WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive landscape classification

  1. Adaptive Classification of Landscape Process and Function: An Integration of Geoinformatics and Self-Organizing Maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre M.

    2009-07-17

    The advanced geospatial information extraction and analysis capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GISs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), particularly Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), provide a topology-preserving means for reducing and understanding complex data relationships in the landscape. The Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure (ALCP) is presented as an adaptive and evolutionary capability where varying types of data can be assimilated to address different management needs such as hydrologic response, erosion potential, habitat structure, instrumentation placement, and various forecast or what-if scenarios. This paper defines how the evaluation and analysis of spatial and/or temporal patterns in the landscape can provide insight into complex ecological, hydrological, climatic, and other natural and anthropogenic-influenced processes. Establishing relationships among high-dimensional datasets through neurocomputing based pattern recognition methods can help 1) resolve large volumes of data into a structured and meaningful form; 2) provide an approach for inferring landscape processes in areas that have limited data available but exhibit similar landscape characteristics; and 3) discover the value of individual variables or groups of variables that contribute to specific processes in the landscape. Classification of hydrologic patterns in the landscape is demonstrated.

  2. An Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure using Geoinformatics and Artificial Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre Michael [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-06-01

    The Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure (ALCP), which links the advanced geospatial analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and particularly Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), is proposed as a method for establishing and reducing complex data relationships. Its adaptive and evolutionary capability is evaluated for situations where varying types of data can be combined to address different prediction and/or management needs such as hydrologic response, water quality, aquatic habitat, groundwater recharge, land use, instrumentation placement, and forecast scenarios. The research presented here documents and presents favorable results of a procedure that aims to be a powerful and flexible spatial data classifier that fuses the strengths of geoinformatics and the intelligence of SOMs to provide data patterns and spatial information for environmental managers and researchers. This research shows how evaluation and analysis of spatial and/or temporal patterns in the landscape can provide insight into complex ecological, hydrological, climatic, and other natural and anthropogenic-influenced processes. Certainly, environmental management and research within heterogeneous watersheds provide challenges for consistent evaluation and understanding of system functions. For instance, watersheds over a range of scales are likely to exhibit varying levels of diversity in their characteristics of climate, hydrology, physiography, ecology, and anthropogenic influence. Furthermore, it has become evident that understanding and analyzing these diverse systems can be difficult not only because of varying natural characteristics, but also because of the availability, quality, and variability of spatial and temporal data. Developments in geospatial technologies, however, are providing a wide range of relevant data, and in many cases, at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Such data resources can take the form of high

  3. An Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure using Geoinformatics and Artificial Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre M.

    2008-08-01

    The Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure (ALCP), which links the advanced geospatial analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and particularly Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), is proposed as a method for establishing and reducing complex data relationships. Its adaptive and evolutionary capability is evaluated for situations where varying types of data can be combined to address different prediction and/or management needs such as hydrologic response, water quality, aquatic habitat, groundwater recharge, land use, instrumentation placement, and forecast scenarios. The research presented here documents and presents favorable results of a procedure that aims to be a powerful and flexible spatial data classifier that fuses the strengths of geoinformatics and the intelligence of SOMs to provide data patterns and spatial information for environmental managers and researchers. This research shows how evaluation and analysis of spatial and/or temporal patterns in the landscape can provide insight into complex ecological, hydrological, climatic, and other natural and anthropogenic-influenced processes. Certainly, environmental management and research within heterogeneous watersheds provide challenges for consistent evaluation and understanding of system functions. For instance, watersheds over a range of scales are likely to exhibit varying levels of diversity in their characteristics of climate, hydrology, physiography, ecology, and anthropogenic influence. Furthermore, it has become evident that understanding and analyzing these diverse systems can be difficult not only because of varying natural characteristics, but also because of the availability, quality, and variability of spatial and temporal data. Developments in geospatial technologies, however, are providing a wide range of relevant data, and in many cases, at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Such data resources can take the form of high

  4. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  5. From landscape to domain: Soils role in landscape classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil landscape classifications are designed to divide landscapes into units with significance for the provisioning and regulating of ecosystem services and the development of conservation plans for natural resources. More specifically, such classifications serve as the basis for stratifying manageme...

  6. Adaptation on Rugged Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Levinthal

    1997-01-01

    A simple model is developed to explore the interrelationship between processes of organizational level change and population selection forces. A critical property of the model is that the effect on organizational fitness of the various attributes that constitute an organization's form is interactive. As a result of these interaction effects, the fitness landscape is "rugged." An organization's form at founding has a persistent effect on its future form when there are multiple peaks in the fit...

  7. A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.

  8. Landscape structure and the speed of adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of fragmentation in the adaptive process is addressed. We investigate how landscape structure affects the speed of adaptation in a spatially structured population model. As models of fragmented landscapes, here we simulate the percolation maps and the fractal landscapes. In the latter the degree of spatial autocorrelation can be suited. We verified that fragmentation can effectively affect the adaptive process. The examination of the fixation rates and speed of adaptation discloses the dichotomy exhibited by percolation maps and fractal landscapes. In the latter, there is a smooth change in the pace of the adaptation process, as the landscapes become more aggregated higher fixation rates and speed of adaptation are obtained. On the other hand, in random percolation the geometry of the percolating cluster matters. Thus, the scenario depends on whether the system is below or above the percolation threshold. - Highlights: • The role of fragmentation on the adaptive process is addressed. • Our approach makes the linkage between population genetics and landscape ecology. • Fragmentation affects gene flow and thus influences the speed of adaptation. • The level of clumping determines how the speed of adaptation is influenced

  9. Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Estimate Bristol Bay Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on cl...

  10. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.

  11. Seri Landscape Classification and Spatial Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the growing field of ethnophysiography, a new subfield of cognitive anthropology that aims to determine the universals and variation in the categorization of landscape objects across cultures. More specifically, this work looks at the case of the Seri people of Sonora, Mexico to investigate the way they categorize…

  12. Deep Adaptive Networks for Visual Data Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusen Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a classifier called deep adaptive networks (DAN based on deep belief networks (DBN for visual data classification. First, we construct a directed deep belief nets by using a set of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM and a Gaussian RBM via greedy and layerwise unsupervised learning. Then, we refine the parameter space of the deep architecture to adapt the classification requirement by using global gradient-descent based supervised learning. An exponential loss function is utilized to maximize the separability of different classes. Moreover, we apply DAN to visual data classification task and observe an important fact that the learning ability of deep architecture is seriously underrated in real-world applications, especially when there are not enough labeled data. Experiments conducted on standard datasets of different types and different scales demonstrate that the proposed classifier outperforms the representative classification techniques and deep learning methods.

  13. Landscape Classifications for Landscape Metrics-based Assessment of Urban Heat Island: A Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, some studies have been carried out on the landscape analysis of urban thermal patterns. With the prevalence of thermal landscape, a key problem has come forth, which is how to classify thermal landscape into thermal patches. Current researches used different methods of thermal landscape classification such as standard deviation method (SD) and R method. To find out the differences, a comparative study was carried out in Xiamen using a 20-year winter time-serial Landsat images. After the retrieval of land surface temperature (LST), the thermal landscape was classified using the two methods separately. Then landscape metrics, 6 at class level and 14 at landscape level, were calculated and analyzed using Fragstats 3.3. We found that: (1) at the class level, all the metrics with SD method were evened and did not show an obvious trend along with the process of urbanization, while the R method could. (2) While at the landscape level, 6 of the 14 metrics remains the similar trends, 5 were different at local turn points of the curve, 3 of them differed completely in the shape of curves. (3) When examined with visual interpretation, SD method tended to exaggerate urban heat island effects than the R method

  14. Hydrologic landscape regionalisation using deductive classification and random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart C Brown

    Full Text Available Landscape classification and hydrological regionalisation studies are being increasingly used in ecohydrology to aid in the management and research of aquatic resources. We present a methodology for classifying hydrologic landscapes based on spatial environmental variables by employing non-parametric statistics and hybrid image classification. Our approach differed from previous classifications which have required the use of an a priori spatial unit (e.g. a catchment which necessarily results in the loss of variability that is known to exist within those units. The use of a simple statistical approach to identify an appropriate number of classes eliminated the need for large amounts of post-hoc testing with different number of groups, or the selection and justification of an arbitrary number. Using statistical clustering, we identified 23 distinct groups within our training dataset. The use of a hybrid classification employing random forests extended this statistical clustering to an area of approximately 228,000 km2 of south-eastern Australia without the need to rely on catchments, landscape units or stream sections. This extension resulted in a highly accurate regionalisation at both 30-m and 2.5-km resolution, and a less-accurate 10-km classification that would be more appropriate for use at a continental scale. A smaller case study, of an area covering 27,000 km2, demonstrated that the method preserved the intra- and inter-catchment variability that is known to exist in local hydrology, based on previous research. Preliminary analysis linking the regionalisation to streamflow indices is promising suggesting that the method could be used to predict streamflow behaviour in ungauged catchments. Our work therefore simplifies current classification frameworks that are becoming more popular in ecohydrology, while better retaining small-scale variability in hydrology, thus enabling future attempts to explain and visualise broad-scale hydrologic

  15. Adaptive multiclass classification for brain computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llera, A; Gómez, V; Kappen, H J

    2014-06-01

    We consider the problem of multiclass adaptive classification for brain-computer interfaces and propose the use of multiclass pooled mean linear discriminant analysis (MPMLDA), a multiclass generalization of the adaptation rule introduced by Vidaurre, Kawanabe, von Bünau, Blankertz, and Müller (2010) for the binary class setting. Using publicly available EEG data sets and tangent space mapping (Barachant, Bonnet, Congedo, & Jutten, 2012) as a feature extractor, we demonstrate that MPMLDA can significantly outperform state-of-the-art multiclass static and adaptive methods. Furthermore, efficient learning rates can be achieved using data from different subjects.

  16. A dynamical theory of speciation on holey adaptive landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    The metaphor of holey adaptive landscapes provides a pictorial representation of the process of speciation as a consequence of genetic divergence. In this metaphor, biological populations diverge along connected clusters of well-fit genotypes in a multidimensional adaptive landscape and become reproductively isolated species when they come to be on opposite sides of a ``hole'' in the adaptive landscape. No crossing of any adaptive valleys is required. I formulate and study a series of simple models describing the dynamics of speciation on holey adaptive landscapes driven by mutation and random genetic drift. Unlike most previous models that concentrate only on some stages of speciation, the models studied here describe the complete process of speciation from initiation until completion. The evolutionary factors included are selection (reproductive isolation), random genetic drift, mutation, recombination, and migration. In these models, pre- and post-mating reproductive isolation is a consequence of cumulativ...

  17. Adaptation and extinction in experimentally fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakheran, Sima; Paul-Victor, Cloé; Heichinger, Christian; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2010-11-01

    Competition and disturbance are potent ecological forces that shape evolutionary trajectories. These forces typically work in opposition: when disturbance is infrequent, densities are high and competition is intense. In contrast, frequent disturbance creates a low-density environment in which competition is weak and good dispersal essential. We exploited recent advances in genomic research to quantify the response to selection by these powerful ecological forces at the phenotypic and molecular genetic level in experimental landscapes. We grew the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana in discrete patches embedded in a hostile matrix and varied the number and size of patches and the intensity of disturbance, by creating both static and dynamic landscapes. In static landscapes all patches were undisturbed, whereas in dynamic landscapes all patches were destroyed in each generation, forcing seeds to disperse to new locations. We measured the resulting changes in phenotypic, genetic, and genotypic diversity after five generations of selection. Simulations revealed that the observed loss of genetic diversity dwarfed that expected under drift, with dramatic diversity loss, particularly from dynamic landscapes. In line with ecological theory, static landscapes favored good competitors; however, competitive ability was linked to growth rate and not, as expected, to seed mass. In dynamic landscapes, there was strong selection for increased dispersal ability in the form of increased inflorescence height and reduced seed mass. The most competitive genotypes were almost eliminated from highly disturbed landscapes, raising concern over the impact of increased levels of human-induced disturbance in natural landscapes. PMID:20956303

  18. Mitigation/Adaptation: landscape architecture meets sustainable energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2009-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to renewable energy sources are among the emerging fields of activity in landscape architecture. If landscape architects recognize the need for sustainable development on the basis of renewable energy sources, then how can we contribute to sustainable and

  19. Mitigation/Adaptation: landscape architecture meets sustainable energy transition

    OpenAIRE

    Stremke, S.

    2009-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to renewable energy sources are among the emerging fields of activity in landscape architecture. If landscape architects recognize the need for sustainable development on the basis of renewable energy sources, then how can we contribute to sustainable and aesthetic transformation of the human environment?

  20. Adaptive walks on correlated fitness landscapes with heterogeneous connectivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a model for studying the statistical properties of adaptive walks on correlated fitness landscapes which are established in genotype spaces of complex structure. The fitness distribution on the genotype space follows either the bivariate Gaussian distribution or the bivariate exponential distribution. In both cases the degree of correlation of the fitness landscape can be tuned by using a single parameter. To perform the adaptive walks two distinct rules are applied: the random adaptation walk (RAW) and the gradient adaptation walk (GAW). While for the RAW the mean walk length, L-bar, is a monotonic increasing function of the connectivity of the genotype space, for the GAW L-bar is a one-humped function. The RAW produces longer adaptive walks compared to the GAW, though its performance is slightly poorer and thereby the local maxima reached by the GAW algorithm are usually closer to the global optimum of the fitness landscape

  1. Adapting complex multi-level landscape systems to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, E.; Steingröver, E.G.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is becoming a prominent issue in both landscape research and landuse planning. Current research focuses mainly on the description of potential impacts for different societal sectors and in general fails to provide useful information to help define climate adaptation stra

  2. Urban Climate Adaptation in Landscape Architecture Design Studios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.

    2012-01-01

    The adaptation of cities to existing problems such as urban heat islands and to the expected effects of climate change asks for new focuses in urban design professions. Especially for landscape architects, many new assignments will occur within climate adaptation, because the ‘materials’ they work w

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF HIGHWAY LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS AND THEIR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Vitrinskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The constituent elements of highway landscape are determined. Six models of highway landscape are offered. Recommendations concerning effective landscape design for application in highway construction are presented.

  4. Adaptation in protein fitness landscapes is facilitated by indirect paths.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, N.; Dai, L.; Olson, CA; Lloyd-Smith, JO; Sun, R

    2016-01-01

    The structure of fitness landscapes is critical for understanding adaptive protein evolution. Previous empirical studies on fitness landscapes were confined to either the neighborhood around the wild type sequence, involving mostly single and double mutants, or a combinatorially complete subgraph involving only two amino acids at each site. In reality, the dimensionality of protein sequence space is higher (20(L)) and there may be higher-order interactions among more than two sites. Here we e...

  5. Dynamic LiDAR-NDVI classification of fluvial landscape units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, Carolina; Parrot, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    The lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos River is a wide floodplain in which, during the wet season, local and major flooding are distinguished. Both types of floods, intermittent and regional, are important in terms of resources; the regional flood sediments enrich the soils of the plains and intermittent floods allow obtaining aquatic resources for subsistence during the heatwave. In the floodplain different abandoned meanders and intermittent streams are quickly colonized by aquatic vegetation. However, from the 1990s, the Coatzacoalcos River floodplain has important topographic changes due to mining, road and bridges construction; erosion and sedimentation requires continuous parcel boundaries along with the increasing demand of channel reparation, embankments, levees and bridges associated to tributaries. NDVI data, LiDAR point cloud and various types of flood simulations taking into account the DTM are used to classify the dynamic landscape units. These units are associated to floods in relation with water resources, agriculture and livestock. In the study area, the first returns of the point cloud allow extracting vegetation strata. The last returns correspond to the bare earth surface, especially in this area with few human settlements. The surface that is not covered by trees or by aquatic vegetation, correspond to crops, pastures and bare soils. The classification is obtained by using the NDVI index coupled with vegetation strata and water bodies. The result shows that 47.96% of the area does not present active vegetation and it includes 31.53% of bare soils. Concerning the active vegetation, pastures, bushes and trees represent respectively 25.59%, 11.14% and 13.25%. The remaining 1.25% is distributed between water bodies with aquatic vegetation, trees and shrubs. Dynamic landscape units' classification represents a tool for monitoring water resources in a fluvial plain. This approach can be also applied to forest management, environmental services and

  6. Rapid parapatric speciation on holey adaptive landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S; Vose, M D; Gavrilets, Sergey; Li, Hai; Vose, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A classical view of speciation is that reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic divergence. Here, individual-based simulations are used to evaluate whether the mechanisms implied by this view may result in rapid speciation if the only source of genetic divergence are mutation and random genetic drift. Distinctive features of the simulations are the consideration of the complete process of speciation (from initiation until completion), and of a large number of loci, which was only one order of magnitude smaller than that of bacteria. It is demonstrated that rapid speciation on the time scale of hundreds of generations is plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographic isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. The plausibility of speciation is enhanced by population subdivision. Simultaneous emergence of more than two new species from a subdivided population is highly probable. Numerical examples relevant to the theory of ce...

  7. The sensory ecology of adaptive landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Lyndon A.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In complex environments, behavioural plasticity depends on the ability of an animal to integrate numerous sensory stimuli. The multidimensionality of factors interacting to shape plastic behaviour means it is difficult for both organisms and researchers to predict what constitutes an adaptive response to a given set of conditions. Although researchers may be able to map the fitness pay-offs of different behavioural strategies in changing environments, there is no guarantee that the study spec...

  8. Greedy adaptive walks on a correlated fitness landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Chan; Neidhart, Johannes; Krug, Joachim

    2016-05-21

    We study adaptation of a haploid asexual population on a fitness landscape defined over binary genotype sequences of length L. We consider greedy adaptive walks in which the population moves to the fittest among all single mutant neighbors of the current genotype until a local fitness maximum is reached. The landscape is of the rough mount Fuji type, which means that the fitness value assigned to a sequence is the sum of a random and a deterministic component. The random components are independent and identically distributed random variables, and the deterministic component varies linearly with the distance to a reference sequence. The deterministic fitness gradient c is a parameter that interpolates between the limits of an uncorrelated random landscape (c=0) and an effectively additive landscape (c→∞). When the random fitness component is chosen from the Gumbel distribution, explicit expressions for the distribution of the number of steps taken by the greedy walk are obtained, and it is shown that the walk length varies non-monotonically with the strength of the fitness gradient when the starting point is sufficiently close to the reference sequence. Asymptotic results for general distributions of the random fitness component are obtained using extreme value theory, and it is found that the walk length attains a non-trivial limit for L→∞, different from its values for c=0 and c=∞, if c is scaled with L in an appropriate combination.

  9. INTERPRETATIONS OF A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE : CASE STUDY IN IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE CO- MANAGEMENT IN BALI’S SUBAK CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    OpenAIRE

    Silfwerbrand, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Cultural landscapes are places that have developed distinct characteristics from the interaction of people and nature. Actors with different roles in a cultural landscape will interpret the value of the landscape features differently. By combining these perspectives, or knowledge systems, a more complete interpretation can be included in development of an adaptive and collaborative environmental management systems. The principles of such adaptive co-management have guided a management initiat...

  10. Hydrologic landscape classification evaluates streamflow vulnerability to climate change in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classification can allow assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and their responses to stressors. Here we demonstrate the use of a hydrologic landscape (HL) approach to assess vulnerability to potential future climate change at statewide and basin scales. The HL ...

  11. Adaptation in protein fitness landscapes is facilitated by indirect paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nicholas C; Dai, Lei; Olson, C Anders; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Sun, Ren

    2016-01-01

    The structure of fitness landscapes is critical for understanding adaptive protein evolution. Previous empirical studies on fitness landscapes were confined to either the neighborhood around the wild type sequence, involving mostly single and double mutants, or a combinatorially complete subgraph involving only two amino acids at each site. In reality, the dimensionality of protein sequence space is higher (20L) and there may be higher-order interactions among more than two sites. Here we experimentally characterized the fitness landscape of four sites in protein GB1, containing 204 = 160,000 variants. We found that while reciprocal sign epistasis blocked many direct paths of adaptation, such evolutionary traps could be circumvented by indirect paths through genotype space involving gain and subsequent loss of mutations. These indirect paths alleviate the constraint on adaptive protein evolution, suggesting that the heretofore neglected dimensions of sequence space may change our views on how proteins evolve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16965.001 PMID:27391790

  12. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  13. Host coevolution alters the adaptive landscape of a virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The origin of new and complex structures and functions is fundamental for shaping the diversity of life. Such key innovations are rare because they require multiple interacting changes. We sought to understand how the adaptive landscape led to an innovation whereby bacteriophage λ evolved the new ability to exploit a receptor, OmpF, on Escherichia coli cells. Previous work showed that this ability evolved repeatedly, despite requiring four mutations in one virus gene. Here, we examine how this innovation evolved by studying six intermediate genotypes of λ isolated during independent transitions to exploit OmpF and comparing them to their ancestor. All six intermediates showed large increases in their adsorption rates on the ancestral host. Improvements in adsorption were offset, in large part, by the evolution of host resistance, which occurred by reduced expression of LamB, the usual receptor for λ. As a consequence of host coevolution, the adaptive landscape of the virus changed such that selection favouring four of the six virus intermediates became stronger after the host evolved resistance, thereby accelerating virus populations along the path to using the new OmpF receptor. This dependency of viral fitness on host genotype thus shows an important role for coevolution in the origin of the new viral function. PMID:27683370

  14. Nonparametric Transient Classification using Adaptive Wavelets

    OpenAIRE

    Varughese, Melvin; von Sachs, Rainer; Stephanou, Michael; Bassett, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Classifying transients based on the multi band light curves is a challenging but crucial problem in the era of GAIA and LSST since the sheer volume of transients will make spectroscopic classification unfeasible. Here we present a nonparametric classier that uses the transient's light curve measurements to predict its class given training data. It implements two novel components: the first is the use of the BAGIDIS wavelet methodology - a method of characterizing functional data using hierarc...

  15. Classification of EEG for Affect Recognition: An Adaptive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Omar; Calvo, Rafael A.; Stevens, Ronald H.

    Research on affective computing is growing rapidly and new applications are being developed more frequently. They use information about the affective/mental states of users to adapt their interfaces or add new functionalities. Face activity, voice, text physiology and other information about the user are used as input to affect recognition modules, which are built as classification algorithms. Brain EEG signals have rarely been used to build such classifiers due to the lack of a clear theoretical framework. We present here an evaluation of three different classification techniques and their adaptive variations of a 10-class emotion recognition experiment. Our results show that affect recognition from EEG signals might be possible and an adaptive algorithm improves the performance of the classification task.

  16. An operational framework for object-based land use classification of heterogeneous rural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watmough, Gary Richard; Palm, Cheryl; Sullivan, Clare

    2016-01-01

    and transferable land use classification definitions and algorithms. We present an operational framework for classifying VHR satellite data in heterogeneous rural landscapes using an object-based and random forest classifier. The framework overcomes the challenges of classifying VHR data in anthropogenic......The characteristics of very high resolution (VHR) satellite data are encouraging development agencies to investigate its use in monitoring and evaluation programmes. VHR data pose challenges for land use classification of heterogeneous rural landscapes as it is not possible to develop generalised...

  17. Classification of multiple sclerosis lesions using adaptive dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Maurel, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a sparse representation and an adaptive dictionary learning based method for automated classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Manual delineation of MS lesions is a time-consuming task, requiring neuroradiology experts to analyze huge volume of MR data. This, in addition to the high intra- and inter-observer variability necessitates the requirement of automated MS lesion classification methods. Among many image representation models and classification methods that can be used for such purpose, we investigate the use of sparse modeling. In the recent years, sparse representation has evolved as a tool in modeling data using a few basis elements of an over-complete dictionary and has found applications in many image processing tasks including classification. We propose a supervised classification approach by learning dictionaries specific to the lesions and individual healthy brain tissues, which include white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The size of the dictionaries learned for each class plays a major role in data representation but it is an even more crucial element in the case of competitive classification. Our approach adapts the size of the dictionary for each class, depending on the complexity of the underlying data. The algorithm is validated using 52 multi-sequence MR images acquired from 13 MS patients. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in MS lesion classification.

  18. Classification of multiple sclerosis lesions using adaptive dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Maurel, Pierre; Barillot, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a sparse representation and an adaptive dictionary learning based method for automated classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Manual delineation of MS lesions is a time-consuming task, requiring neuroradiology experts to analyze huge volume of MR data. This, in addition to the high intra- and inter-observer variability necessitates the requirement of automated MS lesion classification methods. Among many image representation models and classification methods that can be used for such purpose, we investigate the use of sparse modeling. In the recent years, sparse representation has evolved as a tool in modeling data using a few basis elements of an over-complete dictionary and has found applications in many image processing tasks including classification. We propose a supervised classification approach by learning dictionaries specific to the lesions and individual healthy brain tissues, which include white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The size of the dictionaries learned for each class plays a major role in data representation but it is an even more crucial element in the case of competitive classification. Our approach adapts the size of the dictionary for each class, depending on the complexity of the underlying data. The algorithm is validated using 52 multi-sequence MR images acquired from 13 MS patients. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in MS lesion classification. PMID:26055435

  19. Length of adaptive walk on uncorrelated and correlated fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharaman, Sarada; Jain, Kavita

    2014-09-01

    We consider the adaptation dynamics of an asexual population that walks uphill on a rugged fitness landscape which is endowed with a large number of local fitness peaks. We work in a parameter regime where only those mutants that are a single mutation away are accessible, as a result of which the population eventually gets trapped at a local fitness maximum and the adaptive walk terminates. We study how the number of adaptive steps taken by the population before reaching a local fitness peak depends on the initial fitness of the population, the extreme value distribution of the beneficial mutations, and correlations among the fitnesses. Assuming that the relative fitness difference between successive steps is small, we analytically calculate the average walk length for both uncorrelated and correlated fitnesses in all extreme value domains for a given initial fitness. We present numerical results for the model where the fitness differences can be large and find that the walk length behavior differs from that in the former model in the Fréchet domain of extreme value theory. We also discuss the relevance of our results to microbial experiments.

  20. Rapid object category adaptation during unlabelled classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, David; Intrator, Nathan; Yovel, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports from electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments provide evidence that repeated exposure to an ordered sequence of morphed stimuli may over time adapt a prelearned object category such that the category may generalise the entire sequence as belonging to the same object. Here, a new protocol that includes a single exposure to a morphing sequence is presented. Subjects exposed to the new protocol replaced a prelearned face with an entirely different face within just 3 days, significantly faster than in previous reports.

  1. Nonparametric Transient Classification using Adaptive Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Varughese, Melvin M; Stephanou, Michael; Bassett, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Classifying transients based on multi band light curves is a challenging but crucial problem in the era of GAIA and LSST since the sheer volume of transients will make spectroscopic classification unfeasible. Here we present a nonparametric classifier that uses the transient's light curve measurements to predict its class given training data. It implements two novel components: the first is the use of the BAGIDIS wavelet methodology - a characterization of functional data using hierarchical wavelet coefficients. The second novelty is the introduction of a ranked probability classifier on the wavelet coefficients that handles both the heteroscedasticity of the data in addition to the potential non-representativity of the training set. The ranked classifier is simple and quick to implement while a major advantage of the BAGIDIS wavelets is that they are translation invariant, hence they do not need the light curves to be aligned to extract features. Further, BAGIDIS is nonparametric so it can be used for blind ...

  2. Students Classification With Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saber Iraji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Identifying exceptional students for scholarships is an essential part of the admissions process in undergraduate and postgraduate institutions, and identifying weak students who are likely to fail is also important for allocating limited tutoring resources. In this article, we have tried to design an intelligent system which can separate and classify student according to learning factor and performance. a system is proposed through Lvq networks methods, anfis method to separate these student on learning factor . In our proposed system, adaptive fuzzy neural network(anfis has less error and can be used as an effective alternative system for classifying students

  3. Extreme learning machine and adaptive sparse representation for image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiuwen; Zhang, Kai; Luo, Minxia; Yin, Chun; Lai, Xiaoping

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown the speed advantage of extreme learning machine (ELM) and the accuracy advantage of sparse representation classification (SRC) in the area of image classification. Those two methods, however, have their respective drawbacks, e.g., in general, ELM is known to be less robust to noise while SRC is known to be time-consuming. Consequently, ELM and SRC complement each other in computational complexity and classification accuracy. In order to unify such mutual complementarity and thus further enhance the classification performance, we propose an efficient hybrid classifier to exploit the advantages of ELM and SRC in this paper. More precisely, the proposed classifier consists of two stages: first, an ELM network is trained by supervised learning. Second, a discriminative criterion about the reliability of the obtained ELM output is adopted to decide whether the query image can be correctly classified or not. If the output is reliable, the classification will be performed by ELM; otherwise the query image will be fed to SRC. Meanwhile, in the stage of SRC, a sub-dictionary that is adaptive to the query image instead of the entire dictionary is extracted via the ELM output. The computational burden of SRC thus can be reduced. Extensive experiments on handwritten digit classification, landmark recognition and face recognition demonstrate that the proposed hybrid classifier outperforms ELM and SRC in classification accuracy with outstanding computational efficiency.

  4. Extreme learning machine and adaptive sparse representation for image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiuwen; Zhang, Kai; Luo, Minxia; Yin, Chun; Lai, Xiaoping

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown the speed advantage of extreme learning machine (ELM) and the accuracy advantage of sparse representation classification (SRC) in the area of image classification. Those two methods, however, have their respective drawbacks, e.g., in general, ELM is known to be less robust to noise while SRC is known to be time-consuming. Consequently, ELM and SRC complement each other in computational complexity and classification accuracy. In order to unify such mutual complementarity and thus further enhance the classification performance, we propose an efficient hybrid classifier to exploit the advantages of ELM and SRC in this paper. More precisely, the proposed classifier consists of two stages: first, an ELM network is trained by supervised learning. Second, a discriminative criterion about the reliability of the obtained ELM output is adopted to decide whether the query image can be correctly classified or not. If the output is reliable, the classification will be performed by ELM; otherwise the query image will be fed to SRC. Meanwhile, in the stage of SRC, a sub-dictionary that is adaptive to the query image instead of the entire dictionary is extracted via the ELM output. The computational burden of SRC thus can be reduced. Extensive experiments on handwritten digit classification, landmark recognition and face recognition demonstrate that the proposed hybrid classifier outperforms ELM and SRC in classification accuracy with outstanding computational efficiency. PMID:27389571

  5. Classification of ecological landscape stability on example of the east-Slovakian districts; 1 : 320 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the methodology of the Territorial System of Ecological Stability (TSES) is spatial classification of ecological stability of territory (EST), which assesses the representation and effect of positive, as well as negative factors and properties. The result of this procedures is identification of areas with approximately the same level of stability, which makes possible to assess the hierarchy of landscape use and protection. The EST classification takes into account: · Landscape properties, which characterise EST from the supportive aspect: they are the real elements of the present landscape structure and biotopes with eco-stabilising properties and prerequisites (eco-stabilising landscape elements, which support EST). · Landscape factors relevant from the point of view of the present and proposed legal nature and natural resource protection · they contribute to conservation and development of EST (elements of nature and natural resource protection that protect and develop EST). · Factors, which reduce or disturb EST - loading of the environment caused by stress phenomena. (authors)

  6. A Classification of Adaptive Feedback in Educational Systems for Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Thinh Le

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, many educational systems for programming have been developed to support learning/teaching programming. In this paper, feedback types that are supported by existing educational systems for programming are classified. In order to be able to provide feedback, educational systems for programming deployed various approaches to analyzing students’ programs. This paper identifies analysis approaches for programs and introduces a classification for adaptive feedback suppo...

  7. Classification of pasture habitats by Hungarian herders in a steppe landscape (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnár Zsolt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landscape ethnoecology focuses on the ecological features of the landscape, how the landscape is perceived, and used by people who live in it. Though studying folk classifications of species has a long history, the comparative study of habitat classifications is just beginning. I studied the habitat classification of herders in a Hungarian steppe, and compared it to classifications of botanists and laymen. Methods For a quantitative analysis the picture sort method was used. Twenty-three pictures of 7-11 habitat types were sorted by 25 herders.’Density’ of pictures along the habitat gradient of the Hortobágy salt steppe was set as equal as possible, but pictures differed in their dominant species, wetness, season, etc. Before sorts, herders were asked to describe pictures to assure proper recognition of habitats. Results Herders classified the images into three main groups: (1 fertile habitats at the higher parts of the habitat gradient (partos, lit. on the shore; (2 saline habitats (szík, lit. salt or saline place, and (3 meadows and marshes (lapos, lit. flooded at the lower end of the habitat gradient. Sharpness of delimitation changed along the gradient. Saline habitats were the most isolated from the rest. Botanists identified 6 groups. Laymen grouped habitats in a less coherent way. As opposed to my expectations, botanical classification was not more structured than that done by herders. I expected and found high correspondence between the classifications by herders, botanists and laymen. All tended to recognize similar main groups: wetlands, ”good grass” and dry/saline habitats. Two main factors could have been responsible for similar classifications: salient features correlated (e.g. salinity recognizable by herders and botanists but not by laymen correlated with the density of grasslands or height of vegetation recognizable also for laymen, or the same salient features were used as a basis for sorting

  8. How does the selection of landscape classification schemes affect the spatial pattern of natural landscapes? An assessment on a coastal wetland site in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, V; Veronico, G; Sciandrello, S; Blonda, P

    2016-06-01

    It is widely known that thematic resolution affects spatial pattern and landscape metrics performances. In literature, data dealing with this issue usually refer to a specific class scheme with its thematic levels. In this paper, the effects of different land cover (LC) and habitat classification schemes on the spatial pattern of a coastal landscape were compared. One of the largest components of the Mediterranean wetland system was considered as the study site, and different schemes widely used in the EU were selected and harmonized with a common thematic resolution, suitable for habitat discrimination and monitoring. For each scheme, a thematic map was produced and, for each map, 28 landscape metrics were calculated. The landscape composition, already in terms of number of classes, class area, and number of patches, changes significantly among different classification schemes. Landscape complexity varies according to the class scheme considered and its underlying semantics, depending on how the different types aggregate or split when changing class scheme. Results confirm that the selection of a specific class scheme affects the spatial pattern of the derived landscapes and consequently the landscape metrics, especially at class level. Moreover, among the classification schemes considered, EUNIS seems to be the best choice for a comprehensive representation of both natural and anthropogenic classes.

  9. Classification of transient signals using sparse representations over adaptive dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Daniela I.; Brumby, Steven P.; Myers, Kary L.; Pawley, Norma H.

    2011-06-01

    Automatic classification of broadband transient radio frequency (RF) signals is of particular interest in persistent surveillance applications. Because such transients are often acquired in noisy, cluttered environments, and are characterized by complex or unknown analytical models, feature extraction and classification can be difficult. We propose a fast, adaptive classification approach based on non-analytical dictionaries learned from data. Conventional representations using fixed (or analytical) orthogonal dictionaries, e.g., Short Time Fourier and Wavelet Transforms, can be suboptimal for classification of transients, as they provide a rigid tiling of the time-frequency space, and are not specifically designed for a particular signal class. They do not usually lead to sparse decompositions, and require separate feature selection algorithms, creating additional computational overhead. Pursuit-type decompositions over analytical, redundant dictionaries yield sparse representations by design, and work well for target signals in the same function class as the dictionary atoms. The pursuit search however has a high computational cost, and the method can perform poorly in the presence of realistic noise and clutter. Our approach builds on the image analysis work of Mairal et al. (2008) to learn a discriminative dictionary for RF transients directly from data without relying on analytical constraints or additional knowledge about the signal characteristics. We then use a pursuit search over this dictionary to generate sparse classification features. We demonstrate that our learned dictionary is robust to unexpected changes in background content and noise levels. The target classification decision is obtained in almost real-time via a parallel, vectorized implementation.

  10. Domain Adaptation for Opinion Classification: A Self-Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Domain transfer is a widely recognized problem for machine learning algorithms because models built upon one data domain generally do not perform well in another data domain. This is especially a challenge for tasks such as opinion classification, which often has to deal with insufficient quantities of labeled data. This study investigates the feasibility of self-training in dealing with the domain transfer problem in opinion classification via leveraging labeled data in non-target data domain(s and unlabeled data in the target-domain. Specifically, self-training is evaluated for effectiveness in sparse data situations and feasibility for domain adaptation in opinion classification. Three types of Web content are tested: edited news articles, semi-structured movie reviews, and the informal and unstructured content of the blogosphere. Findings of this study suggest that, when there are limited labeled data, self-training is a promising approach for opinion classification, although the contributions vary across data domains. Significant improvement was demonstrated for the most challenging data domain-the blogosphere-when a domain transfer-based self-training strategy was implemented.

  11. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G Groenendyk

    of landscape function, suggest that hydrologic-process-based classifications should be incorporated into environmental process models and can be used to define application-specific maps of hydrologic function.

  12. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendyk, Derek G; Ferré, Ty P A; Thorp, Kelly R; Rice, Amy K

    2015-01-01

    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth's surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  13. Adaptive Landscape by Environment Interactions Dictate Evolutionary Dynamics in Models of Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brandon Ogbunugafor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive landscape analogy has found practical use in recent years, as many have explored how their understanding can inform therapeutic strategies that subvert the evolution of drug resistance. A major barrier to applications of these concepts is a lack of detail concerning how the environment affects adaptive landscape topography, and consequently, the outcome of drug treatment. Here we combine empirical data, evolutionary theory, and computer simulations towards dissecting adaptive landscape by environment interactions for the evolution of drug resistance in two dimensions-drug concentration and drug type. We do so by studying the resistance mediated by Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR to two related inhibitors-pyrimethamine and cycloguanil-across a breadth of drug concentrations. We first examine whether the adaptive landscapes for the two drugs are consistent with common definitions of cross-resistance. We then reconstruct all accessible pathways across the landscape, observing how their structure changes with drug environment. We offer a mechanism for non-linearity in the topography of accessible pathways by calculating of the interaction between mutation effects and drug environment, which reveals rampant patterns of epistasis. We then simulate evolution in several different drug environments to observe how these individual mutation effects (and patterns of epistasis influence paths taken at evolutionary "forks in the road" that dictate adaptive dynamics in silico. In doing so, we reveal how classic metrics like the IC50 and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC are dubious proxies for understanding how evolution will occur across drug environments. We also consider how the findings reveal ambiguities in the cross-resistance concept, as subtle differences in adaptive landscape topography between otherwise equivalent drugs can drive drastically different evolutionary outcomes. Summarizing, we discuss the results with

  14. Adaptive Landscape by Environment Interactions Dictate Evolutionary Dynamics in Models of Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbunugafor, C Brandon; Wylie, C Scott; Diakite, Ibrahim; Weinreich, Daniel M; Hartl, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive landscape analogy has found practical use in recent years, as many have explored how their understanding can inform therapeutic strategies that subvert the evolution of drug resistance. A major barrier to applications of these concepts is a lack of detail concerning how the environment affects adaptive landscape topography, and consequently, the outcome of drug treatment. Here we combine empirical data, evolutionary theory, and computer simulations towards dissecting adaptive landscape by environment interactions for the evolution of drug resistance in two dimensions-drug concentration and drug type. We do so by studying the resistance mediated by Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) to two related inhibitors-pyrimethamine and cycloguanil-across a breadth of drug concentrations. We first examine whether the adaptive landscapes for the two drugs are consistent with common definitions of cross-resistance. We then reconstruct all accessible pathways across the landscape, observing how their structure changes with drug environment. We offer a mechanism for non-linearity in the topography of accessible pathways by calculating of the interaction between mutation effects and drug environment, which reveals rampant patterns of epistasis. We then simulate evolution in several different drug environments to observe how these individual mutation effects (and patterns of epistasis) influence paths taken at evolutionary "forks in the road" that dictate adaptive dynamics in silico. In doing so, we reveal how classic metrics like the IC50 and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) are dubious proxies for understanding how evolution will occur across drug environments. We also consider how the findings reveal ambiguities in the cross-resistance concept, as subtle differences in adaptive landscape topography between otherwise equivalent drugs can drive drastically different evolutionary outcomes. Summarizing, we discuss the results with regards to their

  15. Adaptive Landscape by Environment Interactions Dictate Evolutionary Dynamics in Models of Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbunugafor, C. Brandon; Wylie, C. Scott; Diakite, Ibrahim; Weinreich, Daniel M.; Hartl, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive landscape analogy has found practical use in recent years, as many have explored how their understanding can inform therapeutic strategies that subvert the evolution of drug resistance. A major barrier to applications of these concepts is a lack of detail concerning how the environment affects adaptive landscape topography, and consequently, the outcome of drug treatment. Here we combine empirical data, evolutionary theory, and computer simulations towards dissecting adaptive landscape by environment interactions for the evolution of drug resistance in two dimensions—drug concentration and drug type. We do so by studying the resistance mediated by Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) to two related inhibitors—pyrimethamine and cycloguanil—across a breadth of drug concentrations. We first examine whether the adaptive landscapes for the two drugs are consistent with common definitions of cross-resistance. We then reconstruct all accessible pathways across the landscape, observing how their structure changes with drug environment. We offer a mechanism for non-linearity in the topography of accessible pathways by calculating of the interaction between mutation effects and drug environment, which reveals rampant patterns of epistasis. We then simulate evolution in several different drug environments to observe how these individual mutation effects (and patterns of epistasis) influence paths taken at evolutionary “forks in the road” that dictate adaptive dynamics in silico. In doing so, we reveal how classic metrics like the IC50 and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) are dubious proxies for understanding how evolution will occur across drug environments. We also consider how the findings reveal ambiguities in the cross-resistance concept, as subtle differences in adaptive landscape topography between otherwise equivalent drugs can drive drastically different evolutionary outcomes. Summarizing, we discuss the results with

  16. Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province of the Hudson River Valley and the Effect of Explanatory Data Classification Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...

