrochemical systems can be modeled as a fuel cell and how laboratory simulations of the origin of life in general can benefit from this systems-led approach. As a specific example, the components of what we have termed the "prebiotic fuel cell" (PFC) that operates at a putative Hadean hydrothermal vent are detailed, and we used electrochemical analysis techniques and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components to test the properties of this PFC and other geo-electrochemical systems, the results of which are reported here. The modular nature of fuel cells makes them ideal for creating geo-electrochemical reactors with which to simulate hydrothermal systems on wet rocky planets and characterize the energetic properties of the seafloor/hydrothermal interface. That electrochemical techniques should be applied to simulating the origin of life follows from the recognition of the fuel cell-like properties of prebiotic chemical systems and the earliest metabolisms. Conducting this type of laboratory simulation of the emergence of bioenergetics will not only be informative in the context of the origin of life on Earth but may help in understanding whether life might emerge in similar environments on other worlds.

  2. GAMMA-RAY BURST DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW RADIATION FROM ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT, SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego, E-mail: fabio@ucolick.org [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-02-20

    We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -k}, bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Dynamics and Afterglow Radiation from Adaptive Mesh Refinement, Special Relativistic Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρvpropr -k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.

  4. USING MULTIVARIATE ADAPTIVE REGRESSION SPLINE AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK TO SIMULATE URBANIZATION IN MUMBAI, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadlou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use change (LUC models used for modelling urban growth are different in structure and performance. Local models divide the data into separate subsets and fit distinct models on each of the subsets. Non-parametric models are data driven and usually do not have a fixed model structure or model structure is unknown before the modelling process. On the other hand, global models perform modelling using all the available data. In addition, parametric models have a fixed structure before the modelling process and they are model driven. Since few studies have compared local non-parametric models with global parametric models, this study compares a local non-parametric model called multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS, and a global parametric model called artificial neural network (ANN to simulate urbanization in Mumbai, India. Both models determine the relationship between a dependent variable and multiple independent variables. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC to compare the power of the both models for simulating urbanization. Landsat images of 1991 (TM and 2010 (ETM+ were used for modelling the urbanization process. The drivers considered for urbanization in this area were distance to urban areas, urban density, distance to roads, distance to water, distance to forest, distance to railway, distance to central business district, number of agricultural cells in a 7 by 7 neighbourhoods, and slope in 1991. The results showed that the area under the ROC curve for MARS and ANN was 94.77% and 95.36%, respectively. Thus, ANN performed slightly better than MARS to simulate urban areas in Mumbai, India.

  5. Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

    2012-01-01

    “Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

  6. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of Tibetan Schizothoracinae fish Gymnocypris przewalskii reveals how it adapts to a high altitude aquatic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chao; Fei, Tian; Zhang, Cunfang; Zhao, Kai

    2017-03-09

    Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitude life is of paramount importance for preserving and managing genetic diversity in highland animals. This objective has been addressed mainly in terrestrial fauna but rarely in aquatic animals. Tibetan Schizothoracinae fish is the ideal model system in evolutionary biology, carrying key insights into evolutionary genetics of speciation and adaptation at high altitude. Gymnocypris przewalskii is the newly formed Schizothoracinae fish species in the Tibetan Plateau, inhabits chronic cold, extreme saline and alkaline aquatic environment in Lake Qinghai, thus evolving the unique genomic signatures to adapt extremely severe environments. To characterize its genomic features, we assembled de novo transcriptome of G. przewalskii from Lake Qinghai. Intriguingly, by comparative genomic analyses of G. przewalskii and 8 other fish species, we identified potential expansions in gene families related to energy metabolism, transport and developmental functions, possibly underlying the adaptation to these environmental stresses. Through comprehensive molecular evolution analyses, we found that sets of genes controlling mitochondrion, ion homoeostasis, acid-base balance and innate immunity show significant signals of positive selection. Compared to previous studies on highland fishes, we failed to identify any positively selected genes related to hypoxia response. Our findings provide comprehensive insights into the genetic basis of teleost fish that underlie their adaptation to extreme high altitude aquatic life on the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Effects of cognitive control training on the dynamics of (mal)adaptive emotion regulation in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorelbeke, Kristof; Koster, Ernst H W; Demeyer, Ineke; Loeys, Tom; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive control plays a key role in both adaptive emotion regulation, such as positive reappraisal, and maladaptive emotion regulation, such as rumination, with both strategies playing a major role in resilience and well-being. As a result, cognitive control training (CCT) targeting working memory functioning may have the potential to reduce maladaptive emotion regulation and increase adaptive emotion regulation. The current study explored the effects of CCT on positive reappraisal ability in a lab context, and deployment and efficacy of positive appraisal and rumination in daily life. A sample of undergraduates (n = 83) was allocated to CCT or an active control condition, performing 10 online training sessions over a period of 14 days. Effects on regulation of affective states in daily life were assessed using experience sampling over a 7-day posttraining period. Results revealed a positive association between baseline cognitive control and self-reported use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, whereas maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed a negative association. CCT showed transfer to working memory functioning on the dual n-back task. Overall, effects of CCT on emotion regulation were limited to reducing deployment of rumination in low positive affective states. However, we did not find beneficial effects on indicators of adaptive emotion regulation. These findings are in line with previous studies targeting maladaptive emotion regulation but suggest limited use in enhancing adaptive emotion regulation in a healthy sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Mother-Generated Index into Brazilian Portuguese: A postnatal quality of life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Samila Gomes; Symon, Andrew Graham; Lessa, Paula Renata Amorim; de Oliveira, Mirna Fontenele; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; de Almeida, Paulo César; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2015-07-01

    quality of life issues are central to maternal health and well-being. Within the context of a study examining postnatal quality of life, we set out to translate into Brazilian Portuguese the Mother-Generated Index and ensure its cross-cultural adaption for use in a Brazilian context. the Mother-Generated Index, a subjective quality of life tool, underwent a validated process of translation and cultural adaptation: synthesis of two independently translated versions, back-translation and review by an expert committee was followed by testing of the preliminary tool with 30 mothers. community-based study in city in north-eastern Brazil. 30 postpartum mothers, interviewed approximately 30 days after birth. while the mothers understood the concept of identifying and scoring quality of life aspects, many did not grasp the concept behind the use of 'spending points' to produce a relative ranking of these aspects. We resolved this by giving the mothers 'spending beans' instead; beans are a regional food staple. This use of a physical 'currency' solved the problem. this modified approach was ratified by the committee of experts and used with success on a further sample of 91 mothers. The whole process aimed to ensure semantic equivalence of the translated tool, and following this process we concluded that face validity of the Brazilian Portuguese Mother-Generated Index was good. While considerable resources are required to ensure a robust process of translation and adaptation, this is necessary if valid and reliable tools are to be produced. We conclude that the Mother-Generated Index is a valid tool to measure quality of life among Brazilian postpartum mothers, as it allows a simple and understandable way of assessing the various dimensions involved in their quality of life. Moreover, the Mother-Generated Index can provide healthcare professionals the opportunity to become aware of all significant aspects of a woman's life after childbirth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Nursing and theatre collaborate: an end-of-life simulation using forum theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuxbury, Janis S; Wall McCauley, Patricia M; Lement, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    End-of-life care is an essential part of undergraduate nursing education. However, students may not have the opportunity to be exposed to an actual end-of-life situation during clinical rotations. A pilot project was implemented to evaluate the use of forum theatre to teach end-of-life care to undergraduate nursing students. A simulation used live actors, with theatre faculty and students playing the roles of a hospice patient, family members, and nursing students providing end-of-life care. Additional nursing students were participant observers. Using forum theatre methods, students identified important moments that occurred during the simulation and suggested alternative actions for those moments. The simulation was repeated using those alternatives and was evaluated by the students. Group debriefing was provided by nursing faculty with all students. A reflective journal entry was completed by all students. Project outcomes indicated that forum theatre was an effective teaching method for the topic of end-of-life care. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Grid generation and adaptation for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method. [for complex flows past wedges and cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynick, David P.; Hassan, H. A.; Moss, James N.

    1988-01-01

    A grid generation and adaptation procedure based on the method of transfinite interpolation is incorporated into the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method of Bird. In addition, time is advanced based on a local criterion. The resulting procedure is used to calculate steady flows past wedges and cones. Five chemical species are considered. In general, the modifications result in a reduced computational effort. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the simulation method is time step dependent if requirements on cell sizes are not met.

  11. Robot life: simulation and participation in the study of evolution and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Christopher M

    2018-01-03

    This paper explores the case of using robots to simulate evolution, in particular the case of Hamilton's Law. The uses of robots raises several questions that this paper seeks to address. The first concerns the role of the robots in biological research: do they simulate something (life, evolution, sociality) or do they participate in something? The second question concerns the physicality of the robots: what difference does embodiment make to the role of the robot in these experiments. Thirdly, how do life, embodiment and social behavior relate in contemporary biology and why is it possible for robots to illuminate this relation? These questions are provoked by a strange similarity that has not been noted before: between the problem of simulation in philosophy of science, and Deleuze's reading of Plato on the relationship of ideas, copies and simulacra.

  12. [The paths get shorter. Pastoral nomadism as an adapted way of life in deserts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H J; Schwartz, S

    1981-11-27

    Pastoral nomadism, as a way of life adapted to marginally exploitable land and climatic conditions, is the sole chance for using the desert to support people. Nonetheless, this lifestyle has suffered great harm in the last 2 decades and has come under fire from experts as a non-productive and environmentally damaging type of economy. This attitude however ignores the historical viability of this system which has been used for thousands of years. It is estimated that 350 million individuals worldwide live in the so-called savannah-ecosystem, i.e. on natural grassland. Roughly 1/5 are nomadic herders; half of them, 45 million, live in Africa south of the Sahara, and use more than 1/3 of the total area of the continent. Losses of available land since the late 1940s due to growth of agriculturally-oriented population groups, the concomitant increase in cultivated land, and establishment of natural parks and wildlife preserves have greatly restricted seasonal migration of nomads and their herds. This in turn has degraded pasturage from overgrazing. The final result is a deadly spiral of shrinking pasture and increasing usage of the remaining land. Ultimately vegetation is totally destroyed by this kind of pressure. Although land regeneration potential is high, it cannot withstand continuous burdens of this magnitude. Thus pastoral nomadism in Africa is almost extinct in its mature and intact forms. This reduced system is self-destructive and is no longer viable. In view of the critical food shortage in Africa, efforts should be made to re-establish a more viable, fully nomadic system linked to national markets and social services.

  13. Validation of a computer-adaptive test to evaluate generic health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardaín Pilar C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is a relevant variable in the evaluation of health outcomes. Questionnaires based on Classical Test Theory typically require a large number of items to evaluate HRQoL. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT can be used to reduce tests length while maintaining and, in some cases, improving accuracy. This study aimed at validating a CAT based on Item Response Theory (IRT for evaluation of generic HRQoL: the CAT-Health instrument. Methods Cross-sectional study of subjects aged over 18 attending Primary Care Centres for any reason. CAT-Health was administered along with the SF-12 Health Survey. Age, gender and a checklist of chronic conditions were also collected. CAT-Health was evaluated considering: 1 feasibility: completion time and test length; 2 content range coverage, Item Exposure Rate (IER and test precision; and 3 construct validity: differences in the CAT-Health scores according to clinical variables and correlations between both questionnaires. Results 396 subjects answered CAT-Health and SF-12, 67.2% females, mean age (SD 48.6 (17.7 years. 36.9% did not report any chronic condition. Median completion time for CAT-Health was 81 seconds (IQ range = 59-118 and it increased with age (p Conclusions Although domain-specific CATs exist for various areas of HRQoL, CAT-Health is one of the first IRT-based CATs designed to evaluate generic HRQoL and it has proven feasible, valid and efficient, when administered to a broad sample of individuals attending primary care settings.

  14. Psychological adaptation to life-threatening injury in dyads: the role of dysfunctional disclosure of trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pielmaier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain modes of trauma disclosure have been found to be associated with more severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS in different trauma populations: the reluctance to disclose trauma-related thoughts and feelings, a strong urge to talk about it, and physical as well as emotional reactions during disclosure. Although social-contextual influences gain more and more interest in trauma research, no study has yet investigated these “dysfunctional disclosure tendencies” and their association with PTS from an interpersonal perspective.(1 To replicate previous findings on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies in patients with life-threatening injury and their significant others and (2 to study interpersonal associations between dysfunctional disclosure style and PTS at a dyadic level.PTS symptom severity and self-reports on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies were assessed in N=70 dyads comprising one individual with severe traumatic brain injury and a significant other (“proxy” 3 months after injury.Regression analyses predicting PTS symptom severity revealed dysfunctional disclosure tendencies to have incremental validity above and beyond sex, age, and trauma severity within the individual (both patient and proxy, with moderate effect sizes. The interaction between patient's and proxy's disclosure style explained additional portions of the variance in patients’ PTS symptom severity.Findings suggest that dysfunctional disclosure tendencies are related to poorer psychological adaptation to severe traumatic brain injury. This intrapersonal association may be exacerbated by dysfunctional disclosure tendencies on the part of a significant other. Although the results require replication in other trauma samples without brain injury to further generalize the findings beyond the observed population, the study contributes to the expanding literature on the crucial role of interpersonal relationships in trauma recovery.For the abstract or full

  15. Physician Communication in Pediatric End-of-Life Care: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Lori Brand; Tofil, Nancy M; White, Marjorie Lee; Dure, Leon S; Clair, Jeffrey Michael; Needham, Belinda L

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory study is to describe communication between physicians and the actor parent of a standardized 8-year-old patient in respiratory distress who was nearing the end of life. Thirteen pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric critical care fellows and attendings participated in a high-fidelity simulation to assess physician communication with an actor-parent. Fifteen percent of the participants decided not to initiate life-sustaining technology (intubation), and 23% of participants offered alternatives to life-sustaining care, such as comfort measures. Although 92% of the participants initiated an end-of-life conversation, the quality of that discussion varied widely. Findings indicate that effective physician-parent communication may not consistently occur in cases involving the treatment of pediatric patients at the end of life in emergency and critical care units. The findings in this study, particularly that physician-parent end-of-life communication is often unclear and that alternatives to life-sustaining technology are often not offered, suggest that physicians need more training in both communication and end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Compressible magma/mantle dynamics: 3-D, adaptive simulations in ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannberg, Juliane; Heister, Timo

    2016-12-01

    Melt generation and migration are an important link between surface processes and the thermal and chemical evolution of the Earth's interior. However, their vastly different timescales make it difficult to study mantle convection and melt migration in a unified framework, especially for 3-D global models. And although experiments suggest an increase in melt volume of up to 20 per cent from the depth of melt generation to the surface, previous computations have neglected the individual compressibilities of the solid and the fluid phase. Here, we describe our extension of the finite element mantle convection code ASPECT that adds melt generation and migration. We use the original compressible formulation of the McKenzie equations, augmented by an equation for the conservation of energy. Applying adaptive mesh refinement to this type of problems is particularly advantageous, as the resolution can be increased in areas where melt is present and viscosity gradients are high, whereas a lower resolution is sufficient in regions without melt. Together with a high-performance, massively parallel implementation, this allows for high-resolution, 3-D, compressible, global mantle convection simulations coupled with melt migration. We evaluate the functionality and potential of this method using a series of benchmarks and model setups, compare results of the compressible and incompressible formulation, and show the effectiveness of adaptive mesh refinement when applied to melt migration. Our model of magma dynamics provides a framework for modelling processes on different scales and investigating links between processes occurring in the deep mantle and melt generation and migration. This approach could prove particularly useful applied to modelling the generation of komatiites or other melts originating in greater depths. The implementation is available in the Open Source ASPECT repository.

  17. A class of adaptive importance sampling weighted EM algorithms for efficient and robust posterior and predictive simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, L.F.; Opschoor, A.; van Dijk, H.K.

    2012-01-01

    A class of adaptive sampling methods is introduced for efficient posterior and predictive simulation. The proposed methods are robust in the sense that they can handle target distributions that exhibit non-elliptical shapes such as multimodality and skewness. The basic method makes use of sequences

  18. A Class of Adaptive EM-based Importance Sampling Algorithms for Efficient and Robust Posterior and Predictive Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); A. Opschoor (Anne); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractA class of adaptive sampling methods is introduced for efficient posterior and predictive simulation. The proposed methods are robust in the sense that they can handle target distributions that exhibit non-elliptical shapes such as multimodality and skewness. The basic method makes use

  19. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: toward understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Bagot, Rosemary C; Parker, Karen J; Vinkers, Christiaan H; de Kloet, E R

    2013-09-01

    Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual's predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

  1. Neural correlates of adaptive social responses to real-life frustrating situations: a functional MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Sassa, Yuko; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Background Frustrating situations are encountered daily, and it is necessary to respond in an adaptive fashion. A psychological definition states that adaptive social behaviors are ?self-performing? and ?contain a solution.? The present study investigated the neural correlates of adaptive social responses to frustrating situations by assessing the dimension of causal attribution. Based on attribution theory, internal causality refers to one?s aptitudes that cause natural responses in real-lif...

  2. Systematic testing of flood adaptation options in urban areas through simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Roland; Urich, Christian; Sto. Domingo, Nina; Mark, Ole; Deletic, Ana; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    While models can quantify flood risk in great detail, the results are subject to a number of deep uncertainties. Climate dependent drivers such as sea level and rainfall intensities, population growth and economic development all have a strong influence on future flood risk, but future developments can only be estimated coarsely. In such a situation, robust decision making frameworks call for the systematic evaluation of mitigation measures against ensembles of potential futures. We have coupled the urban development software DAnCE4Water and the 1D-2D hydraulic simulation package MIKE FLOOD to create a framework that allows for such systematic evaluations, considering mitigation measures under a variety of climate futures and urban development scenarios. A wide spectrum of mitigation measures can be considered in this setup, ranging from structural measures such as modifications of the sewer network over local retention of rainwater and the modification of surface flow paths to policy measures such as restrictions on urban development in flood prone areas or master plans that encourage compact development. The setup was tested in a 300 ha residential catchment in Melbourne, Australia. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of considering a range of potential futures in the planning process. For example, local rainwater retention measures strongly reduce flood risk a scenario with moderate increase of rain intensities and moderate urban growth, but their performance strongly varies, yielding very little improvement in situations with pronounced climate change. The systematic testing of adaptation measures further allows for the identification of so-called adaptation tipping points, i.e. levels for the drivers of flood risk where the desired level of flood risk is exceeded despite the implementation of (a combination of) mitigation measures. Assuming a range of development rates for the drivers of flood risk, such tipping points can be translated into

  3. RETIRED ELDERLY IN A CARE INSTITUTION – THE PROCESS OF ADAPTATION TO LIFE IN A SOCIAL CARE HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szafranek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Retirement is a new stage in every person’s life. It is undoubtedly a transitional period of change and new challenges. It should be noted that it will take different forms, depending on where the elderly go to spend their retirement. Will it be their own apartment, a relative’s house, or a social care home? This article addresses the problems of spending one’s old age in a retirement home. The mainsubject is the process of adaptation of the elderly to life in an institution and the factors influencing it.

  4. Local adaptation at the transcriptome level in brown trout: Evidence from early life history temperature genomic reaction norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Normandeau, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptation and its underlying molecular basis has long been a key focus in evolutionary biology. There has recently been increased interest in the evolutionary role of plasticity and the molecular mechanisms underlying local adaptation. Using transcriptome analysis, we assessed differences...... reaction norms and significantly higher QST than FST among populations for two early life-history traits. In the present study we investigated if genomic reaction norm patterns were also present at the transcriptome level. Eggs from the three populations were incubated at two temperatures (5 and 8 degrees....... These included genes involved in immune- and stress response. We observed less plasticity in the resident as compared to the anadromous populations, possibly reflecting that the degree of environmental heterogeneity encountered by individuals throughout their life cycle will select for variable level...

  5. The Basic Immune Simulator: An agent-based model to study the interactions between innate and adaptive immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orosz Charles G

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce the Basic Immune Simulator (BIS, an agent-based model created to study the interactions between the cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Innate immunity, the initial host response to a pathogen, generally precedes adaptive immunity, which generates immune memory for an antigen. The BIS simulates basic cell types, mediators and antibodies, and consists of three virtual spaces representing parenchymal tissue, secondary lymphoid tissue and the lymphatic/humoral circulation. The BIS includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI to facilitate its use as an educational and research tool. Results The BIS was used to qualitatively examine the innate and adaptive interactions of the immune response to a viral infection. Calibration was accomplished via a parameter sweep of initial agent population size, and comparison of simulation patterns to those reported in the basic science literature. The BIS demonstrated that the degree of the initial innate response was a crucial determinant for an appropriate adaptive response. Deficiency or excess in innate immunity resulted in excessive proliferation of adaptive immune cells. Deficiency in any of the immune system components increased the probability of failure to clear the simulated viral infection. Conclusion The behavior of the BIS matches both normal and pathological behavior patterns in a generic viral infection scenario. Thus, the BIS effectively translates mechanistic cellular and molecular knowledge regarding the innate and adaptive immune response and reproduces the immune system's complex behavioral patterns. The BIS can be used both as an educational tool to demonstrate the emergence of these patterns and as a research tool to systematically identify potential targets for more effective treatment strategies for diseases processes including hypersensitivity reactions (allergies, asthma, autoimmunity and cancer. We believe that the BIS can be a useful addition to

  6. The limits of extremophilic life expanded under extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, C.; Dalmaso, G.; Teixeira, L.; Bendia, A.; Rosado, A.

    2012-09-01

    Astrobiology is a brand new area of science that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the universe. Several hypotheses to explain life in the cosmic context have been developed throughout human history, but only now technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are found universally. As these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still a challenge to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years-old solar system was born within a 10-billion years-old universe. Thus, simple cells like microorganisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or other suitable molecular places in the universe. One hypothesis to explain the origin of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the universe billions of years ago, traveling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets like ours. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile microorganisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is ongoing at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics to test whether microbial life could withstand those inhospitable environments. Ultra-resistant (known or novel ones) microorganisms collected from terrestrial extreme environments, extremophiles, have been exposed to intense radiation sources simulating solar radiation (at synchrotron accelerators), capable of emitting in a few hours radiation equivalent of million years accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal the interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  7. Mini-Review: Probing the limits of extremophilic life in extraterrestrial environment-simulated experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Claudia A. S.; Dalmaso, Gabriel Z. L.; Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Bendia, Amanda G.; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Galante, Douglas; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Azúa-Bustos, Armando; Pelizzari, Vivian H.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2012-10-01

    Astrobiology is a relatively recent scientific field that seeks to understand the origin and dynamics of life in the Universe. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain life in the cosmic context throughout human history, but only now, technology has allowed many of them to be tested. Laboratory experiments have been able to show how chemical elements essential to life, such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen combine in biologically important compounds. Interestingly, these compounds are ubiquitous. How these compounds were combined to the point of originating cells and complex organisms is still to be unveiled by science. However, our 4.5 billion years old Solar system appeared in a 10 billion years old Universe. Thus, simple cells such as micro-organisms may have had time to form in planets older than ours or in other suitable places in the Universe. One hypothesis related to the appearance of life on Earth is called panspermia, which predicts that microbial life could have been formed in the Universe billions of years ago, travelling between planets, and inseminating units of life that could have become more complex in habitable planets such as Earth. A project designed to test the viability of extremophile micro-organisms exposed to simulated extraterrestrial environments is in progress at the Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics (UFRJ, Brazil) to test whether microbial life could withstand inhospitable environments. Radiation-resistant (known or novel ones) micro-organisms collected from extreme terrestrial environments have been exposed (at synchrotron accelerators) to intense radiation sources simulating Solar radiation, capable of emitting radiation in a few hours equivalent to many years of accumulated doses. The results obtained in these experiments reveal an interesting possibility of the existence of microbial life beyond Earth.

