WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive landscape classification

  1. An Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure using Geoinformatics and Artificial Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre Michael [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-06-01

    The Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure (ALCP), which links the advanced geospatial analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and particularly Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), is proposed as a method for establishing and reducing complex data relationships. Its adaptive and evolutionary capability is evaluated for situations where varying types of data can be combined to address different prediction and/or management needs such as hydrologic response, water quality, aquatic habitat, groundwater recharge, land use, instrumentation placement, and forecast scenarios. The research presented here documents and presents favorable results of a procedure that aims to be a powerful and flexible spatial data classifier that fuses the strengths of geoinformatics and the intelligence of SOMs to provide data patterns and spatial information for environmental managers and researchers. This research shows how evaluation and analysis of spatial and/or temporal patterns in the landscape can provide insight into complex ecological, hydrological, climatic, and other natural and anthropogenic-influenced processes. Certainly, environmental management and research within heterogeneous watersheds provide challenges for consistent evaluation and understanding of system functions. For instance, watersheds over a range of scales are likely to exhibit varying levels of diversity in their characteristics of climate, hydrology, physiography, ecology, and anthropogenic influence. Furthermore, it has become evident that understanding and analyzing these diverse systems can be difficult not only because of varying natural characteristics, but also because of the availability, quality, and variability of spatial and temporal data. Developments in geospatial technologies, however, are providing a wide range of relevant data, and in many cases, at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Such data resources can take the form of high

  2. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  3. A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vallés-Planells

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.

  4. Landscape structure and the speed of adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudino, Elder S.; Campos, Paulo R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The role of fragmentation in the adaptive process is addressed. We investigate how landscape structure affects the speed of adaptation in a spatially structured population model. As models of fragmented landscapes, here we simulate the percolation maps and the fractal landscapes. In the latter the degree of spatial autocorrelation can be suited. We verified that fragmentation can effectively affect the adaptive process. The examination of the fixation rates and speed of adaptation discloses the dichotomy exhibited by percolation maps and fractal landscapes. In the latter, there is a smooth change in the pace of the adaptation process, as the landscapes become more aggregated higher fixation rates and speed of adaptation are obtained. On the other hand, in random percolation the geometry of the percolating cluster matters. Thus, the scenario depends on whether the system is below or above the percolation threshold. - Highlights: • The role of fragmentation on the adaptive process is addressed. • Our approach makes the linkage between population genetics and landscape ecology. • Fragmentation affects gene flow and thus influences the speed of adaptation. • The level of clumping determines how the speed of adaptation is influenced

  5. Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Estimate Bristol Bay Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on cl...

  6. Classification of the visual landscape for transmission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis Miller; Nargis Jetha; Rod MacDonald

    1979-01-01

    The Visual Landscape Type Classification method of the Route and Site Selection Division, Ontario Hydro, defines and delineates the landscape into discrete visual units using parametric and judgmental data. This qualitative and quantitative information is documented in a prescribed format to give each of the approximately 1100 Landscape Types a unique description....

  7. Defining the landscape of adaptive genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Dyer, Rodney J

    2012-06-01

    Whether they are used to describe fitness, genome architecture or the spatial distribution of environmental variables, the concept of a landscape has figured prominently in our collective reasoning. The tradition of landscapes in evolutionary biology is one of fitness mapped onto axes defined by phenotypes or molecular sequence states. The characteristics of these landscapes depend on natural selection, which is structured across both genomic and environmental landscapes, and thus, the bridge among differing uses of the landscape concept (i.e. metaphorically or literally) is that of an adaptive phenotype and its distribution across geographical landscapes in relation to selective pressures. One of the ultimate goals of evolutionary biology should thus be to construct fitness landscapes in geographical space. Natural plant populations are ideal systems with which to explore the feasibility of attaining this goal, because much is known about the quantitative genetic architecture of complex traits for many different plant species. What is less known are the molecular components of this architecture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Parchman et al. (2012) pioneer one of the first truly genome-wide association studies in a tree that moves us closer to this form of mechanistic understanding for an adaptive phenotype in natural populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter; Cohen, Albert; Dahmen, Wolfgang; DeVore, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.

  9. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of misclassifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence, to support these hypotheses. This...

  11. Classification of Farmland Landscape Structure in Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Cheng, Q.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    Farmland is one of the basic terrestrial resources that support the development and survival of human beings and thus plays a crucial role in the national security of every country. Pattern change is the intuitively spatial representation of the scale and quality variation of farmland. Through the characteristic development of spatial shapes as well as through changes in system structures, functions and so on, farmland landscape patterns may indicate the landscape health level. Currently, it is still difficult to perform positioning analyses of landscape pattern changes that reflect the landscape structure variations of farmland with an index model. Depending on a number of spatial properties such as locations and adjacency relations, distance decay, fringe effect, and on the model of patch-corridor-matrix that is applied, this study defines a type system of farmland landscape structure on the national, provincial, and city levels. According to such a definition, the classification model of farmland landscape-structure type at the pixel scale is developed and validated based on mathematical-morphology concepts and on spatial-analysis methods. Then, the laws that govern farmland landscape-pattern change in multiple scales are analyzed from the perspectives of spatial heterogeneity, spatio-temporal evolution, and function transformation. The result shows that the classification model of farmland landscape-structure type can reflect farmland landscape-pattern change and its effects on farmland production function. Moreover, farmland landscape change in different scales displayed significant disparity in zonality, both within specific regions and in urban-rural areas.

  12. Landscape Classifications for Landscape Metrics-based Assessment of Urban Heat Island: A Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X F; Deng, L; Wang, H N; Chen, F; Hua, L Z

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, some studies have been carried out on the landscape analysis of urban thermal patterns. With the prevalence of thermal landscape, a key problem has come forth, which is how to classify thermal landscape into thermal patches. Current researches used different methods of thermal landscape classification such as standard deviation method (SD) and R method. To find out the differences, a comparative study was carried out in Xiamen using a 20-year winter time-serial Landsat images. After the retrieval of land surface temperature (LST), the thermal landscape was classified using the two methods separately. Then landscape metrics, 6 at class level and 14 at landscape level, were calculated and analyzed using Fragstats 3.3. We found that: (1) at the class level, all the metrics with SD method were evened and did not show an obvious trend along with the process of urbanization, while the R method could. (2) While at the landscape level, 6 of the 14 metrics remains the similar trends, 5 were different at local turn points of the curve, 3 of them differed completely in the shape of curves. (3) When examined with visual interpretation, SD method tended to exaggerate urban heat island effects than the R method

  13. Adaptive DCTNet for Audio Signal Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to h...

  14. Hydrologic landscape regionalisation using deductive classification and random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart C Brown

    Full Text Available Landscape classification and hydrological regionalisation studies are being increasingly used in ecohydrology to aid in the management and research of aquatic resources. We present a methodology for classifying hydrologic landscapes based on spatial environmental variables by employing non-parametric statistics and hybrid image classification. Our approach differed from previous classifications which have required the use of an a priori spatial unit (e.g. a catchment which necessarily results in the loss of variability that is known to exist within those units. The use of a simple statistical approach to identify an appropriate number of classes eliminated the need for large amounts of post-hoc testing with different number of groups, or the selection and justification of an arbitrary number. Using statistical clustering, we identified 23 distinct groups within our training dataset. The use of a hybrid classification employing random forests extended this statistical clustering to an area of approximately 228,000 km2 of south-eastern Australia without the need to rely on catchments, landscape units or stream sections. This extension resulted in a highly accurate regionalisation at both 30-m and 2.5-km resolution, and a less-accurate 10-km classification that would be more appropriate for use at a continental scale. A smaller case study, of an area covering 27,000 km2, demonstrated that the method preserved the intra- and inter-catchment variability that is known to exist in local hydrology, based on previous research. Preliminary analysis linking the regionalisation to streamflow indices is promising suggesting that the method could be used to predict streamflow behaviour in ungauged catchments. Our work therefore simplifies current classification frameworks that are becoming more popular in ecohydrology, while better retaining small-scale variability in hydrology, thus enabling future attempts to explain and visualise broad-scale hydrologic

  15. Adaptive Matrices for Color Texture Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Kerstin; Giotis, Ioannis; Petkov, Nicolai; Biehl, Michael; Real, P; DiazPernil, D; MolinaAbril, H; Berciano, A; Kropatsch, W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an integrative approach towards color texture classification learned by a supervised framework. Our approach is based on the Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ), extended by an adaptive distance measure which is defined in the Fourier domain and 2D Gabor

  16. Adaptive SVM for Data Stream Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isah A. Lawal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of learning an adaptive classifier for the classification of continuous streams of data. We present a solution based on incremental extensions of the Support Vector Machine (SVM learning paradigm that updates an existing SVM whenever new training data are acquired. To ensure that the SVM effectiveness is guaranteed while exploiting the newly gathered data, we introduce an on-line model selection approach in the incremental learning process. We evaluated the proposed method on real world applications including on-line spam email filtering and human action classification from videos. Experimental results show the effectiveness and the potential of the proposed approach.

  17. Mitigation/Adaptation: landscape architecture meets sustainable energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2009-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to renewable energy sources are among the emerging fields of activity in landscape architecture. If landscape architects recognize the need for sustainable development on the basis of renewable energy sources, then how can we contribute to sustainable and

  18. landscaping for passive security and adaptation to climate in church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Man has 10-15 years left to put in place serious measures to start .... 1.2 Adaptation of Man to Climate Change. Adaptation .... 1.4 Physical Security Control Measures and Landscaping ... and enhance the appearance of perimeter fences and.

  19. Leisuring landscapes : On emergence, transitions and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, S.

    2016-01-01

    The leisure economy, consisting of the industry cluster of tourism, recreation and leisure, transforms the spatial and socio-economic landscapes of many regions. As a result, regions are ‘leisuring’, experiencing on-going transformative processes that are designed to foster touristic, recreational

  20. Mapping land cover in urban residential landscapes using fine resolution imagery and object-oriented classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A knowledge of different types of land cover in urban residential landscapes is important for building social and economic city-wide policies including landscape ordinances and water conservation programs. Urban landscapes are typically heterogeneous, so classification of land cover in these areas ...

  1. Regionalized Development and Maintenance of the Intestinal Adaptive Immune Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agace, William Winston; McCoy, Kathy D.

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal immune system has the daunting task of protecting us from pathogenic insults while limiting inflammatory responses against the resident commensal microbiota and providing tolerance to food antigens. This role is particularly impressive when one considers the vast mucosal surface...... and changing landscape that the intestinal immune system must monitor. In this review, we highlight regional differences in the development and composition of the adaptive immune landscape of the intestine and the impact of local intrinsic and environmental factors that shape this process. To conclude, we...... review the evidence for a critical window of opportunity for early-life exposures that affect immune development and alter disease susceptibility later in life....

  2. Adaptive partial volume classification of MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiverton, John P; Wells, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Tomographic biomedical images are commonly affected by an imaging artefact known as the partial volume (PV) effect. The PV effect produces voxels composed of a mixture of tissues in anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data resulting in a continuity of these tissue classes. Anatomical MRI data typically consist of a number of contiguous regions of tissues or even contiguous regions of PV voxels. Furthermore discontinuities exist between the boundaries of these contiguous image regions. The work presented here probabilistically models the PV effect using spatial regularization in the form of continuous Markov random fields (MRFs) to classify anatomical MRI brain data, simulated and real. A unique approach is used to adaptively control the amount of spatial regularization imposed by the MRF. Spatially derived image gradient magnitude is used to identify the discontinuities between image regions of contiguous tissue voxels and PV voxels, imposing variable amounts of regularization determined by simulation. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to simulate the posterior distribution of the probabilistic image model. Promising quantitative results are presented for PV classification of simulated and real MRI data of the human brain.

  3. IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LANDSCAPE HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impacts of Patch Size and Landscape Heterogeneity on Thematic Image Classification Accuracy. Currently, most thematic accuracy assessments of classified remotely sensed images oily account for errors between the various classes employed, at particular pixels of interest, thu...

  4. Post-industrial landscape - its identification and classification as contemporary challenges faced by geographic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2010), s. 67-78 ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : classification * geographical research * identification method * landscape structure Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://studiacrescent.com/images/02_2010/09_jaromir_kolejka_post_industrial_landscape_its_identification_and_classification_as_contemporary_challenges_faced_by_geographic_.pdf

  5. Adaptive Landscapes of Resistance Genes Change as Antibiotic Concentrations Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Portia M; Meza, Juan C; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on the evolution of antibiotic resistance are focused on selection for resistance at lethal antibiotic concentrations, which has allowed the detection of mutant strains that show strong phenotypic traits. However, solely focusing on lethal concentrations of antibiotics narrowly limits our perspective of antibiotic resistance evolution. New high-resolution competition assays have shown that resistant bacteria are selected at relatively low concentrations of antibiotics. This finding is important because sublethal concentrations of antibiotics are found widely in patients undergoing antibiotic therapies, and in nonmedical conditions such as wastewater treatment plants, and food and water used in agriculture and farming. To understand the impacts of sublethal concentrations on selection, we measured 30 adaptive landscapes for a set of TEM β-lactamases containing all combinations of the four amino acid substitutions that exist in TEM-50 for 15 β-lactam antibiotics at multiple concentrations. We found that there are many evolutionary pathways within this collection of landscapes that lead to nearly every TEM-genotype that we studied. While it is known that the pathways change depending on the type of β-lactam, this study demonstrates that the landscapes including fitness optima also change dramatically as the concentrations of antibiotics change. Based on these results we conclude that the presence of multiple concentrations of β-lactams in an environment result in many different adaptive landscapes through which pathways to nearly every genotype are available. Ultimately this may increase the diversity of genotypes in microbial populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Adaptive evolutionary walks require neutral intermediates in RNA fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    In RNA fitness landscapes with interconnected networks of neutral mutations, neutral precursor mutations can play an important role in facilitating the accessibility of epistatic adaptive mutant combinations. I use an exhaustively surveyed fitness landscape model based on short sequence RNA genotypes (and their secondary structure phenotypes) to calculate the minimum rate at which mutants initially appearing as neutral are incorporated into an adaptive evolutionary walk. I show first, that incorporating neutral mutations significantly increases the number of point mutations in a given evolutionary walk when compared to estimates from previous adaptive walk models. Second, that incorporating neutral mutants into such a walk significantly increases the final fitness encountered on that walk - indeed evolutionary walks including neutral steps often reach the global optimum in this model. Third, and perhaps most importantly, evolutionary paths of this kind are often extremely winding in their nature and have the potential to undergo multiple mutations at a given sequence position within a single walk; the potential of these winding paths to mislead phylogenetic reconstruction is briefly considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  8. Discriminative clustering on manifold for adaptive transductive classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Jia, Lei; Zhang, Min; Li, Bing; Zhang, Li; Li, Fanzhang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we mainly propose a novel adaptive transductive label propagation approach by joint discriminative clustering on manifolds for representing and classifying high-dimensional data. Our framework seamlessly combines the unsupervised manifold learning, discriminative clustering and adaptive classification into a unified model. Also, our method incorporates the adaptive graph weight construction with label propagation. Specifically, our method is capable of propagating label information using adaptive weights over low-dimensional manifold features, which is different from most existing studies that usually predict the labels and construct the weights in the original Euclidean space. For transductive classification by our formulation, we first perform the joint discriminative K-means clustering and manifold learning to capture the low-dimensional nonlinear manifolds. Then, we construct the adaptive weights over the learnt manifold features, where the adaptive weights are calculated through performing the joint minimization of the reconstruction errors over features and soft labels so that the graph weights can be joint-optimal for data representation and classification. Using the adaptive weights, we can easily estimate the unknown labels of samples. After that, our method returns the updated weights for further updating the manifold features. Extensive simulations on image classification and segmentation show that our proposed algorithm can deliver the state-of-the-art performance on several public datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  10. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  11. An operational framework for object-based land use classification of heterogeneous rural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watmough, Gary Richard; Palm, Cheryl; Sullivan, Clare

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of very high resolution (VHR) satellite data are encouraging development agencies to investigate its use in monitoring and evaluation programmes. VHR data pose challenges for land use classification of heterogeneous rural landscapes as it is not possible to develop generalised...... and transferable land use classification definitions and algorithms. We present an operational framework for classifying VHR satellite data in heterogeneous rural landscapes using an object-based and random forest classifier. The framework overcomes the challenges of classifying VHR data in anthropogenic...

  12. Classification of multiple sclerosis lesions using adaptive dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Maurel, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a sparse representation and an adaptive dictionary learning based method for automated classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Manual delineation of MS lesions is a time-consuming task, requiring neuroradiology experts to analyze huge volume of MR data. This, in addition to the high intra- and inter-observer variability necessitates the requirement of automated MS lesion classification methods. Among many image representation models and classification methods that can be used for such purpose, we investigate the use of sparse modeling. In the recent years, sparse representation has evolved as a tool in modeling data using a few basis elements of an over-complete dictionary and has found applications in many image processing tasks including classification. We propose a supervised classification approach by learning dictionaries specific to the lesions and individual healthy brain tissues, which include white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The size of the dictionaries learned for each class plays a major role in data representation but it is an even more crucial element in the case of competitive classification. Our approach adapts the size of the dictionary for each class, depending on the complexity of the underlying data. The algorithm is validated using 52 multi-sequence MR images acquired from 13 MS patients. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in MS lesion classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: Building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene

    2017-01-01

    The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We

  14. Adaptive Matrices and Filters for Color Texture Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Bunte, Kerstin; Petkov, Nicolai; Biehl, Michael

    In this paper we introduce an integrative approach towards color texture classification and recognition using a supervised learning framework. Our approach is based on Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ), extended by an adaptive distance measure, which is defined in the Fourier domain,

  15. Adaptive testing for making unidimensional and multidimensional classification decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groen, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) were originally developed to obtain an efficient estimate of the examinee’s ability, but they can also be used to classify the examinee into one of two or more levels (e.g. master/non-master). These computerized classification tests have the advantage that they can

  16. Adaptive phase k-means algorithm for waveform classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Yaojun; Xu, Feng; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin

    2018-01-01

    Waveform classification is a powerful technique for seismic facies analysis that describes the heterogeneity and compartments within a reservoir. Horizon interpretation is a critical step in waveform classification. However, the horizon often produces inconsistent waveform phase, and thus results in an unsatisfied classification. To alleviate this problem, an adaptive phase waveform classification method called the adaptive phase k-means is introduced in this paper. Our method improves the traditional k-means algorithm using an adaptive phase distance for waveform similarity measure. The proposed distance is a measure with variable phases as it moves from sample to sample along the traces. Model traces are also updated with the best phase interference in the iterative process. Therefore, our method is robust to phase variations caused by the interpretation horizon. We tested the effectiveness of our algorithm by applying it to synthetic and real data. The satisfactory results reveal that the proposed method tolerates certain waveform phase variation and is a good tool for seismic facies analysis.

  17. Content-adaptive pyramid representation for 3D object classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel representation for the classification of 3D images. Unlike most current approaches, our representation is not based on a fixed pyramid but adapts to image content and uses image regions instead of rectangular pyramid scales. Image characteristics, such as depth...... and color, are used for defining regions within images. Multiple region scales are formed in order to construct the proposed pyramid image representation. The proposed method achieves excellent results in comparison to conventional representations....

  18. Determination of the ecological connectivity between landscape patches obtained using the knowledge engineer (expert) classification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Serdar; Sonmez, Namik Kemal; Onur, Isin; Coslu, Mesut

    2017-10-01

    Connection of similar landscape patches with ecological corridors supports habitat quality of these patches, increases urban ecological quality, and constitutes an important living and expansion area for wild life. Furthermore, habitat connectivity provided by urban green areas is supporting biodiversity in urban areas. In this study, possible ecological connections between landscape patches, which were achieved by using Expert classification technique and modeled with probabilistic connection index. Firstly, the reflection responses of plants to various bands are used as data in hypotheses. One of the important features of this method is being able to use more than one image at the same time in the formation of the hypothesis. For this reason, before starting the application of the Expert classification, the base images are prepared. In addition to the main image, the hypothesis conditions were also created for each class with the NDVI image which is commonly used in the vegetation researches. Besides, the results of the previously conducted supervised classification were taken into account. We applied this classification method by using the raster imagery with user-defined variables. Hereupon, to provide ecological connections of the tree cover which was achieved from the classification, we used Probabilistic Connection (PC) index. The probabilistic connection model which is used for landscape planning and conservation studies via detecting and prioritization critical areas for ecological connection characterizes the possibility of direct connection between habitats. As a result we obtained over % 90 total accuracy in accuracy assessment analysis. We provided ecological connections with PC index and we created inter-connected green spaces system. Thus, we offered and implicated green infrastructure system model takes place in the agenda of recent years.

  19. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendyk, Derek G.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Rice, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth’s surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  20. Domain Adaptation for Opinion Classification: A Self-Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Domain transfer is a widely recognized problem for machine learning algorithms because models built upon one data domain generally do not perform well in another data domain. This is especially a challenge for tasks such as opinion classification, which often has to deal with insufficient quantities of labeled data. This study investigates the feasibility of self-training in dealing with the domain transfer problem in opinion classification via leveraging labeled data in non-target data domain(s and unlabeled data in the target-domain. Specifically, self-training is evaluated for effectiveness in sparse data situations and feasibility for domain adaptation in opinion classification. Three types of Web content are tested: edited news articles, semi-structured movie reviews, and the informal and unstructured content of the blogosphere. Findings of this study suggest that, when there are limited labeled data, self-training is a promising approach for opinion classification, although the contributions vary across data domains. Significant improvement was demonstrated for the most challenging data domain-the blogosphere-when a domain transfer-based self-training strategy was implemented.

  1. Cogent Confabulation based Expert System for Segmentation and Classification of Natural Landscape Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAOVIC, M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since there has been an increase in the number of automatic wildfire monitoring and surveillance systems in the last few years, natural landscape images have been of great importance. In this paper we propose an expert system for fast segmentation and classification of regions on natural landscape images that is suitable for real-time applications. We focus primarily on Mediterranean landscape images since the Mediterranean area and areas with similar climate are the ones most associated with high wildfire risk. The proposed expert system is based on cogent confabulation theory and knowledge bases that contain information about local and global features, optimal color spaces suitable for classification of certain regions, and context of each class. The obtained results indicate that the proposed expert system significantly outperforms well-known classifiers that it was compared against in both accuracy and speed, and that it is effective and efficient for real-time applications. Additionally, we present a FESB MLID dataset on which we conducted our research and that we made publicly available.

  2. Fine Resolution Probabilistic Land Cover Classification of Landscapes in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph St. Peter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification provides valuable information for prioritizing management and conservation operations across large landscapes. Current regional scale land cover geospatial products within the United States have a spatial resolution that is too coarse to provide the necessary information for operations at the local and project scales. This paper describes a methodology that uses recent advances in spatial analysis software to create a land cover classification over a large region in the southeastern United States at a fine (1 m spatial resolution. This methodology used image texture metrics and principle components derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP aerial photographic imagery, visually classified locations, and a softmax neural network model. The model efficiently produced classification surfaces at 1 m resolution across roughly 11.6 million hectares (28.8 million acres with less than 10% average error in modeled probability. The classification surfaces consist of probability estimates of 13 visually distinct classes for each 1 m cell across the study area. This methodology and the tools used in this study constitute a highly flexible fine resolution land cover classification that can be applied across large extents using standard computer hardware, common and open source software and publicly available imagery.

  3. Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province of the Hudson River Valley and the Effect of Explanatory Data Classification Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...

  4. Classification in medical images using adaptive metric k-NN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Chernoff, K.; Karemore, G.; Lo, P.; Nielsen, M.; Lauze, F.

    2010-03-01

    The performance of the k-nearest neighborhoods (k-NN) classifier is highly dependent on the distance metric used to identify the k nearest neighbors of the query points. The standard Euclidean distance is commonly used in practice. This paper investigates the performance of k-NN classifier with respect to different adaptive metrics in the context of medical imaging. We propose using adaptive metrics such that the structure of the data is better described, introducing some unsupervised learning knowledge in k-NN. We investigated four different metrics are estimated: a theoretical metric based on the assumption that images are drawn from Brownian Image Model (BIM), the normalized metric based on variance of the data, the empirical metric is based on the empirical covariance matrix of the unlabeled data, and an optimized metric obtained by minimizing the classification error. The spectral structure of the empirical covariance also leads to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed on it which results the subspace metrics. The metrics are evaluated on two data sets: lateral X-rays of the lumbar aortic/spine region, where we use k-NN for performing abdominal aorta calcification detection; and mammograms, where we use k-NN for breast cancer risk assessment. The results show that appropriate choice of metric can improve classification.

  5. Transforming landscape ecological evaluations using sub-pixel remote sensing classifications: A study of invasive saltcedar (Tamarix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Amy E.

    Invasive species disrupt landscape patterns and compromise the functionality of ecosystem processes. Non-native saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) poses significant threats to native vegetation and groundwater resources in the southwestern U.S. and Mexico, and quantifying spatial and temporal distribution patterns is essential for monitoring its spread. Advanced remote sensing classification techniques such as sub-pixel classifications are able to detect and discriminate saltcedar from native vegetation with high accuracy, but these types of classifications are not compatible with landscape metrics, which are the primary tool available for statistically assessing distribution patterns, because they do not have discrete class boundaries. The objective of this research is to develop new methods that allow sub-pixel classifications to be analyzed using landscape metrics. The research will be carried out through three specific aims: (1) develop and test a method to transform continuous sub-pixel classifications into categorical representations that are compatible with widely used landscape metric tools, (2) establish a gradient-based concept of landscape using sub-pixel classifications and the technique developed in the first objective to explore the relationships between pattern and process, and (3) generate a new super-resolution mapping technique method to predict the spatial locations of fractional land covers within a pixel. Results show that the threshold gradient method is appropriate for discretizing sub-pixel data, and can be used to generate increased information about the landscape compared to traditional single-value metrics. Additionally, the super-resolution classification technique was also able to provide detailed sub-pixel mapping information, but additional work will be needed to develop rigorous validation and accuracy assessment techniques.

  6. Visions of Restoration in Fire-Adapted Forest Landscapes: Lessons from the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgenson, Lauren S.; Ryan, Clare M.; Halpern, Charles B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Belote, R. Travis; Franklin, Jerry F.; Haugo, Ryan D.; Nelson, Cara R.; Waltz, Amy E. M.

    2017-02-01

    Collaborative approaches to natural resource management are becoming increasingly common on public lands. Negotiating a shared vision for desired conditions is a fundamental task of collaboration and serves as a foundation for developing management objectives and monitoring strategies. We explore the complex socio-ecological processes involved in developing a shared vision for collaborative restoration of fire-adapted forest landscapes. To understand participant perspectives and experiences, we analyzed interviews with 86 respondents from six collaboratives in the western U.S., part of the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program established to encourage collaborative, science-based restoration on U.S. Forest Service lands. Although forest landscapes and group characteristics vary considerably, collaboratives faced common challenges to developing a shared vision for desired conditions. Three broad categories of challenges emerged: meeting multiple objectives, collaborative capacity and trust, and integrating ecological science and social values in decision-making. Collaborative groups also used common strategies to address these challenges, including some that addressed multiple challenges. These included use of issue-based recommendations, field visits, and landscape-level analysis; obtaining support from local agency leadership, engaging facilitators, and working in smaller groups (sub-groups); and science engagement. Increased understanding of the challenges to, and strategies for, developing a shared vision of desired conditions is critical if other collaboratives are to learn from these efforts.

  7. Visions of Restoration in Fire-Adapted Forest Landscapes: Lessons from the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgenson, Lauren S; Ryan, Clare M; Halpern, Charles B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Belote, R Travis; Franklin, Jerry F; Haugo, Ryan D; Nelson, Cara R; Waltz, Amy E M

    2017-02-01

    Collaborative approaches to natural resource management are becoming increasingly common on public lands. Negotiating a shared vision for desired conditions is a fundamental task of collaboration and serves as a foundation for developing management objectives and monitoring strategies. We explore the complex socio-ecological processes involved in developing a shared vision for collaborative restoration of fire-adapted forest landscapes. To understand participant perspectives and experiences, we analyzed interviews with 86 respondents from six collaboratives in the western U.S., part of the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program established to encourage collaborative, science-based restoration on U.S. Forest Service lands. Although forest landscapes and group characteristics vary considerably, collaboratives faced common challenges to developing a shared vision for desired conditions. Three broad categories of challenges emerged: meeting multiple objectives, collaborative capacity and trust, and integrating ecological science and social values in decision-making. Collaborative groups also used common strategies to address these challenges, including some that addressed multiple challenges. These included use of issue-based recommendations, field visits, and landscape-level analysis; obtaining support from local agency leadership, engaging facilitators, and working in smaller groups (sub-groups); and science engagement. Increased understanding of the challenges to, and strategies for, developing a shared vision of desired conditions is critical if other collaboratives are to learn from these efforts.

  8. Reciprocal sign epistasis between frequently experimentally evolved adaptive mutations causes a rugged fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kvitek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fitness landscape captures the relationship between genotype and evolutionary fitness and is a pervasive metaphor used to describe the possible evolutionary trajectories of adaptation. However, little is known about the actual shape of fitness landscapes, including whether valleys of low fitness create local fitness optima, acting as barriers to adaptive change. Here we provide evidence of a rugged molecular fitness landscape arising during an evolution experiment in an asexual population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify the mutations that arose during the evolution using whole-genome sequencing and use competitive fitness assays to describe the mutations individually responsible for adaptation. In addition, we find that a fitness valley between two adaptive mutations in the genes MTH1 and HXT6/HXT7 is caused by reciprocal sign epistasis, where the fitness cost of the double mutant prohibits the two mutations from being selected in the same genetic background. The constraint enforced by reciprocal sign epistasis causes the mutations to remain mutually exclusive during the experiment, even though adaptive mutations in these two genes occur several times in independent lineages during the experiment. Our results show that epistasis plays a key role during adaptation and that inter-genic interactions can act as barriers between adaptive solutions. These results also provide a new interpretation on the classic Dobzhansky-Muller model of reproductive isolation and display some surprising parallels with mutations in genes often associated with tumors.

  9. Cherokee Adaptation to the Landscape of the West and Overcoming the Loss of Culturally Significant Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, R. Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Plant species utilized by Cherokees have been documented by several authors. However, many of the traditional uses of plants were lost or forgotten in the generations following the Trail of Tears. The pressures of overcoming the physical and psychological impact of the removal, adapting to a new landscape, rebuilding a government, rebuilding…

  10. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBeare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation, which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks’ gestation acquired at 30 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5, coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5 and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5. The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks’ gestation acquired shortly after birth (n= 12, preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n= 12, and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks’ gestation acquired within the first nine days of life (n= 12. For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for

  11. Landscape Hazards in Yukon Communities: Geological Mapping for Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K.; Kinnear, L.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is considered to be a significant challenge for northern communities where the effects of increased temperature and climate variability are beginning to affect infrastructure and livelihoods (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 2004). Planning for and adapting to ongoing and future changes in climate will require the identification and characterization of social, economic, cultural, political and biophysical vulnerabilities. This pilot project addresses physical landscape vulnerabilities in two communities in the Yukon Territory through community-scale landscape hazard mapping and focused investigations of community permafrost conditions. Landscape hazards are identified by combining pre-existing data from public utilities and private-sector consultants with new geophysical techniques (ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity), shallow drilling, surficial geological mapping, and permafrost characterization. Existing landscape vulnerabilities are evaluated based on their potential for hazard (low, medium or high) under current climate conditions, as well as under future climate scenarios. Detailed hazard maps and landscape characterizations for both communities will contribute to overall adaptation plans and allow for informed development, planning and mitigation of potentially threatening hazards in and around the communities.

  12. Analysis of adaptive walks on NK fitness landscapes with different interaction schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Stefan; Krug, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are genotype to fitness mappings commonly used in evolutionary biology and computer science which are closely related to spin glass models. In this paper, we study the NK model for fitness landscapes where the interaction scheme between genes can be explicitly defined. The focus is on how this scheme influences the overall shape of the landscape. Our main tool for the analysis are adaptive walks, an idealized dynamics by which the population moves uphill in fitness and terminates at a local fitness maximum. We use three different types of walks and investigate how their length (the number of steps required to reach a local peak) and height (the fitness at the endpoint of the walk) depend on the dimensionality and structure of the landscape. We find that the distribution of local maxima over the landscape is particularly sensitive to the choice of interaction pattern. Most quantities that we measure are simply correlated to the rank of the scheme, which is equal to the number of nonzero coefficients in the expansion of the fitness landscape in terms of Walsh functions

  13. Adaptation of bird communities to farmland abandonment in a mountain landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lopes Guilherme

    Full Text Available Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain

  14. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  15. Exploring indigenous landscape classification across different dimensions: a case study from the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riu-Bosoms, Carles; Vidal-Amat, Teresa; Duane, Andrea; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana C; Macía, Manuel J; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Reyes-García, Victoria

    Decisions on landscape management are often dictated by government officials based on their own understandings of how landscape should be used and managed, but rarely considering local peoples' understandings of the landscape they inhabit. We use data collected through free listings, field transects, and interviews to describe how an Amazonian group of hunter-horticulturalists, the Tsimane', classify and perceive the importance of different elements of the landscape across the ecological, socioeconomic, and spiritual dimensions. The Tsimane' recognize nine folk ecotopes (i.e., culturally-recognized landscape units) and use a variety of criteria (including geomorphological features and landscape uses) to differentiate ecotopes from one another. The Tsimane' rank different folk ecotopes in accordance with their perceived ecological, socioeconomic, and spiritual importance. Understanding how local people perceive their landscape contributes towards a landscape management planning paradigm that acknowledges the continuing contributions to management of landscape inhabitants, as well as their cultural and land use rights.