  17. Rural landscape and cultural routes: a multicriteria spatial classification method tested on an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Diti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Europe is characterised by a rich net of itineraries that during the Middle Ages were taken by pilgrims head toward the holy places of Christianity. In Italy the main pilgrimage route is the Via Francigena (the road that comes from France, which starts from Canterbury and arrives in Rome, running through Europe for about 1800 km. Municipalities and local associations are focused on purposes and actions aimed at the promotion of those routes, rich in history and spirituality. Also for the European Union the enhancement of those itineraries, nowadays used both by pilgrims and tourists, is crucial, as shown by the various projects aimed at the identification of tools for the development of sustainable cultural tourism. It is important to understand how landscape, that according to the European Landscape Convention reflects the sense of places and represents the image of their history, has evolved along those roads, and to analyse the relationships between the built and natural environments, since they maintain a remarkable symbolic connection between places and peoples over time and history. This study focuses on the Italian section of the Via Francigena that crosses the Emilia-Romagna region, in the province of Piacenza. A land classification method is proposed, with the aim to take into account different indicators: land zoning provided by regional laws, elements of relevant historical and natural value, urban elements, type of agriculture. The analyses are carried out on suitable buffers around the path, thus allowing to create landscape profiles. As nature is a key element for the spirituality character of these pilgrimage routes, the classification process takes into account both protected and other valuable natural elements, besides agricultural activities. The outcomes can be useful to define tools aimed to help pilgrims and tourists to understand the surrounding places along their walk, as well as to lend support to rural and urban planning

  18. Detecting Landscape Changes in High Latitude Environments Using Landsat Trend Analysis: 2. Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Olthof

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping landscape dynamics is necessary to assess cumulative impacts due to climate change and development in Arctic regions. Landscape changes produce a range of temporal reflectance trajectories that can be obtained from remote sensing image time-series. Mapping these changes assumes that their trajectories are unique and can be characterized by magnitude and shape. A companion paper in this issue describes a trajectory visualization method for assessing a range of landscape disturbances. This paper focusses on generating a change map using a time-series of calibrated Landsat Tasseled Cap indices from 1985 to 2011. A reference change database covering the Mackenzie Delta region was created using a number of ancillary datasets to delineate polygons describing 21 natural and human-induced disturbances. Two approaches were tested to classify the Landsat time-series and generate change maps. The first involved profile matching based on trajectory shape and distance, while the second quantified profile shape with regression coefficients that were input to a decision tree classifier. Results indicate that classification of robust linear trend coefficients performed best. A final change map was assessed using bootstrapping and cross-validation, producing an overall accuracy of 82.8% at the level of 21 change classes and 87.3% when collapsed to eight underlying change processes.

  19. Reciprocal sign epistasis between frequently experimentally evolved adaptive mutations causes a rugged fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kvitek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fitness landscape captures the relationship between genotype and evolutionary fitness and is a pervasive metaphor used to describe the possible evolutionary trajectories of adaptation. However, little is known about the actual shape of fitness landscapes, including whether valleys of low fitness create local fitness optima, acting as barriers to adaptive change. Here we provide evidence of a rugged molecular fitness landscape arising during an evolution experiment in an asexual population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify the mutations that arose during the evolution using whole-genome sequencing and use competitive fitness assays to describe the mutations individually responsible for adaptation. In addition, we find that a fitness valley between two adaptive mutations in the genes MTH1 and HXT6/HXT7 is caused by reciprocal sign epistasis, where the fitness cost of the double mutant prohibits the two mutations from being selected in the same genetic background. The constraint enforced by reciprocal sign epistasis causes the mutations to remain mutually exclusive during the experiment, even though adaptive mutations in these two genes occur several times in independent lineages during the experiment. Our results show that epistasis plays a key role during adaptation and that inter-genic interactions can act as barriers between adaptive solutions. These results also provide a new interpretation on the classic Dobzhansky-Muller model of reproductive isolation and display some surprising parallels with mutations in genes often associated with tumors.

  20. An ecoregional classification for the state of Roraima, Brazil: the importance of landscape in malaria biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the different background landscapes in which malaria transmission occurs is fundamental to understanding malaria epidemiology and to designing effective local malaria control programs. Geology, geomorphology, vegetation, climate, land use, and anopheline distribution were used as a basis for an ecological classification of the state of Roraima, Brazil, in the northern Amazon Basin, focused on the natural history of malaria and transmission. We used unsupervised maximum likelihood classification, principal components analysis, and weighted overlay with equal contribution analyses to fine-scale thematic maps that resulted in clustered regions. We used ecological niche modeling techniques to develop a fine-scale picture of malaria vector distributions in the state. Eight ecoregions were identified and malaria-related aspects are discussed based on this classification, including 5 types of dense tropical rain forest and 3 types of savannah. Ecoregions formed by dense tropical rain forest were named as montane (ecoregion I, submontane (II, plateau (III, lowland (IV, and alluvial (V. Ecoregions formed by savannah were divided into steppe (VI, campos de Roraima, savannah (VII, cerrado, and wetland (VIII, campinarana. Such ecoregional mappings are important tools in integrated malaria control programs that aim to identify specific characteristics of malaria transmission, classify transmission risk, and define priority areas and appropriate interventions. For some areas, extension of these approaches to still-finer resolutions will provide an improved picture of malaria transmission patterns.

  1. Multiview Sample Classification Algorithm Based on L1-Graph Domain Adaptation Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Huibin Lu; Zhengping Hu; Hongxiao Gao

    2015-01-01

    In the case of multiview sample classification with different distribution, training and testing samples are from different domains. In order to improve the classification performance, a multiview sample classification algorithm based on L1-Graph domain adaptation learning is presented. First of all, a framework of nonnegative matrix trifactorization based on domain adaptation learning is formed, in which the unchanged information is regarded as the bridge of knowledge transformation from the...

  2. Cherokee Adaptation to the Landscape of the West and Overcoming the Loss of Culturally Significant Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, R. Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Plant species utilized by Cherokees have been documented by several authors. However, many of the traditional uses of plants were lost or forgotten in the generations following the Trail of Tears. The pressures of overcoming the physical and psychological impact of the removal, adapting to a new landscape, rebuilding a government, rebuilding…

  3. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBeare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation, which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks’ gestation acquired at 30 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5, coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5 and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5. The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks’ gestation acquired shortly after birth (n= 12, preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n= 12, and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks’ gestation acquired within the first nine days of life (n= 12. For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for

  4. Adaptive codebook selection schemes for image classification in correlated channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia Chang; Liu, Xiang Lian; Liu, Kuan-Fu

    2015-09-01

    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with the use of transmit and receive antenna arrays achieves diversity and array gains via transmit beamforming. Due to the absence of full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, the transmit beamforming vector can be quantized at the receiver and sent back to the transmitter by a low-rate feedback channel, called limited feedback beamforming. One of the key roles of Vector Quantization (VQ) is how to generate a good codebook such that the distortion between the original image and the reconstructed image is the minimized. In this paper, a novel adaptive codebook selection scheme for image classification is proposed with taking both spatial and temporal correlation inherent in the channel into consideration. The new codebook selection algorithm is developed to select two codebooks from the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) codebook, the generalized Lloyd algorithm (GLA) codebook and the Grassmannian codebook to be combined and used as candidates of the original image and the reconstructed image for image transmission. The channel is estimated and divided into four regions based on the spatial and temporal correlation of the channel and an appropriate codebook is assigned to each region. The proposed method can efficiently reduce the required information of feedback under the spatially and temporally correlated channels, where each region is adaptively. Simulation results show that in the case of temporally and spatially correlated channels, the bit-error-rate (BER) performance can be improved substantially by the proposed algorithm compared to the one with only single codebook.

  5. [Ecological classification system of forest landscape in eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-na; Wang, Qing-li; Dai, Li-min; Shao, Guo-fan

    2008-01-01

    Based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite SPOT-5 data, and by using the spatial analysis function in Geographic Information System, a hierachical Ecological Classification System of forest landscape was developed for the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province, and the two lowest layers in the hierachical framework, Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs), were mapped. The results indicated that there were 5 ELTs and 34 ELTPs. The boundaries of ELTs, which presented the potential vegetation distribution and potential forestry ecosystem productivity, were determined by environmental conditions quantified by DEM. ELTPs were classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers which were obtained from remotely sensed data, forest inventory data, and ground data. The ELTPs represented the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore, were reliable units for forest inventories and management. ELTPs could function as conventional forest inventory sub-compartments. By this means, forestry departments could adjust forest management planning and forest management measures from the viewpoint of forest landscape scale to realize forest ecosystem management. PMID:18419066

  6. Adaptation in tunably rugged fitness landscapes: the rough Mount Fuji model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhart, Johannes; Szendro, Ivan G; Krug, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Much of the current theory of adaptation is based on Gillespie's mutational landscape model (MLM), which assumes that the fitness values of genotypes linked by single mutational steps are independent random variables. On the other hand, a growing body of empirical evidence shows that real fitness landscapes, while possessing a considerable amount of ruggedness, are smoother than predicted by the MLM. In the present article we propose and analyze a simple fitness landscape model with tunable ruggedness based on the rough Mount Fuji (RMF) model originally introduced by Aita et al. in the context of protein evolution. We provide a comprehensive collection of results pertaining to the topographical structure of RMF landscapes, including explicit formulas for the expected number of local fitness maxima, the location of the global peak, and the fitness correlation function. The statistics of single and multiple adaptive steps on the RMF landscape are explored mainly through simulations, and the results are compared to the known behavior in the MLM model. Finally, we show that the RMF model can explain the large number of second-step mutations observed on a highly fit first-step background in a recent evolution experiment with a microvirid bacteriophage.

  7. Recombination accelerates adaptation on a large-scale empirical fitness landscape in HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradigaravand, Danesh; Kouyos, Roger; Hinkley, Trevor; Haddad, Mojgan; Petropoulos, Christos J; Engelstädter, Jan; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2014-06-01

    Recombination has the potential to facilitate adaptation. In spite of the substantial body of theory on the impact of recombination on the evolutionary dynamics of adapting populations, empirical evidence to test these theories is still scarce. We examined the effect of recombination on adaptation on a large-scale empirical fitness landscape in HIV-1 based on in vitro fitness measurements. Our results indicate that recombination substantially increases the rate of adaptation under a wide range of parameter values for population size, mutation rate and recombination rate. The accelerating effect of recombination is stronger for intermediate mutation rates but increases in a monotonic way with the recombination rates and population sizes that we examined. We also found that both fitness effects of individual mutations and epistatic fitness interactions cause recombination to accelerate adaptation. The estimated epistasis in the adapting populations is significantly negative. Our results highlight the importance of recombination in the evolution of HIV-I.

  8. Adaptation and Coevolution on an Emergent Global Competitive Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos; Wright, Roxana; Dasari, Usha

    Notions of Darwinian selection have been implicit in economic theory for at least sixty years. Richard Nelson and Sidney Winter have argued that while evolutionary thinking was prevalent in prewar economics, the postwar Neoclassical school became almost entirely preoccupied with equilibrium conditions and their mathematical conditions. One of the problems with the economic interpretation of firm selection through competition has been a weak grasp on an incomplete scientific paradigm. As I.F. Price notes: "The biological metaphor has long lurked in the background of management theory largely because the message of 'survival of the fittest' (usually wrongly attributed to Charles Darwin rather than Herbert Spencer) provides a seemingly natural model for market competition (e.g. Alchian 1950, Merrell 1984, Henderson 1989, Moore 1993), without seriously challenging the underlying paradigms of what an organisation is." [1] In this paper we examine the application of dynamic fitness landscape models to economic theory, particularly the theory of technology substitution, drawing on recent work by Kauffman, Arthur, McKelvey, Nelson and Winter, and Windrum and Birchenhall. In particular we use Professor Post's early work with John Holland on the genetic algorithm to explain some of the key differences between static and dynamic approaches to economic modeling.

  9. Urban landscape classification using Chinese advanced high-resolution satellite imagery and an object-oriented multi-variable model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-gang MA; Jin-song DENG; Huai YANG; Yang HONG; Ke WANG

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese ZY-1 02C satellite is one of the most advanced high-resolution earth observation systems designed for terrestrial resource monitoring. Its capability for comprehensive landscape classification, especially in urban areas, has been under constant study. In view of the limited spectral resolution of the ZY-1 02C satellite (three bands), and the complexity and hetero-geneity across urban environments, we attempt to test its performance of urban landscape classification by combining a multi-variable model with an object-oriented approach. The multiple variables including spectral reflection, texture, spatial autocorre-lation, impervious surface fraction, vegetation, and geometry indexes were first calculated and selected using forward stepwise linear discriminant analysis and applied in the following object-oriented classification process. Comprehensive accuracy as-sessment which adopts traditional error matrices with stratified random samples and polygon area consistency (PAC) indexes was then conducted to examine the real area agreement between a classified polygon and its references. Results indicated an overall classification accuracy of 92.63%and a kappa statistic of 0.9124. Furthermore, the proposed PAC index showed that more than 82%of all polygons were correctly classified. Misclassification occurred mostly between residential area and barren/farmland. The presented method and the Chinese ZY-1 02C satellite imagery are robust and effective for urban landscape classification.

  10. Adaptation of bird communities to farmland abandonment in a mountain landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lopes Guilherme

    Full Text Available Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain

  11. Experimental demonstration of an adaptive architecture for direct spectral imaging classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop-Gray, Matthew; Poon, Phillip K; Golish, Dathon; Vera, Esteban; Gehm, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    Spectral imaging is a powerful tool for providing in situ material classification across a spatial scene. Typically, spectral imaging analyses are interested in classification, though often the classification is performed only after reconstruction of the spectral datacube. We present a computational spectral imaging system, the Adaptive Feature-Specific Spectral Imaging Classifier (AFSSI-C), which yields direct classification across the spatial scene without reconstruction of the source datacube. With a dual disperser architecture and a programmable spatial light modulator, the AFSSI-C measures specific projections of the spectral datacube which are generated by an adaptive Bayesian classification and feature design framework. We experimentally demonstrate multiple order-of-magnitude improvement of classification accuracy in low signal-to-noise (SNR) environments when compared to legacy spectral imaging systems. PMID:27505794

  12. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  13. A novel adaptive classification scheme for digital modulations in satellite communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dan; Gu Xuemai; Guo Qing

    2007-01-01

    To make the modulation classification system more suitable for signals in a wide range of signal to noise ratios (SNRs) , a novel adaptive modulation classification scheme is presented in this paper. Different from traditional schemes, the proposed scheme employs a new SNR estimation algorithm for small samples before modulation classification, which makes the modulation classifier work adaptively according to estimated SNRs. Furthermore, it uses three efficient features and support vector machines (SVM) in modulation classification. Computer simulation shows that the scheme can adaptively classify ten digital modulation types (i.e. 2ASK, 4ASK, 2FSK, 4FSK, 2PSK, 4PSK, 16QAM, TFM, π/4QPSK and OQPSK) at SNRS ranging from OdB to 25 dB and success rates are over 95% when SNR is not lower than 3dB. Accuracy, efficiency and simplicity of the proposed scheme are obviously improved, which make it more adaptive to engineering applications.

  14. Hydrologic landscape classification assesses streamflow vulnerability to climate change in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Leibowitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification can allow assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and their responses to stressors. Here we demonstrate the use of a hydrologic landscape (HL approach to assess vulnerability to potential future climate change at statewide and basin scales. The HL classification has five components: climate, seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability. We evaluate changes when the 1971–2000 HL climate indices are recalculated using 2041–2070 simulation results from the ECHAM and PCM climate models with the A2, A1b, and B1 emission scenarios. Changes in climate class were modest (4–18% statewide. However, there were major changes in seasonality class for five of the six realizations (excluding PCM_B1: Oregon shifts from being 13% snow-dominated to 4–6% snow-dominated under these five realizations, representing a 56–68% reduction in snowmelt-dominated area. At the basin scale, projected changes for the Siletz basin, in Oregon's coast range, include a small switch from very wet to wet climate, with no change in seasonality. However, there is a modest increase in fall and winter water due to increased precipitation. For the Sandy basin, on the western slope of the Cascades, HL climate class does not change, but there are major changes in seasonality, especially for areas with low aquifer permeability, which experiences a 100% loss of spring seasonality. This would reduce summer baseflow, but impacts could potentially be mitigated by streamflow buffering effects provided by groundwater in the high aquifer permeability portions of the upper Sandy. The Middle Fork John Day basin (MFJD, in northeastern Oregon, is snowmelt-dominated. The basin experiences a net loss of wet and moist climate area, along with an increase in dry climate area. The MFJD also experiences major shifts from spring to winter seasonality, representing a 20–60% reduction in snowmelt-dominated area. Altered seasonality and/or magnitude

  15. Tree Species Abundance Predictions in a Tropical Agricultural Landscape with a Supervised Classification Model and Imbalanced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping species through classification of imaging spectroscopy data is facilitating research to understand tree species distributions at increasingly greater spatial scales. Classification requires a dataset of field observations matched to the image, which will often reflect natural species distributions, resulting in an imbalanced dataset with many samples for common species and few samples for less common species. Despite the high prevalence of imbalanced datasets in multiclass species predictions, the effect on species prediction accuracy and landscape species abundance has not yet been quantified. First, we trained and assessed the accuracy of a support vector machine (SVM model with a highly imbalanced dataset of 20 tropical species and one mixed-species class of 24 species identified in a hyperspectral image mosaic (350–2500 nm of Panamanian farmland and secondary forest fragments. The model, with an overall accuracy of 62% ± 2.3% and F-score of 59% ± 2.7%, was applied to the full image mosaic (23,000 ha at a 2-m resolution to produce a species prediction map, which suggested that this tropical agricultural landscape is more diverse than what has been presented in field-based studies. Second, we quantified the effect of class imbalance on model accuracy. Model assessment showed a trend where species with more samples were consistently over predicted while species with fewer samples were under predicted. Standardizing sample size reduced model accuracy, but also reduced the level of species over- and under-prediction. This study advances operational species mapping of diverse tropical landscapes by detailing the effect of imbalanced data on classification accuracy and providing estimates of tree species abundance in an agricultural landscape. Species maps using data and methods presented here can be used in landscape analyses of species distributions to understand human or environmental effects, in addition to focusing conservation

  16. Reconciling contradictory narratives of landscape change using the adaptive cycle: a case study from southeastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rawluk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the methodological challenge of exposing and reconciling contradictory narratives of change in a social-ecological system (SES. Our research occurred in the Ovens Valley in southeastern Australia. Other studies have used the adaptive cycle to interpret change, but those efforts have been based on researcher-derived interpretations. We drew on the Factors Actors Sectors framework as a structure for coding qualitative interview data provided by key informants. Our analysis suggested that interpretations of SES change fell into three groups: farmers, employees of government and local organizations, and local politicians. Those narratives were then overlaid on the adaptive cycle as a way of exposing and interpreting the narratives. To farmers, the SES was based on agriculture and approaching collapse, and intervention was required to prevent a collapse. Employees of government and local organizations thought the SES had already collapsed, and local people were struggling to identify a prosperous new trajectory. The local politicians also thought the system had collapsed but unlike the other stakeholders, considered the SES as having already reorganized. We then drew on a range of secondary data to reconcile those contradictory narratives and form a consolidated interpretation of landscape change. Our synthesis of the primary and secondary data suggested that the SES had collapsed and reorganized as a multifunctional landscape. We suggest our approach may be useful to others attempting to interpret landscape change using a resilience framework. The case study also illustrates the importance of exploring multiple perspectives of landscape change as a way of exposing the role of power as a force shaping discourse and, therefore, policy and planning.

  17. Landscape classification of Huelva (Spain: An objective method of identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcántara Manzanares, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to classify the landscape of the province of Huelva (Andalusia, Spain and validate the results, using a new application of classical multivariate methods in conjunction with GIS tools. The province was divided into 1 km x 1 km grid squares to which information was associated on four visually-perceivable variables: soil use, plant cover, lithology and relief. Grid cells were then classified using twoway indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN and ordered by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA. Analysis of results yielded 8 major landscape types that were characterized by its indicator variables. This classification was checked by Discriminant Analysis, which yielded an 80% match with the TWINSPAN estimate.Este estudio trata de clasificar el paisaje de la provincia de Huelva (Andalucía, España y validar los resultados, mediante una nueva aplicación de métodos multivariantes clásicos en combinación con herramientas SIG. La provincia se dividió en cuadrículas de 1 km x 1 km a las que se asoció la información relativa a cuatro variables perceptibles visualmente: usos del suelo, coberturas vegetales, litología y relieve. Las cuadrículas se clasificaron utilizando el análisis de especies indicadoras de doble vía (TWINSPAN y se ordenaron mediante el análisis de correspondencia escalado (DCA. El análisis de los resultados dio lugar a 8 tipos de paisaje que se caracterizaron gracias a sus variables indicadoras. Esta clasificación se validó mediante un análisis discriminante, que coincidió en un 80% con la estimación del TWINSPAN. [fr] Cette étude visait à classer le paysage de la province de Huelva (Andalousie, Espagne et de valider les résultats, à l’aide d’une nouvelle application de méthodes multivariées classiques avec des outils SIG. La province a été divisée en 1 km x 1 km carrés de la grille dans laquelle l’information a été associée à quatre variables visuellement perceptibles: l

  18. Validating the Danish adaptation of the World Health Organization's International Classification for Patient Safety classification of patient safety incident types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2013-01-01

    of case descriptions; clarity of the operational definitions of the types and the instructions guiding the coding process; adequacy of the underlying classification scheme. Conclusions The incident types of the ICPS-DK are adequate, exhaustive and well suited for classifying and structuring incident......, precisely defined incident sub-types may be preferred. This evaluation of the reliability and usability of WHO's ICPS should be useful for healthcare administrations that consider or are in the process of adapting the ICPS....

  19. Classification in Medical Image Analysis Using Adaptive Metric KNN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Chernoff, Konstantin; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath;

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the k-nearest neighborhoods (k-NN) classifier is highly dependent on the distance metric used to identify the k nearest neighbors of the query points. The standard Euclidean distance is commonly used in practice. This paper investigates the performance of k-NN classifier with r......, where we use k-NN for breast cancer risk assessment. The results show that appropriate choice of metric can improve classification....... on the assumption that images are drawn from Brownian Image Model (BIM), the normalized metric based on variance of the data, the empirical metric is based on the empirical covariance matrix of the unlabeled data, and an optimized metric obtained by minimizing the classification error. The spectral structure...

  20. Regularized logistic regression with adjusted adaptive elastic net for gene selection in high dimensional cancer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algamal, Zakariya Yahya; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-12-01

    Cancer classification and gene selection in high-dimensional data have been popular research topics in genetics and molecular biology. Recently, adaptive regularized logistic regression using the elastic net regularization, which is called the adaptive elastic net, has been successfully applied in high-dimensional cancer classification to tackle both estimating the gene coefficients and performing gene selection simultaneously. The adaptive elastic net originally used elastic net estimates as the initial weight, however, using this weight may not be preferable for certain reasons: First, the elastic net estimator is biased in selecting genes. Second, it does not perform well when the pairwise correlations between variables are not high. Adjusted adaptive regularized logistic regression (AAElastic) is proposed to address these issues and encourage grouping effects simultaneously. The real data results indicate that AAElastic is significantly consistent in selecting genes compared to the other three competitor regularization methods. Additionally, the classification performance of AAElastic is comparable to the adaptive elastic net and better than other regularization methods. Thus, we can conclude that AAElastic is a reliable adaptive regularized logistic regression method in the field of high-dimensional cancer classification.

  1. A Study of Self-adaptive X/Y Flow Classification Method in LER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the X/Y flow classification method based on TCP and UDP port, a new method named self-adaptive X/Y flow classification method is proposed in the paper, which can make the curve of the ratio of label resource usage more stable than ever so as to improve the performance of both L3 forwarding and L2 label switching of LER in MPLS networks. With the simulation of real Internet data, a satisfactory classification result has been obtained.

  2. A Study of Self—adaptive X/Y Flow Classification Method in LER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOXu; DINGWei; 等

    2001-01-01

    According to the X/Y flow classification method based on TCP and UDP port,a new method named self-adaptive X/Y flow classification method is proposed in the paper, which can make the curve of the ration of label resource usage more stable than ever so as to improve the performance of both L3 forwarding and L2 label switching of LER in MPLS networks.With the simulation of real Internet data, a satisfactory classification result has been obtained.

  3. Adaptative initialisation of a EvKNN classification algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Wai Tim, Stefen; Rombaut, Michele; Pellerin, Denis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The establishment of the learning data base is a long and tedious task that must be carried out before starting the classification process. An Evidential KNN (EvKNN) has been developed in order to help the user, which proposes the "best" samples to label according to a strategy. However, at the beginning of this task, the classes are not clearly defined and are represented by a number of labeled samples smaller than the k required samples for EvKNN. In this paper, we p...

  4. Enhanced land use/cover classification of heterogeneous tropical landscapes using support vector machines and textural homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Mas, Jean-François; Moré, Gerard; Cristóbal, Jordi; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Luz, Ana Catarina; Guèze, Maximilien; Macía, Manuel J.; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2013-08-01

    Land use/cover classification is a key research field in remote sensing and land change science as thematic maps derived from remotely sensed data have become the basis for analyzing many socio-ecological issues. However, land use/cover classification remains a difficult task and it is especially challenging in heterogeneous tropical landscapes where nonetheless such maps are of great importance. The present study aims at establishing an efficient classification approach to accurately map all broad land use/cover classes in a large, heterogeneous tropical area, as a basis for further studies (e.g., land use/cover change, deforestation and forest degradation). Specifically, we first compare the performance of parametric (maximum likelihood), non-parametric (k-nearest neighbor and four different support vector machines - SVM), and hybrid (unsupervised-supervised) classifiers, using hard and soft (fuzzy) accuracy assessments. We then assess, using the maximum likelihood algorithm, what textural indices from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix lead to greater classification improvements at the spatial resolution of Landsat imagery (30 m), and rank them accordingly. Finally, we use the textural index that provides the most accurate classification results to evaluate whether its usefulness varies significantly with the classifier used. We classified imagery corresponding to dry and wet seasons and found that SVM classifiers outperformed all the rest. We also found that the use of some textural indices, but particularly homogeneity and entropy, can significantly improve classifications. We focused on the use of the homogeneity index, which has so far been neglected in land use/cover classification efforts, and found that this index along with reflectance bands significantly increased the overall accuracy of all the classifiers, but particularly of SVM. We observed that improvements in producer's and user's accuracies through the inclusion of homogeneity were different

  5. Adaptive frequency estimation by MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhunen, Juha; Nieminen, Esko; Joutsensalo, Jyrki

    During the last years, the eigenvector-based method called MUSIC has become very popular in estimating the frequencies of sinusoids in additive white noise. Adaptive realizations of the MUSIC method are studied using simulated data. Several of the adaptive realizations seem to give in practice equally good results as the nonadaptive standard realization. The only exceptions are instantaneous gradient type algorithms that need considerably more samples to achieve a comparable performance. A new method is proposed for constructing initial estimates to the signal subspace. The method improves often dramatically the performance of instantaneous gradient type algorithms. The new signal subspace estimate can also be used to define a frequency estimator directly or to simplify eigenvector computation.

  6. Real Time Video Quality Representation Classification of Encrypted HTTP Adaptive Video Streaming - the Case of Safari

    OpenAIRE

    Dubin, Ran; Dvir, Amit; Pele, Ofir; Hadar, Ofer; Richman, Itay; Trabelsi, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    The increasing popularity of HTTP adaptive video streaming services has dramatically increased bandwidth requirements on operator networks, which attempt to shape their traffic through Deep Packet Inspection (DPI). However, Google and certain content providers have started to encrypt their video services. As a result, operators often encounter difficulties in shaping their encrypted video traffic via DPI. This highlights the need for new traffic classification methods for encrypted HTTP adapt...

  7. Application of adaptive and neural network computational techniques to Traffic Volume and Classification Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, W.C.; Fisher, H.N.; Jones, R.D.; Bisset, K.R.; Lee, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    We are developing a Traffic Volume and Classification Monitoring (TVCM) system based on adaptive and neural network computational techniques. The value of neutral networks in this application lies in their ability to learn from data and to form a mapping of arbitrary topology. The piezoelectric strip and magnetic loop sensors typically used for TVCM provide signals that are complicated and variable, and that correspond in indirect ways with the desired FWHA 13-class classification system. Further, the wide variety of vehicle configurations adds to the complexity of the classification task. Our goal is to provide a TVCM system featuring high accuracy, adaptability to wide sensor and envirorunental variations, and continuous fault detection. We have instrumented an experimental TVCM site, developed PC-based on-line data acquisition software, collected a large database of vehicles` signals together with accurate ground truth determination, and analyzed the data off-line with a neural net classification system that can distinguish between class 2 (automobiles) and class 3 (utility vehicles) with better than 90% accuracy. The neural network used, called the Connectionist Hyperprism Classification (CHC) network, features simple basis functions; rapid, linear training algorithms for basis function amplitudes and widths; and basis function elimination that enhances network speed and accuracy. Work is in progress to extend the system to other classes, to quantify the system`s adaptability, and to develop automatic fault detection techniques.

  8. Classification of EEG Signals using adaptive weighted distance nearest neighbor algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Parvinnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are often used to diagnose diseases such as seizure, alzheimer, and schizophrenia. One main problem with the recorded EEG samples is that they are not equally reliable due to the artifacts at the time of recording. EEG signal classification algorithms should have a mechanism to handle this issue. It seems that using adaptive classifiers can be useful for the biological signals such as EEG. In this paper, a general adaptive method named weighted distance nearest neighbor (WDNN is applied for EEG signal classification to tackle this problem. This classification algorithm assigns a weight to each training sample to control its influence in classifying test samples. The weights of training samples are used to find the nearest neighbor of an input query pattern. To assess the performance of this scheme, EEG signals of thirteen schizophrenic patients and eighteen normal subjects are analyzed for the classification of these two groups. Several features including, fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive (AR model are extracted from EEG signals. The classification results are evaluated using Leave one (subject out cross validation for reliable estimation. The results indicate that combination of WDNN and selected features can significantly outperform the basic nearest-neighbor and the other methods proposed in the past for the classification of these two groups. Therefore, this method can be a complementary tool for specialists to distinguish schizophrenia disorder.

  9. Analysis of Distributed and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Mining Interesting Classification Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Yunfei; LIN Fang; QIN Jun

    2008-01-01

    Distributed genetic algorithm can be combined with the adaptive genetic algorithm for mining the interesting and comprehensible classification rules. The paper gives the method to encode for the rules, the fitness function, the selecting, crossover, mutation and migration operator for the DAGA at the same time are designed.

  10. Fast Model Adaptation for Automated Section Classification in Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jian; Delaney, Brian; Florian, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Medical information extraction is the automatic extraction of structured information from electronic medical records, where such information can be used for improving healthcare processes and medical decision making. In this paper, we study one important medical information extraction task called section classification. The objective of section classification is to automatically identify sections in a medical document and classify them into one of the pre-defined section types. Training section classification models typically requires large amounts of human labeled training data to achieve high accuracy. Annotating institution-specific data, however, can be both expensive and time-consuming; which poses a big hurdle for adapting a section classification model to new medical institutions. In this paper, we apply two advanced machine learning techniques, active learning and distant supervision, to reduce annotation cost and achieve fast model adaptation for automated section classification in electronic medical records. Our experiment results show that active learning reduces the annotation cost and time by more than 50%, and distant supervision can achieve good model accuracy using weakly labeled training data only. PMID:26262005

  11. Multiview Sample Classification Algorithm Based on L1-Graph Domain Adaptation Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of multiview sample classification with different distribution, training and testing samples are from different domains. In order to improve the classification performance, a multiview sample classification algorithm based on L1-Graph domain adaptation learning is presented. First of all, a framework of nonnegative matrix trifactorization based on domain adaptation learning is formed, in which the unchanged information is regarded as the bridge of knowledge transformation from the source domain to the target domain; the second step is to construct L1-Graph on the basis of sparse representation, so as to search for the nearest neighbor data with self-adaptation and preserve the samples and the geometric structure; lastly, we integrate two complementary objective functions into the unified optimization issue and use the iterative algorithm to cope with it, and then the estimation of the testing sample classification is completed. Comparative experiments are conducted in USPS-Binary digital database, Three-Domain Object Benchmark database, and ALOI database; the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, which improves the recognition accuracy and ensures the robustness of algorithm.

  12. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

    2009-04-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

  13. INTERACTIVE DOMAIN ADAPTION FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES USING ACTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.Pushpa Lingam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactive Domain Adaptation (IDA technique based on active learning for the classification of remote sensing images. Interactive domain adaptation method is used for adapting the supervised classifier trained on a given remote sensing source image to make it suitable for classifying a different but related target image. The two images can be acquired in different locations and at different times. This method iteratively selects the most informative samples of the target image to be labeled and included in the training set and the source image samples are reweighted or removed from the training set on the basis of their disagreement with the target image classification problem. The consistent information available from the source image can be effectively exploited for the classification of the target image and for guiding the selection of new samples to be labeled, whereas the inconsistent information is automatically detected and removed. This approach significantly reduces the number of new labeled samples to be collected from the target image. Experimental results on both a multispectral very high resolution and a hyper spectral data set confirm the effectiveness of the interactive domain adaptation for theclassification of remote sensing using active learning method.

  14. Translating land cover/land use classifications to habitat taxonomies for landscape monitoring: a Mediterranean assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaselli, V.; Dimopoulos, P.; Marangi, C.; Kallimanis, A.; Adamo, M.; Tarantino, C.; Panitsa, M.; Terzi, M.; Veronico, G.; Lovergine, F.; Nagendra, H.; Lucas, R.; Mairota, P.; Mücher, C.A.; Blonda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Periodic monitoring of biodiversity changes at a landscape scale constitutes a key issue for conservation managers. Earth observation (EO) data offer a potential solution, through direct or indirect mapping of species or habitats. Most national and international programs rely on the use of land cove

  15. AN ADAPTIVELY TRAINED KERNEL-BASED NONLINEAR REPRESENTOR FOR HANDWRITTEN DIGIT CLASSIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In practice, retraining a trained classifier is necessary when novel data become available. This paper adopts an incremental learning procedure to adaptively train a Kernel-based Nonlinear Representor(KNR), a recently presented nonlinear classifier for optimal pattern representation, so that its generalization ability may be evaluated in time-variant situation and a sparser representation is obtained for computationally intensive tasks. The addressed techniques are applied to handwritten digit classification to illustrate the feasibility for pattern recognition.

  16. Parameter extraction and classification of three cortical neuron types reveals two distinct adaptation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mensi, Skander; Naud, Richard; Pozzorini, Christian; Avermann, Michael; Petersen, Carl C. H.; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2012-01-01

    Mensi S, Naud R, Pozzorini C, Avermann M, Petersen CCH, Gerstner W. Parameter extraction and classification of three cortical neuron types reveals two distinct adaptation mechanisms. J Neurophysiol 107: 1756-1775, 2012. First published December 7, 2011; doi:10.1152/jn.00408.2011.-Cortical information processing originates from the exchange of action potentials between many cell types. To capture the essence of these interactions, it is of critical importance to build mathematical models that ...

  17. Efficient Cancer Classification using Fast Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (FANFIS based on Statistical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ananda Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in number of cancer is detected throughout the world. This leads to the requirement of developing a new technique which can detect the occurrence the cancer. This will help in better diagnosis in order to reduce the cancer patients. This paper aim at finding the smallest set of genes that can ensure highly accurate classification of cancer from micro array data by using supervised machine learning algorithms. The significance of finding the minimum subset is three fold: a The computational burden and noise arising from irrelevant genes are much reduced; b the cost for cancer testing is reduced significantly as it simplifies the gene expression tests to include only a very small number of genes rather than thousands of genes; c it calls for more investigation into the probable biological relationship between these small numbers of genes and cancer development and treatment. The proposed method involves two steps. In the first step, some important genes are chosen with the help of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA ranking scheme. In the second step, the classification capability is tested for all simple combinations of those important genes using a better classifier. The proposed method uses Fast Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (FANFIS as a classification model. This classification model uses Modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for learning phase. The experimental results suggest that the proposed method results in better accuracy and also it takes lesser time for classification when compared to the conventional techniques.

  18. Object-based forest classification to facilitate landscape-scale conservation in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Wilson, R. Randy; Twedt, Daniel J.; Mini, Anne E.; James, J. Dale

    2016-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley is a floodplain along the southern extent of the Mississippi River extending from southern Missouri to the Gulf of Mexico. This area once encompassed nearly 10 million ha of floodplain forests, most of which has been converted to agriculture over the past two centuries. Conservation programs in this region revolve around protection of existing forest and reforestation of converted lands. Therefore, an accurate and up to date classification of forest cover is essential for conservation planning, including efforts that prioritize areas for conservation activities. We used object-based image analysis with Random Forest classification to quickly and accurately classify forest cover. We used Landsat band, band ratio, and band index statistics to identify and define similar objects as our training sets instead of selecting individual training points. This provided a single rule-set that was used to classify each of the 11 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes that encompassed the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We classified 3,307,910±85,344 ha (32% of this region) as forest. Our overall classification accuracy was 96.9% with Kappa statistic of 0.96. Because this method of forest classification is rapid and accurate, assessment of forest cover can be regularly updated and progress toward forest habitat goals identified in conservation plans can be periodically evaluated.