  8. Facing the Music or Burying Our Heads in the Sand?: Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Midlife and Late Life

    OpenAIRE

    Waldinger, Robert J.; Schulz, Marc S.

    2010-01-01

    Defenses that keep threatening information out of awareness are posited to reduce anxiety at the cost of longer-term dysfunction. By contrast, socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that preference for positively-valenced information is a late-life manifestation of adaptive emotion regulation. Using longitudinal data on 61 men, we examined links between emotion regulation indices informed by these distinct conceptualizations: defenses in earlier adulthood and selective memory for positive...

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, adaptive functioning, and quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Darryn M; Vora, Parul; Coury, Daniel L; Rosenberg, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the frequency of co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a well-defined cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and to examine the relationship between ADHD symptoms and both adaptive functioning and health-related quality of life as reported by parents or other primary caregivers. T scores on 2 ADHD-related scales from the Child Behavior Checklist were used to indicate the presence of ADHD symptoms. Participants were divided into groups based on whether their parents/caregivers rated them as having clinically significant T scores on the Attention Problem and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problem subscales. Standard scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition and raw scores from the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory were then compared between groups with the use of multivariate analyses. Approximately 40% of participants had 1 elevated T score, and 19% had both ADHD-related T scores elevated on the Child Behavior Checklist. The ASD + ADHD group had lower scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory in comparison with the ASD alone group. Results suggest greater impairment in adaptive functioning and a poorer health-related quality of life for children with ASDs and clinically significant ADHD symptoms in comparison with children with ASDs and fewer ADHD symptoms. Physicians are encouraged to evaluate for the presence of ADHD symptoms in their patients with ASDs and, if present, include symptom treatment in the overall care plan.

  10. A brief report on an action learning group exploration of how older people adapt to change in later life

    OpenAIRE

    Francis C. Biley; Wendy Hilton; Jill Phillips; Michele Board

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with Age Concern UK, older people were invited to participate in action learning groups to explore how they adapt to change. Themes for discussion were initially identified using a nominal focus method. Discussions identified actual and desired methods of coping with changes in later life. A series of weekly meetings with three cohorts of urban, rural and sheltered accommodation participants with an average age of 81 years revealed that they were concerned with having to cope...

  11. Adapting the Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP course for emergency care education in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Cayley Jr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Cardiac Life Support for the Experienced Provider (ACLS-EP course uses a case-based curriculum to teach emergency resuscitation principles to experienced health care professionals. This article describes the adaptation of the ACLS-EP curriculum to be used in a family medicine training programme in Rwanda, including lessons learned and recommendations for future use of this material for emergency care education in the African setting.

  12. Adaptations to Hydrothermal Vent Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Thatje

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean. Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known vent sites situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR. The species is known to depend on primary productivity by chemosynthetic bacteria and resides at the warm-eurythermal vent environment for most of its life; its short-range distribution away from vents (few metres is physiologically constrained by the stable, cold waters of the surrounding Southern Ocean. Kiwa tylerihas been shown to present differential life history adaptations in response to this contrasting thermal environment. Morphological adaptations specific to life in warm-eurythermal waters, as found on - or in close proximity of - vent chimneys, are discussed in comparison with adaptations seen in the other two known members of the family (K. hirsuta, K. puravida, which show a preference for low temperature chemosynthetic environments.

  13. Social daydreaming and adjustment: An experience-sampling study of socio-emotional adaptation during a life transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lara Poerio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

  14. Adaptive Change in Self-Concept and Well-Being during Conjugal Loss in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A.; Bergeman, C. S.; Bisconti, Toni L.; Rausch, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the association between the self-concept and adaptation to conjugal loss; the primary aim was to explore whether those individuals high in self-esteem, environmental mastery, and optimism have more adaptive resources with which to ameliorate the detrimental sequelae of bereavement. Analyses were conducted on data…

  15. The Life of a Dead Ant : The Expression of an Adaptive Extended Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, Sandra B.; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Mayntz, David; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L.; Billen, Johan; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Hughes, David P.

    Specialized parasites are expected to express complex adaptations to their hosts. Manipulation of host behavior is such an adaptation. We studied the fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, a locally specialized parasite of arboreal Camponotus leonardi ants. Ant-infecting Ophiocordyceps are known to

  16. EMMA: an adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulation code with radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Dominique; Deparis, Nicolas; Ocvirk, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    EMMA is a cosmological simulation code aimed at investigating the reionization epoch. It handles simultaneously collisionless and gas dynamics, as well as radiative transfer physics using a moment-based description with the M1 approximation. Field quantities are stored and computed on an adaptive three-dimensional mesh and the spatial resolution can be dynamically modified based on physically motivated criteria. Physical processes can be coupled at all spatial and temporal scales. We also introduce a new and optional approximation to handle radiation: the light is transported at the resolution of the non-refined grid and only once the dynamics has been fully updated, whereas thermo-chemical processes are still tracked on the refined elements. Such an approximation reduces the overheads induced by the treatment of radiation physics. A suite of standard tests are presented and passed by EMMA, providing a validation for its future use in studies of the reionization epoch. The code is parallel and is able to use graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate hydrodynamics and radiative transfer calculations. Depending on the optimizations and the compilers used to generate the CPU reference, global GPU acceleration factors between ×3.9 and ×16.9 can be obtained. Vectorization and transfer operations currently prevent better GPU performance and we expect that future optimizations and hardware evolution will lead to greater accelerations.

  17. Grand Canonical adaptive resolution simulation for molecules with electrons: A theoretical framework based on physical consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    A theoretical scheme for the treatment of an open molecular system with electrons and nuclei is proposed. The idea is based on the Grand Canonical description of a quantum region embedded in a classical reservoir of molecules. Electronic properties of the quantum region are calculated at constant electronic chemical potential equal to that of the corresponding (large) bulk system treated at full quantum level. Instead, the exchange of molecules between the quantum region and the classical environment occurs at the chemical potential of the macroscopic thermodynamic conditions. The Grand Canonical Adaptive Resolution Scheme is proposed for the treatment of the classical environment; such an approach can treat the exchange of molecules according to first principles of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic. The overall scheme is build on the basis of physical consistency, with the corresponding definition of numerical criteria of control of the approximations implied by the coupling. Given the wide range of expertise required, this work has the intention of providing guiding principles for the construction of a well founded computational protocol for actual multiscale simulations from the electronic to the mesoscopic scale.

  18. [Adaptability of mangrove Avicennia marina seedlings to simulated tide-inundated times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bao-wen; Qiu, Feng-ying; Zhang, Liu-en; Han, Jing; Guan, Wei

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory test on the effects of differents simulated tide-inundated times with 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 h x d(-1) on the growth of Avicennia marina seedlings was conducted. The ten growth information indices including chlorophyll, root vigor, growth, biomass and photosynthetic rate were mensurated. The principal components analysis was made combining the ten growth information indices. The 210 d experimental results showed that the chlorophyll, root vigor, growth and biomass would rise first and then fall as the extension of the inundate time; and they changed suddenly at the threshold inundate time 16 h x d(-1). The growth and biomass of Avicennia marina seedlings with more than 16 hours tide-inundated time per day were less than them with no more than 16 hours tide-inundated time per day. The maximum value of stem increment each month, leaf blade increment each month, dry weight of stem, dry weight of root and total biomass were under the 10 hours tide-inundated time per day. It concluded that Avicennia marina seedlings would grow adaptively with less than 16 hours tide-inundated time per day, 8-12 hours of tide-inundated time per day is the most suitable for the growth of Avicennia marina seedlings, while 16 h x d(-1) is a critical tide-inundated time when the plant responded to be obviously inadaptable.

  19. Simulation, Analysis, and Design of the Princeton Adaptable Stellarator for Education and Outreach (PASEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jared; Dominguez, Arturo; N/A Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The PPPL Science Education Department, in collaboration with IPP, is currently developing a versatile small scale Stellarator for education and outreach purposes. The Princeton Adaptable Stellarator for Education and Outreach (PASEO) will provide visual demonstrations of Stellarator physics and serve as a lab platform for undergraduate and graduate students. Based off the Columbia Non-Neutral Torus (CNT) (1), and mini-CNTs (2), PASEO will create pure electron plasmas to study magnetic surfaces. PASEO uses similar geometries to these, but has an adjustable coil configuration to increase its versatility and conform to a highly visible vacuum chamber geometry. To simulate the magnetic surfaces in these new configurations, a MATALB code utilizing the Biot Savart law and a Fourth Order Runge-Kutta method was developed, leading to new optimal current ratios. The design for PASEO and its predicted plasma confinement are presented. (1) T.S. Pedersen et al., Fusion Science and Technology Vol. 46 July 2004 (2) C. Dugan, et al., American Physical Society; 48th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, October 30-November 3, 2006

  20. A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kuiper, Rolf [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Institut für Computergestützte Wissenschaften, Universität Zürich Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars, E-mail: klassm@mcmaster.ca [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-12-10

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.

  1. Assessment of urban pluvial flood risk and efficiency of adaptation options through simulations - A new generation of urban planning tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Roland; Urich, Christian; Sto. Domingo, Nina; Mark, Ole; Deletic, Ana; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-07-01

    We present a new framework for flexible testing of flood risk adaptation strategies in a variety of urban development and climate scenarios. This framework couples the 1D-2D hydrodynamic simulation package MIKE FLOOD with the agent-based urban development model DAnCE4Water and provides the possibility to systematically test various flood risk adaptation measures ranging from large infrastructure changes over decentralised water management to urban planning policies. We have tested the framework in a case study in Melbourne, Australia considering 9 scenarios for urban development and climate and 32 potential combinations of flood adaptation measures. We found that the performance of adaptation measures strongly depended on the considered climate and urban development scenario and the other implementation measures implemented, suggesting that adaptive strategies are preferable over one-off investments. Urban planning policies proved to be an efficient means for the reduction of flood risk, while implementing property buyback and pipe increases in a guideline-oriented manner was too costly. Random variations in location and time point of urban development could have significant impact on flood risk and would in some cases outweigh the benefits of less efficient adaptation strategies. The results of our setup can serve as an input for robust decision making frameworks and thus support the identification of flood risk adaptation measures that are economically efficient and robust to variations of climate and urban layout.

  2. Zooming in on Life Events: Is Hedonic Adaptation Sensitive to the Temporal Distance from the Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglanova, Ekaterina A.; Staudinger, Ursula M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of major positive and negative life events (marriage, divorce, birth of child, widowhood, and unemployment) on life satisfaction. For the first time, this study estimated the effects of life events not with a precision of 12 months but of 3 months. Specifically, two questions were addressed: (1) Does the precision of…

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, Priscila Regina Candido Espinola; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Lima, Élcio Duarte; Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; Pinna, Fabio de Rezende; Sperandio, Fabiana de Araújo; Voegels, Richard Louis

    The concept of quality of life is subjective and variable definition, which depends on the individual's perception of their state of health. Quality of life questionnaires are instruments designed to measure quality of life, but most are developed in a language other than Portuguese. Questionnaires can identify the most important symptoms, focus on consultation, and assist in defining the goals of treatment. Some of these have been validated for the Portuguese language, but none in children. To validate the translation with cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5) into Portuguese. Prospective study of children aged 2-12 years with sinonasal symptoms of over 30 days. The study comprised two stages: (I) translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SN-5 into Portuguese (SN-5p); and (II) validation of the SN5-p. Statistical analysis was performed to assess internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and sensitivity, as well as construct and discriminant validity and standardization. The SN-5 was translated and adapted into Portuguese (SN-5p) and the author of the original version approved the process. Validation was carried out by administration of the SN-5p to 51 pediatric patients with sinonasal complaints (mean age, 5.8±2.5 years; range, 2-12 years). The questionnaire exhibited adequate construct validity (0.62, pPortuguese. The translated version exhibited adequate psychometric properties for assessment of disease-specific quality of life in pediatric patients with sinonasal complaints. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  5. Power of an Adaptive Trial Design for Endovascular Stroke Studies: Simulations Using IMS (Interventional Management of Stroke) III Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberg, Maarten G; Bhat, Ninad S; Yeatts, Sharon D; Palesch, Yuko Y; Broderick, Joseph P; Albers, Gregory W; Lai, Tze L; Lavori, Philip W

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive trial designs that allow enrichment of the study population through subgroup selection can increase the chance of a positive trial when there is a differential treatment effect among patient subgroups. The goal of this study is to illustrate the potential benefit of adaptive subgroup selection in endovascular stroke studies. We simulated the performance of a trial design with adaptive subgroup selection and compared it with that of a traditional design. Outcome data were based on 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores, observed in IMS III (Interventional Management of Stroke III), among patients with a vessel occlusion on baseline computed tomographic angiography (n=382). Patients were categorized based on 2 methods: (1) according to location of the arterial occlusive lesion and onset-to-randomization time and (2) according to onset-to-randomization time alone. The power to demonstrate a treatment benefit was based on 10 000 trial simulations for each design. The treatment effect was relatively homogeneous across categories when patients were categorized based on arterial occlusive lesion and time. Consequently, the adaptive design had similar power (47%) compared with the fixed trial design (45%). There was a differential treatment effect when patients were categorized based on time alone, resulting in greater power with the adaptive design (82%) than with the fixed design (57%). These simulations, based on real-world patient data, indicate that adaptive subgroup selection has merit in endovascular stroke trials as it substantially increases power when the treatment effect differs among subgroups in a predicted pattern. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. A Gaussian mixture model based adaptive classifier for fNIRS brain-computer interfaces and its testing via simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Jiang, Yi-Han; Duan, Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-08-01

    Functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising brain imaging technology for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Future clinical uses of fNIRS will likely require operation over long time spans, during which neural activation patterns may change. However, current decoders for fNIRS signals are not designed to handle changing activation patterns. The objective of this study is to test via simulations a new adaptive decoder for fNIRS signals, the Gaussian mixture model adaptive classifier (GMMAC). GMMAC can simultaneously classify and track activation pattern changes without the need for ground-truth labels. This adaptive classifier uses computationally efficient variational Bayesian inference to label new data points and update mixture model parameters, using the previous model parameters as priors. We test GMMAC in simulations in which neural activation patterns change over time and compare to static decoders and unsupervised adaptive linear discriminant analysis classifiers. Our simulation experiments show GMMAC can accurately decode under time-varying activation patterns: shifts of activation region, expansions of activation region, and combined contractions and shifts of activation region. Furthermore, the experiments show the proposed method can track the changing shape of the activation region. Compared to prior work, GMMAC performed significantly better than the other unsupervised adaptive classifiers on a difficult activation pattern change simulation: 99% versus  <54% in two-choice classification accuracy. We believe GMMAC will be useful for clinical fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces, including neurofeedback training systems, where operation over long time spans is required.

  7. A Gaussian mixture model based adaptive classifier for fNIRS brain-computer interfaces and its testing via simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Jiang, Yi-han; Duan, Lian; Zhu, Chao-zhe

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising brain imaging technology for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Future clinical uses of fNIRS will likely require operation over long time spans, during which neural activation patterns may change. However, current decoders for fNIRS signals are not designed to handle changing activation patterns. The objective of this study is to test via simulations a new adaptive decoder for fNIRS signals, the Gaussian mixture model adaptive classifier (GMMAC). Approach. GMMAC can simultaneously classify and track activation pattern changes without the need for ground-truth labels. This adaptive classifier uses computationally efficient variational Bayesian inference to label new data points and update mixture model parameters, using the previous model parameters as priors. We test GMMAC in simulations in which neural activation patterns change over time and compare to static decoders and unsupervised adaptive linear discriminant analysis classifiers. Main results. Our simulation experiments show GMMAC can accurately decode under time-varying activation patterns: shifts of activation region, expansions of activation region, and combined contractions and shifts of activation region. Furthermore, the experiments show the proposed method can track the changing shape of the activation region. Compared to prior work, GMMAC performed significantly better than the other unsupervised adaptive classifiers on a difficult activation pattern change simulation: 99% versus  <54% in two-choice classification accuracy. Significance. We believe GMMAC will be useful for clinical fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces, including neurofeedback training systems, where operation over long time spans is required.

  8. Local adaptation at the transcriptome level in brown trout: Evidence from early life history temperature genomic reaction norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Normandeau, Eric

    2014-01-01

    reaction norms and significantly higher QST than FST among populations for two early life-history traits. In the present study we investigated if genomic reaction norm patterns were also present at the transcriptome level. Eggs from the three populations were incubated at two temperatures (5 and 8 degrees......, the latter indicating locally adapted reaction norms. Moreover, the reaction norms paralleled those observed previously at early life-history traits. We identified 90 cDNA clones among the genes with an interaction effect that were differently expressed between the ecologically divergent populations....... These included genes involved in immune- and stress response. We observed less plasticity in the resident as compared to the anadromous populations, possibly reflecting that the degree of environmental heterogeneity encountered by individuals throughout their life cycle will select for variable level...

  9. Facing the Music or Burying Our Heads in the Sand?: Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Midlife and Late Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Robert J; Schulz, Marc S

    2010-01-01

    Defenses that keep threatening information out of awareness are posited to reduce anxiety at the cost of longer-term dysfunction. By contrast, socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that preference for positively-valenced information is a late-life manifestation of adaptive emotion regulation. Using longitudinal data on 61 men, we examined links between emotion regulation indices informed by these distinct conceptualizations: defenses in earlier adulthood and selective memory for positively-valenced images in late-life. Use of avoidant defenses in midlife predicted poorer memory for positive, negative, and neutral images nearly 4 decades later. Late-life satisfaction was positively linked with midlife engaging defenses but negatively linked at the trend level with concurrent positive memory bias.

  10. Adaptive coupling between damage mechanics and peridynamics: a route for objective simulation of material degradation up to complete failure

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2016-05-17

    The objective (mesh-independent) simulation of evolving discontinuities, such as cracks, remains a challenge. Current techniques are highly complex or involve intractable computational costs, making simulations up to complete failure difficult. We propose a framework as a new route toward solving this problem that adaptively couples local-continuum damage mechanics with peridynamics to objectively simulate all the steps that lead to material failure: damage nucleation, crack formation and propagation. Local-continuum damage mechanics successfully describes the degradation related to dispersed microdefects before the formation of a macrocrack. However, when damage localizes, it suffers spurious mesh dependency, making the simulation of macrocracks challenging. On the other hand, the peridynamic theory is promising for the simulation of fractures, as it naturally allows discontinuities in the displacement field. Here, we present a hybrid local-continuum damage/peridynamic model. Local-continuum damage mechanics is used to describe “volume” damage before localization. Once localization is detected at a point, the remaining part of the energy is dissipated through an adaptive peridynamic model capable of the transition to a “surface” degradation, typically a crack. We believe that this framework, which actually mimics the real physical process of crack formation, is the first bridge between continuum damage theories and peridynamics. Two-dimensional numerical examples are used to illustrate that an objective simulation of material failure can be achieved by this method.

  11. Towards evaluation and prediction of building sustainability using life cycle behaviour simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzouk Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays researchers and practitioners are oriented towards questioning how effective are the different building life cycle activities contribution to preserving the environment and fulfilling the need for equilibrium. Terminologies such as Building sustainability and Green Buildings have long been adopted yet the evaluation of such has been driven through the use of rating systems. LEED of the United States, BREEAM of the United Kingdom, and Pearl of the United Arab Emirates are namely good examples of these rating systems. This paper introduces a new approach for evaluation of building life cycle sustainability through simulation of activities interaction and studying its behaviour. The effort focuses on comprehending impact and effect of suitability related activities over the whole building life cycle or period of time. The methodology includes gathering a pool of parameters through benchmarking of five selected rating systems, analytical factorization for the gathered parameters is used to elect the most influencing parameters. Followed by simulation modelling using System dynamics to capture the interaction of the considered parameters. The resulting behaviour obtained from simulation is studied and used in designing a tool for prediction of sustainability.

  12. Importance of leadership in cardiac arrest situations: from simulation to real life and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Sabnina; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Marsch, Stephan

    2013-04-18

    The 2010 American Heart Association guidelines now recommend leadership training in Advanced Cardiac Life Support courses. In this review we provide a comprehensive summary of data derived from clinical studies that investigated the importance of leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Only a few, mostly observational, studies have been conducted under real-life conditions because of the high heterogeneity of the situations, difficulties in capturing the initial phase of CPR, and ethical issues. Well-controlled studies in the human simulator can fill existing gaps and provide important insights. High-fidelity video-assisted simulator studies from different research groups have shown that a prolonged process of teambuilding is associated with significant shortcomings in CPR, whereas effective leadership improves team performance. In addition, randomised controlled studies have provided evidence that medical students receiving leadership training subsequently showed improved CPR performance, which was sustained after a follow up of 4 months. In addition, leadership is influenced by gender and other factors such as emotional stress. Future studies are needed to investigate cultural differences and how findings from the simulator can be transferred to real-life situations.