  16. Classification of Clouds in Satellite Imagery Using Adaptive Fuzzy Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cloud detection and classification using satellite cloud imagery have various meteorological applications such as weather forecasting and climate monitoring. Cloud pattern analysis is one of the research hotspots recently. Since satellites sense the clouds remotely from space, and different cloud types often overlap and convert into each other, there must be some fuzziness and uncertainty in satellite cloud imagery. Satellite observation is susceptible to noises, while traditional cloud classification methods are sensitive to noises and outliers; it is hard for traditional cloud classification methods to achieve reliable results. To deal with these problems, a satellite cloud classification method using adaptive fuzzy sparse representation-based classification (AFSRC is proposed. Firstly, by defining adaptive parameters related to attenuation rate and critical membership, an improved fuzzy membership is introduced to accommodate the fuzziness and uncertainty of satellite cloud imagery; secondly, by effective combination of the improved fuzzy membership function and sparse representation-based classification (SRC, atoms in training dictionary are optimized; finally, an adaptive fuzzy sparse representation classifier for cloud classification is proposed. Experiment results on FY-2G satellite cloud image show that, the proposed method not only improves the accuracy of cloud classification, but also has strong stability and adaptability with high computational efficiency.

  17. Classification of Clouds in Satellite Imagery Using Adaptive Fuzzy Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Gong, Fei; Zeng, Xingbin; Fu, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Automatic cloud detection and classification using satellite cloud imagery have various meteorological applications such as weather forecasting and climate monitoring. Cloud pattern analysis is one of the research hotspots recently. Since satellites sense the clouds remotely from space, and different cloud types often overlap and convert into each other, there must be some fuzziness and uncertainty in satellite cloud imagery. Satellite observation is susceptible to noises, while traditional cloud classification methods are sensitive to noises and outliers; it is hard for traditional cloud classification methods to achieve reliable results. To deal with these problems, a satellite cloud classification method using adaptive fuzzy sparse representation-based classification (AFSRC) is proposed. Firstly, by defining adaptive parameters related to attenuation rate and critical membership, an improved fuzzy membership is introduced to accommodate the fuzziness and uncertainty of satellite cloud imagery; secondly, by effective combination of the improved fuzzy membership function and sparse representation-based classification (SRC), atoms in training dictionary are optimized; finally, an adaptive fuzzy sparse representation classifier for cloud classification is proposed. Experiment results on FY-2G satellite cloud image show that, the proposed method not only improves the accuracy of cloud classification, but also has strong stability and adaptability with high computational efficiency. PMID:27999261

  18. Channel Classification across Arid West Landscapes in Support of OHW Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    perspective at Agua Fria River, AZ ...................................................................... 24 Figure 12. Landscape perspective at...27 Figure 16. Active channel at Agua Fria River, AZ...33 Figure 24. Landscape perspective at Agua Fria River, AZ

  19. Tree Species Abundance Predictions in a Tropical Agricultural Landscape with a Supervised Classification Model and Imbalanced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping species through classification of imaging spectroscopy data is facilitating research to understand tree species distributions at increasingly greater spatial scales. Classification requires a dataset of field observations matched to the image, which will often reflect natural species distributions, resulting in an imbalanced dataset with many samples for common species and few samples for less common species. Despite the high prevalence of imbalanced datasets in multiclass species predictions, the effect on species prediction accuracy and landscape species abundance has not yet been quantified. First, we trained and assessed the accuracy of a support vector machine (SVM model with a highly imbalanced dataset of 20 tropical species and one mixed-species class of 24 species identified in a hyperspectral image mosaic (350–2500 nm of Panamanian farmland and secondary forest fragments. The model, with an overall accuracy of 62% ± 2.3% and F-score of 59% ± 2.7%, was applied to the full image mosaic (23,000 ha at a 2-m resolution to produce a species prediction map, which suggested that this tropical agricultural landscape is more diverse than what has been presented in field-based studies. Second, we quantified the effect of class imbalance on model accuracy. Model assessment showed a trend where species with more samples were consistently over predicted while species with fewer samples were under predicted. Standardizing sample size reduced model accuracy, but also reduced the level of species over- and under-prediction. This study advances operational species mapping of diverse tropical landscapes by detailing the effect of imbalanced data on classification accuracy and providing estimates of tree species abundance in an agricultural landscape. Species maps using data and methods presented here can be used in landscape analyses of species distributions to understand human or environmental effects, in addition to focusing conservation

  20. Can Public Managers Make Their Welfare Organizations Adapt to the New Performance Landscape Shaped by the Current Austerity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Aagaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How managers try to adapt their organizations to the new performance landscape shaped by the current austerity by new forms of change management in Denmark, in the public sector of citizens with disabilities and socially disadvantaged people.......How managers try to adapt their organizations to the new performance landscape shaped by the current austerity by new forms of change management in Denmark, in the public sector of citizens with disabilities and socially disadvantaged people....

  1. Validating the Danish adaptation of the World Health Organization's International Classification for Patient Safety classification of patient safety incident types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Validation of a Danish patient safety incident classification adapted from the World Health Organizaton's International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS-WHO). Design Thirty-three hospital safety management experts classified 58 safety incident cases selected to represent all types.......513 (range: 0.193–0.804). Kappa and ICC showed high correlation (r = 0.99). An inverse correlation was found between the prevalence of type and inter-rater reliability. Results are discussed according to four factors known to determine the inter-rater agreement: skill and motivation of raters; clarity...

  2. Simple adaptive sparse representation based classification schemes for EEG based brain-computer interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Younghak; Lee, Seungchan; Ahn, Minkyu; Cho, Hohyun; Jun, Sung Chan; Lee, Heung-No

    2015-11-01

    One of the main problems related to electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems is the non-stationarity of the underlying EEG signals. This results in the deterioration of the classification performance during experimental sessions. Therefore, adaptive classification techniques are required for EEG based BCI applications. In this paper, we propose simple adaptive sparse representation based classification (SRC) schemes. Supervised and unsupervised dictionary update techniques for new test data and a dictionary modification method by using the incoherence measure of the training data are investigated. The proposed methods are very simple and additional computation for the re-training of the classifier is not needed. The proposed adaptive SRC schemes are evaluated using two BCI experimental datasets. The proposed methods are assessed by comparing classification results with the conventional SRC and other adaptive classification methods. On the basis of the results, we find that the proposed adaptive schemes show relatively improved classification accuracy as compared to conventional methods without requiring additional computation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Testing Adaptive Hypotheses of Convergence with Functional Landscapes: A Case Study of Bone-Cracking Hypercarnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2013-01-01

    Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA) and strain energy (SE). Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA) and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution. PMID:23734244

  4. Testing adaptive hypotheses of convergence with functional landscapes: a case study of bone-cracking hypercarnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Jack Tseng

    Full Text Available Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA and strain energy (SE. Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution.

  5. Landscape classification of Huelva (Spain: An objective method of identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcántara Manzanares, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to classify the landscape of the province of Huelva (Andalusia, Spain and validate the results, using a new application of classical multivariate methods in conjunction with GIS tools. The province was divided into 1 km x 1 km grid squares to which information was associated on four visually-perceivable variables: soil use, plant cover, lithology and relief. Grid cells were then classified using twoway indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN and ordered by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA. Analysis of results yielded 8 major landscape types that were characterized by its indicator variables. This classification was checked by Discriminant Analysis, which yielded an 80% match with the TWINSPAN estimate.Este estudio trata de clasificar el paisaje de la provincia de Huelva (Andalucía, España y validar los resultados, mediante una nueva aplicación de métodos multivariantes clásicos en combinación con herramientas SIG. La provincia se dividió en cuadrículas de 1 km x 1 km a las que se asoció la información relativa a cuatro variables perceptibles visualmente: usos del suelo, coberturas vegetales, litología y relieve. Las cuadrículas se clasificaron utilizando el análisis de especies indicadoras de doble vía (TWINSPAN y se ordenaron mediante el análisis de correspondencia escalado (DCA. El análisis de los resultados dio lugar a 8 tipos de paisaje que se caracterizaron gracias a sus variables indicadoras. Esta clasificación se validó mediante un análisis discriminante, que coincidió en un 80% con la estimación del TWINSPAN. [fr] Cette étude visait à classer le paysage de la province de Huelva (Andalousie, Espagne et de valider les résultats, à l’aide d’une nouvelle application de méthodes multivariées classiques avec des outils SIG. La province a été divisée en 1 km x 1 km carrés de la grille dans laquelle l’information a été associée à quatre variables visuellement perceptibles: l

  6. Land Cover Classification in Complex and Fragmented Agricultural Landscapes of the Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eggen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is a largely agrarian country with nearly 85% of its employment coming from agriculture. Nevertheless, it is not known how much land is under cultivation. Mapping land cover at finer resolution and global scales has been particularly difficult in Ethiopia. The study area falls in a region of high mapping complexity with environmental challenges which require higher quality maps. Here, remote sensing is used to classify a large area of the central and northwestern highlands into eight broad land cover classes that comprise agriculture, grassland, woodland/shrub, forest, bare ground, urban/impervious surfaces, water, and seasonal water/marsh areas. We use data from Landsat spectral bands from 2000 to 2011, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and its temporal mean and variance, together with a digital elevation model, all at 30-m spatial resolution, as inputs to a supervised classifier. A Support Vector Machines algorithm (SVM was chosen to deal with the size, variability and non-parametric nature of these data stacks. In post-processing, an image segmentation algorithm with a minimum mapping unit of about 0.5 hectares was used to convert per pixel classification results into an object based final map. Although the reliability of the map is modest, its overall accuracy is 55%—encouraging results for the accuracy of agricultural uses at 85% suggest that these methods do offer great utility. Confusion among grassland, woodland and barren categories reflects the difficulty of classifying savannah landscapes, especially in east central Africa with monsoonal-driven rainfall patterns where the ground is obstructed by clouds for significant periods of time. Our analysis also points out the need for high quality reference data. Further, topographic analysis of the agriculture class suggests there is a significant amount of sloping land under cultivation. These results are important for future research and environmental monitoring in

  7. An Adaptive Classification Strategy for Reliable Locomotion Mode Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms for locomotion mode recognition (LMR based on surface electromyography and mechanical sensors have recently been developed and could be used for the neural control of powered prosthetic legs. However, the variations in input signals, caused by physical changes at the sensor interface and human physiological changes, may threaten the reliability of these algorithms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of applying adaptive pattern classifiers for LMR. Three adaptive classifiers, i.e., entropy-based adaptation (EBA, LearnIng From Testing data (LIFT, and Transductive Support Vector Machine (TSVM, were compared and offline evaluated using data collected from two able-bodied subjects and one transfemoral amputee. The offline analysis indicated that the adaptive classifier could effectively maintain or restore the performance of the LMR algorithm when gradual signal variations occurred. EBA and LIFT were recommended because of their better performance and higher computational efficiency. Finally, the EBA was implemented for real-time human-in-the-loop prosthesis control. The online evaluation showed that the applied EBA effectively adapted to changes in input signals across sessions and yielded more reliable prosthesis control over time, compared with the LMR without adaptation. The developed novel adaptive strategy may further enhance the reliability of neurally-controlled prosthetic legs.

  8. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH_3-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  9. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: ly463526@gmail.com [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: yangf@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  10. Adaptation or Resistance: a classification of responses to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    Societal responses to sea level rise and associated coastal change are apparently diverse in nature and motivation. Most are commonly referred to as 'adaptation'. Based on a review of current practice, however, it is argued that many of these responses do not involve adaptation, but are rather resisting change. There are several instances where formerly adaptive initiatives involving human adaptability are being replaced by initiatives that resist change. A classification is presented that recognises a continuum of responses ranging from adaptation to resistance, depending upon the willingness to change human activities to accommodate environmental change. In many cases climate change adaptation resources are being used for projects that are purely resistant and which foreclose future adaptation options. It is argued that a more concise definition of adaptation is needed if coastal management is to move beyond the current position of holding the shoreline, other tah n in a few showcase examples.

  11. Classification of semiurban landscapes from very high-resolution satellite images using a regionalized multiscale segmentation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavzoglu, Taskin; Erdemir, Merve Yildiz; Tonbul, Hasan

    2017-07-01

    In object-based image analysis, obtaining representative image objects is an important prerequisite for a successful image classification. The major threat is the issue of scale selection due to the complex spatial structure of landscapes portrayed as an image. This study proposes a two-stage approach to conduct regionalized multiscale segmentation. In the first stage, an initial high-level segmentation is applied through a "broadscale," and a set of image objects characterizing natural borders of the landscape features are extracted. Contiguous objects are then merged to create regions by considering their normalized difference vegetation index resemblance. In the second stage, optimal scale values are estimated for the extracted regions, and multiresolution segmentation is applied with these settings. Two satellite images with different spatial and spectral resolutions were utilized to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its transferability to different geographical sites. Results were compared to those of image-based single-scale segmentation and it was found that the proposed approach outperformed the single-scale segmentations. Using the proposed methodology, significant improvement in terms of segmentation quality and classification accuracy (up to 5%) was achieved. In addition, the highest classification accuracies were produced using fine-scale values.

  12. Land Cover Classification in a Complex Urban-Rural Landscape with Quickbird Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Emilio Federico.

    2010-01-01

    High spatial resolution images have been increasingly used for urban land use/cover classification, but the high spectral variation within the same land cover, the spectral confusion among different land covers, and the shadow problem often lead to poor classification performance based on the traditional per-pixel spectral-based classification methods. This paper explores approaches to improve urban land cover classification with Quickbird imagery. Traditional per-pixel spectral-based supervi...

  13. Creating adaptive farm typologies using Naive Bayesian classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, Wim; Groot, Jeroen C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The applicability of statistical typologies that capture farming systems diversity in innovation and development projects would increase if their adaptability would be enhanced, so that newly encountered farms can be classified and used to update the typology. In this paper we propose Naïve

  14. Enhanced land use/cover classification of heterogeneous tropical landscapes using support vector machines and textural homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Mas, Jean-François; Moré, Gerard; Cristóbal, Jordi; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Luz, Ana Catarina; Guèze, Maximilien; Macía, Manuel J.; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2013-08-01

    Land use/cover classification is a key research field in remote sensing and land change science as thematic maps derived from remotely sensed data have become the basis for analyzing many socio-ecological issues. However, land use/cover classification remains a difficult task and it is especially challenging in heterogeneous tropical landscapes where nonetheless such maps are of great importance. The present study aims at establishing an efficient classification approach to accurately map all broad land use/cover classes in a large, heterogeneous tropical area, as a basis for further studies (e.g., land use/cover change, deforestation and forest degradation). Specifically, we first compare the performance of parametric (maximum likelihood), non-parametric (k-nearest neighbor and four different support vector machines - SVM), and hybrid (unsupervised-supervised) classifiers, using hard and soft (fuzzy) accuracy assessments. We then assess, using the maximum likelihood algorithm, what textural indices from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix lead to greater classification improvements at the spatial resolution of Landsat imagery (30 m), and rank them accordingly. Finally, we use the textural index that provides the most accurate classification results to evaluate whether its usefulness varies significantly with the classifier used. We classified imagery corresponding to dry and wet seasons and found that SVM classifiers outperformed all the rest. We also found that the use of some textural indices, but particularly homogeneity and entropy, can significantly improve classifications. We focused on the use of the homogeneity index, which has so far been neglected in land use/cover classification efforts, and found that this index along with reflectance bands significantly increased the overall accuracy of all the classifiers, but particularly of SVM. We observed that improvements in producer's and user's accuracies through the inclusion of homogeneity were different

  15. Adaptive landscape and functional diversity of Neotropical cichlids: implications for the ecology and evolution of Cichlinae (Cichlidae; Cichliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, J H; López-Fernández, H

    2014-11-01

    Morphological, lineage and ecological diversity can vary substantially even among closely related lineages. Factors that influence morphological diversification, especially in functionally relevant traits, can help to explain the modern distribution of disparity across phylogenies and communities. Multivariate axes of feeding functional morphology from 75 species of Neotropical cichlid and a stepwise-AIC algorithm were used to estimate the adaptive landscape of functional morphospace in Cichlinae. Adaptive landscape complexity and convergence, as well as the functional diversity of Cichlinae, were compared with expectations under null evolutionary models. Neotropical cichlid feeding function varied primarily between traits associated with ram feeding vs. suction feeding/biting and secondarily with oral jaw muscle size and pharyngeal crushing capacity. The number of changes in selective regimes and the amount of convergence between lineages was higher than expected under a null model of evolution, but convergence was not higher than expected under a similarly complex adaptive landscape. Functional disparity was compatible with an adaptive landscape model, whereas the distribution of evolutionary change through morphospace corresponded with a process of evolution towards a single adaptive peak. The continentally distributed Neotropical cichlids have evolved relatively rapidly towards a number of adaptive peaks in functional trait space. Selection in Cichlinae functional morphospace is more complex than expected under null evolutionary models. The complexity of selective constraints in feeding morphology has likely been a significant contributor to the diversity of feeding ecology in this clade. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Energy landscape reveals that the budding yeast cell cycle is a robust and adaptive multi-stage process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lv

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively understanding the robustness, adaptivity and efficiency of cell cycle dynamics under the influence of noise is a fundamental but difficult question to answer for most eukaryotic organisms. Using a simplified budding yeast cell cycle model perturbed by intrinsic noise, we systematically explore these issues from an energy landscape point of view by constructing an energy landscape for the considered system based on large deviation theory. Analysis shows that the cell cycle trajectory is sharply confined by the ambient energy barrier, and the landscape along this trajectory exhibits a generally flat shape. We explain the evolution of the system on this flat path by incorporating its non-gradient nature. Furthermore, we illustrate how this global landscape changes in response to external signals, observing a nice transformation of the landscapes as the excitable system approaches a limit cycle system when nutrients are sufficient, as well as the formation of additional energy wells when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated. By taking into account the finite volume effect, we find additional pits along the flat cycle path in the landscape associated with the checkpoint mechanism of the cell cycle. The difference between the landscapes induced by intrinsic and extrinsic noise is also discussed. In our opinion, this meticulous structure of the energy landscape for our simplified model is of general interest to other cell cycle dynamics, and the proposed methods can be applied to study similar biological systems.

  17. Evaluating the statistical performance of less applied algorithms in classification of worldview-3 imagery data in an urbanized landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaie, Mehrdad; Soffianian, Alireza; Pourmanafi, Saeid; Mirghaffari, Noorollah; Tarkesh, Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    In recent decade, analyzing the remotely sensed imagery is considered as one of the most common and widely used procedures in the environmental studies. In this case, supervised image classification techniques play a central role. Hence, taking a high resolution Worldview-3 over a mixed urbanized landscape in Iran, three less applied image classification methods including Bagged CART, Stochastic gradient boosting model and Neural network with feature extraction were tested and compared with two prevalent methods: random forest and support vector machine with linear kernel. To do so, each method was run ten time and three validation techniques was used to estimate the accuracy statistics consist of cross validation, independent validation and validation with total of train data. Moreover, using ANOVA and Tukey test, statistical difference significance between the classification methods was significantly surveyed. In general, the results showed that random forest with marginal difference compared to Bagged CART and stochastic gradient boosting model is the best performing method whilst based on independent validation there was no significant difference between the performances of classification methods. It should be finally noted that neural network with feature extraction and linear support vector machine had better processing speed than other.

  18. Classification of EEG Signals using adaptive weighted distance nearest neighbor algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Parvinnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are often used to diagnose diseases such as seizure, alzheimer, and schizophrenia. One main problem with the recorded EEG samples is that they are not equally reliable due to the artifacts at the time of recording. EEG signal classification algorithms should have a mechanism to handle this issue. It seems that using adaptive classifiers can be useful for the biological signals such as EEG. In this paper, a general adaptive method named weighted distance nearest neighbor (WDNN is applied for EEG signal classification to tackle this problem. This classification algorithm assigns a weight to each training sample to control its influence in classifying test samples. The weights of training samples are used to find the nearest neighbor of an input query pattern. To assess the performance of this scheme, EEG signals of thirteen schizophrenic patients and eighteen normal subjects are analyzed for the classification of these two groups. Several features including, fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive (AR model are extracted from EEG signals. The classification results are evaluated using Leave one (subject out cross validation for reliable estimation. The results indicate that combination of WDNN and selected features can significantly outperform the basic nearest-neighbor and the other methods proposed in the past for the classification of these two groups. Therefore, this method can be a complementary tool for specialists to distinguish schizophrenia disorder.

  19. An extension of the classification of evolutionary singular strategies in Adaptive Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldin, Barbara; Diekmann, Odo

    2014-01-01

    The existing classification of evolutionarily singular strategies in Adaptive Dynamics (Geritz et al. in Evol Ecol 12:35–57, 1998; Metz et al. in Stochastic and spatial structures of dynamical systems, pp 183–231, 1996) assumes an invasion exponent that is differentiable twice as a function of both

  20. Understanding the socio-institutional context to support adaptation for future water security in forest landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia Devisscher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the 21st century, socioeconomic development is expected to contribute faster and to a greater extent to global water stress than climate change. Consequently, we aimed to identify conditions that can facilitate local adaptation planning for future water security, accounting for the socio-institutional context, developmental needs, and interests affecting water use and management. Our study focused on three forest landscapes in Latin America where water stress was identified as a current concern potentially leading to future social conflict if not addressed. In the three sites, we adopted a participatory approach to implement a systematic diagnostic framework for the analysis of socio-institutional barriers and opportunities influencing local adaptation decision making. This novel application enabled science-society engagement in which civil society organizations were coleading the research. The field methods we used involved participatory social network mapping, semistructured interviews, and validation workshops. Our study generated insights into several interventions that could help overcome barriers affecting the adaptation decision-making process, particularly in the diagnosis and early planning phases. Points of intervention included fostering local participation and dialogue to facilitate coproduction of knowledge, and strengthening the role of key central actors in the water governance networks. These key actors are currently bridging multiple interests, information sources, and governance levels, and thus, they could become agents of change that facilitate local adaptation processes. Working jointly with civil society to frame the research proved effective to increase awareness about water issues, which related not only to the technological, economic, and political aspects of water, but also to organizational processes. The involvement of civil society created genuine interest in building further capacity for

  1. Hierarchic levels of a system classification of radiation-contaminated landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolyin, V.V.; Sushchik, Yu.Ya.; Bondarenko, G.M.; Shramenko, Yi.F.; Dudar, T.V.

    2001-01-01

    Five hierarchic levels of the systematic organization of natural landscapes are determined: substantial-phase, soil-profile, biogeocenotic, landscape, and geosystematic. Systems and subsystems of compounds of chemical elements and natural and man-caused factors that characterized properties and mechanisms of ecological self-organization of biogeocenoses are brought into accordance with each level. A scheme of hierarchic subordination of systems, subsystems, and processes is worked out. Leading links of transformation and migration of radionuclides that define the contamination of tropic chains are determined

  2. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amírola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.

  3. Adapting the botanical landscape of Melbourne Gardens (Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria in response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Entwisle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanic gardens around the world maintain collections of living plants for science, conservation, education, beauty and more. These collections change over time – in scope and content – but the predicted impacts of climate change will require a more strategic approach to the succession of plant species and their landscapes. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has recently published a ‘Landscape Succession Strategy’ for its Melbourne Gardens, a spectacular botanical landscape established in 1846. The strategy recognizes that with 1.6 million visitors each year, responsibility for a heritage-listed landscape and the need to care for a collection of 8500 plant species of conservation and scientific importance, planting and planning must take into account anticipated changes to rainfall and temperature. The trees we plant today must be suitable for the climate of the twenty-second century. Specifically, the Strategy sets out the steps needed over the next twenty years to transition the botanic garden to one resilient to the climate modelled for 2090. The document includes a range of practical measures and achievable (and at times somewhat aspirational targets. Climate analogues will be used to identify places in Australia and elsewhere with conditions today similar to those predicted for Melbourne in 2090, to help select new species for the collection. Modelling of the natural and cultivated distribution of species will be used to help select suitable growth forms to replace existing species of high value or interest. Improved understanding of temperature gradients within the botanic garden, water holding capacity of soils and plant water use behaviour is already resulting in better targeted planting and irrigation. The goal is to retain a similar diversity of species but transition the collection so that by 2036 at least 75% of the species are suitable for the climate in 2090. Over the next few years we hope to provide 100% of irrigation water

  4. Using hydrologic landscape classification to assess streamflow vulnerability to changes in climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying regions with similar hydrology is useful for assessing water quality and quantity across the U.S., especially areas that are difficult or costly to monitor. For example, hydrologic landscapes (HLs) have been used to map streamflow variability and assess the spatial di...

  5. Water balances of two Piedmont headwater catchments: implications for regional hydrologic landscape classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dreps; G. Sun; J. Boggs

    2014-01-01

    In the Piedmont of North Carolina, a traditionally water-rich region, reservoirs that serve over 1 million people are under increasing pressure due to naturally occurring droughts and increasing land development. Innovative development approaches aim to maintain hydrologic conditions of the undisturbed landscape, but are based on insufficient target information. This...

  6. 2D/3D video content adaptation decision engine based on content classification and user assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M. T.

    2017-07-01

    Multimedia adaptation depends on several factors, such as the content itself, the consumption device and its characteristics, the transport and access networks and the user. An adaptation decision engine, in order to provide the best possible Quality of Experience to a user, needs to have information about all variables that may influence its decision. For the aforementioned factors, we implement content classification, define device classes, consider limited bandwidth scenarios and categorize user preferences based on a subjective quality evaluation test. The results of these actions generate vital information to pass to the adaptation decision engine so that its operation may provide the indication of the most suitable adaptation to perform that delivers the best possible outcome for the user under the existing constraints.

  7. Autoregressive Integrated Adaptive Neural Networks Classifier for EEG-P300 Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demi Soetraprawata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain Computer Interface has a potency to be applied in mechatronics apparatus and vehicles in the future. Compared to the other techniques, EEG is the most preferred for BCI designs. In this paper, a new adaptive neural network classifier of different mental activities from EEG-based P300 signals is proposed. To overcome the over-training that is caused by noisy and non-stationary data, the EEG signals are filtered and extracted using autoregressive models before passed to the adaptive neural networks classifier. To test the improvement in the EEG classification performance with the proposed method, comparative experiments were conducted using Bayesian Linear Discriminant Analysis. The experiment results show that the all subjects achieve a classification accuracy of 100%.

  8. Exploring repetitive DNA landscapes using REPCLASS, a tool that automates the classification of transposable elements in eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feschotte, Cédric; Keswani, Umeshkumar; Ranganathan, Nirmal; Guibotsy, Marcel L; Levine, David

    2009-07-23

    Eukaryotic genomes contain large amount of repetitive DNA, most of which is derived from transposable elements (TEs). Progress has been made to develop computational tools for ab initio identification of repeat families, but there is an urgent need to develop tools to automate the annotation of TEs in genome sequences. Here we introduce REPCLASS, a tool that automates the classification of TE sequences. Using control repeat libraries, we show that the program can classify accurately virtually any known TE types. Combining REPCLASS to ab initio repeat finding in the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster allowed us to recover the contrasting TE landscape characteristic of these species. Unexpectedly, REPCLASS also uncovered several novel TE families in both genomes, augmenting the TE repertoire of these model species. When applied to the genomes of distant Caenorhabditis and Drosophila species, the approach revealed a remarkable conservation of TE composition profile within each genus, despite substantial interspecific covariations in genome size and in the number of TEs and TE families. Lastly, we applied REPCLASS to analyze 10 fungal genomes from a wide taxonomic range, most of which have not been analyzed for TE content previously. The results showed that TE diversity varies widely across the fungi "kingdom" and appears to positively correlate with genome size, in particular for DNA transposons. Together, these data validate REPCLASS as a powerful tool to explore the repetitive DNA landscapes of eukaryotes and to shed light onto the evolutionary forces shaping TE diversity and genome architecture.

  9. Wavelength-Adaptive Dehazing Using Histogram Merging-Based Classification for UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inhye Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  10. Wavelength-adaptive dehazing using histogram merging-based classification for UAV images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Inhye; Jeong, Seokhwa; Jeong, Jaeheon; Seo, Doochun; Paik, Joonki

    2015-03-19

    Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i) image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii) generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii) intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  11. Inclusion of the fitness sharing technique in an evolutionary algorithm to analyze the fitness landscape of the genetic code adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José; Monteagudo, Ángel

    2017-03-27

    The canonical code, although prevailing in complex genomes, is not universal. It was shown the canonical genetic code superior robustness compared to random codes, but it is not clearly determined how it evolved towards its current form. The error minimization theory considers the minimization of point mutation adverse effect as the main selection factor in the evolution of the code. We have used simulated evolution in a computer to search for optimized codes, which helps to obtain information about the optimization level of the canonical code in its evolution. A genetic algorithm searches for efficient codes in a fitness landscape that corresponds with the adaptability of possible hypothetical genetic codes. The lower the effects of errors or mutations in the codon bases of a hypothetical code, the more efficient or optimal is that code. The inclusion of the fitness sharing technique in the evolutionary algorithm allows the extent to which the canonical genetic code is in an area corresponding to a deep local minimum to be easily determined, even in the high dimensional spaces considered. The analyses show that the canonical code is not in a deep local minimum and that the fitness landscape is not a multimodal fitness landscape with deep and separated peaks. Moreover, the canonical code is clearly far away from the areas of higher fitness in the landscape. Given the non-presence of deep local minima in the landscape, although the code could evolve and different forces could shape its structure, the fitness landscape nature considered in the error minimization theory does not explain why the canonical code ended its evolution in a location which is not an area of a localized deep minimum of the huge fitness landscape.

  12. CLAss-Specific Subspace Kernel Representations and Adaptive Margin Slack Minimization for Large Scale Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinan; Diamantaras, Konstantinos I; McKelvey, Tomas; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2018-02-01

    In kernel-based classification models, given limited computational power and storage capacity, operations over the full kernel matrix becomes prohibitive. In this paper, we propose a new supervised learning framework using kernel models for sequential data processing. The framework is based on two components that both aim at enhancing the classification capability with a subset selection scheme. The first part is a subspace projection technique in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space using a CLAss-specific Subspace Kernel representation for kernel approximation. In the second part, we propose a novel structural risk minimization algorithm called the adaptive margin slack minimization to iteratively improve the classification accuracy by an adaptive data selection. We motivate each part separately, and then integrate them into learning frameworks for large scale data. We propose two such frameworks: the memory efficient sequential processing for sequential data processing and the parallelized sequential processing for distributed computing with sequential data acquisition. We test our methods on several benchmark data sets and compared with the state-of-the-art techniques to verify the validity of the proposed techniques.

  13. Epithelium-Stroma Classification via Convolutional Neural Networks and Unsupervised Domain Adaptation in Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Zheng, Han; Liu, Chi; Ding, Xinghao; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2017-11-01

    Epithelium-stroma classification is a necessary preprocessing step in histopathological image analysis. Current deep learning based recognition methods for histology data require collection of large volumes of labeled data in order to train a new neural network when there are changes to the image acquisition procedure. However, it is extremely expensive for pathologists to manually label sufficient volumes of data for each pathology study in a professional manner, which results in limitations in real-world applications. A very simple but effective deep learning method, that introduces the concept of unsupervised domain adaptation to a simple convolutional neural network (CNN), has been proposed in this paper. Inspired by transfer learning, our paper assumes that the training data and testing data follow different distributions, and there is an adaptation operation to more accurately estimate the kernels in CNN in feature extraction, in order to enhance performance by transferring knowledge from labeled data in source domain to unlabeled data in target domain. The model has been evaluated using three independent public epithelium-stroma datasets by cross-dataset validations. The experimental results demonstrate that for epithelium-stroma classification, the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art deep neural network model, and it also achieves better performance than other existing deep domain adaptation methods. The proposed model can be considered to be a better option for real-world applications in histopathological image analysis, since there is no longer a requirement for large-scale labeled data in each specified domain.