  19. Adaptive landscapes and emergent phenotypes: why do cancers have high glycolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robert J; Gatenby, Robert A

    2007-06-01

    Investigating the causes of increased aerobic glycolysis in tumors (Warburg Effect) has gone in and out of fashion many times since it was first described almost a century ago. The field is currently in ascendance due to two factors. Over a million FDG-PET studies have unequivocally identified increased glucose uptake as a hallmark of metastatic cancer in humans. These observations, combined with new molecular insights with HIF-1alpha and c-myc, have rekindled an interest in this important phenotype. A preponderance of work has been focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, with the expectation that a mechanistic understanding may lead to novel therapeutic approaches. There is also an implicit assumption that a mechanistic understanding, although fundamentally reductionist, will nonetheless lead to a more profound teleological understanding of the need for altered metabolism in invasive cancers. In this communication, we describe an alternative approach that begins with teleology; i.e. adaptive landscapes and selection pressures that promote emergence of aerobic glycolysis during the somatic evolution of invasive cancer. Mathematical models and empirical observations are used to define the adaptive advantage of aerobic glycolysis that would explain its remarkable prevalence in human cancers. These studies have led to the hypothesis that increased consumption of glucose in metastatic lesions is not used for substantial energy production via Embden-Meyerhoff glycolysis, but rather for production of acid, which gives the cancer cells a competitive advantage for invasion. Alternative hypotheses, wherein the glucose is used for generation of reducing equivalents (NADPH) or anabolic precursors (ribose) are also discussed. PMID:17624581

  20. Wavelength-Adaptive Dehazing Using Histogram Merging-Based Classification for UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inhye Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  1. Wavelength-adaptive dehazing using histogram merging-based classification for UAV images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Inhye; Jeong, Seokhwa; Jeong, Jaeheon; Seo, Doochun; Paik, Joonki

    2015-03-19

    Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i) image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii) generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii) intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  2. Wavelength-adaptive dehazing using histogram merging-based classification for UAV images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Inhye; Jeong, Seokhwa; Jeong, Jaeheon; Seo, Doochun; Paik, Joonki

    2015-01-01

    Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i) image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii) generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii) intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results. PMID:25808767

  3. Cultural adaptation, content validity and inter-rater reliability of the "STAR Skin Tear Classification System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Strazzieri-Pulido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: to perform the cultural adaptation of the STAR Skin Tear Classification System into the Portuguese language and to test the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the adapted version.METHODS: methodological study with a quantitative approach. The cultural adaptation was developed in three phases: translation, evaluation by a committee of judges and back-translation. The instrument was tested regarding content validity and inter-rater reliability.RESULTS: the adapted version obtained a regular level of concordance when it was applied by nurses using photographs of friction injuries. Regarding its application in clinical practice, the adapted version obtained a moderate and statistically significant level of concordance.CONCLUSION: the study tested the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the version adapted into the Portuguese language. Its inclusion in clinical practice will enable the correct identification of this type of injury, as well as the implementation of protocols for the prevention and treatment of friction injuries.

  4. Multiclass Classification by Adaptive Network of Dendritic Neurons with Binary Synapses Using Structural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaista; Basu, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    The development of power-efficient neuromorphic devices presents the challenge of designing spike pattern classification algorithms which can be implemented on low-precision hardware and can also achieve state-of-the-art performance. In our pursuit of meeting this challenge, we present a pattern classification model which uses a sparse connection matrix and exploits the mechanism of nonlinear dendritic processing to achieve high classification accuracy. A rate-based structural learning rule for multiclass classification is proposed which modifies a connectivity matrix of binary synaptic connections by choosing the best "k" out of "d" inputs to make connections on every dendritic branch (k classification problem, a two-step solution is proposed. First, an adaptive approach is proposed which scales the relative size of the dendritic trees of neurons for each class. It works by progressively adding dendrites with fixed number of synapses to the network, thereby allocating synaptic resources as per the complexity of the given problem. As a second step, theoretical capacity calculations are used to convert each neuronal dendritic tree to its optimal topology where dendrites of each class are assigned different number of synapses. The performance of the model is evaluated on classification of handwritten digits from the benchmark MNIST dataset and compared with other spike classifiers. We show that our system can achieve classification accuracy within 1 - 2% of other reported spike-based classifiers while using much less synaptic resources (only 7%) compared to that used by other methods. Further, an ensemble classifier created with adaptively learned sizes can attain accuracy of 96.4% which is at par with the best reported performance of spike-based classifiers. Moreover, the proposed method achieves this by using about 20% of the synapses used by other spike algorithms. We also present results of applying our algorithm to classify the MNIST-DVS dataset collected from a

  5. Automatic classification of schizophrenia using resting-state functional language network via an adaptive learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Maohu; Jie, Nanfeng; Jiang, Tianzi

    2014-03-01

    A reliable and precise classification of schizophrenia is significant for its diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel tool increasingly used in schizophrenia research. Recent advances in statistical learning theory have led to applying pattern classification algorithms to access the diagnostic value of functional brain networks, discovered from resting state fMRI data. The aim of this study was to propose an adaptive learning algorithm to distinguish schizophrenia patients from normal controls using resting-state functional language network. Furthermore, here the classification of schizophrenia was regarded as a sample selection problem where a sparse subset of samples was chosen from the labeled training set. Using these selected samples, which we call informative vectors, a classifier for the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia was established. We experimentally demonstrated that the proposed algorithm incorporating resting-state functional language network achieved 83.6% leaveone- out accuracy on resting-state fMRI data of 27 schizophrenia patients and 28 normal controls. In contrast with KNearest- Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and l1-norm, our method yielded better classification performance. Moreover, our results suggested that a dysfunction of resting-state functional language network plays an important role in the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  6. Multi-source adaptation joint kernel sparse representation for visual classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, JianWen; Hu, Wenjun; Wen, Shiting

    2016-04-01

    Most of the existing domain adaptation learning (DAL) methods relies on a single source domain to learn a classifier with well-generalized performance for the target domain of interest, which may lead to the so-called negative transfer problem. To this end, many multi-source adaptation methods have been proposed. While the advantages of using multi-source domains of information for establishing an adaptation model have been widely recognized, how to boost the robustness of the computational model for multi-source adaptation learning has only recently received attention. To address this issue for achieving enhanced performance, we propose in this paper a novel algorithm called multi-source Adaptation Regularization Joint Kernel Sparse Representation (ARJKSR) for robust visual classification problems. Specifically, ARJKSR jointly represents target dataset by a sparse linear combination of training data of each source domain in some optimal Reproduced Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS), recovered by simultaneously minimizing the inter-domain distribution discrepancy and maximizing the local consistency, whilst constraining the observations from both target and source domains to share their sparse representations. The optimization problem of ARJKSR can be solved using an efficient alternative direction method. Under the framework ARJKSR, we further learn a robust label prediction matrix for the unlabeled instances of target domain based on the classical graph-based semi-supervised learning (GSSL) diagram, into which multiple Laplacian graphs constructed with the ARJKSR are incorporated. The validity of our method is examined by several visual classification problems. Results demonstrate the superiority of our method in comparison to several state-of-the-arts. PMID:26894961

  7. The landscape-level effect of individual-owner adaptation to climate change in Dutch forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, G.M.; Didion, M.P.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.; Elkin, C.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can severely impact forest landscape and the ecosystem services provided. Forest management decisions (with or without anticipation of climate change) are made by each forest owner individually. Within a forest landscape, anticipation of climate change will thus reflect the different

  8. CLASSIFICATIONS OF EEG SIGNALS FOR MENTAL TASKS USING ADAPTIVE RBF NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建中; 郑崇勋; 闫相国

    2004-01-01

    Objective This paper presents classifications of mental tasks based on EEG signals using an adaptive Radial Basis Function (RBF) network with optimal centers and widths for the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) schemes. Methods Initial centers and widths of the network are selected by a cluster estimation method based on the distribution of the training set. Using a conjugate gradient descent method, they are optimized during training phase according to a regularized error function considering the influence of their changes to output values. Results The optimizing process improves the performance of RBF network, and its best cognition rate of three task pairs over four subjects achieves 87.0%. Moreover, this network runs fast due to the fewer hidden layer neurons. Conclusion The adaptive RBF network with optimal centers and widths has high recognition rate and runs fast. It may be a promising classifier for on-line BCI scheme.

  9. Research on a Pulmonary Nodule Segmentation Method Combining Fast Self-Adaptive FCM and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD of lung cancer is to segment pathologically changed tissues fast and accurately. As pulmonary nodules are potential manifestation of lung cancer, we propose a fast and self-adaptive pulmonary nodules segmentation method based on a combination of FCM clustering and classification learning. The enhanced spatial function considers contributions to fuzzy membership from both the grayscale similarity between central pixels and single neighboring pixels and the spatial similarity between central pixels and neighborhood and improves effectively the convergence rate and self-adaptivity of the algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate segmentation of vascular adhesion, pleural adhesion, and ground glass opacity (GGO pulmonary nodules than other typical algorithms.

  10. Human action classification using adaptive key frame interval for feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertniphonphan, Kanokphan; Aramvith, Supavadee; Chalidabhongse, Thanarat H.

    2016-01-01

    Human action classification based on the adaptive key frame interval (AKFI) feature extraction is presented. Since human movement periods are different, the action intervals that contain the intensive and compact motion information are considered in this work. We specify AKFI by analyzing an amount of motion through time. The key frame is defined to be the local minimum interframe motion, which is computed by using frame differencing between consecutive frames. Once key frames are detected, the features within a segmented period are encoded by adaptive motion history image and key pose history image. The action representation consists of the local orientation histogram of the features during AKFI. The experimental results on Weizmann dataset, KTH dataset, and UT Interaction dataset demonstrate that the features can effectively classify action and can classify irregular cases of walking compared to other well-known algorithms.

  11. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  12. Unsupervised polarimetric synthetic aperture radar image classification based on sketch map and adaptive Markov random field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junfei; Li, Lingling; Liu, Fang; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Hongying; Yang, Shuyuan; Liu, Lu; Hao, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Markov random field (MRF) model is an effective tool for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image classification. However, due to the lack of suitable contextual information in conventional MRF methods, there is usually a contradiction between edge preservation and region homogeneity in the classification result. To preserve edge details and obtain homogeneous regions simultaneously, an adaptive MRF framework is proposed based on a polarimetric sketch map. The polarimetric sketch map can provide the edge positions and edge directions in detail, which can guide the selection of neighborhood structures. Specifically, the polarimetric sketch map is extracted to partition a PolSAR image into structural and nonstructural parts, and then adaptive neighborhoods are learned for two parts. For structural areas, geometric weighted neighborhood structures are constructed to preserve image details. For nonstructural areas, the maximum homogeneous regions are obtained to improve the region homogeneity. Experiments are taken on both the simulated and real PolSAR data, and the experimental results illustrate that the proposed method can obtain better performance on both region homogeneity and edge preservation than the state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Charting the landscape of priority problems in psychiatry, part 1: classification and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas E; Bach, Dominik R; Fletcher, Paul C; Flint, Jonathan; Frank, Michael J; Friston, Karl J; Heinz, Andreas; Huys, Quentin J M; Owen, Michael J; Binder, Elisabeth B; Dayan, Peter; Johnstone, Eve C; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Schnyder, Ulrich; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Breakspear, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders. These problems are loosely grouped into challenges concerning nosology and diagnosis (this Personal View) and problems related to pathogenesis and aetiology (in the companion Personal View). Motivated by successful examples in other disciplines, particularly the list of Hilbert's problems in mathematics, this subjective and eclectic list of priority problems is intended for psychiatric researchers, helping to re-focus existing research and providing perspectives for future psychiatric science. PMID:26573970

  14. EEG-Based BCI System Using Adaptive Features Extraction and Classification Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Mondini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery is a common control strategy in EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs. However, voluntary control of sensorimotor (SMR rhythms by imagining a movement can be skilful and unintuitive and usually requires a varying amount of user training. To boost the training process, a whole class of BCI systems have been proposed, providing feedback as early as possible while continuously adapting the underlying classifier model. The present work describes a cue-paced, EEG-based BCI system using motor imagery that falls within the category of the previously mentioned ones. Specifically, our adaptive strategy includes a simple scheme based on a common spatial pattern (CSP method and support vector machine (SVM classification. The system’s efficacy was proved by online testing on 10 healthy participants. In addition, we suggest some features we implemented to improve a system’s “flexibility” and “customizability,” namely, (i a flexible training session, (ii an unbalancing in the training conditions, and (iii the use of adaptive thresholds when giving feedback.

  15. EEG-Based BCI System Using Adaptive Features Extraction and Classification Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Anna Lisa; Cappello, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is a common control strategy in EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, voluntary control of sensorimotor (SMR) rhythms by imagining a movement can be skilful and unintuitive and usually requires a varying amount of user training. To boost the training process, a whole class of BCI systems have been proposed, providing feedback as early as possible while continuously adapting the underlying classifier model. The present work describes a cue-paced, EEG-based BCI system using motor imagery that falls within the category of the previously mentioned ones. Specifically, our adaptive strategy includes a simple scheme based on a common spatial pattern (CSP) method and support vector machine (SVM) classification. The system's efficacy was proved by online testing on 10 healthy participants. In addition, we suggest some features we implemented to improve a system's “flexibility” and “customizability,” namely, (i) a flexible training session, (ii) an unbalancing in the training conditions, and (iii) the use of adaptive thresholds when giving feedback. PMID:27635129

  16. EEG-Based BCI System Using Adaptive Features Extraction and Classification Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Valeria; Mangia, Anna Lisa; Cappello, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is a common control strategy in EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, voluntary control of sensorimotor (SMR) rhythms by imagining a movement can be skilful and unintuitive and usually requires a varying amount of user training. To boost the training process, a whole class of BCI systems have been proposed, providing feedback as early as possible while continuously adapting the underlying classifier model. The present work describes a cue-paced, EEG-based BCI system using motor imagery that falls within the category of the previously mentioned ones. Specifically, our adaptive strategy includes a simple scheme based on a common spatial pattern (CSP) method and support vector machine (SVM) classification. The system's efficacy was proved by online testing on 10 healthy participants. In addition, we suggest some features we implemented to improve a system's "flexibility" and "customizability," namely, (i) a flexible training session, (ii) an unbalancing in the training conditions, and (iii) the use of adaptive thresholds when giving feedback. PMID:27635129

  17. An arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to different subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Se Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have been conducted regarding a heartbeat classification algorithm over the past several decades. However, many algorithms have also been studied to acquire robust performance, as biosignals have a large amount of variation among individuals. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the differences coming from personal characteristics, but these expand the differences caused by arrhythmia. Methods In this paper, an arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to individual subjects is proposed. We reduced the performance variation using dedicated wavelets, as in the ECG morphologies of the subjects. The proposed algorithm utilizes morphological filtering and a continuous wavelet transform with a dedicated wavelet. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were utilized to compress the morphological data transformed by the dedicated wavelets. An extreme learning machine was used as a classifier in the proposed algorithm. Results A performance evaluation was conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The results showed a high sensitivity of 97.51%, specificity of 85.07%, accuracy of 97.94%, and a positive predictive value of 97.26%. Conclusions The proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy than other state-of-the-art algorithms with no intrasubject between the training and evaluation datasets. And it significantly reduces the amount of intervention needed by physicians.

  18. A Self-adaptive Threshold Method for Automatic Sleep Stage Classification Using EOG and EMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep stages are generally divided into three stages including Wake, REM and NRME. The standard sleep monitoring technology is Polysomnography (PSG. The inconvenience for PSG monitoring limits the usage of PSG in some areas. In this study, we developed a new method to classify sleep stage using electrooculogram (EOG and electromyography (EMG automatically. We extracted right and left EOG features and EMG feature in time domain, and classified them into strong, weak and none types through calculating self-adaptive threshold. Combination of the time features of EOG and EMG signals, we classified sleep stages into Wake, REM and NREM stages. The time domain features utilized in the method were Integrate Value, variance and energy. The experiment of 30 datasets showed a satisfactory result with the accuracy of 82.93% for Wake, NREM and REM stages classification, and the average accuracy of Wake stage classification was 83.29%, 82.11% for NREM stage and 76.73% for REM stage.

  19. Adapted Verbal Feedback, Instructor Interaction and Student Emotions in the Landscape Architecture Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl A.; Boyer, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    In light of concerns with architectural students' emotional jeopardy during traditional desk and final-jury critiques, the authors pursue alternative approaches intended to provide more supportive and mentoring verbal assessment in landscape architecture studios. In addition to traditional studio-based critiques throughout a semester, we provide…

  20. Medical image classification using spatial adjacent histogram based on adaptive local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Shengsheng; Huang, Dezhi; Deng, Gang; Zeng, Fantao; Chen, Huiling

    2016-05-01

    Medical image recognition is an important task in both computer vision and computational biology. In the field of medical image classification, representing an image based on local binary patterns (LBP) descriptor has become popular. However, most existing LBP-based methods encode the binary patterns in a fixed neighborhood radius and ignore the spatial relationships among local patterns. The ignoring of the spatial relationships in the LBP will cause a poor performance in the process of capturing discriminative features for complex samples, such as medical images obtained by microscope. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a novel method to improve local binary patterns by assigning an adaptive neighborhood radius for each pixel. Based on these adaptive local binary patterns, we further propose a spatial adjacent histogram strategy to encode the micro-structures for image representation. An extensive set of evaluations are performed on four medical datasets which show that the proposed method significantly improves standard LBP and compares favorably with several other prevailing approaches. PMID:27058283

  1. An adaptive threshold based image processing technique for improved glaucoma detection and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Ashish; Partha Sarathi, M; Dutta, Malay Kishore

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy which is one of the main causes of permanent blindness worldwide. This paper presents an automatic image processing based method for detection of glaucoma from the digital fundus images. In this proposed work, the discriminatory parameters of glaucoma infection, such as cup to disc ratio (CDR), neuro retinal rim (NRR) area and blood vessels in different regions of the optic disc has been used as features and fed as inputs to learning algorithms for glaucoma diagnosis. These features which have discriminatory changes with the occurrence of glaucoma are strategically used for training the classifiers to improve the accuracy of identification. The segmentation of optic disc and cup based on adaptive threshold of the pixel intensities lying in the optic nerve head region. Unlike existing methods the proposed algorithm is based on an adaptive threshold that uses local features from the fundus image for segmentation of optic cup and optic disc making it invariant to the quality of the image and noise content which may find wider acceptability. The experimental results indicate that such features are more significant in comparison to the statistical or textural features as considered in existing works. The proposed work achieves an accuracy of 94.11% with a sensitivity of 100%. A comparison of the proposed work with the existing methods indicates that the proposed approach has improved accuracy of classification glaucoma from a digital fundus which may be considered clinically significant. PMID:26321351

  2. 地震遗迹景观研究进展及其分类方案探讨%Research Progress and Classification of Seismic Landscapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇; 覃建雄; 邓贵平; 钟洁

    2011-01-01

    国内外地震遗迹景观研究经历了地震事件识别、概念创新、分类体系重构、资源开发利用等多个过程.对地震遗迹景观的研究活动已不再局限于对其科学价值的讨论上,而是在交叉学科的指导下,将研究的视角延伸至基于保护前提下的合理开发利用的层面.前期研究对地震遗迹景观分类体系存在较大争议.文中在前人研究的基础上,以龙门山地震遗迹景观类型划分为案例,尝试构建地震遗迹景观科学合理的分类方案,以期为地震遗迹景观的保护以及高烈度山区地震专项旅游产品的开发提供科学依据.%Seismic landscape research has evolved from earthquake event recognition to the fields of definition renovation, classification improvement and resource development. The concept that earthquake trace belongs to the category of geological heritage or geological site has been widely accepted by Chinese scholars, as synonymous word "seismic landscape" is used abroad. Earthquake Vestige Landscape for tourism is formulated if seismic landscape is conceptually defined in the context of Inter-disciplinary Methodology. Seismic landscapes in those areas like Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Toscana Umbria Marche, and Tangshan were used as a vital tool in recognition of paleoseismic events. Recently,research tends to take foil advantage from the geological evidence of earthquakes in the sense of protection and exploitation of seismic landscapes, particularly tourism development. A large number of seismic landscapes has emerged since the Ms 8. 0 Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12th, 2008, it is widely recognized that seismic landscapes are not only key objects for scientific research but also potential attractions for tourism development in quake-stricken areas. Considering the fact that the seismic landscape's role for revitalizing local tourist economy after the quake has been even less noticed and the previous studies on classification of the

  3. Using ethnographic, landscape history and climate data to identify smallholder adaptation strategies to tidal regime changes in the Amazon Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N. D.; Fernandes, K. D.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2013-12-01

    Although climate change is predicted to negatively impact production of smallholder farmers in tropical estuaries, how changes in the local climate will impact tidal dynamics specifically relevant to the Amazon River estuarine populations is not clear. We argue that using ethnographic and landscape history data can improve the linkages between climate studies and changes in tidal patterns relevant to local populations. Survey data collected from local elders describe spatial and temporal variations in the local hydro-climatic conditions over recent decades and how farmers are adapting their resource-use patterns to these changes. We also analyze how they adapt resource-use system to unpredictable events. The ethnographic and landscape history information are then used to guide climate studies by identifying how to aggregate climate and tidal data to seasons of production relevant to the study population. Climate studies often aggregate data into astronomical seasons not taking into account local production calendars, which may mask long term trends or patterns of extreme events underway that affect local production. The climate deviations are then correlated to large-scale forcings, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), to verify whether seasonal climate forecast can be used to predict events to which local populations are most vulnerable. We have applied this approach to identify and analyze extremes changes in the local climate regimens in the Amazon Estuary in both north and south channels using over 40 years of river heightand precipitation data. We present the most significant changes underway, climate drivers of them, and discuss how smallholder farmers are able to adapt to the challenges and opportunities produced by ongoing changes in the local hydro-climatic patterns.

  4. Examining Social Adaptations in a Volatile Landscape in Northern Mongolia via the Agent-Based Model Ger Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Clark

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment of the mountain-steppe-taiga of northern Mongolia is often characterized as marginal because of the high altitude, highly variable precipitation levels, low winter temperatures, and periodic droughts coupled with severe winter storms (known as dzuds. Despite these conditions, herders have inhabited this landscape for thousands of years, and hunter-gatherer-fishers before that. One way in which the risks associated with such a challenging and variable landscape are mitigated is through social networks and inter-family cooperation. We present an agent-based simulation, Ger Grouper, to examine how households have mitigated these risks through cooperation. The Ger Grouper simulation takes into account locational decisions of households, looks at fission/fusion dynamics of households and how those relate to environmental pressures, and assesses how degrees of relatedness can influence sharing of resources during harsh winters. This model, coupled with the traditional archaeological and ethnographic methods, helps shed light on the links between early Mongolian pastoralist adaptations and the environment. While preliminary results are promising, it is hoped that further development of this model will be able to characterize changing land-use patterns as social and political networks developed.

  5. Statistical analysis of multilook polarimetric SAR data and terrain classification with adaptive distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqing; Huang, ShunJi; Torre, Andrea; Rubertone, Franco S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper deals with analysis of statistical properties of multi-look processed polarimetric SAR data. Based on an assumption that the multi-look polarimetric measurement is a product between a Gamma-distributed texture variable and a Wishart-distributed polarimetric speckle variable, it is shown that the multi-look polarimetric measurement from a nonhomogeneous region obeys a generalized K-distribution. In order to validate this statistical model, two of its varied versions, multi-look intensity and amplitude K-distributions are particularly compared with histograms of the observed multi-look SAR data of three terrain types, ocean, forest-like and city regions, and with four empirical distribution models, Gaussian, log-normal, gamma and Weibull models. A qualitative relation between the degree of nonhomogeneity of a textured scene and the well-fitting statistical model is then empirically established. Finally, a classifier with adaptive distributions guided by the order parameter of the texture distribution estimated with local statistics is introduced to perform terrain classification, experimental results with both multi-look fully polarimetric data and multi-look single-channel intensity/amplitude data indicate its effectiveness.

  6. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Odden

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4 and Himachal Pradesh (1, India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months, until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male and 65 km2 (female. The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male, 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females. Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations <25 m from houses, but rarely during day (<1%. One leopard living in a sparsely populated area avoided human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  7. MRI-based treatment plan simulation and adaptation for ion radiotherapy using a classification-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to benefit from the highly conformal irradiation of tumors in ion radiotherapy, sophisticated treatment planning and simulation are required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of MRI for ion radiotherapy treatment plan simulation and adaptation using a classification-based approach. Firstly, a voxelwise tissue classification was applied to derive pseudo CT numbers from MR images using up to 8 contrasts. Appropriate MR sequences and parameters were evaluated in cross-validation studies of three phantoms. Secondly, ion radiotherapy treatment plans were optimized using both MRI-based pseudo CT and reference CT and recalculated on reference CT. Finally, a target shift was simulated and a treatment plan adapted to the shift was optimized on a pseudo CT and compared to reference CT optimizations without plan adaptation. The derivation of pseudo CT values led to mean absolute errors in the range of 81 - 95 HU. Most significant deviations appeared at borders between air and different tissue classes and originated from partial volume effects. Simulations of ion radiotherapy treatment plans using pseudo CT for optimization revealed only small underdosages in distal regions of a target volume with deviations of the mean dose of PTV between 1.4 - 3.1% compared to reference CT optimizations. A plan adapted to the target volume shift and optimized on the pseudo CT exhibited a comparable target dose coverage as a non-adapted plan optimized on a reference CT. We were able to show that a MRI-based derivation of pseudo CT values using a purely statistical classification approach is feasible although no physical relationship exists. Large errors appeared at compact bone classes and came from an imperfect distinction of bones and other tissue types in MRI. In simulations of treatment plans, it was demonstrated that these deviations are comparable to uncertainties of a target volume shift of 2 mm in two directions indicating that especially

  8. ADAPT: building conceptual models of the physical and biological processes across permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Vincent, W. F.; Lemay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fundamental and applied permafrost research is called upon in Canada in support of environmental protection, economic development and for contributing to the international efforts in understanding climatic and ecological feedbacks of permafrost thawing under a warming climate. The five year "Arctic Development and Adaptation to Permafrost in Transition" program (ADAPT) funded by NSERC brings together 14 scientists from 10 Canadian universities and involves numerous collaborators from academia, territorial and provincial governments, Inuit communities and industry. The geographical coverage of the program encompasses all of the permafrost regions of Canada. Field research at a series of sites across the country is being coordinated. A common protocol for measuring ground thermal and moisture regime, characterizing terrain conditions (vegetation, topography, surface water regime and soil organic matter contents) is being applied in order to provide inputs for designing a general model to provide an understanding of transfers of energy and matter in permafrost terrain, and the implications for biological and human systems. The ADAPT mission is to produce an 'Integrated Permafrost Systems Science' framework that will be used to help generate sustainable development and adaptation strategies for the North in the context of rapid socio-economic and climate change. ADAPT has three major objectives: to examine how changing precipitation and warming temperatures affect permafrost geosystems and ecosystems, specifically by testing hypotheses concerning the influence of the snowpack, the effects of water as a conveyor of heat, sediments, and carbon in warming permafrost terrain and the processes of permafrost decay; to interact directly with Inuit communities, the public sector and the private sector for development and adaptation to changes in permafrost environments; and to train the new generation of experts and scientists in this critical domain of research in Canada

  9. Multiclass Classification by Adaptive Network of Dendritic Neurons with Binary Synapses using Structural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Shaista eHussain; Arindam eBasu

    2016-01-01

    The development of power-efficient neuromorphic devices presents the challenge of designing spike pattern classification algorithms which can be implemented on low-precision hardware and can also achieve state-of-the-art performance. In our pursuit of meeting this challenge, we present a pattern classification model which uses a sparse connection matrix and exploits the mechanism of nonlinear dendritic processing to achieve high classification accuracy. A rate-based structural learning rule f...

  10. Multiclass Classification by Adaptive Network of Dendritic Neurons with Binary Synapses Using Structural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Shaista; Basu, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    The development of power-efficient neuromorphic devices presents the challenge of designing spike pattern classification algorithms which can be implemented on low-precision hardware and can also achieve state-of-the-art performance. In our pursuit of meeting this challenge, we present a pattern classification model which uses a sparse connection matrix and exploits the mechanism of nonlinear dendritic processing to achieve high classification accuracy. A rate-based structural learning rule f...

  11. Key landscape ecology metrics for assessing climate change adaptation options: rate of change and patchiness of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Miller, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Under a changing climate, devising strategies to help stakeholders adapt to alterations to ecosystems and their services is of utmost importance. In western North America, diminished snowpack and river flows are causing relatively gradual, homogeneous (system-wide) changes in ecosystems and services. In addition, increased climate variability is also accelerating the incidence of abrupt and patchy disturbances such as fires, floods and droughts. This paper posits that two key variables often considered in landscape ecology—the rate of change and the degree of patchiness of change—can aid in developing climate change adaptation strategies. We use two examples from the “borderland” region of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. In piñon-juniper woodland die-offs that occurred in the southwestern United States during the 2000s, ecosystem services suddenly crashed in some parts of the system while remaining unaffected in other locations. The precise timing and location of die-offs was uncertain. On the other hand, slower, homogeneous change, such as the expected declines in water supply to the Colorado River delta, will likely impact the entire ecosystem, with ecosystem services everywhere in the delta subject to alteration, and all users likely exposed. The rapidity and spatial heterogeneity of faster, patchy climate change exemplified by tree die-off suggests that decision-makers and local stakeholders would be wise to operate under a Rawlsian “veil of ignorance,” and implement adaptation strategies that allow ecosystem service users to equitably share the risk of sudden loss of ecosystem services before actual ecosystem changes occur. On the other hand, in the case of slower, homogeneous, system-wide impacts to ecosystem services as exemplified by the Colorado River delta, adaptation strategies can be implemented after the changes begin, but will require a fundamental rethinking of how ecosystems and services are used and valued. In

  12. Land Cover classification and change-detection analysis using multi-temporal remote sensed imagery and landscape metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Riccardo Fichera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote Sensing (RS data and techniques, in combination with GIS and landscape metrics, are fundamental to analyse and characterise Land Cover (LC and its changes. The case study here described, has been conducted in the area of Avellino (Southern Italy. To characterise the dynamics of changes during a fifty year period (1954÷2004, a multi-temporal set of images has been processed: aerial photos (1954, and Landsat scenes (MSS 1975, TM 1985 and 1993, ETM+ 2004. LC pattern and its changes are linked to both natural and social processes whose driving role has been clearly demonstrated in the case study: after the disastrous Irpinia earthquake (1980, specific zoning laws and urban plans have significantly addressed landscape changes.

  13. Aesthetic Study of Native Landscape in Landscape Degisn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小伟

    2013-01-01

    As Ji Cheng says in "Yuan Ye": planning should be adapted to local conditions by the square, round, slope and winding. During landscape planning and design, we should make ful use of native landscape as a design element according to local conditions. The paper wil analyze the native landscape elements from an aesthetic point of view through case study of water landscape, plants, topography, heritage sites and so on to explain the aesthetic significance of native landscape in landscape planning.

  14. An Adaptive Strategy for the Classification of G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, S.; Rubin, D.; Marwala, T.

    2007-01-01

    One of the major problems in computational biology is the inability of existing classification models to incorporate expanding and new domain knowledge. This problem of static classification models is addressed in this paper by the introduction of incremental learning for problems in bioinformatics. Many machine learning tools have been applied to this problem using static machine learning structures such as neural networks or support vector machines that are unable to accommodate new informa...

  15. Landscape Influences on Fisher Success: Adaptation Strategies in Closed and Open Access Fisheries in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Van Holt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of fisher success in southern Chile's loco (Concholepas concholepas fishery are examined by comparing fisher success in exclusive access territories that vary in relationship to tree-plantation development, which can affect shellfish quality. The relative importance of fishers' experience and capture technology (traditional measures of fisher success are evaluated against environmental and geospatial characteristics. While knowledge and technology explained variation in catches, this did not translate into higher prices or profit. Fishers succeeded (gained higher prices for locos and had higher monthly incomes from their management areas when they harvested shellfish from closed (exclusive nearshore management areas where the environmental condition produced high quality locos regardless of their fishing experience, technology, and the geospatial features of management areas. Experienced fishers who worked in management areas near tree plantations that fail to produce resources of sufficient quality shifted to offshore fisheries where their experience counted. Offshore fishers working in the congrio (Genypterus chilensis fishery likely exposed themselves to more risk and benefited from their experience and available technology; environmental condition and geospatial factors played little role in their success (price. Closed management areas provided resources to harvest, but may reduce a fisher's ability to adapt to environmental change because success depends on environmental factors outside of a fisher's control. Fishers were not financially rewarded for their experience or their technology in the loco fishery.

  16. Adapting Human Well-being Frameworks for Ecosystem Service Assessments across Diverse Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Villamagna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is broad support for the notion that ecosystem services influence human well-being (HWB, however, the means to measure such an effect are elusive. Measures of HWB are commonly used within the fields of psychology, economics, and international development, but thus far have not been integrated fully into ecosystem service assessments. We examine the multidimensional nature of HWB and discuss the need for a robust framework that captures its complex relationship with ecosystem services. We review several well-known HWB indices and describe the adaptation of two frameworks - the Economist Intelligence Unit's Quality of Life Index and the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework - to evaluate county-level HWB within the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin (Virginia and North Carolina, USA using a stakeholder-engaged approach. We present maps of HWB that illustrate the results of both frameworks, discuss the feedback from stakeholders that guided indicator and data selection, and examine the observed differences in HWB throughout the basin. We conclude with suggestions for enhancing the role of ecosystem services in HWB indices.

  17. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System for Classification of Background EEG Signals from ESES Patients and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixian Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background electroencephalography (EEG, recorded with scalp electrodes, in children with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES syndrome and control subjects has been analyzed. We considered 10 ESES patients, all right-handed and aged 3–9 years. The 10 control individuals had the same characteristics of the ESES ones but presented a normal EEG. Recordings were undertaken in the awake and relaxed states with their eyes open. The complexity of background EEG was evaluated using the permutation entropy (PE and sample entropy (SampEn in combination with the ANOVA test. It can be seen that the entropy measures of EEG are significantly different between the ESES patients and normal control subjects. Then, a classification framework based on entropy measures and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS classifier is proposed to distinguish ESES and normal EEG signals. The results are promising and a classification accuracy of about 89% is achieved.

  18. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for classification of background EEG signals from ESES patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixian; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background electroencephalography (EEG), recorded with scalp electrodes, in children with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES) syndrome and control subjects has been analyzed. We considered 10 ESES patients, all right-handed and aged 3-9 years. The 10 control individuals had the same characteristics of the ESES ones but presented a normal EEG. Recordings were undertaken in the awake and relaxed states with their eyes open. The complexity of background EEG was evaluated using the permutation entropy (PE) and sample entropy (SampEn) in combination with the ANOVA test. It can be seen that the entropy measures of EEG are significantly different between the ESES patients and normal control subjects. Then, a classification framework based on entropy measures and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) classifier is proposed to distinguish ESES and normal EEG signals. The results are promising and a classification accuracy of about 89% is achieved. PMID:24790547

  19. A Novel Algorithm for Fault Classification on Transmission Lines using a Combined Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, S.M.; Kim, C.H. [Sungkyunkwan University (Korea); Chai, Y.M. [Chungju National University (Korea); Choi, J.D. [Daelim College (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Accurate detection and classification of faults on transmission lines is vitally important. High impedance faults (HIF) in particular pose difficulties for the commonly employed conventional overcurrent and distance relays, and if not detected, can cause damage to expensive equipment, threaten life and cause fire hazards. Although HIFs are far less common than LIFs, it is imperative that any protection device should be able to satisfactorily deal with both HIFs and LIFs. This paper proposes an algorithm for fault detection and classification for both LIFs and HIFs using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS). The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on a typical 154[kV] Korean transmission line system under various fault conditions. Test results show that the ANFIS can detect and classify faults including (LIFs and HIFs) accurately within half a cycle. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration

  1. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration

  2. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  3. Composition-based classification of short metagenomic sequences elucidates the landscapes of taxonomic and functional enrichment of microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiemeng; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Hongxing; Zhang, Yizhe; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fangqing; Qi, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional algorithms for long metagenomic sequence classification, characterizing microorganisms’ taxonomic and functional abundance based on tens of millions of very short reads are much more challenging. We describe an efficient composition and phylogeny-based algorithm [Metagenome Composition Vector (MetaCV)] to classify very short metagenomic reads (75–100 bp) into specific taxonomic and functional groups. We applied MetaCV to the Meta-HIT data (371-Gb 75-bp reads of 109 h...

  4. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    OpenAIRE

    Recep Gundogan; Abdullah E. Akay; Alaaddin Yüksel

    2008-01-01

    The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land cover types and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor imagery has been widely used in classification process of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessing satellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellite sensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases...

  5. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  6. Methods for improving accuracy and extending results beyond periods covered by traditional ground-truth in remote sensing classification of a complex landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Warrant, George W.; Whittaker, Gerald W.; Banowetz, Gary M.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Barnhart, Bradley L.

    2015-06-01

    Successful development of approaches to quantify impacts of diverse landuse and associated agricultural management practices on ecosystem services is frequently limited by lack of historical and contemporary landuse data. We hypothesized that ground truth data from one year could be used to extrapolate previous or future landuse in a complex landscape where cropping systems do not generally change greatly from year to year because the majority of crops are established perennials or the same annual crops grown on the same fields over multiple years. Prior to testing this hypothesis, it was first necessary to classify 57 major landuses in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon from 2005 to 2011 using normal same year ground-truth, elaborating on previously published work and traditional sources such as Cropland Data Layers (CDL) to more fully include minor crops grown in the region. Available remote sensing data included Landsat, MODIS 16-day composites, and National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery, all of which were resampled to a common 30 m resolution. The frequent presence of clouds and Landsat7 scan line gaps forced us to conduct of series of separate classifications in each year, which were then merged by choosing whichever classification used the highest number of cloud- and gap-free bands at any given pixel. Procedures adopted to improve accuracy beyond that achieved by maximum likelihood pixel classification included majority-rule reclassification of pixels within 91,442 Common Land Unit (CLU) polygons, smoothing and aggregation of areas outside the CLU polygons, and majority-rule reclassification over time of forest and urban development areas. Final classifications in all seven years separated annually disturbed agriculture, established perennial crops, forest, and urban development from each other at 90 to 95% overall 4-class validation accuracy. In the most successful use of subsequent year ground-truth data to classify prior year landuse, an

  7. Response and adaptation of grapevine cultivars to hydrological conditions forced by a changing climate in a complex landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Bonfante, Antonello; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Monaco, Eugenia; De Mascellis, Roberto; Manna, Piero; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Soil water availability is one of the main components of the terroir concept, influencing crop yield and fruit composition in grapes. The aim of this work is to analyze some elements of the "natural environment" of terroir (climate and soil) in combination with the intra-specific biodiversity of yield responses of grapevine to water availability. From a reference (1961-90) to a future (2021-50) climate case, the effects of climate evolution on soil water availability are assessed and, regarding soil water regime as a predictor variable, the potential spatial distribution of wine-producing cultivars is determined. In a region of Southern Italy (Valle Telesina, 20,000 ha), where a terroir classification has been produced (Bonfante et al., 2011), we applied an agro-hydrological model to determine water availability indicators. Simulations were performed in 60 soil typological units, over the entire study area, and water availability (= hydrological) indicators were determined. Two climate cases were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050), the former from climatic statistics on observed variables, and the latter from statistical downscaling of predictions by general circulation models (AOGCM) under A1B SRES scenario. Climatic data consist of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. Spatial and temporal variability of hydrological indicators was addressed. With respect to temporal variability, both inter-annual and intra-annual (i.e. at different stages of crop cycle) variability were analyzed. Some cultivar-specific relations between hydrological indicators and characteristics of must quality were established. Moreover, for several wine-producing cultivars, hydrological requirements were determined by means of yield response functions to soil water availability, through the re-analysis of experimental data derived from scientific literature. The standard errors of estimated

  8. Swarm Intelligence Approach Based on Adaptive ELM Classifier with ICGA Selection for Microarray Gene Expression and Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karthikeyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study is based on efficient gene selection and classification of microarray data analysis using hybrid machine learning algorithms. The beginning of microarray technology has enabled the researchers to quickly measure the position of thousands of genes expressed in an organic/biological tissue samples in a solitary experiment. One of the important applications of this microarray technology is to classify the tissue samples using their gene expression representation, identify numerous type of cancer. Cancer is a group of diseases in which a set of cells shows uncontrolled growth, instance that interrupts upon and destroys nearby tissues and spreading to other locations in the body via lymph or blood. Cancer has becomes a one of the major important disease in current scenario. DNA microarrays turn out to be an effectual tool utilized in molecular biology and cancer diagnosis. Microarrays can be measured to establish the relative quantity of mRNAs in two or additional organic/biological tissue samples for thousands/several thousands of genes at the same time. As the superiority of this technique become exactly analysis/identifying the suitable assessment of microarray data in various open issues. In the field of medical sciences multi-category cancer classification play a major important role to classify the cancer types according to the gene expression. The need of the cancer classification has been become indispensible, because the numbers of cancer victims are increasing steadily identified by recent years. To perform this proposed a combination of Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm (ICGA and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (ABC, coupled with an Adaptive Extreme Learning Machine (AELM, is used for gene selection and cancer classification. ICGA is used with ABC based AELM classifier to chose an optimal set of genes which results in an efficient hybrid algorithm that can handle sparse data and sample imbalance. The

  9. Wavelength-Adaptive Dehazing Using Histogram Merging-Based Classification for UAV Images

    OpenAIRE

    Inhye Yoon; Seokhwa Jeong; Jaeheon Jeong; Doochun Seo; Joonki Paik

    2015-01-01

    Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image a...