  13. The evolution of an annual life cycle in killifish: adaptation to ephemeral aquatic environments through embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I

    2016-08-01

    An annual life cycle is characterized by growth, maturity, and reproduction condensed into a single, short season favourable to development, with production of embryos (seeds, cysts, or eggs) capable of surviving harsh conditions which juveniles or adults cannot tolerate. More typically associated with plants in desert environments, or temperate-zone insects exposed to freezing winters, the evolution of an annual life cycle in vertebrates is fairly novel. Killifish, small sexually dimorphic fishes in the Order Cyprinodontiformes, have adapted to seasonally ephemeral water bodies across much of Africa and South America through the independent evolution of an annual life history. These annual killifish produce hardy desiccation-resistant eggs that undergo diapause (developmental arrest) and remain buried in the soil for long periods when fish have perished due to the drying of their habitat. Killifish are found in aquatic habitats that span a continuum from permanent and stable to seasonal and variable, thus providing a useful system in which to piece together the evolutionary history of this life cycle using natural comparative variation. I first review adaptations for life in ephemeral aquatic environments in killifish, with particular emphasis on the evolution of embryonic diapause. I then bring together available evidence from a variety of approaches and provide a scenario for how this annual life cycle evolved. There are a number of features within Aplocheiloidei killifish including their inhabitation of marginal or edge aquatic habitat, their small size and rapid attainment of maturity, and egg properties that make them particularly well suited to the colonization of ephemeral waters. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. Adaptive Mesh Refinement Cosmological Simulations of Cosmic Rays in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Samuel William

    2013-12-01

    Galaxy clusters are unique astrophysical laboratories that contain many thermal and non-thermal phenomena. In particular, they are hosts to cosmic shocks, which propagate through the intracluster medium as a by-product of structure formation. It is believed that at these shock fronts, magnetic field inhomogeneities in a compressing flow may lead to the acceleration of cosmic ray electrons and ions. These relativistic particles decay and radiate through a variety of mechanisms, and have observational signatures in radio, hard X-ray, and Gamma-ray wavelengths. We begin this dissertation by developing a method to find shocks in cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulations of structure formation. After describing the evolution of shock properties through cosmic time, we make estimates for the amount of kinetic energy processed and the total number of cosmic ray protons that could be accelerated at these shocks. We then use this method of shock finding and a model for the acceleration of and radio synchrotron emission from cosmic ray electrons to estimate the radio emission properties in large scale structures. By examining the time-evolution of the radio emission with respect to the X-ray emission during a galaxy cluster merger, we find that the relative timing of the enhancements in each are important consequences of the shock dynamics. By calculating the radio emission expected from a given mass galaxy cluster, we make estimates for future large-area radio surveys. Next, we use a state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamic simulation to follow the electron acceleration in a massive merging galaxy cluster. We use the magnetic field information to calculate not only the total radio emission, but also create radio polarization maps that are compared to recent observations. We find that we can naturally reproduce Mpc-scale radio emission that resemble many of the known double radio relic systems. Finally, motivated by our previous studies, we develop and introduce a

  15. Test Population Selection from Weibull-Based, Monte Carlo Simulations of Fatigue Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Brian L.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue life is probabilistic and not deterministic. Experimentally establishing the fatigue life of materials, components, and systems is both time consuming and costly. As a result, conclusions regarding fatigue life are often inferred from a statistically insufficient number of physical tests. A proposed methodology for comparing life results as a function of variability due to Weibull parameters, variability between successive trials, and variability due to size of the experimental population is presented. Using Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives from a large Weibull distribution, the variation in the L10 fatigue life of aluminum alloy AL6061 rotating rod fatigue tests was determined as a function of population size. These results were compared to the L10 fatigue lives of small (10 each) populations from AL2024, AL7075 and AL6061. For aluminum alloy AL6061, a simple algebraic relationship was established for the upper and lower L10 fatigue life limits as a function of the number of specimens failed. For most engineering applications where less than 30 percent variability can be tolerated in the maximum and minimum values, at least 30 to 35 test samples are necessary. The variability of test results based on small sample sizes can be greater than actual differences, if any, that exists between materials and can result in erroneous conclusions. The fatigue life of AL2024 is statistically longer than AL6061 and AL7075. However, there is no statistical difference between the fatigue lives of AL6061 and AL7075 even though AL7075 had a fatigue life 30 percent greater than AL6061.

  16. From Classical to Quantum and Back: A Hamiltonian Scheme for Adaptive Multiresolution Classical/Path-Integral Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Karsten; Tuckerman, Mark E; Donadio, Davide; Kremer, Kurt; Potestio, Raffaello

    2016-07-12

    Quantum delocalization of atomic nuclei affects the physical properties of many hydrogen-rich liquids and biological systems even at room temperature. In computer simulations, quantum nuclei can be modeled via the path-integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics, which implies a substantial increase in computational overhead. By restricting the quantum description to a small spatial region, this cost can be significantly reduced. Herein, we derive a bottom-up, rigorous, Hamiltonian-based scheme that allows molecules to change from quantum to classical and vice versa on the fly as they diffuse through the system, both reducing overhead and making quantum grand-canonical simulations possible. The method is validated via simulations of low-temperature parahydrogen. Our adaptive resolution approach paves the way to efficient quantum simulations of biomolecules, membranes, and interfaces.

  17. The impact of a simulated intervention on attitudes of undergraduate nursing and medical students towards end of life care provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Claire; Reid, Joanne; McLernon, Zara; Ingham, Rory; Traynor, Marian

    2016-08-02

    The concerns of undergraduate nursing and medical students' regarding end of life care are well documented. Many report feelings of emotional distress, anxiety and a lack of preparation to provide care to patients at end of life and their families. Evidence suggests that increased exposure to patients who are dying and their families can improve attitudes toward end of life care. In the absence of such clinical exposure, simulation provides experiential learning with outcomes comparable to that of clinical practice. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the impact of a simulated intervention on the attitudes of undergraduate nursing and medical students towards end of life care. A pilot quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design. Attitudes towards end of life care were measured using the Frommelt Attitudes Towards Care of the Dying Part B Scale which was administered pre and post a simulated clinical scenario. 19 undergraduate nursing and medical students were recruited from one large Higher Education Institution in the United Kingdom. The results of this pilot study confirm that a simulated end of life care intervention has a positive impact on the attitudes of undergraduate nursing and medical students towards end of life care (p nursing and medical students towards end of life. In the absence of clinical exposure, simulation is a viable alternative to help prepare students for their professional role regarding end of life care.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5 into Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Regina Candido Espinola Uchoa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The concept of quality of life is subjective and variable definition, which depends on the individual's perception of their state of health. Quality of life questionnaires are instruments designed to measure quality of life, but most are developed in a language other than Portuguese. Questionnaires can identify the most important symptoms, focus on consultation, and assist in defining the goals of treatment. Some of these have been validated for the Portuguese language, but none in children. Objective: To validate the translation with cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5 into Portuguese. Methods: Prospective study of children aged 2-12 years with sinonasal symptoms of over 30 days. The study comprised two stages: (I translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SN-5 into Portuguese (SN-5p; and (II validation of the SN5-p. Statistical analysis was performed to assess internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and sensitivity, as well as construct and discriminant validity and standardization. Results: The SN-5 was translated and adapted into Portuguese (SN-5p and the author of the original version approved the process. Validation was carried out by administration of the SN-5p to 51 pediatric patients with sinonasal complaints (mean age, 5.8 ± 2.5 years; range, 2-12 years. The questionnaire exhibited adequate construct validity (0.62, p < 0.01, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73, and discriminant validity (p < 0.01, as well as good test-retest reproducibility (Goodman-Kruskal gamma = 0.957, p < 0.001, good correlation with a visual analog scale (r = 0.62, p < 0.01, and sensitivity to change. Conclusion: This study reports the successful translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SN-5 instrument into Brazilian Portuguese. The translated version exhibited adequate psychometric properties for assessment of disease-specific quality of life in

  19. Long-term effects of early life microbiota disturbance on adaptive immunity in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, K.; Verwoolde, M.B.; Zhang, J.; Smidt, H.; Vries Reilingh, De G.; Kemp, B.; Lammers, A.

    2016-01-01

    Due to an interplay between intestinal microbiota and immune system, disruption of intestinal microbiota composition during immune development may have consequences for immune responses later in life. The present study investigated the effects of antibiotic treatment in the first weeks of life on

  20. Spanish Adaptation and Validation of the Family Quality of Life Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, M. A.; Cordoba, L.; Gomez, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Assessing the quality of life (QOL) for families that include a person with a disability have recently become a major emphasis in cross-cultural QOL studies. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Family Quality of Life Survey (FQOL) on a Spanish sample. Method and Results: The sample comprised 385 families who…

  1. An adaptive finite element methodology for 2D simulation of two-phase flow through porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, D.J.; Tyler, J.M.; Bourgoyne, A.T.; Schenewerk, P.A.

    1994-06-01

    A scheme for the accurate simulation of two-phase flow through porous media, utilizing adaptive finite element methods is presented. The theoretical equations and their approximation using Galerkin`s method is covered, followed by a discussion of a dynamically refined mesh which preserves piece wise solutions across transition elements. Finally, comparisons are made between results of computed simulations and laboratory experiments. The paper uses the processes occurring in a water coning scenario, a problem of particular interest to petroleum engineers, to illustrate the method.

  2. Adaptive Challenges Rising from the Life Context of African-American Caregiving Grandmothers with Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthron, Dana; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    To understand the challenges arising from the context within which diabetic African-American caregiving grandmothers self-manage their diabetes we used the Adaptive Leadership Framework. Additionally, challenges to retaining this population in a longitudinal study were examined. In this exploratory, longitudinal, qualitative pilot study, data were collected at five time-points over 18 months. We coded the data using content analysis and conducted the within-case and cross-case analyses using data matrices. Lack of awareness of available resources, represented a technical challenge within the life context of these grandmothers and the remaining three themes: family upheaval; priority setting (with subthemes of difficulty meeting basic needs and competing demands); and self-silencing and self-sacrifice represented adaptive challenges. The context of African-American grandmothers' lives created primarily adaptive challenges that were complex and without immediate solutions. Research is needed to develop culturally and contextually appropriate interventions to help this vulnerable group develop capacity for adaptive work.

  3. Adaptive Challenges Rising from the Life Context of African-American Caregiving Grandmothers with Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Carthron

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the challenges arising from the context within which diabetic African-American caregiving grandmothers self-manage their diabetes we used the Adaptive Leadership Framework. Additionally, challenges to retaining this population in a longitudinal study were examined. In this exploratory, longitudinal, qualitative pilot study, data were collected at five time-points over 18 months. We coded the data using content analysis and conducted the within-case and cross-case analyses using data matrices. Lack of awareness of available resources, represented a technical challenge within the life context of these grandmothers and the remaining three themes: family upheaval; priority setting (with subthemes of difficulty meeting basic needs and competing demands; and self-silencing and self-sacrifice represented adaptive challenges. The context of African-American grandmothers’ lives created primarily adaptive challenges that were complex and without immediate solutions. Research is needed to develop culturally and contextually appropriate interventions to help this vulnerable group develop capacity for adaptive work.

  4. Dietary consumption of monosodium L-glutamate induces adaptive response and reduction in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Olaiya, Charles O; Oluwadahunsi, Oluwagbenga J; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime. Thereafter, the longevity assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species levels were determined. Also, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and total thiol content were evaluated in the flies. We found that MSG reduced the life span of the flies by up to 23% after continuous exposure. Also, MSG increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H2 O2 generations and total thiol content as well as the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in D. melanogaster (P melanogaster induced adaptive response, but long-term exposure reduced life span of flies. This study may therefore have public health significance in humans, and thus, moderate consumption of MSG is advocated by the authors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A mathematical model of neuromuscular adaptation to resistance training and its application in a computer simulation of accommodating loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2010-10-01

    A large corpus of data obtained by means of empirical study of neuromuscular adaptation is currently of limited use to athletes and their coaches. One of the reasons lies in the unclear direct practical utility of many individual trials. This paper introduces a mathematical model of adaptation to resistance training, which derives its elements from physiological fundamentals on the one side, and empirical findings on the other. The key element of the proposed model is what is here termed the athlete's capability profile. This is a generalization of length and velocity dependent force production characteristics of individual muscles, to an exercise with arbitrary biomechanics. The capability profile, a two-dimensional function over the capability plane, plays the central role in the proposed model of the training-adaptation feedback loop. Together with a dynamic model of resistance the capability profile is used in the model's predictive stage when exercise performance is simulated using a numerical approximation of differential equations of motion. Simulation results are used to infer the adaptational stimulus, which manifests itself through a fed back modification of the capability profile. It is shown how empirical evidence of exercise specificity can be formulated mathematically and integrated in this framework. A detailed description of the proposed model is followed by examples of its application-new insights into the effects of accommodating loading for powerlifting are demonstrated. This is followed by a discussion of the limitations of the proposed model and an overview of avenues for future work.

  6. Life cycle assessment of stormwater management in the context of climate change adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Expected increases in pluvial flooding, due to climatic changes, require large investments in the retrofitting of cities to keep damage at an acceptable level. Many cities have investigated the possibility of implementing stormwater management (SWM) systems which are multi-functional and consist...... adaptation strategies. The approach is tested using a climate change adaptation strategy for a catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark. A stormwater management system, using green infrastructure and local retention measures in combination with planned routing of stormwater on the surfaces to manage runoff...

  7. Adaptive control of a pressure-controlled artificial ventilator: a simulator-based evaluation using real COPD patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, Robin; Ionescu, Clara

    2011-12-01

    The paper discusses the application of a direct adaptive controller to a pressure controlled artificial ventilation problem. In pressure controlled ventilators, the manipulated variable is the maximum flow applied to the patient during the active phase (inspiration), and the regulated variable is the peak pressure at end-inspiration. This simulation case study focuses on patients diagnosed with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which require artificial/mechanical ventilation. An adaptive PID controller ensures peak pressures below critical values, by manipulating the flow delivered by the ventilator. The simulation study is performed on fractional-order models of the respiratory impedance identified from lung function data obtained from 21 COPD patients. Additional simulation studies show the robustness of the controller in presence of varying model parameters from the respiratory impedance of the patient. Possibilities to implement the control strategy as an online adaptive algorithm are also explored. The results show that the design of the control is suitable for this kind of application and provides useful insight on realistic scenarios. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of adaptive mesh refinement for IMEX discontinuous Galerkin solutions of the compressible Euler equations with application to atmospheric simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Michal A.; Giraldo, Francis X.

    2014-10-01

    The resolutions of interests in atmospheric simulations require prohibitively large computational resources. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) tries to mitigate this problem by putting high resolution in crucial areas of the domain. We investigate the performance of a tree-based AMR algorithm for the high order discontinuous Galerkin method on quadrilateral grids with non-conforming elements. We perform a detailed analysis of the cost of AMR by comparing this to uniform reference simulations of two standard atmospheric test cases: density current and rising thermal bubble. The analysis shows up to 15 times speed-up of the AMR simulations with the cost of mesh adaptation below 1% of the total runtime. We pay particular attention to the implicit-explicit (IMEX) time integration methods and show that the ARK2 method is more robust with respect to dynamically adapting meshes than BDF2. Preliminary analysis of preconditioning reveals that it can be an important factor in the AMR overhead. The compiler optimizations provide significant runtime reduction and positively affect the effectiveness of AMR allowing for speed-ups greater than it would follow from the simple performance model.

  9. Development of an Output-based Adaptive Method for Multi-Dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmofal, David L.

    2003-01-01

    The use of computational simulations in the prediction of complex aerodynamic flows is becoming increasingly prevalent in the design process within the aerospace industry. Continuing advancements in both computing technology and algorithmic development are ultimately leading to attempts at simulating ever-larger, more complex problems. However, by increasing the reliance on computational simulations in the design cycle, we must also increase the accuracy of these simulations in order to maintain or improve the reliability arid safety of the resulting aircraft. At the same time, large-scale computational simulations must be made more affordable so that their potential benefits can be fully realized within the design cycle. Thus, a continuing need exists for increasing the accuracy and efficiency of computational algorithms such that computational fluid dynamics can become a viable tool in the design of more reliable, safer aircraft. The objective of this research was the development of an error estimation and grid adaptive strategy for reducing simulation errors in integral outputs (functionals) such as lift or drag from from multi-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes simulations. In this final report, we summarize our work during this grant.

  10. Large eddy simulation of radiation fog: impact of dynamics on the fog life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Marie; Lac, Christine; Thouron, Odile; Bergot, Thierry; Masson, Valery; Musson-Genon, Luc

    2017-11-01

    Large eddy simulations (LESs) of a radiation fog event occurring during the ParisFog experiment are studied with a view to analyse the impact of the dynamics of the boundary layer on the fog life cycle. The LES, performed with the Meso-NH model at 5 m resolution horizontally and 1 m vertically, and with a 2-moment microphysical scheme, includes the drag effect of a tree barrier and the deposition of droplets on vegetation. The model shows good agreement with measurements of near-surface dynamic and thermodynamic parameters and liquid water path. The blocking effect of the trees induces elevated fog formation, as actually observed, and horizontal heterogeneities during the formation. It also limits cooling and cloud water production. Deposition is found to exert the most significant impact on fog prediction as it not only erodes the fog near the surface but also modifies the fog life cycle and induces vertical heterogeneities. A comparison with the 2 m horizontal resolution simulation reveals small differences, meaning that grid convergence is achieved. Conversely, increasing numerical diffusion through a wind advection operator of lower order leads to an increase in the liquid water path and has a very similar effect to removing the tree barrier. This study allows us to establish the major dynamical ingredients needed to accurately represent the fog life cycle at very high-resolution.

  11. Improving advanced cardiovascular life support skills in medical students: simulation-based education approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Reihani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this trial, we intend to assess the effect of simulation-based education approach on advanced cardiovascular life support skills among medical students. Methods: Through convenient sampling method, 40 interns of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in their emergency medicine rotation (from September to December 2012 participated in this study. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS workshops with pretest and post-test exams were performed. Workshops and checklists for pretest and post-test exams were designed according to the latest American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Results: The total score of the students increased significantly after workshops (24.6 out of 100 to 78.6 out of 100. This demonstrates 53.9% improvement in the skills after the simulation-based education (P< 0.001. Also the mean score of each station had a significant improvement (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Pretests showed that interns had poor performance in practical clinical matters while their scientific knowledge, such as ECG interpretation was acceptable. The overall results of the study highlights that Simulation based-education approach is highly effective in Improving ACLS skills among medical students.

  12. The Adaptive Basis of Psychosocial Acceleration: Comment on Beyond Mental Health, Life History Strategies Articles [editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nettle, D.; Frankenhuis, W.E.; Rickard, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    Four of the articles published in this special section of Developmental Psychology build on and refine psychosocial acceleration theory. In this short commentary, we discuss some of the adaptive assumptions of psychosocial acceleration theory that have not received much attention. Psychosocial

  13. The Adaptive Basis of Psychosocial Acceleration: Comment on beyond Mental Health, Life History Strategies Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Rickard, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Four of the articles published in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" build on and refine psychosocial acceleration theory. In this short commentary, we discuss some of the adaptive assumptions of psychosocial acceleration theory that have not received much attention. Psychosocial acceleration theory relies on the behavior of…

  14. Automated performance assessment and adaptive training for training simulators with SimSCORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, H.L.H. de; Kappé, B.; Boot, E.W.

    2009-01-01

    Performance assessment in training simulators for learning complex tasks is a complex task in itself. It requires monitoring and interpreting the student’s behavior in the simulator using knowledge of the training task, the environment, and a lot of experience. Assessment in simulators is therefore

  15. Adaptation to hydrological extremes through insurance: a financial fund simulation model under changing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Diego; Mohor, Guilherme; Câmara, Clarissa; Mendiondo, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Researches from around the world relate global environmental changes with the increase of vulnerability to extreme events, such as heavy and scarce precipitations - floods and droughts. Hydrological disasters have caused increasing losses in recent years. Thus, risk transfer mechanisms, such as insurance, are being implemented to mitigate impacts, finance the recovery of the affected population, and promote the reduction of hydrological risks. However, among the main problems in implementing these strategies, there are: First, the partial knowledge of natural and anthropogenic climate change in terms of intensity and frequency; Second, the efficient risk reduction policies require accurate risk assessment, with careful consideration of costs; Third, the uncertainty associated with numerical models and input data used. The objective of this document is to introduce and discuss the feasibility of the application of Hydrological Risk Transfer Models (HRTMs) as a strategy of adaptation to global climate change. The article shows the development of a methodology for the collective and multi-sectoral vulnerability management, facing the hydrological risk in the long term, under an insurance funds simulator. The methodology estimates the optimized premium as a function of willingness to pay (WTP) and the potential direct loss derived from hydrological risk. The proposed methodology structures the watershed insurance scheme in three analysis modules. First, the hazard module, which characterizes the hydrologic threat from the recorded series input or modelled series under IPCC / RCM's generated scenarios. Second, the vulnerability module calculates the potential economic loss for each sector1 evaluated as a function of the return period "TR". Finally, the finance module determines the value of the optimal aggregate premium by evaluating equiprobable scenarios of water vulnerability; taking into account variables such as the maximum limit of coverage, deductible

  16. Adaptive Mesh Refinement and High Order Geometrical Moment Method for the Simulation of Polydisperse Evaporating Sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essadki Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Predictive simulation of liquid fuel injection in automotive engines has become a major challenge for science and applications. The key issue in order to properly predict various combustion regimes and pollutant formation is to accurately describe the interaction between the carrier gaseous phase and the polydisperse evaporating spray produced through atomization. For this purpose, we rely on the EMSM (Eulerian Multi-Size Moment Eulerian polydisperse model. It is based on a high order moment method in size, with a maximization of entropy technique in order to provide a smooth reconstruction of the distribution, derived from a Williams-Boltzmann mesoscopic model under the monokinetic assumption [O. Emre (2014 PhD Thesis, École Centrale Paris; O. Emre, R.O. Fox, M. Massot, S. Chaisemartin, S. Jay, F. Laurent (2014 Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 93, 689-722; O. Emre, D. Kah, S. Jay, Q.-H. Tran, A. Velghe, S. de Chaisemartin, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2015 Atomization Sprays 25, 189-254; D. Kah, F. Laurent, M. Massot, S. Jay (2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231, 394-422; D. Kah, O. Emre, Q.-H. Tran, S. de Chaisemartin, S. Jay, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2015 Int. J. Multiphase Flows 71, 38-65; A. Vié, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2013 J. Comp. Phys. 237, 277-310]. The present contribution relies on a major extension of this model [M. Essadki, S. de Chaisemartin, F. Laurent, A. Larat, M. Massot (2016 Submitted to SIAM J. Appl. Math.], with the aim of building a unified approach and coupling with a separated phases model describing the dynamics and atomization of the interface near the injector. The novelty is to be found in terms of modeling, numerical schemes and implementation. A new high order moment approach is introduced using fractional moments in surface, which can be related to geometrical quantities of the gas-liquid interface. We also provide a novel algorithm for an accurate resolution of the evaporation. Adaptive mesh refinement properly scaling on massively

  17. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Korean version of Caregiver Priorities & Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Narayanan, Unni G; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, Damian J; Park, Moon Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and transculturally adapt the Caregiver Priorities & Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) questionnaire into Korean language, and to test the reliability and validity, including the internal consistency, known-group validity and factor analysis of the Korean version of the CPCHILD. A Korean version of CPCHILD was produced according to internationally accepted guidelines. For validity testing, 194 consecutive parents or caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were recruited and completed the questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and known-groups validity were evaluated and factor analysis was performed to validate the Korean version of the CPCHILD. In terms of internal consistency, a Cronbach's alpha was above 0.90 in all domains of the CPCHILD (range 0.921 to 0.966), except the 5th domain (0.628). In terms of known-groups validity, the total score of the CPCHILD was significantly different according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level (p life in severely affected children with CP. However, the Korean version of CPCHILD contains some redundant items, and factor analysis suggested a five-domain questionnaire. Implication for Rehabilitation The Korean version of CPCHILD is a reliable, internally consistent, valid instrument for assessing the health-related quality of life in severely affected children with CP from the perspective of caregivers. After the transcultural adaptation and validation of the Korean CPCHILD, it can be reliably used in clinical and research settings to evaluate the health-related quality of life in Korean patients with CP.

  18. An adaptive multi-spline refinement algorithm in simulation based sailboat trajectory optimization using onboard multi-core computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębski Roman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new dynamic programming based parallel algorithm adapted to on-board heterogeneous computers for simulation based trajectory optimization is studied in the context of “high-performance sailing”. The algorithm uses a new discrete space of continuously differentiable functions called the multi-splines as its search space representation. A basic version of the algorithm is presented in detail (pseudo-code, time and space complexity, search space auto-adaptation properties. Possible extensions of the basic algorithm are also described. The presented experimental results show that contemporary heterogeneous on-board computers can be effectively used for solving simulation based trajectory optimization problems. These computers can be considered micro high performance computing (HPC platforms-they offer high performance while remaining energy and cost efficient. The simulation based approach can potentially give highly accurate results since the mathematical model that the simulator is built upon may be as complex as required. The approach described is applicable to many trajectory optimization problems due to its black-box represented performance measure and use of OpenCL.