  14. Monitoring and Morphologic Classification of Pediatric Cataract Using Slit-Lamp-Adapted Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Erping; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Cao, Qianzhong; Lin, Haotian; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of pediatric cataract monitoring and morphologic classification using slit lamp-adapted anterior segmental photography in a large cohort that included uncooperative children. Patients registered in the Childhood Cataract Program of the Chinese Ministry of Health were prospectively selected. Eligible patients underwent slit-lamp adapted anterior segmental photography to record and monitor the morphology of their cataractous lenses. A set of assistance techniques for slit lamp-adapted photography was developed to instruct the parents of uncooperative children how to help maintain the child's head position and keep the eyes open after sleep aid administration. Briefly, slit lamp-adapted photography was completed for all 438 children, including 260 (59.4%) uncooperative children with our assistance techniques. All 746 images of 438 patients successfully confirmed the diagnoses and classifications. Considering the lesion location, pediatric cataract morphologies could be objectively classified into the seven following types: total; nuclear; polar, including two subtypes (anterior and posterior); lamellar; nuclear combined with cortical, including three subtypes (coral-like, dust-like, and blue-dot); cortical; and Y suture. The top three types of unilateral cataracts were polar (55, 42.3%), total (42, 32.3%), and nuclear (23, 17.7%); and the top three types of bilateral cataracts were nuclear (110, 35.8%), total (102, 33.2%), and lamellar (34, 11.1%). Slit lamp-adapted anterior segmental photography is applicable for monitoring and classifying the morphologies of pediatric cataracts and is even safe and feasible for uncooperative children with assistance techniques and sleep aid administration. This study proposes a novel strategy for the preoperative evaluation and evidence-based management of pediatric ophthalmology (Clinical Trials.gov, NCT02748031).

  15. Adaptation approaches for conserving ecosystems services and biodiversity in dynamic landscapes caused by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald J. Schmitz; Anne M. Trainor

    2014-01-01

    Climate change stands to cause animal species to shift their geographic ranges. This will cause ecosystems to become reorganized across landscapes as species migrate into and out of specific locations with attendant impacts on values and services that ecosystems provide to humans. Conservation in an era of climate change needs to ensure that landscapes are resilient by...

  16. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  17. Research on a Pulmonary Nodule Segmentation Method Combining Fast Self-Adaptive FCM and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD of lung cancer is to segment pathologically changed tissues fast and accurately. As pulmonary nodules are potential manifestation of lung cancer, we propose a fast and self-adaptive pulmonary nodules segmentation method based on a combination of FCM clustering and classification learning. The enhanced spatial function considers contributions to fuzzy membership from both the grayscale similarity between central pixels and single neighboring pixels and the spatial similarity between central pixels and neighborhood and improves effectively the convergence rate and self-adaptivity of the algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate segmentation of vascular adhesion, pleural adhesion, and ground glass opacity (GGO pulmonary nodules than other typical algorithms.

  18. Unveiling Undercover Cropland Inside Forests Using Landscape Variables: A Supplement to Remote Sensing Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanu, Yohannes; Conrad, Christopher; Jentsch, Anke; Koellner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide demand for food has been increasing due to the rapidly growing global population, and agricultural lands have increased in extent to produce more food crops. The pattern of cropland varies among different regions depending on the traditional knowledge of farmers and availability of uncultivated land. Satellite images can be used to map cropland in open areas but have limitations for detecting undergrowth inside forests. Classification results are often biased and need to be supplemented with field observations. Undercover cropland inside forests in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia was assessed using field observed percentage cover of land use/land cover classes, and topographic and location parameters. The most influential factors were identified using Boosted Regression Trees and used to map undercover cropland area. Elevation, slope, easterly aspect, distance to settlements, and distance to national park were found to be the most influential factors determining undercover cropland area. When there is very high demand for growing food crops, constrained under restricted rights for clearing forest, cultivation could take place within forests as an undercover. Further research on the impact of undercover cropland on ecosystem services and challenges in sustainable management is thus essential.

  19. Charting the landscape of priority problems in psychiatry, part 1: classification and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas E; Bach, Dominik R; Fletcher, Paul C; Flint, Jonathan; Frank, Michael J; Friston, Karl J; Heinz, Andreas; Huys, Quentin J M; Owen, Michael J; Binder, Elisabeth B; Dayan, Peter; Johnstone, Eve C; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Schnyder, Ulrich; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Breakspear, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders. These problems are loosely grouped into challenges concerning nosology and diagnosis (this Personal View) and problems related to pathogenesis and aetiology (in the companion Personal View). Motivated by successful examples in other disciplines, particularly the list of Hilbert's problems in mathematics, this subjective and eclectic list of priority problems is intended for psychiatric researchers, helping to re-focus existing research and providing perspectives for future psychiatric science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Meeting review. Uncovering the genetic basis of adaptive change: on the intersection of landscape genomics and theoretical population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Stéphane; Vuilleumier, Séverine; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Schoville, Sean; Leempoel, Kevin; Stucki, Sylvie; Widmer, Ivo; Melodelima, Christelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Manel, Stéphanie

    2013-07-01

    A workshop recently held at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL, Switzerland) was dedicated to understanding the genetic basis of adaptive change, taking stock of the different approaches developed in theoretical population genetics and landscape genomics and bringing together knowledge accumulated in both research fields. Indeed, an important challenge in theoretical population genetics is to incorporate effects of demographic history and population structure. But important design problems (e.g. focus on populations as units, focus on hard selective sweeps, no hypothesis-based framework in the design of the statistical tests) reduce their capability of detecting adaptive genetic variation. In parallel, landscape genomics offers a solution to several of these problems and provides a number of advantages (e.g. fast computation, landscape heterogeneity integration). But the approach makes several implicit assumptions that should be carefully considered (e.g. selection has had enough time to create a functional relationship between the allele distribution and the environmental variable, or this functional relationship is assumed to be constant). To address the respective strengths and weaknesses mentioned above, the workshop brought together a panel of experts from both disciplines to present their work and discuss the relevance of combining these approaches, possibly resulting in a joint software solution in the future.

  1. Optimal Couple Projections for Domain Adaptive Sparse Representation-based Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Huaijiang; Porikli, Fatih; Liu, Yazhou; Sun, Quansen

    2017-08-29

    In recent years, sparse representation based classification (SRC) is one of the most successful methods and has been shown impressive performance in various classification tasks. However, when the training data has a different distribution than the testing data, the learned sparse representation may not be optimal, and the performance of SRC will be degraded significantly. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose an optimal couple projections for domain-adaptive sparse representation-based classification (OCPD-SRC) method, in which the discriminative features of data in the two domains are simultaneously learned with the dictionary that can succinctly represent the training and testing data in the projected space. OCPD-SRC is designed based on the decision rule of SRC, with the objective to learn coupled projection matrices and a common discriminative dictionary such that the between-class sparse reconstruction residuals of data from both domains are maximized, and the within-class sparse reconstruction residuals of data are minimized in the projected low-dimensional space. Thus, the resulting representations can well fit SRC and simultaneously have a better discriminant ability. In addition, our method can be easily extended to multiple domains and can be kernelized to deal with the nonlinear structure of data. The optimal solution for the proposed method can be efficiently obtained following the alternative optimization method. Extensive experimental results on a series of benchmark databases show that our method is better or comparable to many state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  3. Mapping the fitness landscape of gene expression uncovers the cause of antagonism and sign epistasis between adaptive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Chou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available How do adapting populations navigate the tensions between the costs of gene expression and the benefits of gene products to optimize the levels of many genes at once? Here we combined independently-arising beneficial mutations that altered enzyme levels in the central metabolism of Methylobacterium extorquens to uncover the fitness landscape defined by gene expression levels. We found strong antagonism and sign epistasis between these beneficial mutations. Mutations with the largest individual benefit interacted the most antagonistically with other mutations, a trend we also uncovered through analyses of datasets from other model systems. However, these beneficial mutations interacted multiplicatively (i.e., no epistasis at the level of enzyme expression. By generating a model that predicts fitness from enzyme levels we could explain the observed sign epistasis as a result of overshooting the optimum defined by a balance between enzyme catalysis benefits and fitness costs. Knowledge of the phenotypic landscape also illuminated that, although the fitness peak was phenotypically far from the ancestral state, it was not genetically distant. Single beneficial mutations jumped straight toward the global optimum rather than being constrained to change the expression phenotypes in the correlated fashion expected by the genetic architecture. Given that adaptation in nature often results from optimizing gene expression, these conclusions can be widely applicable to other organisms and selective conditions. Poor interactions between individually beneficial alleles affecting gene expression may thus compromise the benefit of sex during adaptation and promote genetic differentiation.

  4. Landscape based urban drainage - adapting cities to heavier rain storms. P33.09

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhaus, A.; Bergman, M.; Birch, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Climate changes will lead to more intensive rain events in Northern Europe. This will challenge the capacity of drainage systems in urban areas. Conventional sewer based solutions is reaching its technical and economical limits, and complementing strategies are necessary. The Danish research...... project “Black, Blue and Green –Integrated Infrastructure Planning as Key to Sustainable Urban Water Systems” explores the potentials of local detention and infiltration of rainwater by using the urban landscape. Hydrologists, environmental chemists, landscape architects and urban planners join forces...

  5. The impact of weight classification on safety: timing steps to adapt to external constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate how weight classification influences safety by examining adults’ ability to meet a timing constraint: walking to the pace of an audio metronome. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, walking parameters were collected as 55 adults with normal (n=30) and overweight (n=25) body mass index scores walked to slow, normal, and fast audio metronome paces. Results: Between group comparisons showed that at the fast pace, those with overweight body mass index (BMI) had longer double limb support and stance times and slower cadences than the normal weight group (all psmetronome paces revealed that participants who were overweight had higher cadences at the slow and fast paces (all ps<0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggest that those with overweight BMI alter their gait to maintain biomechanical stability. Understanding how excess weight influences gait adaptation can inform interventions to improve safety for individuals with obesity. PMID:25730658

  6. An arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to different subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkwon; Min, Se Dong; Lee, Myoungho

    2011-06-27

    Numerous studies have been conducted regarding a heartbeat classification algorithm over the past several decades. However, many algorithms have also been studied to acquire robust performance, as biosignals have a large amount of variation among individuals. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the differences coming from personal characteristics, but these expand the differences caused by arrhythmia. In this paper, an arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to individual subjects is proposed. We reduced the performance variation using dedicated wavelets, as in the ECG morphologies of the subjects. The proposed algorithm utilizes morphological filtering and a continuous wavelet transform with a dedicated wavelet. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were utilized to compress the morphological data transformed by the dedicated wavelets. An extreme learning machine was used as a classifier in the proposed algorithm. A performance evaluation was conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The results showed a high sensitivity of 97.51%, specificity of 85.07%, accuracy of 97.94%, and a positive predictive value of 97.26%. The proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy than other state-of-the-art algorithms with no intrasubject between the training and evaluation datasets. And it significantly reduces the amount of intervention needed by physicians.

  7. An arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to different subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Se Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have been conducted regarding a heartbeat classification algorithm over the past several decades. However, many algorithms have also been studied to acquire robust performance, as biosignals have a large amount of variation among individuals. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the differences coming from personal characteristics, but these expand the differences caused by arrhythmia. Methods In this paper, an arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to individual subjects is proposed. We reduced the performance variation using dedicated wavelets, as in the ECG morphologies of the subjects. The proposed algorithm utilizes morphological filtering and a continuous wavelet transform with a dedicated wavelet. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were utilized to compress the morphological data transformed by the dedicated wavelets. An extreme learning machine was used as a classifier in the proposed algorithm. Results A performance evaluation was conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The results showed a high sensitivity of 97.51%, specificity of 85.07%, accuracy of 97.94%, and a positive predictive value of 97.26%. Conclusions The proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy than other state-of-the-art algorithms with no intrasubject between the training and evaluation datasets. And it significantly reduces the amount of intervention needed by physicians.

  8. Adapted Verbal Feedback, Instructor Interaction and Student Emotions in the Landscape Architecture Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl A.; Boyer, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    In light of concerns with architectural students' emotional jeopardy during traditional desk and final-jury critiques, the authors pursue alternative approaches intended to provide more supportive and mentoring verbal assessment in landscape architecture studios. In addition to traditional studio-based critiques throughout a semester, we provide…

  9. Self-Adaptive MOEA Feature Selection for Classification of Bankruptcy Prediction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Cunha, A.; Recio, G.; Costa, L.; Estébanez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction is a vast area of finance and accounting whose importance lies in the relevance for creditors and investors in evaluating the likelihood of getting into bankrupt. As companies become complex, they develop sophisticated schemes to hide their real situation. In turn, making an estimation of the credit risks associated with counterparts or predicting bankruptcy becomes harder. Evolutionary algorithms have shown to be an excellent tool to deal with complex problems in finances and economics where a large number of irrelevant features are involved. This paper provides a methodology for feature selection in classification of bankruptcy data sets using an evolutionary multiobjective approach that simultaneously minimise the number of features and maximise the classifier quality measure (e.g., accuracy). The proposed methodology makes use of self-adaptation by applying the feature selection algorithm while simultaneously optimising the parameters of the classifier used. The methodology was applied to four different sets of data. The obtained results showed the utility of using the self-adaptation of the classifier. PMID:24707201

  10. Adaptive threshold-based shadow masking for across-date settlement classification of panchromatic quickBird images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luus, FPS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available -1 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 6, JUNE 2014 1153 Adaptive Threshold-Based Shadow Masking for Across- Date Settlement Classification of Panchromatic QuickBird Images F. P. S. Luus, F. van den Bergh, and B. T. J. Maharaj...

  11. Examining Social Adaptations in a Volatile Landscape in Northern Mongolia via the Agent-Based Model Ger Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Clark

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment of the mountain-steppe-taiga of northern Mongolia is often characterized as marginal because of the high altitude, highly variable precipitation levels, low winter temperatures, and periodic droughts coupled with severe winter storms (known as dzuds. Despite these conditions, herders have inhabited this landscape for thousands of years, and hunter-gatherer-fishers before that. One way in which the risks associated with such a challenging and variable landscape are mitigated is through social networks and inter-family cooperation. We present an agent-based simulation, Ger Grouper, to examine how households have mitigated these risks through cooperation. The Ger Grouper simulation takes into account locational decisions of households, looks at fission/fusion dynamics of households and how those relate to environmental pressures, and assesses how degrees of relatedness can influence sharing of resources during harsh winters. This model, coupled with the traditional archaeological and ethnographic methods, helps shed light on the links between early Mongolian pastoralist adaptations and the environment. While preliminary results are promising, it is hoped that further development of this model will be able to characterize changing land-use patterns as social and political networks developed.

  12. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  13. Mapping the Mayo-Portland adaptability inventory to the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexell, Jan; Malec, James F; Jacobsson, Lars J

    2012-01-01

    To examine the contents of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) by mapping it to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Each of the 30 scoreable items in the MPAI-4 was mapped to the most precise ICF categories. All 30 items could be mapped to components and categories in the ICF. A total of 88 meaningful concepts were identified. There were, on average, 2.9 meaningful concepts per item, and 65% of all concepts could be mapped. Items in the Ability and Adjustment subscales mapped to categories in both the Body Functions and Activity/Participation components of the ICF, whereas all except 1 in the Participation subscale were to categories in the Activity/Participation component. The items could also be mapped to 34 (13%) of the 258 Environmental Factors in the ICF. This mapping provides better definition through more concrete examples (as listed in the ICF) of the types of body functions, activities, and participation indicators that are represented by the 30 scoreable MPAI-4 items. This may assist users throughout the world in understanding the intent of each item, and support further development and the possibility to report results in the form of an ICF categorical profile, making it universally interpretable.

  14. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

    2010-09-01

    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultural adaptation and the Clavien-Dindo surgical complications classification translated to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FERNANDO MOREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to generate a translated and validated version of the Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications (CDC to Brazilian Portuguese (CDC-BR. Methods: the process of translation and adaptation followed the guideline of Beaton et al., 2000. We divided 76 participating surgeons, in different levels of experience, from the Department Surgery of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, into two groups: Group I applied the original version (CDC, n=36;r Group II used the modified version (CDC-BR, n=40. Each group classified 15 clinical cases of surgical complications. We compared performance between the groups (Mann-Whitney test relating to the level of experience of the surgeon (Kruskal-Wallis test, considering p value <0.05 as significant. Results: the performance of the Group II (CDC-BR was higher, with 85% accuracy, compared with 79% of Group I (CDC, p-value =0.012. The performance of the groups as for surgeons experience displayed p=0.171 for Group I, p=0.528 for Group II, and p=0.135 for overall performance. Conclusion: we produced a translated and validated version of the CDC for Brazilian Portuguese. The instrument will be a useful tool in the production of evidence on surgical outcomes.

  16. AdOn HDP-HMM: An Adaptive Online Model for Segmentation and Classification of Sequential Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargi, Ava; Xu, Richard Yi Da; Piccardi, Massimo

    2017-09-21

    Recent years have witnessed an increasing need for the automated classification of sequential data, such as activities of daily living, social media interactions, financial series, and others. With the continuous flow of new data, it is critical to classify the observations on-the-fly and without being limited by a predetermined number of classes. In addition, a model should be able to update its parameters in response to a possible evolution in the distributions of the classes. This compelling problem, however, does not seem to have been adequately addressed in the literature, since most studies focus on offline classification over predefined class sets. In this paper, we present a principled solution for this problem based on an adaptive online system leveraging Markov switching models and hierarchical Dirichlet process priors. This adaptive online approach is capable of classifying the sequential data over an unlimited number of classes while meeting the memory and delay constraints typical of streaming contexts. In this paper, we introduce an adaptive ''learning rate'' that is responsible for balancing the extent to which the model retains its previous parameters or adapts to new observations. Experimental results on stationary and evolving synthetic data and two video data sets, TUM Assistive Kitchen and collated Weizmann, show a remarkable performance in terms of segmentation and classification, particularly for sequences from evolutionary distributions and/or those containing previously unseen classes.

  17. The South African developmental landscape: restricted potentials or expansive, complex adaptive opportunities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Burman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the South African developmental landscape is currently locked into an overly technical, path dependent paradigm that is unlikely to be capable of embracing the complex challenges identified by the recent National Development Plan. The article explores the internal logic of the existing path dependent, technical condition from the perspective of complexity, in the context of the Department of Science and Technology’s Fifth Grand Challenge and “continuous change”. It is argued that drawing ideas from complexity into future developmental trajectories can add value to the National Development Plan: Vision 2030, but to do so will require dynamic mind-set shifts across multiple developmental scales and interfaces if new approaches to managing development that embraces complexity, rather than denies it, is to emerge. Keywords: development; complexity; path dependency; epistemological vigilance; sense-making; National Development Plan Disciplines: Complexity Studies; Transdisciplinary studies; Management studies; Public management; Political studies; Economics; Development Studies

  18. MRI-based treatment plan simulation and adaptation for ion radiotherapy using a classification-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, Christopher M; Tremmel, Christoph; Hünemohr, Nora; Nagel, Armin M; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    In order to benefit from the highly conformal irradiation of tumors in ion radiotherapy, sophisticated treatment planning and simulation are required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of MRI for ion radiotherapy treatment plan simulation and adaptation using a classification-based approach. Firstly, a voxelwise tissue classification was applied to derive pseudo CT numbers from MR images using up to 8 contrasts. Appropriate MR sequences and parameters were evaluated in cross-validation studies of three phantoms. Secondly, ion radiotherapy treatment plans were optimized using both MRI-based pseudo CT and reference CT and recalculated on reference CT. Finally, a target shift was simulated and a treatment plan adapted to the shift was optimized on a pseudo CT and compared to reference CT optimizations without plan adaptation. The derivation of pseudo CT values led to mean absolute errors in the range of 81 - 95 HU. Most significant deviations appeared at borders between air and different tissue classes and originated from partial volume effects. Simulations of ion radiotherapy treatment plans using pseudo CT for optimization revealed only small underdosages in distal regions of a target volume with deviations of the mean dose of PTV between 1.4 - 3.1% compared to reference CT optimizations. A plan adapted to the target volume shift and optimized on the pseudo CT exhibited a comparable target dose coverage as a non-adapted plan optimized on a reference CT. We were able to show that a MRI-based derivation of pseudo CT values using a purely statistical classification approach is feasible although no physical relationship exists. Large errors appeared at compact bone classes and came from an imperfect distinction of bones and other tissue types in MRI. In simulations of treatment plans, it was demonstrated that these deviations are comparable to uncertainties of a target volume shift of 2 mm in two directions indicating that especially

  19. ADAPT: building conceptual models of the physical and biological processes across permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Vincent, W. F.; Lemay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fundamental and applied permafrost research is called upon in Canada in support of environmental protection, economic development and for contributing to the international efforts in understanding climatic and ecological feedbacks of permafrost thawing under a warming climate. The five year "Arctic Development and Adaptation to Permafrost in Transition" program (ADAPT) funded by NSERC brings together 14 scientists from 10 Canadian universities and involves numerous collaborators from academia, territorial and provincial governments, Inuit communities and industry. The geographical coverage of the program encompasses all of the permafrost regions of Canada. Field research at a series of sites across the country is being coordinated. A common protocol for measuring ground thermal and moisture regime, characterizing terrain conditions (vegetation, topography, surface water regime and soil organic matter contents) is being applied in order to provide inputs for designing a general model to provide an understanding of transfers of energy and matter in permafrost terrain, and the implications for biological and human systems. The ADAPT mission is to produce an 'Integrated Permafrost Systems Science' framework that will be used to help generate sustainable development and adaptation strategies for the North in the context of rapid socio-economic and climate change. ADAPT has three major objectives: to examine how changing precipitation and warming temperatures affect permafrost geosystems and ecosystems, specifically by testing hypotheses concerning the influence of the snowpack, the effects of water as a conveyor of heat, sediments, and carbon in warming permafrost terrain and the processes of permafrost decay; to interact directly with Inuit communities, the public sector and the private sector for development and adaptation to changes in permafrost environments; and to train the new generation of experts and scientists in this critical domain of research in Canada

  20. An analysis of historic and projected climate scenarios in the Western United States using hydrologic landscape classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Identifying areas of similar hydrology within the United States and its regions (hydrologic landscapes - HLs) is an active area of research. HLs are being used to construct spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, a...

  1. Cultural adaptation and the Clavien-Dindo surgical complications classification translated to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Luis Fernando; Pessôa, Marcelo Castro Marçal; Mattana, Diego Sachet; Schmitz, Fernando Fernandes; Volkweis, Bernardo Silveira; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Ribeiro, Liacyr

    2016-01-01

    to generate a translated and validated version of the Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications (CDC) to Brazilian Portuguese (CDC-BR). the process of translation and adaptation followed the guideline of Beaton et al., 2000. We divided 76 participating surgeons, in different levels of experience, from the Department Surgery of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, into two groups: Group I applied the original version (CDC, n=36);r Group II used the modified version (CDC-BR, n=40). Each group classified 15 clinical cases of surgical complications. We compared performance between the groups (Mann-Whitney test) relating to the level of experience of the surgeon (Kruskal-Wallis test), considering p value grupos, Grupo I, que utilizou a versão original (CCD, n=36) testado em relação ao Grupo II, com a versão modificada (CCD-BR, n=40), com um total de 76 cirurgiões participantes em níveis de experiência distintos do Departamento de Cirurgia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Quinze casos clínicos de complicações cirúrgicas foram classificados em cada grupo. Comparou-se o desempenho entre grupos (teste de Mann-Whitney) relacionando ao nível de experiência dos cirurgiões (teste de Kruskal-Wallis). Valor de pGrupo II (CCD-BR) foi superior, com 85% de acertos, contra 79% do Grupo I (CCD), p-valor=0,012 do teste de Mann-Whitney. O desempenho dos grupos em relação à experiência dos cirurgiões foi p-valor=0,171 para o Grupo I, p-valor=0,528 para o Grupo II, e p-valor=0,135 para o desempenho geral, teste de Kruskal-Wallis. foi produzida uma versão traduzida e validada da CCD para o Português-Brasileiro. O instrumento produzido será ferramenta útil na produção de evidências sobre os resultados cirúrgicos.

  2. Landscape Influences on Fisher Success: Adaptation Strategies in Closed and Open Access Fisheries in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Van Holt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of fisher success in southern Chile's loco (Concholepas concholepas fishery are examined by comparing fisher success in exclusive access territories that vary in relationship to tree-plantation development, which can affect shellfish quality. The relative importance of fishers' experience and capture technology (traditional measures of fisher success are evaluated against environmental and geospatial characteristics. While knowledge and technology explained variation in catches, this did not translate into higher prices or profit. Fishers succeeded (gained higher prices for locos and had higher monthly incomes from their management areas when they harvested shellfish from closed (exclusive nearshore management areas where the environmental condition produced high quality locos regardless of their fishing experience, technology, and the geospatial features of management areas. Experienced fishers who worked in management areas near tree plantations that fail to produce resources of sufficient quality shifted to offshore fisheries where their experience counted. Offshore fishers working in the congrio (Genypterus chilensis fishery likely exposed themselves to more risk and benefited from their experience and available technology; environmental condition and geospatial factors played little role in their success (price. Closed management areas provided resources to harvest, but may reduce a fisher's ability to adapt to environmental change because success depends on environmental factors outside of a fisher's control. Fishers were not financially rewarded for their experience or their technology in the loco fishery.

  3. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  4. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System for Classification of Background EEG Signals from ESES Patients and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixian Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background electroencephalography (EEG, recorded with scalp electrodes, in children with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES syndrome and control subjects has been analyzed. We considered 10 ESES patients, all right-handed and aged 3–9 years. The 10 control individuals had the same characteristics of the ESES ones but presented a normal EEG. Recordings were undertaken in the awake and relaxed states with their eyes open. The complexity of background EEG was evaluated using the permutation entropy (PE and sample entropy (SampEn in combination with the ANOVA test. It can be seen that the entropy measures of EEG are significantly different between the ESES patients and normal control subjects. Then, a classification framework based on entropy measures and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS classifier is proposed to distinguish ESES and normal EEG signals. The results are promising and a classification accuracy of about 89% is achieved.

  5. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration

  6. Field heritability of a plant adaptation to fire in heterogeneous landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, M C; González-Martínez, S C; Pausas, J G

    2015-11-01

    The strong association observed between fire regimes and variation in plant adaptations to fire suggests a rapid response to fire as an agent of selection. It also suggests that fire-related traits are heritable, a precondition for evolutionary change. One example is serotiny, the accumulation of seeds in unopened fruits or cones until the next fire, an important strategy for plant population persistence in fire-prone ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the potential of this trait to respond to natural selection in its natural setting. For this, we use a SNP marker approach to estimate genetic variance and heritability of serotiny directly in the field for two Mediterranean pine species. Study populations were large and heterogeneous in climatic conditions and fire regime. We first estimated the realized relatedness among trees from genotypes, and then partitioned the phenotypic variance in serotiny using Bayesian animal models that incorporated environmental predictors. As expected, field heritability was smaller (around 0.10 for both species) than previous estimates under common garden conditions (0.20). An estimate on a subset of stands with more homogeneous environmental conditions was not different from that in the complete set of stands, suggesting that our models correctly captured the environmental variation at the spatial scale of the study. Our results highlight the importance of measuring quantitative genetic parameters in natural populations, where environmental heterogeneity is a critical aspect. The heritability of serotiny, although not high, combined with high phenotypic variance within populations, confirms the potential of this fire-related trait for evolutionary change in the wild. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A multi-species modelling approach to examine the impact of alternative climate change adaptation strategies on range shifting ability in a fragmented landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Synes, Nicholas W.; Watts, Kevin; Palmer, Stephen C.F.; Bocedi, Greta; Bartoń, Kamil A.; Osborne, Patrick E.; Travis, Justin M.J.

    2015-01-01

    An individual-based model of animal dispersal and population dynamics was used to test the effects of different climate change adaptation strategies on species range shifting ability, namely the improvement of existing habitat, restoration of low quality habitat and creation of new habitat. These strategies were implemented on a landscape typical of fragmentation in the United Kingdom using spatial rules to differentiate between the allocation of strategies adjacent to or away from existing h...

  8. Dynamics of a temperate deciduous forest under landscape-scale management: Implications for adaptability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew G. Olson; Benjamin O. Knapp; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    Landscape forest management is an approach to meeting diverse objectives that collectively span multiple spatial scales. It is critical that we understand the long-term effects of landscape management on the structure and composition of forest tree communities to ensure that these practices are sustainable. Furthermore, it is increasingly important to also consider...

  9. Methodological issues in systematic reviews of headache trials: adapting historical diagnostic classifications and outcome measures to present-day standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Douglas C; Gray, Rebecca N; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Steiner, Timothy J; Taylor, Frederick R

    2005-05-01

    Recent efforts to make headache diagnostic classification and clinical trial methodology more consistent provide valuable advice to trialists generating new evidence on effectiveness of treatments for headache; however, interpreting older trials that do not conform to new standards remains problematic. Systematic reviewers seeking to utilize historical data can adapt currently recommended diagnostic classification and clinical trial methodological approaches to interpret all available data relative to current standards. In evaluating study populations, systematic reviewers can: (i) use available data to attempt to map study populations to diagnoses in the new International Classification of Headache Disorders; and (ii) stratify analyses based on the extent to which study populations are precisely specified. In evaluating outcome measures, systematic reviewers can: (i) summarize prevention studies using headache frequency, incorporating headache index in a stratified analysis if headache frequency is not available; (ii) summarize acute treatment studies using pain-free response as reported in directly measured headache improvement or headache severity outcomes; and (iii) avoid analysis of recurrence or relapse data not conforming to the sustained pain-free response definition.

  10. Optimal Decision Fusion for Urban Land-Use/Land-Cover Classification Based on Adaptive Differential Evolution Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral images and light detection and ranging (LiDAR data have, respectively, the high spectral resolution and accurate elevation information required for urban land-use/land-cover (LULC classification. To combine the respective advantages of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, this paper proposes an optimal decision fusion method based on adaptive differential evolution, namely ODF-ADE, for urban LULC classification. In the ODF-ADE framework the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and digital surface model (DSM are extracted to form the feature map. The three different classifiers of the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC, support vector machine (SVM and multinomial logistic regression (MLR are used to classify the extracted features. To find the optimal weights for the different classification maps, weighted voting is used to obtain the classification result and the weights of each classification map are optimized by the differential evolution algorithm which uses a self-adaptive strategy to obtain the parameter adaptively. The final classification map is obtained after post-processing based on conditional random fields (CRF. The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is very effective in urban LULC classification.

  11. Response and adaptation of grapevine cultivars to hydrological conditions forced by a changing climate in a complex landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Bonfante, Antonello; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Monaco, Eugenia; De Mascellis, Roberto; Manna, Piero; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Soil water availability is one of the main components of the terroir concept, influencing crop yield and fruit composition in grapes. The aim of this work is to analyze some elements of the "natural environment" of terroir (climate and soil) in combination with the intra-specific biodiversity of yield responses of grapevine to water availability. From a reference (1961-90) to a future (2021-50) climate case, the effects of climate evolution on soil water availability are assessed and, regarding soil water regime as a predictor variable, the potential spatial distribution of wine-producing cultivars is determined. In a region of Southern Italy (Valle Telesina, 20,000 ha), where a terroir classification has been produced (Bonfante et al., 2011), we applied an agro-hydrological model to determine water availability indicators. Simulations were performed in 60 soil typological units, over the entire study area, and water availability (= hydrological) indicators were determined. Two climate cases were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050), the former from climatic statistics on observed variables, and the latter from statistical downscaling of predictions by general circulation models (AOGCM) under A1B SRES scenario. Climatic data consist of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. Spatial and temporal variability of hydrological indicators was addressed. With respect to temporal variability, both inter-annual and intra-annual (i.e. at different stages of crop cycle) variability were analyzed. Some cultivar-specific relations between hydrological indicators and characteristics of must quality were established. Moreover, for several wine-producing cultivars, hydrological requirements were determined by means of yield response functions to soil water availability, through the re-analysis of experimental data derived from scientific literature. The standard errors of estimated

  12. Landsat classification of surface-water presence during multiple years to assess response of playa wetlands to climatic variability across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-15

    To improve understanding of the distribution of ecologically important, ephemeral wetland habitats across the Great Plains, the occurrence and distribution of surface water in playa wetland complexes were documented for four different years across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) region. This information is important because it informs land and wildlife managers about the timing and location of habitat availability. Data with an accurate timestamp that indicate the presence of water, the percent of the area inundated with water, and the spatial distribution of playa wetlands with water are needed for a host of resource inventory, monitoring, and research applications. For example, the distribution of inundated wetlands forms the spatial pattern of available habitat for resident shorebirds and water birds, stop-over habitats for migratory birds, connectivity and clustering of wetland habitats, and surface waters that recharge the Ogallala aquifer; there is considerable variability in the distribution of playa wetlands holding water through time. Documentation of these spatially and temporally intricate processes, here, provides data required to assess connections between inundation and multiple environmental drivers, such as climate, land use, soil, and topography. Climate drivers are understood to interact with land cover, land use and soil attributes in determining the amount of water that flows overland into playa wetlands. Results indicated significant spatial variability represented by differences in the percent of playas inundated among States within the GPLCC. Further, analysis-of-variance comparison of differences in inundation between years showed significant differences in all cases. Although some connections with seasonal moisture patterns may be observed, the complex spatial-temporal gradients of precipitation, temperature, soils, and land use need to be combined as covariates in multivariate models to effectively account for

  13. Thermodynamical interpretation of an adaptive walk on a Mt. Fuji-type fitness landscape: Einstein relation-like formula holds in a stochastic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Takuyo; Husimi, Yuzuru

    2003-11-21

    We have theoretically studied the statistical properties of adaptive walks (or hill-climbing) on a Mt. Fuji-type fitness landscape in the multi-dimensional sequence space through mathematical analysis and computer simulation. The adaptive walk is characterized by the "mutation distance" d as the step-width of the walker and the "population size" N as the number of randomly generated d-fold point mutants to be screened. In addition to the fitness W, we introduced the following quantities analogous to thermodynamical concepts: "free fitness" G(W) is identical with W+T x S(W), where T is the "evolutionary temperature" T infinity square root of d/lnN and S(W) is the entropy as a function of W, and the "evolutionary force" X is identical with d(G(W)/T)/dW, that is caused by the mutation and selection pressure. It is known that a single adaptive walker rapidly climbs on the fitness landscape up to the stationary state where a "mutation-selection-random drift balance" is kept. In our interpretation, the walker tends to the maximal free fitness state, driven by the evolutionary force X. Our major findings are as follows: First, near the stationary point W*, the "climbing rate" J as the expected fitness change per generation is described by J approximately L x X with L approximately V/2, where V is the variance of fitness distribution on a local landscape. This simple relationship is analogous to the well-known Einstein relation in Brownian motion. Second, the "biological information gain" (DeltaG/T) through adaptive walk can be described by combining the Shannon's information gain (DeltaS) and the "fitness information gain" (DeltaW/T).