  10. An Adaptive Strategy for the Classification of G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, S; Marwala, T

    2007-01-01

    One of the major problems in computational biology is the inability of existing classification models to incorporate expanding and new domain knowledge. This problem of static classification models is addressed in this paper by the introduction of incremental learning for problems in bioinformatics. Many machine learning tools have been applied to this problem using static machine learning structures such as neural networks or support vector machines that are unable to accommodate new information into their existing models. We utilize the fuzzy ARTMAP as an alternate machine learning system that has the ability of incrementally learning new data as it becomes available. The fuzzy ARTMAP is found to be comparable to many of the widespread machine learning systems. The use of an evolutionary strategy in the selection and combination of individual classifiers into an ensemble system, coupled with the incremental learning ability of the fuzzy ARTMAP is proven to be suitable as a pattern classifier. The algorithm ...

  11. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  12. Adaptive classification of temporal signals in fixed-weights recurrent neural networks: an existence proof

    CERN Document Server

    Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2007-01-01

    We address the important theoretical question why a recurrent neural network with fixed weights can adaptively classify time-varied signals in the presence of additive noise and parametric perturbations. We provide a mathematical proof assuming that unknown parameters are allowed to enter the signal nonlinearly and the noise amplitude is sufficiently small.

  13. DOA Estimation of Low Altitude Target Based on Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization-multiple Signal Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC algorithm requires significant computational effort and can not be employed for the Direction Of Arrival (DOA estimation of targets in a low-altitude multipath environment. As such, a novel MUSIC approach is proposed on the basis of the algorithm of Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization (ASGSO. The virtual spatial smoothing of the matrix formed by each snapshot is used to realize the decorrelation of the multipath signal and the establishment of a fullorder correlation matrix. ASGSO optimizes the function and estimates the elevation of the target. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can overcome the low altitude multipath effect and estimate the DOA of target readily and precisely without radar effective aperture loss.

  14. A novel algorithm for fault classification in transmission lines using a combined adaptive network and fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, S.M.; Kim, C.H.; Hong, K.S. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea). School fo Information and Computer Engineering; Lim, Y.B. [LG Electronics CDMA Handsets Lab., Seoul (Korea); Aggarwal, R.K.; Johns, A.T. [University of Bath (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Choi, M.S. [Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea). Division of Electrical and Information Control Engineering

    2003-11-01

    Accurate detection and classification of faults on transmission lines is vitally important. In this respect, many different types of faults occur, inter alia low impedance faults (LIF) and high impedance faults (HIF). The latter in particular pose difficulties for the commonly employed conventional overcurrent and distance relays, and if not detected, can cause damage to expensive equipment, threaten life and cause fire hazards. Although HIFs are far less common than LIFs, it is imperative that any protection device should be able to satisfactorily deal with both HIFs and LIFs. Because of the randomness and asymmetric characteristics of HIFs, the modelling of HIF is difficult and many papers relating to various HIF models have been published. In this paper, the model of HIFs in transmission lines is accomplished using the characteristics of a ZnO arrester, which is then implemented within the overall transmission system model based on the electromagnetic transients programme. This paper proposes an algorithm for fault detection and classification for both LIFs and HIFs using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The inputs into ANFIS are current signals only based on Root-Mean-Square values of three-phase currents and zero sequence current. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on a typical 154 kV Korean transmission line system under various fault conditions. Test results show that the ANFIS can detect and classify faults including (LIFs and HIFs) accurately within half a cycle. (author)

  15. Crop Classification by Forward Neural Network with Adaptive Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid crop classifier for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. The feature sets consisted of span image, the H/A/α decomposition, and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM based texture features. Then, the features were reduced by principle component analysis (PCA. Finally, a two-hidden-layer forward neural network (NN was constructed and trained by adaptive chaotic particle swarm optimization (ACPSO. K-fold cross validation was employed to enhance generation. The experimental results on Flevoland sites demonstrate the superiority of ACPSO to back-propagation (BP, adaptive BP (ABP, momentum BP (MBP, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, and Resilient back-propagation (RPROP methods. Moreover, the computation time for each pixel is only 1.08 × 10−7 s.

  16. Social-Ecological Transformation for Ecosystem Management: the Development of Adaptive Co-management of a Wetland Landscape in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olsson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the emergence of an adaptive co-management system for wetland landscape governance in southern Sweden, a process where unconnected management by several actors in the landscape was mobilized, renewed, and reconfigured into ecosystem management within about a decade. Our analysis highlights the social mechanisms behind the transformation toward ecosystem management. The self-organizing process was triggered by perceived threats among members of various local stewardship associations and local government to the area’s cultural and ecological values. These threats challenged the development of ecosystem services in the area. We show how one individual, a key leader, played an instrumental role in directing change and transforming governance. The transformation involved three phases: 1 preparing the system for change, 2 seizing a window of opportunity, and 3 building social-ecological resilience of the new desired state. This local policy entrepreneur initiated trust-building dialogue, mobilized social networks with actors across scales, and started processes for coordinating people, information flows and ongoing activities, and for compiling and generating knowledge, understanding, and management practices of ecosystem dynamics. Understanding, collaborative learning, and creating public awareness were part of the process. A comprehensive framework was developed with a shared vision and goals that presented conservation as development, turned problems into possibilities, and contributed to a shift in perception among key actors regarding the values of the wetland landscape. A window of opportunity at the political level opened, which made it possible to transform the governance system toward a trajectory of ecosystem management. The transformation involved establishing a new municipal organization, the Ecomuseum Kristianstads Vattenrike (EKV. This flexible organization serves as a bridge between local actors and governmental bodies and

  17. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the

  18. Simulations suggest that social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different field of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed different optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. The best technique for all situations simulated, is to adjust the number of researchers needed to explore a knowledge cluster according to the opportunities and the level of crowding in that cluster. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in journals cont...

  19. Metapopulation-Level Adaptation of Insect Host plant Preference and Extinction-Colonization Dynamics in Heterogenous Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Hanski, I.; Heino, M.

    2003-01-01

    Species living in highly fragmented landscapes typically occur as metapopulations with frequent turnover of local populations. The turnover rate depends on population sizes and connectivities, but it may also depend on the phenotypic and genotypic composition of populations. The Glanville fritillary butterfly ("Melitaea cinxia") in Finland uses two host plant species, which show variation in their relative abundances at two spatial scales: locally among individual habitat patches and regional...

  20. PHONETIC CLASSIFICATION BY ADAPTIVE NETWORK BASED FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM AND SUBTRACTIVE CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiya Silarbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System ANFIS on speech recognition. The primary tasks of fuzzy modeling are structure identification and parameter optimization, the former determines the numbers of membership functions and fuzzy if-then rules while the latter identifies a feasible set of parameters under the given structure. However, the increase of input dimension, rule numbers will have an exponential growth and there will cause problem of “rule disaster”. Thus, determination of an appropriate structure becomes an important issue where subtractive clustering is applied to define an optimal initial structure and obtain small number of rules. The appropriate learning algorithm is performed on TIMIT speech database supervised type, a pre-processing of the acoustic signal and extracting the coefficients MFCCs parameters relevant to the recognition system. Finally, hybrid learning combines the gradient decent and least square estimation LSE of parameters network. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the method in terms of recognition rate and number of fuzzy rules generated.

  1. 景观生态学原理在城市土地利用分类中的应用%Applying landscape ecological concepts in urban land use classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟峰; 欧阳志云; 肖燚

    2011-01-01

    根据城市相同土地利用类型具有相似景观格局特征的原理,探讨了融合景观格局特征指数和遥感技术的城市土地利用信息提取的新方法.以北京市五环内建城区为例,研究表明,在斑块类型水平和景观水平上,居住用地和非居住用地内景观斑块的大小、形状、边缘特征、空间连接度、核心区面积特征、多样性、均匀性等特征都有极显著的差异.进一步融合TM遥感影像和这些景观格局特征指数,提取了居民用地和非居民用地类型,总分类精度是79.7%,Kappa系数达到59.8%.研究揭示,景观生态学原理的引入,为传统的遥感技术应用提供了新的思路,在格局复杂的城市土地利用信息提取中有很大的应用发展潜力.%Generally, land uses are the ways in which lands are used by human activities. Especially in cities with dense population, land use is the direct results of various living requirements by the people. Therefore, urban land use is a very important indicator that can be used to measure the development of urbanization and their impacts on ecosystems. Hence,accurate extraction of urban land uses is critical for urban planning, land management and environmental protection. It has been proved that remote sensing technique is most efficient to extract land covers with high accuracy since different land covers have the specific physical properties which can be discriminated easily by the spectral bands of remote sensing data.However, considering the difference in land use and land cover, it is still a big challenge to extract urban land uses directly from remote sensing data with fast and satisfied accuracy because every land use is usually composed of different land covers. This study developed a new approach on urban land use classification by introducing landscape ecology theory into the application of traditional remote sensing techniques. According to the landscape ecology concepts, the landscape patterns

  2. 基于决策树分类的云南省迪庆地区景观类型研究%Exploring Landscapes Based on Decision Tree Classification in the Diqin Region, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚飞; 刘高焕; 黄翀

    2011-01-01

    Decision tree classification is a type of supervised classification method based on spatial data mining and knowledge discovery. In this paper, the authors examined the landscape pattern of the Diqin region by building the classification decision tree in Yunnan province and using Landsat TM imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). Subsequently, a landscape distribution map was made. In order to look at the reliability and robustness of the decision tree classification method,the traditional supervised classification was used to derive a landscape distribution map over the region. A multitude of field sampling points were used to evaluate the accuracy of the two classification methods, covering the whole Diqing region and consisting of information regarding geographic coordinates, elevations, and the description of the major landscape types. Results indicate that the overall classification accuracies of the decision tree classification and the traditional supervised classification were 85.5% and 67.4% , respectively. The landscape distribution map derived by the decision tree classification method seems to be reliable in terms of the achievable accuracy. Several conclusions could be drawn by analyzing the derived landscape distribution map as follows. Landscape types in the Diqin region primarily included valley shrub,coniferous forest, sub alpine shrub meadow, alpine snow and ice, bare land, and water body,accounting for 5.5%, 36.16%, 3.4%, 3.7%, 25.4%, and 4.4% of the Diqin region area, respectively.Except bare land and water body, other landscape types varied essentially with elevation and aspect of maintains. The landscape of the largest area was found to be coniferous forest, which was consistent with the landform of alpine and canyon. Coniferous forest was the major landscape in the region, which was distributed over 3000 m above the sea level. In terms of different elevations,the coniferous forest could be conceptually divided into three

  3. The 'Functional Landscape Approach': Building a socio-ecological evidence base for its contribution to adaptation and resilience in wetland catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie, Rachael; Dixon, Alan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land management is increasingly taking a landscape approach to advocate simultaneously for local and multiple stakeholder-negotiated development and environmental objectives. Landscape approaches advance earlier frameworks that failed to acknowledge or reconcile either biodiversity or societal trade-offs, and that often tended toward externally-derived or imposed management interventions. Most recently, the management of land to balance biodiversity, food security and ecosystem services outcomes has been informed by socio-ecological systems thinking that seeks to promote an interdisciplinary understanding of any given 'landscape' where environmental and social factors continually interact in complex, adaptive and resilient ways. Reflecting these concepts, and integrating local and external scientific knowledge, the Functional Landscape Approach (FLA) was developed by Wetland Action, focussing on wetland systems in rural sub-Saharan Africa to contribute to environmentally sensitive and climate resilient strategies for safeguarding essential ecosystem services and improving livelihoods and well-being. In particular, the FLA stresses the ways in which land productivity can be improved through supporting, strengthening or re-establishing functional linkages between wetlands and their catchments and provides a basis for local identification of specific interventions to improve the sustainability of land use. Crucially, it also emphasises the need for community-based institutional support and the importance of incentives through market linkages and value-chain development. In this paper we will describe our experiences of developing and implementing the FLA in Ethiopia, Zambia and Malawi over the past two decades. Drawing on successful and less-successful elements of participatory planning, monitoring and evaluation, and the facilitation of long-term sustainable benefits, we will discuss some of the accomplishments and challenges that can be associated with

  4. Automatic Brain Lesion Detection and Classification Based on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging using Adaptive Thresholding and a Rule-Based Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Saad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a brain lesion detection and classification approach using thresholding and a rule-based classifier is proposed. Four types of brain lesions based on diffusion-weighted imaging i.e. acute stroke, solid tumor, chronic stroke, and necrosis are analyzed. The analysis is divided into four stages: pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. In the detection and segmentation stage, the image is divided into 8x8 macro-block regions. Adaptive thresholding technique is applied to segment the lesion’s region. Statistical features are measured on the region of interest. A rulebased classifier is used to classify four types of lesions. Jaccard’s similarity index of the segmentation results for acute stroke, solid tumor, chronic stroke, and necrosis are 0.8, 0.55, 0.27, and 0.42, respectively. The classification accuracy is 93% for acute stroke, 73% for solid tumor, 84% for chronic stroke, and 60% for necrosis. Overall, adaptive thresholding provides high segmentation performance for hyper-intensity lesions. The best segmentation and classification performance is achieved for acute stroke. The establishment of the technique could be used to automate the diagnosis and to clearly understand major brain lesions.

  5. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: the importance of replication in landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K; Muhlfeld, Clint C; Wade, Alisa A; Kovach, Ryan P; Whited, Diane C; Narum, Shawn R; Matala, Andrew P; Ackerman, Michael W; Garner, Brittany A; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST ) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  6. Climate variables explain neutral and adaptive variation within salmonid metapopulations: The importance of replication in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Kovach, Ryan; Whited, Diane C.; Narum, Shawn R; Matala, Andrew P; Ackerman, Michael W.; Garner, B. A.; Kimball, John S; Stanford, Jack A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences population genetic structure is important for conservation management because it can reveal how human stressors influence population connectivity, genetic diversity and persistence. We used riverscape genetics modelling to assess whether climatic and habitat variables were related to neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation (population-specific and pairwise FST) within five metapopulations (79 populations, 4583 individuals) of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Using 151 putatively neutral and 29 candidate adaptive SNP loci, we found that climate-related variables (winter precipitation, summer maximum temperature, winter highest 5% flow events and summer mean flow) best explained neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic differentiation within metapopulations, suggesting that climatic variation likely influences both demography (neutral variation) and local adaptation (adaptive variation). However, we did not observe consistent relationships between climate variables and FST across all metapopulations, underscoring the need for replication when extrapolating results from one scale to another (e.g. basin-wide to the metapopulation scale). Sensitivity analysis (leave-one-population-out) revealed consistent relationships between climate variables and FST within three metapopulations; however, these patterns were not consistent in two metapopulations likely due to small sample sizes (N = 10). These results provide correlative evidence that climatic variation has shaped the genetic structure of steelhead populations and highlight the need for replication and sensitivity analyses in land and riverscape genetics.

  7. Applications of network analysis for adaptive management of artificial drainage systems in landscapes vulnerable to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Benjamin; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThe vulnerability of coastal landscapes to sea level rise is compounded by the existence of extensive artificial drainage networks initially built to lower water tables for agriculture, forestry, and human settlements. These drainage networks are found in landscapes with little topographic relief where channel flow is characterized by bi-directional movement across multiple time-scales and related to precipitation, wind, and tidal patterns. The current configuration of many artificial drainage networks exacerbates impacts associated with sea level rise such as salt-intrusion and increased flooding. This suggests that in the short-term, drainage networks might be managed to mitigate sea level rise related impacts. The challenge, however, is that hydrologic processes in regions where channel flow direction is weakly related to slope and topography require extensive parameterization for numerical models which is limited where network size is on the order of a hundred or more kilometers in total length. Here we present an application of graph theoretic algorithms to efficiently investigate network properties relevant to the management of a large artificial drainage system in coastal North Carolina, USA. We created a digital network model representing the observation network topology and four types of drainage features (canal, collector and field ditches, and streams). We applied betweenness-centrality concepts (using Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm) to determine major hydrologic flowpaths based off of hydraulic resistance. Following this, we identified sub-networks that could be managed independently using a community structure and modularity approach. Lastly, a betweenness-centrality algorithm was applied to identify major shoreline entry points to the network that disproportionately control water movement in and out of the network. We demonstrate that graph theory can be applied to solving management and monitoring problems associated with sea level rise

  8. Landscape management with a nature concern: the role of a Natura 2000 classification in awareness raising of land owners for the provision of public goods

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO-CORREIA, Teresa; Barroso, Filipe Lucas; Menezes, Helena; Jerónimo, Silva; Michelin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of the International Conference: Although a large majority of Europeans live in urban and peri-urban areas today, it would be difficult to surmise that the landscapes they live in were the object of serious, intentional efforts on the part of policymakers. These landscapes are often considered to be degraded and inhospitable, and are frequently associated with social exclusion and the deterioration of living conditions. The French Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Developm...

  9. Functional decoupling between flowers and leaves in the Ameroglossum pernambucense complex can facilitate local adaptation across a pollinator and climatic heterogeneous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, A M; Galetto, L; Machado, I C S

    2016-03-01

    Decoupling between floral and leaf traits is expected in plants with specialized pollination systems to assure a precise flower-pollinator fit, irrespective of leaf variation associated with environmental heterogeneity (functional modularity). Nonetheless, developmental interactions among floral traits also decouple flowers from leaves regardless of selection pressures (developmental modularity). We tested functional modularity in the hummingbird-pollinated flowers of the Ameroglossum pernambucense complex while controlling for developmental modularity. Using two functional traits responsible for flower-pollinator fit [floral tube length (TL) and anther-nectary distance (AN)], one floral trait not linked to pollination [sepal length (SL), control for developmental modularity] and one leaf trait [leaf length (LL)], we found evidence of flower functional modularity. Covariation between TL and AN was ca. two-fold higher than the covariation of either of these traits with sepal and leaf lengths, and variations in TL and AN, important for a precise flower-pollinator fit, were smaller than SL and LL variations. Furthermore, we show that previously reported among-population variation of flowers associated with local pollinator phenotypes was independent from SL and LL variations. These results suggest that TL and AN are functionally linked to fit pollinators and sufficiently decoupled from developmentally related floral traits (SL) and vegetative traits (LL). These results support previous evidences of population differentiation due to local adaptation in the A. pernambucense complex and shed light on the role of flower-leaf decoupling for local adaptation in species distributed across biotic and abiotic heterogeneous landscapes. PMID:26663030

  10. Do we know how to reconcile preservation of landscapes with adaptation of agriculture to climate change? A case-study in a hilly area in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, Massimo; Alfieri, Silvia; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Limited impacts of climate change on agricultural yields are unlikely to induce any significant changes in current landscapes. Larger impacts, unacceptable on economic or social ground, are likely to trigger interventions towards adaptation of agricultural production systems by reducing or removing vulnerabilities to climate variability and change. Such interventions may require a transition to a different production system, i.e. complete substitution of current crops, or displacement of current crops at their current location towards other locations, e.g. at higher elevations within the landscape. We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options for adaptation of a valley in Southern Italy, dominated by vine and olive orchards with a significant presence of wheat. We have first estimated the climatic requirements of several varieties for each dominant species. Next, to identify options for adaptation we have evaluated the compatibility of such requirements with indicators of a reference (current) climate and of future climate. This climate - compatibility assessment was done for each soil unit within the valley, leading to maps of locations where each crop is expected to be compatible with climate. This leads to identify both potential crop substitutions within the entire valley and crop displacements from one location to another within the valley. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consists of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. We evaluated the adaptive capacity of the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to describe the hydrological conditions in response to climate for each

  11. Segmentation and object-oriented classification of wetlands in a karst Florida landscape using multi-season Landsat-7 ETM+ Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segmentation and object-oriented processing of single-season and multi-season Landsat-7 ETM+ data was utilized for the classification of wetlands in a 1560 km2 study area of north central Florida. This segmentation and object-oriented classification outperformed the traditional ...

  12. 网络适应性改造对《中图法》未来发展的启示%Web Adaptability Upgrading——Its Revelation to the Future Development of Chinese Library Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱君瑞

    2001-01-01

    The efforts made by OCLC researchers to enhance Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) so as to adapt it to Web environment are described. From the experience of OCLC researchers, the author puts forward some proposals for the future development of Chinese Library Classification.

  13. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  14. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  15. Potentials of RapidEye time series for improved classification of crop rotations in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes: experiences from irrigation systems in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Christopher; Machwitz, Miriam; Schorcht, Gunther; Löw, Fabian; Fritsch, Sebastian; Dech, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    In Central Asia, more than eight Million ha of agricultural land are under irrigation. But severe degradation problems and unreliable water distribution have caused declining yields during the past decades. Reliable and area-wide information about crops can be seen as important step to elaborate options for sustainable land and water management. Experiences from RapidEye classifications of crop in Central Asia are exemplarily shown during a classification of eight crop classes including three rotations with winter wheat, cotton, rice, and fallow land in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan covering 230,000 ha of irrigated land. A random forest generated by using 1215 field samples was applied to multitemporal RapidEye data acquired during the vegetation period 2010. But RapidEye coverage varied and did not allow for generating temporally consistent mosaics covering the entire region. To classify all 55,188 agricultural parcels in the region three classification zones were classified separately. The zoning allowed for including at least three observation periods into classification. Overall accuracy exceeded 85 % for all classification zones. Highest accuracies of 87.4 % were achieved by including five spatiotemporal composites of RapidEye. Class-wise accuracy assessments showed the usefulness of selecting time steps which represent relevant phenological phases of the vegetation period. The presented approach can support regional crop inventory. Accurate classification results in early stages of the cropping season permit recalculation of crop water demands and reallocation of irrigation water. The high temporal and spatial resolution of RapidEye can be concluded highly beneficial for agricultural land use classifications in entire Central Asia.

  16. Evaluation of dimensions Responsiveness and Requirement of grandparents perceived for teen grandchildren: Adaptation of an instrument to classification of grandparent styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ribeiro Ventura Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study show the adaptation of the instrument characterized for Likert scales to assess the responsiviness and requirement dimensions. The instrument was applicated to 28 adolescents of both sexes aged between 10 to 19 years old with grandchildren of grandparents school students from Ceilândia (DF. The classification of grandparents styles was realized through the results obtained by the grandparents participants of the study in the responsiviness and requirement dimensions. The proportion of grandparents styles observed in the sample was 10,3 authoritarian, 39,3 authoritative, 10,3 indulgent, 93,3 negligent.  

  17. The farmer as a landscape steward: Comparing local understandings of landscape stewardship, landscape values, and land management actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christopher M; Bieling, Claudia; Fagerholm, Nora; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Plieninger, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    We develop a landscape stewardship classification which distinguishes between farmers' understanding of landscape stewardship, their landscape values, and land management actions. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with small-holder (100 acres) in South-West Devon, UK. Thematic analysis revealed four types of stewardship understandings: (1) an environmental frame which emphasized the farmers' role in conserving or restoring wildlife; (2) a primary production frame which emphasized the farmers' role in taking care of primary production assets; (3) a holistic frame focusing on farmers' role as a conservationist, primary producer, and manager of a range of landscape values, and; (4) an instrumental frame focusing on the financial benefits associated with compliance with agri-environmental schemes. We compare the landscape values and land management actions that emerged across stewardship types, and discuss the global implications of the landscape stewardship classification for the engagement of farmers in landscape management.

  18. Classification of the types of markets in landscape architecture%关于风景园林行业市场领域分类的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖茂福; 谢正根

    2012-01-01

      从园林投资主体和使用目的的角度,把园林市场划分为市政类园林、地产类园林、企事业单位类园林、生态修复类园林、私家园林(艺)、园林苗木和养护7种主要类型,并对前5种概念给出定义,可供园林行业市场领域研究参考。%  The market of Landscape Architecture (L. A.) is booming now, which is attracting an increasingly number of investors. But on the contrary, there are few studies on the market in the academic field. In terms of the investors and the purpose of use, the L. A. market can mainly be divided into 7 types: the urban public space, the real estate, the enterprises and institutions, the ecological restoration, the private gardens, the flowers and trees, and the landscape maintenance. This paper gives the definitions of the first 5 market types, hoping to provide a reference for the future market researches in the field of Landscape Architecture.

  19. Image-based ATR utilizing adaptive clutter filter detection, LLRT classification, and Volterra fusion with application to side-looking sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernández, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    An improved automatic target recognition (ATR) processing string has been developed. The overall processing string consists of pre-processing, subimage adaptive clutter filtering, detection, feature extraction, optimal subset feature selection, feature orthogonalization and classification processing blocks. The objects that are classified by three distinct ATR strings are fused using the classification confidence values and their expansions as features, and using "summing" or log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) based fusion rules. These three ATR processing strings were individually developed and tuned by researchers from different companies. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with an extensive side-looking sonar dataset. In this paper we describe a new processing improvement: six additional classification features are extracted, using primarily target shadow information and a feature extraction window whose length is now made variable as a function of range. This new ATR processing improvement resulted in a 3:1 reduction in false alarms. Two advanced fusion algorithms are subsequently applied: First, a nonlinear Volterra expansion (2nd order) feature-LLRT fusion algorithm is employed. Second, a repeated application of a subset Volterra feature selection / feature orthogonalization / LLRT fusion block is utilized. It is shown that cascaded Volterra feature- LLRT fusion of the ATR processing strings outperforms baseline "summing" and single-stage Volterra feature-LLRT fusion algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single ATR processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call the majority of targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate.

  20. Hydrologic Landscape Characterization for the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrologic classification can help address some of the challenges facing catchment hydrology. Wigington et al. (2013) developed a hydrologic landscape (HL) approach to classification that was applied to the state of Oregon. Several characteristics limited its applicability outs...

  1. The Effect of Adaptive Gain and Adaptive Momentum in Improving Training Time of Gradient Descent Back Propagation Algorithm on Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhamreeza Abdul Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The back propagation algorithm has been successfully applied to wide range of practical problems. Since this algorithm uses a gradient descent method, it has some limitations which are slow learning convergence velocity and easy convergence to local minima. The convergence behaviour of the back propagation algorithm depends on the choice of initial weights and biases, network topology, learning rate, momentum, activation function and value for the gain in the activation function. Previous researchers demonstrated that in ‘feed forward’ algorithm, the slope of the activation function is directly influenced by a parameter referred to as ‘gain’. This research proposed an algorithm for improving the performance of the current working back propagation algorithm which is Gradien Descent Method with Adaptive Gain by changing the momentum coefficient adaptively for each node. The influence of the adaptive momentum together with adaptive gain on the learning ability of a neural network is analysed. Multilayer feed forward neural networks have been assessed. Physical interpretation of the relationship between the momentum value, the learning rate and weight values is given. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with conventional Gradient Descent Method and current Gradient Descent Method with Adaptive Gain was verified by means of simulation on three benchmark problems. In learning the patterns, the simulations result demonstrate that the proposed algorithm converged faster on Wisconsin breast cancer with an improvement ratio of nearly 1.8, 6.6 on Mushroom problem and 36% better on  Soybean data sets. The results clearly show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the learning speed of the current gradient descent back-propagatin algorithm.

  2. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on an adaptive Gaussian process classification method with posterior probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jia, Jun; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2013-03-01

    The existing methods for early and differential diagnosis of oral cancer are limited due to the unapparent early symptoms and the imperfect imaging examination methods. In this paper, the classification models of oral adenocarcinoma, carcinoma tissues and a control group with just four features are established by utilizing the hybrid Gaussian process (HGP) classification algorithm, with the introduction of the mechanisms of noise reduction and posterior probability. HGP shows much better performance in the experimental results. During the experimental process, oral tissues were divided into three groups, adenocarcinoma (n = 87), carcinoma (n = 100) and the control group (n = 134). The spectral data for these groups were collected. The prospective application of the proposed HGP classification method improved the diagnostic sensitivity to 56.35% and the specificity to about 70.00%, and resulted in a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.36. It is proved that the utilization of HGP in LRS detection analysis for the diagnosis of oral cancer gives accurate results. The prospect of application is also satisfactory.

  3. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on an adaptive Gaussian process classification method with posterior probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing methods for early and differential diagnosis of oral cancer are limited due to the unapparent early symptoms and the imperfect imaging examination methods. In this paper, the classification models of oral adenocarcinoma, carcinoma tissues and a control group with just four features are established by utilizing the hybrid Gaussian process (HGP) classification algorithm, with the introduction of the mechanisms of noise reduction and posterior probability. HGP shows much better performance in the experimental results. During the experimental process, oral tissues were divided into three groups, adenocarcinoma (n = 87), carcinoma (n = 100) and the control group (n = 134). The spectral data for these groups were collected. The prospective application of the proposed HGP classification method improved the diagnostic sensitivity to 56.35% and the specificity to about 70.00%, and resulted in a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.36. It is proved that the utilization of HGP in LRS detection analysis for the diagnosis of oral cancer gives accurate results. The prospect of application is also satisfactory. (paper)

  4. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. D Gertenbach

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the abiotic and biotic components of the Kruger National Park (KNP system has increased to such an extent, that it was possible to zonate the KNP into landscapes. A landscape was defined as an area with a specific geomorphology, climate, soil and vegetation pattern together with the associated fauna. On this basis 35 landscapes were identified and described in terms of the components mentioned in the definition. The objective of classification is that future management should be based on these landscapes. Relevant management considerations may change, but the landscape a@ a basic functional unit should not be negotiable.

  5. Relationship of vegetation degradation classification and landscape accessibility classification in Shenzhen%深圳市植被受损分级评价及其与景观可达性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘语凡; 陈雪; 李贵才; 曾辉

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of vegetation degradation and identification of its causes are among the most important issues in plant ecology of the fast urbanizing areas. Previous research mainly focused on the patterns, mechanisms and restoration techniques in degraded communities at the ecosystem scale, but similar analyses are rare at the regional scale. The current study focused on the correlation of human disturbance and vegetation degradation on a regional scale, using Shenzhen,which is a fast-urbanizing area, as an example. We used aviation image and IRS satellite data and 1:100,000 digital topographical map of Shenzhen of the year 2007 and we defined the entire vegetation in Shenzhen, which mainly included forest, plantation, orchard, farm, shrub, bare land and unutilized areas, into twelve vegetation types using both visual interpretation and field observation. Forest, plantations and orchards were further classified into good and poor by their difference in vegetation coverage, tree height, dominant species, and plant diversity, whereas the bare lands were defined as bare land buildings, bare land roads and bare land quarries. We also used NDVI as a complementary tool to put the twelve vegetation types into six degradation classes using ANOVA and mean value distribution. Additionally, landscape accessibility was established as an index to indicate the intensity of human disturbance using altitude, slop, urban density,and the shortest distance to the nearest road, and was classified into five categories. Finally, the correlation of vegetation degradation class and landscape accessibility class was overlaid and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated.Our results showed that ( 1 ) the correlation between degradation claas and landscape accessibility was significant with a correlation coefficient of 0. 794; (2) Forests in remote areas with good soil and topographical conditions were well preserved. Plantations and orchards were in the state of moderate disturbance and

  6. Study of settlement distribution pattern in the Kolkheti lowland (Black Sea coast of Georgia) starting from early Bronze Age - natural and human influence and adaptation to landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Akhvlediani, Dimitri; Navrozashvili, Levan; Sukhishvili, Lasha; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Laermans, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    archaeological datasets are collected in the joint-venture project and in addition with known historical and old topographic maps of the region they represent a good start for the research. There are typical ancient settlements in the Kolkheti lowland, called locally "Dikhagudzuba", which are still identifiable on aerial imagery. Their structure, physical dimensions and locations were analyzed from aerial and on site studies. Data from existing archaeological studies and recent field works were analyzed to create a reliable database on the distribution of Bronze Age settlements. Changes in paleoclimate, sea level and river deltas represent the main components to form a paleolandscape of the study area. Based on the results of recent fieldwork and the analyses of regional historical maps in addition with the general geological and geomorphological settings paleogeographical scenarios were constructed. Proposed models of past landscape changes and human settlement pattern were merged and analyzed. From one hand the human settlement distribution (taking into account tells relation with the local landscape of the same period) help us to identify the best suitable scenario from the set of paleolandscape patterns. Moreover, paleogeographical scenarios provide a better understanding on the erection of human settlements in the past, and their influence and adaptation to ongoing changes.

  7. Adapting Landscape Mosaics of medIteranean Rainfed Agrosystems for a sustainable management of crop production, water and soil resources: the ALMIRA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Frédéric; Mekki, Insaf; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    In the context of mitigating the pressures induced by global change combined with demography and market pressures, there is increasing societal demand and scientific need to understand the functioning of Mediterranean Rainfed Agrosystems (MRAs) for their potential to provide various environmental and economic services of importance such as food production, preservation of employment and local knowhow, downstream water delivery or mitigation of rural exodus. Efficient MRAs management strategies that allow for compromises between economic development and natural resources preservation are needed. Such strategies require innovative system based research, integration across approaches and scales. One of the major challenges is to make all contributions from different disciplines converging towards a reproducible transdisciplinary approach. The objective of this communication is to present the ALMIRA project, a Tunisian - Moroccan - French project which lasts four years (2014 - 2017). The communication details the societal context, the scientific positioning and the related work hypothesis, the study areas, the project structure, the expected outcomes and the partnership which capitalizes on long term collaborations. ALMIRA aims to explore the modulation of landscape mosaics within MRAs to optimize landscape services. To explore this new lever, ALMIRA proposes to design, implement and test a new Integrated Assessment Modelling approach that explicitly i) includes innovations and action means into prospective scenarii for landscape evolutions, and ii) addresses landscape mosaics and processes of interest from the agricultural field to the resource governance catchment. This requires tackling methodological challenges in relation to i) the design of spatially explicit landscape evolution scenarii, ii) the coupling of biophysical processes related to agricultural catchment hydrology, iii) the digital mapping of landscape properties and iv) the economic assessment of the

  8. Modelling the Relationship Between Land Surface Temperature and Landscape Patterns of Land Use Land Cover Classification Using Multi Linear Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernales, A. M.; Antolihao, J. A.; Samonte, C.; Campomanes, F.; Rojas, R. J.; dela Serna, A. M.; Silapan, J.

    2016-06-01

    The threat of the ailments related to urbanization like heat stress is very prevalent. There are a lot of things that can be done to lessen the effect of urbanization to the surface temperature of the area like using green roofs or planting trees in the area. So land use really matters in both increasing and decreasing surface temperature. It is known that there is a relationship between land use land cover (LULC) and land surface temperature (LST). Quantifying this relationship in terms of a mathematical model is very important so as to provide a way to predict LST based on the LULC alone. This study aims to examine the relationship between LST and LULC as well as to create a model that can predict LST using class-level spatial metrics from LULC. LST was derived from a Landsat 8 image and LULC classification was derived from LiDAR and Orthophoto datasets. Class-level spatial metrics were created in FRAGSTATS with the LULC and LST as inputs and these metrics were analysed using a statistical framework. Multi linear regression was done to create models that would predict LST for each class and it was found that the spatial metric "Effective mesh size" was a top predictor for LST in 6 out of 7 classes. The model created can still be refined by adding a temporal aspect by analysing the LST of another farming period (for rural areas) and looking for common predictors between LSTs of these two different farming periods.

  9. Adaptive and context-aware detection and classification of potential QoS degradation events in biomedical wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Carlos; Miranda, Francisco; Mendes, Paulo M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks in healthcare has the potential to enhance the services provided to citizens. In particular, they play an important role in the development of state-of-the-art patient monitoring applications. Nevertheless, due to the critical nature of the data conveyed by such patient monitoring applications, they have to fulfil high standards of quality of service in order to obtain the confidence of all players in the healthcare industry. In such context, vis-à-vis the quality of service being provided by the wireless sensor network, this work presents an adaptive and context-aware method to detect and classify performance degradation events. The proposed method has the ability to catch the most significant and damaging variations on the metrics being used to quantify the quality of service provided by the network without overreacting to small and innocuous variations on the metric's value.

  10. Applying landscape genetics to the microbial world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Tesson, Sylvie V M

    2016-07-01

    Landscape genetics, which explicitly quantifies landscape effects on gene flow and adaptation, has largely focused on macroorganisms, with little attention given to microorganisms. This is despite overwhelming evidence that microorganisms exhibit spatial genetic structuring in relation to environmental variables. The increasing accessibility of genomic data has opened up the opportunity for landscape genetics to embrace the world of microorganisms, which may be thought of as 'the invisible regulators' of the macroecological world. Recent developments in bioinformatics and increased data accessibility have accelerated our ability to identify microbial taxa and characterize their genetic diversity. However, the influence of the landscape matrix and dynamic environmental factors on microorganism genetic dispersal and adaptation has been little explored. Also, because many microorganisms coinhabit or codisperse with macroorganisms, landscape genomic approaches may improve insights into how micro- and macroorganisms reciprocally interact to create spatial genetic structure. Conducting landscape genetic analyses on microorganisms requires that we accommodate shifts in spatial and temporal scales, presenting new conceptual and methodological challenges not yet explored in 'macro'-landscape genetics. We argue that there is much value to be gained for microbial ecologists from embracing landscape genetic approaches. We provide a case for integrating landscape genetic methods into microecological studies and discuss specific considerations associated with the novel challenges this brings. We anticipate that microorganism landscape genetic studies will provide new insights into both micro- and macroecological processes and expand our knowledge of species' distributions, adaptive mechanisms and species' interactions in changing environments.