  19. Comprehensive CFD simulation of the ladle cycle toward lining service life optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Mansour; Al-Nefai, Abdullah; Al-Jarallah, Sami; Al-Dossary, Abdullah; Jagan, Yannam

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to optimize ladle cycle to enhance the lining service life. This optimization would be achieved by a better understanding of the lining thermal conditions during the varies stages of the ladle cycle by a mathematical simulation of the process. A 2D axisymmetric mathematical model was developed to predict the ladle lining and steel shell temperature during the full ladle cycle. The estimated steel shell temperature during drying and preheating process of a newly lined ladle was in good agreement with the literature and the plant expectation. This study recommend to make some changes in the current ladle cycle practice to reduce the abnormal lining temperature variation. Also recommend to enhance the preheating burners for sufficient lining drying/preheating. This then would improve the lining service life and reduce the refractory consumptions rate.

  20. Using the virtual reality world of second life to teach nursing faculty simulation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Elizabeth; McNew, Ryan; Trangenstein, Patricia; Gordon, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare faculty members have come to depend on the advantages of teaching with clinical simulation, but not all faculty are competent in their ability to manage students during the simulation experience. This federally funded proposal provided the opportunity for nursing faculty to participate in a synchronous learning event using the virtual reality world of Second Life (SL). Based on competencies, faculty participants were guided through the simulation process by a "Master Teacher." Participants then became the teacher and chose the settings, objectives, and clinical data to manage their own simulation using avatar role assignments. Feedback populated the participant informatics dashboard, so that progress towards their competencies was recorded. Another unique informatics application was the use of the Synthetic Derivative project to use de-identified patient data to promote better clinical realism. Additional evaluation activities regarding content, appropriate use of the technology, and design features were assessed. The development of the SL environment for this educational study provides the setting in which to pilot test the provision of actual clinical care that does not require "hands-on" interventions.

  1. The Adaptive Effects Of Virtual Interfaces: Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Simulator Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-07

    adaptation achieved within the first 16 minutes only. A direction adaptation stimulus would be utilized per Khater , et al. (1990). This method of...the vestibular organs within each inner ear. video-oculography (VOG): a method of collecting eye movement data using video recording techniques. Often...Other methods for measuring the VOR also exist (Halmagyi, 1995; Sharpe & Barber, 1993; Shelhamer, Robinson, & Tan, 1992). Gain and phase are the

  2. Simulation and experimental testbed for adaptive video streaming in ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Santiago Renan; Castellanos Hernández, Wilder Eduardo; Guzman Castillo, Paola Fernanda; Arce Vila, Pau; Guerri Cebollada, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation of the scalable video streaming over mobile ad hoc networks. In particular, we focus on the rate-adaptive method for streaming scalable video (H.264/SVC). For effective adaptation a new cross-layer routing protocol is introduced. This protocol provides an efficient algorithm for available bandwidth estimation. With this information, the video source adjusts its bit rate during the video transmission according to the network state. We also propose a...

  3. A Case-Study for Life-Long Learning and Adaptation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-09-19

    While considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the development of multi-robot teams, much work remains to be done before these teams are used widely in real-world applications. Two particular needs toward this end are the development of mechanisms that enable robot teams to generate cooperative behaviors on their own, and the development of techniques that allow these teams to autonomously adapt their behavior over time as the environment or the robot team changes. This paper proposes the use of the Cooperative Multi-Robot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets (CMOMMT) application as a rich domain for studying the issues of multi-robot learning and adaptation. After discussing the need for learning and adaptation in multi-robot teams, this paper describes the CMOMMT application and its relevance to multi-robot learning. We discuss the results of the previously- developed, hand-generated algorithm for CMOMMT and the potential for learning that was discovered from the hand-generated approach. We then describe the early work that has been done (by us and others) to generate multi- robot learning techniques for the CMOMMT application, as well as our ongoing research to develop approaches that give performance as good, or better, than the hand-generated approach. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop techniques for multi-robot learning and adaptation in the CMOMMT application domain that will generalize to cooperative robot applications in other domains, thus making the practical use of multi-robot teams in a wide variety of real-world applications much closer to reality.

  4. An Adaptive Recurrent Neural Network for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    application for RUL prediction. We compare its performance with the classical recurrent neural network (RNN) and the recurrent neural fuzzy system ...Jang (1993). ANFIS: adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system , IEEE Transactions on Systems , Man, and Cybernetics-Part B: Cybernetics, vol. 23...pp. 665-685, 1993. J. Jang, C. T. Sun, and E. Mizutani (1997). Neuro - Fuzzy and Soft Computing: A computational approach to learning and machine

  5. Temperature structure of the intracluster medium from smoothed-particle hydrodynamics and adaptive-mesh refinement simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasia, Elena [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke; Avestruz, Camille [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Borgani, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Trieste, Sezione di Astronomia, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Dolag, Klaus [University Observatory Munich, Scheiner-Str. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Granato, Gian Luigi; Murante, Giuseppe; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Mazzotta, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133, Roma (Italy); Nelson, Kaylea, E-mail: rasia@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    Analyses of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters suggest that X-ray masses can be underestimated by 10%-30%. The largest bias originates from both violation of hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) and an additional temperature bias caused by inhomogeneities in the X-ray-emitting intracluster medium (ICM). To elucidate this large dispersion among theoretical predictions, we evaluate the degree of temperature structures in cluster sets simulated either with smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) or adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) codes. We find that the SPH simulations produce larger temperature variations connected to the persistence of both substructures and their stripped cold gas. This difference is more evident in nonradiative simulations, whereas it is reduced in the presence of radiative cooling. We also find that the temperature variation in radiative cluster simulations is generally in agreement with that observed in the central regions of clusters. Around R {sub 500} the temperature inhomogeneities of the SPH simulations can generate twice the typical HE mass bias of the AMR sample. We emphasize that a detailed understanding of the physical processes responsible for the complex thermal structure in ICM requires improved resolution and high-sensitivity observations in order to extend the analysis to higher temperature systems and larger cluster-centric radii.

  6. Polar bears exhibit genome-wide signatures of bioenergetic adaptation to life in the arctic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Andreanna J; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Miller, Webb; Rode, Karyn D; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) face extremely cold temperatures and periods of fasting, which might result in more severe energetic challenges than those experienced by their sister species, the brown bear (U. arctos). We have examined the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of polar and brown bears to investigate whether polar bears demonstrate lineage-specific signals of molecular adaptation in genes associated with cellular respiration/energy production. We observed increased evolutionary rates in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene in polar but not brown bears. An amino acid substitution occurred near the interaction site with a nuclear-encoded subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex and was predicted to lead to a functional change, although the significance of this remains unclear. The nuclear genomes of brown and polar bears demonstrate different adaptations related to cellular respiration. Analyses of the genomes of brown bears exhibited substitutions that may alter the function of proteins that regulate glucose uptake, which could be beneficial when feeding on carbohydrate-dominated diets during hyperphagia, followed by fasting during hibernation. In polar bears, genes demonstrating signatures of functional divergence and those potentially under positive selection were enriched in functions related to production of nitric oxide (NO), which can regulate energy production in several different ways. This suggests that polar bears may be able to fine-tune intracellular levels of NO as an adaptive response to control trade-offs between energy production in the form of adenosine triphosphate versus generation of heat (thermogenesis).

  7. Polar bears exhibit genome-wide signatures of bioenergetic adaptation to life in the Arctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Andreanna J.; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C.; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Miller, Webb; Rode, Karyn D.; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) face extremely cold temperatures and periods of fasting, which might result in more severe energetic challenges than those experienced by their sister species, the brown bear (U. arctos). We have examined the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of polar and brown bears to investigate if polar bears demonstrate lineage-specific signals of molecular adaptation in genes associated with cellular respiration/energy production. We observed increased evolutionary rates in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene in polar but not brown bears. An amino acid substitution occurred near the interaction site with a nuclear-encoded subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, and was predicted to lead to a functional change, although the significance of this remains unclear. The nuclear genomes of brown and polar bears demonstrate different adaptations related to cellular respiration. Analyses of the genomes of brown bears exhibited substitutions that may alter the function of proteins that regulate glucose uptake, which could be beneficial when feeding on carbohydrate-dominated diets during hyperphagia, followed by fasting during hibernation. In polar bears, genes demonstrating signatures of functional divergence and those potentially under positive selection were enriched in functions related to production of nitric oxide, which can regulate energy production in several different ways. This suggests that polar bears may be able to fine-tune intracellular levels of nitric oxide as an adaptive response to control trade-offs between energy production in the form of ATP versus generation of heat (thermogenesis).

  8. Adaptation to Life in the High Andes: Nocturnal Oxyhemoglobin Saturation in Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine Mary; Baya, Ana; Gavlak, Johanna; Carroll, Annette; Heathcote, Kate; Dimitriou, Dagmara; L'Esperance, Veline; Webster, Rebecca; Holloway, John; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Kirkham, Fenella Jane; Bucks, Romola Starr; Hogan, Alexandra Marie

    2016-05-01

    Physiological adaptation to high altitude hypoxia may be impaired in Andeans with significant European ancestry. The respiratory 'burden' of sleep may challenge adaptation, leading to relative nocturnal hypoxia. Developmental aspects of sleep-related breathing in high-altitude native children have not previously been reported. We aimed to determine the influence of development on diurnal-nocturnal oxyhemoglobin differences in children living at high altitude. This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Seventy-five healthy Bolivian children aged 6 mo to 17 y, native to low altitude (500 m), moderate high altitude (2,500 m), and high altitude (3,700 m) were recruited. Daytime resting pulse oximetry was compared to overnight recordings using Masimo radical oximeters. Genetic ancestry was determined from DNA samples. Children had mixed European/Amerindian ancestry, with no significant differences between altitudes. Sixty-two participants had ≥ 5 h of nocturnal, artifact-free data. As predicted, diurnal mean oxyhemoglobin saturation decreased across altitudes (infants and children, both P childhood, with no further change during adolescence. Physiological adaptation to high-altitude living in native Andeans is unlikely to compensate for the significant differences we observed between diurnal and nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation, most marked in infancy. This vulnerability to sleep-related hypoxia in early childhood has potential lifespan implications. Future studies should characterize the sleep- related respiratory physiology underpinning our observations. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. The use of adaptation to reduce simulator sickness in driving assessment and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeyer, Joshua E; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D; Backs, Richard W

    2013-04-01

    The technical advancement of driving simulators has decreased their cost and increased both their accuracy and fidelity. This makes them a useful tool for examining driving behavior in risky or unique situations. With the approaching increase of older licensed drivers due to aging of the baby boomers, driving simulators will be important for conducting driving research and evaluations for older adults. With these simulator technologies, some people may experience significant effects of a unique form of motion sickness, known as simulator sickness. These effects may be more pronounced in older adults. The present study examined the feasibility of an intervention to attenuate symptoms of simulator sickness in drivers participating in a study of a driving evaluation protocol. Prior to beginning the experiment, the experimental groups did not differ in subjective simulator sickness scores as indicated by Revised Simulator Sickness Questionnaire scores (all p>0.5). Participants who experienced a two-day delay between an initial acclimation to the driving simulator and the driving session experienced fewer simulator sickness symptoms as indicated by RSSQ total severity scores than participants who did not receive a two-day delay (F(1,88)=4.54, p=.036, partial η(2)=.049). These findings have implications for improving client well-being and potentially increasing acceptance of driving simulation for driving evaluations and for driving safety research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Hirschsprung's Disease/Anorectal Malformation Quality of life Questionnaire (HAQL) into Swedish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigander, Helena; Frenckner, Björn; Wester, Tomas; Nisell, Margret; Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Children with anorectal malformation or Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) often have functional problems with constipation or incontinence. The Hirschsprung's Disease/Anorectal malformation Quality of life Questionnaire (HAQL) developed in the Netherlands is a disease-specific instrument measuring the quality of life (QoL) of children and adolescents with fecal incontinence. HAQL includes several domains with questions concerning diet, laxatives, constipation, diarrhea, urine and fecal incontinence, in addition to social and emotional functioning, body image, and physical symptoms. The purpose of the study was to translate and culturally adapt the HAQL questionnaire into Swedish. The translation was carried out according to accepted translation guidelines and a backward/forward translation method was used. The translation correlated well with the original. All in all the Swedish and the Dutch versions agreed well. The Swedish translators chose to use a more simplified language in the questionnaires intended for the children, but used another choice of words in the proxy version and the adolescents' version. The translation of the HAQL instrument into Swedish gives us a disease-specific QoL instrument for children and adolescents born with HD and anorectal malformations (ARM). The translated and culturally adapted HAQL instrument is included in a survey regarding children and adolescents born with ARM.

  11. Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): a hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane X; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual's necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How does playing adapted sports affect quality of life of people with mobility limitations? Results from a mixed-method sequential explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté-Leclerc, Félix; Boileau Duchesne, Gabrielle; Bolduc, Patrick; Gélinas-Lafrenière, Amélie; Santerre, Corinne; Desrosiers, Johanne; Levasseur, Mélanie

    2017-01-25

    Occupations, including physical activity, are a strong determinant of health. However, mobility limitations can restrict opportunities to perform these occupations, which may affect quality of life. Some people will turn to adapted sports to meet their need to be involved in occupations. Little is known, however, about how participation in adapted sports affects the quality of life of people with mobility limitations. This study thus aimed to explore the influence of adapted sports on quality of life in adult wheelchair users. A mixed-method sequential explanatory design was used, including a quantitative and a qualitative component with a clinical research design. A total of 34 wheelchair users aged 18 to 62, who regularly played adapted sports, completed the Quality of Life Index (/30). Their scores were compared to those obtained by people of similar age without limitations (general population). Ten of the wheelchair users also participated in individual semi-structured interviews exploring their perceptions regarding how sports-related experiences affected their quality of life. The participants were 9 women and 25 men with paraplegia, the majority of whom worked and played an individual adapted sport (athletics, tennis or rugby) at the international or national level. People with mobility limitations who participated in adapted sports had a quality of life comparable to the group without limitations (21.9 ± 3.3 vs 22.3 ± 2.9 respectively), except for poorer family-related quality of life (21.0 ± 5.3 vs 24.1 ± 4.9 respectively). Based on the interviews, participants reported that the positive effect of adapted sports on the quality of life of people with mobility limitations operates mainly through the following: personal factors (behavior-related abilities and health), social participation (in general and through interpersonal relationships), and environmental factors (society's perceptions and support from the environment). Some contextual

  13. [Translation and adaptation to Spanish language of the quality of life questionnaire for celiac people called Canadian Celiac Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrí, Cristina; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2014-10-01

    To adapt and assess the quality of life questionnaire called Canadian Celiac Health Survey (CCHS). To translate and adapt CCHS questionnaire to be used by the Spanish-speaking population since it is a specific questionnaire for celiac disease. To adapt the CCHS, which consists of 76 items divided into 11 different sections, was performed using translation-back-translation method and after being reviewed and agreed proceeded to conduct a pilot test with 25 people with celiac disease, individually and a member of the research group to assess the understanding of the items and their sections. The contributions were introduced, setting the final questionnaire. The greatest difficulty in the translation in question occurred where there were active and trade names of drugs, opting for it to those marketed nationwide. On the other hand, for the pilot study questionnaire showed a good value of the naturalness of understanding with values between 8.4 and 10.0. The specific tool CHCS allow the use of a questionnaire that can be used by the Spanish speaking population studies, clinical trials or health professional practice everyday, allowing a better understanding of the health of celiacs. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Ludivine, Chateau-Degat; Papouin, Gérard; Saint-Val, Philippe; Lopez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with a decrease in physical skills, sometimes accompanied by a change in quality of life (QOL). Long-term martial arts practice has been proposed as an avenue to counter these deleterious effects. The general purpose of this pilot study was to identify the effects of an adapted karate training program on QOL, depression, and motor skills in 50-year-old men. Methods and design Fifteen 50-year-old men were enrolled in a one-year prospective experiment. Participants practiced adapted karate training for 90 minutes three times a week. Testing sessions, involving completion of the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF36) and Beck Depression Inventory, as well as motor and effort evaluation, were done at baseline, and six and 12 months. Results Compared with baseline, participants had better Beck Depression Inventory scores after one year of karate training (P karate practice had favorable effects on mood, perception of physical health confirmed by better postural control, and improved performance on objective physical testing. Adapted karate training would be an interesting option for maintaining physical activity in aging. PMID:24198552

  15. Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Through an Evidence-Based Program: Effects of the Italian Adaptation of Life Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Veronica; Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions for adolescent substance use, violence, and mental health issues are increasingly being adapted and disseminated internationally. In the present paper, we report the results of an effectiveness study that was part of a comprehensive initiative by a coalition of health promotion organizations in the Lombardy region of Italy to select, culturally adapt, implement, evaluate, and sustain an evidence-based drug abuse prevention program developed in the USA. Findings are presented from a large-scale effectiveness study of the Life Skills Training prevention program among over 3000 students attending 55 middle schools in Italy. The prevention program taught drug refusal skills, antidrug norms, personal self-management skills, and general social skills. Relative to comparison group students, students who received the prevention program were less likely to initiate smoking at the post-test and 2-year follow-up, and less likely to initiate weekly drunkenness at the 1-year follow-up. The program had direct positive effects on several cognitive, attitudinal, and skill variables believed to play a protective role in adolescent substance use. The findings from this study show that a drug abuse prevention program originally designed for adolescents in the USA is effective in a sample of Italian youth when a rigorous and systematic approach to cultural adaptation is followed that incorporates the input of multiple stakeholders.

  16. Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Ludivine, Chateau-Degat; Papouin, Gérard; Saint-Val, Philippe; Lopez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decrease in physical skills, sometimes accompanied by a change in quality of life (QOL). Long-term martial arts practice has been proposed as an avenue to counter these deleterious effects. The general purpose of this pilot study was to identify the effects of an adapted karate training program on QOL, depression, and motor skills in 50-year-old men. Fifteen 50-year-old men were enrolled in a one-year prospective experiment. Participants practiced adapted karate training for 90 minutes three times a week. Testing sessions, involving completion of the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF36) and Beck Depression Inventory, as well as motor and effort evaluation, were done at baseline, and six and 12 months. Compared with baseline, participants had better Beck Depression Inventory scores after one year of karate training (P reaction time scores for the nondominant hand and sway parameters in the eyes-closed position (P karate practice had favorable effects on mood, perception of physical health confirmed by better postural control, and improved performance on objective physical testing. Adapted karate training would be an interesting option for maintaining physical activity in aging.

  17. Hindlimb musculature of the largest living rodent Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Caviomorpha): Adaptations to semiaquatic and terrestrial styles of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2016-03-01

    The caviomorph species Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Cavioidea), or capybara, is the largest living rodent. This species is widely distributed, from northern South America to Uruguay and eastern Argentina, inhabiting in a wide variety of densely vegetated lowlands habitats in the proximity of water. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris not only runs with agility, like other members of the Cavioidea, but it can also swim and dive easily. For these reasons, it has been classified as a cursorial as well as semiaquatic species. However, comprehensive anatomical descriptions of the osteology and myology of the capybara are not available in the literature and analyses on its swimming abilities are still required. We hypothesize that some of the characters of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris could reveal a unique morphological arrangement associated with swimming abilities. In this study, an anatomical description of the hindlimb musculature of H. hydrochaeris, and a discussion of the possible functional significance of the main muscles is provided. In addition, we explore the evolution of some myological and osteological characters of the capybara in the context of the cavioids. We concluded that most of the muscular and osteological features of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris are neither adaptations to a specialized cursoriality, nor major modifications for an aquatic mode of life. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris share several features with other cavioids, being a generalized cursorial species in the context of this clade. However, it shows some adaptations of the hindlimb for enhancing propulsion through water, of which the most notable seems to be the shortening of the leg, short tendons of most muscles of the leg, and a well-developed soleus muscle. These adaptations to a semiaquatic mode of life could have been acquired during the most recent evolutionary history of the hydrochoerids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Practical aspects for minimizing errors in the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of quality of life questionnaires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, A; Solé, L; Bernstein, S; Lopes, M H; Francisconi, C F

    2013-01-01

    The development and validation of questionnaires for evaluating quality of life (QoL) has become an important area of research. However, there is a proliferation of non-validated measuring instruments in the health setting that do not contribute to advances in scientific knowledge. To present, through the analysis of available validated questionnaires, a checklist of the practical aspects of how to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of QoL questionnaires (generic, or disease-specific) so that no step is overlooked in the evaluation process, and thus help prevent the elaboration of insufficient or incomplete validations. We have consulted basic textbooks and Pubmed databases using the following keywords quality of life, questionnaires, and gastroenterology, confined to «validation studies» in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, and with no time limit, for the purpose of analyzing the translation and validation of the questionnaires available through the Mapi Institute and PROQOLID websites. A checklist is presented to aid in the planning and carrying out of the cross-cultural adaptation of QoL questionnaires, in conjunction with a glossary of key terms in the area of knowledge. The acronym DSTAC was used, which refers to each of the 5 stages involved in the recommended procedure. In addition, we provide a table of the QoL instruments that have been validated into Spanish. This article provides information on how to adapt QoL questionnaires from a cross-cultural perspective, as well as to minimize common errors. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond Dependency, Autonomy and Exchange: Prosocial Behavior in Late Life Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, Eva; And Others

    This review of the literature on prosocial behavior in the elderly provides empirical data on the prevalence of helping behaviors among the elderly and the range of motives underlying their helping. Implications of these data for theories of social behavior in later life are considered, and questions are raised about the validity of the models…

  20. Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the American Skindex-29 quality of life index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Henrique Ribeiro de; Haddad, Alessandra; Weiss, Mariana Alves; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the quality of life measure of patients with dermatologic diseases is an important concern. The instruments to evaluate it are commonly originally written in English and need to be translated and validated to be used in different cultures. The purpose of this paper is to translate and validate the Skindex-29 questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese to be used in our country as a quality of life assessment instrument in dermatologic patients. The first step was the translation from English to Brazilian Portuguese and the back-translation by two native speakers. The translated version was then used for the second step, when three questionnaires were applied to 75 patients (43 of whom were classified as lightly affected and 32 as heavily affected by their dermatologic conditions): an identification questionnaire, the translated version of Skindex-29, and the Brazilian Portuguese version of Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI). Additionally, the generic questionnaire Short Form 36 (SF-36) was applied to 41 of these patients. The last step to evaluate reproducibility was repeating the Skindex-29 questionnaire by the same researcher one week later in 44 patients. Reliability was observed in global Skindex-29 scale (α=0.934), and its domains emotions (α=0.926), symptoms (α=0,702), and psycosocial functioning (α=0.860). The reproducibility showed high intraclass correlations. High intra class correlations was observed, thus validating reliability. The Skindex-29 quality of life questionnaire was properly translated and validated to Brazilian Portuguese.

  1. Life history, population viability, and the potential for local adaptation in isolated trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; Y. Vindenes; L. A. Eby; C. Barfoot; L. A. Vollestad

    2017-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation have caused population decline across taxa through impacts on life history diversity, dispersal patterns, and gene flow. Yet, intentional isolation of native fish populations is a frequently used management strategy to protect against negative interactions with invasive fish species. We evaluated the population viability and genetic...

  2. The consequences of early life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccari, S.; Krugers, H.J.; Morley-Fletcher, S.; Szyf, M.; Brunton, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early life experiences, such as stress exposure or sub-optimal maternal care can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as

  3. A Hardware-Accelerated Fast Adaptive Vortex-Based Flow Simulation Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Scientific Research has recently developed a Lagrangian vortex-boundary element method for the grid-free simulation of unsteady incompressible...