  14. Landscape of Research Areas for Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Computational Classification Based on Citation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Ogawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of porous materials is widely spreading nowadays, and researchers need to read tremendous numbers of papers to obtain a “bird’s eye” view of a given research area. However, it is difficult for researchers to obtain an objective database based on statistical data without any relation to subjective knowledge related to individual research interests. Here, citation network analysis was applied for a comparative analysis of the research areas for zeolites and metal-organic frameworks as examples for porous materials. The statistical and objective data contributed to the analysis of: (1 the computational screening of research areas; (2 classification of research stages to a certain domain; (3 “well-cited” research areas; and (4 research area preferences of specific countries. Moreover, we proposed a methodology to assist researchers to gain potential research ideas by reviewing related research areas, which is based on the detection of unfocused ideas in one area but focused in the other area by a bibliometric approach.

  15. Modeling Relationships between Surface Water Quality and Landscape Metrics Using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System, A Case Study in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohsen Mirzayi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape indices can be used as an approach for predicting water quality changes to monitor non-point source pollution. In the present study, the data collected over the period from 2012 to 2013 from 81 water quality stations along the rivers flowing in Mazandaran Province were analyzed. Upstream boundries were drawn and landscape metrics were extracted for each of the sub-watersheds at class and landscape levels. Principal component analysis was used to single out the relevant water quality parameters and forward linear regression was employed to determine the optimal metrics for the description of each parameter. The first five components were able to describe 96.61% of the variation in water quality in Mazandaran Province. Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and multiple linear regression were used to model the relationship between landscape metrics and water quality parameters. The results indicate that multiple regression was able to predict SAR, TDS, pH, NO3‒, and PO43‒ in the test step, with R2 values equal to 0.81, 0.56, 0.73, 0.44. and 0.63, respectively. The corresponding R2 value of ANFIS in the test step were 0.82, 0.79, 0.82, 0.31, and 0.36, respectively. Clearly, ANFIS exhibited a better performance in each case than did the linear regression model. This indicates a nonlinear relationship between the water quality parameters and landscape metrics. Since different land cover/uses have considerable impacts on both the outflow water quality and the available and dissolved pollutants in rivers, the method can be reasonably used for regional planning and environmental impact assessment in development projects in the region.

  16. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  17. DOA Estimation of Low Altitude Target Based on Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization-multiple Signal Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC algorithm requires significant computational effort and can not be employed for the Direction Of Arrival (DOA estimation of targets in a low-altitude multipath environment. As such, a novel MUSIC approach is proposed on the basis of the algorithm of Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization (ASGSO. The virtual spatial smoothing of the matrix formed by each snapshot is used to realize the decorrelation of the multipath signal and the establishment of a fullorder correlation matrix. ASGSO optimizes the function and estimates the elevation of the target. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can overcome the low altitude multipath effect and estimate the DOA of target readily and precisely without radar effective aperture loss.

  18. A Self-Adaptive Hidden Markov Model for Emotion Classification in Chinese Microblogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2015-01-01

    we propose a modified version of hidden Markov model (HMM classifier, called self-adaptive HMM, whose parameters are optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms. Since manually labeling large-scale dataset is difficult, we also employ the entropy to decide whether a new unlabeled tweet shall be contained in the training dataset after being assigned an emotion using our HMM-based approach. In the experiment, we collected about 200,000 Chinese tweets from Sina Weibo. The results show that the F-score of our approach gets 76% on happiness and fear and 65% on anger, surprise, and sadness. In addition, the self-adaptive HMM classifier outperforms Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine on recognition of happiness, anger, and sadness.

  19. Crop Classification by Forward Neural Network with Adaptive Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid crop classifier for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. The feature sets consisted of span image, the H/A/α decomposition, and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM based texture features. Then, the features were reduced by principle component analysis (PCA. Finally, a two-hidden-layer forward neural network (NN was constructed and trained by adaptive chaotic particle swarm optimization (ACPSO. K-fold cross validation was employed to enhance generation. The experimental results on Flevoland sites demonstrate the superiority of ACPSO to back-propagation (BP, adaptive BP (ABP, momentum BP (MBP, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, and Resilient back-propagation (RPROP methods. Moreover, the computation time for each pixel is only 1.08 × 10−7 s.

  20. Data mining and model adaptation for the land use and land cover classification of a Worldview 2 image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, L. C.; Cruz, C. B. M.; Souza, E. M. F. R.

    2013-10-01

    Forest fragmentation studies have increased since the last 3 decades. Land use and land cover maps (LULC) are important tools for this analysis, as well as other remote sensing techniques. The object oriented analysis classifies the image according to patterns as texture, color, shape, and context. However, there are many attributes to be analyzed, and data mining tools helped us to learn about them and to choose the best ones. In this way, the aim of this paper is to describe data mining techniques and results of a heterogeneous area, as the municipality of Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The municipality has forest, urban areas, pastures, water bodies, agriculture and also some shadows as objects to be represented. Worldview 2 satellite image from 2010 was used and LULC classification was processed using the values that data mining software has provided according to the J48 method. Afterwards, this classification was analyzed, and the verification was made by the confusion matrix, being possible to evaluate the accuracy (58,89%). The best results were in classes "water" and "forest" which have more homogenous reflectance. Because of that, the model has been adapted, in order to create a model for the most homogeneous classes. As result, 2 new classes were created, some values and some attributes changed, and others added. In the end, the accuracy was 89,33%. It is important to highlight this is not a conclusive paper; there are still many steps to develop in highly heterogeneous surfaces.

  1. Energy landscapes in a crowded world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasqualetti, Martin; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    One of the main drivers of landscape transformation has been our demand for energy. We refer to the results of such transformations as "energy landscapes". This paper examines the definition of energy landscapes within a conceptual framework, proposes a classification of energy landscapes, and

  2. Histogram-based adaptive gray level scaling for texture feature classification of colorectal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Marc; Lu, Hongbing; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2018-02-01

    Texture features have played an ever increasing role in computer aided detection (CADe) and diagnosis (CADx) methods since their inception. Texture features are often used as a method of false positive reduction for CADe packages, especially for detecting colorectal polyps and distinguishing them from falsely tagged residual stool and healthy colon wall folds. While texture features have shown great success there, the performance of texture features for CADx have lagged behind primarily because of the more similar features among different polyps types. In this paper, we present an adaptive gray level scaling and compare it to the conventional equal-spacing of gray level bins. We use a dataset taken from computed tomography colonography patients, with 392 polyp regions of interest (ROIs) identified and have a confirmed diagnosis through pathology. Using the histogram information from the entire ROI dataset, we generate the gray level bins such that each bin contains roughly the same number of voxels Each image ROI is the scaled down to two different numbers of gray levels, using both an equal spacing of Hounsfield units for each bin, and our adaptive method. We compute a set of texture features from the scaled images including 30 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features and 11 gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) features. Using a random forest classifier to distinguish between hyperplastic polyps and all others (adenomas and adenocarcinomas), we find that the adaptive gray level scaling can improve performance based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by up to 4.6%.

  3. A novel approach for SEMG signal classification with adaptive local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, Ömer Faruk; Kaya, Yılmaz; Tekin, Ramazan

    2016-07-01

    Feature extraction plays a major role in the pattern recognition process, and this paper presents a novel feature extraction approach, adaptive local binary pattern (aLBP). aLBP is built on the local binary pattern (LBP), which is an image processing method, and one-dimensional local binary pattern (1D-LBP). In LBP, each pixel is compared with its neighbors. Similarly, in 1D-LBP, each data in the raw is judged against its neighbors. 1D-LBP extracts feature based on local changes in the signal. Therefore, it has high a potential to be employed in medical purposes. Since, each action or abnormality, which is recorded in SEMG signals, has its own pattern, and via the 1D-LBP these (hidden) patterns may be detected. But, the positions of the neighbors in 1D-LBP are constant depending on the position of the data in the raw. Also, both LBP and 1D-LBP are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, its capacity in detecting hidden patterns is limited. To overcome these drawbacks, aLBP was proposed. In aLBP, the positions of the neighbors and their values can be assigned adaptively via the down-sampling and the smoothing coefficients. Therefore, the potential to detect (hidden) patterns, which may express an illness or an action, is really increased. To validate the proposed feature extraction approach, two different datasets were employed. Achieved accuracies by the proposed approach were higher than obtained results by employed popular feature extraction approaches and the reported results in the literature. Obtained accuracy results were brought out that the proposed method can be employed to investigate SEMG signals. In summary, this work attempts to develop an adaptive feature extraction scheme that can be utilized for extracting features from local changes in different categories of time-varying signals.

  4. Social-Ecological Transformation for Ecosystem Management: the Development of Adaptive Co-management of a Wetland Landscape in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olsson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the emergence of an adaptive co-management system for wetland landscape governance in southern Sweden, a process where unconnected management by several actors in the landscape was mobilized, renewed, and reconfigured into ecosystem management within about a decade. Our analysis highlights the social mechanisms behind the transformation toward ecosystem management. The self-organizing process was triggered by perceived threats among members of various local stewardship associations and local government to the area's cultural and ecological values. These threats challenged the development of ecosystem services in the area. We show how one individual, a key leader, played an instrumental role in directing change and transforming governance. The transformation involved three phases: 1 preparing the system for change, 2 seizing a window of opportunity, and 3 building social-ecological resilience of the new desired state. This local policy entrepreneur initiated trust-building dialogue, mobilized social networks with actors across scales, and started processes for coordinating people, information flows and ongoing activities, and for compiling and generating knowledge, understanding, and management practices of ecosystem dynamics. Understanding, collaborative learning, and creating public awareness were part of the process. A comprehensive framework was developed with a shared vision and goals that presented conservation as development, turned problems into possibilities, and contributed to a shift in perception among key actors regarding the values of the wetland landscape. A window of opportunity at the political level opened, which made it possible to transform the governance system toward a trajectory of ecosystem management. The transformation involved establishing a new municipal organization, the Ecomuseum Kristianstads Vattenrike (EKV. This flexible organization serves as a bridge between local actors and governmental bodies and is

  5. An Adaptive S-Method to Analyze Micro-Doppler Signals for Human Activity Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangmin; Yang, Chao; Xia, Yuqing; Ma, Xiaolin; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Zhou

    2017-11-29

    In this paper, we propose the multiwindow Adaptive S-method (AS-method) distribution approach used in the time-frequency analysis for radar signals. Based on the results of orthogonal Hermite functions that have good time-frequency resolution, we vary the length of window to suppress the oscillating component caused by cross-terms. This method can bring a better compromise in the auto-terms concentration and cross-terms suppressing, which contributes to the multi-component signal separation. Finally, the effective micro signal is extracted by threshold segmentation and envelope extraction. To verify the proposed method, six states of motion are separated by a classifier of a support vector machine (SVM) trained to the extracted features. The trained SVM can detect a human subject with an accuracy of 95.4% for two cases without interference.

  6. An Adaptive S-Method to Analyze Micro-Doppler Signals for Human Activity Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the multiwindow Adaptive S-method (AS-method distribution approach used in the time-frequency analysis for radar signals. Based on the results of orthogonal Hermite functions that have good time-frequency resolution, we vary the length of window to suppress the oscillating component caused by cross-terms. This method can bring a better compromise in the auto-terms concentration and cross-terms suppressing, which contributes to the multi-component signal separation. Finally, the effective micro signal is extracted by threshold segmentation and envelope extraction. To verify the proposed method, six states of motion are separated by a classifier of a support vector machine (SVM trained to the extracted features. The trained SVM can detect a human subject with an accuracy of 95.4% for two cases without interference.

  7. The classification of idiopathic spasmodic torticollis: three types based on social adaptation and frustration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwase, H; Kato, M

    1997-12-01

    In this study, idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (ST) has been classfied into three types from the opinion of social adaptation and the differences of frustration tolerance. The three types were as follows: type I (overadaptive type), type II (maladaptive type), and type III (compatible type). Type I is a typical psychosomatic with high frustration tolerance. Type II is personality disorder with low frustration tolerance. In type III, frustration tolerance varies depending on social circumstances (i.e., different at home and at the office). In type I, the prognosis of ST is generally unfavorable, since it is associated with recurrence and prolongation of the symptoms. In type II, the prognosis of ST is generally favorable. However, type II patients experience relationship or social difficulties. One characteristic of type III is that the onset of symptoms is usually found in an older person because of proper use of frustration tolerance at home and at the office.

  8. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Debus, Jürgen; Deimling, Andreas von; Hartmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the

  9. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E., E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz-Ertner, Daniela [Radiologisches Institut, Markuskrankenhaus Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Deimling, Andreas von; Hartmann, Christian [Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Pathology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the

  10. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  11. Chapter 3: Simulating fire hazard across landscapes through time: integrating state-and-transition models with the Fuel Characteristic Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; Stephanie K. Hart; Miles A. Hemstrom; Joshua S. Halofsky; Morris C. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Information on the effects of management activities such as fuel reduction treatments and of processes such as vegetation growth and disturbance on fire hazard can help land managers prioritize treatments across a landscape to best meet management goals. State-and-transition models (STMs) allow landscape-scale simulations that incorporate effects of succession,...

  12. Negation handling in sentiment classification using rule-based adapted from Indonesian language syntactic for Indonesian text in Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Rizkiana; Arif Bijaksana, Moch; Darmantoro, Dhinta

    2018-03-01

    The presence of the word negation is able to change the polarity of the text if it is not handled properly it will affect the performance of the sentiment classification. Negation words in Indonesian are ‘tidak’, ‘bukan’, ‘belum’ and ‘jangan’. Also, there is a conjunction word that able to reverse the actual values, as the word ‘tetapi’, or ‘tapi’. Unigram has shortcomings in dealing with the existence of negation because it treats negation word and the negated words as separate words. A general approach for negation handling in English text gives the tag ‘NEG_’ for following words after negation until the first punctuation. But this may gives the tag to un-negated, and this approach does not handle negation and conjunction in one sentences. The rule-based method to determine what words negated by adapting the rules of Indonesian language syntactic of negation to determine the scope of negation was proposed in this study. With adapting syntactic rules and tagging “NEG_” using SVM classifier with RBF kernel has better performance results than the other experiments. Considering the average F1-score value, the performance of this proposed method can be improved against baseline equal to 1.79% (baseline without negation handling) and 5% (baseline with existing negation handling) for a dataset that all tweets contain negation words. And also for the second dataset that has the various number of negation words in document tweet. It can be improved against baseline at 2.69% (without negation handling) and 3.17% (with existing negation handling).

  13. Enhancing Classification Performance of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy- Brain–Computer Interface Using Adaptive Estimation of General Linear Model Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Khalid Qureshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel methodology for enhanced classification of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS signals utilizable in a two-class [motor imagery (MI and rest; mental rotation (MR and rest] brain–computer interface (BCI is presented. First, fNIRS signals corresponding to MI and MR are acquired from the motor and prefrontal cortex, respectively, afterward, filtered to remove physiological noises. Then, the signals are modeled using the general linear model, the coefficients of which are adaptively estimated using the least squares technique. Subsequently, multiple feature combinations of estimated coefficients were used for classification. The best classification accuracies achieved for five subjects, for MI versus rest are 79.5, 83.7, 82.6, 81.4, and 84.1% whereas those for MR versus rest are 85.5, 85.2, 87.8, 83.7, and 84.8%, respectively, using support vector machine. These results are compared with the best classification accuracies obtained using the conventional hemodynamic response. By means of the proposed methodology, the average classification accuracy obtained was significantly higher (p < 0.05. These results serve to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a high-classification-performance fNIRS-BCI.

  14. The 'Functional Landscape Approach': Building a socio-ecological evidence base for its contribution to adaptation and resilience in wetland catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie, Rachael; Dixon, Alan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land management is increasingly taking a landscape approach to advocate simultaneously for local and multiple stakeholder-negotiated development and environmental objectives. Landscape approaches advance earlier frameworks that failed to acknowledge or reconcile either biodiversity or societal trade-offs, and that often tended toward externally-derived or imposed management interventions. Most recently, the management of land to balance biodiversity, food security and ecosystem services outcomes has been informed by socio-ecological systems thinking that seeks to promote an interdisciplinary understanding of any given 'landscape' where environmental and social factors continually interact in complex, adaptive and resilient ways. Reflecting these concepts, and integrating local and external scientific knowledge, the Functional Landscape Approach (FLA) was developed by Wetland Action, focussing on wetland systems in rural sub-Saharan Africa to contribute to environmentally sensitive and climate resilient strategies for safeguarding essential ecosystem services and improving livelihoods and well-being. In particular, the FLA stresses the ways in which land productivity can be improved through supporting, strengthening or re-establishing functional linkages between wetlands and their catchments and provides a basis for local identification of specific interventions to improve the sustainability of land use. Crucially, it also emphasises the need for community-based institutional support and the importance of incentives through market linkages and value-chain development. In this paper we will describe our experiences of developing and implementing the FLA in Ethiopia, Zambia and Malawi over the past two decades. Drawing on successful and less-successful elements of participatory planning, monitoring and evaluation, and the facilitation of long-term sustainable benefits, we will discuss some of the accomplishments and challenges that can be associated with

  15. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: The importance of replication in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Kovach, Ryan; Whited, Diane C.; Narum, Shawn R.; Matala, Andrew P.; Ackerman, Michael W.; Garner, B. A.; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  16. Similarities and Differences in Barriers and Opportunities Affecting Climate Change Adaptation Action in Four North American Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Whitney R.; Kretser, Heidi E.; Chetkiewicz, Cheryl-Lesley B.; Cross, Molly S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change presents a complex set of challenges for natural resource managers across North America. Despite recognition that climate change poses serious threats to species, ecosystems, and human communities, implementation of adaptation measures is not yet happening on a broad scale. Among different regions, a range of climate change trajectories, varying political contexts, and diverse social and ecological systems generate a myriad of factors that can affect progress on climate change adaptation implementation. In order to understand the general versus site-specific nature of barriers and opportunities influencing implementation, we surveyed and interviewed practitioners, decision-makers, and scientists involved in natural resource management in four different North American regions, northern Ontario (Canada), the Adirondack State Park (US), Arctic Alaska (US), and the Transboundary Rocky Mountains (US and Canada). Common barriers among regions related to a lack of political support and financial resources, as well as challenges related to translating complex and interacting effects of climate change into management actions. Opportunities shared among regions related to collaboration, funding, and the presence of strong leadership. These commonalities indicate the importance of cross-site learning about ways to leverage opportunities and address adaptation barriers; however, regional variations also suggest that adaptation efforts will need to be tailored to fit specific ecological, political, social and economic contexts. Comparative findings on the similarities and differences in barriers and opportunities, as well as rankings of barriers and opportunities by region, offers important contextual insights into how to further refine efforts to advance adaptation actions in those regions.

  17. Applications of network analysis for adaptive management of artificial drainage systems in landscapes vulnerable to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Benjamin; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThe vulnerability of coastal landscapes to sea level rise is compounded by the existence of extensive artificial drainage networks initially built to lower water tables for agriculture, forestry, and human settlements. These drainage networks are found in landscapes with little topographic relief where channel flow is characterized by bi-directional movement across multiple time-scales and related to precipitation, wind, and tidal patterns. The current configuration of many artificial drainage networks exacerbates impacts associated with sea level rise such as salt-intrusion and increased flooding. This suggests that in the short-term, drainage networks might be managed to mitigate sea level rise related impacts. The challenge, however, is that hydrologic processes in regions where channel flow direction is weakly related to slope and topography require extensive parameterization for numerical models which is limited where network size is on the order of a hundred or more kilometers in total length. Here we present an application of graph theoretic algorithms to efficiently investigate network properties relevant to the management of a large artificial drainage system in coastal North Carolina, USA. We created a digital network model representing the observation network topology and four types of drainage features (canal, collector and field ditches, and streams). We applied betweenness-centrality concepts (using Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm) to determine major hydrologic flowpaths based off of hydraulic resistance. Following this, we identified sub-networks that could be managed independently using a community structure and modularity approach. Lastly, a betweenness-centrality algorithm was applied to identify major shoreline entry points to the network that disproportionately control water movement in and out of the network. We demonstrate that graph theory can be applied to solving management and monitoring problems associated with sea level rise

  18. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  19. Adaptation of the landscape for biodiversity to climate change : terrestrial case studies Limburg (NL), Kent and Hampshire (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van S.A.M.; Baveco, J.M.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Eupen, van M.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.; Taylor, S.; Steenwijk, van H.

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of the BRANCH project, aimed at assessing the impact of climate change on species and habitats and formulating strategies for adaptation. It focuses on the local scale in three terrestrial case studies, Limburg (NL) and in Kent and Hampshire (UK). We developed and tested: (a) a

  20. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  1. Research needs for our national landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood L. Shafer

    1979-01-01

    The prevailing research problem for our national landscapes is: How shall we organize, control, and coordinate public and private development so as to protect, maintain, improve, and manage those landscape features that we value most? Research questions discussed include: environmental/political conflicts, taxation and zoning, landscape classification, public...

  2. Sequence-Based Analysis of Thermal Adaptation and Protein Energy Landscapes in an Invasive Blue Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarman, Norah P; Kober, Kord M; Simison, W Brian; Pogson, Grant H

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive responses to thermal stress in poikilotherms plays an important role in determining competitive ability and species distributions. Amino acid substitutions that affect protein stability and modify the thermal optima of orthologous proteins may be particularly important in this context. Here, we examine a set of 2,770 protein-coding genes to determine if proteins in a highly invasive heat tolerant blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) contain signals of adaptive increases in protein stability relative to orthologs in a more cold tolerant M. trossulus. Such thermal adaptations might help to explain, mechanistically, the success with which the invasive marine mussel M. galloprovincialis has displaced native species in contact zones in the eastern (California) and western (Japan) Pacific. We tested for stabilizing amino acid substitutions in warm tolerant M. galloprovincialis relative to cold tolerant M. trossulus with a generalized linear model that compares in silico estimates of recent changes in protein stability among closely related congeners. Fixed substitutions in M. galloprovincialis were 3,180.0 calories per mol per substitution more stabilizing at genes with both elevated dN/dS ratios and transcriptional responses to heat stress, and 705.8 calories per mol per substitution more stabilizing across all 2,770 loci investigated. Amino acid substitutions concentrated in a small number of genes were more stabilizing in M. galloprovincialis compared with cold tolerant M. trossulus. We also tested for, but did not find, enrichment of a priori GO terms in genes with elevated dN/dS ratios in M. galloprovincialis. This might indicate that selection for thermodynamic stability is generic across all lineages, and suggests that the high change in estimated protein stability that we observed in M. galloprovincialis is driven by selection for extra stabilizing substitutions, rather than by higher incidence of selection in a greater number of genes in this lineage

  3. Segmentation and object-oriented classification of wetlands in a karst Florida landscape using multi-season Landsat-7 ETM+ Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segmentation and object-oriented processing of single-season and multi-season Landsat-7 ETM+ data was utilized for the classification of wetlands in a 1560 km2 study area of north central Florida. This segmentation and object-oriented classification outperformed the traditional ...

  4. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  5. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  6. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  7. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  8. The Communication Function Classification System: cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Farsi version for patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Joveini, Ghodsiye; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2015-03-01

    This study developed a Farsi language Communication Function Classification System and then tested its reliability and validity. Communication Function Classification System is designed to classify the communication functions of individuals with cerebral palsy. Up until now, there has been no instrument for assessment of this communication function in Iran. The English Communication Function Classification System was translated into Farsi and cross-culturally modified by a panel of experts. Professionals and parents then assessed the content validity of the modified version. A backtranslation of the Farsi version was confirmed by the developer of the English Communication Function Classification System. Face validity was assessed by therapists and parents of 10 patients. The Farsi Communication Function Classification System was administered to 152 individuals with cerebral palsy (age, 2 to 18 years; median age, 10 years; mean age, 9.9 years; standard deviation, 4.3 years). Inter-rater reliability was analyzed between parents, occupational therapists, and speech and language pathologists. The test-retest reliability was assessed for 75 patients with a 14 day interval between tests. The inter-rater reliability of the Communication Function Classification System was 0.81 between speech and language pathologists and occupational therapists, 0.74 between parents and occupational therapists, and 0.88 between parents and speech and language pathologists. The test-retest reliability was 0.96 for occupational therapists, 0.98 for speech and language pathologists, and 0.94 for parents. The findings suggest that the Farsi version of Communication Function Classification System is a reliable and valid measure that can be used in clinical settings to assess communication function in patients with cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptation to a landscape-scale mountain pine beetle epidemic in the era of networked governance: the enduring importance of bureaucratic institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse B. Abrams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale forest disturbance events have become increasingly common worldwide under the combined influences of climate change and ecosystem modification. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae epidemic that swept through North American forests from the late 1990s through the early 2010s was one of the largest such disturbance events on record and triggered shocks to ecological and economic systems. We analyze the policy and governance responses to this event by focusing on three national forests in the state of Colorado and on the agency responsible for their management, the U.S. Forest Service. We found that the event triggered the formation of new hybrid agency/nonagency organizations that contributed both legitimacy and capacity to address the most immediate threats to human safety and infrastructure. Despite the use of a highly networked governance structure, longstanding U.S. Forest Service institutions continued to heavily influence the scope of the response and the means for implementing management activities. We detected relatively limited institutional response at the level of the agency as a whole, even as regional- and local-scale institutions within Colorado showed greater dynamism. Indeed, the changes to agency institutions that were detected were largely consistent with institutional change trajectories already in place prior to the epidemic. Our study points to the importance of institutional persistence and path dependence in limiting the latitude for adaptation to social and environmental shocks.

  10. Oasis Sudcalifornianos: Biocultural landscapes with high adaptability to aridity and potential for the construction of local sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Micheline Cariño Olivera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we use an environmental history approach to analyze the origin and development of oases; complex socio-ecological systems where the humid and dry zones are complemented, as an adaptive strategy to aridity and scarcity. Through participant observation and documentary research we propose the concept of oasesness to explain the bio-cultural synthesis that originated when local ecological knowledge of the Baja California Sur merged with the overarching global culture of the oasis. Until the middle of the 20th century oases were central places in the peninsular economy. Ever since, they have declined to the point of becoming endangered spaces. This would be a regretful loss for two main reasons: because of its historical value and because of the implications that the loss of this knowledge would have towards the construction of local sustainability. We conclude by laying out the blueprints for an intervention that will enable to protect and recover the bio-cultural heritage of the Baja California oases.

  11. Complex Adaptive Systems, soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification: A multivariate assessment of Italian agro-forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca; Mavrakis, Anastasios; Colantoni, Andrea; Mancino, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Agostino

    2015-07-15

    Degradation of soils and sensitivity of land to desertification are intensified in last decades in the Mediterranean region producing heterogeneous spatial patterns determined by the interplay of factors such as climate, land-use changes, and human pressure. The present study hypothesizes that rising levels of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification are reflected into increasingly complex (and non-linear) relationships between environmental and socioeconomic variables. To verify this hypothesis, the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework was used to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of eleven indicators derived from a standard assessment of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification in Italy. Indicators were made available on a detailed spatial scale (773 agricultural districts) for various years (1960, 1990, 2000 and 2010) and analyzed through a multi-dimensional exploratory data analysis. Our results indicate that the number of significant pair-wise correlations observed between indicators increased with the level of soil and land degradation, although with marked differences between northern and southern Italy. 'Fast' and 'slow' factors underlying soil and land degradation, and 'rapidly-evolving' or 'locked' agricultural districts were identified according to the rapidity of change estimated for each of the indicators studied. In southern Italy, 'rapidly-evolving' districts show a high level of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification during the whole period of investigation. On the contrary, those districts in northern Italy are those experiencing a moderate soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification with the highest increase in the level of sensitivity over time. The study framework contributes to the assessment of complex local systems' dynamics in affluent but divided countries. Results may inform thematic strategies for the mitigation of land and soil degradation in the framework of action

  12. Assessment of landscape diversity and determination of landscape hotspots - a case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Drago; Ciglič, Rok; Hrvatin, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Areas with high landscape diversity can be regarded as landscape hotspots, and vice versa areas with low landscape diversity can be marked as landscape coldspots. The main purpose of this paper is to use quantitative geoinformatical approach and identify parts of our test area (the country of Slovenia) that can be described as very diverse according to natural landscapes and natural elements. We used different digital raster data of natural elements and landscape classifications and defined landscape diversity and landscape hotspots. We defined diversity for each raster pixel by counting the number of different unique types of landscape elements and types of landscapes in its neighborhood. Namely, the method was used separately to define diversity according to natural elements (types of relief forms, rocks, and vegetation) and diversity according to existing geographical landscape classifications of Slovenia (types of landscapes). In both cases one-tenth of Slovenia's surface with the highest landscape diversity was defined as landscape hotspots. The same applies to the coldspots. Additionally we tested the same method of counting different types of landscapes in certain radius also for the area of Europe in order to find areas that are more diverse at continental level. By doing so we were able to find areas that have similar level of diversity as Slovenia according to different European landscape classifications. Areas with landscape diversity may have an advantage in economic development, especially in tourism. Such areas are also important for biodiversity, habitat, and species diversity. On the other hand, localities where various natural influences mix can also be areas where it is hard to transfer best practices from one place to another because of the varying responses of the landscapes to human intervention. Thus it is important to know where areas with high landscape diversity are.

  13. Laser Raman detection of platelets for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on an adaptive Gaussian process classification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yusheng; Du, Z W; Yang, Y J; Chen, P; Wang, X H; Cheng, Y; Peng, J; Shen, A G; Hu, J M; Tian, Q; Shang, X L; Liu, Z C; Yao, X Q; Wang, J Z

    2013-01-01

    Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has puzzled many clinicians. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed to diagnose AD from platelet samples from AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls of different ages. An adaptive Gaussian process (GP) classification algorithm was used to re-establish the classification models of early AD, advanced AD and the control group with just two features and the capacity for noise reduction. Compared with the previous multilayer perceptron network method, the GP showed much better classification performance with the same feature set. Besides, spectra of platelets isolated from AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD) mice were also discriminated. Spectral data from 4 month AD (n = 39) and 12 month AD (n = 104) platelets, as well as control data (n = 135), were collected. Prospective application of the algorithm to the data set resulted in a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of about 100% and a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.81. Samples from PD (n = 120) platelets were also collected for differentiation from 12 month AD. The results suggest that platelet LRS detection analysis with the GP appears to be an easier and more accurate method than current ones for early and differential diagnosis of AD. (paper)

  14. Adaptive swarm cluster-based dynamic multi-objective synthetic minority oversampling technique algorithm for tackling binary imbalanced datasets in biomedical data classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyan; Fong, Simon; Sung, Yunsick; Cho, Kyungeun; Wong, Raymond; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2016-01-01

    An imbalanced dataset is defined as a training dataset that has imbalanced proportions of data in both interesting and uninteresting classes. Often in biomedical applications, samples from the stimulating class are rare in a population, such as medical anomalies, positive clinical tests, and particular diseases. Although the target samples in the primitive dataset are small in number, the induction of a classification model over such training data leads to poor prediction performance due to insufficient training from the minority class. In this paper, we use a novel class-balancing method named adaptive swarm cluster-based dynamic multi-objective synthetic minority oversampling technique (ASCB_DmSMOTE) to solve this imbalanced dataset problem, which is common in biomedical applications. The proposed method combines under-sampling and over-sampling into a swarm optimisation algorithm. It adaptively selects suitable parameters for the rebalancing algorithm to find the best solution. Compared with the other versions of the SMOTE algorithm, significant improvements, which include higher accuracy and credibility, are observed with ASCB_DmSMOTE. Our proposed method tactfully combines two rebalancing techniques together. It reasonably re-allocates the majority class in the details and dynamically optimises the two parameters of SMOTE to synthesise a reasonable scale of minority class for each clustered sub-imbalanced dataset. The proposed methods ultimately overcome other conventional methods and attains higher credibility with even greater accuracy of the classification model.

  15. Ecosystem services in changing landscapes: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis Iverson; Cristian Echeverria; Laura Nahuelhual; Sandra. Luque

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services from landscapes is rapidly gaining momentum as a language to communicate values and benefits to scientists and lay alike. Landscape ecology has an enormous contribution to make to this field, and one could argue, uniquely so. Tools developed or adapted for landscape ecology are being increasingly used to assist with the quantification...