  11. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  12. 一种基于自适应软分配的图像分类方法%Image classification based on adaptive soft assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王挺进; 赵永威; 李弼程

    2015-01-01

    视觉词袋模型(BoVW)是当前图像分类领域的主流方法,然而,视觉单词同义性和歧义性问题严重制约了该模型的性能,进而降低图像分类准确率。针对该问题,本文提出一种基于自适应软分配的图像分类方法。该方法首先对尺度不变特征变换(SIFT)特征映射到视觉单词的距离进行分析,按一定的规则进行归类,并针对具有不同模糊程度的 SIFT特征采用自适应的分配策略;然后,通过卡方模型分析各个视觉单词与图像类别之间的相关性,并依此去除视觉停用词(VSW),重构视觉单词统计直方图;最后,输入到支持向量机(SVM)完成分类。实验结果表明,该优化方法能有效地降低视觉单词同义性和歧义性问题带来的影响,增强视觉单词的区分性,进而提高图像分类准确率。%Bag of Visual Words(BoVW) is the main solution in the current image classification field, whereas the synonymity and ambiguity of the visual words restrict the semantic expression ability of the model and reduce the accuracy of image classification. Aiming to the problem, an adaptive soft assignment method is proposed. Firstly, it analyzes the distance of the Scale Invariant Feature Transform(SIFT) features mapping to visual words, classifies these SIFT features according to certain rules, and applies adaptive allocation strategies to SIFT features with different fuzziness. Then, this paper analyzes the correlations between visual words and image categories via Chi-square model, and then removes the Visual Stop Words(VSW) and reconstructs the histograms. Finally, the images are classified by Support Vector Machine(SVM). The experimental results show that, the method can effectively reduce the impact of the visual words synonymity and ambiguity, and enhance the distinction of visual words, so as to improve the image classification accuracy.

  13. Monitoring of Agricultural Landscape in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, H. G.; Engan, G.

    2012-07-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of agricultural landscapes. This requires continuous delivery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information, a monitoring program for agricultural landscapes was initiated in Norway 13 years ago. The program documents and reports on land use / land cover changes from data captured through interpretation of true colour aerial photos using stereo instruments. The monitoring programme is based on a sample of 1000 squares of 1 × 1 km and the entire sample of squares is photographed over a five-year period. Each square is then mapped repeatedly every fifth year to record changes. Aerial photo interpretation is based on a custom classification system which is built up hierarchically, with three levels. The first level comprises seven land type classes: Agricultural land, Bare ground, Semi-natural open vegetation, Unforested wetland vegetation, Forest, Urban areas and Water. These land classes are further divided into 24 land types at level two, and approximately 100 land types at level 3. In addition to land type units we map both line elements like stone fences and point elements like buildings and solitary threes. By use of indicators that describe status and change focusing on themes of particular policy interest, we can report on whether policy aims are being fulfilled or not. Four indicator themes have been in focus hitherto: landscape spatial structure, biological diversity, cultural heritage and accessibility. Our data is stored in databases and most of the data quality check/structure process and analyses are now being made in open source software like PostGIS and PostSQL. To assess the accuracy of the photo-interpretation, ground truthing is carried out on 10 % of the squares. The results of this operation document the benefits of having access to photos of the same area from two different years. The program is designed first and foremost to

  14. Adaptive Weighted Residuals Multi-Element Collabor ative Representation Classification Approach%自适应残差加权的多元素协同表示分类算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建仁; 魏龙; 段刚龙

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive weighted residuals multi-element collaborative representation classification is proposed in this paper. To address the weak discriminative power of SRC (sparse representation classifier) method, we propose using multiple elements to represent each element and construct multiple collaborative representation for classification. To reflect the different element with different importance and discriminative power, we present adaptive weighted residuals method to linearly combine different element representations for classification. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and better classification accuracy of our proposed method.%提出了一种残差加权的多元素协同表示算法。该算法针对SRC的单一鉴别性不足,对样本提出样本与字典的多元素分解并分别进行相应的协同表示,自适应地学习出多元素的残差权重并进行线性加权,从而提高分类的性能。实验表明:自适应残差加权的多元素协同表示分类算法,能够有效提高识别性能。

  15. Contemporary Danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Brandt, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  16. Adaptive Leadership in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Leaders’ ability to quickly adapt IT practices is especially critical in today’s increasingly turbulent environment with frequent changes in the competitive and technological landscape. However, developing such adaptive leadership is a difficult and complex process. Often, underlying assumptions...

  17. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders;

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  18. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  19. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  20. Nominal classification

    OpenAIRE

    Senft, G.

    2007-01-01

    This handbook chapter summarizes some of the problems of nominal classification in language, presents and illustrates the various systems or techniques of nominal classification, and points out why nominal classification is one of the most interesting topics in Cognitive Linguistics.

  1. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well. (paper)

  2. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Scherr Sara J; Shames Seth; Friedman Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate ch...

  3. Sami herders’ classification system of reindeer winter pastures – A contribution to adapt forest management to reindeer herding in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Roturier

    2011-01-01

    The system for classifying vegetation types currently used in Swedish forestry has two major deficiencies when identifying reindeer winter pastures: it uses lichen cover as the sole criterion for defining them, and it ignores the possible adverse effects of snow cover. Based on ethnological field studies, this paper examines Sami reindeer herders' classification of reindeer winter pastures, and compares it to the system used by foresters at different levels of classification. At the lower lev...

  4. Landscape complexity and vegetation dynamics in Riding Mountain National Park, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David John

    spatial complexity over time. Fragmentation and habitat losses in the region surrounding RMNP were found to be high, with only half of the forest present in 1950 remaining in the 1990's. Scale-invariant spatial dispersion of forest fragments decreased between the 1950's and 1990's. Thus, the study area is becoming increasingly isolated from other natural forested areas within the region. In creating maps of land cover for these analyses, it was found that structural composition of the canopy was often more important than floristics in determining spectral reflectance in Landsat data. A rule-based optimization procedure using multivariate analysis was developed to maximize the relationship between vegetation on the ground and spectral reflectance. Because of the high degree of spatial complexity in these systems, an alternative approach to map accuracy assessment utilizing multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) was developed. It was found that closed conifer stands composed of different softwood species were not easily discriminated during classification because of identical spectral signatures at the stand-level. It is suggested that the highly structured architecture and conical form of conifer stands results in the anechoic interception and absorption of light. This light interception strategy may have adaptive advantages in regions where sun angle is low, or where cloud cover is high, such as in the boreal forest and montane environments. The results of these investigations into landscape pattern suggest that ecosystem dynamics in the boreal forest produce scale-invariant landscape complexity.

  5. Using ecosystem services in community-based landscape planning: science is not ready to deliver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based landscape governance is considered as conditional to achieving sustainable landscape. I consider landscape governance from the point of view of adapting landscapes to create value out of ecosystem services, using the social–ecological system model as a theoretical framework. I advoca

  6. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban......This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...

  7. Contemporary Danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Brandt, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring of...... the countryside. The values of the Danish landscape pertain mainly to the coastal landscapes. The threats include the industrilization of the agricultural landsclaes and,in places urban sprawl....

  8. Operationalizing the integrated landscape approach in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia E. Freeman

    2015-03-01

    the process of taking a landscape approach. Drawing on a review of the literature, we identify and discuss three different kinds of landscape approaches: using the landscape scale, a sectoral landscape approach, and an integrated landscape approach. Focusing on an integrated landscape approach, we examine five concepts to help characterize landscape approaches: multifunctionality, transdisciplinarity, participation, complexity, and sustainability. For each term, a continuum of application exists. To help improve and move the integrated landscape approach more toward operationalization, more focus needs to be placed on the process of taking the approach. Although the process can be implemented in a range of ways, in a more integrated approach it will require explicitly defined objectives as well as a clear understanding of what is meant by multifunctionality and sustainability. It will also require collaborative participation, transdisciplinarity/cross-sectoral approaches, managing for adaptive capacity, and applying an iterative process to address the inherent complexity within the system. Although these concepts are not new, we present continuums on which they can exist, allowing for clarification and distinctions to be made regarding what it means to take a landscape approach.

  9. Improving land cover classification using input variables derived from a geographically weighted principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Alexis J.; Harris, Paul; Tsutsumida, Narumasa

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a geographically weighted principal components analysis (GWPCA) of remote sensing imagery to improve land cover classification accuracy. A principal components analysis (PCA) is commonly applied in remote sensing but generates global, spatially-invariant results. GWPCA is a local adaptation of PCA that locally transforms the image data, and in doing so, can describe spatial change in the structure of the multi-band imagery, thus directly reflecting that many landscape processes are spatially heterogenic. In this research the GWPCA localised loadings of MODIS data are used as textural inputs, along with GWPCA localised ranked scores and the image bands themselves to three supervised classification algorithms. Using a reference data set for land cover to the west of Jakarta, Indonesia the classification procedure was assessed via training and validation data splits of 80/20, repeated 100 times. For each classification algorithm, the inclusion of the GWPCA loadings data was found to significantly improve classification accuracy. Further, but more moderate improvements in accuracy were found by additionally including GWPCA ranked scores as textural inputs, data that provide information on spatial anomalies in the imagery. The critical importance of considering both spatial structure and spatial anomalies of the imagery in the classification is discussed, together with the transferability of the new method to other studies. Research topics for method refinement are also suggested.

  10. Sami herders’ classification system of reindeer winter pastures – A contribution to adapt forest management to reindeer herding in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roturier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The system for classifying vegetation types currently used in Swedish forestry has two major deficiencies when identifying reindeer winter pastures: it uses lichen cover as the sole criterion for defining them, and it ignores the possible adverse effects of snow cover. Based on ethnological field studies, this paper examines Sami reindeer herders' classification of reindeer winter pastures, and compares it to the system used by foresters at different levels of classification. At the lower level, which deals with identifying discrete entities, it is possible to find some correspondence between the representations of forest characteristics used by the Sami herders and the foresters. Reindeer herders discriminate the same factors – tree height, canopy enclosure, stem density, field-layer, bottom-layer – as forest manager, but the former use this knowledge to evaluate the effects on snow cover and ice, and thus on the accessibility of the lichen beneath. Inconsistencies appear at the second level of classification, which consists in ordering this variety of forest characteristics into a classificatory system. There is a mismatch between Sami herders and forester’s representations and classifications of pastures because Sami categories are ‘complex’, i.e. categories including many criteria that have to be combined and balanced before defining the pasture. Herders’ representation of pasture is thus holistic, rather than purely botanical. The comparison of the two classification systems demonstrates that it is impossible to define grazing quality solely in terms of lichen abundance, because of the multidimensional nature of reindeer winter pastures and consequent shifts (spatial and temporal in its quality.

  11. Epistasis and the Structure of Fitness Landscapes: Are Experimental Fitness Landscapes Compatible with Fisher's Geometric Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquart, François; Bataillon, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The fitness landscape defines the relationship between genotypes and fitness in a given environment and underlies fundamental quantities such as the distribution of selection coefficient and the magnitude and type of epistasis. A better understanding of variation in landscape structure across species and environments is thus necessary to understand and predict how populations will adapt. An increasing number of experiments investigate the properties of fitness landscapes by identifying mutations, constructing genotypes with combinations of these mutations, and measuring the fitness of these genotypes. Yet these empirical landscapes represent a very small sample of the vast space of all possible genotypes, and this sample is often biased by the protocol used to identify mutations. Here we develop a rigorous statistical framework based on Approximate Bayesian Computation to address these concerns and use this flexible framework to fit a broad class of phenotypic fitness models (including Fisher's model) to 26 empirical landscapes representing nine diverse biological systems. Despite uncertainty owing to the small size of most published empirical landscapes, the inferred landscapes have similar structure in similar biological systems. Surprisingly, goodness-of-fit tests reveal that this class of phenotypic models, which has been successful so far in interpreting experimental data, is a plausible in only three of nine biological systems. More precisely, although Fisher's model was able to explain several statistical properties of the landscapes-including the mean and SD of selection and epistasis coefficients-it was often unable to explain the full structure of fitness landscapes.

  12. Assessment of Classification Accuracies of SENTINEL-2 and LANDSAT-8 Data for Land Cover / Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale Topaloğlu, Raziye; Sertel, Elif; Musaoğlu, Nebiye

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to compare classification accuracies of land cover/use maps created from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 data. Istanbul metropolitan city of Turkey, with a population of around 14 million, having different landscape characteristics was selected as study area. Water, forest, agricultural areas, grasslands, transport network, urban, airport- industrial units and barren land- mine land cover/use classes adapted from CORINE nomenclature were used as main land cover/use classes to identify. To fulfil the aims of this research, recently acquired dated 08/02/2016 Sentinel-2 and dated 22/02/2016 Landsat-8 images of Istanbul were obtained and image pre-processing steps like atmospheric and geometric correction were employed. Both Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 images were resampled to 30m pixel size after geometric correction and similar spectral bands for both satellites were selected to create a similar base for these multi-sensor data. Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised classification methods were applied to both data sets to accurately identify eight different land cover/ use classes. Error matrix was created using same reference points for Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 classifications. After the classification accuracy, results were compared to find out the best approach to create current land cover/use map of the region. The results of MLC and SVM classification methods were compared for both images.

  13. Adaptation and extinction in experimentally fragmented landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Fakheran, Sima; Paul-Victor, Cloé; Heichinger, Christian; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Turnbull, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    Competition and disturbance are potent ecological forces that shape evolutionary trajectories. These forces typically work in opposition: when disturbance is infrequent, densities are high and competition is intense. In contrast, frequent disturbance creates a low-density environment in which competition is weak and good dispersal essential. We exploited recent advances in genomic research to quantify the response to selection by these powerful ecological forces at the phenotypic and molecula...

  14. Landscape analysis: Theoretical considerations and practical needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.E.; Cleaves, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous systems of land classification have been proposed. Most have led directly to or have been driven by an author's philosophy of earth-forming processes. However, the practical need of classifying land for planning and management purposes requires that a system lead to predictions of the results of management activities. We propose a landscape classification system composed of 11 units, from realm (a continental mass) to feature (a splash impression). The classification concerns physical aspects rather than economic or social factors; and aims to merge land inventory with dynamic processes. Landscape units are organized using a hierarchical system so that information may be assembled and communicated at different levels of scale and abstraction. Our classification uses a geomorphic systems approach that emphasizes the geologic-geomorphic attributes of the units. Realm, major division, province, and section are formulated by subdividing large units into smaller ones. For the larger units we have followed Fenneman's delineations, which are well established in the North American literature. Areas and districts are aggregated into regions and regions into sections. Units smaller than areas have, in practice, been subdivided into zones and smaller units if required. We developed the theoretical framework embodied in this classification from practical applications aimed at land use planning and land management in Maryland (eastern Piedmont Province near Baltimore) and Utah (eastern Uinta Mountains). ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Research using energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  16. CT-examination and standardization of findings in occupation-related pulmonary and pleural changes using a system adapted from the ILO pneumoconiosis classification of 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 250000 individuals are registered in Germany as being or having been exposed to asbestos fibre dust at their working places. As in other industrial countries, it is generally acknowledged that high-resolution computerized tomography is an indispensable tool in the diagnosis of dust disease, although so far there exist no such instruments as standardized examination techniques or shared classification systems of findings. The system described here was developed to standardize findings from computerized tomography in pneumoconiosis and to provide a better basis for comparisons with the ILO classfications. The letters and symbols introduced merely serve as codes and have no pathohistological meaning so that the system is readily transferable to pulmonary or pleural changes urelated to working place conditions. (orig./UG)

  17. Combining QuickBird, LiDAR, and GIS topography indices to identify a single native tree species in a complex landscape using an object-based classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien T. H.; Brabyn, Lars; Ashraf, Salman

    2016-08-01

    There are now a wide range of techniques that can be combined for image analysis. These include the use of object-based classifications rather than pixel-based classifiers, the use of LiDAR to determine vegetation height and vertical structure, as well terrain variables such as topographic wetness index and slope that can be calculated using GIS. This research investigates the benefits of combining these techniques to identify individual tree species. A QuickBird image and low point density LiDAR data for a coastal region in New Zealand was used to examine the possibility of mapping Pohutukawa trees which are regarded as an iconic tree in New Zealand. The study area included a mix of buildings and vegetation types. After image and LiDAR preparation, single tree objects were identified using a range of techniques including: a threshold of above ground height to eliminate ground based objects; Normalised Difference Vegetation Index and elevation difference between the first and last return of LiDAR data to distinguish vegetation from buildings; geometric information to separate clusters of trees from single trees, and treetop identification and region growing techniques to separate tree clusters into single tree crowns. Important feature variables were identified using Random Forest, and the Support Vector Machine provided the classification. The combined techniques using LiDAR and spectral data produced an overall accuracy of 85.4% (Kappa 80.6%). Classification using just the spectral data produced an overall accuracy of 75.8% (Kappa 67.8%). The research findings demonstrate how the combining of LiDAR and spectral data improves classification for Pohutukawa trees.

  18. Hubble Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A classification scheme for galaxies, devised in its original form in 1925 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), and still widely used today. The Hubble classification recognizes four principal types of galaxy—elliptical, spiral, barred spiral and irregular—and arranges these in a sequence that is called the tuning-fork diagram....

  19. Consensus in landscape preference judgments: the effects of landscape visual aesthetic quality and respondents' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivoda, Ondřej; Vojar, Jiří; Skřivanová, Zuzana; Zahradník, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Landscape's visual aesthetic quality (VAQ) has been widely regarded as a valuable resource worthy of protection. Although great effort has been devoted to determining the factors driving aesthetic preferences, public consensus in judgments has been neglected in the vast majority of such studies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze three main possible sources of judgment variance: landscape VAQ, landscape type, and variability among respondents. Based upon an extensive perception-based investigation including more than 400 hikers as respondents, we found that variance in respondents' judgments differed significantly among assessed landscape scenes. We discovered a significant difference in judgment variances within each investigated respondent characteristic (gender, age, education level, occupational classification, and respondent's type of residence). Judgment variance was at the same time affected by landscape VAQ itself - the higher the VAQ, the better the consensus. While differences caused by characteristics indicate subjectivity of aesthetic values, the knowledge that people better find consensus for positively perceived landscapes provides a cogent argument for legal protection of valuable landscape scenes. PMID:24594757

  20. Consensus in landscape preference judgments: the effects of landscape visual aesthetic quality and respondents' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivoda, Ondřej; Vojar, Jiří; Skřivanová, Zuzana; Zahradník, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Landscape's visual aesthetic quality (VAQ) has been widely regarded as a valuable resource worthy of protection. Although great effort has been devoted to determining the factors driving aesthetic preferences, public consensus in judgments has been neglected in the vast majority of such studies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze three main possible sources of judgment variance: landscape VAQ, landscape type, and variability among respondents. Based upon an extensive perception-based investigation including more than 400 hikers as respondents, we found that variance in respondents' judgments differed significantly among assessed landscape scenes. We discovered a significant difference in judgment variances within each investigated respondent characteristic (gender, age, education level, occupational classification, and respondent's type of residence). Judgment variance was at the same time affected by landscape VAQ itself - the higher the VAQ, the better the consensus. While differences caused by characteristics indicate subjectivity of aesthetic values, the knowledge that people better find consensus for positively perceived landscapes provides a cogent argument for legal protection of valuable landscape scenes.

  1. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  2. The Campus Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Von, Jay

    1966-01-01

    All across the country, landscaping and site development are coming to the fore as essential and integral parts of university planning and development. This reprint concentrates on the function of landscape architecture, and briefly examines some of the major responsibilities of the landscape architect in planning a campus. Included are--(1)…

  3. Using remote sensing products to classify landscape. A multi-spatial resolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llamas, Paula; Calvo, Leonor; Álvarez-Martínez, José Manuel; Suárez-Seoane, Susana

    2016-08-01

    The European Landscape Convention encourages the inventory and characterization of landscapes for environmental management and planning actions. Among the range of data sources available for landscape classification, remote sensing has substantial applicability, although difficulties might arise when available data are not at the spatial resolution of operational interest. We evaluated the applicability of two remote sensing products informing on land cover (the categorical CORINE map at 30 m resolution and the continuous NDVI spectral index at 1 km resolution) in landscape classification across a range of spatial resolutions (30 m, 90 m, 180 m, 1 km), using the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain) as study case. Separate landscape classifications (using topography, urban influence and land cover as inputs) were accomplished, one per each land cover dataset and spatial resolution. Classification accuracy was estimated through confusion matrixes and uncertainty in terms of both membership probability and confusion indices. Regarding landscape classifications based on CORINE, both typology and number of landscape classes varied across spatial resolutions. Classification accuracy increased from 30 m (the original resolution of CORINE) to 90m, decreasing towards coarser resolutions. Uncertainty followed the opposite pattern. In the case of landscape classifications based on NDVI, the identified landscape patterns were geographically structured and showed little sensitivity to changes across spatial resolutions. Only the change from 1 km (the original resolution of NDVI) to 180 m improved classification accuracy. The value of confusion indices increased with resolution. We highlight the need for greater effort in selecting data sources at the suitable spatial resolution, matching regional peculiarities and minimizing error and uncertainty.

  4. Study on Low Temperature Adaptability and Landscape Application Prospect of Lotus corniculatus and Perennials%百脉根等宿根地被低温适应性及园林应用前景研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娇; 李瑞娟; 额尔德尼; 王颉; 赵霞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探究百脉根等8种宿根地被的低温适应能力,为引种工作及园林应用提供理论参考依据.[方法]以百脉根等8种宿根地被为研究试材,采用自然低温处理结合形态观察的方法,对其抗低温能力进行研究.[结果]通过对供试植株连续2年露地越冬情况的观测,百脉根、紫花地丁、地被菊、百里香露地越冬存活率均高达90%以上,越冬表现良好、观赏性状优良.[结论]百脉根、地被菊、百里香、紫花地丁等地被材料,适合在本地区大面积应用,园林应用前景广阔.其中,紫花地丁萌芽早、花期早、花色鲜艳、抗寒性强,可以填补早春观花地被的空白.%[ Objective ] To explore the low temperature adaptability of eight perennials, so as to provide theoretical basis for their introduction to landscaping. [ Method ] Lotus corniculatus and other seven perennial materials were collected as samples to study their cold resistance by natural low temperature treatment and morphological observation. [Result] After the two-year observation of wintering of the tested plants, Lotus corniculatus, ground cover Chrysanthemum, Thymus mongolicus and Viola philippica had broad application prospects in the garden with better ornamental characters and overwinter performance, their wintering survival rates were all above 90% . [ Conclusion ] Lotus corniculatus, ground cover Chrysanthemum, Thymus mongolicus and Viola philippica were suitable to be popularized in large areas, among which Viola philippica can fill the blank of flowering plants in early spring with the characteristics of earlier germination, earlier flowering, bright color and strong cold stress tolerance.

  5. FLEX-TOPO: Proof of concept in a central European landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharari, Shervan; Hrachowitz, Markus; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gao, Hongkai; Euser, Tanja; Savenije, Huub

    2013-04-01

    Landscape classification into meaningful hydrological units has important implications for hydrological modeling. Conceptual hydrological models, such as HBV-type models, are most commonly designed to represent catchments in a lumped or semi-distributed way at best, i.e. treating them as single entities or sometimes accounting for topographical and land cover variability by introducing some level of stratification. Moreover, such models often combine different dominant runoff mechanisms (such as Hortonian overland flow, saturation overland flow and rapid subsurface flow) into one mechanism, so as to avoid large numbers of parameters. These oversimplifications can frequently lead to substantial misrepresentations of flow generating processes in the catchments in question, as feedback processes between topography, land cover and hydrology in different landscape units can arguably lead to distinct hydrological patterns. By making use of readily available topographical information, hydrological units can be identified based on the concept of "Height above Nearest Drainage" (HAND; Rennó et al., 2008; Nobre et al., 2011). These hydrological units are characterized by different hydrological behavior with different dominant runoff generating mechanisms and can thus be assigned different model structures (Savenije, 2010). In this study we classified the Wark Catchment in Grand Duchy of Luxembourg into three distinct landscape units: plateau, wetland and hillslope, on the basis of a 5×5 m2 DEM. A revised and extended version of HAND gave preliminary estimates of uncertainty in the landscape unit identification as they were implemented in a stochastic framework. As the transition thresholds between the landscape units are a priori unknown, they were calibrated against landscape units observed in the field using a single probability based objective function. As a result, each grid cell of the DEM was characterized by a certain probability of being a certain landscape unit

  6. Fuzzy Associative Classification Based on Adaptive Interval Partition%基于自适应区间划分的模糊关联分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董杰; 韩敏

    2009-01-01

    模糊关联分类是一种具有较高精度的分类方法,现有的模糊关联分类算法多采用固定模糊隶属度函数对连续型属性进行模糊划分,没有考虑数据本身的特性.提出一种基于自适应区间划分的模糊关联分类算法-FARC(fuzzy association rules classification).算法利用模糊c均值聚类算法建立连续型属性模糊区间,使用新的剪枝策略避免生成无用规则,采用一种新的规则重要性度量方法对多模糊分类规则进行融合.仿真表明,FARC具有较高的分类精度.

  7. Investigation, classification and landscaping application of Chimonanthus praecox cultivars in Hangzhou%杭州蜡梅品种资源调查分类及园林应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦建国; 任勤红

    2011-01-01

    According to the flower characters, the cultivars of Chimonanthus praecox were investigated and classified in Hangzhou city, China. The results showed that 65 cultivars in Hangzhou were divided into three groups according to the purple speckles of inner tepals and identification key of the cultivars has been compiled. In addition, the paper analyzed the application of Ch. Praecox cultivars in landscape architecture in Hangzhou and suggested that fine cultivars should be selected to develop landscaping and cultural function.%对杭州地区的蜡梅(Chimonanthus praecox Link)品种进行了全面调查,根据花部形态进行了分类研究.结果发现,杭州地区目前栽培的蜡梅品种有65个.按照内被片紫纹的多少分为3个品种群,分别为乔种品种群(Ch.praecox Intermedius Group)、素心品种群(Ch.praecox Concolor Group)和红心品种群(Ch.praecox Patens Group),同时编制杭州蜡梅品种检索表.此外,分析了蜡梅在杭州园林中的应用形式,提出在当今杭州城市绿化建设中,应多选用优良品种,充分发挥蜡梅的植物造景功能和文化功能.

  8. Classification,Application and Landscape Configuration of Ornamental Fruit Trees of North China in Winter%北方冬季观果树种分类、景观配置与园林应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚继忠; 魏进华; 李顺梅

    2015-01-01

    The ornamental fruit trees resources of north China in Winter were classified on the basis of shape, size,color and type of fruit phase which display the structure and appearance of the fruits or scences on the canopy,and the ornamental characteristics of 36 species were listed. According to above,the application path and methods of the landscape configuration parameters including the background color, height and width were discussed when ornamental fruit trees are as main feature or secondary feature. The proposals are presented to strengthen research on cultivar breeding,to study landscape configuration and plant arrangement.%以果实形状、大小、颜色及果相(果实或果序着生于树冠上的整体形貌)类型为依据对我国北方冬季观果树种资源进行了分类,列出了常见的36种冬季观果树种的主要观赏特征。据此,以冬季观果树种作为主景、伴景,探讨了其背景的颜色、高度、宽度等景观配置参数的确定方法和具体的园林应用途径,提出应加强品种选育和开展针对具体种类景观配置研究的建议。

  9. Combinatorial vector fields and the valley structure of fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive (downhill) walks are a computationally convenient way of analyzing the geometric structure of fitness landscapes. Their inherently stochastic nature has limited their mathematical analysis, however. Here we develop a framework that interprets adaptive walks as deterministic trajectories in combinatorial vector fields and in return associate these combinatorial vector fields with weights that measure their steepness across the landscape. We show that the combinatorial vector fields and their weights have a product structure that is governed by the neutrality of the landscape. This product structure makes practical computations feasible. The framework presented here also provides an alternative, and mathematically more convenient, way of defining notions of valleys, saddle points, and barriers in landscape. As an application, we propose a refined approximation for transition rates between macrostates that are associated with the valleys of the landscape.

  10. Classification of Fuel Types Using Envisat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Edyta; Nasilowska, Sylwia

    2010-12-01

    Forest fires have an important impact on landscape structure and ecosystems biodiversity. Moreover, wild land fires have strong influence on forest planning and management. Furthermore, forest fires affect not only woodworking industry but also arable fields and inhabitants life too. A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of fuels is necessary to predict, analyse and model fire behaviour. Modelling of fire spread is difficult and complicated because it depends on many factors. First of all, it depends on undergrowth and brushwood moisture and thickness, and tree species. There are many fuel types classification developed for regional environmental condition. The main drawback of implemented systems is utility for particular region of interest. That causes a need of permanent, consequent and more accurate researches in specific habitat not only in continental scale. In this paper a new system is proposed. It organizes fuels into three major groups (coniferous, deciduous wood and open) and four subcategories which describes a fuel structure (trees lower then 4m, trees higher than 4 m: without bushes; with low bushes lower them 2m; with high bushes higher then 2m). This classification is adapted into Polish lowlands environmental condition. The classification was carried out on the base of 120 training plots, which were determinate during a field experiment in north-eastern Poland. The plots discriminate homogeneous parts of forest which correspond to fuel classes. In the study we used the ENVISAT Alternating Polarization (HH/HV) image. The most popular classifiers were tried out and the maximum likelihood method resulted the most efficient. To map fuel types many methods are employed. The use of remote sensing systems gives the possibility of low- costs and time-consuming fuels mapping and updating. The employ of SAR systems permits mapping independently of weather condition. The microwave data has the potential to estimate fuel loads and map fuel types. The

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Landscape Perception Features and Classification of Garden Space%园林空间类型划分及景观感知特征量化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建伟; 魏淑敏; 姚瑞; 董丹丹

    2012-01-01

    首先以地形、山石、水体、植物、建筑作为构成园林空间的基本要素,运用排列法和特尔菲法对园林空间类型进行了划分和确定;其次运用SD法,以对应24种园林空间类型的24段录像为分析样本,对空间景观感知特征进行了量化评价;最后利用因子分析法对评价结果进行了因子分析,得出了园林空间视觉效果的评价结构.研究结果表明:色彩因子、形式因子、自然因子、空间因子代表了园林空间景观感知特征的大部分信息;各种空间类型的美感和吸引力评价最高;围合和半围合空间类型则表现出缺乏光感、易生郁闭之不足.%Five factors were used as fundamental elements to classify and determine the spatial types of gardens, including terrains, rocks, waters, plants and buildings by using the permutation and the Delphi method. Vpisodes which corresponded 24 types of garden spaces were selected as analytical samples to quantitatively evaluate landscape perception features of garden space by semantic differential method. The results were then subjected to factor analysis to obtain the structure of evaluating visual effects of garden space. The results showed that the colour, form, nature and space reflected the most information of the landscape perception features of garden space. The aesthetic and attractive received high marks of all the garden space tapes. Encircled and half encircled spaces exhibited disadvantages of light deficiency and depression.

  12. Estimating Resilience Across Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry D. Peterson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ecological managers typically focus on managing local or regional landscapes, they often have little ability to control or predict many of the large-scale, long-term processes that drive changes within these landscapes. This lack of control has led some ecologists to argue that ecological management should aim to produce ecosystems that are resilient to change and surprise. Unfortunately, ecological resilience is difficult to measure or estimate in the landscapes people manage. In this paper, I extend system dynamics approaches to resilience and estimate resilience using complex landscape simulation models. I use this approach to evaluate cross-scale edge, a novel empirical method for estimating resilience based on landscape pattern. Cross-scale edge provides relatively robust estimates of resilience, suggesting that, with some further development, it could be used as a management tool to provide rough and rapid estimates of areas of resilience and vulnerability within a landscape.

  13. Spatially-Explicit Bayesian Information Entropy Metrics for Calibrating Landscape Transformation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Alexandridis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing spatial model performance often presents challenges related to the choice and suitability of traditional statistical methods in capturing the true validity and dynamics of the predicted outcomes. The stochastic nature of many of our contemporary spatial models of land use change necessitate the testing and development of new and innovative methodologies in statistical spatial assessment. In many cases, spatial model performance depends critically on the spatially-explicit prior distributions, characteristics, availability and prevalence of the variables and factors under study. This study explores the statistical spatial characteristics of statistical model assessment of modeling land use change dynamics in a seven-county study area in South-Eastern Wisconsin during the historical period of 1963–1990. The artificial neural network-based Land Transformation Model (LTM predictions are used to compare simulated with historical land use transformations in urban/suburban landscapes. We introduce a range of Bayesian information entropy statistical spatial metrics for assessing the model performance across multiple simulation testing runs. Bayesian entropic estimates of model performance are compared against information-theoretic stochastic entropy estimates and theoretically-derived accuracy assessments. We argue for the critical role of informational uncertainty across different scales of spatial resolution in informing spatial landscape model assessment. Our analysis reveals how incorporation of spatial and landscape information asymmetry estimates can improve our stochastic assessments of spatial model predictions. Finally our study shows how spatially-explicit entropic classification accuracy estimates can work closely with dynamic modeling methodologies in improving our scientific understanding of landscape change as a complex adaptive system and process.

  14. Towards noise classification of road pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Elisabete F.; Paulo, Joel; Coelho, J. L. Bento; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Noise classification of road surfaces has been addressed in many European countries. This paper presents the first approach towards noise classification of Portuguese road pavements. In this early stage, it aims at establishing guidelines for decision makers to support their noise reduction policies and the development of a classification system adapted to the European recommendations. A ranking to provide guidance on tire-road noise emission levels for immediate use by decisio...

  15. Another Paper Landscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlak, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Describes the University of Toronto's extensive central campus revitalization plan to create lush landscapes that add to the school's image and attractiveness. Drawings and photographs are included. (GR)

  16. Self-adaptive image semantic classification based on tolerance granular space model%基于相容粒度空间模型的自适应图像语义分类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙祖强; 史忠植

    2012-01-01

    针对图像底层特征和高层语义之间存在的语义鸿沟问题,运用相容粒度空间模型对图像语义分类进行了研究,提出一种自适应的图像语义分类方法,为解决此问题探索出了一种有效途径.该方法将图像集建模为基于原始特征的相容粒度空间;在此空间中,通过引入相容参数和构造距离函数来定义相容关系,从而通过调整相容参数可有效控制对象邻域粒的大小,最终可直接处理图像的实数型特征而无需进行离散化等预处理;此外,通过引入相容度的方法实现对相容参数的自适应优化,从而自动调整邻域粒的大小,使得构造的分类器几乎不需要手工设置参数即可自动适应于各种不同类型的图像集,并获得比同类算法更好的分类准确率.实验结果验证了这种方法的有效性和可行性.%Aiming at the problem of the semantic gap between the low-level feature and the high-level semantic, the paper uses the tolerance granular space model to study image semantic classification, and then proposes a self-adaptive image semantic classification method, thus an effective way for solving the semantic gap problem is given. The proposed method models an image set as a primitive feature-based tolerance granular space, in which the tolerance relation is defined by using tolerance parameters and establishing a distance function, and then the size of an object' s neighborhood granule can be controlled effectively and finally the real-valued features can be directly dealt with without any pretreatment, such as discretization. In addition, tolerance parameters can be self-adaptively optimized by introducing the concept of tolerance degree, so as to automatically control the size of an object' s neighborhood granule, and in this way, the obtained classifier can adjust itself to a variety of image sets almost without any manual parameter configuration. The experimental results show that the proposed method

  17. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den Egon L.; Putten, van der Peter; Uyl, den Marten J.; Verbrugge, R.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  18. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  19. Rural Landscape Anatomy: Public space and civil yards in Dutch rural landscapes of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncken, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Architecture is still maturing in the Netherlands. It fills gaps left by urban designers and provides integrated design examples that reflect current cultural conditions, yet at the same time this does not necessarily lead to specific and adaptive design strategies. When dealing with the f

  20. Exploring the complexity of the HIV-1 fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Kouyos

    Full Text Available Although fitness landscapes are central to evolutionary theory, so far no biologically realistic examples for large-scale fitness landscapes have been described. Most currently available biological examples are restricted to very few loci or alleles and therefore do not capture the high dimensionality characteristic of real fitness landscapes. Here we analyze large-scale fitness landscapes that are based on predictive models for in vitro replicative fitness of HIV-1. We find that these landscapes are characterized by large correlation lengths, considerable neutrality, and high ruggedness and that these properties depend only weakly on whether fitness is measured in the absence or presence of different antiretrovirals. Accordingly, adaptive processes on these landscapes depend sensitively on the initial conditions. While the relative extent to which mutations affect fitness on their own (main effects or in combination with other mutations (epistasis is a strong determinant of these properties, the fitness landscape of HIV-1 is considerably less rugged, less neutral, and more correlated than expected from the distribution of main effects and epistatic interactions alone. Overall this study confirms theoretical conjectures about the complexity of biological fitness landscapes and the importance of the high dimensionality of the genetic space in which adaptation takes place.

  1. A Hierarchical Approach to Forest Landscape Pattern Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialing; Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Landscape spatial patterns have increasingly been considered to be essential for environmental planning and resources management. In this study, we proposed a hierarchical approach for landscape classification and evaluation by characterizing landscape spatial patterns across different hierarchical levels. The case study site is the Red Hills region of northern Florida and southwestern Georgia, well known for its biodiversity, historic resources, and scenic beauty. We used one Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper image to extract land-use/-cover information. Then, we employed principal-component analysis to help identify key class-level landscape metrics for forests at different hierarchical levels, namely, open pine, upland pine, and forest as a whole. We found that the key class-level landscape metrics varied across different hierarchical levels. Compared with forest as a whole, open pine forest is much more fragmented. The landscape metric, such as CONTIG_MN, which measures whether pine patches are contiguous or not, is more important to characterize the spatial pattern of pine forest than to forest as a whole. This suggests that different metric sets should be used to characterize landscape patterns at different hierarchical levels. We further used these key metrics, along with the total class area, to classify and evaluate subwatersheds through cluster analysis. This study demonstrates a promising approach that can be used to integrate spatial patterns and processes for hierarchical forest landscape planning and management.

  2. Land use classification in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C. E.; Brooner, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The Bolivian LANDSAT Program is an integrated, multidisciplinary project designed to provide thematic analysis of LANDSAT, Skylab, and other remotely sensed data for natural resource management and development in Bolivia, is discussed. Among the first requirements in the program is the development of a legend, and appropriate methodologies, for the analysis and classification of present land use based on landscape cover. The land use legend for Bolivia consists of approximately 80 categories in a hierarchical organization which may be collapsed for generalization, or expanded for greater detail. The categories, and their definitions, provide for both a graphic and textual description of the complex and diverse landscapes found in Bolivia, and are designed for analysis from LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000. Procedures and example products developed are described and illustrated, for the systematic analysis and mapping of present land use for all of Bolivia.

  3. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  4. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.

  5. BATS AND BT INSECT RESISTANCE ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A landscape model that utilizes land cover classification data, insect life history, insect movement, and bat foraging pressure is developed that addresses the implementation of genetically modified crops in the Winter Garden region of Texas. The principal strategy for delaying r...

  6. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr Sara J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.

  7. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  8. Comparison of Adaptive Information Security Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Antti Evesti; Eila Ovaska

    2013-01-01

    Dynamically changing environments and threat landscapes require adaptive information security. Adaptive information security makes it possible to change and modify security mechanisms at runtime. Hence, all security decisions are not enforced at design-time. This paper builds a framework to compare security adaptation approaches. The framework contains three viewpoints, that is, adaptation, security, and lifecycle. Furthermore, the paper describes five security adaptation approaches and compa...

  9. Retrospective landscape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzbøger, Bo

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of maps from the 18th and 19th centuries, a retrospective analysis was carried out of documentary settlement and landscape data extending back to the Middle Ages with the intention of identifying and dating general structural and dynamic features of the cultural landscape in a selected...