  4. Quality of life of asthmatic children and adolescents: Portuguese translation, adaptation, and validation of the questionnaire "Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Asthma Module".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda Pereira; Solé, Dirceu; Wandalsen, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to translate, validate, and verify the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the instrument "Pediatric Quality of Life Asthma Module" (PedsQL Asthma) culturally adapted for the Brazilian culture. After being translated to Portuguese and being culturally adapted, the questionnaire was answered by 200 asthmatic children and adolescents (aged 2-18) as well as the adults responsible for them. Validation required the use of the following instruments: PedsQL Asthma Children (applied to children and adolescents), PedsQL Asthma Parents (applied to adults responsible for children and adolescents), Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life (PAQLQ), Asthma Control Test (ACT) or Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT), as well as socioeconomic and personal information questionnaires. A group of 45 clinically stable children repeated the questionnaires 15-60 days after answering the first questionnaire. Correlations between the scores of PedsQL Children and PedsQL Parents (r  =  0.67), PedsQL Children and PAQLQ (r  =  0.66), and PedsQL Parents and PAQLQ (r  =  0.64) were moderate and significant. Correlations were higher for men (r  =  0.72) when analyzing the children's and parents' answers to PedsQL according to gender. The 5- to 7-year-old age group had the strongest correlations with PAQLQ (r  =  0.79). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for PedsQL Children and Parents had values of 0.85 and 0.87, respectively. A high concordance was observed in both tests at different times, with kappa values of 0.89 and 0.87 for PedsQL Children and Parents, respectively. The instrument used in this study was considered valid, consistent, and reproducible and has acceptable psychometric properties for the Brazilian population.

  5. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Celiac Disease Quality of Life (CD-QOL survey, a specific questionnaire to measure quality of life in patients with celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Casellas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: celiac disease is a chronic condition that requires continued treatment, with the resultant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL of people who suffer it. Most studies in this field have used generic questionnaires to measure HRQOL in celiac patients. It was therefore decided to conduct a study to translate into Spanish and validate a specific questionnaire for celiac disease, the Celiac Disease Quality Of Life Survey (CD-QOL. Objectives: to translate and validate in Spanish the specific celiac disease questionnaire CD-QOL. Methods: a multicenter, prospective, observational study was designed consisting of two phases: In the first phase, the questionnaire was translated and adapted into Spanish using the translation/back translation procedure and an understandability study. In the second phase, internal consistency of the translated questionnaire was analyzed. For this, results of the CD-QOL were compared to those of EuroQol and the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS. Understandability of the translated and adapted questionnaire was tested in six patients, and the validation study was done in 298 celiac patients (201 treated with a gluten-free diet and 97 at diagnosis. Results: in both celiac groups, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high (0.90, feasibility was excellent (99.2 % of patients completed all questions, and there were no ceiling and floor effects. Spearman correlation to EuroQol and D-FIS was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CD-QOL score was different depending on whether state of health was good, fair, or poor based on the EuroQol score. Conclusion: the Spanish version of the CD-QOL is a valid tool for measuring HRQOL in celiac patients.

  6. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Koorosh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients’ outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. Methods: A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly se-lected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hos-pital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed in-terns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre-and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS ver-sion 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Our findings showed that interns’ ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001, P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively. Conclusion: ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns. Key words: Advanced Trauma Life Support Care; Knowledge; Inservice training; Wounds and injuries

  7. The life of a dead ant -the expression of an adaptive extended phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Yusah, Kalsum M.

    2009-01-01

    to make hosts bite onto vegetation prior to killing them. We show that this represents a fine-tuned fungal adaptation: an extended phenotype. Dead ants were found under leaves, attached by their mandibles, on the northern side of saplings ca. 25 cm above the soil, where temperature and humidity conditions...... were optimal for fungal growth. Experimental relocation confirmed that parasite fitness was lower outside this manipulative zone. Host resources were rapidly colonized and further secured by extensive internal structuring. Nutritional composition analysis indicated that such structuring allows...

  8. Life in the Fast Lane: The Evolution of an Adaptive Vehicle Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem, Todd; Pomerleau, Dean

    1996-01-01

    Giving robots the ability to operate in the real world has been, and continues to be, one of the most difficult tasks in AI research. Since 1987, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have been investigating one such task. Their research has been focused on using adaptive, vision-based systems to increase the driving performance of the Navlab line of on-road mobile robots. This research has led to the development of a neural network system that can learn to drive on many road types simply...

  9. Long-term effects of early life microbiota disturbance on adaptive immunity in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K; Verwoolde, M B; Zhang, J; Smidt, H; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2016-07-01

    Due to an interplay between intestinal microbiota and immune system, disruption of intestinal microbiota composition during immune development may have consequences for immune responses later in life. The present study investigated the effects of antibiotic treatment in the first weeks of life on the specific antibody response later in life in chickens. Layer chicks received an antibiotic cocktail consisting of vancomycin, neomycin, metronidazole, and amphotericin-B by oral gavage every 12 h, and ampicillin and colistin in drinking water for the first week of life. After the first week of life, chicks received ampicillin and colistin in drinking water for two more weeks. Control birds received no antibiotic cocktail and plain drinking water. Fecal microbiota composition was determined during antibiotic treatment (d 8 and 22), two weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment (d 36), and at the end of the experimental period at d 175 using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene targeted microarray, the Chicken Intestinal Tract Chip (ChickChip). During antibiotic treatment fecal microbiota composition differed strongly between treatment groups. Fecal microbiota of antibiotic treated birds consisted mainly of Proteobacteria, and in particular E.coli, whereas fecal microbiota of control birds consisted mainly of Firmicutes, such as lactobacilli and clostridia. Two weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment fecal microbiota composition of antibiotic treated birds had recovered and was similar to that of control birds. On d 105, 12 weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment, chicks of both treatment groups received an intra-tracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/human serum albumin (HuSA) challenge. Antibody titers against LPS and HuSA were measured 10 days after administration of the challenge. While T cell independent antibody titers (LPS) were not affected by antibiotic treatment, antibiotic treated birds showed lower T cell dependent antibody titers (HuSA) compared with control

  10. Adaptive grid-based confidence assessment for synthetic optoelectronic images by Physical Reasonable Infrared Scene Simulation Engine (PRISSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Sun, Hao; Ma, Xiangchao; Wang, Yucheng; Han, Yiping

    2017-09-01

    Like visible spectrum, synthetic infrared scenes reflect the invisible world of infrared features. Propagation of a typical infrared radiation involves a variety of sources of different sizes, shapes, intensities, roughness, temperature, etc., all of which would impose impacts on the fidelity of the synthetic images. Assessing the confidence of a synthetic infrared scene is therefore not so intuitive as evaluating the quality of a visible image. An adaptive grid-based method is proposed in this paper for similarity assessments between synthetic infrared images and the corresponding real infrared images, which is on a grid-by-grid basis. Different from many traditional methods, each grid in our work is weighted by a value that is simulated by a 2D Gamma distribution. Introducing adaptive grids and exerting a weighting value on each grid are the aspects of our method. To investigate the effectiveness of our method, an experiment was conducted for taking real mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) images, and the corresponding synthetic MWIR images were simulated by Physical Reasonable Infrared Scene Simulation Engine (PRISSE). The confidence of similarity assessments evaluated by our method is then compared to some popularly-used traditional assessment methods.

  11. High-Fidelity Space-Time Adaptive Multiphysics Simulations in Nuclear Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solin, Pavel [Univ. of Reno, NV (United States); Ragusa, Jean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-03-09

    We delivered a series of fundamentally new computational technologies that have the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of computer simulations of transient multiphysics nuclear reactor processes. These methods were implemented in the form of a C++ library, and applied to a number of multiphysics coupled problems relevant to nuclear reactor simulations.

  12. Evaluating adaptation options for urban flooding based on new high-end emission scenario regional climate model simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Leonardsen, L.; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation studies on urban flooding are often based on a model chain approach from climate forcing scenarios to analysis of adaptation measures. Previous analyses of climate change impacts in Copenhagen, Denmark, were supplemented by 2 high-end scenario simulations. These include...... to pluvial flooding that makes the urban areas more robust and reduces the risk of flooding under the current climate to a very low level. The reduction in flood risk for the A1B scenario is substantial (corresponding to 0.2-0.3 times the current EAD in 2100), and even in the high-end scenarios, the risk...... a regional climate model projection forced to a global temperature increase of 6 degrees C in 2100 as well as a projection based on a high radiative forcing scenario (RCP8.5). With these scenarios, projected impacts of extreme precipitation increase significantly. For extreme sea surges, the impacts do...

  13. Evaluating climate change adaptation options for urban flooding in Copenhagen based on new high‐end emission scenario simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Leonhardsen, Lykke; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Climate change adaptation studies on urban flooding are often based on a model chain approach from climate forcing scenarios to analysis of adaptation measures. Previous analyses of impacts in Denmark using ensemble projections of the A1B scenario are supplemented by two high‐end scenario...... plan to pluvial flooding that makes the urban areas more robust and reduces the risk of flooding in current climate to a very low level. The economic benefit in the A1B scenario is substantial, and even in the 6 degree scenario the frequency of flooding is not much higher than national recommendations...... simulations. These include a regional climate model projection forced to a global temperature increase of 6 degrees as well as a projection based on the RCP8.5 scenario. With these scenarios projected impacts of extreme precipitation increase significantly. For extreme sea surges the impacts do not seem...

  14. Climate Degradation and Extreme Icing Events Constrain Life in Cold-Adapted Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J; Hartway, C; Gruzdev, A; Johnson, M

    2018-01-18

    Despite the growth in knowledge about the effects of a warming Arctic on its cold-adapted species, the mechanisms by which these changes affect animal populations remain poorly understood. Increasing temperatures, declining sea ice and altered wind and precipitation patterns all may affect the fitness and abundance of species through multiple direct and indirect pathways. Here we demonstrate previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow (ROS) events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges on the Arctic's largest land mammal. Using novel field data across seven years and three Alaskan and Russian sites, we show arrested skeletal growth in juvenile muskoxen resulting from unusually dry winter conditions and gestational ROS events, with the inhibitory effects on growth from ROS events lasting up to three years post-partum. Further, we describe the simultaneous entombment of 52 muskoxen in ice during a Chukchi Sea winter tsunami (ivuniq in Iñupiat), and link rapid freezing to entrapment of Arctic whales and otters. Our results illustrate how once unusual, but increasingly frequent Arctic weather events affect some cold-adapted mammals, and suggest that an understanding of species responses to a changing Arctic can be enhanced by coalescing groundwork, rare events, and insights from local people.

  15. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  16. [Polish adaptation and validation of Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, Krystyna A; Karzel, Katarzyna; Mathiak, Klaus; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Luba, Małgorzata; Wolańczyk, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent chronic disease in children, having a strong impact on a child's psychosocial functioning. Effective therapy must take into account the wide range of physical, psychological and social needs of patients. The importance of assessing patients' quality of life is becoming increasingly acknowledged. In addition to providing better health care, it may reveal how the disease and its psychosocial outcome interact. Quality of life in epilepsy can be assessed most reliably by disease-specific measures. Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) is an English parental questionnaire for children aged between 4 and 18 years. It contains 87 questions that fall into five domains: physical function, emotional well-being, cognitive function, social function and behavioural function. The original scale has a well-grounded theoretical background and good psychometric properties. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of QOLCE and evaluate its psychometric properties. Parents of 87 patients suffering from epilepsy were recruited in neurological clinics in the Warsaw area. Reliability was very high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). The construct validity was confirmed by the correlation between subscales of QOLCE and the Child Behaviour Checklist, as well as selected clinical measures of child's health (duration of disease: r=-0.22, p=0.02; duration of treatment: r=-0.20, p=0.04; number of hospitalizations: r=-0.24, p=0.02). All the psychometric properties were similar to those of the original scale. A Polish scale examining the quality of life was created that takes into account a wide range of psychosocial problems. We confirmed very high reliability and good validity, and thus we recommend the inventory for both research on and clinical diagnostics of Polish children with epilepsy.

  17. Simulated annealing method for electronic circuits design: adaptation and comparison with other optimization methods; La methode du recuit simule pour la conception des circuits electroniques: adaptation et comparaison avec d`autres methodes d`optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthiau, G.

    1995-10-01

    The circuit design problem consists in determining acceptable parameter values (resistors, capacitors, transistors geometries ...) which allow the circuit to meet various user given operational criteria (DC consumption, AC bandwidth, transient times ...). This task is equivalent to a multidimensional and/or multi objective optimization problem: n-variables functions have to be minimized in an hyper-rectangular domain ; equality constraints can be eventually specified. A similar problem consists in fitting component models. In this way, the optimization variables are the model parameters and one aims at minimizing a cost function built on the error between the model response and the data measured on the component. The chosen optimization method for this kind of problem is the simulated annealing method. This method, provided by the combinatorial optimization domain, has been adapted and compared with other global optimization methods for the continuous variables problems. An efficient strategy of variables discretization and a set of complementary stopping criteria have been proposed. The different parameters of the method have been adjusted with analytical functions of which minima are known, classically used in the literature. Our simulated annealing algorithm has been coupled with an open electrical simulator SPICE-PAC of which the modular structure allows the chaining of simulations required by the circuit optimization process. We proposed, for high-dimensional problems, a partitioning technique which ensures proportionality between CPU-time and variables number. To compare our method with others, we have adapted three other methods coming from combinatorial optimization domain - the threshold method, a genetic algorithm and the Tabu search method - The tests have been performed on the same set of test functions and the results allow a first comparison between these methods applied to continuous optimization variables. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Design and development of a virtual reality simulator for advanced cardiac life support training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankipuram, Akshay; Khanal, Prabal; Ashby, Aaron; Vankipuram, Mithra; Gupta, Ashish; DrummGurnee, Denise; Josey, Karen; Smith, Marshall

    2014-07-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) training tools for medical education could lead to improvements in the skills of clinicians while providing economic incentives for healthcare institutions. The use of VR tools can also mitigate some of the drawbacks currently associated with providing medical training in a traditional clinical environment such as scheduling conflicts and the need for specialized equipment (e.g., high-fidelity manikins). This paper presents the details of the framework and the development methodology associated with a VR-based training simulator for advanced cardiac life support, a time critical, team-based medical scenario. In addition, we also report the key findings of a usability study conducted to assess the efficacy of various features of this VR simulator through a postuse questionnaire administered to various care providers. The usability questionnaires were completed by two groups that used two different versions of the VR simulator. One version consisted of the VR trainer with it all its features and a minified version with certain immersive features disabled. We found an increase in usability scores from the minified group to the full VR group.

  19. Impact of simulation training on Jordanian nurses' performance of basic life support skills: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubasi, Samar; Alosta, Mohammed R; Darawad, Muhammad W; Demeh, Waddah

    2015-09-01

    Providing efficient basic life support (BLS) training is crucial for practicing nurses who provide direct patient care. Nevertheless, data addressing the impact of BLS courses on the skills and performance of Jordanian nurses are scarce. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a BLS simulation training on Jordanian nurses' skill improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A prospective quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design was used to study the effect of BLS simulation; using a 9-item checklist; on the spot training; American Heart Association, on a group of Jordanian nurses. A pre-test was conducted following a CPR scenario to test the skills using 9-item checklist extrapolated from the American Heart Association guidelines. After debriefing, an interactive on spot training was provided. Later, participants undertook an unscheduled post-test after four weeks that included the same nine items. Thirty registered nurses with a mean clinical experience of 6.1years participated in the study. Comparing pre-test (M=4.6, SD=2.9, range=0 to 9) with post-test results (M=7.5, SD=1.7, range=4 to 9) showed an overall improvement in skills and BLS scores after the simulation training program (t=7.4, df=29, pskills and performance among Jordanian nurses. A refreshment BLS training session for nurses is highly recommended to guarantee nurses' preparedness in actual CPR scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life Scale for European Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque Dos Reis, Luis; Donato, Mariana; Sousa, Rita; Escada, Pedro

    2017-02-27

    The scale Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life uses a simple and easily administered questionnaire to evaluate the adaptation of individuals to their hearing aids. The objective of this study is to validate the scale for European Portuguese speakers, by means of translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The study includes an evaluation of reproducibility and a description of the results of the administration of the questionnaire to patients fitted with hearing aids. We invited 147 individuals fitted with hearing aids (uni- or bilateral) to participate in the study. Participants had used a hearing aid for at least six weeks and were patients of the Department of Otolaryngology at the Egas Moniz Hospital (Lisbon). The consent as well the guidelines for translation from and into the English language were obtained from the author of the scale, and the translation from and into, and cultural adaptation were carried out, along with an evaluation of reproducibility and internal consistency. The participants were 54% male and 46% female, aged between 16 and 93 (66.09 ± 17.41 years). The results of the study showed an overall level of satisfaction of 5.4 among hearing aids users. The sub-scale satisfaction levels were: positive effects 5.88, service and cost 5.25, negative effects 4.24, and self-image 5.57. The Cronbach α score was 0.75 which indicates good internal consistency. Furthermore, the questionnaire's overall and sub-scale average scores did not differ significantly from the results obtained under the American scale. The inter-examiner reproducibility was also good. This study provides reliable results of the scale for the Portuguese of Portugal and adequate internal consistency, with significant age variability in the sample. This adaptation of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire for European Portuguese speakers should be considered a good tool for evaluation of the level of satisfaction of hearing aid users

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Quality of Life Evaluation in Epidermolysis Bullosa instrument in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Tania; Prati, Clarissa; Menegon, Doris B; Prado Oliveira, Zilda N; Machado, Maria Cecília R; Dumet, Juliana; Nakano, Juliana; Murrell, Dédée F

    2016-02-01

    The Quality of Life Evaluation in Epidermolysis Bullosa (QoLEB) questionnaire was developed for use in English-speaking individuals. The aims of this study were to translate the QoLEB into Brazilian Portuguese, to culturally adapt it, and to verify its reliability and validity. The study followed the steps proposed by the World Health Organization, which include: translation; evaluation by a panel of experts and patients; back translation; and linguistic and cultural adaptation. All subjects were examined and assessed using the QoLEB and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) or the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI). Translation and cultural and linguistic adaptation were conducted by 10 patients, three translators, and the bilingual authors. The population was composed of 40 children (mean age: 8,15 years) and 17 adults (mean age: 33 years). Among the children, eight had epidermolysis bullosa (EB) simplex (EBS), one had junctional EB (JEB), and 31 had dystrophic EB (DEB). In the adult group, four of the subjects had EBS, one had JEB, and 12 had DEB. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) scores on the QoLEB in children were 10.60 ± 7.13 in EBS subjects, 9.71 ± 7.87 in children with dominant DEB (DDEB), and 14.25 ± 9.67 in children with recessive DEB (RDEB). Mean ± SD scores in adults were 12.50 ± 9.95 in EBS subjects, 12.00 ± 5.83 in DDEB subjects, and 20.20 ± 9.21 in RDEB subjects. The QoLEB-BP (Brazilian Portuguese) showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.88) and high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.70), confirming the internal consistency and reproducibility of this Portuguese version. There were significant correlations between QoLEB scores and both CDLQI (Pearson's r = 0.688, P < 0.002) and DLQI (Pearson's r = 0.807, P < 0.001) scores. Epidermolysis bullosa has marked impacts on the lives of EB patients and their families, which are strongly correlated with disease severity. The Brazilian

  2. PHISICS/RELAP5-3D Adaptive Time-Step Method Demonstrated for the HTTR LOFC#1 Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Robin Ivey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Balestra, Paolo [Univ. of Rome (Italy); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A collaborative effort between Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as part of the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group is underway to model the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) loss of forced cooling (LOFC) transient that was performed in December 2010. The coupled version of RELAP5-3D, a thermal fluids code, and PHISICS, a neutronics code, were used to model the transient. The focus of this report is to summarize the changes made to the PHISICS-RELAP5-3D code for implementing an adaptive time step methodology into the code for the first time, and to test it using the full HTTR PHISICS/RELAP5-3D model developed by JAEA and INL and the LOFC simulation. Various adaptive schemes are available based on flux or power convergence criteria that allow significantly larger time steps to be taken by the neutronics module. The report includes a description of the HTTR and the associated PHISICS/RELAP5-3D model test results as well as the University of Rome sub-contractor report documenting the adaptive time step theory and methodology implemented in PHISICS/RELAP5-3D. Two versions of the HTTR model were tested using 8 and 26 energy groups. It was found that most of the new adaptive methods lead to significant improvements in the LOFC simulation time required without significant accuracy penalties in the prediction of the fission power and the fuel temperature. In the best performing 8 group model scenarios, a LOFC simulation of 20 hours could be completed in real-time, or even less than real-time, compared with the previous version of the code that completed the same transient 3-8 times slower than real-time. A few of the user choice combinations between the methodologies available and the tolerance settings did however result in unacceptably high errors or insignificant gains in simulation time. The study is concluded with recommendations on which methods to use for this HTTR model. An important caveat is that these findings

  3. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, J.; van de Meent, D.; Schowanek, D.; Buchholz, H.; Patoux, R.; Wolf, T.; Austin, T.; Tolls, J.; van Leeuwen, K.; Galay-Burgos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for

  4. An Evolving Simulation/Gaming Process to Facilitate Adaptive Watershed Management in Northern Mountainous Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaud, Cecile; Promburom, Tanya; Trebuil, Guy; Bousquet, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The decentralization of natural resource management provides an opportunity for communities to increase their participation in related decision making. Research should propose adapted methodologies enabling the numerous stakeholders of these complex socioecological settings to define their problems and identify agreed-on solutions. This article…

  5. Modeling and Simulation of An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hmouz, A.; Shen, Jun; Al-Hmouz, R.; Yan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    With recent advances in mobile learning (m-learning), it is becoming possible for learning activities to occur everywhere. The learner model presented in our earlier work was partitioned into smaller elements in the form of learner profiles, which collectively represent the entire learning process. This paper presents an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy…

  6. Adaptive mesh simulations of astrophysical detonations using the ASCI flash code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, B.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Lamb, D. Q.; MacNeice, P.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.; Rosner, R.; Timmes, F. X.; Truran, J. W.; Tufo, H. M.; Zingale, M.

    2001-08-01

    The Flash code was developed at the University of Chicago as part of the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The code was designed specifically to simulate thermonuclear flashes in compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars). This paper will give a brief introduction to the astrophysics problems we wish to address, followed by a description of the current version of the Flash code. Finally, we discuss two simulations of astrophysical detonations that we have carried out with the code. The first is of a helium detonation in an X-ray burst. The other simulation models a carbon detonation in a Type Ia supernova explosion. .