  16. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  17. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on an adaptive Gaussian process classification method with posterior probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming; Jia, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The existing methods for early and differential diagnosis of oral cancer are limited due to the unapparent early symptoms and the imperfect imaging examination methods. In this paper, the classification models of oral adenocarcinoma, carcinoma tissues and a control group with just four features are established by utilizing the hybrid Gaussian process (HGP) classification algorithm, with the introduction of the mechanisms of noise reduction and posterior probability. HGP shows much better performance in the experimental results. During the experimental process, oral tissues were divided into three groups, adenocarcinoma (n = 87), carcinoma (n = 100) and the control group (n = 134). The spectral data for these groups were collected. The prospective application of the proposed HGP classification method improved the diagnostic sensitivity to 56.35% and the specificity to about 70.00%, and resulted in a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.36. It is proved that the utilization of HGP in LRS detection analysis for the diagnosis of oral cancer gives accurate results. The prospect of application is also satisfactory. (paper)

  18. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on an adaptive Gaussian process classification method with posterior probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jia, Jun; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2013-03-01

    The existing methods for early and differential diagnosis of oral cancer are limited due to the unapparent early symptoms and the imperfect imaging examination methods. In this paper, the classification models of oral adenocarcinoma, carcinoma tissues and a control group with just four features are established by utilizing the hybrid Gaussian process (HGP) classification algorithm, with the introduction of the mechanisms of noise reduction and posterior probability. HGP shows much better performance in the experimental results. During the experimental process, oral tissues were divided into three groups, adenocarcinoma (n = 87), carcinoma (n = 100) and the control group (n = 134). The spectral data for these groups were collected. The prospective application of the proposed HGP classification method improved the diagnostic sensitivity to 56.35% and the specificity to about 70.00%, and resulted in a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.36. It is proved that the utilization of HGP in LRS detection analysis for the diagnosis of oral cancer gives accurate results. The prospect of application is also satisfactory.

  19. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. D Gertenbach

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the abiotic and biotic components of the Kruger National Park (KNP system has increased to such an extent, that it was possible to zonate the KNP into landscapes. A landscape was defined as an area with a specific geomorphology, climate, soil and vegetation pattern together with the associated fauna. On this basis 35 landscapes were identified and described in terms of the components mentioned in the definition. The objective of classification is that future management should be based on these landscapes. Relevant management considerations may change, but the landscape a@ a basic functional unit should not be negotiable.

  20. Impact of Urban Climate Landscape Patterns on Land Surface Temperature in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasha Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Facing urban warming, mitigation and adaptation strategies are not efficient enough to tackle excessive urban heat, especially at the local scale. The local climate zone (LCZ classification scheme is employed to examine the diversity and complexity of the climate response within a city. This study suggests that zonal practice could be an efficient way to bridge the knowledge gap between climate research and urban planning. Urban surfaces classified by LCZ are designated as urban climate landscapes, which extends the LCZ concept to urban planning applications. Selecting Wuhan as a case study, we attempt to explore the climatic effect of landscape patterns. Thermal effects are compared across the urban climate landscapes, and the relationships between patch metrics and land surface temperature (LST are quantified. Results indicate that climate landscape layout is a considerable factor impacting local urban climate. For Wuhan, 500 m is an optimal scale for exploring landscape pattern-temperature relationships. Temperature contrast between surrounding landscape patches has a major influence on LST. Generally, fragmental landscape patches contribute to heat release. For most climate landscape types, patch metrics also have a significant effect on thermal response. When three metrics are included as predictive variables, 53.3% of the heating intensity variation can be explained for the Large Lowrise landscape, while 57.4% of the cooling intensity variation can be explained for the Water landscape. Therefore, this article claims that land-based layout optimization strategy at local scale, which conforms to planning manner, should be taken into account in terms of heat management.

  1. Using landscape limnology to classify freshwater ecosystems for multi-ecosystem management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary T.; Wagner, Tyler; Stow, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    Governmental entities are responsible for managing and conserving large numbers of lake, river, and wetland ecosystems that can be addressed only rarely on a case-by-case basis. We present a system for predictive classification modeling, grounded in the theoretical foundation of landscape limnology, that creates a tractable number of ecosystem classes to which management actions may be tailored. We demonstrate our system by applying two types of predictive classification modeling approaches to develop nutrient criteria for eutrophication management in 1998 north temperate lakes. Our predictive classification system promotes the effective management of multiple ecosystems across broad geographic scales by explicitly connecting management and conservation goals to the classification modeling approach, considering multiple spatial scales as drivers of ecosystem dynamics, and acknowledging the hierarchical structure of freshwater ecosystems. Such a system is critical for adaptive management of complex mosaics of freshwater ecosystems and for balancing competing needs for ecosystem services in a changing world.

  2. A Small Leak Detection Method Based on VMD Adaptive De-Noising and Ambiguity Correlation Classification Intended for Natural Gas Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Bai, Zhiliang; Sun, Jiedi; Zhou, Nan; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2016-12-13

    In this study, a small leak detection method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and ambiguity correlation classification (ACC) is proposed. The signals acquired from sensors were decomposed using the VMD, and numerous components were obtained. According to the probability density function (PDF), an adaptive de-noising algorithm based on VMD is proposed for noise component processing and de-noised components reconstruction. Furthermore, the ambiguity function image was employed for analysis of the reconstructed signals. Based on the correlation coefficient, ACC is proposed to detect the small leak of pipeline. The analysis of pipeline leakage signals, using 1 mm and 2 mm leaks, has shown that proposed detection method can detect a small leak accurately and effectively. Moreover, the experimental results have shown that the proposed method achieved better performances than support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BP) methods.

  3. A Small Leak Detection Method Based on VMD Adaptive De-Noising and Ambiguity Correlation Classification Intended for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyang Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a small leak detection method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD and ambiguity correlation classification (ACC is proposed. The signals acquired from sensors were decomposed using the VMD, and numerous components were obtained. According to the probability density function (PDF, an adaptive de-noising algorithm based on VMD is proposed for noise component processing and de-noised components reconstruction. Furthermore, the ambiguity function image was employed for analysis of the reconstructed signals. Based on the correlation coefficient, ACC is proposed to detect the small leak of pipeline. The analysis of pipeline leakage signals, using 1 mm and 2 mm leaks, has shown that proposed detection method can detect a small leak accurately and effectively. Moreover, the experimental results have shown that the proposed method achieved better performances than support vector machine (SVM and back propagation neural network (BP methods.

  4. Social-ecology networks : building connections for sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans adapt their landscapes, their living environment. Sustainable use of the various landscape benefits requires that land owners and users collaborate in managing ecological networks. Because the government is stepping back as the organizer of coordinated landscape adaptation, we need new

  5. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  6. Adapting Landscape Mosaics of medIteranean Rainfed Agrosystems for a sustainable management of crop production, water and soil resources: the ALMIRA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Frédéric; Mekki, Insaf; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    In the context of mitigating the pressures induced by global change combined with demography and market pressures, there is increasing societal demand and scientific need to understand the functioning of Mediterranean Rainfed Agrosystems (MRAs) for their potential to provide various environmental and economic services of importance such as food production, preservation of employment and local knowhow, downstream water delivery or mitigation of rural exodus. Efficient MRAs management strategies that allow for compromises between economic development and natural resources preservation are needed. Such strategies require innovative system based research, integration across approaches and scales. One of the major challenges is to make all contributions from different disciplines converging towards a reproducible transdisciplinary approach. The objective of this communication is to present the ALMIRA project, a Tunisian - Moroccan - French project which lasts four years (2014 - 2017). The communication details the societal context, the scientific positioning and the related work hypothesis, the study areas, the project structure, the expected outcomes and the partnership which capitalizes on long term collaborations. ALMIRA aims to explore the modulation of landscape mosaics within MRAs to optimize landscape services. To explore this new lever, ALMIRA proposes to design, implement and test a new Integrated Assessment Modelling approach that explicitly i) includes innovations and action means into prospective scenarii for landscape evolutions, and ii) addresses landscape mosaics and processes of interest from the agricultural field to the resource governance catchment. This requires tackling methodological challenges in relation to i) the design of spatially explicit landscape evolution scenarii, ii) the coupling of biophysical processes related to agricultural catchment hydrology, iii) the digital mapping of landscape properties and iv) the economic assessment of the

  7. Physio-climatic classification of South Africa's woodland biome

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fairbanks, DHK

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available monthly temperature, total plant-available water balance of soil, elevation, landscape topographic position, and landscape soil fertility were used as input classification variables. The map data were submitted to a factor analysis and varimax axis...

  8. The Value of Landscape Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004 have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the concept of fluid space;•recognising the existence of interstitial open spaces;•using those elements which are common to the distinct typologies of space;•defining the components that should be respected and those that can be respected;•observing landscape as a whole , while emphasising the relationship between the parts and the whole; and•rejecting simplification in the landscape transformation process.valuing the ambiguity incorporating the complexity Underlying this approach is the belief that the process of transformation must be based on the essence of each landscape. This implies the use of elements and structures of the landscape which are related to ecological, morphological and cultural systems. These elements and structures represent points of reference which should be considered in the process of landscape transformation.

  9. MODELLING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND LANDSCAPE PATTERNS OF LAND USE LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING MULTI LINEAR REGRESSION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bernales

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The threat of the ailments related to urbanization like heat stress is very prevalent. There are a lot of things that can be done to lessen the effect of urbanization to the surface temperature of the area like using green roofs or planting trees in the area. So land use really matters in both increasing and decreasing surface temperature. It is known that there is a relationship between land use land cover (LULC and land surface temperature (LST. Quantifying this relationship in terms of a mathematical model is very important so as to provide a way to predict LST based on the LULC alone. This study aims to examine the relationship between LST and LULC as well as to create a model that can predict LST using class-level spatial metrics from LULC. LST was derived from a Landsat 8 image and LULC classification was derived from LiDAR and Orthophoto datasets. Class-level spatial metrics were created in FRAGSTATS with the LULC and LST as inputs and these metrics were analysed using a statistical framework. Multi linear regression was done to create models that would predict LST for each class and it was found that the spatial metric “Effective mesh size” was a top predictor for LST in 6 out of 7 classes. The model created can still be refined by adding a temporal aspect by analysing the LST of another farming period (for rural areas and looking for common predictors between LSTs of these two different farming periods.

  10. Circular planning and adaptive design strategies to recycle wasted landscapes : The per-urban territories of campania plain as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amenta, L.; Formato, E.; Hein, Carola

    2016-01-01

    The Campania Region, in the South of Italy, is a territory where numerous Wasted Landscapes (WL) are recognisable, as the result of serious social
    and governmental problems.
    Through the last decades, many factors have been overlapping in this complex palimpsest: illegal developments and the

  11. Challenges and opportunities for large landscape-scale management in a shifting climate: The importance of nested adaptation responses across geospatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M. Tabor; Anne Carlson; Travis Belote

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative (Y2Y) was established over 20 years ago as an experiment in large landscape conservation. Initially, Y2Y emerged as a response to large scale habitat fragmentation by advancing ecological connectivity. It also laid the foundation for large scale multi-stakeholder conservation collaboration with almost 200 non-...

  12. Public acceptance of disturbance-based forest management: a study of the Blue River Landscape Strategy in the Central Cascades Adaptive Management Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Shindler; Angela L. Mallon

    2009-01-01

    This report examines public perspectives on disturbance-based management conducted in the central Cascade Range in Oregon as part of the Blue River Landscape Strategy. A mail survey to local residents was used to describe the public’s understanding of this form of management, identify perceived associated risks and potential barriers to implementation, and the overall...

  13. Functioning and disability in patients with Angelman syndrome: utility of the International Classification of functioning disability and health, children and youth adaptation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Gobbo, Annamaria; Nappi, Sara; Moret, Ornella; Nogarol, Anita; Santin, Michela; Randazzo, Giovanna; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) accounts for upto 6% of all cases with severe mental retardation and epilepsy. Clinical findings include developmental delay, severely impaired expressive language, ataxic gait, tremulousness of limbs and a typical behavioral profile including a happy demeanour, hyperactive behavior and low attention span. Seizures, abnormal electroencephalogram, microcephaly and scoliosis are observed in >80% of patients. Cognitive, language and orthopedic problems must be addressed with vigorous rehabilitation programs. Classification of functioning disability and health, children and youth adaptation (ICF-CY) can provide the most adequate framework to describe the condition of the persons towards whom rehabilitative efforts are concentrated. The aim of the study is to test whether the ICF-CY framework is effectively able to capture the various dimensions of health in AS. We applied the ICF-CY, to the detail of second level codes, to a cohort of 11 patients with AS of various ages. The coding was obtained by the multi-professional team following these children for the rehabilitation program. The functional profile obtained applying the ICF-CY is complete and comparable with the characteristics of the syndrome described in literature. The possibility of highlighting not only the problems but also the points of strength appears as very helpful. The second level codes may be too broad to provide insight in the clinical and rehabilitative peculiarities, and the use of the full power of the classification may be more advisable for clinical use. This prelimiary study shows that ICF-CY is a valid tool to frame the clinical characteristics of a complex syndrome as AS, and may give a strong foundation for the rehabilitation programming.

  14. Social-ecology networks : building connections for sustainable landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Opdam, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans adapt their landscapes, their living environment. Sustainable use of the various landscape benefits requires that land owners and users collaborate in managing ecological networks. Because the government is stepping back as the organizer of coordinated landscape adaptation, we need new landscape planning approaches that enhance collaboration by building social networks and link them to ecological networks. In this farewell address I will explain why the social-ecological network is a p...

  15. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  16. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  17. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  18. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  19. Classification of breast masses in ultrasound images using self-adaptive differential evolution extreme learning machine and rough set feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabusankarlal, Kadayanallur Mahadevan; Thirumoorthy, Palanisamy; Manavalan, Radhakrishnan

    2017-04-01

    A method using rough set feature selection and extreme learning machine (ELM) whose learning strategy and hidden node parameters are optimized by self-adaptive differential evolution (SaDE) algorithm for classification of breast masses is investigated. A pathologically proven database of 140 breast ultrasound images, including 80 benign and 60 malignant, is used for this study. A fast nonlocal means algorithm is applied for speckle noise removal, and multiresolution analysis of undecimated discrete wavelet transform is used for accurate segmentation of breast lesions. A total of 34 features, including 29 textural and five morphological, are applied to a [Formula: see text]-fold cross-validation scheme, in which more relevant features are selected by quick-reduct algorithm, and the breast masses are discriminated into benign or malignant using SaDE-ELM classifier. The diagnosis accuracy of the system is assessed using parameters, such as accuracy (Ac), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC), and area ([Formula: see text]) under receiver operating characteristics curve. The performance of the proposed system is also compared with other classifiers, such as support vector machine and ELM. The results indicated that the proposed SaDE algorithm has superior performance with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] compared to other classifiers.

  20. LANDSCAPE PLANNING IN UKRAINE: THE FIRST LANDSCAPE-PLANNING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Rudenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.

  1. Heritage landscape structure analysis in surrounding environment of the Grand Canal Yangzhou section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan

    2018-03-01

    The Yangzhou section of the Grand Canal is selected for a case study in this paper. The ZY-3 satellite images of 2016 are adopted as the data source. RS and GIS are used to analyze the landscape classification of the surrounding landscape of the Grand Canal, and the classification results are precisely evaluated. Next, the overall features of the landscape pattern are analyzed. The results showed that the overall accuracy is 82.5% and the Kappa coefficient is 78.17% in the Yangzhou section. The producer’s accuracy of the water landscape is the highest, followed by that of the other landscape, farmland landscape, garden and forest landscape, architectural landscape. The user’s accuracy of different landscape types can be ranked in a descending order, as the water landscape, farmland landscape, road landscape, architectural landscape, other landscape, garden and forest landscape. The farmland landscape and the architectural landscape are the top advantageous landscape types of the heritage site. The research findings can provide basic data for landscape protection, management and sustainable development of the Grand Canal Yangzhou section.

  2. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  3. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  4. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  5. Disposable Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  6. Epigenetic Inheritance Across the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Vaughn Whipple

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  7. Epigenetic Inheritance across the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Amy V; Holeski, Liza M

    2016-01-01

    The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here, we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  8. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  9. Adaptive Leadership in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Leaders’ ability to quickly adapt IT practices is especially critical in today’s increasingly turbulent environment with frequent changes in the competitive and technological landscape. However, developing such adaptive leadership is a difficult and complex process. Often, underlying assumptions...

  10. Classifying Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes seventeen game classifications. The classifications were chosen on the basis of diversity, ranging from pre-digital classification (e.g. Murray 1952), over game studies classifications (e.g. Elverdam & Aarseth 2007) to classifications of drinking games (e.g. LaBrie et...... al. 2013). The analysis aims at three goals: The classifications’ internal consistency, the abstraction of classification criteria and the identification of differences in classification across fields and/or time. Especially the abstraction of classification criteria can be used in future endeavors...... into the topic of game classifications....

  11. Characterising landscape variation through spatial folksonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Derungs, Curdin; Purves, Ross S

    2016-01-01

    Describing current, past and future landscapes for inventory and policy making purposes requires classifications capturing variation in, for example, land use and land cover. Typical land cover classifi- cations for such purposes result from a top-down process and rely on expert conceptualisations, and thus provide limited space for incorporating more widely held views of key landscape elements. In this paper we introduce the notion of spatial folksonomies, which we define as a tuple linking ...

  12. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendro, Ivan G; Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim; Schenk, Martijn F; De Visser, J Arjan G M

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well. (paper)

  13. Cooling towers in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cooling tower as a large technical construction is one of the most original industrial buildings. It sticks out as an outlandish element in our building landscape, a giant which cannot be compared with the traditional forms of technical buildings. If it is constructed as a reinforced-concrete hyperboloid, its shape goes beyond all limits of building construction. Judgment of these highly individual constructions is only possible by applying a novel standard breaking completely with tradition. This new scale of height and dimension in industrial construction, and in particular the modern cooling tower, requires painstaking care and design and adaptation to the landscape around it. (orig.) [de

  14. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  15. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  16. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    destination—whereas the natural evolution of landscape has no such goal. Goals will become an essential feature of landscape prediction. The presence of a goal potentially increases our ability to predict, provided it is possible to use feedback (i.e., management) to nudge the system back in the "right" direction when it starts to stray. Under a regime of accelerating technology the closest we can get to predicting the longer term future of landscape is adaptive management, which at large scale is really geoengineer the system. The goal presumably would be to maintain a condition conducive to human well-being, for example to maintain a suitable fraction of global arable land. A successful "prediction" would be to stay within an envelope of states consistent with that goal. We cannot say, however, in what specific state the landscape will be at any time beyond the near future; this will depend on the future sequence of management decisions, which are, like the system they are managing, unpredictable, except shortly before they are implemented. The landscape of the future will thus likely be the result of a series of quick fixes to previous trends in landscape change. Similar comments apply to the prediction, or management, of climate. There is of course no guarantee that it will be possible to stay within the desired envelope of well-being.

  17. Unsupervised Classification Using Immune Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Muallim, M. T.; El-Kouatly, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unsupervised classification algorithm based on clonal selection principle named Unsupervised Clonal Selection Classification (UCSC) is proposed in this paper. The new proposed algorithm is data driven and self-adaptive, it adjusts its parameters to the data to make the classification operation as fast as possible. The performance of UCSC is evaluated by comparing it with the well known K-means algorithm using several artificial and real-life data sets. The experiments show that the proposed U...

  18. Principles for ecological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis H. Grossman; Patrick Bourgeron; Wolf-Dieter N. Busch; David T. Cleland; William Platts; G. Ray; C. Robins; Gary Roloff

    1999-01-01

    The principal purpose of any classification is to relate common properties among different entities to facilitate understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes. In the context of this volume, it is to facilitate ecosystem stewardship, i.e., to help support ecosystem conservation and management objectives.

  19. Navigating the Interface Between Landscape Genetics and Landscape Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Storfer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequencing data become increasingly available for non-model organisms, a shift has occurred in the focus of studies of the geographic distribution of genetic variation. Whereas landscape genetics studies primarily focus on testing the effects of landscape variables on gene flow and genetic population structure, landscape genomics studies focus on detecting candidate genes under selection that indicate possible local adaptation. Navigating the transition between landscape genomics and landscape genetics can be challenging. The number of molecular markers analyzed has shifted from what used to be a few dozen loci to thousands of loci and even full genomes. Although genome scale data can be separated into sets of neutral loci for analyses of gene flow and population structure and putative loci under selection for inference of local adaptation, there are inherent differences in the questions that are addressed in the two study frameworks. We discuss these differences and their implications for study design, marker choice and downstream analysis methods. Similar to the rapid proliferation of analysis methods in the early development of landscape genetics, new analytical methods for detection of selection in landscape genomics studies are burgeoning. We focus on genome scan methods for detection of selection, and in particular, outlier differentiation methods and genetic-environment association tests because they are the most widely used. Use of genome scan methods requires an understanding of the potential mismatches between the biology of a species and assumptions inherent in analytical methods used, which can lead to high false positive rates of detected loci under selection. Key to choosing appropriate genome scan methods is an understanding of the underlying demographic structure of study populations, and such data can be obtained using neutral loci from the generated genome-wide data or prior knowledge of a species

  20. Management for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Innes; Linda A. Joyce; Seppo Kellomaki; Bastiaan Louman; Aynslie Ogden; Ian Thompson; Matthew Ayres; Chin Ong; Heru Santoso; Brent Sohngen; Anita Wreford

    2009-01-01

    This chapter develops a framework to explore examples of adaptation options that could be used to ensure that the ecosystem services provided by forests are maintained under future climates. The services are divided into broad areas within which managers can identify specific management goals for individual forests or landscapes. Adaptation options exist for the major...

  1. Object-Based Classification of Grasslands from High Resolution Satellite Image Time Series Using Gaussian Mean Map Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailys Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the classification of grasslands using high resolution satellite image time series. Grasslands considered in this work are semi-natural elements in fragmented landscapes, i.e., they are heterogeneous and small elements. The first contribution of this study is to account for grassland heterogeneity while working at the object level by modeling its pixels distributions by a Gaussian distribution. To measure the similarity between two grasslands, a new kernel is proposed as a second contribution: the α -Gaussian mean kernel. It allows one to weight the influence of the covariance matrix when comparing two Gaussian distributions. This kernel is introduced in support vector machines for the supervised classification of grasslands from southwest France. A dense intra-annual multispectral time series of the Formosat-2 satellite is used for the classification of grasslands’ management practices, while an inter-annual NDVI time series of Formosat-2 is used for old and young grasslands’ discrimination. Results are compared to other existing pixel- and object-based approaches in terms of classification accuracy and processing time. The proposed method is shown to be a good compromise between processing speed and classification accuracy. It can adapt to the classification constraints, and it encompasses several similarity measures known in the literature. It is appropriate for the classification of small and heterogeneous objects such as grasslands.

  2. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  3. [Characteristic study on village landscape patterns in Sichuan Basin hilly region based on high resolution IKONOS remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shoucheng; Liu, Wenquan; Cheng, Xu; Ellis, Erle C

    2005-10-01

    To realize the landscape programming of agro-ecosystem management, landscape-stratification can provide us the best understanding of landscape ecosystem at very detailed scales. For this purpose, the village landscapes in densely populated Jintang and Jianyang Counties of Sichuan Basin hilly region were mapped from high resolution (1 m) IKONOS satellite imagery by using a standardized 4 level ecological landscape classification and mapping system in a regionally-representative sample of five 500 x 500 m2 landscape quadrats (sample plots). Based on these maps, the spatial patterns were analyzed by landscape indicators, which demonstrated a large variety of landscape types or ecotopes across the village landscape of this region, with diversity indexes ranging from 1.08 to 2.26 at different levels of the landscape classification system. The richness indices ranged from 42.2% to 58.6 %, except that for the landcover at 85 %. About 12.5 % of the ecotopes were distributed in the same way in each landscape sample, and the remaining 87.5% were distributed differently. The landscape fragmentation indices varied from 2.93 to 4.27 across sample plots, and from 2.86 to 5.63 across classification levels. The population density and the road and hamlet areas had strong linear correlations with some landscape indicators, and especially, the correlation coefficients of hamlet areas with fractal indexes and fragmental dimensions were 0.957* and 0.991**, respectively. The differences in most landscape pattern indices across sample plots and landscape classes were statistically significant, indicating that cross-scale mapping and classification of village landscapes could provide more detailed information on landscape patterns than those from a single level of classification.

  4. Research using energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin

    2007-01-01

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  5. Identifying the characteristic of SundaParahiyangan landscape for a model of sustainable agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, M. Z.; Nurhayati, H. S. A.; Mugnisjah, W. Q.

    2017-10-01

    This study was an explorative study of the various forms of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Sundanese people in the context of sustainable agriculture. The qualitative method was used to identify SundaParahiyangan landscape by using Rapid Participatory Rural Appraisal throughsemi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field survey. The Landscape Characteristic Assessment and Community Sustainability Assessment were used to analyze the characteristic of landscape to achieve the sustainable agricultural landscape criteria proposed by US Department of Agriculture. The results revealed that the SundaParahiyangan agricultural landscape has a unique characteristic as a result of the long-term adaptation of agricultural society to theirlandscape through a learning process for generations. In general, this character was reflected in the typical of Sundanese’s agroecosystems such as forest garden, mixed garden, paddy field, and home garden. In addition, concept of kabuyutan is one of the TEKs related to understanding and utilization of landscape has been adapted on revitalizing the role of landscape surrounding the agroecosystem as the buffer zone by calculating and designating protected areas. To support the sustainability of production area, integrated practices of agroforestry with low-external-input and sustainable agriculture (LEISA) system can be applied in utilizing and managing agricultural resources.

  6. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  7. Landscape analysis: Theoretical considerations and practical needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.E.; Cleaves, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous systems of land classification have been proposed. Most have led directly to or have been driven by an author's philosophy of earth-forming processes. However, the practical need of classifying land for planning and management purposes requires that a system lead to predictions of the results of management activities. We propose a landscape classification system composed of 11 units, from realm (a continental mass) to feature (a splash impression). The classification concerns physical aspects rather than economic or social factors; and aims to merge land inventory with dynamic processes. Landscape units are organized using a hierarchical system so that information may be assembled and communicated at different levels of scale and abstraction. Our classification uses a geomorphic systems approach that emphasizes the geologic-geomorphic attributes of the units. Realm, major division, province, and section are formulated by subdividing large units into smaller ones. For the larger units we have followed Fenneman's delineations, which are well established in the North American literature. Areas and districts are aggregated into regions and regions into sections. Units smaller than areas have, in practice, been subdivided into zones and smaller units if required. We developed the theoretical framework embodied in this classification from practical applications aimed at land use planning and land management in Maryland (eastern Piedmont Province near Baltimore) and Utah (eastern Uinta Mountains). ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  9. Landscape Architecture in Contemporary Danish Suburban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roden, Tina Maria

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate and re-think the both loved and criticised suburbia and its incompatibility in relation to the current environmental and climate prospects, these projects suggest that a landscape orientated approach to (sub)urban development can provide more adaptive and flexible frameworks to meet...

  10. Application of adaptive boosting to EP-derived multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MLFN) to improve benign/malignant breast cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Walker H., Jr.; Masters, Timothy D.; Lo, Joseph Y.; McKee, Dan

    2001-07-01

    A new neural network technology was developed for improving the benign/malignant diagnosis of breast cancer using mammogram findings. A new paradigm, Adaptive Boosting (AB), uses a markedly different theory in solutioning Computational Intelligence (CI) problems. AB, a new machine learning paradigm, focuses on finding weak learning algorithm(s) that initially need to provide slightly better than random performance (i.e., approximately 55%) when processing a mammogram training set. Then, by successive development of additional architectures (using the mammogram training set), the adaptive boosting process improves the performance of the basic Evolutionary Programming derived neural network architectures. The results of these several EP-derived hybrid architectures are then intelligently combined and tested using a similar validation mammogram data set. Optimization focused on improving specificity and positive predictive value at very high sensitivities, where an analysis of the performance of the hybrid would be most meaningful. Using the DUKE mammogram database of 500 biopsy proven samples, on average this hybrid was able to achieve (under statistical 5-fold cross-validation) a specificity of 48.3% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 51.8% while maintaining 100% sensitivity. At 97% sensitivity, a specificity of 56.6% and a PPV of 55.8% were obtained.

  11. Combinatorial vector fields and the valley structure of fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive (downhill) walks are a computationally convenient way of analyzing the geometric structure of fitness landscapes. Their inherently stochastic nature has limited their mathematical analysis, however. Here we develop a framework that interprets adaptive walks as deterministic trajectories in combinatorial vector fields and in return associate these combinatorial vector fields with weights that measure their steepness across the landscape. We show that the combinatorial vector fields and their weights have a product structure that is governed by the neutrality of the landscape. This product structure makes practical computations feasible. The framework presented here also provides an alternative, and mathematically more convenient, way of defining notions of valleys, saddle points, and barriers in landscape. As an application, we propose a refined approximation for transition rates between macrostates that are associated with the valleys of the landscape.

  12. [Dynamic changes of landscape pattern and hemeroby in Ximen Island wetland, Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cui; Xie, Xue-Fen; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Bian, Hua-Jing; Xu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Abstract: The hemeroby type classification system of Ximen Island wetland of Zhejiang Province was established based on the multiple datasets: SOPT-5 image data with a spatial resolution of 5 m in 2007 and 2010, its wetland land cover and land use status, the National Land Use Classification (on trail), and sea area use classification of marine industry standards as well as remote sensing data features. Meanwhile, the dynamic relationship between the landscape pattern and the degree of hemeroby in Ximen Island was investigated with the landscape indices and hemeroby index (HI) derived from the landscape pattern index and GIS spatial analysis. The results showed that the wetland landscape spatial heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance index dropped, and the landscape shape index complexity was low. The human disturbance center developed from a dispersion type to a concentration type. The landscape type of the disturbance center was bare land and settlement. The HI rose up from the sea to the land. Settlement, wharf and traffic land had the highest HI. The HI of the mudflat cultivation, mudflats and raft-cultivation dramatically changed. Marine-terrestrial interlaced zone showed a low total HI with unstable characteristics. The number of patches declined of undisturbed, partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes. Mean patch areas of partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes increased, and that of the undisturbed decreased. Mean shape index of the undisturbed landscape decreased, while the partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes showed a trend of shape complication.

  13. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  14. Application of Source-Sink Landscape Influence Values to Commuter Traffic: A Case Study of Xiamen Island

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wu; Lina Tang; Huaxiang Chen; Ziyan Wang; Quanyi Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Landscape patterns are closely related to ecological processes. Different spatial scales and research methods may lead to different results. Therefore, it is crucial to choose suitable research methods when studying different landscape patterns and ecological processes. In the present study, the methods of source-sink landscape theory were applied to the interactions between urban landscape characteristics and commuter traffic behavior around the arterial roads in Xiamen Island. After classif...

  15. A method to incorporate uncertainty in the classification of remote sensing images

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Luísa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Júlio, Eduardo N. B. S.; Caetano, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate if the incorporation of the uncertainty associated with the classification of surface elements into the classification of landscape units (LUs) increases the results accuracy. To this end, a hybrid classification method is developed, including uncertainty information in the classification of very high spatial resolution multi-spectral satellite images, to obtain a map of LUs. The developed classification methodology includes the following...

  16. Landscape ecological security assessment based on projection pursuit in Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wu, Zhifeng; Lou, Quansheng; Huang, Huamei; Cheng, Jiong; Chen, Zhangli

    2012-04-01

    Regional landscape ecological security is an important issue for ecological security, and has a great influence on national security and social sustainable development. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China has experienced rapid economic development and intensive human activities in recent years. This study, based on landscape analysis, provides a method to discover the alteration of character among different landscape types and to understand the landscape ecological security status. Based on remotely sensed products of the Landsat 5 TM images in 1990 and the Landsat 7 ETM+ images in 2005, landscape classification maps of nine cities in the PRD were compiled by implementing Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System technology. Several indices, including aggregation, crush index, landscape shape index, Shannon's diversity index, landscape fragile index, and landscape security adjacent index, were applied to analyze spatial-temporal characteristics of landscape patterns in the PRD. A landscape ecological security index based on these outcomes was calculated by projection pursuit using genetic algorithm. The landscape ecological security of nine cities in the PRD was thus evaluated. The main results of this research are listed as follows: (1) from 1990 to 2005, the aggregation index, crush index, landscape shape index, and Shannon's diversity index of nine cities changed little in the PRD, while the landscape fragile index and landscape security adjacent index changed obviously. The landscape fragile index of nine cities showed a decreasing trend; however, the landscape security adjacent index has been increasing; (2) from 1990 to 2005, landscape ecology of the cities of Zhuhai and Huizhou maintained a good security situation. However, there was a relatively low value of ecological security in the cities of Dongguan and Foshan. Except for Foshan and Guangzhou, whose landscape ecological security situation were slightly improved, the cities had reduced

  17. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  18. Use of landscape-level river signatures in conservation planning: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available ecosystems of this area, a desktop approach, supplemented by aerial and land surveys, was used to devise a new river classification typology. This typology incorporated landscape attributes as surrogates for biodiversity patterns, resulting in defined...