  10. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  11. Chapter V: Secondary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the secondary landscape structure of the Slovak Republic. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Land use pattern; (2) Special landscape structures; (3) Real vegetation. The secondary landscape structure consists of the elements influenced by man, created or recreated. They represent material elements with a particular spatial delimitation in the landscape. Vegetation, above all forest vegetation, is the indispensable part of the secondary landscape structure. Special space was given to the historical landscape structure

  12. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  13. Diagnostic classification and stage-adapted treatment of infection following arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction%前交叉韧带重建术后感染的诊断分型与分期治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐青镭; 李飞; 邵顺健; 王颖; 王连嘉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the self-developed diagnostic classification and stage-adapted treatment of infection after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.Methods Eleven cases of infection after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were treated in our department from October 2002 to December 2010.They were 8 men and 3 women,28.8 years of age on average (from 18 to 45 years).Infection was definitely diagnosed in 1 to 64 weeks (average,7.7 weeks).On the basis of literature review,we developed a diagnostic classification system which divides infections into 3 types according to clinical manifestations and used it to establish the diagnoses of infection.We had 5 cases of type Ⅰ (acute infectious synovitis),3 cases of type Ⅱ (extra-articular infection) and 3 cases of type Ⅲ (septic arthritis) of which 2 were type ⅢA with positive culture results and one was type Ⅲ B with negative culture result.Staged-adapted treatment algorithms were adopted based on the clinical classification of the patients,including early administration of intravenous antibiotics,arthroscopic debridement and irrigation with graft retention,as well as radical open debridement with graft and hardware removal.Results Follow-ups of 5.2 years on average (from 2.5 to 8.0 years)showed that all the 11 cases of infection were cured,but 3 cases had limited extension (one case of type Ⅰ and 2 cases of type ⅢA).The Lysholm scores at the last follow-up ranged from 76 to 93 points (average,82 points).In anterior laxity of the knee joint,the KT-1000 examinations showed 2 cases had side to side difference <2 mm,6 cases had side to side difference of 3 mm and 3 cases had side to side difference > 3 mm.Conclusions Infection after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction can be classified according to its early clinical manifestations.Our classification system may lead to better stage-adapted treatment of the infection.%目的 探讨前交叉韧带(ACL)重建术后感染的诊断分

  14. How Good Are Statistical Models at Approximating Complex Fitness Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Louis; Leventhal, Gabriel E; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Fitness landscapes determine the course of adaptation by constraining and shaping evolutionary trajectories. Knowledge of the structure of a fitness landscape can thus predict evolutionary outcomes. Empirical fitness landscapes, however, have so far only offered limited insight into real-world questions, as the high dimensionality of sequence spaces makes it impossible to exhaustively measure the fitness of all variants of biologically meaningful sequences. We must therefore revert to statistical descriptions of fitness landscapes that are based on a sparse sample of fitness measurements. It remains unclear, however, how much data are required for such statistical descriptions to be useful. Here, we assess the ability of regression models accounting for single and pairwise mutations to correctly approximate a complex quasi-empirical fitness landscape. We compare approximations based on various sampling regimes of an RNA landscape and find that the sampling regime strongly influences the quality of the regression. On the one hand it is generally impossible to generate sufficient samples to achieve a good approximation of the complete fitness landscape, and on the other hand systematic sampling schemes can only provide a good description of the immediate neighborhood of a sequence of interest. Nevertheless, we obtain a remarkably good and unbiased fit to the local landscape when using sequences from a population that has evolved under strong selection. Thus, current statistical methods can provide a good approximation to the landscape of naturally evolving populations. PMID:27189564

  15. How Good Are Statistical Models at Approximating Complex Fitness Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Louis; Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Fitness landscapes determine the course of adaptation by constraining and shaping evolutionary trajectories. Knowledge of the structure of a fitness landscape can thus predict evolutionary outcomes. Empirical fitness landscapes, however, have so far only offered limited insight into real-world questions, as the high dimensionality of sequence spaces makes it impossible to exhaustively measure the fitness of all variants of biologically meaningful sequences. We must therefore revert to statistical descriptions of fitness landscapes that are based on a sparse sample of fitness measurements. It remains unclear, however, how much data are required for such statistical descriptions to be useful. Here, we assess the ability of regression models accounting for single and pairwise mutations to correctly approximate a complex quasi-empirical fitness landscape. We compare approximations based on various sampling regimes of an RNA landscape and find that the sampling regime strongly influences the quality of the regression. On the one hand it is generally impossible to generate sufficient samples to achieve a good approximation of the complete fitness landscape, and on the other hand systematic sampling schemes can only provide a good description of the immediate neighborhood of a sequence of interest. Nevertheless, we obtain a remarkably good and unbiased fit to the local landscape when using sequences from a population that has evolved under strong selection. Thus, current statistical methods can provide a good approximation to the landscape of naturally evolving populations. PMID:27189564

  16. How Good Are Statistical Models at Approximating Complex Fitness Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Louis; Leventhal, Gabriel E; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Fitness landscapes determine the course of adaptation by constraining and shaping evolutionary trajectories. Knowledge of the structure of a fitness landscape can thus predict evolutionary outcomes. Empirical fitness landscapes, however, have so far only offered limited insight into real-world questions, as the high dimensionality of sequence spaces makes it impossible to exhaustively measure the fitness of all variants of biologically meaningful sequences. We must therefore revert to statistical descriptions of fitness landscapes that are based on a sparse sample of fitness measurements. It remains unclear, however, how much data are required for such statistical descriptions to be useful. Here, we assess the ability of regression models accounting for single and pairwise mutations to correctly approximate a complex quasi-empirical fitness landscape. We compare approximations based on various sampling regimes of an RNA landscape and find that the sampling regime strongly influences the quality of the regression. On the one hand it is generally impossible to generate sufficient samples to achieve a good approximation of the complete fitness landscape, and on the other hand systematic sampling schemes can only provide a good description of the immediate neighborhood of a sequence of interest. Nevertheless, we obtain a remarkably good and unbiased fit to the local landscape when using sequences from a population that has evolved under strong selection. Thus, current statistical methods can provide a good approximation to the landscape of naturally evolving populations.

  17. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  18. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissler, Leslie J

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the "microgeographic races" of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography.

  19. Entertainment Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Kučinskienė

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The entertainment society can not imagine the life without entertainment. It is not enough to a human just to come to an amusement park. He/she wants a theme park which is guided by the need not only for extreme experiences but also the environment that must be formed in such a way that satisfies all the five senses. Sensory stimulators that accompany the experiences have to maintain and enrich its theme. The more senses, the more effective and more memorable experiences, then the bigger part of society will be satisfied. To have such experiences there should be a suitable environment – the entertainment landscape. The article deals with the features of entertainment landscape planning, analyzes the performances of entertainment park and theme park design items; it contains the rules of specific landscape plan used for the entertainment landscape design and the entertainment landscape design techniques. The article is illustrated with the examples of entertainment landscape theme parks and analyzes the significance of entertainment landscape creation in modern experience society.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.659

  20. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...

  1. Optimizing Rank of Landscape Planning Works of Urban Wetland Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Li-fang; Zhang Yi-chuan; Qi An-guo; Li Xin-zheng

    2012-01-01

    Classifying and ranking the huge amounts of landscape planning works of urban wetland park is always difficult due to the multi-functions (ecological, leisure, educational and disaster prevention) of the urban wetland park. Therefore, an optimizing rank system is urgently needed. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) models were used to rank the planning works of 30 urban wetland park based on four mainly factors, which included landscape ecological planning, landscape planning, ecological planning and economic planning. The study indicated that the AHP- TOPSIS model had good discrimination in the classification and ranking of landscape planning works of urban wetland park and it was also applicable to the planning works of other urban greenbelts.

  2. Integration of architectural design in the landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Dimoska, Aleksandra; Mitanoska, Ana; Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina; Mitev, Trajce

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on integration of the architectural form in the landscape, a topic that is related to the conservation of the environment with ecological and bioclimatic architecture. This report explores the forerunners of sustainable development, energy saving and environmental adaptation, and research developed within the subterranean living to large projects, with particular attention to the formal and practical potential of land use. The paper contains both, modern and historica...

  3. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary....... This paper addresses the question of whether the sensation of landscape can be condensed in function or to the size of an urban building. It also discusses the benefits and potentials of the amalgamate, by underlining the unique qualities of such a hybrid. In an attempt to define the experience of landscape...

  4. Elaboration of the third-generation world map of terrestrial landscapes as a model of the landscape sphere of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Emma; Alexeeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Klimanova, Oksana; Kovaleva, Tatiana; Kondratieva, Tatiana; Alyautdinov, Ali

    2016-04-01

    The first fundamental investigation aimed at the elaboration of the global map of terrestrial landscapes has resulted in a series of maps for the Physical-Geographical Atlas of the World (1964). Typological classification of landscapes and the concept of the zonal differentiation of terrestrial landscapes of the Earth became a basis for the maps of physical-geographical regions of individual continents and the global map of landscape types at the scale of 1:80 Mln. The next stage of research in the sphere of small-scale landscape regionalization and mapping of both natural and natural-anthropogenic landscapes has produced the global maps of Geographical Belts and Zonal Types of Terrestrial Landscapes (1988) and Present-Day Landscapes of the World (1992) at the scale of 1:15 Mln. By the end of the 1990-s similar maps of individual continents were compiled for the Nature and Resources of the Earth digital atlas. Recent decades saw further development of the idea of zone - sector - belt structure of the Earth's landscape sphere which includes several hierarchically subordinated natural-territorial levels. New theoretical studies and emergence of extensive information materials allowed starting the elaboration of a new (third-generation) map at the scales of 1:15 Mln to 1:5 Mln. A new classification of landscape units was suggested basing on the analysis of principal landscape-forming factors (climatic, lithogene and biogenic). A new cartographical model was developed specifying the following hierarchical levels: geographical belts, sectors, natural zones and sub-zones, classes and subclasses of landscapes. Classification criteria used for landscape systematization and mapping include both natural parameters (radiation balance, heat and moisture supply, structure of the vegetative period, biological productivity of vegetation, etc.) and anthropogenic indicators, thus providing for the evaluation of the geoecological state of landscapes (ecosystems of regional dimension

  5. Application of ant colony optimization to image classification using a Markov model with non-stationary neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hégarat-Mascle, S.; Kallel, A.; Descombes, X.

    2005-10-01

    In global classifications using Markov Random Field (MRF) modelling, the neighbourhood form is generally considered as independent of its location in the image. Such an approach may lead to classification errors for pixels located at the segment borders. The solution proposed here consists in relaxing the assumption of fixed-form neighbourhood. However this non-stationary neighbourhood modelling is useful only if an efficient heuristic can be defined to perform the optimization. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is currently a popular algorithm. It models upon the behavior of social insects for computing strategies: the information gathered by simple autonomous mobile agents, called ants, is shared and exploited for problem solving. Here we propose to use the ACO and to exploit its ability of self-organization. The ants collect information through the image, from one pixel to the others. The choice of the path is a function of the pixel label, favouring paths within a same image segment. We show that this corresponds to an automatic adaptation of the neighbourhood to the segment form. Performance of this new approach is illustrated on a simulated image and on actual remote sensing images, SPOT4/HRV, representing agricultural areas. In the studied examples, we found that it outperforms the fixed-form neighbourhood used in classical MRF classifications. The advantage of having a neighborhood shape that automatically adapts to the image segment clearly appears in these cases of images containing fine elements, lanes or thin fields, but also complex natural landscape structures.

  6. Archaeology, landscape and aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Cooper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role, if any, of aesthetic reflections in the discipline of landscape archaeology. It begins by rejecting the charge that archaeologists should set aside their own aesthetic sensibility when studying landscapes. The bulk of the paper, however, is concerned with arguing that attention to the aesthetic sensibilities of the peoples who made the landscapes studied is essential to the kind of understanding and reconstruction of ways of life that landscape archaeology aims to provide. Two important themes that are developed during the course of this argument are: (1 a distinction (ignored by some archaeologists who are critical of appeals to aesthetic enjoyment between aesthetic appreciation and a dilettante “aestheticism” and (2 the aesthetic satisfactions that must be taken in work, such as farming, if this is to flourish.

  7. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  8. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    2016-01-01

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However, communicati

  9. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate...

  10. Road geometry classification by adaptive shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Álvarez; T. Gevers; F. Diego; A.M. López

    2012-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important for different applications in transportation, such as autonomous driving, vehicle collision warning, and pedestrian crossing detection. Common approaches to road detection are based on low-level road appearance (e.g., color or texture) and neglect of the scen

  11. Polarimetric SAR Image Supervised Classification Method Integrating Eigenvalues

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Yanxiao; Zhang Yi; Li Ning; Wang Yu; Hu Guixiang

    2016-01-01

    Since classification methods based on H/α space have the drawback of yielding poor classification results for terrains with similar scattering features, in this study, we propose a polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image classification method based on eigenvalues. First, we extract eigenvalues and fit their distribution with an adaptive Gaussian mixture model. Then, using the naive Bayesian classifier, we obtain preliminary classification results. The distribution of eigenvalues in ...

  12. Patent Landscape for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Streletskiy; Vladimir Zabavnikov; Emil Aslanov; Dmitriy Kotlov

    2015-01-01

    A methodological approach to patent landscaping for nanotechnology is considered in this paper. In the opinion of the authors, nanotechnologies have precedence over other technology trends that are confirmed by evaluation of the present and future market size of nanotechnology productions. An analysis of patent activity in Russia and the world is performed using patent landscape for nanotechnology as well as for metallurgy in the field of nanotechnology. A new metho...

  13. Flowscapes: Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With m

  14. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  15. Differential responses of cryptic bat species to the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Paul R; Barlow, Kate; Bunnefeld, Nils; Briggs, Philip; Gajas Roig, Clara; Park, Kirsty J

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is a key global driver in the modification of land use and has been linked to population declines even in widespread and relatively common species. Cities comprise a complex assortment of habitat types yet we know relatively little about the effects of their composition and spatial configuration on species distribution. Although many bat species exploit human resources, the majority of species are negatively impacted by urbanization. Here, we use data from the National Bat Monitoring Programme, a long-running citizen science scheme, to assess how two cryptic European bat species respond to the urban landscape. A total of 124 × 1 km(2) sites throughout Britain were surveyed. The landscape surrounding each site was mapped and classified into discrete biotope types (e.g., woodland). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences in the response to the urban environment between the two species, and which landscape factors were associated with the distributions of P. pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus. The relative prevalence of P. pygmaeus compared to P. pipistrellus was greater in urban landscapes with a higher density of rivers and lakes, whereas P. pipistrellus was frequently detected in landscapes comprising a high proportion of green space (e.g., parklands). Although P. pipistrellus is thought to be well adapted to the urban landscape, we found a strong negative response to urbanization at a relatively local scale (1 km), whilst P. pygmaeus was detected more regularly in wooded urban landscapes containing freshwater. These results show differential habitat use at a landscape scale of two morphologically similar species, indicating that cryptic species may respond differently to anthropogenic disturbance. Even species considered relatively common and well adapted to the urban landscape may respond negatively to the built environment highlighting the future challenges involved in maintaining biodiversity within an increasingly urbanized

  16. Differential responses of cryptic bat species to the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Paul R; Barlow, Kate; Bunnefeld, Nils; Briggs, Philip; Gajas Roig, Clara; Park, Kirsty J

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is a key global driver in the modification of land use and has been linked to population declines even in widespread and relatively common species. Cities comprise a complex assortment of habitat types yet we know relatively little about the effects of their composition and spatial configuration on species distribution. Although many bat species exploit human resources, the majority of species are negatively impacted by urbanization. Here, we use data from the National Bat Monitoring Programme, a long-running citizen science scheme, to assess how two cryptic European bat species respond to the urban landscape. A total of 124 × 1 km(2) sites throughout Britain were surveyed. The landscape surrounding each site was mapped and classified into discrete biotope types (e.g., woodland). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences in the response to the urban environment between the two species, and which landscape factors were associated with the distributions of P. pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus. The relative prevalence of P. pygmaeus compared to P. pipistrellus was greater in urban landscapes with a higher density of rivers and lakes, whereas P. pipistrellus was frequently detected in landscapes comprising a high proportion of green space (e.g., parklands). Although P. pipistrellus is thought to be well adapted to the urban landscape, we found a strong negative response to urbanization at a relatively local scale (1 km), whilst P. pygmaeus was detected more regularly in wooded urban landscapes containing freshwater. These results show differential habitat use at a landscape scale of two morphologically similar species, indicating that cryptic species may respond differently to anthropogenic disturbance. Even species considered relatively common and well adapted to the urban landscape may respond negatively to the built environment highlighting the future challenges involved in maintaining biodiversity within an increasingly urbanized

  17. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  18. DNA sequence analysis using hierarchical ART-based classification networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, C.; Hruska, S.I. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Katholi, C.R.; Unnasch, T.R. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Adaptive resonance theory (ART) describes a class of artificial neural network architectures that act as classification tools which self-organize, work in real-time, and require no retraining to classify novel sequences. We have adapted ART networks to provide support to scientists attempting to categorize tandem repeat DNA fragments from Onchocerca volvulus. In this approach, sequences of DNA fragments are presented to multiple ART-based networks which are linked together into two (or more) tiers; the first provides coarse sequence classification while the sub- sequent tiers refine the classifications as needed. The overall rating of the resulting classification of fragments is measured using statistical techniques based on those introduced to validate results from traditional phylogenetic analysis. Tests of the Hierarchical ART-based Classification Network, or HABclass network, indicate its value as a fast, easy-to-use classification tool which adapts to new data without retraining on previously classified data.

  19. Art Deco 建筑形态下景观雕塑的“洋”为“中”用%Adapting foreign things for Chinese use in landscape sculpture under Art Deco architectural morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪敏

    2014-01-01

    介绍了Art Deco的建筑风格,结合苏州“石湖天玺”楼盘工程,分析了Art Deco建筑风格在实际工程中的应用方法,并分析了Art Deco建筑文化生活形态下景观布局的中国地区本土化品味,为该建筑风格的研究奠定了基础。%With an introduction of Art Deco architecture style, combining with Suzhou“Shihutianxi” building project, the article analyzes the ap-plication of Art Deco architecture style in actual engineering, and analyzes Chinese local landscape layout under Art Deco building culture, which has laid a foundation for the architectural style research.

  20. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  1. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  2. Multi-borders classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The number of possible methods of generalizing binary classification to multi-class classification increases exponentially with the number of class labels. Often, the best method of doing so will be highly problem dependent. Here we present classification software in which the partitioning of multi-class classification problems into binary classification problems is specified using a recursive control language.

  3. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  4. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  5. Contextualizing Object Detection and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Song, Zheng; Dong, Jian; Huang, Zhongyang; Hua, Yang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how to iteratively and mutually boost object classification and detection performance by taking the outputs from one task as the context of the other one. While context models have been quite popular, previous works mainly concentrate on co-occurrence relationship within classes and few of them focus on contextualization from a top-down perspective, i.e. high-level task context. In this paper, our system adopts a new method for adaptive context modeling and iterative boosting. First, the contextualized support vector machine (Context-SVM) is proposed, where the context takes the role of dynamically adjusting the classification score based on the sample ambiguity, and thus the context-adaptive classifier is achieved. Then, an iterative training procedure is presented. In each step, Context-SVM, associated with the output context from one task (object classification or detection), is instantiated to boost the performance for the other task, whose augmented outputs are then further used to improve the former task by Context-SVM. The proposed solution is evaluated on the object classification and detection tasks of PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge (VOC) 2007, 2010 and SUN09 data sets, and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

  6. Development of a reproducible method for determining quantity of water and its configuration in a marsh landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suir, Glenn M.; Evers, D. Elaine; Steyer, Gregory D.; Sasser, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a dynamic and ever-changing landscape. From 1956 to 2010, over 3,734 km2 of Louisiana's coastal wetlands have been lost due to a combination of natural and human-induced activities. The resulting landscape constitutes a mosaic of conditions from highly deteriorated to relatively stable with intact landmasses. Understanding how and why coastal landscapes change over time is critical to restoration and rehabilitation efforts. Historically, changes in marsh pattern (i.e., size and spatial distribution of marsh landmasses and water bodies) have been distinguished using visual identification by individual researchers. Difficulties associated with this approach include subjective interpretation, uncertain reproducibility, and laborious techniques. In order to minimize these limitations, this study aims to expand existing tools and techniques via a computer-based method, which uses geospatial technologies for determining shifts in landscape patterns. Our method is based on a raster framework and uses landscape statistics to develop conditions and thresholds for a marsh classification scheme. The classification scheme incorporates land and water classified imagery and a two-part classification system: (1) ratio of water to land, and (2) configuration and connectivity of water within wetland landscapes to evaluate changes in marsh patterns. This analysis system can also be used to trace trajectories in landscape patterns through space and time. Overall, our method provides a more automated means of quantifying landscape patterns and may serve as a reliable landscape evaluation tool for future investigations of wetland ecosystem processes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Landscape Ecology and problems of European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    by practical problems of European cultural – especial agricultural – landscapes since the rise of the environmental movement. Central themes have been the consequences of technological and structural changes within European agriculture for the landscape and the development of habitats and dispersal......Parallel to a growing global cooperation among landscape ecologists, different regional trends within landscape ecology seems to arise, related to different geographical and historical conditions. Modern landscape ecology in Europe has developed as an interdisciplinary activity inspired...... opportunities for wildlife, and a variety of landscape problems related to the trends towards multifunctional use of agricultural landscapes due to new types of land use and settlements affected by counterurbanisation processes. A number of interrelated landscape ecological projects in Denmark, with parallels...

  8. Enterprise Potential: Essence, Classification and Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turylo Anatolii M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers existing approaches to classification of the enterprise potential as an economic notion. It offers own vision of classification of enterprise potential, which meets modern tendencies of enterprise development. Classification ensures a possibility of a wider description and assessment of enterprise potential and also allows identification of its most significant characteristics. Classification of the enterprise potential is developed by different criteria: by functions, by resource support, by ability to adapt, by the level of detection, by the spectrum of taking into account possibilities, by the period of coverage of possibilities and by the level of use. Analysis of components of the enterprise potential allows obtaining a complete and trustworthy assessment of the state of an enterprise. Adaptation potential of an enterprise is based on principles systemacy and dynamism, it characterises possibilities of adjustment of an enterprise to external and internal economic conditions.

  9. AN OBJECT-BASED METHOD FOR CHINESE LANDFORM TYPES CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Landform classification is a necessary task for various fields of landscape and regional planning, for example for landscape evaluation, erosion studies, hazard prediction, et al. This study proposes an improved object-based classification for Chinese landform types using the factor importance analysis of random forest and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. In this research, based on 1km DEM of China, the combination of the terrain factors extracted from DEM are selected by correlation analysis and Sheffield's entropy method. Random forest classification tree is applied to evaluate the importance of the terrain factors, which are used as multi-scale segmentation thresholds. Then the GLCM is conducted for the knowledge base of classification. The classification result was checked by using the 1:4,000,000 Chinese Geomorphological Map as reference. And the overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is 5.7% higher than ISODATA unsupervised classification, and 15.7% higher than the traditional object-based classification method.

  10. An Object-Based Method for Chinese Landform Types Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Wufan; Na, Jiaming; Tang, Guo'an

    2016-06-01

    Landform classification is a necessary task for various fields of landscape and regional planning, for example for landscape evaluation, erosion studies, hazard prediction, et al. This study proposes an improved object-based classification for Chinese landform types using the factor importance analysis of random forest and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). In this research, based on 1km DEM of China, the combination of the terrain factors extracted from DEM are selected by correlation analysis and Sheffield's entropy method. Random forest classification tree is applied to evaluate the importance of the terrain factors, which are used as multi-scale segmentation thresholds. Then the GLCM is conducted for the knowledge base of classification. The classification result was checked by using the 1:4,000,000 Chinese Geomorphological Map as reference. And the overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is 5.7% higher than ISODATA unsupervised classification, and 15.7% higher than the traditional object-based classification method.

  11. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  12. Content-based image retrieval applied to BI-RADS tissue classification in screening mammography

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To present a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system that supports the classification of breast tissue density and can be used in the processing chain to adapt parameters for lesion segmentation and classification.

  13. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  14. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  15. Hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions group areas according to their similarity in landscape and climate characteristics. These characteristics represent variables assumed...

  16. Assessment of the forest landscape along selected motor vehicle routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research that aims to analyse and evaluate the attractiveness of the forest landscape in the vicinity of selected motor vehicle routes that differ in terms of technical parameters, such as motorways, regional roads and local (municipal roads. The diversity of landscape units was used as the measure of landscape attractiveness. Landscape diversity analysis allows to establish the details related to specific parts of the road and the options for configuring the road environment. These options relate to the way the forest is managed and mainly involve aspects of infrastructure and cultivation. They include activities such as afforestation work and rebuilding the species composition of forest stands. According to the research, the lower the technical class of a road, the greater is the need to take action to adapt the structural-tree stand system to meet the safety requirements of road users.

  17. Plant Landscape Design in Special Space of Ecological Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoyong; ZHANG; Xiaogang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discussed the application of plant landscape design in special space of ecological buildings. From the concept of special space of ecological buildings,it elaborated social and ecological benefits of greening projects in special space. It proposed the classification method for special space of ecological building with habitat as the major part and combined with characteristics of building form. On the basis of such classification,it discussed green design method and plant selection principle,in the hope of providing certain reference for garden designers in green design of ecological buildings.

  18. Landscape Architecture and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Jason Brian

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the role of sustainable development in Landscape Architecture. From reviewing the literature, a position is developed. The position is that Sustainable Development is an important issue for landscape architects and that there are reasons landscape architects have had limited success in sustainable development. The method of the thesis is derived from assessing a problem of sustainable development and landscape architecture and developing a solution t...

  19. Integration Research for Shaping Sustainable Regional Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Brunckhorst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social systems are complex and entwined. Complex social-ecological systems interact in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Their interactions can contribute both positive and negative consequences in terms of sustainability and the context in which they exist affecting future landscape change. Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social, and environmental change. Such regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments, and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. Science and policy for “sustainable” futures need to be integrated at the applied “on-ground” level where products and effects of system interactions are fully included, even if unobserved. Government agencies and funding bodies often consider such research as “high-risk.” This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a level of holistic integration through close engagement with landholders and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative and innovative on-ground experimental models. In retrospect, such projects have to some degree integrated through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis, and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and acceptable in business, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.

  20. Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques

  1. Performance Technology Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a performance technology landscape that has been developed for performance improvement institutes. Defines performance technology, including identification of value; definition of outcomes; performance analysis; valuation of effectiveness; focusing on results; systemic approach; adding value; aligning workers, activity, the organization,…

  2. Villages in landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    , and the physical appearance of many villages and detached farms can at best be characterized as shockingly inferior. It can be argued that the Danish society has grossly omitted to take care of the largest and most important part of its cultural heritage in the Danish landscape; 6-7,000 large and small villages...

  3. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  4. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    humanities. The Anti-Landscape provides an interdisciplinary approach that moves beyond the false duality of nature vs. culture, and beyond diagnosis and complaint to the recuperation of damaged sites into our complex heritage. Collection of essays based on a conference held at SDU in 2011....

  5. Landscapes in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  6. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting ...

  7. Cultural oak landscapes as green infrastructure for human well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Human and nature interactions have been the ancestral normative model to provide and secure livelihoods worldwide. Hence, humans have been coevolving in an intrinsic relation with the natural system until medieval times. The mentioned interactions formed the so-called cultural landscapes as a result of human gradual re-organization and adaptation of the biophysical system to adapt better to changing societal demands. Concerned to balance sustainable development of landscapes among its social,...

  8. Raiders of the Lost Bark: Orangutan Foraging Strategies in a Degraded Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Gail Campbell-Smith; Miran Campbell-Smith; Ian Singleton; Matthew Linkie

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal va...

  9. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant...

  10. Using graph approach for managing connectivity in integrative landscape modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabotin, Michael; Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Libres, Aline; Lagacherie, Philippe; Crevoisier, David; Moussa, Roger

    2013-04-01

    FLUID-landr library has been developed in order i) to be used with no GIS expert skills needed (common gis formats can be read and simplified spatial management is provided), ii) to easily develop adapted rules of landscape discretization and graph creation to follow spatialized model requirements and iii) to allow model developers to manage dynamic and complex spatial topology. Graph management in OpenFLUID are shown with i) examples of hydrological modelizations on complex farmed landscapes and ii) the new implementation of Geo-MHYDAS tool based on the OpenFLUID-landr library, which allows to discretize a landscape and create graph structure for the MHYDAS model requirements.

  11. Feature Space Mapping as a universal adaptive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duch, Włodzisław; Diercksen, Geerd H. F.

    1995-06-01

    The most popular realizations of adaptive systems are based on the neural network type of algorithms, in particular feedforward multilayered perceptrons trained by backpropagation of error procedures. In this paper an alternative approach based on multidimensional separable localized functions centered at the data clusters is proposed. In comparison with the neural networks that use delocalized transfer functions this approach allows for full control of the basins of attractors of all stationary points. Slow learning procedures are replaced by the explicit construction of the landscape function followed by the optimization of adjustable parameters using gradient techniques or genetic algorithms. Retrieving information does not require searches in multidimensional subspaces but it is factorized into a series of one-dimensional searches. Feature Space Mapping is applicable to learning not only from facts but also from general laws and may be treated as a fuzzy expert system (neurofuzzy system). The number of nodes (fuzzy rules) is growing as the network creates new nodes for novel data but the search time is sublinear in the number of rules or data clusters stored. Such a system may work as a universal classificator, approximator and reasoning system. Examples of applications for the identification of spectra (classification), intelligent databases (association) and for the analysis of simple electrical circuits (expert system type) are given.

  12. Optimization of landscape services under uncoordinated management by multiple landowners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Porto

    and quantifiable objectives. It may thus be adapted to other socio-ecological systems, particularly where specific patterns of landscape heterogeneity are to be maintained despite imperfect management by multiple landowners.

  13. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...

  14. Landscape evaluation in industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the North-East of Estonia, the landscape is contrasting: different natural and man-made landforms exist together. In this area, oil shale mining and processing have essentially changed the landscape, and as a result, different man-made industrial landscape forms have come into being. The attitude of local inhabitants towards the heritage of oil shale industry has been traditionally negative. Nevertheless, the artificial 'mountainous' and 'hilly' relief offers also a positive effect, having some expressive image in the background of the natural plain landscape forms. For protection of cultural landscapes from damages, 32 landscapes that are more valuable were selected, whereat the historical, cultural, natural, recreational, aesthetic, scientific, etc. factors were taken into account. In the future the status of industrial landscapes needs a more exact defining,and special means must be worked out to protect and manage those valuable cultural areas. (author)

  15. Lipid landscapes and pipelines in membrane homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthuis, Joost C M; Menon, Anant K

    2014-06-01

    The lipid composition of cellular organelles is tailored to suit their specialized tasks. A fundamental transition in the lipid landscape divides the secretory pathway in early and late membrane territories, allowing an adaptation from biogenic to barrier functions. Defending the contrasting features of these territories against erosion by vesicular traffic poses a major logistical problem. To this end, cells evolved a network of lipid composition sensors and pipelines along which lipids are moved by non-vesicular mechanisms. We review recent insights into the molecular basis of this regulatory network and consider examples in which malfunction of its components leads to system failure and disease. PMID:24899304

  16. Being There: Poetic Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Berry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In early 2012, I was invited by Pilbara Writers group in Karratha to make a poetry map for the Pilbara region when they saw the Poetry 4 U website (http://poetry4U.org where poems are pinned to geographic locations. I visited the Pilbara June 17 – 23, 2012 to commence the poetry mapping project with members of the Pilbara Writers group. By walking with video when writers took me to their favourite places I was able to document visceral intersubjective experiences of these places, of being there together, so that I could empathically share the writers’ sense of landscape. This paper discusses what happens when a hodological approach is taken to explore connections and flows between poetic expressions, places and landscapes.

  17. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  18. Landscapes of Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Chartrand, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on findings from prison inquiries and commissions, correctional policies and practices, news media accounts and prisoner testimonies, this article reconsiders the prevalence of violence against women in Canadian prisons. By adopting a broader conceptualization of violence, particularly as enacted and legitimated by the state, the article reveals how the prison setting generates a landscape of violence through the languages of gender and security, along with routine practices that come...

  19. Landscape evolution of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, S.S.R.; Sugden, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The relative roles of fluvial versus glacial processes in shaping the landscape of Antarctica have been debated since the expeditions of Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton in the early years of the 20th century. Here we build a synthesis of Antarctic landscape evolution based on the geomorphology of passive continental margins and former northern mid-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets. What makes Antarctica so interesting is that the terrestrial landscape retains elements of a record of change that extends back to the Oligocene. Thus there is the potential to link conditions on land with those in the oceans and atmosphere as the world switched from a greenhouse to a glacial world and the Antarctic ice sheet evolved to its present state. In common with other continental fragments of Gondwana there is a fluvial signature to the landscape in the form of the coastal erosion surfaces and escarpments, incised river valleys, and a continent-wide network of river basins. A selective superimposed glacial signature reflects the presence or absence of ice at the pressure melting point. Earliest continental-scale ice sheets formed around 34 Ma, growing from local ice caps centered on mountain massifs, and featured phases of ice-sheet expansion and contraction. These ice masses were most likely cold-based over uplands and warm-based across lowlands and near their margins. For 20 million years ice sheets fluctuated on Croll-Milankovitch frequencies. At ~14 Ma the ice sheet expanded to its maximum and deepened a preexisting radial array of troughs selectively through the coastal mountains and eroded the continental

  20. [landscape with lake

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Fisher was a painter and engraver in Ireland, working after the Dutch and Italian landscape painting tradition. He is best known by engravings after his designs, of which a large number were produced during his career.[notes from 'Irish Paintings in the National Gallery of Ireland?, 2001] This painting was in the possession of Christie's as of 1996 and was attributed to Fisher shortly thereafter by Anne Crookshank.

  1. Characterizing biotic and abiotic properties of landscape and their implications for ecohydrological processes across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J.; Langford, Z.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ecohydrological processes governing the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and its response and feedback to climate change occur at diverse spatial and temporal scales. To accurately capture the dynamics of ecohydrological processes in the model, its critically important to capture the subgrid scale heterogeneity of the landscape and develop scale aware process representation and parameterization. This study focused on the Arctic tundra landscape at Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Ecohydrological processes in this sensitive landscape are strongly governed by the physical and structural properties (like topography, soil, permafrost, geomorphology etc.) of the landscape, environmental conditions (like temperature, precipitation, light, radiation) and biotic conditions (vegetation, above/below biomass and organic matter, disturbance history etc.). From site to watershed to regional (scale at which models often operate), landscape is a complex mosaic of a range of biotic and abiotic properties. We have developed and applied a hierarchical characterization and classification approach to segment the landscape in distinct units which can be used to develop and parameterize process models at local scale. We also analyze how the distribution and organization of the landscape units as building blocks influence and interact with ecosystem processes across scales. Our goals is understand the landscape organization principles and their roles to inform and improve process based models of ecohydrological processes in Arctic tundra landscape.

  2. Effectiveness of Partition and Graph Theoretic Clustering Algorithms for Multiple Source Partial Discharge Pattern Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network and Its Adaptive Version: A Critique Based on Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD is a major cause of failure of power apparatus and hence its measurement and analysis have emerged as a vital field in assessing the condition of the insulation system. Several efforts have been undertaken by researchers to classify PD pulses utilizing artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, the focus has shifted to the identification of multiple sources of PD since it is often encountered in real-time measurements. Studies have indicated that classification of multi-source PD becomes difficult with the degree of overlap and that several techniques such as mixed Weibull functions, neural networks, and wavelet transformation have been attempted with limited success. Since digital PD acquisition systems record data for a substantial period, the database becomes large, posing considerable difficulties during classification. This research work aims firstly at analyzing aspects concerning classification capability during the discrimination of multisource PD patterns. Secondly, it attempts at extending the previous work of the authors in utilizing the novel approach of probabilistic neural network versions for classifying moderate sets of PD sources to that of large sets. The third focus is on comparing the ability of partition-based algorithms, namely, the labelled (learning vector quantization and unlabelled (K-means versions, with that of a novel hypergraph-based clustering method in providing parsimonious sets of centers during classification.

  3. Chapter I: Landscape and its representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter contains and defines the basic concepts, represents the landscape in schematic way, demonstrates the concepts in form of pictures (landscape as a whole, its individual components and structures), graphic forms, including the historical and the present representation of landscape in artistic works. Definition of landscape and schemes of the basic concepts are included. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Landscape - material reality - fragment of geographical sphere; (2) Landscape, its elements, and relationships; (3) Landscape structure; (4) Definition of the landscape; (5) Landscape characteristics; Methodology used for compilation of the Landscape Atlas of the SR; (6) Conception of the Landscape Atlas of the Slovak Republic; Historical representation of landscape; (7) Development of representation of the selected landscape types; Slovak landscape in fine arts

  4. Adaptive Face Recognition via Structed Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hua; ZENG Xiao-ming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a face recognition approach-Structed Sparse Representation-based classification when the measurement of the test sample is less than the number training samples of each subject. When this condition is not satisfied, we exploit Nearest Subspace approach to classify the test sample. In order to adapt all the cases, we combine the two approaches to an adaptive classification method-Adaptive approach. The adaptive approach yields greater recognition accuracy than the SRC approach and CRC_RLS approach with low sample rate on the Extend Yale B dataset. And it is more efficient than other two approaches.

  5. Sparse Partial Least Squares Classification for High Dimensional Data*

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Dongjun; Keles, Sunduz

    2010-01-01

    Partial least squares (PLS) is a well known dimension reduction method which has been recently adapted for high dimensional classification problems in genome biology. We develop sparse versions of the recently proposed two PLS-based classification methods using sparse partial least squares (SPLS). These sparse versions aim to achieve variable selection and dimension reduction simultaneously. We consider both binary and multicategory classification. We provide analytical and simulation-based i...

  6. Ecological and economic principles of rational agricultural lands use based on landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndzya, Olena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the methodological providing and real state of agricultural lands and agrolandscape use in Ukraine. Basic directions of agricultural earth use organization are investigated on landscape basis. The experience of native scientists in forming and developing the theory and practice of landscape approach in agriculture is worked out. Basic directions of the agrolandscape planning are determined. The agricultural typology of land is considered in details and that allows to divide the lands according to their descriptions and constituents. The methodology of the landscape contour and land-reclamation agriculture systems is investigated. Positions of this methodology were put into the Conception of high productive ecologically permanent agrolandscapes forming and improvement of the of agriculture systems based on landscape. The value of the adaptive landscape agricultural system mechanism of forming is reflected. The direction of ecological landscape use and its basic constituents are examined.

  7. Multitemporal spatial pattern analysis of Tulum's tropical coastal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Forero, Sandra Carolina; López-Caloca, Alejandra; Silván-Cárdenas, José Luis

    2011-11-01

    The tropical coastal landscape of Tulum in Quintana Roo, Mexico has a high ecological, economical, social and cultural value, it provides environmental and tourism services at global, national, regional and local levels. The landscape of the area is heterogeneous and presents random fragmentation patterns. In recent years, tourist services of the region has been increased promoting an accelerate expansion of hotels, transportation and recreation infrastructure altering the complex landscape. It is important to understand the environmental dynamics through temporal changes on the spatial patterns and to propose a better management of this ecological area to the authorities. This paper addresses a multi-temporal analysis of land cover changes from 1993 to 2000 in Tulum using Thematic Mapper data acquired by Landsat-5. Two independent methodologies were applied for the analysis of changes in the landscape and for the definition of fragmentation patterns. First, an Iteratively Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) algorithm was used to detect and localize land cover change/no-change areas. Second, the post-classification change detection evaluated using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. Landscape metrics were calculated from the results of IR-MAD and SVM. The analysis of the metrics indicated, among other things, a higher fragmentation pattern along roadways.