  7. Activities and adaptation in late-life depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, Mary Lou; Holm, Margo B; Raina, Ketki D; Reynolds, Charles F; Rogers, Joan C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We sought to understand activity choices of older adults when they were depressed. METHOD. Each community-dwelling participant (n = 27) completed one semistructured interview while in recovery for at least 3 mo. but less than 7 mo. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. RESULTS. Six themes emerged that explained activities participants continued while depressed, and four themes described activities they stopped. CONCLUSION. Older adults maintained many instrumental activities of daily living while depressed, and some actively adapted activities so they could continue them. Some intentionally stopped activities to direct limited energy to their highest priority activities. To guide effective intervention, it is critical for occupational therapy practitioners to complete a client-centered qualitative assessment to understand what and, most important, why activities are continued or stopped. Each theme for activities continued and activities stopped lends itself to intervention strategies. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. Macroevolution of life-history traits in passerine birds: adaptation and phylogenetic inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Jason; Ilany, Amiyaal; Geffen, Eli; Yom-Tov, Yoram

    2013-05-01

    We used a recent passerine phylogeny and comparative method to evaluate the macroevolution of body and egg mass, incubation and fledging periods, time to independence and time with parents of the main passerine lineages. We hypothesised that passerine reproductive traits are affected by adaptation to both past and present environmental factors and phenotypic attributes such as body mass. Our results suggest that the evolution of body and egg mass, time to independence, incubation and fledging times are affected by strong phylogenetic inertia and that these breeding traits are all affected by body mass. Time with parents, where major lineages exhibit their own fixed optima and body mass does not have an effect, and clutch size which is affected by body mass and additionally by climate regimes, do not exhibit any phylogenetic inertia. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Collembolan Transcriptomes Highlight Molecular Evolution of Hexapods and Provide Clues on the Adaptation to Terrestrial Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faddeeva

    Full Text Available Collembola (springtails represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. Consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of Hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor.We assembled and annotated transcriptomes of the Collembola Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta, and performed comparative analysis with protein-coding gene sequences of three crustaceans and three insects to identify adaptive signatures associated with the evolution of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade.Assembly of the springtail transcriptomes resulted in 37,730 transcripts with predicted open reading frames for F. candida and 32,154 for O. cincta, of which 34.2% were functionally annotated for F. candida and 38.4% for O. cincta. Subsequently, we predicted orthologous clusters among eight species and applied the branch-site test to detect episodic positive selection in the Hexapoda and Collembola lineages. A subset of 250 genes showed significant positive selection along the Hexapoda branch and 57 in the Collembola lineage. Gene Ontology categories enriched in these genes include metabolism, stress response (i.e. DNA repair, immune response, ion transport, ATP metabolism, regulation and development-related processes (i.e. eye development, neurological development.We suggest that the identified gene families represent processes that have played a key role in the divergence of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade that eventually evolved into the most species-rich group of all animals, the hexapods. Furthermore, some adaptive signatures in collembolans may provide valuable clues to understand evolution of hexapods on land.

  10. ADAPTATION OF THE HP LIFE PROGRAM FOR PROMOTION OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mihajlović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is dealing with attempt of Management department, of Technical faculty in Bor, todevelop and further sustain the „entrepreneurial spirit“among young people. The subject of the paperis the HP LIFE program, in which Technical faculty in Bor is the only partner institution from Serbia.Besides up-to-date IT equipment obtained by Hewlett Packard in previous phases of this project,during 2012 this project was financially sustained by the Serbian institution „Centre for promotionof science“. This support will increase the scope of project activities during this year, including newtarget groups.

  11. An adaptation framework for turning Real-Life Events into Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærhus Therkildsen, Sacha; Cassøe Bunkenborg, Nanna; Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Many games are intended to change the players’ minds or actions. The presented design framework for persuasive board games is derived from the Syrian refugee crisis, which is used as backdrop to communicate the experience of being a refugee traveling through Europe. We applied an agile development...... method and participatory design to achieve our ambition. In conclusion we found that a framework for persuasive board games can be advanced by balancing five interrelated layers: 1) real life events (game fiction), 2) rules (formal game elements), 3) movement system (game mechanisms), 4) destiny...... (randomness), and 5) meaning (player choice) which prioritise game over story....

  12. RELIGIOUSITY IN PIAUÍ COLÔNIA: CATHOLICISM ADAPTED TO THE WAY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Maria Pires Brandão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on religiosity in colonial Piauí addresses two main issues: the relations between the residents and the ecclesiastical authorities, and the daily religious sentiment and practice of the inhabitants of the region. With regard to this last question, an analysis of the wills of landowners reveals that in spite of the animosity that existed between church representatives and farm dwellers and sites, the population was aware of the basic principles of the Catholic religion such as belief in eternal life and the existence of hell.

  13. Adaptive smart simulator for characterization and MPPT construction of PV array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouada, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.ouada@univ-annaba.org; Meridjet, Mohamed Salah [Electromechanical engineering department, Electromechanical engineering laboratory, Badji Mokhtar University, B.P. 12, Annaba (Algeria); Dib, Djalel [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tebessa, Tebessa (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Partial shading conditions are among the most important problems in large photovoltaic array. Many works of literature are interested in modeling, control and optimization of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy under partial shading conditions, The aim of this study is to build a software simulator similar to hard simulator and to produce a shading pattern of the proposed photovoltaic array in order to use the delivered information to obtain an optimal configuration of the PV array and construct MPPT algorithm. Graphical user interfaces (Matlab GUI) are built using a developed script, this tool is easy to use, simple, and has a rapid of responsiveness, the simulator supports large array simulations that can be interfaced with MPPT and power electronic converters.

  14. Frequency and motivational state: evolutionary simulations suggest an adaptive function for network oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerebout, B.T.; Phaf, R.H.; Taatgen, N.A.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary simulations of foraging agents, controlled by artificial neural networks, unexpectedly yielded oscillating node activations in the networks. The agents had to navigate a virtual environment to collect food while avoiding predation. Between generations their neural networks were

  15. High Resolution Downscaling For Mesoamerica And The Caribbean Of CMIP5 Global Model Simulations: Identifying Vulnerability And Adaptation Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, R. J.; Rowe, C. M.; Hays, C.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution (4-12 km) dynamical downscaling simulations of future climate change between now and 2060 have been made for Mesoamerica and the Caribbean. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model to downscale results from the NCAR CCSM4 CMIP5 RCP8.5 global simulation. The entire region is covered at 12 km horizontal spatial resolution, with as much as possible (especially in mountainous regions) at 4 km. We compare a control period (2006-2010) with 50 years into the future (2056-2060). The motivation for making these computationally-demanding model simulations is to better define local and regional climate change effects so as to better identify and quantify impacts and associated vulnerabilities. This is an essential precursor to developing robust adaptation strategies. These simulations have been made in conjunction with our partners from the countries involved. As expected, all areas warm, with the warming in general largest in inland regions, and less towards coastal regions. Higher elevation regions also tend to warm somewhat more than lower elevation regions, a result that could not be reliably obtained, in detail, from coarse-scale global models. The precipitation signal is much more mixed, and demonstrates more clearly the need for high resolution. The effects of changes in the large-scale trade wind regime tend to be restricted to the immediate Atlantic coast, while the interior is less-well posed, with some indication of a northward shift in precipitation regime, due to changes both in the large-scale ITCZ, and the regional scale Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico low-level jets. Topographic resolution continues to play a key role. The new results are currently being used by both climate scientists and policy makers to evaluate vulnerabilities, and hence develop adaptation strategies for the affected countries.

  16. Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Adaptation process and psychometric properties of the Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present the validation process and the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ. Participants were a nationwide sample of 3020 subjects aged 18–91 years old, from 22 different Brazilian states. Exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution (presence of meaning – MLQ-P; and search for meaning – MLQ-S. Adequate reliability indexes were achieved. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA provided evidence that the MLQ-P and MLQ-S scales present better goodness-of-fit indexes when evaluated separately. Multiple group CFA achieved full measurement and structural invariance for gender and age (youngsters, adults and the elderly groups. Group comparisons were conducted for evaluating gender, age and marital status differences in both MLQ-P and MLQ-S scales. The results are presented and discussed based on the literature. Our results suggest that the MLQ is a reliable measurement to evaluate presence and search for meaning in life in the Brazilian population in a wide variety of age groups.

  17. Convergent adaptation of cellular machineries in the evolution of large body masses and long life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croco, Eleonora; Marchionni, Silvia; Storci, Gianluca; Bonafè, Massimiliano; Franceschi, Claudio; Stamato, Thomas D; Sell, Christian; Lorenzini, Antonello

    2017-08-01

    In evolutionary terms, life on the planet has taken the form of independently living cells for the majority of time. In comparison, the mammalian radiation is a relatively recent event. The common mammalian ancestor was probably small and short-lived. The "recent" acquisition of an extended longevity and large body mass of some species of mammals present on the earth today suggests the possibility that similar cellular mechanisms have been influenced by the forces of natural selection to create a convergent evolution of longevity. Many cellular mechanisms are potentially relevant for extending longevity; in this assay, we review the literature focusing primarily on two cellular features: (1) the capacity for extensive cellular proliferation of differentiated cells, while maintaining genome stability; and (2) the capacity to detect DNA damage. We have observed that longevity and body mass are both positively linked to these cellular mechanisms and then used statistical tools to evaluate their relative importance. Our analysis suggest that the capacity for extensive cellular proliferation while maintaining sufficient genome stability, correlates to species body mass while the capacity to correctly identify the presence of DNA damage seems more an attribute of long-lived species. Finally, our data are in support of the idea that a slower development, allowing for better DNA damage detection and handling, should associate with longer life span.

  18. Reproductive seasonality in captive wild ruminants: implications for biogeographical adaptation, photoperiodic control, and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Clauss, Marcus; Codron, Daryl; Bingaman Lackey, Laurie; Rensch, Eberhard; Streich, Jürgen W; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Müller, Dennis W H

    2012-11-01

    Many ruminant species show seasonal patterns of reproduction. Causes for this are widely debated, and include adaptations to seasonal availability of resources (with cues either from body condition in more tropical, or from photoperiodism in higher latitude habitats) and/or defence strategies against predators. Conclusions so far are limited to datasets with less than 30 species. Here, we use a dataset on 110 wild ruminant species kept in captivity in temperate-zone zoos to describe their reproductive patterns quantitatively [determining the birth peak breadth (BPB) as the number of days in which 80% of all births occur]; then we link this pattern to various biological characteristics [latitude of origin, mother-young-relationship (hider/follower), proportion of grass in the natural diet (grazer/browser), sexual size dimorphism/mating system], and compare it with reports for free-ranging animals. When comparing taxonomic subgroups, variance in BPB is highly correlated to the minimum, but not the maximum BPB, suggesting that a high BPB (i.e. an aseasonal reproductive pattern) is the plesiomorphic character in ruminants. Globally, latitude of natural origin is highly correlated to the BPB observed in captivity, supporting an overruling impact of photoperiodism on ruminant reproduction. Feeding type has no additional influence; the hider/follower dichotomy, associated with the anti-predator strategy of 'swamping', has additional influence in the subset of African species only. Sexual size dimorphism and mating system are marginally associated with the BPB, potentially indicating a facilitation of polygamy under seasonal conditions. The difference in the calculated Julian date of conception between captive populations and that reported for free-ranging ones corresponds to the one expected if absolute day length was the main trigger in highly seasonal species: calculated day length at the time of conception between free-ranging and captive populations followed a y = x

  19. The performance of modern education in the context of human adaptation to life in the new conditions of civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei K. Kostyuchkov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with approaches to performance analysis of modern education in the context of the third millennium civilization conditions; analyzes the trends of modern social development through their awareness in the context of philosophy of education essence; author focuses attention on the concept of «education» as a mechanism of adaptation of the individual to life, the instrument of transmission of cultural values, social norms and sensozhyttyevyh plants; put forward a reasoned statement that modern education, despite many theories, trends, patterns, traditionally focused on humanism does not have sufficient human resource for the future and the survival of mankind civilization in the new conditions. It is emphasized that modern education shall be directed to the individual adaptation to life and new civilizations conditions and socially significant accumulation of personal knowledge. The author notes that in modern education, a new type of scientific rationality; humanistic dimension of modern education due and specific information society and the content of a new look at svitooblashtuvannya, determined the need to address global problems. The article emphasizes the urgency provisions against which long-term sustainable development based on the laws of nature must become the dominant purpose around the world, requiring perceive and understand the education system as a producer of social vanguard, whose members have the knowledge to master such a system through which an educated man will be able not only to understand the complexity of processes and phenomena of the surrounding world, to explain them, but also constructively influence to this world.

  20. The impact of visual and nonvisual factors on quality of life and adaptation in adults with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Trillo, Ana; Dickinson, Christine M

    2012-06-28

    Quality of life (QoL) questionnaires have been suggested as the most appropriate way to measure the effectiveness of low vision rehabilitation. This study investigated the relative contribution of visual and psychosocial factors to different aspects of QoL in people with low vision. A total of 448 consecutive patients between the ages of 18 and 96 years, with best-corrected binocular visual acuity≤6/18 and attending a low vision clinic, were recruited. Telephone delivery of previously validated questionnaires was used. The Low Vision Quality of Life (LVQOL), the Adaptation to Age-Related Vision Loss (AVL)-12, and the Keele Participation Restriction Questionnaire (KAP) questionnaires were considered as outcome measures for functional vision, adaptation to vision loss, and participation restriction, respectively. Personality (BFI-10), religious beliefs (SBI-15), social support (MOS), the mental and physical components of general health (the MCS and PCS of SF-12), well-being (WHO-5), use of magnifiers (MLVQ), understanding of their eye condition and satisfaction with the eye clinic (MLVQ), level of education, and financial status were all considered as predictive of QoL. Regression analysis found the PCS and MCS from SF-12 to be major predictors of LVQOL, AVL-12, and KAP scores. Although distance visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were predictors of LVQOL scores, "use of magnifiers" did not contribute to any of the QoL measures. Nonvisual factors, such as physical and mental health, were found to be stronger predictors of QoL in people with low vision than visual factors such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity, or the use of magnifiers. Researchers need to be aware when measuring QoL in a population with low vision that even vision-related QoL is strongly influenced by nonvisual variables.

  1. 3D adaptive grid MHD simulations of the global heliosphere with self- consistent fluid neutral hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, M.; Liewer, P.; Gombosi, T.; Manchester, W.; Dezeeuw, D.; Powell, K.; Sokolov, I.; Toth, G.

    A three dimensional adaptive grid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium is presented. The code used is the BATS-R-US time-dependent adaptive grid three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic, which is similar to the code used by Linde et al. JGR, 103, 1889 (1998). The magnetic field of both the solar wind and the interstellar medium are included. The latitute dependence of the solar wind is also taken into account. The neutral atoms are included self-consistently as a fluid, without assuming constant the density, velocity or temperature as previous 3D MHD studies. The location of the termination shock and heliopause in the steady state solution for different values and directions of interstellar magnetic field are presented and compared with previous results. We also present results where we isolated the effects of neutrals and magnetic field showing their relative importance, in particular the heliopause.

  2. Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat1, Gérard Papouin2, Philippe Saint-Val3, Antonio Lopez21Axe sante des populations et environmentale, CHUQ, Laval University, Quebec, Canada; 2Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Territorial du Taone, 3Fédération Tahitienne de Karaté, Papeete, French PolynesiaBackground: Aging is associated with a decrease in physical skills, sometimes accompanied by a change in quality of life (QOL. Long-term martial arts practice has been proposed as an avenue to counter these deleterious effects. The general purpose of this pilot study was to identify the effects of an adapted karate training program on QOL, depression, and motor skills in 50-year-old men.Methods and design: Fifteen 50-year-old men were enrolled in a one-year prospective experiment. Participants practiced adapted karate training for 90 minutes three times a week. Testing sessions, involving completion of the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF36 and Beck Depression Inventory, as well as motor and effort evaluation, were done at baseline, and six and 12 months.Results: Compared with baseline, participants had better Beck Depression Inventory scores after one year of karate training (P < 0.01 and better perception of their physical health (P < 0.01, but not on the mental dimension (P < 0.49. They also improved their reaction time scores for the nondominant hand and sway parameters in the eyes-closed position (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Regular long-term karate practice had favorable effects on mood, perception of physical health confirmed by better postural control, and improved performance on objective physical testing. Adapted karate training would be an interesting option for maintaining physical activity in aging.Keywords: karate, balance, training, sport, aging

  3. EXPERIENCE OF ADAPTED PROBIOTIC MILK FORMULAS IN FEEDING OF INFANTS OF THE 1ST YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Eibermann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess the influence of probiotic milk formula on the functional and nutritive status as well as the microbiocenosis of 32 infants of the 1st year of life. Patients and methods: 32 infants (15 — younger than 6 months and 17 — older than 6 moths fed with artificial milk formulas were under the observation. The majority of mothers were primipara, with various pregnancy disorders. The infants were followed-up in out-patient clinics with different diseases: cerebral ischemia, perinatal injure of the nervous system, anemia and others. As a main basic food the children received powder adapted formula. In order to achieve the aim, from 2 to 3 feedings in infants’ diet have been changing to the powder adapted formula during 4 weeks. To assess the results the data of clinical examination and characteristics of coprological and microbiological tests were used. Results: weight gain in the majority of infants was more than 700 g for 1 month. In 8 children the symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders were arrested. Control coprolocical and microbiological tests in 1 month after the formula administration showed positive pre- and probiotic effects as increase of bifidobacteria titer in all the patients who had had their decreased levels, as well as decrease of the amount of patients with associations of conditionally-pathogenic flora. Conclusions: the investigated product has positive effect on the intestinal microbiota and contributes to arresting of various types of gastrointestinal disorders.

  4. Simulation Research on Adaptive Control of a Six-degree-of-freedom Material-testing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wang; Rui Fan; Wuyi Chen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive controller equipped with a stiffness estimation method for a novel material-testing machine, in order to alleviate the performance depression caused by the stiffness variance of the tested specimen. The dynamic model of the proposed machine is built using the Kane method, and the kinematic model is established with a closed-form solution. The stiffness estimation method is developed based on the recursive least-squares method and the proposed stiffness equivale...

  5. Life cycle cost of biomass power plant: Monte Carlo simulation of investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of life cycle cost is considered as an important instrument for designing and evaluating success of every project. The aim of this work is to determine the precise impact of the investment costs and future operating and maintenance costs of CHP biomass plant. By using the Monte Carlo simulation are determined variations in the settings and the possible impact on the investment risk. The results show that the investment is justified, thanks to the positive outcome of the net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR and the payback period. The greatest impact on the variability of annual profits have operating costs, which have the highest coefficient of variation of 6.44% and the largest share. Variability of net present value of 4% is acceptable, and the investment is considered as stable.

  6. Adaptive content biases in learning about animals across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broesch, James; Barrett, H Clark; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that young children in the US and the Ecuadorian Amazon preferentially remember information about the dangerousness of an animal over both its name and its diet. Here we explore if this bias is present among older children and adults in Fiji through the use of an experimental learning task. We find that a content bias favoring the preferential retention of danger and toxicity information continues to operate in older children, but that the magnitude of the bias diminishes with age and is absent in adults. We also find evidence that fitness costs likely impact the types of mistakes that participants make in their attributions of dangerousness and poisonousness. These results suggest that natural selection has shaped the way in which we learn and make inferences about unfamiliar animal species over ontogeny, and that future research is needed on how content biases may vary across the life course.

  7. Large eddy simulation of a high speed train geometry under cross-wind with an adaptive lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiterding, Ralf; Fragner, Moritz M.

    2015-11-01

    Numerical investigations in order to determine the forces induced by side wind onto a train geometry are generally not sufficiently accurate to be used as a predictive tool for regulatory safety assessment. Especially for larger yaw angles, the turbulent cross-wind flow is characterized by highly instationary behavior, driven primarily by vortex shedding on the roof and underside geometric details, i.e., the bogie and wheel systems. While industry-typical Reynolds-averaged turbulence models are not well suited for this scenario, better results are obtained when large eddy simulation (LES) techniques are applied. Here, we employ a recently self-developed weakly compressible lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with Smagorinsky LES model on hierarchically adaptive block-structured Cartesian meshes. Using a train front-car of 1:25 scale at yaw angle 30° and Re = 250 , 000 as main test case, we compare the LBM results with incompressible large eddy and detached eddy simulations on unstructured boundary-layer type meshes using the OpenFOAM package. It is found that time averaged force and moment predictions from our LBM code compare better to available wind tunnel data, while mesh adaptation and explicit nature of the LBM approach reduce the computational costs considerably.

  8. The Impact of Targeted Data Collection on Nonresponse Bias in an Establishment Survey: A Simulation Study of Adaptive Survey Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Jaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonresponse rates have been growing over time leading to concerns about survey data quality. Adaptive designs seek to allocate scarce resources by targeting specific subsets of sampled units for additional effort or a different recruitment protocol. In order to be effective in reducing nonresponse, the identified subsets of the sample need two key features: 1 their probabilities of response can be impacted by changing design features, and 2 once they have responded, this can have an impact on estimates after adjustment. The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS is investigating the use of adaptive design techniques in the Crops Acreage, Production, and Stocks Survey (Crops APS. The Crops APS is a survey of establishments which vary in size and, hence, in their potential impact on estimates. In order to identify subgroups for targeted designs, we conducted a simulation study that used Census of Agriculture (COA data as proxies for similar survey items. Different patterns of nonresponse were simulated to identify subgroups that may reduce estimated nonresponse bias when their response propensities are changed.

  9. A Timed Colored Petri Net Simulation-Based Self-Adaptive Collaboration Method for Production-Logistics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengang Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex and customized manufacturing requires a high level of collaboration between production and logistics in a flexible production system. With the widespread use of Internet of Things technology in manufacturing, a great amount of real-time and multi-source manufacturing data and logistics data is created, that can be used to perform production-logistics collaboration. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper proposes a timed colored Petri net simulation-based self-adaptive collaboration method for Internet of Things-enabled production-logistics systems. The method combines the schedule of token sequences in the timed colored Petri net with real-time status of key production and logistics equipment. The key equipment is made ‘smart’ to actively publish or request logistics tasks. An integrated framework based on a cloud service platform is introduced to provide the basis for self-adaptive collaboration of production-logistics systems. A simulation experiment is conducted by using colored Petri nets (CPN Tools to validate the performance and applicability of the proposed method. Computational experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the event-driven method in terms of reductions of waiting time, makespan, and electricity consumption. This proposed method is also applicable to other manufacturing systems to implement production-logistics collaboration.

  10. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement method based on WENO finite difference scheme for the simulation of multi-dimensional detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Dong, XinZhuang; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2015-10-01

    For numerical simulation of detonation, computational cost using uniform meshes is large due to the vast separation in both time and space scales. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is advantageous for problems with vastly different scales. This paper aims to propose an AMR method with high order accuracy for numerical investigation of multi-dimensional detonation. A well-designed AMR method based on finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme, named as AMR&WENO is proposed. A new cell-based data structure is used to organize the adaptive meshes. The new data structure makes it possible for cells to communicate with each other quickly and easily. In order to develop an AMR method with high order accuracy, high order prolongations in both space and time are utilized in the data prolongation procedure. Based on the message passing interface (MPI) platform, we have developed a workload balancing parallel AMR&WENO code using the Hilbert space-filling curve algorithm. Our numerical experiments with detonation simulations indicate that the AMR&WENO is accurate and has a high resolution. Moreover, we evaluate and compare the performance of the uniform mesh WENO scheme and the parallel AMR&WENO method. The comparison results provide us further insight into the high performance of the parallel AMR&WENO method.