  19. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  20. An Outline of the Evolution of Rural Cultural Landscapes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRZYSZTOF KORELESKI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the evolution of rural cultural landscapes in Poland against the background of landscape classification. It defines cultural landscape types and subtypes, based on several criteria of landscape classification, such as: genetic, morphological, functional, and economic. A review of rural landscapes, based on genetic criteria, considers the following historical periods: the primeval community, the feudalism, the manorial system, the industrial revolution, the interwar period of 1918 – 1939, the period of socialist economy, and market economy. The processes that most significantly influenced the contemporary shape of the rural landscape occurred just after the Second World War: urbanization and industrialization, settlement in western and northern territories, as well as structural and spatial transformations that took place after the year 1989 related to the promotion of sustainable and multifunctional development of rural areas.

  1. Spatially-Explicit Bayesian Information Entropy Metrics for Calibrating Landscape Transformation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Alexandridis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing spatial model performance often presents challenges related to the choice and suitability of traditional statistical methods in capturing the true validity and dynamics of the predicted outcomes. The stochastic nature of many of our contemporary spatial models of land use change necessitate the testing and development of new and innovative methodologies in statistical spatial assessment. In many cases, spatial model performance depends critically on the spatially-explicit prior distributions, characteristics, availability and prevalence of the variables and factors under study. This study explores the statistical spatial characteristics of statistical model assessment of modeling land use change dynamics in a seven-county study area in South-Eastern Wisconsin during the historical period of 1963–1990. The artificial neural network-based Land Transformation Model (LTM predictions are used to compare simulated with historical land use transformations in urban/suburban landscapes. We introduce a range of Bayesian information entropy statistical spatial metrics for assessing the model performance across multiple simulation testing runs. Bayesian entropic estimates of model performance are compared against information-theoretic stochastic entropy estimates and theoretically-derived accuracy assessments. We argue for the critical role of informational uncertainty across different scales of spatial resolution in informing spatial landscape model assessment. Our analysis reveals how incorporation of spatial and landscape information asymmetry estimates can improve our stochastic assessments of spatial model predictions. Finally our study shows how spatially-explicit entropic classification accuracy estimates can work closely with dynamic modeling methodologies in improving our scientific understanding of landscape change as a complex adaptive system and process.

  2. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  3. Patterns among the ashes: Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2010-01-01

    Landscape metrics, including host abundance and population density, were calculated using forest inventory and land cover data to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). The Random Forests classification algorithm in the R statistical environment was...

  4. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  5. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.

  6. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  7. Emotions Classification for Arabic Tweets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... learning methods for referring to all areas of detecting, analyzing, and classifying ... In this paper, an adaptive model is proposed for emotions classification of ... WEKA data mining tool is used to implement this model and evaluate the ... defined using vector representation, storing a numerical. "importance" ...

  8. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  9. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  10. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  11. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  12. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  13. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr Sara J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.

  14. Landscape metrics for three-dimension urban pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how landscape pattern determines population or ecosystem dynamics is crucial for managing our landscapes. Urban areas are becoming increasingly dominant social-ecological systems, so it is important to understand patterns of urbanization. Most studies of urban landscape pattern examine land-use maps in two dimensions because the acquisition of 3-dimensional information is difficult. We used Brista software based on Quickbird images and aerial photos to interpret the height of buildings, thus incorporating a 3-dimensional approach. We estimated the feasibility and accuracy of this approach. A total of 164,345 buildings in the Liaoning central urban agglomeration of China, which included seven cities, were measured. Twelve landscape metrics were proposed or chosen to describe the urban landscape patterns in 2- and 3-dimensional scales. The ecological and social meaning of landscape metrics were analyzed with multiple correlation analysis. The results showed that classification accuracy compared with field surveys was 87.6%, which means this method for interpreting building height was acceptable. The metrics effectively reflected the urban architecture in relation to number of buildings, area, height, 3-D shape and diversity aspects. We were able to describe the urban characteristics of each city with these metrics. The metrics also captured ecological and social meanings. The proposed landscape metrics provided a new method for urban landscape analysis in three dimensions.

  15. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  16. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  17. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Meixler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  18. A DEFINITION OF AUTHENTICITY CONCEPT IN CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Fadaei Nezhad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscape can be defined as the result of human interaction with nature over time, which has led to the formation of the many and diverse layers of value. Currently, the UNESCO World Heritage Centre has a unique role among other scientific associations. In recent years, the World Heritage Center has put efforts into developing a framework and measures for evaluation and management of cultural landscapes. Moreover, the concept of authenticity; as the transmitter of values and significance of cultural landscape, is considered as the key component in the process of cultural landscape conservation. A lot of scientific resources have pointed out the importance of authenticity in the process of conserving cultural landscapes. However, the role of authenticity within the domain of conservation of cultural landscapes has received little attention. One of the main reasons can be lack of adaptation between conventional definitions of UNESCO and international documents concerning the authenticity for including the flexible and dynamic structure of cultural landscapes around the world. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore and develop a flexible framework in order to redefine the concept of authenticity in relation to cultural landscapes, which has some overlaps with UNESCO definitions despite its differences. For developing this framework, Iranian-Islamic philosophy of Mollasadra is applied and described with some examples of cultural landscapes in Iran.

  19. BATS AND BT INSECT RESISTANCE ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A landscape model that utilizes land cover classification data, insect life history, insect movement, and bat foraging pressure is developed that addresses the implementation of genetically modified crops in the Winter Garden region of Texas. The principal strategy for delaying r...

  20. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...... submissions. The papers cover topics of state of the art contributions, features and classification, location context, language and semantics, music retrieval, and adaption and HCI....

  1. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  2. Using multi-date satellite imagery to monitor invasive grass species distribution in post-wildfire landscapes: An iterative, adaptable approach that employs open-source data and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Kumar, Sunil; Swallow, Aaron; Luizza, Matthew; Chignell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Among the most pressing concerns of land managers in post-wildfire landscapes are the establishment and spread of invasive species. Land managers need accurate maps of invasive species cover for targeted management post-disturbance that are easily transferable across space and time. In this study, we sought to develop an iterative, replicable methodology based on limited invasive species occurrence data, freely available remotely sensed data, and open source software to predict the distribution of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) in a post-wildfire landscape. We developed four species distribution models using eight spectral indices derived from five months of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data in 2014. These months corresponded to both cheatgrass growing period and time of field data collection in the study area. The four models were improved using an iterative approach in which a threshold for cover was established, and all models had high sensitivity values when tested on an independent dataset. We also quantified the area at highest risk for invasion in future seasons given 2014 distribution, topographic covariates, and seed dispersal limitations. These models demonstrate the effectiveness of using derived multi-date spectral indices as proxies for species occurrence on the landscape, the importance of selecting thresholds for invasive species cover to evaluate ecological risk in species distribution models, and the applicability of Landsat 8 OLI and the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for targeted invasive species management.

  3. Landscape sensitivity in a dynamic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Chuan; Jen, Chia-Horn

    2010-05-01

    Landscape sensitivity at different scales and topics is presented in this study. Methodological approach composed most of this paper. According to the environmental records in the south eastern Asia, the environment change is highly related with five factors, such as scale of influence area, background of environment characters, magnitude and frequency of events, thresholds of occurring hazards and influence by time factor. This paper tries to demonstrate above five points from historical and present data. It is found that landscape sensitivity is highly related to the degree of vulnerability of the land and the processes which put on the ground including human activities. The scale of sensitivity and evaluation of sensitivities is demonstrated in this paper by the data around east Asia. The methods of classification are mainly from the analysis of environmental data and the records of hazards. From the trend of rainfall records, rainfall intensity and change of temperature, the magnitude and frequency of earthquake, dust storm, days of draught, number of hazards, there are many coincidence on these factors with landscape sensitivities. In conclusion, the landscape sensitivities could be classified as four groups: physical stable, physical unstable, unstable, extremely unstable. This paper explain the difference.

  4. Applicability of Hydrologic Landscapes for Model Calibration ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pacific Northwest Hydrologic Landscapes (PNW HL) at the assessment unit scale has provided a solid conceptual classification framework to relate and transfer hydrologically meaningful information between watersheds without access to streamflow time series. A collection of techniques were applied to the HL assessment unit composition in watersheds across the Pacific Northwest to aggregate the hydrologic behavior of the Hydrologic Landscapes from the assessment unit scale to the watershed scale. This non-trivial solution both emphasizes HL classifications within the watershed that provide that majority of moisture surplus/deficit and considers the relative position (upstream vs. downstream) of these HL classifications. A clustering algorithm was applied to the HL-based characterization of assessment units within 185 watersheds to help organize watersheds into nine classes hypothesized to have similar hydrologic behavior. The HL-based classes were used to organize and describe hydrologic behavior information about watershed classes and both predictions and validations were independently performed with regard to the general magnitude of six hydroclimatic signature values. A second cluster analysis was then performed using the independently calculated signature values as similarity metrics, and it was found that the six signature clusters showed substantial overlap in watershed class membership to those in the HL-based classes. One hypothesis set forward from thi

  5. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  6. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  7. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  8. An evaluation of unsupervised and supervised learning algorithms for clustering landscape types in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Jochen; Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Stanislawski, Larry V.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of landscape type can inform cartographic generalization of hydrographic features, because landscape characteristics provide an important geographic context that affects variation in channel geometry, flow pattern, and network configuration. Landscape types are characterized by expansive spatial gradients, lacking abrupt changes between adjacent classes; and as having a limited number of outliers that might confound classification. The US Geological Survey (USGS) is exploring methods to automate generalization of features in the National Hydrography Data set (NHD), to associate specific sequences of processing operations and parameters with specific landscape characteristics, thus obviating manual selection of a unique processing strategy for every NHD watershed unit. A chronology of methods to delineate physiographic regions for the United States is described, including a recent maximum likelihood classification based on seven input variables. This research compares unsupervised and supervised algorithms applied to these seven input variables, to evaluate and possibly refine the recent classification. Evaluation metrics for unsupervised methods include the Davies–Bouldin index, the Silhouette index, and the Dunn index as well as quantization and topographic error metrics. Cross validation and misclassification rate analysis are used to evaluate supervised classification methods. The paper reports the comparative analysis and its impact on the selection of landscape regions. The compared solutions show problems in areas of high landscape diversity. There is some indication that additional input variables, additional classes, or more sophisticated methods can refine the existing classification.

  9. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  10. Evolutionary Effect on the Embodied Beauty of Landscape Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiaoxiang; He, Xianyou; Chen, Guangyao

    2018-01-01

    According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2). The results showed that reaction of aesthetic ratings for classical landscape architectures was faster than those of classical nonlandscape architectures. Furthermore, only the reaction of beautiful judgment of classical landscape architecture photograph was significantly faster when the reaction button was in the near position to the presenting photograph than those in the position of far away from the presenting photograph. This finding suggests a facilitated effect for the aesthetic perception of classical landscape architectures due to their corresponding components including water and green plants with strong evolutionary implications. Furthermore, this sense of beauty for classical landscape architectures might be the embodied approach to beauty based on the viewpoint of evolutionary aesthetics and embodied cognition.

  11. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social......‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...

  12. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  13. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However,

  14. Exploring Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in the potential energy landscapes approach are highlighted, including both theoretical and computational contributions. Treating the high dimensionality of molecular and condensed matter systems of contemporary interest is important for understanding how emergent properties are encoded in the landscape and for calculating these properties while faithfully representing barriers between different morphologies. The pathways characterized in full dimensionality, which are used to construct kinetic transition networks, may prove useful in guiding such calculations. The energy landscape perspective has also produced new procedures for structure prediction and analysis of thermodynamic properties. Basin-hopping global optimization, with alternative acceptance criteria and generalizations to multiple metric spaces, has been used to treat systems ranging from biomolecules to nanoalloy clusters and condensed matter. This review also illustrates how all this methodology, developed in the context of chemical physics, can be transferred to landscapes defined by cost functions associated with machine learning.

  15. Digital landscapes of imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-01-01

    Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence be...

  16. Appendix E: Research papers. Use of remote sensing in landscape stratification for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanturf, J. A.; Heimbuch, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A refinement to the matrix approach to environmental impact assessment is to use landscape units in place of separate environmental elements in the analysis. Landscape units can be delineated by integrating remotely sensed data and available single-factor data. A remote sensing approach to landscape stratification is described and the conditions under which it is superior to other approaches that require single-factor maps are indicated. Flowcharts show the steps necessary to develop classification criteria, delineate units and a map legend, and use the landscape units in impact assessment. Application of the approach to assessing impacts of a transmission line in Montana is presented to illustrate the method.

  17. IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of miss-classifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support these hypotheses,...

  18. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  19. Situating adaptation: How governance challenges and perceptions of uncertainty influence adaptation in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carina Wyborn; Laurie Yung; Daniel Murphy; Daniel R. Williams

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation is situated within multiple, interacting social, political, and economic forces. Adaptation pathways envision adaptation as a continual pathway of change and response embedded within this broader sociopolitical context. Pathways emphasize that current decisions are both informed by past actions and shape the landscape of future options. This research...

  20. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  1. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  2. Discrimination of Settlement and Industrial Area Using Landscape Metrics in Rural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and precise information of land-use and land-cover (LULC in rural area is essential for land-use planning, environment and energy management. The confusion in mapping residential and industrial areas brings problems in energy management, environmental management and sustainable land use development. However, they remain ambiguous in the former rural LULC mapping, and this insufficient supervision leads to inefficient land exploitation and a great waste of land resources. Hence, the extent and area of residential and industrial cover need to be revealed urgently. However, spectral and textural information is not sufficient for classification heterogeneity due to the similarity between different LULC types. Meanwhile, the contextual information about the relationship between a LULC feature and its surroundings still has potential in classification application. This paper attempts to discriminate settlement and industry area using landscape metrics. A feasible classification scheme integrating landscape metrics, chessboard segmentation and object-based image analysis (OBIA is proposed. First LULC map is generated from GeoEye-1 image, which delineated distribution of different land-cover materials using traditional OBIA method with spectrum and texture information. Then, a chessboard segmentation of the whole LULC map is conducted to create landscape units in a uniform spatial area. Landscape characteristics in each square of chessboard are adopted in the classification algorithm subsequently. To analyze landscape unit scale effect, a variety of chessboard scales are tested, with overall accuracy ranging from 75% to 88%, and Kappa coefficient from 0.51 to 0.76. Optimal chessboard scale is obtained through accuracy assessment comparison. This classification scheme is then compared to two other approaches: a top-down hierarchical classification network using only spectral, textural and shape properties, and lacunarity based hierarchical

  3. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  4. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  5. Differential responses of cryptic bat species to the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Paul R; Barlow, Kate; Bunnefeld, Nils; Briggs, Philip; Gajas Roig, Clara; Park, Kirsty J

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is a key global driver in the modification of land use and has been linked to population declines even in widespread and relatively common species. Cities comprise a complex assortment of habitat types yet we know relatively little about the effects of their composition and spatial configuration on species distribution. Although many bat species exploit human resources, the majority of species are negatively impacted by urbanization. Here, we use data from the National Bat Monitoring Programme, a long-running citizen science scheme, to assess how two cryptic European bat species respond to the urban landscape. A total of 124 × 1 km(2) sites throughout Britain were surveyed. The landscape surrounding each site was mapped and classified into discrete biotope types (e.g., woodland). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences in the response to the urban environment between the two species, and which landscape factors were associated with the distributions of P. pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus. The relative prevalence of P. pygmaeus compared to P. pipistrellus was greater in urban landscapes with a higher density of rivers and lakes, whereas P. pipistrellus was frequently detected in landscapes comprising a high proportion of green space (e.g., parklands). Although P. pipistrellus is thought to be well adapted to the urban landscape, we found a strong negative response to urbanization at a relatively local scale (1 km), whilst P. pygmaeus was detected more regularly in wooded urban landscapes containing freshwater. These results show differential habitat use at a landscape scale of two morphologically similar species, indicating that cryptic species may respond differently to anthropogenic disturbance. Even species considered relatively common and well adapted to the urban landscape may respond negatively to the built environment highlighting the future challenges involved in maintaining biodiversity within an increasingly urbanized

  6. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  7. Scale Mismatches in Management of Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara T. Borgström

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes constitute the future environment for most of the world's human population. An increased understanding of the urbanization process and of the effects of urbanization at multiple scales is, therefore, key to ensuring human well-being. In many conventional natural resource management regimes, incomplete knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and institutional constraints often leads to institutional management frameworks that do not match the scale of ecological patterns and processes. In this paper, we argue that scale mismatches are particularly pronounced in urban landscapes. Urban green spaces provide numerous important ecosystem services to urban citizens, and the management of these urban green spaces, including recognition of scales, is crucial to the well-being of the citizens. From a qualitative study of the current management practices in five urban green spaces within the Greater Stockholm Metropolitan Area, Sweden, we found that 1 several spatial, temporal, and functional scales are recognized, but the cross-scale interactions are often neglected, and 2 spatial and temporal meso-scales are seldom given priority. One potential effect of the neglect of ecological cross-scale interactions in these highly fragmented landscapes is a gradual reduction in the capacity of the ecosystems to provide ecosystem services. Two important strategies for overcoming urban scale mismatches are suggested: 1 development of an integrative view of the whole urban social-ecological landscape, and 2 creation of adaptive governance systems to support practical management.

  8. Forest landscape restoration : reconciling biodiversity conservation with local livelihoods in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Middendorp, Romaike Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion and agricultural intensification are important drivers of loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services on which local communities depend. Resilient agricultural landscapes are crucial to safeguard food security and adapt to environmental and climate changes. An increasing number of policies and programs target forest landscape restoration but lack the scientific basis to ensure sustainable outcomes. This dissertation explores the potential of forest landscape restora...

  9. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  10. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

  11. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

  12. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  13. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...... that call for inquiries into the theoretical foundation of bibliographic classification theory....

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of information technologies and, in particular, learning management systems, increases opportunities of teachers and students in reaching their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help organize and monitor training, collect progress statistics and take into account the individual characteristics of each user. Currently, there is a huge inventory of both paid and free systems are physically located both on college servers and in the cloud, offering different features sets of different licensing scheme and the cost. This creates the problem of choosing the best system. This problem is partly due to the lack of comprehensive classification of such systems. Analysis of more than 30 of the most common now automated learning management systems has shown that a classification of such systems should be carried out according to certain criteria, under which the same type of system can be considered. As classification features offered by the author are: cost, functionality, modularity, keeping the customer’s requirements, the integration of content, the physical location of a system, adaptability training. Considering the learning management system within these classifications and taking into account the current trends of their development, it is possible to identify the main requirements to them: functionality, reliability, ease of use, low cost, support for SCORM standard or Tin Can API, modularity and adaptability. According to the requirements at the Software Department of FITR BNTU under the guidance of the author since 2009 take place the development, the use and continuous improvement of their own learning management system.

  15. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  16. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...

  17. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence between reality and virtuality, into the modeling of spatial movements, from which do not arise contraries, but only interdependencies. It is a particular type of representation that takes shape via the digital in motion and provides new tools for urban representation.

  18. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  19. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  20. Mapping the game landscape: Locating genres using functional classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlskog, Steve; Kamstrup, Andreas; Aarseth, Espen J.

    2009-01-01

    Are typical computer game genres still valid descriptors and useful for describing game structure and game content? Games have changed from simple to complex and from single function to multi function. By identifying structural differences in game elements we develop a more nuanced model to categ......Are typical computer game genres still valid descriptors and useful for describing game structure and game content? Games have changed from simple to complex and from single function to multi function. By identifying structural differences in game elements we develop a more nuanced model...

  1. Modeling forest harvesting effects on landscape pattern in the Northwest Wisconsin Pine Barrens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker C. Radeloff; David J. Mladenoff; Eric J. Gustafson; Robert M. Scheller; Patrick A. Zollner; Hong S. Heilman; H. Resit Akcakaya

    2006-01-01

    Forest management shapes landscape patterns, and these patterns often differ significantly from those typical for natural disturbance regimes. This may affect wildlife habitat and other aspects of ecosystem function. Our objective was to examine the effects of different forest management decisions on landscape pattern in a fire adapted ecosystem. We used a factorial...

  2. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  3. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  4. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  5. Enterprise Potential: Essence, Classification and Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turylo Anatolii M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers existing approaches to classification of the enterprise potential as an economic notion. It offers own vision of classification of enterprise potential, which meets modern tendencies of enterprise development. Classification ensures a possibility of a wider description and assessment of enterprise potential and also allows identification of its most significant characteristics. Classification of the enterprise potential is developed by different criteria: by functions, by resource support, by ability to adapt, by the level of detection, by the spectrum of taking into account possibilities, by the period of coverage of possibilities and by the level of use. Analysis of components of the enterprise potential allows obtaining a complete and trustworthy assessment of the state of an enterprise. Adaptation potential of an enterprise is based on principles systemacy and dynamism, it characterises possibilities of adjustment of an enterprise to external and internal economic conditions.

  6. Adaptive Automation Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    with an automated system to a real-world adaptive au- tomation system implementation. There have been plenty of adaptive automation 17 Adaptive...of systems without increasing manpower requirements by allocating routine tasks to automated aids, improving safety through the use of au- tomated ...between intermediate levels of au- tomation , explicitly defining which human task a given level automates. Each model aids the creation and classification

  7. AN OBJECT-BASED METHOD FOR CHINESE LANDFORM TYPES CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Landform classification is a necessary task for various fields of landscape and regional planning, for example for landscape evaluation, erosion studies, hazard prediction, et al. This study proposes an improved object-based classification for Chinese landform types using the factor importance analysis of random forest and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. In this research, based on 1km DEM of China, the combination of the terrain factors extracted from DEM are selected by correlation analysis and Sheffield's entropy method. Random forest classification tree is applied to evaluate the importance of the terrain factors, which are used as multi-scale segmentation thresholds. Then the GLCM is conducted for the knowledge base of classification. The classification result was checked by using the 1:4,000,000 Chinese Geomorphological Map as reference. And the overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is 5.7% higher than ISODATA unsupervised classification, and 15.7% higher than the traditional object-based classification method.

  8. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  9. A landscape analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  10. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchell, J E

    1983-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  11. Landscape Planning of Schoolyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.

  12. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  13. Landscapes in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  14. Integration Research for Shaping Sustainable Regional Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Brunckhorst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social systems are complex and entwined. Complex social-ecological systems interact in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Their interactions can contribute both positive and negative consequences in terms of sustainability and the context in which they exist affecting future landscape change. Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social, and environmental change. Such regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments, and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. Science and policy for “sustainable” futures need to be integrated at the applied “on-ground” level where products and effects of system interactions are fully included, even if unobserved. Government agencies and funding bodies often consider such research as “high-risk.” This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a level of holistic integration through close engagement with landholders and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative and innovative on-ground experimental models. In retrospect, such projects have to some degree integrated through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis, and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and acceptable in business, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.

  15. A practical guide to environmental association analysis in landscape genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rellstab Christian; Gugerli Felix; Eckert Andrew J.; Hancock Angela M.; Holderegger Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Landscape genomics is an emerging research field that aims to identify the environmental factors that shape adaptive genetic variation and the gene variants that drive local adaptation. Its development has been facilitated by next generation sequencing which allows for screening thousands to millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in many individuals and populations at reasonable costs. In parallel data sets describing environmental factors have greatly improved and increasingly become pu...

  16. An ecological classification system for the central hardwoods region: The Hoosier National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Van Kley; George R. Parker

    1993-01-01

    This study, a multifactor ecological classification system, using vegetation, soil characteristics, and physiography, was developed for the landscape of the Hoosier National Forest in Southern Indiana. Measurements of ground flora, saplings, and canopy trees from selected stands older than 80 years were subjected to TWINSPAN classification and DECORANA ordination....

  17. Using graph approach for managing connectivity in integrative landscape modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabotin, Michael; Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Libres, Aline; Lagacherie, Philippe; Crevoisier, David; Moussa, Roger

    2013-04-01

    FLUID-landr library has been developed in order i) to be used with no GIS expert skills needed (common gis formats can be read and simplified spatial management is provided), ii) to easily develop adapted rules of landscape discretization and graph creation to follow spatialized model requirements and iii) to allow model developers to manage dynamic and complex spatial topology. Graph management in OpenFLUID are shown with i) examples of hydrological modelizations on complex farmed landscapes and ii) the new implementation of Geo-MHYDAS tool based on the OpenFLUID-landr library, which allows to discretize a landscape and create graph structure for the MHYDAS model requirements.

  18. Optimization of landscape services under uncoordinated management by multiple landowners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Miguel; Correia, Otília; Beja, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    objectives. It may thus be adapted to other socio-ecological systems, particularly where specific patterns of landscape heterogeneity are to be maintained despite imperfect management by multiple landowners.

  19. Optimization of landscape services under uncoordinated management by multiple landowners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Porto

    and quantifiable objectives. It may thus be adapted to other socio-ecological systems, particularly where specific patterns of landscape heterogeneity are to be maintained despite imperfect management by multiple landowners.

  20. Analyzing landscape changes in the Bafa Lake Nature Park of Turkey using remote sensing and landscape structure metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbah, Hayriye; Deniz, Bulent; Kara, Baris; Kesgin, Birsen

    2010-06-01

    Bafa Lake Nature Park is one of Turkey's most important legally protected areas. This study aimed at analyzing spatial change in the park environment by using object-based classification technique and landscape structure metrics. SPOT 2X (1994) and ASTER (2005) images are the primary research materials. Results show that artificial surfaces, low maqui, garrigue, and moderately high maqui covers have increased and coniferous forests, arable lands, permanent crop, and high maqui covers have decreased; coniferous forest, high maqui, grassland, and saline areas are in a disappearance stage of the land transformation; and the landscape pattern is more fragmented outside the park boundaries. The management actions should support ongoing vegetation regeneration, mitigate transformation of vegetation structure to less dense and discontinuous cover, control the dynamics at the agricultural-natural landscape interface, and concentrate on relatively low but steady increase of artificial surfaces.

  1. The String Landscape: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.

    2015-02-01

    In keeping with the "Perspectives" theme of this volume, this Chapter provides a personal perspective on the string landscape. Along the way, the perspectives of many other physicists are discussed as well. No attempt is made to provide a thorough and balanced review of the field, and indeed there is a slight emphasis on my own contributions to this field, as these contributions have been critical to forming my perspective. This Chapter is adapted from a Colloquium which I have delivered at a number of institutions worldwide, and I have attempted to retain the informal and non-technical spirit and style of this Colloquium presentation as much as possible.

  2. Inferring Microbial Fitness Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    what specific mutations , avian influenza viruses will adapt to novel human hosts; or how readily infectious bacteria will escape antibiotics or the...microbes as they adapt? For example, what determines how quickly, and by what specific mutations , avian influenza viruses will adapt to novel human...Ribosome-Footprint and mRNA Measurements Provide Insights into Dynamics and Regulation of Yeast Translation, Cell Reports, (02 2016): 1787. doi

  3. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  4. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  5. Landscape & Imagination: riflettere insieme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Zoppi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, at La Villette University, was four-days of debate on 2-4 Mai 2013, in which faculty members of all the world discussed on methods and experiences in teaching landscape. The conference was organized in multiple sessions: history, theories, representation, process, science and governance. All the fields discussed were related to the main problem of the identity of territories in the landscape project -from the theories to the practices- and applied in a very large range of different situations: from the rural world between conservation and transformations to the coastal areas under the pressure of tourism, from the ecology in the city life renovation to the land use control and project by community and the emergency management in natural catastrophes.

  6. Effectiveness of Partition and Graph Theoretic Clustering Algorithms for Multiple Source Partial Discharge Pattern Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network and Its Adaptive Version: A Critique Based on Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD is a major cause of failure of power apparatus and hence its measurement and analysis have emerged as a vital field in assessing the condition of the insulation system. Several efforts have been undertaken by researchers to classify PD pulses utilizing artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, the focus has shifted to the identification of multiple sources of PD since it is often encountered in real-time measurements. Studies have indicated that classification of multi-source PD becomes difficult with the degree of overlap and that several techniques such as mixed Weibull functions, neural networks, and wavelet transformation have been attempted with limited success. Since digital PD acquisition systems record data for a substantial period, the database becomes large, posing considerable difficulties during classification. This research work aims firstly at analyzing aspects concerning classification capability during the discrimination of multisource PD patterns. Secondly, it attempts at extending the previous work of the authors in utilizing the novel approach of probabilistic neural network versions for classifying moderate sets of PD sources to that of large sets. The third focus is on comparing the ability of partition-based algorithms, namely, the labelled (learning vector quantization and unlabelled (K-means versions, with that of a novel hypergraph-based clustering method in providing parsimonious sets of centers during classification.

  7. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  8. The Role of Anthropogenic Modifications in Landscape and Hydrological Organization of Mayma River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenets Liliya Fedorovna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The landscape and hydrological organization of the territory is a mosaic of landscapes with different modes of water yield and water balance structure. The landscape and hydrological approach becomes very important under the lack of hydrometeorological information. The factors determining the landscape and hydrological organization of the Mayma river basin, located in the Russian Altai, are considered in the present article. The classification of the landscape and hydrological complexes based on the static and dynamic indicators is performed. The set of interpretive landscape and hydrological maps has been developed. The climatic and hydrological conditions provide the excess moisture over a larger part of the basin. The lithological and hydrological background is characterized by the predominance of rocks and thin weathering products. A peculiarity of the studied area is the prevalence of transit locations that creates risks of dangerous hydrological processes in case of excessive humidity. Using the remote sensing data, the main classes of ground cover are described. A significant anthropogenic impact on the basin landscapes is observed. The analysis of soil structure shows that anthropogenically modified (mostly situated on slopes soils make up approximately 30 %. It is assumed that it leads to the deterioration of the landscape and hydrological situation in the catchment. It is concluded that the landscape and hydrological approach allows solving the problems on minimizing the hydrological objects damage and optimizing the nature management in the catchment in the context of the lack of hydrometeorological information.

  9. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  10. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  11. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  12. Design and implementation based on the classification protection vulnerability scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Lu Zhigang; Liu Baoxu

    2010-01-01

    With the application and spread of the classification protection, Network Security Vulnerability Scanning should consider the efficiency and the function expansion. It proposes a kind of a system vulnerability from classification protection, and elaborates the design and implementation of a vulnerability scanning system based on vulnerability classification plug-in technology and oriented classification protection. According to the experiment, the application of classification protection has good adaptability and salability with the system, and it also approves the efficiency of scanning. (authors)

  13. Multitemporal spatial pattern analysis of Tulum's tropical coastal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Forero, Sandra Carolina; López-Caloca, Alejandra; Silván-Cárdenas, José Luis

    2011-11-01

    The tropical coastal landscape of Tulum in Quintana Roo, Mexico has a high ecological, economical, social and cultural value, it provides environmental and tourism services at global, national, regional and local levels. The landscape of the area is heterogeneous and presents random fragmentation patterns. In recent years, tourist services of the region has been increased promoting an accelerate expansion of hotels, transportation and recreation infrastructure altering the complex landscape. It is important to understand the environmental dynamics through temporal changes on the spatial patterns and to propose a better management of this ecological area to the authorities. This paper addresses a multi-temporal analysis of land cover changes from 1993 to 2000 in Tulum using Thematic Mapper data acquired by Landsat-5. Two independent methodologies were applied for the analysis of changes in the landscape and for the definition of fragmentation patterns. First, an Iteratively Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) algorithm was used to detect and localize land cover change/no-change areas. Second, the post-classification change detection evaluated using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. Landscape metrics were calculated from the results of IR-MAD and SVM. The analysis of the metrics indicated, among other things, a higher fragmentation pattern along roadways.

  14. A framework to assess landscape structural capacity to provide regulating ecosystem services in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, Justice Nana; Frank, Susanne; Greve, Klaus; Fürst, Christine

    2018-03-01

    The Sudanian savanna landscapes of West Africa are amongst the world's most vulnerable areas to climate change impacts. Inappropriate land use and agriculture management practices continuously impede the capacity of agricultural landscapes to provide ecosystem services (ES). Given the absence of practical assessment techniques to evaluate the landscape's capacity to provide regulating ES in this region, the goal of this paper is to propose an integrative assessment framework which combines remote sensing, geographic information systems, expert weighting and landscape metrics-based assessment. We utilized Analytical Hierarchical Process and Likert scale for the expert weighting of landscape capacity. In total, 56 experts from several land use and landscape management related departments participated in the assessment. Further, we adapted the hemeroby concept to define areas of naturalness while landscape metrics including Patch Density, Shannon's Diversity, and Shape Index were utilized for structural assessment. Lastly, we tested the reliability of expert weighting using certainty measurement rated by experts themselves. Our study focused on four regulating ES including flood control, pest and disease control, climate control, and wind erosion control. Our assessment framework was tested on four selected sites in the Vea catchment area of Ghana. The outcome of our study revealed that highly heterogeneous landscapes have a higher capacity to provide pest and disease control, while less heterogeneous landscapes have a higher potential to provide climate control. Further, we could show that the potential capacities to provide ecosystem services are underestimated by 15% if landscape structural aspects assessed through landscape metrics are not considered. We conclude that the combination of adapted land use and an optimized land use pattern could contribute considerably to lower climate change impacts in West African agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  15. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region ..... between cattle breeds (genetic), pre-slaughter stress and growth- ..... Nguni cattle for example, owing to their adaptability (i.e. drought and heat tolerant,.