  8. Enriching User-Oriented Class Associations for Library Classification Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hsiao-Tieh; Yang, Chyan

    2003-01-01

    Explores the possibility of adding user-oriented class associations to hierarchical library classification schemes. Analyses a log of book circulation records from a university library in Taiwan and shows that classification schemes can be made more adaptable by analyzing circulation patterns of similar users. (Author/LRW)

  9. I-CAN: The Classification and Prediction of Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Samuel R. C.; Riches, Vivienne C.; Stancliffe, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 1992, the diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability has been dependent upon three constructs: intelligence, adaptive behaviour and support needs (Luckasson "et al." 1992. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification and Systems of Support. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental…

  10. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  11. Crop pathogen emergence and evolution in agro-ecological landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaïx, Julien; Burdon, Jeremy J; Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    Remnant areas hosting natural vegetation in agricultural landscapes can impact the disease epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of crop pathogens. However, the potential consequences for crop diseases of the composition, the spatial configuration and the persistence time of the agro-ecological interface - the area where crops and remnant vegetation are in contact - have been poorly studied. Here, we develop a demographic-genetic simulation model to study how the spatial and temporal distribution of remnant wild vegetation patches embedded in an agricultural landscape can drive the emergence of a crop pathogen and its subsequent specialization on the crop host. We found that landscape structures that promoted larger pathogen populations on the wild host facilitated the emergence of a crop pathogen, but such landscape structures also reduced the potential for the pathogen population to adapt to the crop. In addition, the evolutionary trajectory of the pathogen population was determined by interactions between the factors describing the landscape structure and those describing the pathogen life histories. Our study contributes to a better understanding of how the shift of land-use patterns in agricultural landscapes might influence crop diseases to provide predictive tools to evaluate management practices. PMID:25926883

  12. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  13. The influence of modern Chinese architectural landscape landscape painting aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永伟

    2016-01-01

    the modern architecture to the spread of Chinese localization were style of architecture, this article is based on the research on localization urban landscape to explore traditional Chinese landscape painting aesthetics and the cognitive way of Chinese garden aesthetics art, through the Chinese traditional aesthetics to explore the modern people and the nature harmonious living environment, the traditional aesthetic concept of “landscape” for the development of Chinese modern city landscape, qian xuesen proposed the concept of “landscape city” and the development, purpose is to find the environment concept of Chinese national culture characteristics.

  14. Bagging Support Vector Machines for Leukemia Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokmen Zararsiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is one of the most common cancer type, and its diagnosis and classification is becoming increasingly complex and important. Here, we used a gene expression dataset and adapted bagging support vector machines (bSVM for leukemia classification. bSVM trains each SVM seperately using bootstrap technique, then aggregates the performances of each SVM by majority voting. bSVM showed accuracy between 87.5% - 92.5%, area under ROC curve between 98.0% - 99.2%, F-measure between 90.5% - 92.7% and outperformed single SVM and other classification methods. We also compared our results with other study results which used the same dataset for leukemia classification. Experimental results revealed that bSVM showed the best performance and can be used as a biomarker for the diagnose of leukemia disease.

  15. Modeling Adaptive Educational Methods with IMS Learning Design

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Marcus; Burgos, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a classification system for adaptive methods developed in the area of adaptive educational hypermedia based on four dimensions: What components of the educational system are adapted? To what features of the user and the current context does the system adapt? Why does the system adapt? How does the system get the necessary information? Based on this taxonomy several classical methods of adaptive educational hypermedia are classified. In a second step the paper gives an over...

  16. Using community archetypes to better understand differential community adaptation to wildfire risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Matthew; Paveglio, Travis

    2016-06-01

    One of the immediate challenges of wildfire management concerns threats to human safety and property in residential areas adjacent to non-cultivated vegetation. One approach for relieving this problem is to increase human community 'adaptiveness' to deal with the risk and reality of fire in a variety of landscapes. The challenge in creating 'fire-adapted communities' (FACs) is the great diversity in character and make-up of populations at risk from wildfire. This paper outlines a recently developed categorization scheme for Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) communities based on a larger conceptual approach for understanding how social diversity is likely to influence the creation of FACs. The WUI categorization scheme situates four community archetypes on a continuum that recognizes dynamic change in human community functioning. We use results from the WUI classification scheme to outline key characteristics associated with each archetype and results from recent case studies to demonstrate the diversity across WUI communities. Differences among key characteristics of local social context will likely result in the need for different adaptation strategies to wildfire. While the WUI archetypes described here may not be broadly applicable to other parts of the world, we argue that the conceptual approach and strategies for systematically documenting local influences on wildfire adaptation have potential for broad application.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216514

  17. Chapter IV: Primary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inanimate and live nature, which represent the basis of the landscape as yet not affected by man and his activities is represented in detail in this chapter. It is characterised by the series of components of the physical sphere as the permanent material basis of the remaining landscape structures. The output is the types of the primary landscape structure represented by the abiotic complexes. This chapter consists of next subchapters: (1) Geological base; (2) Surface; (3) Air; (4) Waters; (5) Soils; (6) Vegetation; (7) Fauna; (8) Types of primary landscape structure

  18. Landscape Construction in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    The idea of landscape has been recently applied to study various of biological problems. We demonstrate that a dynamical structure built into nonlinear dynamical systems allows us to construct such a global optimization landscape, which serves as the Lyapunov function for the ordinary differential equation. We find exact constructions on the landscape for a class of dynamical systems, including a van der Pol type oscillator, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, and a chaotic system. The landscape constructed provides a new angle for understanding and modelling biological network dynamics.

  19. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  20. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  1. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  2. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo;

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro......This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize...... the European university landscape according to the following dimensions: history/foundation of university, dynamics of growth, specialization pattern, subject mix, funding composition, offer profile and productivity....

  3. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee;

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  4. An Online Landscape Object Library to Support Interactive Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Chan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using landscape objects with geo-visualisation tools to create 3D virtual environments is becoming one of the most prominent communication techniques to understand landscape form, function and processes. Geo-visualisation tools can also provide useful participatory planning support systems to explore current and future environmental issues such as biodiversity loss, crop failure, competing pressures on water availability and land degradation. These issues can be addressed by understanding them in the context of their locality. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies which facilitate our work on the issues of sustainability and productivity, and ultimately support for planning and decision-making. We demonstrate an online Landscape Object Library application with a suite of geo-visualisation tools to support landscape planning. This suite includes: a GIS based Landscape Constructor tool, a modified version of a 3D game engine SIEVE (Spatial Information Exploration and Visualisation Environment and an interactive touch table display. By integrating the Landscape Object Library with this suite of geo-visualisation tools, we believe we developed a tool that can support a diversity of landscape planning activities. This is illustrated by trial case studies in biolink design, whole farm planning and renewable energy planning. We conclude the paper with an evaluation of our Landscape Object Library and the suite of geographical tools, and outline some further research directions.

  5. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M;

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  6. Classification of articulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, A

    1980-03-01

    A simple classification in familiar terms with definite, clear characteristics can be adopted. This classification system is based on the number of records used and the adjustments necessary for the articulator to accept these records. The classification divides the articulators into nonadjustable, semiadjustable, and fully adjustable articulators (Table I). PMID:6928204

  7. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  8. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  9. Landscapes Impacted by Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, B.; Roca, J.

    2016-06-01

    The gradual spread of urbanization, the phenomenon known under the term urban sprawl, has become one of the paradigms that have characterized the urban development since the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. However, there is no unanimous consensus about what means "urbanization". The plurality of forms of human settlement on the planet difficult to identify the urbanization processes. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and more meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, the paper proposes a new methodology based on the analysis of the satellite image of nighttime lights designed to identify the highly impacted landscapes worldwide and to build an index of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The used methodology allows the identification of different typologies of urbanized areas (villages, cities or metropolitan areas), as well as "rural", "rurban", "periurban" and "central" landscapes. The study identifies 186,134 illuminated contours (urbanized areas). In one hand, 404 of these contours could be consider as real "metropolitan areas"; and in the other hand, there are 161,821 contours with less than 5,000 inhabitants, which could be identify as "villages". Finally, the paper shows that 44.5 % live in rural areas, 15.5 % in rurban spaces, 26.2 % in suburban areas and only 18.4 % in central areas.

  10. Spatial pattern analysis for quantification of landscape structure of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve, Central India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambica Paliwal; Vinod Bihari Mathur

    2014-01-01

    Landscape structure is often regarded as an important factor that governs the distribution and abundance of species. Therefore it is critical to understand the landscapes and their dynamics. Patterns of landscape elements strongly influence the ecological characteristics. This study was designed to document and map the current status of the tropi-cal dry deciduous forest of the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Central India, (using IRS P6 LISS IV data) and to describe its landscape structure at three levels of organization viz. landscape, class, and patch. The study area was classified into 10 land cover classes that include 6 vegetation classes. The landscape structure was analyzed using FRAG-STATS using 12 set of indices. The TATR landscapes have a total of 2,307 patches with a mean patch size of 25.67 ha and patch density of 1.7 patches per km². Amongst all land cover classes, mixed bamboo forest is dominant-it occupied maximum area (77.99%)-while riparian forest is least represented (0.32%). Mixed forest has maximum number of patches among all vegetation classes. Results have shown that despite being dominant in the area, mixed bamboo forest has low patch density (0.25/100 ha). Dominance of mixed bamboo forest is attributed to large patch sizes and not to the number of patches. This study has focussed on the approach of integrating satellite forest classification and forest inven-tory data for studying forest landscape patterns.

  11. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  12. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  13. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  14. Adaptive Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  15. Management and development of land in the name of the Green Economy: planning, landscape, efficiency, biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    preservation of landscapes; • relationship between the wine areas with the territory and its infrastructure; • participation in the process of territorial planning with operators and administrations; • relationship between wine and landscape, adaptation to climatic deterioration, renewable energy sources and energy efficiency; • new skills and new forms to manage the vineyard Depth knowledge of the characteristics of the territory wine passes through: • wine zoning, i.e. the identification of the more suitable terroirs for a wine: study of the climate, the soil, the vines of the interactions with the environment (Chart of vocations agroforestry); • soil classification; • analysis of the ecosystems (flora and fauna, biodiversity, forest, grasslands, crops); • identification of landscapes, from the analysis of types, morphology of the urban and rural landscape, processes of contextualization, etc. (Chart of landscape values) . The results achieved so far by the Italian municipalities that have adopted them, will soon be enhanced by enlargement of the methodological lines to new issues such as accessibility in wine territory, strengthening of local participation and the presence, promotion of wine as an integral part the local food planning, development of planning practices in the process of institutional reform.

  16. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  17. Some questions about landscape modlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses mainly about the modelling process and related problems with examples from Chinese and French cases. Five practical problems must be solved for modelling the functioning of any landscape: (1) The field data are necessarily taken with a sampling procedure that implies a spatial (and often temporal) scale. (2) Every landscape modelled has to be identified, delimited and characterised before application of the hierarchical theory. (3) The functioning of a landscape involves data of multiple types (climate, soil, vegetation, fauna, buildings,communications, economy, aesthetics, etc.) which must be integrated in a holistic approach. (4) Every landscape is spatially heterogeneous, and the structure of the model must be more or less isomorphic with its heterogeneity. (5) The evolution of the landscape must be modelled on a rather long period of time. For all these reasons, it is necessary to build ad hoc models. Object-oriented computing languages may be useful for this purpose.

  18. The new landscape for nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W P

    1999-01-01

    For most of this century, society's caring functions have been the work of government and charities. But social services in the United States are in a period of transition. Today the U.S. government no longer considers nonprofits to be entitled--or even best qualified--to provide social services. Profit-seeking companies like Lockheed Martin are now winning contracts for such services. William Ryan describes how government outsourcing and a new business mind-set have changed the landscape of social services. The change raises fundamental questions about the mission and future of nonprofits. Ryan attributes the growth of for-profits in the social service industry to four factors: size, capital, mobility, and responsiveness. While those attributes give for-profits an advantage in acquiring new contracts, nonprofits have not yet lost their foothold. Ryan cites examples of organizations like the YWCA and Abraxas to demonstrate various ways that nonprofits are responding--from subcontracting to partnership to outright conversion to for-profit status. By playing in the new marketplace, nonprofits will be forced to reconfigure their operations and organizations in ways that could compromise their missions. Because nonprofits now find themselves sharing territory with for-profits, sometimes as collaborators and sometimes as competitors, the distinctions between these organizations will continue to blur. The point, Ryan argues, is not whether nonprofits can survive opposition from for-profits. Many have already adjusted to the new competitive environment. The real issue is whether nonprofits can adapt without compromising the qualities that distinguish them from for-profit organizations. PMID:10345388

  19. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  20. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  1. Landscape Planning of Forest Amelioration on Irrigated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruleva Olga Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the landscape program which supposes the formation of land use system aimed at connection of protective shelterbelts to geo-morphological watershed elements, relief, unsimilarity of agricultural territories, adapted to the dynamically balanced state of substance and energy within a landscape. Such approach favors the development of agricultural lands estimation system by means of forest amelioration. It happens due to transformation (reorganization of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of energy mass transfer. Consequently, the radiation, heat, soil, hydrophysical and hydrodynamical processes change as well. So, the area adjoining the protective forest belt is the area of determined processes, while further from the forest belt the space is open for changes of all the characteristics. While estimating lands geoecology, the agroforest landscape was considered as a modification of agricultural landscape forming and functioning under the influence of protective shelterbelts. The landscape unsimilarity of the territory should be taken into account during the optimum organization of irrigated farming. It was made by means of desiphering space photos. According to bioclimatical zonal indications, the dry steppe and desert steppe agrolandscape types have been determined. The irrigated soils of the Volgograd region are located mainly in dry steppe agroforest landscapes on dark-chestnut and chestnut soils within natural ameliorative areas of Privolzhskaya and Ergeninskaya Hills and partly in Zavolzhskaya river delta plain; in semi-desert agroforest landscapes on light-chestnut soils within Zavolzhskaya river delta plain and Sarpinskaya lowlands. The favourable hydrogeological ameliorative situation on the territory of southern Privolzhskaya Hill gives the opportunity to revive the irrigation in the Volgograd region and therefore to increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural production on a higher scientific

  2. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  3. 關於圖書分類法的修訂 Concerning the Revision of Classification System

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-chin Chen

    1999-01-01

    無For reviewing a classification scheme, we usually look in much detail at its traditional features such as detailed schedules, hospital notation, a supportive index and its adaptability. Yet another desirable feature, a good and financially secure revision programme, is a key point to the success of classification scheme. The author traces the history of revision processes of three successful classification systems (Dewey Decimal Classification, Library of Congress Classification and Universa...

  4. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) Based on Ecological Land Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Elisha Townshend; Bharat Pokharel; Art Groot; Doug Pitt; DECH, JEFFERY P.

    2015-01-01

    Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in...

  5. Connecting Managers and Scientists Through the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, G.; Schlafmann, D.

    2015-12-01

    The science-management partnership of the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative (CA LCC) works to address the landscape-scale impacts of climate change on California's ecosystems. This presentation focuses on models of successful science translation and co-production demonstrated by Point Blue Conservation Science, a member of the CA LCC. These models have all brought scientists and managers together for the common goal of integrating climate science into natural resource management decisions. These efforts include the intentional and deliberate consideration of climate change, addressing both mitigation and adaptation, referred to as Climate-Smart Conservation. These Climate-Smart Conservation efforts are strengthened through collaboratively adopting forward-looking goals and explicitly linking strategies to key climate impacts and vulnerabilities. Successes include integrating climate modeling into decision making and planning efforts, establishment of citizen science networks that inform management actions, and collaborative development of climate adaptation strategies with natural resource managers from the Sierra to the sea.

  6. Comparison of Support Vector Machine, Neural Network, and CART Algorithms for the Land-Cover Classification Using Limited Training Data Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support vector machine (SVM) was applied for land-cover characterization using MODIS time-series data. Classification performance was examined with respect to training sample size, sample variability, and landscape homogeneity (purity). The results were compared to two convention...

  7. Lanscape control on diffuse pollution : a critical review on some investigations on phosphorus – retaining landscape features

    OpenAIRE

    Dorioz, Jean Marcel; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; MEROT, Philippe; Trevisan, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This text focuses on the identification, efficiencies, classification and management of landscape features having a potential buffer function regarding diffuse phosphorus, because of their specific structure (vegetation-soil) and of their location at the interface between sources (farm infrastructures, emitting fields…) and surface water bodies. These buffers are very diverse and correspond to natural landscape features (wetlands, riparian areas…) as well as manmade structures (constructed bu...

  8. Recursive heuristic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  9. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  10. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  11. On the development of classical garden and landscape frontier today

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米耘锐

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of society, the modern landscape art design brings us not only a comfortable environment, is more of a new philosophy of life, to adapt to the modern people quick rhythm life; art frontier actually are not independent, but should be relative and people’s thinking, the development direction of people’s thinking is the art of progress the frontier.

  12. Typical land use pattern in urbanised landscape - the Capital of the Slovak Republic Bratislava; 1 : 25 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratislava is the largest urbanised agglomeration in Slovakia. Different types and forms of landscape structure alternate on a relatively small area. The mapped units were adapted to the scale used, i.e. in many cases complex units were mapped instead of analytical units. This source material is very important for many subsequent procedures used in landscape-ecological evaluation of territory. Five main groups were formed in the framework of landscape structure mapping: areas with prevailing residential function, functional and operational areas, relaxation and sacral areas, farming and forest areas and other elements. In total 36 landscape elements were identified. (authors)

  13. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply.

  14. How soil shapes the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; Finke, Peter; Vanwalleghem, Tom Tom; Stockmann, Uta; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    There has been an increase in interest in quantitative modelling of soil genesis, which can provide prediction of environmental changes through numerical models. Modelling soil formation is a difficult task because soil itself is highly complex with interactions between water, inorganic materials and organic matter. This paper will provide a review on the research efforts of modelling soil genesis, their connection with landscape models and the inexorable genesis of the IUSS soil landscape modelling working group. Quantitative modelling soil formation using mechanistic models have begun in the 1980s such as the 'soil deficit' model by Kirkby (1985), Hoosbeek & Bryant's pedodynamic model (1992), and recently the SoilGen model by Finke (2008). These profile models considered the chemical reactions and physical processes in the soil at the horizon and pedon scale. The SoilGen model is an integration of sub-models, such as water and solute movement, heat transport, soil organic matter decomposition, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, adsorption, speciation, complexation and precipitation. The model can calculate with detail the chemical changes and materials fluxes in a profile and has been successfully applied. While they can simulate soil profile development in detail, there is still a gap how the processes act in the landscape. Meanwhile research in landscape formation in geomorphology is progressing steadily over time, slope development models model have been developed since 1970s (Ahnert, 1977). Soil was also introduced in a landscape, however soil processes are mainly modelled through weathering and transport processes (Minasny & McBratney 1999, 2001). Recently, Vanwalleghem et al. (2013) are able to combine selected physical, chemical and biological processes to simulate a full 3-D soil genesis in the landscape. Now there are research gaps between the 2 approaches: the landscape modellers increasingly recognise the importance of soil and need more detailed soil

  15. Descision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  16. The power of landscape: the power of the landscape architect

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzen, Benz

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses three aspects of power. Firstly the power of landscape architects to influence projects. LA’s are often seen to be ‘at the bottom of the food chain’ when it comes to large scale development and design matters. However, my experience working with Arup International on some of the largest development projects in Europe such as Stratford City illustrates that landscape architects can have enormous power in the decision making process and the impact of development regarding l...

  17. Modeling Soil-Landscape Relations in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, N. R.; Rasmussen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques that integrate remotely sensed surface topography and reflectance, and map soil-landscape associations have the potential in improve understanding of critical zone evolution and landscape processes. The goal of this study was to understand the soil-geomorphic evolution of Quaternary alluvial and eolian deposits in the Sonoran Desert using a data-driven DSM technique and mapping of soil-landscape relationships. An iterative principal component analysis (iPCA) data reduction routine was developed and implemented for a set of LiDAR elevation- and Landsat ETM+-derived environmental covariates that characterize soil-landscape variability. Principal components that explain more than 95% of the soil-landscape variability were then integrated and classified based on an ISODATA (Iterative Self-Organizing Data) unsupervised technique. The classified map was then segmented based on a region growing algorithm and multi-scale maps of soil-landscape relations were developed, which then compared with maps of major arid-region landforms that can be identified on aerial photographs and satellite images by their distinguishing tone and texture, and in the field by their distinguishing surface and sub-surface soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The approach identified and mapped the soil-landscape variability of alluvial and eolian landscapes, and illustrated the applicability of coupling covariate selection and integration by iPCA, ISODATA classifications of integrated layers, and image segmentation for effective spatial prediction of soil-landscape characteristics. The approach developed here is data-driven, cost- and time-effective, applicable for multi-scale mapping, allows incorporation of wide variety of covariates, and provides accurate quantitative prediction of wide range of soil-landscape attributes that are necessary for hydrologic models, land and ecosystem management decisions, and hazard assessment.

  18. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmo Vianello

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  19. Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Pedroli, B.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as

  20. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  1. Classification of Itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ständer, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus has diverse forms of presentation and can appear not only on normal skin [International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) classification group II], but also in the company of dermatoses (IFSI classification group I). Scratching, a natural reflex, begins in response to itch. Enough damage can be done to the skin by scratching to cause changes in the primary clinical picture, often leading to a clinical picture predominated by the development of chronic scratch lesions (IFSI classification group III). An internationally recognized, standardized classification system was created by the IFSI to not only aid in clarifying terms and definitions, but also to harmonize the global nomenclature for itch. PMID:27578063

  2. Search on Rugged Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billinger, Stephan; Stieglitz, Nils; Schumacher, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a laboratory experiment on human decision-making in a complex combinatorial task. We find strong evidence for a behavioral model of adaptive search. Success narrows down search to the neighborhood of the status quo, while failure promotes gradually more explorative...... for local improvements too early. We derive stylized decision rules that generate the search behavior observed in the experiment and discuss the implications of our findings for individual decision-making and organizational search....

  3. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agen

  4. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P4[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes

  5. The evolving landscape of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.A. Boot; M. Marinč

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and th

  6. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  7. Impacts of Landscape Context on Patterns of Wind Downfall Damage in a Fragmented Amazonian Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Uriarte, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Gutierrez-Velez, V. H.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wind is a major disturbance in the Amazon and has both short-term impacts and lasting legacies in tropical forests. Observed patterns of damage across landscapes result from differences in wind exposure and stand characteristics, such as tree stature, species traits, successional age, and fragmentation. Wind disturbance has important consequences for biomass dynamics in Amazonian forests, and understanding the spatial distribution and size of impacts is necessary to quantify the effects on carbon dynamics. In November 2013, a mesoscale convective system was observed over the study area in Ucayali, Peru, a highly human modified and fragmented forest landscape. We mapped downfall damage associated with the storm in order to ask: how does the severity of damage vary within forest patches, and across forest patches of different sizes and successional ages? We applied spectral mixture analysis to Landsat images from 2013 and 2014 to calculate the change in non-photosynthetic vegetation fraction after the storm, and combined it with C-band SAR data from the Sentinel-1 satellite to predict downfall damage measured in 30 field plots using random forest regression. We then applied this model to map damage in forests across the study area. Using a land cover classification developed in a previous study, we mapped secondary and mature forest, and compared the severity of damage in the two. We found that damage was on average higher in secondary forests, but patterns varied spatially. This study demonstrates the utility of using multiple sources of satellite data for mapping wind disturbance, and adds to our understanding of the sources of variation in wind-related damage. Ultimately, an improved ability to map wind impacts and a better understanding of their spatial patterns can contribute to better quantification of carbon dynamics in Amazonian landscapes.

  8. Energy landscapes and rare events

    OpenAIRE

    E, Weinan; Ren, Weiqing; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Many problems in physics, material sciences, chemistry and biology can be abstractly formulated as a system that navigates over a complex energy landscape of high or infinite dimensions. Well-known examples include phase transitions of condensed matter, conformational changes of biopolymers, and chemical reactions. The energy landscape typically exhibits multiscale features, giving rise to the multiscale nature of the dynamics. This is one of the main challenges that we face in computational ...

  9. Protein evolution on rugged landscapes.

    OpenAIRE

    Macken, C A; Perelson, A S

    1989-01-01

    We analyze a mathematical model of protein evolution in which the evolutionary process is viewed as hill-climbing on a random fitness landscape. In studying the structure of such landscapes, we note that a large number of local optima exist, and we calculate the time and number of mutational changes until a protein gets trapped at a local optimum. Such a hill-climbing process may underlie the evolution of antibody molecules by somatic hypermutation.

  10. Tensor modes on the Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Westphal, Alexander; Pedro, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ (the relative power of primordial gravitational waves from inflation) over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction $r$ then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanism...

  11. Knowledge Building in Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Fetzer, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an internet-based seminar framework applicable for landscape architecture education. This process was accompanied by various aims. The basic expectation was to keep the main characteristics of landscape architecture education also in the online format. On top of that, four further objectives were anticipated: (1) training of competences for virtual team work, (2) fostering intercultural competence, (3) creation of equal opportunities for education th...

  12. Hybrid architecture: object, landscape, infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto de Freitas, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "hybrid architecture" developed in this study considers hybrid all architecture that is at once object, landscape and infrastructure. Hybrid architecture, pushed by the fact that it concentrates in a single architectural intervention a triple object-, landscape- and infrastructure-related nature, generates architectural answers with very specific features, and its study achieves following goals: 1: Clarify the term hybrid related to architectural intervention; 2: Tran...

  13. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  14. Adaptation and Coevolution on an Emergent Global Competitive Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Fellman, Philip V.; Jonathan Vos Post; Roxana Wright; Usha Dasari

    2007-01-01

    Notions of Darwinian selection have been implicit in economic theory for at least sixty years. Richard Nelson and Sidney Winter have argued that while evolutionary thinking was prevalent in prewar economics, the postwar Neoclassical school became almost entirely preoccupied with equilibrium conditions and their mathematical conditions. One of the problems with the economic interpretation of firm selection through competition has been a weak grasp on an incomplete scientific paradigm. As I.F. ...

  15. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  16. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy. Phylogenetic Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works. 1 Why phylogenetic tools in astrophysics? 1.1 History of classification The need for classifying living organisms is very ancient, and the first classification system can be dated back to the Greeks. The goal was very practical since it was intended to distinguish between eatable and toxic aliments, or kind and dangerous animals. Simple resemblance was used and has been used for centuries. Basically, until the XVIIIth...

  17. Remotely-Sensed Urban Wet-Landscapes AN Indicator of Coupled Effects of Human Impact and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This study proposes the concept of urban wet-landscapes (loosely-defined wetlands) as against dry-landscapes (mainly impervious surfaces). The study is to examine whether the dynamics of urban wet-landscapes is a sensitive indicator of the coupled effects of the two major driving forces of urban landscape change - human built-up impact and climate (precipitation) variation. Using a series of satellite images, the study was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area of the United States. A rule-based classification algorithm was developed to identify fine-scale, hidden wetlands that could not be appropriately detected based on their spectral differentiability by a traditional image classification. The spatial analyses of wetland changes were implemented at the scales of metropolitan, watershed, and sub-watershed as well as based on the size of surface water bodies in order to reveal urban wetland change trends in relation to the driving forces. The study identified that wet-landscape dynamics varied in trend and magnitude from the metropolitan, watersheds, to sub-watersheds. The study also found that increased precipitation in the region in the past decades swelled larger wetlands in particular while smaller wetlands decreased mainly due to human development activities. These findings suggest that wet-landscapes, as against the dry-landscapes, can be a more effective indicator of the coupled effects of human impact and climate change.

  18. [Dynamic changes of landscape pattern and eco-disturbance degree in Shuangtai estuary wetland of Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ai-lian; Zhu, Bo-qin; Chen, Li-ding; Wu, Yan-hua; Sun, Ran-hao

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of establishing natural reserve is to protect its natural resources from human disturbances and maintain its critical ecological service values. This paper introduced the concept of hemeroby, and by using remote sensing technology, systematically assessed the dynamic changes of landscape pattern and eco-disturbance degree in Shuangtai estuary wetland of Liaoning Province, China. Firstly, a knowledge-based expert system was used to classify the landscape into three first-level types based on eco-disturbance degree, i.e., undisturbed, partially disturbed, or completely disturbed, which were further classified into 30 second-level categories. Secondly, questionnaire and experts knowledge were adopted to determine the hemeroby index for each landscape type and to formulate a landscape classification system. Finally, the landscape classification maps and hemeroby indices were derived by using the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data acquired on 30 April 1987, 7 June 1995, 12 June 2000, and 11 October 2006. The results indicated that from 1987 to 2006, the landscape patches in the study area became more fragmented, being most obvious for reed marsh. Undisturbed landscape type decreased in area, while partially and completely disturbed types were in adverse. The overall characteristics of the spatial distribution of hemeroby index were of most variable in the areas along the river and surrounding the estuary and being the highest in the areas surrounding the city, largely due to the rapid urbanization and the blooming fishery in the study area. PMID:20707090

  19. Modern Landscape Representation of Hakka Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Hui; Gao Ruofei

    2016-01-01

    Hakka culture is a combination of ancient Chinese culture, aboriginal southern culture and hilly environment, whose influence spreads more than 80 countries and regions in the world. It is more difficult to summarize the regional landscape representation techniques of Hakka culture under the background of modern landscape. The author makes a comparative study of landscape representation techniques of the three typical Hakka landscapes, putting forward modern landscape ideas of Hakka culture i...

  20. Landscape and climate science and scenarios for Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terando, Adam; Traxler, Steve; Collazo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The Peninsular Florida Landscape Conservation Cooperative (PFLCC) is part of a network of 22 Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) that extend from Alaska to the Caribbean. LCCs are regional-applied conservation-science partnerships among Federal agencies, regional organizations, States, tribes, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private stakeholders, universities, and other entities within a geographic area. The goal of these conservation-science partnerships is to help inform managers and decision makers at a landscape scale to further the principles of adaptive management and strategic habitat conservation. A major focus for LCCs is to help conservation managers and decision makers respond to large-scale ecosystem and habitat stressors, such as climate change, habitat fragmentation, invasive species, and water scarcity. The purpose of the PFLCC is to facilitate planning, design, and implementation of conservation strategies for fish and wildlife species at the landscape level using the adaptive management framework of strategic habitat conservation—integrating planning, design, delivery, and evaluation. Florida faces a set of unique challenges when responding to regional and global stressors because of its unique ecosystems and assemblages of species, its geographic location at the crossroads of temperate and tropical climates, and its exposure to both rapid urbanization and rising sea levels as the climate warms. In response to these challenges, several landscape-scale science projects were initiated with the goal of informing decision makers about how potential changes in climate and the built environment could impact habitats and ecosystems of concern in Florida and the Southeast United States. In June 2012, the PFLCC, North Carolina State University, convened a workshop at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg to assess the results of these integrated assessments and to foster an open dialogue about

  1. Landscape structure affects specialists but not generalists in naturally fragmented grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse E D; Damschen, Ellen I; Harrison, Susan P; Grace, James B

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural habitats become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. We asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, USA, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure, defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index), had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.

  2. Using Landscape Metrics Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process to Assess Water Harvesting Potential Sites in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jordan is characterized as a “water scarce” country. Therefore, conserving ecosystem services such as water regulation and soil retention is challenging. In Jordan, rainwater harvesting has been adapted to meet those challenges. However, the spatial composition and configuration features of a target landscape are rarely considered when selecting a rainwater-harvesting site. This study aimed to introduce landscape spatial features into the schemes for selecting a proper water-harvesting site. Landscape metrics analysis was used to quantify 10 metrics for three potential landscapes (i.e., Watershed 104 (WS 104, Watershed 59 (WS 59, and Watershed 108 (WS 108 located in the Jordanian Badia region. Results of the metrics analysis showed that the three non–vegetative land cover types in the three landscapes were highly suitable for serving as rainwater harvesting sites. Furthermore, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to prioritize the fitness of the three target sites by comparing their landscape metrics. Results of AHP indicate that the non-vegetative land cover in the WS 104 landscape was the most suitable site for rainwater harvesting intervention, based on its dominance, connectivity, shape, and low degree of fragmentation. Our study advances the water harvesting network design by considering its landscape spatial pattern.

  3. Modelling metabolic evolution on phenotypic fitness landscapes: a case study on C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, David

    2015-12-01

    How did the complex metabolic systems we observe today evolve through adaptive evolution? The fitness landscape is the theoretical framework to answer this question. Since experimental data on natural fitness landscapes is scarce, computational models are a valuable tool to predict landscape topologies and evolutionary trajectories. Careful assumptions about the genetic and phenotypic features of the system under study can simplify the design of such models significantly. The analysis of C4 photosynthesis evolution provides an example for accurate predictions based on the phenotypic fitness landscape of a complex metabolic trait. The C4 pathway evolved multiple times from the ancestral C3 pathway and models predict a smooth 'Mount Fuji' landscape accordingly. The modelled phenotypic landscape implies evolutionary trajectories that agree with data on modern intermediate species, indicating that evolution can be predicted based on the phenotypic fitness landscape. Future directions will have to include structural changes of metabolic fitness landscape structure with changing environments. This will not only answer important evolutionary questions about reversibility of metabolic traits, but also suggest strategies to increase crop yields by engineering the C4 pathway into C3 plants.

  4. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  5. Musings on galaxy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification schemes and their utility are discussed with a number of examples, particularly for cD galaxies. Data suggest that primordial turbulence rather than tidal torques is responsible for most of the presently observed angular momentum of galaxies. Finally, some of the limitations on present-day schemes for galaxy classification are pointed out. 54 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  6. Land Cover Heterogeneity Effects on Sub-Pixel and Per-Pixel Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung V. Tran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Per-pixel and sub-pixel are two common classification methods in land cover studies. The characteristics of a landscape, particularly the land cover itself, can affect the accuracies of both methods. The objectives of this study were to: (1 compare the performance of sub-pixel vs. per-pixel classification methods for a broad heterogeneous region; and (2 analyze the impact of land cover heterogeneity (i.e., the number of land cover classes per pixel on both classification methods. The results demonstrated that the accuracy of both per-pixel and sub-pixel classification methods were generally reduced by increasing land cover heterogeneity. Urban areas, for example, were found to have the lowest accuracy for the per-pixel method, because they had the highest heterogeneity. Conversely, rural areas dominated by cropland and grassland had low heterogeneity and high accuracy. When a sub-pixel method was used, the producer’s accuracy for artificial surfaces was increased by more than 20%. For all other land cover classes, sub-pixel and per-pixel classification methods performed similarly. Thus, the sub-pixel classification was only advantageous for heterogeneous urban landscapes. Both creators and users of land cover datasets should be aware of the inherent landscape heterogeneity and its potential effect on map accuracy.

  7. Genomic landscape of liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Deepika; Nagata, Yasunobu; Garg, Manoj; Lee, Dhong Hyun; Sato, Aiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Sato, Yusuke; Sanada, Masashi; Mayakonda, Anand; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Doan, Ngan B; Said, Jonathan W; Mohith, S; Gunasekar, Swetha; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Myklebost, Ola; Yang, Henry; Dugas, Martin; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Silberman, Allan W; Forscher, Charles; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2015-12-15

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma accounting for 20% of all adult sarcomas. Due to absence of clinically effective treatment options in inoperable situations and resistance to chemotherapeutics, a critical need exists to identify novel therapeutic targets. We analyzed LPS genomic landscape using SNP arrays, whole exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing to uncover the genomic information for development of specific anti-cancer targets. SNP array analysis indicated known amplified genes (MDM2, CDK4, HMGA2) and important novel genes (UAP1, MIR557, LAMA4, CPM, IGF2, ERBB3, IGF1R). Carboxypeptidase M (CPM), recurrently amplified gene in well-differentiated/de-differentiated LPS was noted as a putative oncogene involved in the EGFR pathway. Notable deletions were found at chromosome 1p (RUNX3, ARID1A), chromosome 11q (ATM, CHEK1) and chromosome 13q14.2 (MIR15A, MIR16-1). Significantly and recurrently mutated genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) included PLEC (27%), MXRA5 (21%), FAT3 (24%), NF1 (20%), MDC1 (10%), TP53 (7%) and CHEK2 (6%). Further, in vitro and in vivo functional studies provided evidence for the tumor suppressor role for Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in different subtypes of LPS. Pathway analysis of recurrent mutations demonstrated signaling through MAPK, JAK-STAT, Wnt, ErbB, axon guidance, apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell cycle pathways were involved in liposarcomagenesis. Interestingly, we also found mutational and copy number heterogeneity within a primary LPS tumor signifying the importance of multi-region sequencing for cancer-genome guided therapy. In summary, these findings provide insight into the genomic complexity of LPS and highlight potential druggable pathways for targeted therapeutic approach.

  8. Classification of Landscape Functions Using SOFM Neural Network:A Case Study from Beijing and Its Peripheral Area%基于SOFM网络的景观功能分类——以北京及周边地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯喆; 吴健生; 高阳; 彭建; 宗敏丽; 王政

    2012-01-01

    景观多功能性是景观生态学研究的热点领域,需要一种既能体现景观多功能整体性,又能表征各功能间独立性的表达方法.本文以北京及其周边地区为研究区,以500m栅格为最小评价单元,使用空间化的统计数据表征物质生产功能,使用植被生物量与土壤含碳量之和表征碳汇功能,使用潜在水土流失量与实际水土流失量的差值表征土壤保持功能,使用生态系统服务功能的评估结果表征生境维持功能,使用人口空间化数据表征居住功能.在计算5种景观功能强度后,通过自组织特征映射模型将土地栅格进行聚类分析.研究结果表明:景观功能强度具有空间异质性.景观功能强度可分为以农地为优势景观,以物质生产为主要功能的农业功能区域;以农地和城市用地为优势景观,以居住和碳汇为主要功能的城市功能区域;以林草地为优势景观,以土壤保持和生境维持为主要功能的生态功能区域;以及优势景观不明显,各项功能均衡发展的过渡功能区域4类.该分类方法既可较好地表达多功能景观的功能分异和空间分异,又能为其研究土地利用和生态管理实践提供理论依据.%Landscape multifunction is a hotspot in the fields of landscape ecology. In order to explore a method which can reflect both integrity and independence of landscape multifunction, this research focuses on the clustering of landscape functions, taking Beijing and its peripheral area, China, as the study area. Five landscape function intensities, material production, carbon storage, soil retention, habitat conservation, and population support, are calculated using a variety of ecological models and indices in a grid map. Then, based on the results of landscape multi-function calculation, the study area are clustered through self-organizing feature map model. The quantitative results show that different regions turned out to have different and

  9. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In today’s highly dynamic environments, organizational leaders need to quickly adapt existing approaches to digital transformation. However, without a shared mindset between IS and business leaders, it is difficult to adopt new approaches in response to changes in the competitive and technology...... landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  10. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  11. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...

  12. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting, and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...

  13. Adaptive Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  14. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  15. National-level progress on adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnikowski, Alexandra; Ford, James; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Heymann, S. Jody

    2016-03-01

    It is increasingly evident that adaptation will figure prominently in the post-2015 United Nations climate change agreement. As adaptation obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change evolve, more rigorous approaches to measuring adaptation progress among parties will be critical. In this Letter we elaborate on an emerging area of research referred to as `adaptation tracking’, which has potential to inform development of a global adaptation monitoring framework. We evaluate this potential by presenting evidence on policy change for 41 high-income countries between 2010 and 2014. We examine whether countries that were in early stages of adaptation planning in 2010 are making progress to close adaptation gaps, and how the landscape of adaptation in these countries has evolved. In total we find an 87% increase in reported adaptation policies and measures, and evidence that implementation of concrete adaptation initiatives is growing. Reflecting on the strengths and challenges of this early methodology, we further discuss how adaptation tracking practices could guide development of a robust framework for monitoring global adaptation progress and inform future research on policy change across countries.

  16. Landscape pattern and transition under natural and anthropogenic disturbance in an arid region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Tianwei; Cai, Chongfa; Li, Chongguang; Liu, Yaojun; Bao, Yuze; Guan, Wuhong

    2016-02-01

    There is a pressing need to determine the relationships between driving variables and landscape transformations. Human activities shape landscapes and turn them into complex assemblages of highly diverse structures. Other factors, including climate and topography, also play significant roles in landscape transitions, and identifying the interactions among the variables is critical to environmental management. This study analyzed the configurations and spatial-temporal processes of landscape changes from 1998 to 2011 under different anthropogenic disturbances, identified the main variables that determine the landscape patterns and transitions, and quantified the relationships between pairs of driver sets. Landsat images of Baicheng and Tekes from 1998, 2006 and 2011 were used to classify landscapes by supervised classification. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variation partitioning were performed to identify the main driving forces and to quantify the unique, shared, and total explained variation of the sets of variables. The results indicate that the proportions of otherwise identical landscapes in Baicheng and Tekes were very different. The area of the grassland in Tekes was much larger than that of the cropland; however, the differences between the grassland and cropland in Baicheng were not as pronounced. Much of the grassland in Tekes was located in an area that was near residents, whereas most of the grassland in Baicheng was far from residents. The slope, elevation, annual precipitation, annual temperature, and distance to the nearest resident were strong driving forces influencing the patterns and transitions of the landscapes. The results of the variation partitioning indicated complex interrelationships among all of the pairs of driver sets. All of the variable sets had significant explanatory roles, most of which had both unique and shared variations with the others. The results of this study can assist policy makers and planners in implementing sustainable

  17. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  18. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were......%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. CONCLUSION: We find that the classification...

  19. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U.

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classif...

  20. Changing wind-power landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...... of turbines in the period of 1990 to 2010, based on historical and planning data. Multiple viewsheds are calculated for various thresholds of visual impact and overlaid with population and land-use data. The results show that a decrease in the number of turbines by about 40% and an increase in installed...... more stringent. One of the factors inhibiting development seems to be uncertainty in planning about the future impact on landscapes. Visual impact has rarely been an issue so far, but ever-increasing turbine size and less local involvement may change this. This paper presents a deterministic approach...

  1. Adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grossa (GMFCS Cross-cultural adaptation of the Gross Motor Function Classification System into Brazilian-Portuguese (GMFCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hiratuka

    2010-12-01

    topography of the body distribution only, Canadian researchers have proposed the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Although this classification system has been largely used in Brazil, it has not been cross culturally adapted yet. OBJECTIVES: To perform the cross adaptation of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for the Cerebral Palsy (GMFCS into Brazilian-Portuguese and to verify the reliability among observers of the adapted instrument in Brazilian children. METHODS: This study was performed in two stages; the first stage was related to the process of cross-cultural adaptation and the second stage tested the instrument. Translation, back-translation, semantic and content analysis, back-translation of the final version and the approval of the authors were used for the cross-cultural adaptation. The test of the instrument was performed in 40 children with cerebral palsy, who were evaluated by two raters to verify the reliability among the observers. RESULTS: The results showed that the stages of translation and back-translation did not present any difficulties and the semantic and conceptual equivalence was achieved. The reliability among the observers showed that the evaluations do not differ and that there is an excellent correlation and internal consistency of the construct with an ICC of 0.945 (95% CI 0.861 to 0.979 and a Cronbach a of 0.972. CONCLUSIONS: The final version of the GMFCS showed good potential of applicability for undergraduate students and professionals of the neuropediatric area.

  2. Entropy landscape of solutions in the binary perceptron problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statistical picture of the solution space for a binary perceptron is studied. The binary perceptron learns a random classification of input random patterns by a set of binary synaptic weights. The learning of this network is difficult especially when the pattern (constraint) density is close to the capacity, which is supposed to be intimately related to the structure of the solution space. The geometrical organization is elucidated by the entropy landscape from a reference configuration and of solution-pairs separated by a given Hamming distance in the solution space. We evaluate the entropy at the annealed level as well as replica symmetric level and the mean field result is confirmed by the numerical simulations on single instances using the proposed message passing algorithms. From the first landscape (a random configuration as a reference), we see clearly how the solution space shrinks as more constraints are added. From the second landscape of solution-pairs, we deduce the coexistence of clustering and freezing in the solution space. (paper)

  3. Concept and Classification of Coarse Woody Debris in Forest Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Enrong; Wang Xihua; Huang Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is generally considered as dead woody materials in various stages of decomposition,including sound and rotting logs,snags,and large branches.CWD is an important functional and structural component of forested ecosystems and plays an important role in nutrient cycling,long-term carbon storage,tree regeneration,and maintenance of heterogeneous environmental and biological diversity.However,the definition and classification of CWD have been the subject of a long debate in forest ecology.CWD has not been precisely defined.Recently,with the rapid development of landscape ecology in CWD,the USDA Forest Service and the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER)have provided a standardized definition and classification for CWD,which makes data comparison in landscape scale possible.Important characteristics of their definition include:(1) a minimum diameter (or an equivalent crosssection) of CWD≥10 cm at the widest point (the woody debris with a diameter from 1 to 10 cm should be defined as fine woody debris,and the rest is litterfall);and (2) sound and rotting logs,snags,stumps,and large branches (located above the soil),and coarse root debris (larger than 1 cm in diameter).This classification has greatly facilitated CWD studies.Therefore,it has been widely applied in some countries (particularly in North America).However,this classification has long been a source of confusion for forest ecologists in China.Furthermore,different definitions and criteria are still adopted in individual studies,which makes the interpretation and generalization of their work difficult.This article reviewed recent progress in classifying CWD,with an emphasis on introducing the classification system of the USDA Forest Service and the LTER.It is expected that this review will help facilitate the development of standardized definition and classification suitable to forest ecosystems in China.

  4. LORICA - A new model for linking landscape and soil profile evolution: Development and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Soils and landscapes evolve in tandem. Landscape position is a strong determinant of vertical soil development, which has often been formalized in the catena concept. At the same time, soil properties are strong determinants of geomorphic processes such as overland erosion, landsliding and creep. We present a new soilscape evolution model; LORICA, to study these numerous interactions between soil and landscape development. The model is based on the existing landscape evolution model LAPSUS and the soil formation model MILESD. The model includes similar soil formation processes as MILESD, but the main novelties include the consideration of more layers and the dynamic adaption of the number of layers as a function of the soil profile's heterogeneity. New processes in the landscape evolution component include a negative feedback of vegetation and armouring and particle size selectivity of the erosion-deposition process. In order to quantify these different interactions, we present a full sensitivity analysis of the input parameters. First results show that the model successfully simulates various soil-landscape interactions, leading to outputs where the surface changes in the landscape clearly depend on soil development, and soil changes depend on landscape location. Sensitivity analysis of the model confirms that soil and landscape interact: variables controlling amount and position of fine clay have the largest effect on erosion, and erosion variables control among others the amount of chemical weathering. These results show the importance of particle size distribution, and especially processes controlling the presence of finer clay particles that are easily eroded, both for the resulting landscape form as for the resulting soil profiles. Further research will have to show whether this is specific to the boundary conditions of this study or a general phenomenon.

  5. Remote Sensing Data Binary Classification Using Boosting with Simple Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowakowski Artur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Boosting is a classification method which has been proven useful in non-satellite image processing while it is still new to satellite remote sensing. It is a meta-algorithm, which builds a strong classifier from many weak ones in iterative way. We adapt the AdaBoost.M1 boosting algorithm in a new land cover classification scenario based on utilization of very simple threshold classifiers employing spectral and contextual information. Thresholds for the classifiers are automatically calculated adaptively to data statistics.

  6. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... process in March 2012 (77 FR 5379). When verified by a futures classification, Smith-Doxey data serves as... Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known...

  7. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station

  8. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  9. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition......, a good metric is required to measure distance or similarity between feature points so that the classification becomes feasible. Furthermore, in order to build a successful classifier, one needs to deeply understand how classifiers work. This thesis focuses on these three aspects of classification...... and explores these challenging areas. The first focus of the thesis is to properly combine different local feature experts and prior information to design an effective classifier. The preliminary classification results, provided by the experts, are fused in order to develop an automatic segmentation method...

  10. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  11. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  12. Classification of Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Thorpy

    2012-01-01

    The classification of sleep disorders is necessary to discriminate between disorders and to facilitate an understanding of symptoms, etiology, and pathophysiology that allows for appropriate treatment. The earliest classification systems, largely organized according to major symptoms (insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and abnormal events that occur during sleep), were unable to be based on pathophysiology because the cause of most sleep disorders was unknown. These 3 symptom-based categories ar...

  13. Inhibition in multiclass classification

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Ramón; Vembu, Shankar; Amigó, José M.; Nowotny, Thomas; Elkan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The role of inhibition is investigated in a multiclass support vector machine formalism inspired by the brain structure of insects. The so-called mushroom bodies have a set of output neurons, or classification functions, that compete with each other to encode a particular input. Strongly active output neurons depress or inhibit the remaining outputs without knowing which is correct or incorrect. Accordingly, we propose to use a classification function that embodies unselective inhibition and ...

  14. Classification of Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Johan; Linder, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In a comparing survey this thesis investigates classification systems for dams in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Switzerland, Canada and USA. The investigation is aiming at an understanding of how potential consequences of a dam failure are taken into account when classifying dams. Furthermore, the significance of the classification, regarding the requirements on the dam owner and surveillance authorities concerning dam safety is considered and reviewed. The thesis is pointing out similarities and ...

  15. Accelerated weight histogram method for exploring free energy landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindahl, Viveca; Hess, Berk

    2014-01-01

    Calculating free energies is an important and notoriously difficult task for molecular simulations. The rapid increase in computational power has made it possible to probe increasingly complex systems, yet extracting accurate free energies from these simulations remains a major challenge. Fully exploring the free energy landscape of, say, a biological macromolecule typically requires sampling large conformational changes and slow transitions. Often, the only feasible way to study such a system is to simulate it using an enhanced sampling method. The accelerated weight histogram (AWH) method is a new, efficient extended ensemble sampling technique which adaptively biases the simulation to promote exploration of the free energy landscape. The AWH method uses a probability weight histogram which allows for efficient free energy updates and results in an easy discretization procedure. A major advantage of the method is its general formulation, making it a powerful platform for developing further extensions and an...

  16. Conceptual domain of the matrix in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Banks, Sam C; Barton, Philip S; Lindenmayer, David B; Smith, Annabel L

    2013-10-01

    In extensively modified landscapes, how the matrix is managed determines many conservation outcomes. Recent publications revise popular conceptions of a homogeneous and static matrix, yet we still lack an adequate conceptual model of the matrix. Here, we identify three core effects that influence patch-dependent species, through impacts associated with movement and dispersal, resource availability, and the abiotic environment. These core effects are modified by five 'dimensions': spatial and temporal variation in matrix quality; spatial scale; temporal scale of matrix variation; and adaptation. The conceptual domain of the matrix, defined as three core effects and their interaction with these five dimensions, provides a much-needed framework to underpin management of fragmented landscapes and highlights new research priorities. PMID:23883740

  17. Landscape Atlas of the Slovak Republic. CD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atlas on the CD-ROM is being published as the electronic book and is the exact copy of the printed version in the PDF format. The bilingual version (Slovak and English) makes the Atlas accessible to the majority of the national and foreign users. Landscape Atlas of the Slovak Republic brings comprehensive information applicable in the state administration, scientific institutions, educational sphere, research centres, as well as the designing and planning organisations. Landscape Atlas of the Slovak Republic - CD version consists of ten chapters: Chapter I: Landscape and its representation; Chapter II: Development of settlement and map representation; Chapter III: Situation; Chapter IV: Primary landscape structure; Chapter V: Secondary landscape structure; Chapter VI: Population and its activities in landscape; Chapter VII: Natural-settlement regions; Chapter VIII: Protected areas and natural resources; Chapter IX: Stress phenomena in landscape; Chapter X: Landscape as the human environment. Files with the Foreword, Introduction, Contents, List of authors as well as editors pages are included

  18. LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE AS AN OBJECT OF SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramova, E.I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses linguistic landscape as an object of study in sociolinguistics. The investigation deals with different approaches to the definition of linguistic landscape. The author specifies its functions, subjects and structural elements.

  19. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  20. Hierarchical classification of social groups

    OpenAIRE

    Витковская, Мария

    2001-01-01

    Classification problems are important for every science, and for sociology as well. Social phenomena, examined from the aspect of classification of social groups, can be examined deeper. At present one common classification of groups does not exist. This article offers the hierarchical classification of social group.

  1. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION IN RURAL CHINA: THEORY AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Du-ning

    2001-01-01

    [1]FORMAN R T T, 1995. Land Mosaics. The Ecology of Landscape and Region[ M ]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,12-116.[2]FU Bo-jie et al., 1998. Impacts of land use structure on soil nutrient distribution on the Loess hill region[J] . Chinese Science Bulletin, 43 (22): 2444-2448. (in Chinese)[3]JING Gui-he, 1991a. The landscape ecological reconstruction in some degraded land in northeastern China[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 46(1): 8-15. (in Chinese)[4]JING Gui-he, 1991 b. Landscape Ecological Construction of Sand Land in the Middle-western Jilin Province [M] . Changchun:Northeast Normal University Press. (in Chinese)[5]LI Yu-shan, 1997. Progress of the study on soil and water conservation in the Loess Plateau[J] . Bulletin of National Natural Science Foundation of China, 11(3): 190-194. (in Chinese)[6]MA Shi-jun, WANG Ru-song, 1984. Compound ecosystem of society, economic and nature[J] . Acta Ecologica Sinica, 4(1): 1-9. (in Chinese)[7]MADS Korn M, 1996. The dike-pond concept: sustainable agriculture and nutrient recycling in China[J] . Ambio., 25(1): 6-13.[8]ODUM H T, 1982. System Ecology[M]. New York: John Wiley.[9]XIAO Du-ning, 1997. Ecological environment assessment for the“Sanbei” shelter-forest project[J] . Science & Technology Review, (8): 403-412. (in Chinese)[10]XIAO Du-ning, LI Xiu-zhen, 1997. Development and prospect of contemporary landscape ecology[J]. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 17(4): 356-374. (in Chinese)[11]XIAO Du-ning , ZHONG Lin-sheng, 1998. Ecological principles of landscape classification and assessment[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 9(2): 127-221 (in Chinese)[12]YIN Cheng-qing, 1993. A multi-pond system as a protective zone for the management of lakes in China[J]. Hydrobiologia,251:321-329.[13]YU Kong-jian 1996. Security patterns and surface model in landscape ecological planning[J] . Landscape and Urban Planning, 36: 1-17.[14]ZHONG Gong-pu, WANG Zeng-qi, CAI Guo

  2. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ChunLan

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation, evolution and char-acteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject, including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies, its con-notation and denotation, the research scope, research background and significance, research meth-odology, its relationship with landscape architecture, architecture, city planning and other disciplines.

  3. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation,evolution and characteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject,including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies,its connotation and denotation,the research scope,research background and significance,research methodology,its relationship with landscape architecture,architecture,city planning and other disciplines.

  4. Modeling Climate Change Impacts on Landscape Evolution, Fire, and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, B. S.; O Connor, C.; Falk, D. A.; Garfin, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscape disturbances such as wildfire interact with climate variability to influence hydrologic regimes. We coupled landscape, fire, and hydrologic models and forced them using projected climate to demonstrate climate change impacts anticipated at Fort Huachuca in southeastern Arizona, USA. The US Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes climate change as a trend that has implications for military installations, national security and global instability. The goal of this DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project (RC-2232) is to provide decision making tools for military installations in the southwestern US to help them adapt to the operational realities associated with climate change. For this study we coupled the spatially explicit fire and vegetation dynamics model FireBGCv2 with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) to evaluate landscape vegetation change, fire disturbance, and surface runoff in response to projected climate forcing. A projected climate stream for the years 2005-2055 was developed from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) 4 km statistical downscaling of the CanESM2 GCM using Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. AGWA, an ArcGIS add-in tool, was used to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the KINematic runoff and EROSion2 (KINEROS2) models based on GIS layers. Landscape raster data generated by FireBGCv2 project an increase in fire and drought associated tree mortality and a decrease in vegetative basal area over the years of simulation. Preliminary results from SWAT modeling efforts show an increase to surface runoff during years following a fire, and for future winter rainy seasons. Initial results from KINEROS2 model runs show that peak runoff rates are expected to increase 10-100 fold as a result of intense rainfall falling on burned areas.

  5. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and ...

  6. Ecological Networks in Urban Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature preserves this

  7. Landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Sofie Vej; Egholm, D.L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified for bedrock abrasion because rock debris transported in the basal ice drives the erosion. However, a simple relation between rates...

  8. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  9. Axion landscape and natural inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro, E-mail: thigaki@post.kek.jp [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-05-11

    Multiple axions form a landscape in the presence of various shift symmetry breaking terms. Eternal inflation populates the axion landscape, continuously creating new universes by bubble nucleation. Slow-roll inflation takes place after the tunneling event, if a very flat direction with a super-Planckian decay constant arises due to the alignment mechanism. We study the vacuum structure as well as possible inflationary dynamics in the axion landscape scenario, and find that the inflaton dynamics is given by either natural or multi-natural inflation. In the limit of large decay constant, it is approximated by the quadratic chaotic inflation, which however is disfavored if there is a pressure toward shorter duration of inflation. Therefore, if the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio turn out to be different from the quadratic chaotic inflation, there might be observable traces of the bubble nucleation. Also, the existence of small modulations to the inflaton potential is a common feature in the axion landscape, which generates a sizable and almost constant running of the scalar spectral index over CMB scales. Non-Gaussianity of equilateral type can also be generated if some of the axions are coupled to massless gauge fields.

  10. Axion landscape and natural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple axions form a landscape in the presence of various shift symmetry breaking terms. Eternal inflation populates the axion landscape, continuously creating new universes by bubble nucleation. Slow-roll inflation takes place after the tunneling event, if a very flat direction with a super-Planckian decay constant arises due to the alignment mechanism. We study the vacuum structure as well as possible inflationary dynamics in the axion landscape scenario, and find that the inflaton dynamics is given by either natural or multi-natural inflation. In the limit of large decay constant, it is approximated by the quadratic chaotic inflation, which however is disfavored if there is a pressure toward shorter duration of inflation. Therefore, if the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio turn out to be different from the quadratic chaotic inflation, there might be observable traces of the bubble nucleation. Also, the existence of small modulations to the inflaton potential is a common feature in the axion landscape, which generates a sizable and almost constant running of the scalar spectral index over CMB scales. Non-Gaussianity of equilateral type can also be generated if some of the axions are coupled to massless gauge fields

  11. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  12. Adaptation dynamics of the quasispecies model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kavita Jain

    2008-08-01

    We study the adaptation dynamics of an initially maladapted population evolving via the elementary processes of mutation and selection. The evolution occurs on rugged fitness landscapes which are defined on the multi-dimensional genotypic space and have many local peaks separated by low fitness valleys. We mainly focus on the Eigen’s model that describes the deterministic dynamics of an infinite number of self-replicating molecules. In the stationary state, for small mutation rates such a population forms a quasispecies which consists of the fittest genotype and its closely related mutants. The quasispecies dynamics on rugged fitness landscape follow a punctuated (or step-like) pattern in which a population jumps from a low fitness peak to a higher one, stays there for a considerable time before shifting the peak again and eventually reaches the global maximum of the fitness landscape. We calculate exactly several properties of this dynamical process within a simplified version of the quasispecies model.

  13. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  14. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  15. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.;

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains...

  16. Thoughts concerning the economic valuation of landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Peter V

    2008-11-01

    The incorporation of economic thinking into the valuation of landscapes is still relatively new. It is an approach that yields valuable new insights and can help with prioritizing the use of scarce resources to improve and/or preserve landscapes. This paper explores and discusses the uses and limitations of economic valuation of landscapes from market failure, policy process, and theoretical and philosophical perspectives.

  17. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply. PMID:26311086

  18. Product Classification in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lihong; Xu, Yaoxuan

    2010-01-01

    Oriflame is a famous international direct sale cosmetics company with complicated supply chain operation but it lacks of a product classification system. It is vital to design a product classification method in order to support Oriflame global supply planning and improve the supply chain performance. This article is aim to investigate and design the multi-criteria of product classification, propose the classification model, suggest application areas of product classification results and intro...

  19. 'Seasons in the Sun’, A Colorful New Little Bluestem for Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizachyrium scoparium, little bluestem, is a warm-season perennial grass native to much of North America. This drought-tolerant plant is tough and adaptable. It is becoming more popular in landscaping due to its low maintenance and attractive foliage, as well as increasing interest in using native...

  20. From Co-Management to Landscape Governance: Whither Ghana’s Modified Taungya System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam A. F. Ros-Tonen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management literature has documented three paradigm shifts over the past decade: from co-management to adaptive co-management and adaptive governance respectively and, more recently, towards landscape governance. The latter is conceived as a governance approach towards negotiated land use at the landscape level to deal with global challenges such as food insecurity, climate change and biodiversity loss. There is not a lot of clarity about how co-management systems could actually evolve into landscape governance. This paper aims to address the gap by exploring how a stalled co-management system for the reforestation of degraded forest areas—the modified taungya system (MTS in Ghana—could be revitalised and redesigned as a landscape approach. Drawing on case studies and expert consultation, the performance of the national MTS and the MTS under the Community Forestry Management Project is reviewed with regard to five principles (integrated approach, multi-stakeholder negotiation, polycentric governance, continual learning and adaptive capacity and three enabling conditions (social capital, bridging organisations and long-term funding distilled from the literature. The authors conclude that some of these principles and conditions were met under the Community Forestry Management Project, but that continual learning, transcending jurisdictional boundaries, developing adaptive capacity, and long-term funding and benefits still pose challenges.

  1. The interpretations and uses of fitness landscapes in the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Gerrits (Lasse); P.K. Marks (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This working paper precedes our full article entitled “The evolution of Wright’s (1932) adaptive field to contemporary interpretations and uses of fitness landscapes in the social sciences” as published in the journal Biology & Philosophy (http://link.springer.com/artic

  2. Adaptation to elevated CO2 in different biodiversity contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, Elizabeth J.; Otto, Sarah P.; Reich, Peter B.; Vellend, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of migration, species persistence depends on adaption to a changing environment, but whether and how adaptation to global change is altered by community diversity is not understood. Community diversity may prevent, enhance or alter how species adapt to changing conditions by influencing population sizes, genetic diversity and/or the fitness landscape experienced by focal species. We tested the impact of community diversity on adaptation by performing a reciprocal transplant experiment on grasses that evolved for 14 years under ambient and elevated CO2, in communities of low or high species richness. Using biomass as a fitness proxy, we find evidence for local adaptation to elevated CO2, but only for plants assayed in a community of similar diversity to the one experienced during the period of selection. Our results indicate that the biological community shapes the very nature of the fitness landscape within which species evolve in response to elevated CO2. PMID:27510545

  3. Landscape Builder: Software for the creation of initial landscapes for LANDIS from FIA data

    OpenAIRE

    William Dijak

    2013-01-01

    I developed Landscape Builder to create spatially explicit landscapes as starting conditions for LANDIS Pro 7.0 and LANDIS II landscape forest simulation models from classified satellite imagery and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data collected over multiple years. LANDIS Pro and LANDIS II models project future landscapes by simulating tree growth, tree species succession, disease, insects, fire, wind, and management disturbance. Landscape Builder uses inventory plot attributes from the ...

  4. Landscape and landscape ecology as factors in the process of integrated spatial management

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    During the last years, the landscape definition related to the European Landscape Convention has been more and more recognized among scientists and planners dealing with different aspects of landscapes. Sometimes the definition has been abbreviated to the sentence: ‘ an area, as perceived by people', see, e.g. (Olwig 2005), thus focusing on the mental construction of the landscape concept. Indeed, this perceptional aspect is also crucial to understand the ongoing mental battles on landscape i...

  5. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  6. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  7. Landscape Dynamics on the Island of La Gonave, Haiti, 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Kennedy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The island of La Gonave lies northwest of Port-au-Prince and is representative of the subsistence Haitian lifestyle. Little is known about the land cover changes and conversion rates on La Gonave. Using Landsat images from 1990 to 2010, this research investigates landscape dynamics through image classification, change detection, and landscape pattern analysis. Five land cover classes were considered: Agriculture, Forest/Dense Vegetation (DV, Shrub, Barren/Eroded, and Nonforested Wetlands. Overall image classification accuracy was 87%. Results of land cover change analysis show that all major land cover types experienced substantial changes from 1990 to 2010. The area percent change was −39.7, −22.7, 87.4, and −7.0 for Agriculture, Forest/Dense Vegetation, Shrub, and Barren/Eroded. Landscape pattern analysis illustrated the encroachment of Shrub cover in core Forest/DV patches and the decline of Agricultural patch integrity. Agricultural abandonment, deforestation, and forest regrowth combined to generate a dynamic island landscape, resulting in higher levels of land cover fragmentation.

  8. Comments of the further development of the International Classification of Pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest version of the international classification of pneumoconiosis by the International Labour Office (ILO) in Geneva is presented, i.e. the ILO 1980 International Classification of X-Ray Findings in Pneumoconioses , and is tabulated in detail. In connection with the specified modifications of the previous classification (ILO U/C 1971) initial critical assessments are made with particular reference also to the adaptation to conditions prevailing specifically in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  9. AN ILLUSTRATIVE STUDY ON LOCAL LANDSCAPE AND ITS LONG-TERM CHANGES BASED ON IKONOS AND HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Ren-zong; Erle C ELLIS

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the research works on landscape at fine scales using high-resolution images are uncommon.This research is based on the analysis of the combination of remote sensing data (IKONOS imagery acquired in 2002and historical aerial photo taken in 1942). In the paper, the ecotopes in Qiujiadou and Xishao villages in Yixing City of Jiangsu Province in 1942 and 2002 were compared and landscape changes as well as the causes of the considerable changes were analyzed. It was found that the ecotope changes were at greater level in some aspects such as water surface and perennial vegetation coverage etc. This study at fine scale is globally significant for the rural areas, especially for the subsistence agricultural land, which occupies larger percentage in the earth. And it analyzes the structure of landscape based on a new landscape classification system-stratifications method.

  10. Localization on the landscape and eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the validity of the assertion that eternal inflation populates the landscape of string theory. We verify that bubble solutions do not satisfy the Klein–Gordon equation for the landscape potential. Solutions to the landscape potential within the formalism of quantum cosmology are Anderson localized wavefunctions. These are inconsistent with inflating bubble solutions. The physical reasons behind the failure of a relation between eternal inflation and the landscape are rooted in quantum phenomena such as interference between wavefunction concentrated around the various vacua in the landscape. (paper)

  11. Localization on the landscape and eternal inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the validity of the assertion that eternal inflation populates the landscape of string theory. We verify that bubble solutions do not satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation for the landscape potential. Solutions to the landscape potential within the formalism of quantum cosmology are Anderson localized wavefunctions. These are inconsistent with inflating bubble solutions. The physical reasons behind the failure of a relation between eternal inflation and the landscape are rooted in quantum phenomena such as interference between wavefunction concentrated around the various vacua in the landscape.

  12. Localization on the Landscape and Eternal Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assertion that eternal inflation populates the landscape of string theory. We verify that bubble solutions do not satisfy the Klein Gordon equation for the landscape potential. Solutions to the landscape potential within the formalism of quantum cosmology are Anderson localized wavefunctions. Those are inconsistent with inflating bubble solutions. The physical reasons behind the failure of a relation between eternal inflation and the landscape are rooted in quantum phenomena such as interference between wavefunction concentrated around the various vacua in the landscape.

  13. Denmark seen from above: communicating landscape change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Hansen, Mette Dahl; Dupont, Henrik;

    One fundamental task for landscape ecologists is to create a public awareness about the on-going structural changes in the landscape. It is widely accepted academically that biodiversity and landscape connectivity has suffered because of intensification and structural development of agricultural....... Especially the possibility to view the change of the local landscape in the neighbourhood presents a good starting point for discussions and critical reflection of the changes taking place in the landscape, which are the point of reference for people in their understanding of their environment. In order...

  14. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Although working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the trends at the other big modern specialized holdings. A historical tradition for access to the manorial landscape as an integrated part of the pre-capitalist way of landscape management at the manorial estates might play a certain role, but it is anticipated that this is being of less importance than...

  15. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Allthough working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the trends at the other big modern specialized holdings. A historical tradition for access to the manorial landscape as an integrated part of the pre-capitalist way of landscape management at the manorial estates might play a certain role, but it is anticipated that this is being of less importance than...

  16. Evaluation of Multi-level Social Learning for Sustainable Landscapes: Perspective of a Development Initiative in Bergslagen, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Robert; Angelstam, Per; Myhrman, Lennart; Sädbom, Stefan; Ivarsson, Milis; Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kenneth; Cupa, Petr; Diry, Christian; Doyon, Frederik; Drotz, Marcus; Hjorth, Arne; Hermansson, Jan Olof; Kullberg, Thomas; Lickers, F. Henry

    2013-01-01

    To implement policies about sustainable landscapes and rural development necessitates social learning about states and trends of sustainability indicators, norms that define sustainability, and adaptive multi-level governance. We evaluate the extent to which social learning at multiple governance levels for sustainable landscapes occur in 18 local development initiatives in the network of Sustainable Bergslagen in Sweden. We mapped activities over time, and interviewed key actors in the netwo...

  17. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; van der Horst, Dan; Schleyer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape...... research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1) that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach...... to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2) that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3) that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus...

  18. Texture classification based on EMD and FFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Chang-zhen; XU Jun-yi; ZOU Jian-cheng; QI Dong-xu

    2006-01-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an adaptive and approximately orthogonal filtering process that reflects human's visual mechanism of differentiating textures. In this paper, we present a modified 2D EMD algorithm using the FastRBF and an appropriate number of iterations in the shifting process (SP), then apply it to texture classification. Rotation-invariant texture feature vectors are extracted using auto-registration and circular regions of magnitude spectra of 2D fast Fourier transform(FFT). In the experiments, we employ a Bayesion classifier to classify a set of 15 distinct natural textures selected from the Brodatz album. The experimental results, based on different testing datasets for images with different orientations, show the effectiveness of the proposed classification scheme.

  19. Lagrangian Methods Of Cosmic Web Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, J D; Johnson, M S T

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic web defines the large scale distribution of matter we see in the Universe today. Classifying the cosmic web into voids, sheets, filaments and nodes allows one to explore structure formation and the role environmental factors have on halo and galaxy properties. While existing studies of cosmic web classification concentrate on grid based methods, this work explores a Lagrangian approach where the V-web algorithm proposed by Hoffman et al. (2012) is implemented with techniques borrowed from smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The Lagrangian approach allows one to classify individual objects (e.g. particles or halos) based on properties of their nearest neighbours in an adaptive manner. It can be applied directly to a halo sample which dramatically reduces computational cost and potentially allows an application of this classification scheme to observed galaxy samples. Finally, the Lagrangian nature admits a straight forward inclusion of the Hubble flow negating the necessity of a visually defined thresh...

  20. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  1. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... support for the view that a natural classification should be based on a theory (and, of course, that the most fruitful theory provides the most fruitful classification). Nevertheless, atheoretical (or “descriptive”) classifications are often produced. Paradoxically, atheoretical classifications may...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...

  2. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between....... Descriptors, range of quality levels, number of quality classes, class intervals, denotations and descriptions vary across Europe. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of experience about constructions fulfilling different classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  3. Bosniak Classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Bosniak classification is a diagnostic tool for the differentiation of cystic changes in the kidney. The process of categorizing renal cysts may be challenging, involving a series of decisions that may affect the final diagnosis and clinical outcome such as surgical management....... Purpose: To investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement among experienced uroradiologists when categorizing complex renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. Material and Methods: The original categories of 100 cystic renal masses were chosen as “Gold Standard” (GS), established...... to the calculated weighted κ all readers performed “very good” for both inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Most variation was seen in cysts catagorized as Bosniak II, IIF, and III. These results show that radiologists who evaluate complex renal cysts routinely may apply the Bosniak classification...

  4. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bosniak classification was originally based on computed tomographic (CT) findings. Magnetic resonance (MR) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging may demonstrate findings that are not depicted at CT, and there may not always be a clear correlation between the findings...... at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...

  5. Classification problem in CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Jaworska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present a great deal of research is being done in different aspects of Content-Based Im-age Retrieval (CBIR. Image classification is one of the most important tasks in image re-trieval that must be dealt with. The primary issue we have addressed is: how can the fuzzy set theory be used to handle crisp image data. We propose fuzzy rule-based classification of image objects. To achieve this goal we have built fuzzy rule-based classifiers for crisp data. In this paper we present the results of fuzzy rule-based classification in our CBIR. Further-more, these results are used to construct a search engine taking into account data mining.

  6. Vertebral fracture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF CRYOSOLS: SIGNIFICANCE,ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; GONG Zi-tong; CHEN Zhi-cheng; TAN Man-zhi

    2003-01-01

    International concerns about the effects of global change on permafrost-affected soils and responses of permafrost terrestrial landscapes to such change have been increasing in the last two decades. To achieve a variety of goals including the determining of soil carbon stocks and dynamics in the Northern Hemisphere, the understanding of soil degradation and the best ways to protect the fragile ecosystems in permafrost environment, further study development on Cryosol classification is being in great demand. In this paper the existing Cryosol classifications contained in three representative soil taxonomies are introduced, and the problems in the practical application of the defining criteria used for category differentiation in these taxonomic systems are discussed. Meanwhile, the resumption and reconstruction of Chinese Cryosol classification within a taxonomic frame is proposed. In dealing with Cryosol classification the advantages that Chinese pedologists have and the challenges that they have to face are analyzed. Finally, several suggestions on the study development of the further taxonomic frame of Cryosol classification are put forward.

  8. A Multi-Label Classification Approach Based on Correlations Among Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alazaidah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi label classification is concerned with learning from a set of instances that are associated with a set of labels, that is, an instance could be associated with multiple labels at the same time. This task occurs frequently in application areas like text categorization, multimedia classification, bioinformatics, protein function classification and semantic scene classification. Current multi-label classification methods could be divided into two categories. The first is called problem transformation methods, which transform multi-label classification problem into single label classification problem, and then apply any single label classifier to solve the problem. The second category is called algorithm adaptation methods, which adapt an existing single label classification algorithm to handle multi-label data. In this paper, we propose a multi-label classification approach based on correlations among labels that use both problem transformation methods and algorithm adaptation methods. The approach begins with transforming multi-label dataset into a single label dataset using least frequent label criteria, and then applies the PART algorithm on the transformed dataset. The output of the approach is multi-labels rules. The approach also tries to get benefit from positive correlations among labels using predictive Apriori algorithm. The proposed approach has been evaluated using two multi-label datasets named (Emotions and Yeast and three evaluation measures (Accuracy, Hamming Loss, and Harmonic Mean. The experiments showed that the proposed approach has a fair accuracy in comparison to other related methods.

  9. Classification problem in CBIR

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Jaworska

    2013-01-01

    At present a great deal of research is being done in different aspects of Content-Based Im-age Retrieval (CBIR). Image classification is one of the most important tasks in image re-trieval that must be dealt with. The primary issue we have addressed is: how can the fuzzy set theory be used to handle crisp image data. We propose fuzzy rule-based classification of image objects. To achieve this goal we have built fuzzy rule-based classifiers for crisp data. In this paper we present the results ...

  10. Classification des rongeurs

    OpenAIRE

    Mignon, Jacques; Hardouin, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Les lecteurs du Bulletin BEDIM semblent parfois avoir des difficultés avec la classification scientifique des animaux connus comme "rongeurs" dans le langage courant. Vu les querelles existant encore aujourd'hui dans la mise en place de cette classification, nous ne nous en étonnerons guère. La brève synthèse qui suit concerne les animaux faisant ou susceptibles de faire partie du mini-élevage. The note aims at providing the main characteristics of the principal families of rodents relevan...

  11. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... of descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  12. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  13. Classification of syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhorat, T H

    2000-01-01

    Syringomyelia poses special challenges for the clinician because of its complex symptomatology, uncertain pathogenesis, and multiple options of treatment. The purpose of this study was to classify intramedullary cavities according to their most salient pathological and clinical features. Pathological findings obtained in 175 individuals with tubular cavitations of the spinal cord were correlated with clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a database of 927 patients. A classification system was developed in which the morbid anatomy, cause, and pathogenesis of these lesions are emphasized. The use of a disease-based classification of syringomyelia facilitates diagnosis and the interpretation of MR imaging findings and provides a guide to treatment. PMID:16676921

  14. Designer landscapes for sustainable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Levang, Patrice; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2009-08-01

    Oil palm is one of the most extensively cultivated biodiesel feedstocks worldwide, and expansion of its cultivation poses a significant threat to ecosystems, biodiversity and potentially the global climate. We evaluate the prospects of land sparing and wildlife-friendly farming, two contrasting approaches for reducing the impacts of oil palm agriculture. We draw on concepts from both approaches to suggest more sustainable production systems and argue that landscapes under threat from oil palm expansion need to be designed in recognition of biodiversity, economic and livelihood needs. Specifically, we advocate agroforestry zones between high conservation value areas and intensive oil palm plantations to create a more heterogeneous landscape benefiting both biodiversity and rural communities. Similar principles could apply to biofuel systems elsewhere.

  15. A Landscape of Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep

    2015-01-01

    Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2,0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.

  16. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  17. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  18. Adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  19. Algorithms for adaptive nonlinear pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Hayden, Eric; Key, Gary

    2011-09-01

    In Bayesian pattern recognition research, static classifiers have featured prominently in the literature. A static classifier is essentially based on a static model of input statistics, thereby assuming input ergodicity that is not realistic in practice. Classical Bayesian approaches attempt to circumvent the limitations of static classifiers, which can include brittleness and narrow coverage, by training extensively on a data set that is assumed to cover more than the subtense of expected input. Such assumptions are not realistic for more complex pattern classification tasks, for example, object detection using pattern classification applied to the output of computer vision filters. In contrast, we have developed a two step process, that can render the majority of static classifiers adaptive, such that the tracking of input nonergodicities is supported. Firstly, we developed operations that dynamically insert (or resp. delete) training patterns into (resp. from) the classifier's pattern database, without requiring that the classifier's internal representation of its training database be completely recomputed. Secondly, we developed and applied a pattern replacement algorithm that uses the aforementioned pattern insertion/deletion operations. This algorithm is designed to optimize the pattern database for a given set of performance measures, thereby supporting closed-loop, performance-directed optimization. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the efficient computation of adaptive linear and nonlinear pattern recognition operators that use our pattern insertion/deletion technology - in particular, tabular nearest-neighbor encoding (TNE) and lattice associative memories (LAMs). Of particular interest is the classification of nonergodic datastreams that have noise corruption with time-varying statistics. The TNE and LAM based classifiers discussed herein have been successfully applied to the computation of object classification in hyperspectral

  20. How wind power landscapes change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Following 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind energy landscapes are going to face changes. Ceased on-shore construction, unresolved re-powering and stalled regional planning characterize the situation overshadowed by off-shore development. One of the factors inhibiting development...... in general. However, the pattern of visibility will become askew, and the present homogenous distribution of visibility will disappear. This skewness, together with changing ownership and receding local involvement, could eventually lead to lower popular acceptance of wind power....