  11. A novel adaptive control system for noisy pressure-controlled ventilation: a numerical simulation and bench test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Alessandro; Spieth, Peter M; Handzsuj, Thomas; Pelosi, Paolo; Carvalho, Nadja C; Koch, Edmund; Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of both variable and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). The combination of these approaches as "noisy PCV" requires adaptation of the mechanical ventilator to the respiratory system mechanics. Thus, we developed and evaluated a new control system based on the least-mean-squares adaptive approach, which automatically and continuously adjusts the driving pressure during PCV to achieve the desired variability pattern of tidal volume (V (T)). The controller was tested during numerical simulations and with a physical model reproducing the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. We applied step changes in respiratory system mechanics and mechanical ventilation settings. The time needed to converge to the desired V (T) variability pattern after each change (t (c)) and the difference in minute ventilation between the measured and target pattern of V (T) (DeltaMV) were determined. During numerical simulations, the control system for noisy PCV achieved the desired variable V (T) pattern in less than 30 respiratory cycles, with limited influence of the dynamic elastance (E*) on t (c), except when E* was underestimated by >25%. We also found that, during tests in the physical model, the control system converged in mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit.

  12. Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods and Adaptive Stepsize Control for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2010-01-01

    The implicit Euler method, normally refered to as the fully implicit (FIM) method, and the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES) method are the traditional choices for temporal discretization in reservoir simulation. The FIM method offers unconditionally stability in the sense of discrete....... Current reservoir simulators apply timestepping algorithms that are based on safeguarded heuristics, and can neither guarantee convergence in the underlying equation solver, nor provide estimates of the relations between convergence, integration error and stepsizes. We establish predictive stepsize...... control applied to high order methods for temporal discretization in reservoir simulation. The family of Runge-Kutta methods is presented and in particular the explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method with an embedded error estimate is described. A predictive stepsize adjustment...

  13. Simple mechanisms of early life - simulation model on the origin of semi-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bock, Martin; Alt, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The development of first cellular structures played an important role in the early evolution of life. Early evolution of life probably took place on a molecular level in a reactive environment. The iron-sulfur theory postulates the formation of cell-like structures on catalytic surfaces. Experiments show that H2S together with FeS and other metallic centers drive auto-catalytic surface reactions, in which organic molecules such as pyruvic and amino acids occur. It is questionable which mechanisms are needed to form cell-like structures under these conditions. To address this question, we implemented a model system featuring the fundamentals of molecular dynamics: heat, attraction, repulsion and formation of covalent bonds. Our basic model exhibits a series of essential processes: self-organization of lipid micelles and bilayers, formation of fluid filled cavities, flux of molecules along membranes, transport of energized groups towards sinks and whole colonies of cell-like structures on a larger scale. The results demonstrate that only a few features are sufficient for discovering hitherto non described phenomena of self-assembly and dynamics of cell-like structures as candidates for early evolving proto-cells. Significance statement The quest for a possible origin of life continues to be one of the most fascinating problems in biology. In one theoretical scenario, early life originated from a solution of reactive chemicals in the ancient deep sea, similar to conditions as to be found in thermal vents. Experiments have shown that a variety of organic molecules, the building blocks of life, form under these conditions. Based on such experiments, the iron-sulfur theory postulates the growth of cell-like structures at certain catalytic surfaces. For an explanation and proof of such a process we have developed a computer model simulating molecular assembly of lipid bilayers and formation of semi-cell cavities. The results demonstrate the possibility of cell-like self

  14. Interprofessional, simulation-based training in end of life care communication: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Walker, Wendy Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of a study, designed to pilot the use of interprofessional, simulation-based training in end of life care communication. Participants comprised 50 final year medicine, nursing, physiotherapy and pharmacy students. Learning methods included observation of role play and facilitated, interactive group discussion. A Likert scale rating questionnaire was used to evaluate the impact of the learning experience. Evaluation data revealed that students were supportive of interprofessional learning and could recognise its benefits. The results indicated self-perceived improvements in knowledge, skills, confidence and competence when dealing with challenging end of life care communication situations. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention scores revealed a statistically significant positive change in the students' perceptions about their level of knowledge (Z = -5.887, p = 0.000). The reported benefits need to be balanced against design and delivery issues that proved labour and resource intensive. Economic evaluation is worthy of further consideration.

  15. The canonical equation of adaptive dynamics for life histories: from fitness-returns to selection gradients and Pontryagin's maximum principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Johan A Jacob; Staňková, Kateřina; Johansson, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    This paper should be read as addendum to Dieckmann et al. (J Theor Biol 241:370-389, 2006) and Parvinen et al. (J Math Biol 67: 509-533, 2013). Our goal is, using little more than high-school calculus, to (1) exhibit the form of the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics for classical life history problems, where the examples in Dieckmann et al. (J Theor Biol 241:370-389, 2006) and Parvinen et al. (J Math Biol 67: 509-533, 2013) are chosen such that they avoid a number of the problems that one gets in this most relevant of applications, (2) derive the fitness gradient occurring in the CE from simple fitness return arguments, (3) show explicitly that setting said fitness gradient equal to zero results in the classical marginal value principle from evolutionary ecology, (4) show that the latter in turn is equivalent to Pontryagin's maximum principle, a well known equivalence that however in the literature is given either ex cathedra or is proven with more advanced tools, (5) connect the classical optimisation arguments of life history theory a little better to real biology (Mendelian populations with separate sexes subject to an environmental feedback loop), (6) make a minor improvement to the form of the CE for the examples in Dieckmann et al. and Parvinen et al.

  16. Productive confusions: learning from simulations of pandemic virus outbreaks in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Micha; Greci, Laura S.; Hurst, Samantha; Garman, Karen; Hoffman, Helene; Huang, Ricky; Gates, Michael; Kho, Kristen; Mehrmand, Elle; Porteous, Todd; Calvitti, Alan; Higginbotham, Erin; Agha, Zia

    2011-03-01

    Users of immersive virtual reality environments have reported a wide variety of side and after effects including the confusion of characteristics of the real and virtual worlds. Perhaps this side effect of confusing the virtual and real can be turned around to explore the possibilities for immersion with minimal technological support in virtual world group training simulations. This paper will describe observations from my time working as an artist/researcher with the UCSD School of Medicine (SoM) and Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS) to develop trainings for nurses, doctors and Hospital Incident Command staff that simulate pandemic virus outbreaks. By examining moments of slippage between realities, both into and out of the virtual environment, moments of the confusion of boundaries between real and virtual, we can better understand methods for creating immersion. I will use the mixing of realities as a transversal line of inquiry, borrowing from virtual reality studies, game studies, and anthropological studies to better understand the mechanisms of immersion in virtual worlds. Focusing on drills conducted in Second Life, I will examine moments of training to learn the software interface, moments within the drill and interviews after the drill.

  17. Life as an emergent phenomenon: studies from a large-scale boid simulation and web data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Mototake, Yoh-ichi; Kobori, Shintaro; Oka, Mizuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-01

    A large group with a special structure can become the mother of emergence. We discuss this hypothesis in relation to large-scale boid simulations and web data. In the boid swarm simulations, the nucleation, organization and collapse dynamics were found to be more diverse in larger flocks than in smaller flocks. In the second analysis, large web data, consisting of shared photos with descriptive tags, tended to group together users with similar tendencies, allowing the network to develop a core-periphery structure. We show that the generation rate of novel tags and their usage frequencies are high in the higher-order cliques. In this case, novelty is not considered to arise randomly; rather, it is generated as a result of a large and structured network. We contextualize these results in terms of adjacent possible theory and as a new way to understand collective intelligence. We argue that excessive information and material flow can become a source of innovation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  18. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: A case study of southern sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, L.R.; Tinker, M.T.; Doak, D.F.; Estes, J.A.; Jessup, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, there are no generally recognized approaches for linking detailed mortality and pathology data to population-level analyses of extinction risk. We used a combination of analytical and simulation-based analyses to examine 20 years of age- and sex-specific mortality data for southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris), and we applied results to project the efficacy of alternative conservation strategies. Population recovery of the southern sea otter has been slow (rate of population increase ?? = 1.05) compared to other recovering populations (?? = 1.17-1.20), and the population declined (?? = 0.975) between 1995 and 1999. Age-based Leslie matrices were developed to explore explanations for the slow recovery and recent decline in the southern sea other population. An elasticity analysis was performed to predict effects of proportional changes in stage-specific reproductive or survival rates on the rate of population increase. A life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) was developed to evaluate the impact of changing age- and cause-specific mortality rates on ??. The information used to develop these models was derived from death assemblage, pathology, and live population census data to examine the sensitivity of sea otter population growth to different sources of mortality (e.g., disease and starvation, direct human take [fisheries, gun shot, boat strike, oil pollution], mating trauma and intraspecific aggression, shark bites, and unknown). We used resampling simulations to generate random combinations of vital rates for a large number of matrix replicates and drew on these to estimate potential effects of mortality sources on population growth (??). Our analyses suggest management actions that are likely and unlikely to promote recovery of the southern sea otter and more broadly indicate a methodology to better utilize cause-of-death data in conservation decision-making.

  19. Novel features of computer-simulated clonal life of Paramecium caudatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezu, Tatsuya; Kakutani, Sae; Yoshida, Mika; Nakajima, Akino; Asao, Takeshi; Takagi, Yoshiomi

    2009-05-21

    The clone of the ciliated protozoan Paramecium caudatum has the immaturity period of about 60 fissions and the lifespan of about 600 fissions. These life cycle figures have been depicted through laboratory experiments that allow continuous cell divisions for hundreds, which never occur in nature. We here constructed the nature-mimicking model culture that alternated the log- and stationary phases to allow conjugation, and computer-simulated the age structure modifying parameters such as cell distributions to start the culture, fission rates, death rates, immaturity periods, probabilities of conjugation, proportions of transplantation and so on. The average and maximum ages in the culture after thousands of alternations were converged to 43+/-2 and 140+/-5 fissions, respectively, when parameters for the immaturity period and the maximum clonal lifespan were set at 60 and 600 fissions. This result explains why cells collected in nature are usually young and vigorous. The average and maximum ages proportionally prolonged as the immaturity period was prolonged, as reported true for species of the ciliate. These results indicate the validity of our simulation. The average and maximum ages remained unchanged when the initial condition for starting the culture was changed from two complementary mating-type cells to a population with a quadratic-function distribution, and when the fission rate at the log-phase and the death rate at the stationary phase were modified for older ages. The average and maximum ages changed slightly when either the conjugation rate or the proportion of transplantation was somewhat lowered. Although they changed considerably when such parameters as the immaturity period, conjugation rate and death rate were extremely modified, no clones with the age over 230 fissions appeared in any simulations. These results indicate the robustness of the model, which provides us with fresh insight into the structural system of the clonal lifespan of P. caudatum

  20. Fast time domain simulation of power systems using multilevel preconditioners with adaptive reconstruction strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, S.; Xue, W.; Lin, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Time domain simulation (TDS) is an important tool for the analysis of the dynamic behavior of power systems. TDS is a hard computational problem due to the complexity in solving a sequence of large linear systems based on Jacobian matrices. Iterative solvers with various preconditioning techniques

  1. Evolution in Lego. A physical simulation of adaptation by natural selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kanneworff, Morten

    2009-01-01

    En simulering af mekanismen bag naturlig udvælgelse ved at bruge legorger, organismer bygget af 6 legoklodser, og med en genetisk kode, der bestemmer hvordan klodserne er placeret og dermed formen på dyret. Legorgerne tildeles fitness efter, hvor langt de kan bevæge sig. Efter fem generationers s...

  2. Game cropping and wildlife conservation in Kenya: a dynamic simulation model with adaptive control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Bulte, E.H.; Kinyua, P.

    1997-01-01

    The authors use a dynamic stochastic simulation model of forage, herbivores, predators and domestic livestock in the Machakos District of Kenya to address policies related to the multiple use of rangeland resources. The particular policy examined is that of switching from a traditional system, where

  3. Adaptive multi-rate interface: development and experimental verification for real-time hybrid simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maghareh, Amin; Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Dyke, Shirley J.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) is a powerful cyber-physical technique that is a relatively cost-effective method to perform global/local system evaluation of structural systems. A major factor that determines the ability of an RTHS to represent true system-level behavior is the fidelity...

  4. Simulating the impact of climate change on rice production in Asia and evaluating options for adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, R.B.; Kropff, M.J.; Horie, T.; Bachelet, D.

    1997-01-01

    The likely effects of climate change caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on rice production in Asia were evaluated using two rice crop simulation models, ORYZA1 and SIMRIW, running under fixed-change' climate scenarios and scenarios predicted for a doubled-CO2 (2xCO2) atmosphere

  5. Recent progress in adaptive multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of soft matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, S.O.; Bulo, R.E.; Moore, P.B.; Ensing, B.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding mesoscopic phenomena in terms of the fundamental motions of atoms and electrons poses a severe challenge for molecular simulation. This challenge is being met by multiscale modeling techniques that aim to bridge between the microscopic and mesoscopic time and length scales. In such

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and initial validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Odetunde, Marufat O; Odole, Adesola C

    2012-12-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted to Yoruba language by including Yoruba culture-specific examples in items SC4, UE2 and UE6. The adapted English version (AEV) was independently translated into Yoruba by two language experts who later agreed on a consensus translation, which was then back translated, subjected to an expert committee review and pretested; a cognitive debriefing interview was also carried out to generate the Yoruba translated version (YTV). Thirty-five stroke survivors completed the AEV and Yoruba version (YV) in English and Yoruba. The order of administration was randomized. Data were analysed using Spearman's rank order correlation and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test at a P value less than 0.05. The mean age of the participants (23 men, 12 women) was 58.5±11.3 years. The domain scores of the participants on AEV and YV did not differ significantly, except in the work/productivity domain. In both versions, the mean domain score of the participants was the highest in the language domain [22.6±3.8 (AEV) and 22.7±3.4 (YV)] and the lowest in the work domain [9.0±3.7 (AEV) and 8.0±3.3 (YTV)]. Domain scores on both versions correlated significantly (P<0.05). Participants' ratings of their current state and prestroke state correlated significantly (P<0.01) in all the general areas, except energy and mood. The YTV of SS-QoL 2.0 fulfilled the initial criteria for validity.

  7. Behavioral, cognitive, and adaptive development in infants with autism spectrum disorder in the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Annette; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Gu, Hongbin; St John, Tanya; Paterson, Sarah; Elison, Jed T; Hazlett, Heather; Botteron, Kelly; Dager, Stephen R; Schultz, Robert T; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Evans, Alan; Dawson, Geraldine; Eliason, Jordana; Alvarez, Shanna; Piven, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    To delineate the early progression of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, this study investigated developmental characteristics of infants at high familial risk for ASD (HR), and infants at low risk (LR). Participants included 210 HR and 98 LR infants across 4 sites with comparable behavioral data at age 6, 12, and 24 months assessed in the domains of cognitive development (Mullen Scales of Early Learning), adaptive skills (Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales), and early behavioral features of ASD (Autism Observation Scale for Infants). Participants evaluated according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria at 24 months and categorized as ASD-positive or ASD-negative were further stratified by empirically derived cutoff scores using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule yielding four groups: HR-ASD-High, HR-ASD-Moderate (HR-ASD-Mod), HR-ASD-Negative (HR-Neg), and LR-ASD-Negative (LR-Neg). The four groups demonstrated different developmental trajectories that became increasingly distinct from 6 to 24 months across all domains. At 6 months, the HR-ASD-High group demonstrated less advanced Gross Motor and Visual Reception skills compared with the LR-Neg group. By 12 months, the HR-ASD-High group demonstrated increased behavioral features of ASD and decreased cognitive and adaptive functioning compared to the HR-Neg and LR-Neg groups. By 24 months, both the HR-ASD-High and HR-ASD-Moderate groups demonstrated differences from the LR- and HR-Neg groups in all domains. These findings reveal atypical sensorimotor development at 6 months of age which is associated with ASD at 24 months in the most severely affected group of infants. Sensorimotor differences precede the unfolding of cognitive and adaptive deficits and behavioral features of autism across the 6- to 24-month interval. The less severely affected group demonstrates later symptom onset, in the second year of life, with initial differences in the social-communication domain.

  8. The adaptation into Spanish of the Coddington Life Events Scales (CLES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga-Olives, E; Valderas, J M; Palacio-Vieira, J A; Herdman, M; Rajmil, L; Alonso, J

    2008-04-01

    To obtain a conceptually and psychometrically equivalent Spanish version of the Coddington Life Events Scales (CLES) for children and adolescents and to test their psychometric properties. Forward and backward translations were performed. Comprehension, acceptability, and alternative translations were tested in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. An expert panel and the copyright holders of the original version were actively involved. Test-retest reliability [Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC)] was assessed by administering the questionnaire on two occasions 3 months apart to children aged 12-14 years (n = 30). Construct validity was assessed by comparing children's responses with those of their parents (n = 19). The methods replicated those of the validation of the original version. Of the 53 CLES items translated, ten were found to be difficult to understand. Following back-translation, seven items were modified and a final version was obtained. Test-retest ICC reliability for total scores was 0.63. The ICC between children and parents was 0.42. Both results were very similar to those reported for the original version. These preliminary findings suggest that the Spanish version of the CLES is understandable and acceptable and that it is similar to the original in terms of validity and reliability. Although further validation is needed, it is recommended for use in research settings in Spain.

  9. A new computerized adaptive test advancing the measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children: the Kids-CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, J; Otto, C; Rose, M; Barthel, D; Fischer, F; Mühlan, H; Mülhan, H; Nolte, S; Schmidt, S; Ottova-Jordan, V; Ravens-Sieberer, U

    2015-04-01

    Assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) via Computerized Adaptive Tests (CAT) provides greater measurement precision coupled with a lower test burden compared to conventional tests. Currently, there are no European pediatric HRQoL CATs available. This manuscript aims at describing the development of a HRQoL CAT for children and adolescents: the Kids-CAT, which was developed based on the established KIDSCREEN-27 HRQoL domain structure. The Kids-CAT was developed combining classical test theory and item response theory methods and using large archival data of European KIDSCREEN norm studies (n = 10,577-19,580). Methods were applied in line with the US PROMIS project. Item bank development included the investigation of unidimensionality, local independence, exploration of Differential Item Functioning (DIF), evaluation of Item Response Curves (IRCs), estimation and norming of item parameters as well as first CAT simulations. The Kids-CAT was successfully built covering five item banks (with 26-46 items each) to measure physical well-being, psychological well-being, parent relations, social support and peers, and school well-being. The Kids-CAT item banks proved excellent psychometric properties: high content validity, unidimensionality, local independence, low DIF, and model conform IRCs. In CAT simulations, seven items were needed to achieve a measurement precision between .8 and .9 (reliability). It has a child-friendly design, is easy accessible online and gives immediate feedback reports of scores. The Kids-CAT has the potential to advance pediatric HRQoL measurement by making it less burdensome and enhancing the patient-doctor communication.

  10. An adaptive finite element method for simulating surface tension with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2014-01-01

    The gradient theory for the surface tension of simple fluids and mixtures is rigorously analyzed based on mathematical theory. The finite element approximation of surface tension is developed and analyzed, and moreover, an adaptive finite element method based on a physical-based estimator is proposed and it can be coupled efficiently with Newton\\'s method as well. The numerical tests are carried out both to verify the proposed theory and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High performance pseudo-analytical simulation of multi-object adaptive optics over multi-GPU systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelfattah, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) is a novel adaptive optics (AO) technique dedicated to the special case of wide-field multi-object spectrographs (MOS). It applies dedicated wavefront corrections to numerous independent tiny patches spread over a large field of view (FOV). The control of each deformable mirror (DM) is done individually using a tomographic reconstruction of the phase based on measurements from a number of wavefront sensors (WFS) pointing at natural and artificial guide stars in the field. The output of this study helps the design of a new instrument called MOSAIC, a multi-object spectrograph proposed for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). We have developed a novel hybrid pseudo-analytical simulation scheme that allows us to accurately simulate in detail the tomographic problem. The main challenge resides in the computation of the tomographic reconstructor, which involves pseudo-inversion of a large dense symmetric matrix. The pseudo-inverse is computed using an eigenvalue decomposition, based on the divide and conquer algorithm, on multicore systems with multi-GPUs. Thanks to a new symmetric matrix-vector product (SYMV) multi-GPU kernel, our overall implementation scores significant speedups over standard numerical libraries on multicore, like Intel MKL, and up to 60% speedups over the standard MAGMA implementation on 8 Kepler K20c GPUs. At 40,000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale tomographic AO matrix solver submitted to computation, to date, to our knowledge and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  12. Biogenic hydrogen peroxide as a possible adaptation of life on Mars: the search for biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtkooper, J. M.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2007-08-01

    The hypothesis that putative Martian organisms incorporate H2O2 into their intracellular liquids (Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007) has significant implications, as it explains the Viking observations quite well; it provides a functional adaptation to Martian environmental conditions; and, it is feasible as an adaptation based on the biochemistry of terrestrial organisms. It would explain many of the puzzling Viking observations such as (1) the lack of organics detected by GC-MS, (2) the lack of detected oxidant(s) to support a chemical explanation, (3) evolution of O2 upon wetting (GEx experiment), (4) limited organic synthesis reactions (PR experiment), and (5) the gas release observations made (LR experiment). An intracellular liquid containing a high concentration of H2O2 has advantages such as providing a low freezing point, a source of oxygen, and hygroscopicity, allowing an organism to obtain water vapor from the Martian atmosphere or from the adsorbed layers of water molecules on mineral grains. Perhaps surprisingly, H2O2 is used by many terrestrial organisms for diverse purposes, e.g., metabolism (Acetobacter peroxidans), as defense mechanism (Bombardier beetle), and also to mediate diverse physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The detection of H2O2-containing organisms may well suffer from the same problems as the Viking experiments: Because of the excess oxidative contents, as derived from the GEx experiment, the organisms may decompose completely into H2O, CO2, O2 and N2. This can happen when exposed to an excess of water vapor (through hyperhydration), too high a temperature or a combination of both. Therefore, the addition of too much water vapor may be fatal. Moreover, employing pyrolysis in order to detect organic molecules may result in the organisms autooxidizing completely. Although the instrument suite aboard the Phoenix Lander offers some interesting possibilities (Schulze-Makuch and Houtkooper

  13. Effect of mother singing on adaptation of preemies to extra-uterine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Lúcia Hagi Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sounds are part of our life and are able to produce effects on physical and emotional balance of people. Objective: To evaluate the effects of mother’s singing on the preemie using as parameters the heart and respiratory frequency and blood oxygen concentration of preemies, and also the mother perception related to baby behavior during the exposition to her singing. Methods: It is an exploratory investigation with quantitative and qualitative analyzes. Twenty preemies babies were observed during three consecutive days. Each child was exposed to the mother singing during ten minutes for three periods. The data were collected before and immediately after the music exposition. The heart and respiratory frequency and blood oxygen concentration of the baby were registered in two moments: pre and post- music exposition; the two measures were analyzed and compared. In the third day, the mother was interviewed to know her perception related to baby behavior during the singing exposition. The assessment of data was performed from March to July 2015 in two public hospitals in Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. For the statistical analysis, Wilcoxon, Mc Nemar and variance test of Friedman were applied. Results and Conclusion: Statistics showed no significant results, however the qualitative analyzes showed positive results from the mother’s speech, such as benefic changes on babies behavior, recognition of mother’s voice and in helping to consolidate the bond between mother and her baby. s positivos nos discursos obtidos das mães, tais como alterações comportamentais benéficas, reconhecimento da voz materna e auxílio na consolidação do vínculo mãe-bebê. Palavras-chave: musicoterapia; cuidados de enfermagem; prematuro; adaptação fisiológica; humanização da assistência.

  14. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  15. The Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Simulation Training at Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Mark F; Friedlich, Philippe S; Nelson, Lara P; Rake, Alyssa J; Klee, Laura; Stein, James E; Stavroudis, Theodora A

    2017-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requires a multidisciplinary healthcare team. The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization publishes training guidelines but leaves specific requirements up to each institution. Simulation training has shown promise, but it is unclear how many institutions have incorporated simulation techniques into ECMO training to date. We sent an electronic survey to ECMO coordinators at Extracorporeal Life Support Organization sites in the United States. Participants were asked about training practices and the use of simulation for ECMO training. Descriptive results were reported as the percentage of total responses for each question. Logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with simulation use. Of 94 responses (62% response rate), 46% had an ECMO simulation program, whereas 26% report a program is in development. Most (61%) have been in operation for 2 to 5 years. Sixty-three percent use simulation for summative assessment, and 76% have multidisciplinary training. Access to a simulation center [odds ratio (OR) = 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-12.5], annual ECMO caseload of greater than 20 (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.5-5.8), and having a pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care unit (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2-6.7) are each associated with increased likelihood of mannequin-based ECMO simulation. Common scenarios include pump failure (93%), oxygenator failure (90%), and circuit rupture (76%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation simulation is growing but remains in its infancy. Centers with access to a simulation center, higher caseloads, and pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care units are more likely to have ECMO simulation programs. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation simulation is felt to be beneficial, and further work is needed to delineate best training practices for ECMO providers.

  16. The Life History of Flabellula baltica Smirnov (Gymnamoebae, Rhizopoda): Adaptations to a Spatially and Temporally Heterogeneous Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The polymorphic life history of the marine naked amoeba Flabellula baltica was studied. It can be interpreted in terms of adaptations to an environment that is patchy in time and space and it represents trade-off between longevity during starvation and the ability to initiate multiplication soon ...... after food resource become available. The life history also represents bet hedging in that different cells within a clonal culture may respond in different ways when food is depleted....

  17. CREEP LIFE ASSESSMENT OF 2.25Cr-1Mo PIPING STEEL AND OF ITS SIMULATED HAZ MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Kazunari, FUJIYAMA; Takashi, ISEKI; Atsushi, KOMATSU; Nagatoshi, OKABE; Heavy Apparatus Engineering Laboratory, Toshiba Corporation; Keihin Product Operations, Toshiba Corporation; Keihin Product Operations, Toshiba Corporation; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ehime University

    1997-01-01

    A creep life assessment method was proposed for base metal and HAZ of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel STPA24 used in high temperature steam piping of fossil power plants. Microstructuiral observations and hardness measurements were carried out for base metal and simulated HAZ after thermal aging and creep testing. Simulated HAZ material showed significant softening during thermal and creep exposure, but base metal showed less softening. Hardness equation was established based on the kinetics of carbide coar...

  18. Problem-based learning using patient-simulated videos showing daily life for a comprehensive clinical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegami, Akiko; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Takanori; Noda, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Shingo; Shikino, Kiyoshi; Kajiwara, Hideki; Kondo, Takeshi; Hirota, Yusuke; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether problem-based learning tutorials using patient-simulated videos showing daily life are more practical for clinical learning, compared with traditional paper-based problem-based learning, for the consideration rate of psychosocial issues and the recall rate for experienced learning. Methods Twenty-two groups with 120 fifth-year students were each assigned paper-based problem-based learning and video-based problem-based learning using patient-simulated videos. We ...

  19. A highly efficient sharp-interface immersed boundary method with adaptive mesh refinement for bio-inspired flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Dong, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    Developing a high-fidelity, high-efficiency numerical method for bio-inspired flow problems with flow-structure interaction is important for understanding related physics and developing many bio-inspired technologies. To simulate a fast-swimming big fish with multiple finlets or fish schooling, we need fine grids and/or a big computational domain, which are big challenges for 3-D simulations. In current work, based on the 3-D finite-difference sharp-interface immersed boundary method for incompressible flows (Mittal et al., JCP 2008), we developed an octree-like Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technique to enhance the computational ability and increase the computational efficiency. The AMR is coupled with a multigrid acceleration technique and a MPI +OpenMP hybrid parallelization. In this work, different AMR layers are treated separately and the synchronization is performed in the buffer regions and iterations are performed for the convergence of solution. Each big region is calculated by a MPI process which then uses multiple OpenMP threads for further acceleration, so that the communication cost is reduced. With these acceleration techniques, various canonical and bio-inspired flow problems with complex boundaries can be simulated accurately and efficiently. This work is supported by the MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF Grant CBET-1605434.

  20. Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods and Adaptive Stepsize Control for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2010-01-01

    The implicit Euler method, normally refered to as the fully implicit (FIM) method, and the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES) method are the traditional choices for temporal discretization in reservoir simulation. The FIM method offers unconditionally stability in the sense of discrete......-Kutta methods, ESDIRK, Newton-Raphson, convergence control, error control, stepsize selection.......The implicit Euler method, normally refered to as the fully implicit (FIM) method, and the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES) method are the traditional choices for temporal discretization in reservoir simulation. The FIM method offers unconditionally stability in the sense of discrete...... approximations, while the IMPES scheme benefits from the explicit treatment of the saturation. However, in tems of controlling the integration error, the low order of the FIM method leads to small integration steps, while the explicit treatment of the saturation may restrict the stepsizes for the IMPES scheme...

  1. Methodology and design of adaptive a gent-based simulation architectures for bamboo or visual C

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A. Boyd; Gagnon, Todd A.

    1999-01-01

    Zero-sum budgeting, downsizing, and increased mission requirements make it more challenging for U.S. Navy leaders to understand the short and long- term consequences of their decisions. An enterprise model of the Navy could provide decision-makers with a tool to study how their decisions might affect the Navy's ability to conduct worldwide operations. Agent- based simulation technology provides a flexible platform to model the complex relationships between the Navy's many components. Agent-ba...

  2. Adapting a Driving Simulator to Study Pedestrians' Street-Crossing Decisions: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, M; Nyffeler, T; Müri, R; Mosimann, U P; Nef, T

    2015-01-01

    The decision when to cross a street safely is a challenging task that poses high demands on perception and cognition. Both can be affected by normal aging, neurodegenerative disorder, and brain injury, and there is an increasing interest in studying street-crossing decisions. In this article, we describe how driving simulators can be modified to study pedestrians' street-crossing decisions. The driving simulator's projection system and the virtual driving environment were used to present street-crossing scenarios to the participants. New sensors were added to measure when the test person starts to cross the street. Outcome measures were feasibility, usability, task performance, and visual exploration behavior, and were measured in 15 younger persons, 15 older persons, and 5 post-stroke patients. The experiments showed that the test is feasible and usable, and the selected difficulty level was appropriate. Significant differences in the number of crashes between young participants and patients (p = .001) as well as between healthy older participants and patients (p = .003) were found. When the approaching vehicle's speed is high, significant differences between younger and older participants were found as well (p = .038). Overall, the new test setup was well accepted, and we demonstrated that driving simulators can be used to study pedestrians' street-crossing decisions.

  3. Numerical simulation of the slip power recovery system using functional adapted blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, G.D. [Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Seccao de Maquinas Electricas e de Electronica de Potencia, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation method for the Slip Power Recovery System. The dq induction machine model using stator flux linkages as state variables is used. This leads to a simple and efficient computer program. The diode bridge rectifier is modeled using three switching functions that are determined by the sign of the corresponding AC currents. The model obtained is very simple and accurately represents the three-phase diode bridge rectifier including the current commutation process. When a DC current circuit is used in the intermediate circuit, a model of the whole 'Induction machine and diode bridge rectifier' should be used in other simulation methods. In this paper a different approach is presented. The operations performed to model the system are equivalent to assume that the induction machine has two state variables, i.e, the stator flux linkages. From the rotor point of view, the induction machine is equivalent to a three-phase RLE circuit. MATLAB/Simulink is used to integrate the equations. Experimental and simulated results are presented and compared showing good accuracy. (orig.)

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Italian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Breadth of Interests, Quality of Life, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)-Italian Form consists of four 6-item scales, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The 24-item CAAS-Italian Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. The factor structure was…

  5. Efficiency of fluid-structure interaction simulations with adaptive underrelaxation and multigrid acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yigit

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the efficiency of acceleration techniques for fluid- structure interaction computations are investigated. The solution procedure involves the finite volume flow solver FASTEST, the finite- element structural solver FEAP, and the coupling interface MpCCI. Within the employed partitioned solution approach, a geometric multigrid solution strategy on moving grids for the fluid domain is introduced. In particular, the order in which the convective fluxes have to be treated within the pressure- correction smoothing procedure is addressed. For reducing the coupling iteration steps an adaptive underrelaxaation algorithm is employed. Both acceleration techniques are investigated separately and in combination with respect to numerical efficiency. As test configuration a representative three-dimensional ullsteady coupled problem is considered.

  6. Adaptive Generation of Multimaterial Grids from imaging data for Biomedical Lagrangian Fluid-Structure Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Dyedov, Volodymyr; del Pin, Facundo; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2010-04-01

    Spatial discretization of complex imaging-derived fluid-solid geometries, such as the cardiac environment, is a critical but often overlooked challenge in biomechanical computations. This is particularly true in problems with Lagrangian interfaces, where, the fluid and solid phases must match geometrically. For simplicity and better accuracy, it is also highly desirable for the two phases to share the same surface mesh at the interface between them. We outline a method for solving this problem, and illustrate the approach with a 3D fluid-solid mesh of the mouse heart. An MRI perfusion-fixed dataset of a mouse heart with 50μm isotropic resolution was semi-automatically segmented using a customized multimaterial connected-threshold approach that divided the volume into non-overlapping regions of blood, tissue and background. Subsequently, a multimaterial marching cubes algorithm was applied to the segmented data to produce two detailed, compatible isosurfaces, one for blood and one for tissue. Both isosurfaces were simultaneously smoothed with a multimaterial smoothing algorithm that exactly conserves the volume for each phase. Using these two isosurfaces, we developed and applied novel automated meshing algorithms to generate anisotropic hybrid meshes on arbitrary biological geometries with the number of layers and the desired element anisotropy for each phase as the only input parameters. Since our meshes adapt to the local feature sizes and include boundary layer prisms, they are more efficient and accurate than non-adaptive, isotropic meshes, and the fluid-structure interaction computations will tend to have relative error equilibrated over the whole mesh.

  7. [Adaptation and validation of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL) to Mexican Spanish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Tena, César; Reyes-Cordero, Greta; McKenna, Stephen P; Ríos-Barrera, Víctor A

    2011-01-01

    To develop and validate the Mexican-Spanish version of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life questionnaire (RAQoL). The original UK English version of RAQoL was translated into Mexican-Spanish version by a bilingual translation panel. An independent lay panel reviewed the instrument's item phrasing to ensure comprehensiveness and appropriateness in colloquial Mexican-Spanish. Structured cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with 15 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients to assess face and content validity. Finally, an independent sample of RA patients completed the RAQoL and additional assessments were performed to assess reproducibility and construct validity. Translation and adaptation was successful as both the lay panel and cognitive debriefing participants considered the new language version to be appropriate. Fifty-seven patients were included in the final evaluation of the Mexican-Spanish version of RAQoL (73.8% female, mean age 52.4 years, SD 14.1, RA duration range 2-27 years). Cronbach's α for the new RAQoL was 0.91 and the test-retest reliability 0.92, indicating that the measure has good internal consistency and low random measurement error. The Mexican-Spanish version of RAQoL could discriminate between patients who differed on their perception of disease activity, general health status, current rating of perceived RA severity and whether or not they were experiencing a disease flare. The Mexican-Spanish version of RAQoL was well accepted by RA patients. The psychometric quality of the adapted questionnaire shows that it is suitable for use in clinical studies and trials of patients with RA. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of Optical Turbulence Simulations from a Numerical Weather Prediction Model in Support of Adaptive Optics Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliss, R.; Felton, B.

    Optical turbulence (OT) acts to distort light in the atmosphere, degrading imagery from large astronomical telescopes and possibly reducing data quality of air to air laser communication links. Some of the degradation due to turbulence can be corrected by adaptive optics. However, the severity of optical turbulence, and thus the amount of correction required, is largely dependent upon the turbulence at the location of interest. Therefore, it is vital to understand the climatology of optical turbulence at such locations. In many cases, it is impractical and expensive to setup instrumentation to characterize the climatology of OT, so simulations become a less expensive and convenient alternative. The strength of OT is characterized by the refractive index structure function Cn2, which in turn is used to calculate atmospheric seeing parameters. While attempts have been made to characterize Cn2 using empirical models, Cn2 can be calculated more directly from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) simulations using pressure, temperature, thermal stability, vertical wind shear, turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). In this work we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) NWP model to generate Cn2 climatologies in the planetary boundary layer and free atmosphere, allowing for both point-to-point and ground-to-space seeing estimates of the Fried Coherence length (ro) and other seeing parameters. Simulations are performed using the Maui High Performance Computing Centers Jaws cluster. The WRF model is configured to run at 1km horizontal resolution over a domain covering the islands of Maui and the Big Island. The vertical resolution varies from 25 meters in the boundary layer to 500 meters in the stratosphere. The model top is 20 km. We are interested in the variations in Cn2 and the Fried Coherence Length (ro) between the summits of Haleakala and Mauna Loa. Over six months of simulations have been performed over this area. Simulations indicate that

  9. Information-Theoretic Approaches for Evaluating Complex Adaptive Social Simulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose information-theoretic approaches for comparing and evaluating complex agent-based models. In information theoretic terms, entropy and mutual information are two measures of system complexity. We used entropy as a measure of the regularity of the number of agents in a social class; and mutual information as a measure of information shared by two social classes. Using our approaches, we compared two analogous agent-based (AB) models developed for regional-scale social-simulation system. The first AB model, called ABM-1, is a complex AB built with 10,000 agents on a desktop environment and used aggregate data; the second AB model, ABM-2, was built with 31 million agents on a highperformance computing framework located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and fine-resolution data from the LandScan Global Population Database. The initializations were slightly different, with ABM-1 using samples from a probability distribution and ABM-2 using polling data from Gallop for a deterministic initialization. The geographical and temporal domain was present-day Afghanistan, and the end result was the number of agents with one of three behavioral modes (proinsurgent, neutral, and pro-government) corresponding to the population mindshare. The theories embedded in each model were identical, and the test simulations focused on a test of three leadership theories - legitimacy, coercion, and representative, and two social mobilization theories - social influence and repression. The theories are tied together using the Cobb-Douglas utility function. Based on our results, the hypothesis that performance measures can be developed to compare and contrast AB models appears to be supported. Furthermore, we observed significant bias in the two models. Even so, further tests and investigations are required not only with a wider class of theories and AB models, but also with additional observed or simulated data and more comprehensive performance measures.

  10. Report on three Genomes to Life Workshops: Data Infrastructure, Modeling and Simulation, and Protein Structure Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, GA

    2003-09-16

    On July 22, 23, 24, 2003, three one day workshops were held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Each was attended by about 30 computational biologists, mathematicians, and computer scientists who were experts in the respective workshop areas The first workshop discussed the data infrastructure needs for the Genomes to Life (GTL) program with the objective to identify gaps in the present GTL data infrastructure and define the GTL data infrastructure required for the success of the proposed GTL facilities. The second workshop discussed the modeling and simulation needs for the next phase of the GTL program and defined how these relate to the experimental data generated by genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The third workshop identified emerging technical challenges in computational protein structure prediction for DOE missions and outlining specific goals for the next phase of GTL. The workshops were attended by representatives from both OBER and OASCR. The invited experts at each of the workshops made short presentations on what they perceived as the key needs in the GTL data infrastructure, modeling and simulation, and structure prediction respectively. Each presentation was followed by a lively discussion by all the workshop attendees. The following findings and recommendations were derived from the three workshops. A seamless integration of GTL data spanning the entire range of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will be extremely challenging but it has to be treated as the first-class component of the GTL program to assure GTL's chances for success. High-throughput GTL facilities and ultrascale computing will make it possible to address the ultimate goal of modern biology: to achieve a fundamental, comprehensive, and systematic understanding of life. But first the GTL community needs to address the problem of the massive quantities and increased complexity of biological data produced by experiments and computations. Genome-scale collection, analysis

  11. [Complex estimation of the state of health, quality of life, level of psychological adaptation and rates of senescence of war veterans, suffering from arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, N O; Iakovlev, O G; Treneva, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents some aspects of the health status of the veterans of the Samara region. Intercommunication is marked between the level of social adaptation, quality of life and rate aging combatants. The study shows the effect of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder on the occurrence of psychosomatic pathology and development of senescence combat veterans suffering from arterial hypertension.

  12. Itch severity and quality of life in patients with pruritus: Preliminary validity of a Danish adaptation of the Itch Severity Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Lei, U.; Hædersdal, Merete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of a Danish adaptation of the Itch Severity Scale (ISS) by exploring the associations between pruritus severity, psychological symptoms, and quality of life in a consecutively recruited sample of 20 patients with atopic dermatitis, 20 with psoriasis...

  13. The Future of Scientific Simulations: from Artificial Life to Artificial Cosmogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This philosophical paper explores the relation between modern scientific simulations and the future of the universe. We argue that a simulation of an entire universe will result from future scientific activity. This requires us to tackle the challenge of simulating open-ended evolution at all levels in a single simulation. The simulation should encompass not only biological evolution, but also physical evolution (a level below) and cultural evolution (a level above). The simulation would allo...

  14. Distributed cerebellar plasticity implements adaptable gain control in a manipulation task: a closed-loop robotic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Garrido Alcazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptable gain regulation is at the core of the forward controller operation performed by the cerebro-cerebellar loops and it allows the intensity of motor acts to be finely tuned in a predictive manner. In order to learn and store information about body-object dynamics and to generate an internal model of movement, the cerebellum is thought to employ long-term synaptic plasticity. LTD at the PF-PC synapse has classically been assumed to subserve this function (Marr, 1969. However, this plasticity alone cannot account for the broad dynamic ranges and time scales of cerebellar adaptation. We therefore tested the role of plasticity distributed over multiple synaptic sites (Gao et al., 2012; Hansel et al., 2001 by generating an analog cerebellar model embedded into a control loop connected to a robotic simulator. The robot used a three-joint arm and performed repetitive fast manipulations with different masses along an 8-shape trajectory. In accordance with biological evidence, the cerebellum model was endowed with both LTD and LTP at the PF-PC, MF-DCN and PC-DCN synapses. This resulted in a network scheme whose effectiveness was extended considerably compared to one including just PF-PC synaptic plasticity. Indeed, the system including distributed plasticity reliably self-adapted to manipulate different masses and to learn the arm-object dynamics over a time course that included fast learning and consolidation, along the lines of what has been observed in behavioral tests. In particular, PF-PC plasticity operated as a time correlator between the actual input state and the system error, while MF-DCN and PC-DCN plasticity played a key role in generating the gain controller. This model suggests that distributed synaptic plasticity allows generation of the complex learning properties of the cerebellum. The incorporation of further plasticity mechanisms and of spiking signal processing will allow this concept to be extended in a more realistic

  15. Reduction in patient burdens with graphical computerized adaptive testing on the ADL scale: tool development and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weng-Chung

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness and efficacy of saving time and reducing burden for patients, nurses, and even occupational therapists through computer adaptive testing (CAT. Methods Based on an item bank of the Barthel Index (BI and the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI for assessing comprehensive activities of daily living (ADL function in stroke patients, we developed a visual basic application (VBA-Excel CAT module, and (1 investigated whether the averaged test length via CAT is shorter than that of the traditional all-item-answered non-adaptive testing (NAT approach through simulation, (2 illustrated the CAT multimedia on a tablet PC showing data collection and response errors of ADL clinical functional measures in stroke patients, and (3 demonstrated the quality control of endorsing scale with fit statistics to detect responding errors, which will be further immediately reconfirmed by technicians once patient ends the CAT assessment. Results The results show that endorsed items could be shorter on CAT (M = 13.42 than on NAT (M = 23 at 41.64% efficiency in test length. However, averaged ability estimations reveal insignificant differences between CAT and NAT. Conclusion This study found that mobile nursing services, placed at the bedsides of patients could, through the programmed VBA-Excel CAT module, reduce the burden to patients and save time, more so than the traditional NAT paper-and-pencil testing appraisals.

  16. Ventilatory assistance and respiratory muscle activity. 2: Simulation with an adaptive active ("aa" or "a-squared") model lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburgh, J S; Mapleson, W W

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a lung model which adapted its active simulation of spontaneous breathing to the ventilatory assistance it received--an "aa" or "a-squared" lung model. The active element required was the waveform of negative pressure (pmus), which is equivalent to respiratory muscle activity. This had been determined previously in 12 healthy volunteers and comprised a contraction phase, relaxation phase and expiratory pause. Ventilatory assistance had shortened the contraction and relaxation phases without changing their shape, and lengthened the pause phase to compensate. In this study, the contraction and relaxation phases could be adequately represented by two quadratic equations, in addition to a third to provide a smooth transition. Therefore, the adaptive element required was the prediction of the duration of the contraction phase. The best predictive variables were flow at the end of contraction or peak mouth pressure. Determination of either of these allowed adjustment of the "standard" waveform to the level of assistance produced by an "average" ventilator, in a manner that matched the mean response of 12 healthy conscious subjects.

  17. Simulation of branched serial first-order decay of atrazine and metabolites in adapted and nonadapted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard M.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Jason L. Krutz,; Dale L. Shaner,

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a branched serial first-order decay (BSFOD) model is presented and used to derive transformation rates describing the decay of a common herbicide, atrazine, and its metabolites observed in unsaturated soils adapted to previous atrazine applications and in soils with no history of atrazine applications. Calibration of BSFOD models for soils throughout the country can reduce the uncertainty, relative to that of traditional models, in predicting the fate and transport of pesticides and their metabolites and thus support improved agricultural management schemes for reducing threats to the environment. Results from application of the BSFOD model to better understand the degradation of atrazine supports two previously reported conclusions: atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and its primary metabolites are less persistent in adapted soils than in nonadapted soils; and hydroxyatrazine was the dominant primary metabolite in most of the soils tested. In addition, a method to simulate BSFOD in a one-dimensional solute-transport unsaturated zone model is also presented.

  18. Simulating the Adaptive Mechanisms to Reduce the Risks of Occurence of Threats to the Economic Security of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushchevsky Vyacheslav V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with addressing the topical problem of effectively countering real and potential threats to economic security of enterprises and reducing the risks of their occurrence. The article is aimed at simulating the adaptive mechanisms to counteract external influences on the marketing component of enterprise’s economic security and developing a system of measures for removing threats to price destabilization of its orders portfolio based on a modern economic-mathematical instrumentarium. The common causes of the threats occurrence related to the price policy of enterprise and the tactics of the contractual processes with the business partners have been explored. Hidden reserves for price maneuvering in concluding contracts with customers have been identified. An algorithmic model for an adaptive pricing task in terms of an assortment of industrial enterprise has been built. On the basis of this model, mechanisms have been developed to counteract the threats of occurrence and aggravation of a «price conflict» between the producing enterprise and the potential customers of its products, and to advise on how to remove the risks of their occurrence. Prospects for using the methodology together with the instrumentarium for economic-mathematical modeling in terms of tasks of the price risks management have been indicated.