  16. QUEST : Eliminating online supervised learning for efficient classification algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting

  17. Learning free energy landscapes using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Hythem; Whitmer, Jonathan K

    2018-03-14

    Existing adaptive bias techniques, which seek to estimate free energies and physical properties from molecular simulations, are limited by their reliance on fixed kernels or basis sets which hinder their ability to efficiently conform to varied free energy landscapes. Further, user-specified parameters are in general non-intuitive yet significantly affect the convergence rate and accuracy of the free energy estimate. Here we propose a novel method, wherein artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to develop an adaptive biasing potential which learns free energy landscapes. We demonstrate that this method is capable of rapidly adapting to complex free energy landscapes and is not prone to boundary or oscillation problems. The method is made robust to hyperparameters and overfitting through Bayesian regularization which penalizes network weights and auto-regulates the number of effective parameters in the network. ANN sampling represents a promising innovative approach which can resolve complex free energy landscapes in less time than conventional approaches while requiring minimal user input.

  18. Learning free energy landscapes using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Hythem; Whitmer, Jonathan K.

    2018-03-01

    Existing adaptive bias techniques, which seek to estimate free energies and physical properties from molecular simulations, are limited by their reliance on fixed kernels or basis sets which hinder their ability to efficiently conform to varied free energy landscapes. Further, user-specified parameters are in general non-intuitive yet significantly affect the convergence rate and accuracy of the free energy estimate. Here we propose a novel method, wherein artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to develop an adaptive biasing potential which learns free energy landscapes. We demonstrate that this method is capable of rapidly adapting to complex free energy landscapes and is not prone to boundary or oscillation problems. The method is made robust to hyperparameters and overfitting through Bayesian regularization which penalizes network weights and auto-regulates the number of effective parameters in the network. ANN sampling represents a promising innovative approach which can resolve complex free energy landscapes in less time than conventional approaches while requiring minimal user input.

  19. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  20. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper is to pr......Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... searches and canvassing of European umbrella organisations; followed by an online survey of representatives from the identified initiatives (n??=??71). Our results show that the most relevant characteristics of integrated landscape initiatives in Europe are: a holistic approach to landscape management...

  1. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agents that facilitate processes that shape the built environment and its contemporary landscapes. With movement and flows at the core, these landscape infrastructures facilitate aesthetic, functional,...

  2. Modelling Geomorphic Systems: Landscape Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Valters, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) present the geomorphologist with a means of investigating how landscapes evolve in response to external forcings, such as climate and tectonics, as well as internal process laws. LEMs typically incorporate a range of different geomorphic transport laws integrated in a way that simulates the evolution of a 3D terrain surface forward through time. The strengths of LEMs as research tools lie in their ability to rapidly test many different hypotheses of landscape...

  3. Experimental Rugged Fitness Landscape in Protein Sequence Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuuki; Aita, Takuyo; Toyota, Hitoshi; Husimi, Yuzuru; Urabe, Itaru; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of random substitution at sites 12–130 of the initial random polypeptide and selection for infectivity, the selected phage showed a 1.7×104-fold increase in infectivity, defined as the number of infected cells per ml of phage suspension. Fitness was defined as the logarithm of infectivity, and we analyzed (1) the dependence of stationary fitness on library size, which increased gradually, and (2) the time course of changes in fitness in transitional phases, based on an original theory regarding the evolutionary dynamics in Kauffman's n-k fitness landscape model. In the landscape model, single mutations at single sites among n sites affect the contribution of k other sites to fitness. Based on the results of these analyses, k was estimated to be 18–24. According to the estimated parameters, the landscape was plotted as a smooth surface up to a relative fitness of 0.4 of the global peak, whereas the landscape had a highly rugged surface with many local peaks above this relative fitness value. Based on the landscapes of these two different surfaces, it appears possible for adaptive walks with only random substitutions to climb with relative ease up to the middle region of the fitness landscape from any primordial or random sequence, whereas an enormous range of sequence diversity is required to climb further up the rugged surface above the middle region. PMID:17183728

  4. Experimental rugged fitness landscape in protein sequence space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuuki; Aita, Takuyo; Toyota, Hitoshi; Husimi, Yuzuru; Urabe, Itaru; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2006-12-20

    The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of random substitution at sites 12-130 of the initial random polypeptide and selection for infectivity, the selected phage showed a 1.7x10(4)-fold increase in infectivity, defined as the number of infected cells per ml of phage suspension. Fitness was defined as the logarithm of infectivity, and we analyzed (1) the dependence of stationary fitness on library size, which increased gradually, and (2) the time course of changes in fitness in transitional phases, based on an original theory regarding the evolutionary dynamics in Kauffman's n-k fitness landscape model. In the landscape model, single mutations at single sites among n sites affect the contribution of k other sites to fitness. Based on the results of these analyses, k was estimated to be 18-24. According to the estimated parameters, the landscape was plotted as a smooth surface up to a relative fitness of 0.4 of the global peak, whereas the landscape had a highly rugged surface with many local peaks above this relative fitness value. Based on the landscapes of these two different surfaces, it appears possible for adaptive walks with only random substitutions to climb with relative ease up to the middle region of the fitness landscape from any primordial or random sequence, whereas an enormous range of sequence diversity is required to climb further up the rugged surface above the middle region.

  5. Experimental rugged fitness landscape in protein sequence space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Hayashi

    Full Text Available The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of random substitution at sites 12-130 of the initial random polypeptide and selection for infectivity, the selected phage showed a 1.7x10(4-fold increase in infectivity, defined as the number of infected cells per ml of phage suspension. Fitness was defined as the logarithm of infectivity, and we analyzed (1 the dependence of stationary fitness on library size, which increased gradually, and (2 the time course of changes in fitness in transitional phases, based on an original theory regarding the evolutionary dynamics in Kauffman's n-k fitness landscape model. In the landscape model, single mutations at single sites among n sites affect the contribution of k other sites to fitness. Based on the results of these analyses, k was estimated to be 18-24. According to the estimated parameters, the landscape was plotted as a smooth surface up to a relative fitness of 0.4 of the global peak, whereas the landscape had a highly rugged surface with many local peaks above this relative fitness value. Based on the landscapes of these two different surfaces, it appears possible for adaptive walks with only random substitutions to climb with relative ease up to the middle region of the fitness landscape from any primordial or random sequence, whereas an enormous range of sequence diversity is required to climb further up the rugged surface above the middle region.

  6. Classification of supersymmetric backgrounds of string theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, Ulf; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George; Roest, Diederik

    2007-01-01

    We review the recent progress made towards the classification of supersymmetric solutions in ten and eleven dimensions with emphasis on those of IIB supergravity. In particular, the spinorial geometry method is outlined and adapted to nearly maximally supersymmetric backgrounds.We then demonstrate

  7. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  8. Impressionist Landscape Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stella W.

    2018-05-01

    Cartography helps to show us the world in which we reside by providing us a framework to explore space. We can select myriad themes to represent what is relevant to our lives: physical characteristics, human behaviors, hazards, opportunities. Themes are represented on a continuum between real-world images and pure abstractions. How we define cartography and what we expect from it changes with society and technology. We are now inundated with data but we still struggle with expressing our personal geographic experiences through cartography. In this age of information we have become more cognizant of our individual experience of place and our need to determine our own paths and therefore create our own maps. In order to reflect our journey we can add individual details to cartographic products or generalize information to concentrate on what is meaningful to us. Since time and space are interrelated we experience geography by viewing the landscape as changing scenes over time. This experience is both spatial and temporal since we experience geography by moving through space. Experiencing each scene is a separate event. This paper expands the personalization of maps to include our impressions of the travel experience. Rather than add art to cartography it provides geographic reference to art. It explores the use of a series of quick sketches drawn while traveling along roads using a single drawing pad to produce a time series of interpreted landscapes. With the use of geographic time stamps from global positioning systems these sketches are converted from a drawing to a map documenting the path of movement. Although the map scale varies between sketch entries each scene impression can be linked to one or more maps of consistent scale. The result is an artistic piece that expresses a dynamic geographic experience that can be viewed in conjunction with more traditional maps. Unlike mental maps which are constructed from memory, these maps reflect our direct impressions

  9. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  10. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones...... that no longer sustain life. This history includes T. S. Eliot’s Wasteland and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road as well as air pollution, recycled railway lines, photography and landfills. It links theories of aesthetics, politics, tourism, history, geography, and literature into the new synthesis of the environmental...

  11. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    since the 1840s, when indigenous forests were transformed into improved landscapes of sown grass. The chapter is shaped by a broad question. What can be learned from this place about the ways in which people have exercised and are coming to terms with what Gibson-Graham and Roelvink describe as our...... of the shifting balance of ecological agency in favour of humans during the Anthropocene. Banks Peninsula on the east coast of New Zealand’s South Island was first settled by Polynesian peoples within the last few hundred years. The nature of their footprint contrasts with the dramatic change wrought by Europeans...

  12. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  13. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  14. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  15. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  16. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2015), s. 60-68 ISSN 1803-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : landscape painting * landscape ecology * land-use changes * biodiversity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jlecol.2015.8.issue-2/jlecol-2015-0009/jlecol-2015-0009. xml

  17. Territorial cohesion through cross-border landscape policy? The European case of the Three Countries Park (BE-NL-DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüll Anja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes can be understood as socialecological systems under constant change. In Europe various territorial dynamics pose persistent challenges to maintaining diverse landscapes both as European heritage and in their capacity to provide vital functions and services. Concurrently, under the competence of cohesion policy, the EU is attempting to improve policy making by better policy coordination and respecting regional specifics. This paper explores the question how a policy dedicated to landscape can help to handle territorial change and support territorial cohesion. It presents results and performances of the ESPON applied research study LP3LP: (1 a common landscape policy for the Three Countries Park, across the Dutch, German and Belgium borders, including a spatial landscape vision, a governance proposal of adaptive landscape management, and thematic strategies dealing with green infrastructure, cultural heritage, complementary biomass and quality production; (2 recommendations at the EU level. In discussing the significance of a landscape approach for EU policy,three dimensions of landscape are linked withimportant aspects of territorial cohesion: ‘landscape as asset’ addressing natural-cultural territorial capital as an indigenous base forsmart, sustainable, and inclusivedevelopment;‘landscape as place’ stressing the relevance of landscape for place-based policies; and ‘landscape as common ground’ highlighting its potential for horizontal, vertical, and territorial integration.

  18. KNN BASED CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL MODULATED SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmed Ghauri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Demodulation process without the knowledge of modulation scheme requires Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC. When receiver has limited information about received signal then AMC become essential process. AMC finds important place in the field many civil and military fields such as modern electronic warfare, interfering source recognition, frequency management, link adaptation etc. In this paper we explore the use of K-nearest neighbor (KNN for modulation classification with different distance measurement methods. Five modulation schemes are used for classification purpose which is Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 16-QAM and 64-QAM. Higher order cummulants (HOC are used as an input feature set to the classifier. Simulation results shows that proposed classification method provides better results for the considered modulation formats.

  19. Asteroid taxonomic classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on three taxonomic classification schemes developed and applied to the body of available color and albedo data. Asteroid taxonomic classifications according to two of these schemes are reproduced

  20. Cultural Landscape and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Haaland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords: Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110

  1. The Data Science Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modern scientific data continue to increase in volume, variety, and velocity, and though the hype of big data has subsided, its usefulness for scientific discovery has only just begun. Harnessing these data for new insights, more efficient decision making, and other mission critical uses requires a combination of skills and expertise, often labeled data science. Data science can be thought of as a combination of statistics, computation and the domain from which the data relate, and so is a true interdisciplinary pursuit. Though it has reaped large benefits in companies able to afford the high cost of the severely limited talent pool, it suffers from lack of support in mission driven organizations. Not purely in any one historical field, data science is proving difficult to find a home in traditional university academic departments and other research organizations. The landscape of data science efforts, from academia, industry and government, can be characterized as nascent, enthusiastic, uneven, and highly competitive. Part of the challenge in documenting these trends is the lack of agreement about what data science is, and who is a data scientist. Defining these terms too closely and too early runs the risk of cutting off a tremendous amount of productive creativity, but waiting too long leaves many people without a sustainable career, and many organizations without the necessary skills to gain value from their data. This talk will explore the landscape of data science efforts in the US, including how organizations are building and sustaining data science teams.

  2. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  3. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  4. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  5. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  6. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  7. LCMS landscape change monitoring system—results from an information needs assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Megown; Brian Schwind; Don Evans; Mark. Finco

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in land use and land cover over space and time provides an important means to evaluate complex interactions between human and biophysical systems, to project future conditions, and to design mitigation and adaptive management strategies. Assessing and monitoring landscape change is evolving into a foundational element of climate change adaptation...

  8. Examining fire-prone forest landscapes as coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Spies; Eric M. White; Jeffrey D. Kline; A. Paige Fisher; Alan Ager; John Bailey; John Bolte; Jennifer Koch; Emily Platt; Christine S. Olsen; Derric Jacobs; Bruce Shindler; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Roger. Hammer

    2014-01-01

    Fire-prone landscapes are not well studied as coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and present many challenges for understanding and promoting adaptive behaviors and institutions. Here, we explore how heterogeneity, feedbacks, and external drivers in this type of natural hazard system can lead to complexity and can limit the development of more adaptive approaches...

  9. Classification with support hyperplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi); J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA new classification method is proposed, called Support Hy- perplanes (SHs). To solve the binary classification task, SHs consider the set of all hyperplanes that do not make classification mistakes, referred to as semi-consistent hyperplanes. A test object is classified using

  10. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  11. Using community archetypes to better understand differential community adaptation to wildfire risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Matthew; Paveglio, Travis

    2016-06-05

    One of the immediate challenges of wildfire management concerns threats to human safety and property in residential areas adjacent to non-cultivated vegetation. One approach for relieving this problem is to increase human community 'adaptiveness' to deal with the risk and reality of fire in a variety of landscapes. The challenge in creating 'fire-adapted communities' (FACs) is the great diversity in character and make-up of populations at risk from wildfire. This paper outlines a recently developed categorization scheme for Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) communities based on a larger conceptual approach for understanding how social diversity is likely to influence the creation of FACs. The WUI categorization scheme situates four community archetypes on a continuum that recognizes dynamic change in human community functioning. We use results from the WUI classification scheme to outline key characteristics associated with each archetype and results from recent case studies to demonstrate the diversity across WUI communities. Differences among key characteristics of local social context will likely result in the need for different adaptation strategies to wildfire. While the WUI archetypes described here may not be broadly applicable to other parts of the world, we argue that the conceptual approach and strategies for systematically documenting local influences on wildfire adaptation have potential for broad application.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  13. Changing wind-power landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...

  14. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...

  15. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  16. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  17. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  18. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  19. Classification of refrigerants; Classification des fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document was made from the US standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34 published in 2001 and entitled 'designation and safety classification of refrigerants'. This classification allows to clearly organize in an international way the overall refrigerants used in the world thanks to a codification of the refrigerants in correspondence with their chemical composition. This note explains this codification: prefix, suffixes (hydrocarbons and derived fluids, azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures, various organic compounds, non-organic compounds), safety classification (toxicity, flammability, case of mixtures). (J.S.)

  20. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  1. Management and development of land in the name of the Green Economy: planning, landscape, efficiency, biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    preservation of landscapes; • relationship between the wine areas with the territory and its infrastructure; • participation in the process of territorial planning with operators and administrations; • relationship between wine and landscape, adaptation to climatic deterioration, renewable energy sources and energy efficiency; • new skills and new forms to manage the vineyard Depth knowledge of the characteristics of the territory wine passes through: • wine zoning, i.e. the identification of the more suitable terroirs for a wine: study of the climate, the soil, the vines of the interactions with the environment (Chart of vocations agroforestry); • soil classification; • analysis of the ecosystems (flora and fauna, biodiversity, forest, grasslands, crops); • identification of landscapes, from the analysis of types, morphology of the urban and rural landscape, processes of contextualization, etc. (Chart of landscape values) . The results achieved so far by the Italian municipalities that have adopted them, will soon be enhanced by enlargement of the methodological lines to new issues such as accessibility in wine territory, strengthening of local participation and the presence, promotion of wine as an integral part the local food planning, development of planning practices in the process of institutional reform.

  2. Landscape structure affects specialists but not generalists in naturally fragmented grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse E.D.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Harrison, Susan P.; Grace, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural landscapes become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. In this study, we asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure-defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index)-had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities, and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.

  3. Czech Post-industrial Landscapes in the Border Zone with Austria: Identification, Typology nad Value

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Klimánek, M.; Hrádek, Mojmír; Kirchner, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 159 (2017), s. 221-242 ISSN 0029-9138 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : post-industrial landscape * mapping * GIS * border zone with Austria * classification Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2016

  4. South African land-cover characteristics database: a synopsis of the landscape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fairbanks, DHK

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Thematic Mapper(TM) imagery colled from 1994 to 1996, and (3) a stratified post-classification accuracy assessment using a large sample of field data. The resultant database has yielded substantial information to characterize the landscapes of South Africa...

  5. Post-industrial landscapes in the Czech Republic - A GIS assisted search for present state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Klimánek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 7-16 ISSN 1843-5920 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Keywords : post-industrial landscape * identification criteria * GIS classification and typology * territorial distribution Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://geographianapocensis.acad-cluj.ro/Revista/Revista_eng/index.htm

  6. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  7. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  8. The European nanometrology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  9. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  10. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  11. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  12. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  13. Colonizing Dynamic Alluvial and Coastal Landscapes in the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T.; Liu, X.; Ervin, K.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the Holocene humans have had to adapt to dynamic, rapidly changing alluvial and coastal landscapes. Understanding when people inhabit a given environment is an important starting point for exploring human adaptations, but increasingly we need to consider how, and especially why certain environments are used—or not used— so we can understand the consequences of these human actions. Using four case studies—one from the Yellow River Valley, China, one from coastal Jiangsu, China, one from the Mississippi River Valley (Mississippi, USA) and one from the Mississippi River delta (Louisiana , USA)—we develop a model of how humans at various stages of cultural development colonize new environments. Using archaeological data and ecological modeling we investigate the relationship between the timing of landscape colonization and the ecological richness and predictability of any given environment. As new landscapes emerge and mature humans adopt different strategies for exploiting these novel environments that begins with episodic use and increasingly shifts to stable, long-term habitation. The early phase of landscape colonization appears to be the most significant period because it shapes human environmental practices and sets each culture on a trajectory of socio-cultural development. Thus, human-environment interaction is a critical part of the emergence of cultural patterns that shapes the past, present, and even the future.

  14. Letting Los Angeles Go: Lessons from Feral Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Woodward

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Los Angeles is home to numerous feral landscapes: designed gardens no longer receiving intentional care. These are cultivated gardens, usually composed of plants from myriad global climate types, which have been abandoned or neglected and have adapted to native rainfall or unintentional water sources such as broken irrigation systems. They are found in canyons and ridges swept by fire, along rights-of-way where properties were condemned for freeways, in once-glorious neighbourhoods fallen on hard times, and in places where speculation places properties on hold. They are found in all regions and are particularly vivid in Los Angeles, proclaimed as "Lurch City" by Cuff (2000, where disruptive urban convulsions are frequent. These sites are rich with information pertinent to conceivable futures in which supplemental resources and care may not be reliable. This article portrays selected feral landscapes, briefly describes their responses to pervasive urban forces over time, and extracts design attributes to consider when creating future resilient landscapes. Scrutiny of these landscapes' decline and tenacity reveals a telling view of a region's volatility and global context and reminds us to take into account probable neglect when shaping future landscapes.

  15. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  16. On the Evaluation of Outlier Detection and One-Class Classification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swersky, Lorne; Marques, Henrique O.; Sander, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that unsupervised outlier detection methods can be adapted to the one-class classification problem. In this paper, we focus on the comparison of oneclass classification algorithms with such adapted unsupervised outlier detection methods, improving on previous comparison studies ...

  17. The assignment of occupation densities and the rural soil classification in the territorial classification plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez R, Luis Anibal; Largacha R, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Regulations concerning land use density controls in non-urban areas are often ineffective in protecting the rural character of such areas, within the context of Colombia's territorial organization plans What they tend to do is indirectly promote urban expansion through the fixing of minimum plot sizes Rather than question the methods employed in land use classification, the present study uses the case of the rural area of Santa Elena on the outskirts of Medellin and the existing zoning controls as established in the territorial organization plan, and focuses on the regulations established for each land use category as they effect occupation densities and patterns of plot fragmentation. On the one hand a simulation is undertaken of the trends which would result from land occupation in accordance with existing regulations concerning land use classification and plot size This indicates that the overall effect would be to disperse settlement patterns and fragment the landscape Secondly, an alternative scenario is developed based on the modification of minimum plot sizes for each of the three land use classifications established in the existing plan (protection, rural and suburban) In this way, and through the perspective of landscape ecology, It Is shown that in certain cases less dispersion and greater concentration of settlements can be achieved, and in other cases dispersion is minimized The use of GIS is fundamental in the development of such simulation techniques

  18. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  19. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  20. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Allthough working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the multifunctional landscape strategy supporting a certain public access. A study of this thesis is presented based on an analysis of multifunctionality, landscape development and accessibility in Danish Manorial landscapes and eventual linkages between their multifunctional landscape strategy, their history...

  1. Beyond Landscape MacArchitecture: new languages, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rackham

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The sine qua non of landscape architecture is respect for the genius loci, but even in the landscape, as in architecture and society more generally, a process of cultural homogenisation has been taking place. Against this process, a resurgence of interest in minority languages in Europe can be seen as an assertion of pride, and a desire to preserve difference. In Scotland, landscape architects are attempting to reinterpret Scottish and northern European urban design influences and materials: in effect to develop a new regional dialect for the new landscapes. Rooted in sound design principles and materials which respond to and reflect the climate, way of life and traditions of the place, design languages can communicate effectively about cultural values and differences.

  2. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  3. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  4. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  5. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  6. A General Model for Estimating Macroevolutionary Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Florian C; Démery, Vincent; Conti, Elena; Harmon, Luke J; Uyeda, Josef

    2018-03-01

    The evolution of quantitative characters over long timescales is often studied using stochastic diffusion models. The current toolbox available to students of macroevolution is however limited to two main models: Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, plus some of their extensions. Here, we present a very general model for inferring the dynamics of quantitative characters evolving under both random diffusion and deterministic forces of any possible shape and strength, which can accommodate interesting evolutionary scenarios like directional trends, disruptive selection, or macroevolutionary landscapes with multiple peaks. This model is based on a general partial differential equation widely used in statistical mechanics: the Fokker-Planck equation, also known in population genetics as the Kolmogorov forward equation. We thus call the model FPK, for Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov. We first explain how this model can be used to describe macroevolutionary landscapes over which quantitative traits evolve and, more importantly, we detail how it can be fitted to empirical data. Using simulations, we show that the model has good behavior both in terms of discrimination from alternative models and in terms of parameter inference. We provide R code to fit the model to empirical data using either maximum-likelihood or Bayesian estimation, and illustrate the use of this code with two empirical examples of body mass evolution in mammals. FPK should greatly expand the set of macroevolutionary scenarios that can be studied since it opens the way to estimating macroevolutionary landscapes of any conceivable shape. [Adaptation; bounds; diffusion; FPK model; macroevolution; maximum-likelihood estimation; MCMC methods; phylogenetic comparative data; selection.].

  7. Modeling Coupled Landscape Evolution and Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Intensively Management Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Soil is the largest reservoir of carbon in the biosphere but in agricultural areas it is going through rapid erosion due disturbance arising from crop harvest, tillage, and tile drainage. Identifying whether the production of soil organic carbon (SOC) from the crops can compensate for the loss due to erosion is critical to ensure our food security and adapt to climate change. In the U.S. Midwest where large areas of land are intensively managed for agriculture practices, predicting soil quantity and quality are critical for maintaining crop yield and other Critical Zone services. This work focuses on modeling the coupled landscape evolutions soil organic carbon dynamics in agricultural fields. It couples landscape evolution, surface water runoff, organic matter transformation, and soil moisture dynamics to understand organic carbon gain and loss due to natural forcing and farming practices, such as fertilizer application and tillage. A distinctive feature of the model is the coupling of surface ad subsurface processes that predicts both surficial changes and transport along with the vertical transport and dynamics. Our results show that landscape evolution and farming practices play dominant roles in soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics both above- and below-ground. Contrary to the common assumption that a vertical profile of SOC concentration decreases exponentially with depth, we find that in many situations SOC concentration below-ground could be higher than that at the surface. Tillage plays a complex role in organic matter dynamics. On one hand, tillage would accelerate the erosion rate, on the other hand, it would improve carbon storage by burying surface SOC into below ground. Our model consistently reproduces the observed above- and below-ground patterns of SOC in the field sites of Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO). This model bridges the gaps between the landscape evolution, below- and above-ground hydrologic cycle, and

  8. The Where-How of Leadership Emergence (WHOLE) Landscape: Charting Emergent Collective Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Norman; Watkins, Jennifer H

    2008-01-01

    Leadership resources are constantly adapting to the challenge of the dynamic and complex systems in which they must function. To understand the changing leadership types and to better guide the development of new leadership resources, we propose a two-dimensional leadership landscape that provides a perspective into past leadership resources and identifies new frontiers of leadership. In the Where-How of Leadership Emergence (WHOLE) Landscape, one dimension is where leadership occurs – rangi...

  9. Adaptações ao sistema kanban: revisão, classificação, análise e avaliação Adaptations of the kanban system: review, classification, analysis and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muris Lage Junior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho realiza uma revisão bibliográfica com o intuito de identificar, classificar e analisar as adaptações do sistema kanban propostas na literatura. Foram estudados 33 sistemas diferentes que foram classificados com base em seis categorias: o ano de publicação, o número de características originais mantidas na adaptação, as diferenças de operacionalização em relação ao sistema kanban original, as vantagens e desvantagens das adaptações em relação ao sistema original e a forma como foi desenvolvida a adaptação. É apresentado um breve resumo de cada uma das adaptações, integrando os esforços dispersos empreendidos por vários pesquisadores com relação ao aperfeiçoamento do sistema kanban e sua adequação às novas ou diferentes necessidades dos sistemas produtivos. Constatou-se, dentre outros pontos, que o desenvolvimento dos sistemas adaptados encontra-se numa fase inicial, uma vez que a maioria das propostas são apenas proposições teóricas que devem ser levadas em consideração para a geração de formas mais apropriadas à prática.This paper reviews the literature regarding adaptations of the kanban system with the purpose of identifying, classifying and analyzing this literature. Thirty three different systems were studied and classified according to six categories: the publication year, the number of original characteristics preserved in the adaptation, the operational differences between the adaptation and the original kanban, the advantages and disadvantages related to the original kanban, and the way that these systems were developed. A brief summary of each adaptation is shown integrating the scattered efforts undertaken by the authors with the aim of improving the kanban system and adjusting it to the new and/or distinct necessities of the production systems. It was found that, among other topics, the development of the adapted systems, in general, is at an initial stage, once the majority of

  10. Discourses across Scales on Forest Landscape Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Reinecke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR has recently received broad political support, e.g., under the Bonn Challenge. However, although the concept promises quadruple wins for humans, biodiversity as well as climate change mitigation and adaptation, it remains heavily underutilized in practice. Drawing on a social constructivist reading and a survey in different developing and developed countries, we elaborate on varying existing narratives about FLR at global and country level. Overall, we find that FLR understandings in different countries strongly resonate with the globally pursued idea of enhancing ecological and human well-being. In more detail, however, rural development and climate mitigation oriented motives are prioritized over aspects of species conservation or adaptation. Globally, strong emphasis is placed on collaborative processes empowering local actors. At country level, by contrast, these ideas regarding greater local authority are complemented with a techno-managerial notion of government control. Considering the potential power struggles that could be evoked from such dialectic expectations, we see it as a primary responsibility for global FLR processes to fully embrace the political dimension of FLR and to support conflict resolution and adaptive learning processes.

  11. Comparison of Support Vector Machine, Neural Network, and CART Algorithms for the Land-Cover Classification Using Limited Training Data Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support vector machine (SVM) was applied for land-cover characterization using MODIS time-series data. Classification performance was examined with respect to training sample size, sample variability, and landscape homogeneity (purity). The results were compared to two convention...

  12. Classification of Flotation Frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzymala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme of flotation frothers classification is presented. The scheme first indicates the physical system in which a frother is present and four of them i.e., pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas system and aqueous solution/gas/solid system are distinguished. As a result, there are numerous classifications of flotation frothers. The classifications can be organized into a scheme described in detail in this paper. The frother can be present in one of four physical systems, that is pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas and aqueous solution/gas/solid system. It results from the paper that a meaningful classification of frothers relies on choosing the physical system and next feature, trend, parameter or parameters according to which the classification is performed. The proposed classification can play a useful role in characterizing and evaluation of flotation frothers.

  13. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmo Vianello

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  14. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmo Vianello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  15. RS- and GIS-based study on landscape pattern change in the Poyang Lake wetland area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Hui; Bao, Shuming; Wu, Zhongyi; Fu, Weijuan; Cai, Xiaobin; Zhao, Hongmei; Guo, Peng

    2006-10-01

    As wetland has been recognized as an important component of ecosystem, it is received ever-increasing attention worldwide. Poyang Lake wetlands, the international wetlands and the largest bird habitat in Asia, play an important role in biodiversity and ecologic protection. However, with the rapid economic growth and urbanization, landscape patterns in the wetlands have dramatically changed in the past three decades. To better understand the wetland landscape dynamics, remote sensing, geographic information system technologies, and the FRAGSTATS landscape analysis program were used to measure landscape patterns. Statistical approach was employed to illustrate the driving forces. In this study, Landsat images (TM and ETM+) from 1989 and 2000 were acquired for the wetland area. The landscapes in the wetland area were classified as agricultural land, urban, wetland, forest, grassland, unused land, and water body using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques integrated with Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Landscape indices, which are popular for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern, were then employed to analyze the landscape pattern changes between the two dates in a GIS. From this analysis an understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of landscape evolution was generated. The results show that wetland area was reduced while fragmentation was increased over the study period. Further investigation was made to examine the relationship between landscape metrics and some other parameters such as urbanization to address the driving forces for those changes. The urban was chosen as center to conduct buffer analysis in a GIS to study the impact of human-induced activities on landscape pattern dynamics. It was found that the selected parameters were significantly correlated with the landscape metrics, which may well indicate the impact of human-induced activities on the wetland landscape pattern dynamics and account for the driving

  16. Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Pedroli, B.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as

  17. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  18. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.M.; Olivieri, I.; Waller, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how...... for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We...

  19. Local Fitness Landscapes Predict Yeast Evolutionary Dynamics in Directionally Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Florien A; Aarts, Mark G M; Zwaan, Bas J; de Visser, J Arjan G M

    2018-01-01

    The fitness landscape is a concept that is widely used for understanding and predicting evolutionary adaptation. The topography of the fitness landscape depends critically on the environment, with potentially far-reaching consequences for evolution under changing conditions. However, few studies have assessed directly how empirical fitness landscapes change across conditions, or validated the predicted consequences of such change. We previously evolved replicate yeast populations in the presence of either gradually increasing, or constant high, concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), and analyzed their phenotypic and genomic changes. Here, we reconstructed the local fitness landscapes underlying adaptation to each metal by deleting all repeatedly mutated genes both by themselves and in combination. Fitness assays revealed that the height, and/or shape, of each local fitness landscape changed considerably across metal concentrations, with distinct qualitative differences between unconditionally (Cd) and conditionally toxic metals (Ni and Zn). This change in topography had particularly crucial consequences in the case of Ni, where a substantial part of the individual mutational fitness effects changed in sign across concentrations. Based on the Ni landscape analyses, we made several predictions about which mutations had been selected when during the evolution experiment. Deep sequencing of population samples from different time points generally confirmed these predictions, demonstrating the power of landscape reconstruction analyses for understanding and ultimately predicting evolutionary dynamics, even under complex scenarios of environmental change. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Adaptive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1979-01-01

    Schools have devised several ways to adapt instruction to a wide variety of student abilities and needs. Judged by criteria for what adaptive education should be, most learning for mastery programs look good. (Author/JM)

  1. Flowscapes : Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important

  2. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  3. The evolving landscape of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and

  4. Greenhouse warming and landscape care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is one of the few truly planetary processes that influence the assessments and actions of governments and of everyday citizens. Principles and practices of ecological landscaping fit well with concern about hte effects of climate change.

  5. Search on Rugged Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billinger, Stephan; Stieglitz, Nils; Schumacher, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a laboratory experiment on human decision-making in a complex combinatorial task. We find strong evidence for a behavioral model of adaptive search. Success narrows down search to the neighborhood of the status quo, while failure promotes gradually more explorative...... for local improvements too early. We derive stylized decision rules that generate the search behavior observed in the experiment and discuss the implications of our findings for individual decision-making and organizational search....

  6. Landscape genetic analyses reveal fine-scale effects of forest fragmentation in an insular tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Peterman, William; Eraud, Cyril; Faivre, Bruno; Navarro, Nicolas; Garnier, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order (i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then (ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea). We detected a small-scale reduction of gene flow mainly driven by land cover, with a negative impact of the nonforest matrix on landscape functional connectivity. However, matrix components did not equally constrain gene flow, as their conductivity increased with increasing structural similarity with forest habitat: urban areas and meadows had the highest resistance values whereas agricultural areas had intermediate resistance values. Our results revealed a higher performance of IBR compared to LCP in explaining gene flow, reflecting suboptimal movements across this human-modified landscape, challenging the common use of LCP to design habitat corridors and advocating for a broader use of circuit theory modelling. Finally, our results emphasize the need for an objective definition of landscape scales (landscape extent and thematic resolution) and highlight potential pitfalls associated with parameterization of resistance surfaces. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Modeling Soil-Landscape Relations in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, N. R.; Rasmussen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques that integrate remotely sensed surface topography and reflectance, and map soil-landscape associations have the potential in improve understanding of critical zone evolution and landscape processes. The goal of this study was to understand the soil-geomorphic evolution of Quaternary alluvial and eolian deposits in the Sonoran Desert using a data-driven DSM technique and mapping of soil-landscape relationships. An iterative principal component analysis (iPCA) data reduction routine was developed and implemented for a set of LiDAR elevation- and Landsat ETM+-derived environmental covariates that characterize soil-landscape variability. Principal components that explain more than 95% of the soil-landscape variability were then integrated and classified based on an ISODATA (Iterative Self-Organizing Data) unsupervised technique. The classified map was then segmented based on a region growing algorithm and multi-scale maps of soil-landscape relations were developed, which then compared with maps of major arid-region landforms that can be identified on aerial photographs and satellite images by their distinguishing tone and texture, and in the field by their distinguishing surface and sub-surface soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The approach identified and mapped the soil-landscape variability of alluvial and eolian landscapes, and illustrated the applicability of coupling covariate selection and integration by iPCA, ISODATA classifications of integrated layers, and image segmentation for effective spatial prediction of soil-landscape characteristics. The approach developed here is data-driven, cost- and time-effective, applicable for multi-scale mapping, allows incorporation of wide variety of covariates, and provides accurate quantitative prediction of wide range of soil-landscape attributes that are necessary for hydrologic models, land and ecosystem management decisions, and hazard assessment.

  8. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  9. Introducing native landscape ecology to Hanford cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Nguyen, G.; Barry, B.

    1995-01-01

    Responsible management of environmental and public health risk requires a fundamental understanding of the intra-, inter-, and integral components of the hierarchical interaction dynamics within a pollution affected ecosystem. Because the ecosphere is a heterogeneous combination of many subecosystems of plant and animal species, its component interactions sustaining the complex whole are spatially mediated, and such an adaptive self-stabilizing ecomosaic often possesses long disintegration and regeneration times for the manifestation of observable consequences, quantitative assessment of its future structural and functional changes can be deceptive or plagued with irreducible uncertainty. This paper presents an holistic framework for the direct integration of native traditional environmental knowledge with the landscape ecology information system to refine and actualize the understanding of acceptable long-range risk and its collective estimation for an endangered population or community. An illustrative application of riparian zone restoration in the Hanford reach for wild salmon runs and habitat preservation is also discussed

  10. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  11. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  12. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  13. The Industrial Engineering publishing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Claasen, Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Looking at the Industrial Engineering publishing landscape through the window of Google Search, an interesting panorama unfolds. The view that I took is actually just a peek and therefore my description of what I saw is not meant to be comprehensive. The African landscape is empty except for the South African Journal of Industrial Engineering (SAJIE). This is an extraordinary situation if compared to the South American continent where there are Industrial Engineering journals in at least ...

  14. The landscapes of tourism space

    OpenAIRE

    Włodarczyk, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    The author attempts to define the term ‘tourism landscape’. It is treated as an important attribute of tourism space therefore, apart from its definition, the author presents its characteristic features and various types of such spaces with differing tourism landscapes. The landscapes of tourism space are treated not only as tourism assets or attractions, but also as the consequences of tourism activity on the natural and cultural environment.

  15. Adaptation dynamics of the quasispecies model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the adaptation dynamics of an initially maladapted population evolving via the elementary processes of mutation and selection. The evolution occurs on rugged fitness landscapes which are defined on the multi-dimensional genotypic space and have many local peaks separated by low fitness valleys. We mainly ...

  16. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  17. Landscape Visualisation on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, M. P.; Cox, M. T.; Harvey, D. W.; Heemskerk, G. E.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Victorian Resources Online (VRO) website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro) is the principal means for accessing landscapebased information in Victoria. In this paper we introduce a range of online landscape visualisations that have been developed to enhance existing static web content around the nature and distribution of Victoria's landforms and soils as well as associated processes. Flash is used to develop online visualisations that include interactive landscape panoramas, animations of soil and landscape processes and videos of experts explaining features in the field as well as landscape "flyovers". The use of interactive visualisations adds rich information multimedia content to otherwise static pages and offers the potential to improve user's appreciation and understanding of soil and landscapes. Visualisation is becoming a key component of knowledge management activities associated with VRO - proving useful for both "knowledge capture" (from subject matter specialists) and "knowledge transfer" to a diverse user base. A range of useful visualisation products have been made available online, with varying degrees of interactivity and suited to a variety of users. The use of video files, animation and interactive visualisations is adding rich information content to otherwise static web pages. These information products offer new possibilities to enhance learning of landscapes and the effectiveness of these will be tested as the next phase of development.

  18. Impacts of Landscape Context on Patterns of Wind Downfall Damage in a Fragmented Amazonian Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Uriarte, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Gutierrez-Velez, V. H.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wind is a major disturbance in the Amazon and has both short-term impacts and lasting legacies in tropical forests. Observed patterns of damage across landscapes result from differences in wind exposure and stand characteristics, such as tree stature, species traits, successional age, and fragmentation. Wind disturbance has important consequences for biomass dynamics in Amazonian forests, and understanding the spatial distribution and size of impacts is necessary to quantify the effects on carbon dynamics. In November 2013, a mesoscale convective system was observed over the study area in Ucayali, Peru, a highly human modified and fragmented forest landscape. We mapped downfall damage associated with the storm in order to ask: how does the severity of damage vary within forest patches, and across forest patches of different sizes and successional ages? We applied spectral mixture analysis to Landsat images from 2013 and 2014 to calculate the change in non-photosynthetic vegetation fraction after the storm, and combined it with C-band SAR data from the Sentinel-1 satellite to predict downfall damage measured in 30 field plots using random forest regression. We then applied this model to map damage in forests across the study area. Using a land cover classification developed in a previous study, we mapped secondary and mature forest, and compared the severity of damage in the two. We found that damage was on average higher in secondary forests, but patterns varied spatially. This study demonstrates the utility of using multiple sources of satellite data for mapping wind disturbance, and adds to our understanding of the sources of variation in wind-related damage. Ultimately, an improved ability to map wind impacts and a better understanding of their spatial patterns can contribute to better quantification of carbon dynamics in Amazonian landscapes.

  19. Landscape and Climate Adaptation Planning for the Mashel ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are important to the economic, social, cultural, and aesthetic values of the people in the Nisqually River. The Mashel watershed is important to recovery of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and winter steelhead (O. mykiss), and long-term sustainability of coho salmon (O. kisutch) in the Nisqually basin. The Mashel is the second largest Nisqually subwatershed by area (84 square miles) and is the largest tributary by flow accessible to salmonids. It is mostly forested, a combination of regularly harvested state and private timberlands. The watershed and salmonids utilizing the Mashel are particularly vulnerable to changes in seasonal precipitation and temperature because of its hydrologic flashiness, low summer flows and potential for sediment transport.We analyzed fish habitat potential under alternative forest management and climate scenarios using a linked modeling framework. The modeling framework includes a spatially-distributed watershed simulator (VELMA - Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments). VELMA quantifies effects of forest management and climate scenarios on key flow variables affecting salmon habitat. Spatially distributed output from VELMA was input to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) fish habitat model to evaluate salmonid habitat potential and population responses.We show how historic timber harvest is still affecting salmonid habitat potential and how a community forest based management plan could be more pr

  20. Landscape and Climate Adaptation Planning for the Mashel Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are important to the economic, social, cultural, and aesthetic values of the people in the Nisqually River. The Mashel watershed is important to recovery of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and winter steelhead (O. mykiss), and long-term sustainability of coho sal...

  1. Beyond the edge: Linking agricultural landscapes, stream networks, and best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Rebecca M.; Thoms, Martin C.; Richardson, William B.

    2018-01-01

    Despite much research and investment into understanding and managing nutrients across agricultural landscapes, nutrient runoff to freshwater ecosystems is still a major concern. We argue there is currently a disconnect between the management of watershed surfaces (agricultural landscape) and river networks (riverine landscape). These landscapes are commonly managed separately, but there is limited cohesiveness between agricultural landscape-focused research and river science, despite similar end goals. Interdisciplinary research into stream networks that drain agricultural landscapes is expanding but is fraught with problems. Conceptual frameworks are useful tools to order phenomena, reveal patterns and processes, and in interdisciplinary river science, enable the joining of multiple areas of understanding into a single conceptual–empirical structure. We present a framework for the interdisciplinary study and management of agricultural and riverine landscapes. The framework includes components of an ecosystems approach to the study of catchment–stream networks, resilience thinking, and strategic adaptive management. Application of the framework is illustrated through a study of the Fox Basin in Wisconsin, USA. To fully realize the goal of nutrient reduction in the basin, we suggest that greater emphasis is needed on where best management practices (BMPs) are used within the spatial context of the combined watershed–stream network system, including BMPs within the river channel. Targeted placement of BMPs throughout the riverine landscape would increase the overall buffering capacity of the system to nutrient runoff and thus its resilience to current and future disturbances.

  2. Modified DCTNet for audio signals classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to human audio perception than features such as Mel-frequency spectral coefficients (MFSC). We use features extracted by the A-DCTNet as input for classifiers. Experimental results show that the A-DCTNet and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) achieve state-of-the-art performance in bird song classification rate, and improve artist identification accuracy in music data. They demonstrate A-DCTNet's applicability to signal processing problems.

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  4. Remotely-Sensed Urban Wet-Landscapes AN Indicator of Coupled Effects of Human Impact and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This study proposes the concept of urban wet-landscapes (loosely-defined wetlands) as against dry-landscapes (mainly impervious surfaces). The study is to examine whether the dynamics of urban wet-landscapes is a sensitive indicator of the coupled effects of the two major driving forces of urban landscape change - human built-up impact and climate (precipitation) variation. Using a series of satellite images, the study was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area of the United States. A rule-based classification algorithm was developed to identify fine-scale, hidden wetlands that could not be appropriately detected based on their spectral differentiability by a traditional image classification. The spatial analyses of wetland changes were implemented at the scales of metropolitan, watershed, and sub-watershed as well as based on the size of surface water bodies in order to reveal urban wetland change trends in relation to the driving forces. The study identified that wet-landscape dynamics varied in trend and magnitude from the metropolitan, watersheds, to sub-watersheds. The study also found that increased precipitation in the region in the past decades swelled larger wetlands in particular while smaller wetlands decreased mainly due to human development activities. These findings suggest that wet-landscapes, as against the dry-landscapes, can be a more effective indicator of the coupled effects of human impact and climate change.

  5. REMOTELY-SENSED URBAN WET-LANDSCAPES: AN INDICATOR OF COUPLED EFFECTS OF HUMAN IMPACT AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the concept of urban wet-landscapes (loosely-defined wetlands as against dry-landscapes (mainly impervious surfaces. The study is to examine whether the dynamics of urban wet-landscapes is a sensitive indicator of the coupled effects of the two major driving forces of urban landscape change – human built-up impact and climate (precipitation variation. Using a series of satellite images, the study was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area of the United States. A rule-based classification algorithm was developed to identify fine-scale, hidden wetlands that could not be appropriately detected based on their spectral differentiability by a traditional image classification. The spatial analyses of wetland changes were implemented at the scales of metropolitan, watershed, and sub-watershed as well as based on the size of surface water bodies in order to reveal urban wetland change trends in relation to the driving forces. The study identified that wet-landscape dynamics varied in trend and magnitude from the metropolitan, watersheds, to sub-watersheds. The study also found that increased precipitation in the region in the past decades swelled larger wetlands in particular while smaller wetlands decreased mainly due to human development activities. These findings suggest that wet-landscapes, as against the dry-landscapes, can be a more effective indicator of the coupled effects of human impact and climate change.

  6. The Sigiriya Royal Gardens. Analysis of the Landscape Architectonic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Nilan Cooray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides the efforts that are of descriptive and celebrative nature, studies related to Sri Lanka’s historical built heritage are largely to view material remains in historical, sociological, socio-historical and semiological perspectives. But there is hardly any serious attempt to view such material remains from a technical-analytical approach to understand the compositional aspects of their designs. The 5th century AC royal complex at Sigiriya is no exception in this regard. The enormous wealth of information and the unearthed material remains during more than hundred years of field-based research by several generations of archaeologists at Sigiriya provide ideal opportunity for such an analysis. The present study is, therefore, to fill the gap in research related to Sri Lanka’s historical built heritage in general and to Sigiriya in particular. Therefore the present research attempts to read Sigiriya as a landscape architectonic design to expose its architectonic composition and design instruments. The study which is approached from a technical-analytical point of view follows a methodological framework that is developed at the Landscape Design Department of the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology. The study reveals that the architectonic design of Sigiriya constitutes multiple design layers and multiple layers of significance with material-spatial-metaphorical-functional coherence, and that it has both general and unique landscape architectonic elements, aspects, characteristics and qualities. The richness of its composition also enables to identify the landscape architectural value of the Sigiriya, which will help re-shape the policies related to conservation and presentation of Sigiriya as a heritage site as well as the protection and management as a green monument. The positive results of the study also underline that the methodology adapted in this research has devised a framework for the study of other examples

  7. Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela V. Morales

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their components, processes and functions are all subject to management by human populations, with the purpose of adapting the environments to make them more habitable and ensuring the availability and continuity of subsistence resources. Although a lot of work has been carried out on resources of alimentary or medicinal interest, little has been done on associating processes of domestication with firewood extraction, a practice considered to be destructive of the environment. In the arid steppe of NW Patagonia, inhabited and managed for different purposes for a long time by Mapuche-Tehuelche communities, the gathering of combustible plant species has up to the present time played a crucial role in cooking and heating, and work is required to achieve sustainability of this resource. In this study we evaluate whether environments with less landscape domestication are more intensively used for firewood gathering. Using an ethnobiological approach, information was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty-eight firewood species are gathered, both native (75% and exotic (25%. The supply of firewood mainly depends on gathering from the domesticated (10 species, semi-domesticated (17 species and low human intervention landscapes (17 species. In contrast to our hypothesis, average use intensity is similar in all these landscapes despite their different levels of domestication. That is, the different areas are taken advantage of in a complementary manner in order to satisfy the domestic demand for firewood. Neither do biogeographic origin or utilitarian versatility of collected plants vary significantly between the different landscape levels of domestication. Our results show that human landscape domestication for the provision of firewood seems to be a socio-cultural resilient practice, and shed new light on the role of culture in

  8. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  9. Colombia: Territorial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Morales, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    The article is about the approaches of territorial classification, thematic axes, handling principles and territorial occupation, politician and administrative units and administration regions among other topics. Understanding as Territorial Classification the space distribution on the territory of the country, of the geographical configurations, the human communities, the political-administrative units and the uses of the soil, urban and rural, existent and proposed

  10. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    members of the community to make their own additions to any, or all, of the classification libraries . The next phase entailed data collection over less......Include area code) 04/04/2016 Final Report August 2014 - August 2015 MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION LIBRARY Mr. Craig Murray, Parsons Dr. Thomas H. Bell, Leidos

  11. Recursive automatic classification algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, E V; Dorofeyuk, A A

    1982-03-01

    A variational statement of the automatic classification problem is given. The dependence of the form of the optimal partition surface on the form of the classification objective functional is investigated. A recursive algorithm is proposed for maximising a functional of reasonably general form. The convergence problem is analysed in connection with the proposed algorithm. 8 references.

  12. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  13. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  14. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DOE LLW classification rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems

  16. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    " in the bureaucratic practice of classification: Experts construct material criticality in assessments as they allot information on the materials to the parameters of the assessment framework. In so doing, they ascribe a new set of connotations to the materials, namely supply risk, and their importance to clean energy......, legitimizing a criticality discourse.Specifically, the paper introduces a typology delineating the inferences made by the experts from their produced recommendations in the classification of rare earth element criticality. The paper argues that the classification is a specific process of constructing risk....... It proposes that the expert bureaucratic practice of classification legitimizes (i) the valorisation that was made in the drafting of the assessment framework for the classification, and (ii) political operationalization when enacted that might have (non-)distributive implications for the allocation of public...

  17. Classification of supersymmetric backgrounds of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We review the recent progress made towards the classification of supersymmetric solutions in ten and eleven dimensions with emphasis on those of IIB supergravity. In particular, the spinorial geometry method is outlined and adapted to nearly maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We then demonstrate its effectiveness by classifying the maximally supersymmetric IIB G-backgrounds and by showing that N=31 IIB solutions do not exist. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Prediction Reweighting for Domain Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang Li; Shiji Song; Gao Huang

    2017-07-01

    There are plenty of classification methods that perform well when training and testing data are drawn from the same distribution. However, in real applications, this condition may be violated, which causes degradation of classification accuracy. Domain adaptation is an effective approach to address this problem. In this paper, we propose a general domain adaptation framework from the perspective of prediction reweighting, from which a novel approach is derived. Different from the major domain adaptation methods, our idea is to reweight predictions of the training classifier on testing data according to their signed distance to the domain separator, which is a classifier that distinguishes training data (from source domain) and testing data (from target domain). We then propagate the labels of target instances with larger weights to ones with smaller weights by introducing a manifold regularization method. It can be proved that our reweighting scheme effectively brings the source and target domains closer to each other in an appropriate sense, such that classification in target domain becomes easier. The proposed method can be implemented efficiently by a simple two-stage algorithm, and the target classifier has a closed-form solution. The effectiveness of our approach is verified by the experiments on artificial datasets and two standard benchmarks, a visual object recognition task and a cross-domain sentiment analysis of text. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is competitive with the state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms.

  19. Classification With Truncated Distance Kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Suykens, Johan A K; Wang, Shuning; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    This brief proposes a truncated distance (TL1) kernel, which results in a classifier that is nonlinear in the global region but is linear in each subregion. With this kernel, the subregion structure can be trained using all the training data and local linear classifiers can be established simultaneously. The TL1 kernel has good adaptiveness to nonlinearity and is suitable for problems which require different nonlinearities in different areas. Though the TL1 kernel is not positive semidefinite, some classical kernel learning methods are still applicable which means that the TL1 kernel can be directly used in standard toolboxes by replacing the kernel evaluation. In numerical experiments, the TL1 kernel with a pregiven parameter achieves similar or better performance than the radial basis function kernel with the parameter tuned by cross validation, implying the TL1 kernel a promising nonlinear kernel for classification tasks.

  20. Landscape Ecology and problems of European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    by practical problems of European cultural – especial agricultural – landscapes since the rise of the environmental movement. Central themes have been the consequences of technological and structural changes within European agriculture for the landscape and the development of habitats and dispersal...... Problemstellungen basieren auf multifunktionalen Nutzungskonzepten ruraler Landschaften, besonders im Hinblick auf Suburbanisierungsprozesse. Eine Anzahl untereinander vergleichbarer Projekte, mit parallelen bis ähnlichen Ausprägungen innerhalb Dänemarks und weiteerer europäischer Länder, werden exemplarisch...

  1. Hidden Randomness between Fitness Landscapes Limits Reverse Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Longzhi; Serene, Stephen; Xiao Chao, Hui; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    Natural populations must constantly adapt to the ever-changing environment. A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is whether adaptations can be reversed by returning the population to its ancestral environment. Traditionally, reverse evolution is defined as restoring an ancestral phenotype (physical characteristics such as body size), and the classic Dollo's Law has hypothesized the impossibility of reversing complex adaptations. However, this ``law'' remains ambiguous unless reverse evolution can be studied at the level of genotypes (the underlying genome sequence). We measured the fitness landscapes of a bacterial antibiotic-resistance gene and analyzed the reversibility of evolution as a global, statistical feature of the landscapes. In both experiments and simulations, we find that an adaptation's reversibility declines as the number of mutations it involves increases, suggesting a probabilistic form of Dollo's Law at the molecular level. We also show computationally that slowly switching between environments facilitates reverse evolution in small populations, where clonal interference is negligible or moderate. This is an analogy to thermodynamics, where the reversibility of a physical process is maximized when conditions are modified infinitely slowly.

  2. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  3. Multiscale landscape genomic models to detect signatures of selection in the alpine plant Biscutella laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leempoel, Kevin; Parisod, Christian; Geiser, Céline; Joost, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Plant species are known to adapt locally to their environment, particularly in mountainous areas where conditions can vary drastically over short distances. The climate of such landscapes being largely influenced by topography, using fine-scale models to evaluate environmental heterogeneity may help detecting adaptation to micro-habitats. Here, we applied a multiscale landscape genomic approach to detect evidence of local adaptation in the alpine plant Biscutella laevigata . The two gene pools identified, experiencing limited gene flow along a 1-km ridge, were different in regard to several habitat features derived from a very high resolution (VHR) digital elevation model (DEM). A correlative approach detected signatures of selection along environmental gradients such as altitude, wind exposure, and solar radiation, indicating adaptive pressures likely driven by fine-scale topography. Using a large panel of DEM-derived variables as ecologically relevant proxies, our results highlighted the critical role of spatial resolution. These high-resolution multiscale variables indeed indicate that the robustness of associations between genetic loci and environmental features depends on spatial parameters that are poorly documented. We argue that the scale issue is critical in landscape genomics and that multiscale ecological variables are key to improve our understanding of local adaptation in highly heterogeneous landscapes.

  4. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Urban Landscapes and Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Andersson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological research targeting sustainable urban landscapes needs to include findings and methods from many lines of ecological research, such as the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function, the role of humans in ecosystems, landscape connectivity, and resilience. This paper reviews and highlights the importance of these issues for sustainable use of ecosystem services, which is argued to be one aspect of sustainable cities. The paper stresses the need to include social and economic factors when analyzing urban landscapes. Spatially explicit data can be used to assess the roles different green areas have in providing people with ecosystem services, and whether people actually have access to the services. Such data can also be used to assess connectivity and heterogeneity, both argued to be central for continuous, long-term provision of these services, and to determine the role urban form has for sustainability.

  6. Geotechnology and landscape ecology applied to the selection of potential forest fragments for seed harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandre Rosa Dos; Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro, Carlos; de Oliveira Peluzio, Telma Machado; Esteves Peluzio, João Batista; de Queiroz, Vagner Tebaldi; Figueira Branco, Elvis Ricardo; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Domingues, Getulio Fonseca; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Santos Mota, Pedro Henrique; Ferreira da Silva, Samuel; Vargas, Rozimelia; de Carvalho, José Romário; Macedo, Leandro Levate; da Silva Araújo, Cintia; de Almeida, Samira Luns Hatum

    2016-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest biome is recognized for its biodiversity and is one of the most threatened biomes on the planet, with forest fragmentation increasing due to uncontrolled land use, land occupation, and population growth. The most serious aspect of the forest fragmentation process is the edge effect and the loss of biodiversity. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of forest fragmentation and select potential forest fragments with a higher degree of conservation for seed harvesting in the Itapemirim river basin, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Image classification techniques, forest landscape ecology, and multi-criteria analysis were used to evaluate the evolution of forest fragmentation to develop the landscape metric indexes, and to select potential forest fragments for seed harvesting for the years 1985 and 2013. According to the results, there was a reduction of 2.55% of the occupancy of the fragments in the basin between the years 1985 and 2013. For the years 1985 and 2013, forest fragment units 2 and 3 were spatialized with a high potential for seed harvesting, representing 6.99% and 16.01% of the total fragments, respectively. The methodology used in this study has the potential to be used to support decisions for the selection of potential fragments for seed harvesting because selecting fragments in different environments by their spatial attributes provides a greater degree of conservation, contributing to the protection and conscious management of the forests. The proposed methodology can be adapted to other areas and different biomes of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Legible landscapes: the use of narratives in landscape design for leisure and tourism in Dutch cultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, leisure and tourism have become significant factors in rural development, which is manifest in the ‘commodification’ of landscapes. However, leisure and tourist markets are very competitive and consumers increasingly demand high quality, unique and memorable experiences. Landscape

  8. Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Kleinberg, Jon M.

    2009-11-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social “balance” allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  9. Energy landscape of social balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-11-06

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  10. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  11. Landscape history and archaeology of open field landscapes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071365303

    2016-01-01

    The landscapes of open fields were the grain baskets of medieval Europe. The term ‘open fields’ refers to the large arable fields that have an open character because the individual parcels of the owners were not surrounded by hedges, woodbanks, drystone walls or other visible boundaries. In this

  12. SUSTAINABLE URBAN LANDSCAPE: AN APPROACH FOR ASSESSING AND APPROPRIATING INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Amin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of development on its context is considered a key issue that governs the discussion and understanding of sustainability. For the reason, that ethics of sustainability are based on developing with no or less negative impacts on the contextual environment despite its urban scale whether limited or extended. This describes types of development that increase the good impacts on the tangible and intangible aspects of the built environment. Thus, achieving sustainability is no more a choice but it is a must especially, in an environment suffering from a lot of threats and stresses that affect all aspects of life; socially, economically, environmentally and also affect the beauty and aesthetics of urban fabrics. Assessing sustainability, the applied indicators and ways of assessment are allimportant concerns for urban sustainability discourses. Especially in such sensitive interacting domains as landscape, that links nature with the built environment. Approaching these concerns has a great deal when enhancing our environment aiming at better urban life containers. This paper aims at investigating the issue of sustainable urban landscape assessment through discussing the hue of indicators, their ways of classification, the criteria of selection and stating the variety of methods in which they can be assessed. Finally, it appropriates an approach for stating and assessing urban landscape sustainability indicators, which evaluates their both qualitative and quantitative value upon performance scale.

  13. Update on diabetes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  16. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  17. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the connection between contract duration, relational mechanisms, and premature relationship termination. Based on an analysis of a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service-provider industry, we argue that investments in either longer contract duration or more in...... ambiguous reference points for adaption and thus increase the likelihood of premature termination by restricting the parties' set of adaptive actions....

  18. Climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  19. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  20. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  1. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  2. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... regulations to allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option...

  3. Adaptive steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Li, Grace; Memon, Nasir D.

    2002-04-01

    Steganalysis techniques attempt to differentiate between stego-objects and cover-objects. In recent work we developed an explicit analytic upper bound for the steganographic capacity of LSB based steganographic techniques for a given false probability of detection. In this paper we look at adaptive steganographic techniques. Adaptive steganographic techniques take explicit steps to escape detection. We explore different techniques that can be used to adapt message embedding to the image content or to a known steganalysis technique. We investigate the advantages of adaptive steganography within an analytical framework. We also give experimental results with a state-of-the-art steganalysis technique demonstrating that adaptive embedding results in a significant number of bits embedded without detection.

  4. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  5. landscape incorporation in the environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez G, Luz Angela

    2000-01-01

    A general overview on landscape analysis showing the two principal approaches to their study, the article emphasize on the need of taking landscape in consideration on the making of the environmental impact study of any project of development

  6. Assessing the relationship between surface urban heat islands and landscape patterns across climatic zones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiquan; Huang, Xin; Li, Jiayi

    2017-08-24

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect exerts a great influence on the Earth's environment and human health and has been the subject of considerable attention. Landscape patterns are among the most important factors relevant to surface UHIs (SUHIs); however, the relationship between SUHIs and landscape patterns is poorly understood over large areas. In this study, the surface UHI intensity (SUHII) is defined as the temperature difference between urban and suburban areas, and the landscape patterns are quantified by the urban-suburban differences in several typical landscape metrics (ΔLMs). Temperature and land-cover classification datasets based on satellite observations were applied to analyze the relationship between SUHII and ΔLMs in 332 cities/city agglomerations distributed in different climatic zones of China. The results indicate that SUHII and its correlations with ΔLMs are profoundly influenced by seasonal, diurnal, and climatic factors. The impacts of different land-cover types on SUHIs are different, and the landscape patterns of the built-up and vegetation (including forest, grassland, and cultivated land) classes have the most significant effects on SUHIs. The results of this study will help us to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the SUHI effect and landscape patterns.

  7. A new approach to the identification of Landscape Quality Objectives (LQOs) as a set of indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara Natalia; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2016-12-15

    The objective of the paper is threefold: (1) to introduce Landscape Quality Objectives (LQOs) as a set of indicators; (2) to present a method of linking social and expert opinion in the process of the formulation of landscape indicators; and (3) to present a methodological framework for the identification of LQOs. The implementation of these goals adopted a six-stage procedure based on the use of landscape units: (1) GIS analysis; (2) classification; (3) social survey; (4) expert value judgement; (5) quality assessment; and (6) guidelines formulation. The essence of the research was the presentation of features that determine landscape quality according to public opinion as a set of indicators. The results showed that 80 such indicators were identified, of both a qualitative (49) and a quantitative character (31). Among the analysed units, 60% (18 objects) featured socially expected (and confirmed by experts) levels of landscape quality, and 20% (6 objects) required overall quality improvement in terms of both public and expert opinion. The adopted procedure provides a new tool for integrating social responsibility into environmental management. The advantage of the presented method is the possibility of its application in the territories of various European countries. It is flexible enough to be based on cartographic studies, landscape research methods, and environmental quality standards existing in a given country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  9. Application of Source-Sink Landscape Influence Values to Commuter Traffic: A Case Study of Xiamen Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape patterns are closely related to ecological processes. Different spatial scales and research methods may lead to different results. Therefore, it is crucial to choose suitable research methods when studying different landscape patterns and ecological processes. In the present study, the methods of source-sink landscape theory were applied to the interactions between urban landscape characteristics and commuter traffic behavior around the arterial roads in Xiamen Island. After classification of land use types using remote sensing images from the IKONOS satellite and ArcGIS software (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA, the landscape patterns of areas surrounding arterial roads (within 1 km were evaluated using source-sink landscape influence (SLI. The results showed that Xiamen Island’s urban expressway had the highest SLI value (0.191, followed by the state highways (0.067, the provincial highways (0.030, and the county roads (0.025. When considering all road types, the correlation between a road’s SLI value and its commuter traffic flow was 0.684. This result was explained by three observations: (1 The contribution of the core area of each landscape pattern to traffic flow was positively correlated with the traffic flow. (2 Areas surrounding the urban expressway and the state highways had lower values for Shannon’s diversity index, indicating that these areas had a lower degree of landscape fragmentation. (3 The landscape patterns surrounding the urban expressway and the state highways were more concentrated and complex than those around other road types. The application of source-sink landscape pattern theory allows for researchers to integrate the relationships between landscape patterns surrounding roads and commuter traffic flow on those roads and to analyze the reasons for these relationships.

  10. THE METHODOLOGY OF VALORISING AND ASSESSING LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jacek Bacior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation process requires access to particular information resources making it possible to regionalize (divide into zones the area under investigation. Thus, the starting point is landscape assessment and evaluation followed by regionalization. As a result of this step, we determine certain areas that are homogenous with regards to their landscape assets Keywords: assessing landscape, structure of rural areas, spatial planning of rural areas.

  11. Europe: the paradox of landscape change

    OpenAIRE

    Sluis, van der, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change. In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To as...

  12. Evidence and opportunities for integrating landscape ecology into natural resource planning across multiple-use landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammel, E. Jamie; Carter, Sarah; Haby, Travis S.; Taylor, Jason J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.

  13. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  14. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  15. Landscape design methods in architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape has been used as a metaphor or conceptual reference for an increasing amount of excellent architectural projects in the last two decades. The phenomenon seems to be a substantial innovation of architecture with an interesting potential for artistic, social and ecological gains. To be able

  16. Biography of an Industrial Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    Biography of an Industrial Landscape tells the story of one of the most significant urban redevelopment projects in northern Europe at the turn of the century. Examining the reinvention of the Carlsberg brewery site in Copenhagen as a city district, Svava Riesto unpacks the deeper assumptions abo...

  17. Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrami, F.; Bijster, J.; Bitarafan, N.; Cao, Z.; Cui, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ruan, L.; Maas, M.; Mayr, R.; Rozenmuller, M.; Toriano, L.; Yoshitake, M.; Jauslin, D.

    2009-01-01

    14 Project Documentations and Analysis of Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods. MVRDV Villa VPRO, Powerhouse Company Villa 1, Herman Herzberger Coda Museum, NL Architects Basket Ba, SeARCH Posbank Pavillion, Wiel Arets Hedge House, OMA Kunsthal and Educatorium, Maaskant Johnson Wax, Diller &

  18. Language's Landscape of the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author's 6 middle school students living in a village in the Yukon, 100 miles off the road system just below the arctic circle, enthusiastically wrote stories or poems about their lives. The students shared their works via an online electronic conferencing system with students from the unimaginably different landscape of the…

  19. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  20. Ecological networks in urban landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature