Sample records for adaptive full-spectrum solar


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood


    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs


    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. (1) TRNSYS Modeling of a Hybrid Lighting System: Building Energy Loads and Chromaticity Analysis; (2) High Lumens Screening Test Setup for Optical Fibers; (3) Photo-Induced Heating in Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles; (4) Low-Cost Primary Mirror Development; (5) Potential Applications for Hybrid Solar Lighting; (6) Photobioreactor Population Experiments and Productivity Measurements; and (7) Development of a Microalgal CO2-Biofixation Photobioreactor.

  3. Adaptive Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems Cross-Cutting R&D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Byard; Kim, Kwang


    This RD&D project is a multi-institutional effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae for CO{sub 2} sequestration or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the major achievements from this research that began in August 2001.

  4. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Cross-Cutting R & D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood; David L. Beshears


    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations: Niche applications for HSL technology, Luminaire design characteristics for linear and point lighting fixtures, and Daylight affects on productivity.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs


    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes eleven investigations on various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm the technical feasibility of this technology.

  6. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre


    Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish


    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...

  7. Building Adaptive Nurse Leaders for Future Army Full Spectrum Operations (United States)


    influence.”29 Dr. Charles Albano (2007) addressed adaptive leadership by comparing it to mechanical systems. He explained that adaptive leadership is... leaders-business-heifetz.pdf (accessed 24 November 2008), 2. 29Dr. Charles Albano , “What is Adaptive...2008) Albano , Dr. Charles. “What is Adaptive Leadership?” 22 April 2007. Army News Service

  8. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation. (United States)

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong


    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion.

  9. The full spectrum of climate change adaptation: testing an analytical framework in Tyrolean mountain agriculture (Austria). (United States)

    Grüneis, Heidelinde; Penker, Marianne; Höferl, Karl-Michael


    Our scientific view on climate change adaptation (CCA) is unsatisfying in many ways: It is often dominated by a modernistic perspective of planned pro-active adaptation, with a selective focus on measures directly responding to climate change impacts and thus it is far from real-life conditions of those who are actually affected by climate change. Farmers have to simultaneously adapt to multiple changes. Therefore, also empirical climate change adaptation research needs a more integrative perspective on real-life climate change adaptations. This also has to consider "hidden" adaptations, which are not explicitly and directly motivated by CCA but actually contribute to the sector's adaptability to climate change. The aim of the present study is to develop and test an analytic framework that contributes to a broader understanding of CCA and to bridge the gap between scientific expertise and practical action. The framework distinguishes three types of CCA according to their climate related motivations: explicit adaptations, multi-purpose adaptations, and hidden adaptations. Although agriculture is among the sectors that are most affected by climate change, results from the case study of Tyrolean mountain agriculture show that climate change is ranked behind other more pressing "real-life-challenges" such as changing agricultural policies or market conditions. We identified numerous hidden adaptations which make a valuable contribution when dealing with climate change impacts. We conclude that these hidden adaptations have not only to be considered to get an integrative und more realistic view on CCA; they also provide a great opportunity for linking adaptation strategies to farmers' realities.

  10. Titanium Dioxide/Upconversion Nanoparticles/Cadmium Sulfide Nanofibers Enable Enhanced Full-Spectrum Absorption for Superior Solar Light Driven Photocatalysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Fu; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Wang, Wan-Ni; Cong, Huai-Ping; Qian, Hai-Sheng


    In this work, we demonstrate an electrospinning technique to fabricate TiO2 /upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)/CdS nanofibers on large scale. In addition, the as-prepared TiO2 nanofibers are incorporated with a high population of UCNPs and CdS nanospheres; this results in Förster resonance energy-transfer configurations of the UCNPs, TiO2 , and CdS nanospheres that are in close proximity. Hence, strong fluorescent emissions for the Tm(3+) ions including the (1) G4 →(3) H6 transition are efficiently transferred to TiO2 and the CdS nanoparticles through an energy-transfer process. The as-prepared TiO2 /UCNPs/CdS nanofibers exhibit full-spectrum solar-energy absorption and enable the efficient degradation of organic dyes by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the UCNPs and TiO2 (or CdS). The UCNPs/TiO2 /CdS nanofibers may also have enhanced energy-transfer efficiency for wide applications in solar cells, bioimaging, photodynamics, and chemotherapy.

  11. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  12. Solar tomography adaptive optics. (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang


    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  13. Arrowhead Ripper: Adaptive Leadership in Full Spectrum Operations (United States)


    received his commission as an infantry officer from Wofford College in Spartanburg, South Carolina, in 1985. Colonel Johnson’s first assignment was as...DESERT STORM, JOINT ENDEAVOR in Bosnia, and IRAQI FREEDOM. Colonel Johnson holds a B.A. in Sociology and Government from Wofford College, Spartanburg

  14. Full-spectrum analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Peter; Limburg, J; de Meijer, RJ


    In this paper, a new system to measure natural gamma -radiation in situ will be presented. This system combines a high-efficiency EGO scintillation detector with full-spectrum data analysis (FSA). This technique uses the (nearly) full spectral shape and the so-called 'standard spectra' to calculate

  15. High resolution full-spectrum water Raman lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FuChao; YI Fan; JIA JingYu; ZHANG YunPeng; ZHANG ShaoDong; YU ChangMing; TAN Ying


    Knowledge of the temporal-spatial distribution of water content in atmosphere and water phase change in cloud is important for atmospheric study.For this purpose,we have developed a high resolution full-spectrum water Raman lidar that can collect Raman signals from ice,water droplets and water vapor simultaneously.A double-grating polychromator and a 32-channel photomultiplier-tube detector are used to obtain a spectral resolution of ~0.19 nm in the full Raman spectrum range of water.Preliminary observations present the water Raman spectrum characteristics of both the mixed-phase cloud and humid air under cloudless condition.

  16. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging (United States)

    Heide, Felix; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang


    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  17. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  18. Adaptive control of solar energy collector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, João M; Igreja, José M


    This book describes methods for adaptive control of distributed-collector solar fields: plants that collect solar energy and deliver it in thermal form. Controller design methods are presented that can overcome difficulties found in these type of plants:they are distributed-parameter systems, i.e., systems with dynamics that depend on space as well as time;their dynamics is nonlinear, with a bilinear structure;there is a significant level of uncertainty in plant knowledge.Adaptive methods form the focus of the text because of the degree of uncertainty in the knowledge of plant dynamics. Parts

  19. Full-spectrum analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra. (United States)

    Hendriks, P H; Limburg, J; de Meijer, R J


    In this paper, a new system to measure natural gamma-radiation in situ will be presented. This system combines a high-efficiency BGO scintillation detector with full-spectrum data analysis (FSA). This technique uses the (nearly) full spectral shape and the so-called 'standard spectra' to calculate the activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th and 238U present in a geological matrix (sediment, rock, etc.). We describe the FSA and the determination of the standard spectra. Standard spectra are constructed for various geometries and a comparison in intensity and shape will be made. The performance of such a system has been compared to a more traditional system, consisting of a NaI detector in combination with the 'windows' analysis. For count rates typically encountered in field experiments, the same accuracy is obtained 10-20 times faster using the new system. This allows for shorter integration times and hence shorter measurements or a better spatial resolution. The applicability of such a system will be illustrated via an example of an airborne experiment in which the new system produced results comparable to those of much larger traditional systems. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the current status of the system and an outlook for future research.

  20. The diffractive achromat full spectrum computational imaging with diffractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan


    Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have recently drawn great attention in computational imaging because they can drastically reduce the size and weight of imaging devices compared to their refractive counterparts. However, the inherent strong dispersion is a tremendous obstacle that limits the use of DOEs in full spectrum imaging, causing unacceptable loss of color fidelity in the images. In particular, metamerism introduces a data dependency in the image blur, which has been neglected in computational imaging methods so far. We introduce both a diffractive achromat based on computational optimization, as well as a corresponding algorithm for correction of residual aberrations. Using this approach, we demonstrate high fidelity color diffractive-only imaging over the full visible spectrum. In the optical design, the height profile of a diffractive lens is optimized to balance the focusing contributions of different wavelengths for a specific focal length. The spectral point spread functions (PSFs) become nearly identical to each other, creating approximately spectrally invariant blur kernels. This property guarantees good color preservation in the captured image and facilitates the correction of residual aberrations in our fast two-step deconvolution without additional color priors. We demonstrate our design of diffractive achromat on a 0.5mm ultrathin substrate by photolithography techniques. Experimental results show that our achromatic diffractive lens produces high color fidelity and better image quality in the full visible spectrum. © 2016 ACM.

  1. Phase sensor for solar adaptive-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae


    Wavefront sensing in solar adaptive-optics is currently done with correlating Shack-Hartmann sensors, although the spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the phase measurements are then limited by the extremely fast computing required to correlate the sensor signals at the frequencies of daytime atmospheric-fluctuations. To avoid this limitation, a new wavefront-sensing technique is presented, that makes use of the solar brightness and is applicable to extended sources. The wavefront is sent through a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A small, central part of the wavefront is used as reference and is made to interfere with the rest of the wavefront. The contrast of two simultaneously measured interference-patterns provides a direct estimate of the wavefront phase, no additional computation being required. The proposed optical layout shows precise initial alignment to be the critical point in implementing the new wavefront-sensing scheme.

  2. Solar adaptive optics: specificities, lessons learned, and open alternatives (United States)

    Montilla, I.; Marino, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Montoya, L.; Tallon, M.


    First on sky adaptive optics experiments were performed on the Dunn Solar Telescope on 1979, with a shearing interferometer and limited success. Those early solar adaptive optics efforts forced to custom-develop many components, such as Deformable Mirrors and WaveFront Sensors, which were not available at that time. Later on, the development of the correlation Shack-Hartmann marked a breakthrough in solar adaptive optics. Since then, successful Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics instruments have been developed for many solar telescopes, i.e. the National Solar Observatory, the Vacuum Tower Telescope and the Swedish Solar Telescope. Success with the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for GREGOR and the New Solar Telescope has proved to be more difficult to attain. Such systems have a complexity not only related to the number of degrees of freedom, but also related to the specificities of the Sun, used as reference, and the sensing method. The wavefront sensing is performed using correlations on images with a field of view of 10", averaging wavefront information from different sky directions, affecting the sensing and sampling of high altitude turbulence. Also due to the low elevation at which solar observations are performed we have to include generalized fitting error and anisoplanatism, as described by Ragazzoni and Rigaut, as non-negligible error sources in the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics error budget. For the development of the next generation Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope and the European Solar Telescope we still need to study and understand these issues, to predict realistically the quality of the achievable reconstruction. To improve their designs other open issues have to be assessed, i.e. possible alternative sensing methods to avoid the intrinsic anisoplanatism of the wide field correlation Shack-Hartmann, new parameters to estimate the performance of an adaptive optics solar system, alternatives to

  3. E. coli cells adaptation to solar environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, A. [Institute J. Monod, Paris (France)


    Full text. Photo mutagenesis of E.coli cells exposed to solar light results essentially from the combined effect of its U V C, U V B and U V A components. The high photo mutagenic efficiency of UVC is known to be hampered when the cells have been pre illuminated with near UV light. Near UV light triggers the growth delay effect at sublethal fluences ( and reveals poorly mutagenic). The chromophore leading to this growth lag effect is a rare nucleoside, 4-thio uridine s4U, present only in position 8 of E. coli tRNAs. Upon photo activation s4U led to formation of an intramolecular 8-13 crosslink in a number of tRNA species, including tRNAphe and tRNApro. These two crosslinked Trna species can no more be efficiently acylated by their corresponding tRNa ligases and accumulate on the uncharged from thus preventing protein synthesis, and effect amplified by the so called stringent response. Accordingly nuvA mutant cells no more exhibit growth delay UVC induced mutagenesis involves activation of the inducible error-prone SOS system which requires protein synthesis. By compacting the level of expression of the SOS gene sfiA (using a sfiA:lacZ fusion) in wild-type and nuvA mutant cells submitted to combined UVC, UVA radiations, we have demonstrated that indeed 4-thio uridine behaves as an anti photo mutagenic device. Adaptation of E. coli cell to its solar environment will be discussed in the light of this finding

  4. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedrons as full-spectrum light harvesting photocatalyst for environmental remediation (United States)

    Park, Hanbit; Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Kim, Yujin; Ma, Rory; Choi, Jiha; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Seok


    The inferior utilization efficiency of light is the main obstacle to the practical application of traditional photocatalysts such as TiO2 and ZnO. In this regard, the development of novel photocatalysts with the capability of harvesting full spectrum light (from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR)) energy is a promising solution for solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. Here, we report the discovery of a single material that can harvest UV, visible (VIS), and NIR radiations to decompose heavy metal contaminants in aqueous solution. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedrons were synthesized through a facile solution approach and employed in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-VIS-NIR pulsed laser irradiation, which was generated from the fundamental, second and third harmonics of Nd:YAG laser, respectively. The nanostructures showed efficient Cr(VI) reduction under UV, VIS and NIR laser irradiation and the measured reduction efficiency (%) was 71.22%, 69.52%, and 40.79%, respectively after 120 min. A possible explanation for the photocatalytic activity in Cr(VI) reduction was proposed. This is the first study of its kind where pulsed laser and ZIF-67 rhombic dodecahedrons capable of harvesting full spectrum light energy have been employed for the removal of Cr(VI) from water. The extraordinary capacity of harvesting full-spectrum light and long-term stability make ZIF-67 a potential photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  5. Full spectrum of turbulence convective mixing. II. Lithium production in AGB stars (United States)

    Mazzitelli, I.; D'Antona, F.; Ventura, P.


    We present results from new, detailed computations of lithium production by hot bottom burning (HBB) in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of intermediate mass (3.5 mass, metallicity, mass loss rate, convection and overshooting are discussed. In particular, nuclear burning, turbulent mixing and convective overshooting (if any) are self-consistently coupled by a diffusive algorithm, and the Full Spectrum of Turbulence (FST) model of convection is adopted, with test comparisons to Mixing Length Theory (MLT) stellar models. All the evolutions are followed from pre-main sequence down to late AGB, when stars do not appear any longer lithium rich. A ``reference mass" of 6 M_sun has been chosen since, although relatively close to the upper limit for which degenerate (12) C ignition occurs, all the studied mechanisms show up more clearly. HBB is always found above ~ log L/L_sun = 4.4, but the range of (initial) masses reaching HBB is largely dependent on convection model, overshooting and metallicity. For solar chemistry, masses >= 4M_sun evolve through HBB in the FST case and including core overshooting whereas, with solarly tuned MLT models and no overshooting, only masses >= 6M_sun can reach HBB. These constraints can give feedbacks about the more correct convection model and/or the extent of overshooting, thanks to the signatures of HBB in AGB stars in clusters of known turnoff masses and metallicity. Overshooting (when included) is addressed as an exponentially decreasing diffusion above formally convective regions. It makes convective cores during the main sequence to grow larger, and also starting masses and luminosities in AGB are then larger. However, also preliminary results obtained when allowing displacement of convective elements below convective regions in AGB are shown. In the ``reference" case (6M_sun), we find that overshooting from below the convective envelope totally suppresses thermal pulses and ultimately leads to the formation of massive ( ~ 1M

  6. Edge Adapted Wavelets, Solar Magnetic Activity, and Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Robert W


    The continuous wavelet transform is adapted to account for signal truncation through renormalization and by modifying the shape of the analyzing window. Comparison is made of the instant and integrated wavelet power with previous algorithms. The edge adapted and renormalized admissible wavelet transforms are used to estimate the level of solar magnetic activity from the sunspot record. The solar activity is compared to Oerlemans' temperature reconstruction and to the Central England Temperature record. A correlation is seen for years between 1610 and 1990, followed by a strong deviation as the recently observed temperature increases.

  7. Decision criteria of potential solar IPH adapters (United States)

    Perwin, E.; Levine, A.; Mikasa, G.; Noun, R. J.; Schaller, D.


    If national programs are to be effective in the research and development of viable renewable resource technologies for the industrial sector, understanding industry's decision criteria will be important. The results of a preliminary investigation of the decision criteria of potential and actual users of solar industrial process heat systems are presented. Detailed interviews were completed with decision-makers from ten manufacturing firms. Based on economic theory, it was assumed that corporate decision-makers assess the expected cost, revenue, and uncertainty of competing investment opportunities. These decision criteria are composed of factors that are financial, technical, and institutional. Clearly, the firms interviewed were more concerned with costs than any other category of decision criteria. Most of the firms also believed that there was less uncertainty with competing investments than with current solar technology. Based on this preliminary investigation, a more extensive survey of industrial firms is suggested to determine a more comprehensive list of significant decision criteria.

  8. Recent progress on the portable solar adaptive optics (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhang, Xi; Penn, Matt; Wang, Haimin; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhu, Yongtian; Rong, Li; Wang, Xue


    The portable solar adaptive optics is a compact adaptive optics system that will be the first visitor solar instrument in the world. As so, it will be able to work with any solar telescope with a aperture size up to ~ 2.0 meters, which will cover the largest solar telescope currently operational. The portable AO features small physical size, high-flexibility and high-performance, and is a duplicable and affordable system. It will provide wave-front correction down to the 0.5-μm wavelength, and will be used for solar high-resolution imaging in the near infrared and the visible. It will be the first AO system that uses LabVIEW based high quality parallel and block-diagram programming, which fully takes advantage of today's multi-core CPUs, and makes a rapid development of an AO system possible. In this publication, we report our recent progress on the portable adaptive optics, which includes the laboratory test for performance characterization, and initial on-site scientific observations.

  9. Recent Developments in Smart Adaptive Structures for Solar Sailcraft (United States)

    Whorton, M. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Oakley, J.; Adetona, O.; Keel, L. H.


    The "Smart Adaptive Structures for Solar Sailcraft" development activity at MSFC has investigated issues associated with understanding how to model and scale the subsystem and multi-body system dynamics of a gossamer solar sailcraft with the objective of designing sailcraft attitude control systems. This research and development activity addressed three key tasks that leveraged existing facilities and core competencies of MSFC to investigate dynamics and control issues of solar sails. Key aspects of this effort included modeling and testing of a 30 m deployable boom; modeling of the multi-body system dynamics of a gossamer sailcraft; investigation of control-structures interaction for gossamer sailcraft; and development and experimental demonstration of adaptive control technologies to mitigate control-structures interaction.

  10. The Adaptive Solar Facade: From concept to prototypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Nagy


    Full Text Available The Adaptive Solar Facade (ASF is a modular, highly integrated dynamic building facade.The energetic behavior as well as the architectural expression of the facade can be controlled with high spatio-temporal resolution through individually addressable modules. We present the general design process, the current mechanical design, and simulation results on photovoltaic power production and building energy consumption. We introduce the controller concept and show results on solar tracking as well as user interaction. Lastly, we present our current and planned prototypes.

  11. S-process nucleosynthesis in AGB stars with the full spectrum of turbulence scheme for convection. (United States)

    Yagüe, A.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Lugaro, M.


    The chemical evolution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars models depends greatly on the input physics (e.g. convective model, mass loss recipe). Variations of hot bottom burning (HBB) strength, or third dredge-up (TDU) efficiency are among the main consequences of adopting different input physics in the AGB models. The ATON evolutionary code stands apart from others in that it uses the Full Spectrum of Turbulence convective model. Here we present the first results of a newly developed s-process nucleosynthesis module for ATON AGB models. Our results are compared also with observations and theoretical predictions of present AGB nucleosynthesis models using different input physics.

  12. Detection of a fatigue crack in a rotor system using full-spectrum based estimation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Shravankumar; Rajiv Tiwari


    The force due to crack switching has multiple harmonic components of the spin speed. These components excite the rotor both in the same and reverse directions of the rotor spin. A full-spectrum method using complex Fast Fourier transform equations is developed to obtain force coefficients and displacement coefficients (forward and reverse). These coefficients are then used as an input to developed identification algorithms. Fault parameters identified are the additive stiffness due to crack, disc eccentricity due to unbalance, and system viscous damping. An extended algorithm estimates the crack forces. The algorithms are numerically tested.

  13. Adaptability of solar energy conversion systems on ships (United States)

    Visa, I.; Cotorcea, A.; Neagoe, M.; Moldovan, M.


    International trade of goods largely uses maritime/transoceanic ships driven by engines using fossil fuels. This two centuries tradition is technologically mature but significantly adds to the CO2 emissions; therefore, recent trends focus on on-board implementation of systems converting the solar energy into power (photovoltaic systems) or heat (solar-thermal systems). These systems are carbon-emissions free but are still under research and plenty of effort is devoted to fast reach maturity and feasibility. Unlike the systems implemented in a specific continental location, the design of solar energy conversion systems installed on shipboard has to face the problem generated by the system base motion along with the ship travelling on routes at different latitudes: the navigation direction and sense and roll-pitch combined motion with reduced amplitude, but with relatively high frequency. These raise highly interesting challenges in the design and development of mechanical systems that support the maximal output in terms of electricity or heat. The paper addresses the modelling of the relative position of a solar energy conversion surface installed on a ship according to the current position of the sun; the model is based on the navigation trajectory/route, ship motion generated by waves and the relative sun-earth motion. The model describes the incidence angle of the sunray on the conversion surface through five characteristic angles: three used to define the ship orientation and two for the solar angles; based on, their influence on the efficiency in solar energy collection is analyzed by numerical simulations and appropriate recommendations are formulated for increasing the solar energy conversion systems adaptability on ships.

  14. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.


    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  15. Improving the full spectrum fitting method: accurate convolution with Gauss-Hermite functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cappellari, Michele


    I start by providing an updated summary of the penalized pixel-fitting (pPXF) method, which is used to extract the stellar and gas kinematics, as well as the stellar population of galaxies, via full spectrum fitting. I then focus on the problem of extracting the kinematics when the velocity dispersion $\\sigma$ is smaller than the velocity sampling $\\Delta v$, which is generally close to the instrumental resolution $\\sigma_{\\rm inst}$, by design. The same situation arises when measuring line-of-sight velocities of individual stars. The standard approach is mathematically equivalent to convolving with a discretized kernel, via direct summation, while fitting for the kernel parameters. However, this approach obviously becomes seriously inaccurate when $\\sigma<\\Delta v/2$, due to undersampling. Oversampling can be used to prevent this, but it has drawbacks. Here I present a better alternative, which is not only more accurate and efficient, but even simpler to implement. It consists of avoiding the evaluation o...

  16. Adaptive control for solar energy based DC microgrid system development (United States)

    Zhang, Qinhao

    During the upgrading of current electric power grid, it is expected to develop smarter, more robust and more reliable power systems integrated with distributed generations. To realize these objectives, traditional control techniques are no longer effective in either stabilizing systems or delivering optimal and robust performances. Therefore, development of advanced control methods has received increasing attention in power engineering. This work addresses two specific problems in the control of solar panel based microgrid systems. First, a new control scheme is proposed for the microgrid systems to achieve optimal energy conversion ratio in the solar panels. The control system can optimize the efficiency of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm by implementing two layers of adaptive control. Such a hierarchical control architecture has greatly improved the system performance, which is validated through both mathematical analysis and computer simulation. Second, in the development of the microgrid transmission system, the issues related to the tele-communication delay and constant power load (CPL)'s negative incremental impedance are investigated. A reference model based method is proposed for pole and zero placements that address the challenges of the time delay and CPL in closed-loop control. The effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control design methods are demonstrated in a simulation testbed. Practical aspects of the proposed methods for general microgrid systems are also discussed.

  17. The use of full spectrum digital photography for evidence collection and preservation in cases involving forensic odontology. (United States)

    Wright, Franklin D; Golden, Gregory S


    Photography often represents the best method to collect and preserve evidence in forensic cases. This is especially true in forensic odontology with cases involving dental identification, human abuse and, perhaps most significantly, bitemark cases. Basic visible light photography is adequate in most dental identification cases; however, full spectrum digital photography is best utilized to collect all available evidence in cases of human abuse and bitemarks. This paper will discuss the types of photographic evidence that should be collected with various forensic odontological cases and the specific techniques utilized in full spectrum forensic digital photography. The use of full spectrum photography captures the forensic injuries using special techniques recording the injuries in each of the four resultant events that occur when light strikes skin.

  18. Probing other solar systems with current and future adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; Marois, C; Phillion, D; Poyneer, L; Graham, J; Zuckerman, B; Gavel, D; Veran, J; Wilhelmsen-Evans, J; Mellis, C


    Over the past decade, the study of extrasolar planets through indirect techniques--primarily Doppler measurements--has revolutionized our understanding of other solar systems. The next major step in this field will be the direct detection and characterization, via imaging and spectroscopy, of the planets themselves. To achieve this, we must separate the light from the faint planet from the extensive glare of its parent star. We pursued this goal using the current generation of adaptive optics (AO) systems on large ground-based telescopes, using infrared imaging to search for the thermal emission from young planets and developing image processing techniques to distinguish planets from telescope-induced artifacts. Our new Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) technique, which uses the sidereal rotation of the Earth and telescope, is now standard for ground-based high-contrast imaging. Although no young planets were found in our surveys, we placed the strongest limits yet on giant planets in wide orbits (>30 AU) around young stars and characterized planetary companion candidates. The imaging of planetary companions on solar-system-like scales (5-30 AU) will require a new generation of advanced AO systems that are an order of magnitude more powerful than the LLNL-built Keck AO system. We worked to develop and test the key technologies needed for these systems, including a spatially-filtered wavefront sensor, efficient and accurate wavefront reconstruction algorithms, and precision AO wavefront control at the sub-nm level. LLNL has now been selected by the Gemini Observatory to lead the construction of the Gemini Planet Imager, a $24M instrument that will be the most advanced AO system in the world.

  19. In situ γ-ray spectrometry in the marine environment using full spectrum analysis for natural radionuclides. (United States)

    Androulakaki, E G; Kokkoris, M; Tsabaris, C; Eleftheriou, G; Patiris, D L; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R


    The Full Spectrum Analysis approach was applied to obtain activity concentration estimations for in situ measurements in the marine environment. The 'standard spectra' were reproduced using the MCNP-CP code. In order to extract the activity concentrations, χ(2) minimization calculations were performed by implementing the MINUIT code. The method was applied to estimate the activity concentrations for measurements in the marine environment in three different test cases. The estimated activity concentrations were in good agreement with the experimentally derived ones within uncertainties.

  20. New Low Cost Structure for Dual Axis Mount Solar Tracking System Using Adaptive Solar Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika


    A solar tracking system is designed to optimize the operation of solar energy receivers. The objective of this paper is proposing a new tracking system structure with two axis. The success strategy of this new project focuses on the economical analysis of solar energy. Therefore it is important t...

  1. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy to predict soil properties using windows and full-spectrum analysis methods. (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B; van Henten, Eldert J


    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0-15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0-15 cm soil depths than in the 15-30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.

  2. New fuzzy approximate model for indirect adaptive control of distributed solar collectors

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed


    This paper studies the problem of controlling a parabolic solar collectors, which consists of forcing the outlet oil temperature to track a set reference despite possible environmental disturbances. An approximate model is proposed to simplify the controller design. The presented controller is an indirect adaptive law designed on the fuzzy model with soft-sensing of the solar irradiance intensity. The proposed approximate model allows the achievement of a simple low dimensional set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that reproduces the dynamical behavior of the system taking into account its infinite dimension. Stability of the closed loop system is ensured by resorting to Lyapunov Control functions for an indirect adaptive controller.

  3. Pupil-transformation multiconjugate adaptive optics for solar high-resolution imaging (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhu, Yongtian; Broadfoot, Robert; Chapman, Julius


    We propose a multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system called pupil-transformation MCAO (PT-MCAO) for solar high-angular resolution imaging over a large field of view. The PT-MCAO, consisting of two deformable mirrors (DMs), uses a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor located on the telescope pupil to measure the wavefront slopes from several guide stars. The average slopes are used to control the first DM conjugated on the telescope aperture by a solar ground-layer adaptive optics (AO) approach while the remaining slopes are used to control the second DM conjugated on a high altitude by a conventional solar AO via a geometric PT. The PT-MCAO uses a similar hardware configuration as the conventional star-oriented MCAO. However, a distinctive feature of our PT-MCAO is that it avoids the construction of tomography wavefront, which is a time-consuming and complex process for the solar real-time atmospheric turbulence correction. For the PT-MCAO, current widely used and fully understood conventional solar AO closed-loop control algorithms can be directly used to control the two DMs, which greatly reduces the real-time calculation power requirement and makes the PT-MCAO easy to implement. In this publication, we discuss the PT-MCAO methodology, its unique features, and compare its performance with that of the conventional solar star-oriented MCAO systems, which demonstrate that the PT-MCAO can be immediately used for solar high-resolution imaging.

  4. Performance Testing of an Off-Limb Solar Adaptive Optics System

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, G E; Marino, J; Rimmele, T R; McAteer, R T J


    Long-exposure spectro-polarimetry in the near-infrared is a preferred method to measure the magnetic field and other physical properties of solar prominences. In the past, it has been very difficult to observe prominences in this way with sufficient spatial resolution to fully understand their dynamical properties. Solar prominences contain highly transient structures, visible only at small spatial scales; hence they must be observed at sub-arcsecond resolution, with a high temporal cadence. An adaptive optics (AO) system capable of directly locking-on to prominence structure away from the solar limb has the potential to allow for diffraction-limited spectro-polarimetry of solar prominences. In this paper, the performance of the off-limb AO system and its expected performance, at the desired science wavelength {\\CaII} 8542A, are shown.

  5. A full-spectrum analysis of high-speed train interior noise under multi-physical-field coupling excitations (United States)

    Zheng, Xu; Hao, Zhiyong; Wang, Xu; Mao, Jie


    High-speed-railway-train interior noise at low, medium, and high frequencies could be simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) or boundary element analysis (BEA), hybrid finite element analysis-statistical energy analysis (FEA-SEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA), respectively. First, a new method named statistical acoustic energy flow (SAEF) is proposed, which can be applied to the full-spectrum HST interior noise simulation (including low, medium, and high frequencies) with only one model. In an SAEF model, the corresponding multi-physical-field coupling excitations are firstly fully considered and coupled to excite the interior noise. The interior noise attenuated by sound insulation panels of carriage is simulated through modeling the inflow acoustic energy from the exterior excitations into the interior acoustic cavities. Rigid multi-body dynamics, fast multi-pole BEA, and large-eddy simulation with indirect boundary element analysis are first employed to extract the multi-physical-field excitations, which include the wheel-rail interaction forces/secondary suspension forces, the wheel-rail rolling noise, and aerodynamic noise, respectively. All the peak values and their frequency bands of the simulated acoustic excitations are validated with those from the noise source identification test. Besides, the measured equipment noise inside equipment compartment is used as one of the excitation sources which contribute to the interior noise. Second, a full-trimmed FE carriage model is firstly constructed, and the simulated modal shapes and frequencies agree well with the measured ones, which has validated the global FE carriage model as well as the local FE models of the aluminum alloy-trim composite panel. Thus, the sound transmission loss model of any composite panel has indirectly been validated. Finally, the SAEF model of the carriage is constructed based on the accurate FE model and stimulated by the multi-physical-field excitations. The results show

  6. The full spectrum of ethical issues in the care of patients with ALS: a systematic qualitative review. (United States)

    Seitzer, F; Kahrass, H; Neitzke, G; Strech, D


    Dealing systematically with ethical issues in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care requires an unbiased awareness of all the relevant ethical issues. The aim of the study was to determine systematically and transparently the full spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. We conducted a systematic review in Medline and Google Books (restricted to English and German literature published between 1993 and 2014). We applied qualitative text analysis and normative analysis to categorise the spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. The literature review retrieved 56 references that together mentioned a spectrum of 103 ethical issues in ALS care. The spectrum was structured into six major categories that consist of first and second-order categories of ethical issues. The systematically derived spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care presented in this paper raises awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in ALS care. It also offers a basis for the systematic development of informational and training materials for health professionals, patients and their relatives, and society as a whole. Finally, it supports a rational and fair selection of all those ethical issues that should be addressed in health policies, position papers and clinical practice guidelines. Further research is needed to identify ways to systematically select the most relevant ethical issues not only in the clinical environment, but also for the development of clinical practice guidelines.

  7. A Preliminary, Full Spectrum, Magnetic Anomaly Grid of the United States with Improved Long Wavelengths for Studying Continental Dynamics (United States)

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Korhonen, Juha


    Under an initiative started by Thomas G. Hildenbrand of the U.S. Geological Survey, we have improved the long-wavelength (50-2,500 km) content of the regional magnetic anomaly compilation for the conterminous United States by utilizing a nearly homogeneous set of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) magnetic surveys flown from 1975 to 1981. The surveys were flown in quadrangles of 2° of longitude by 1° of latitude with east-west flight lines spaced 4.8 to 9.6 km apart, north-south tie lines variably spaced, and a nominal terrain clearance of 122 m. The NURE surveys were processed using the Comprehensive Magnetic Field Model (Sabaka et al. 2004) to remove the core field for the epochs of the surveys. Many of the surveys used base-station magnetometers to remove external field variations. This NURE magnetic anomaly field is merged with the short-wavelengths from the North American Magnetic Anomaly Map (ca. 2002) to create a full spectrum database called NURE_NAMAM2008.

  8. Development status on the real-time controller for solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (United States)

    Kong, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Rao, Changhui


    Solar observations are performed over an extended field of view (FoV) and the isoplanatic patch which conventional adaptive optics (AO) provides diffraction limited resolution is a severe limitation. Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) can be used to extend the corrected FoV of AO system. Compared to AO, MCAO which usually utilizes a wide-field Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to control multiple deformable mirrors(DMs) is more complicated. Because the Sun is an extended object, correlation algorithms are applied to detect gradients in solar MCAO system. Moreover, due to the fast evolving daytime seeing conditions and the fact that much science has to be done at visible wavelengths, a very high closed-loop bandwidth is also required. The computation and delay development of the real-time controller (RTC) in solar MCAO system is more challenging than that in night-time MCAO system. This paper reviews the solar MCAO techniques and systems in the world, especially emphasizes the framework and implementation of the RTC. The development of MCAO in China is also introduced. An outlook of the RTC for the solar MCAO system in development is given.

  9. Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation (United States)

    Vaughan, Naomi; Lenton, Timothy


    The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (‘negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These relationships are illustrated over a multi-centennial timescale, allowing sufficient time for the carbon-cycle to respond to the anthropogenic perturbation. The anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios (focussing on those from fossil fuel combustion) range from more to less stringent mitigation of emissions and includes the scenario assumed in our previous work on the maximum cooling potential of different geoengineering options. Results are presented in terms of transient atmospheric CO2 concentration and global mean temperature from year 1900 to year 2500. Implementation of solar radiation control strategies requires an understanding of the timing and effect of terminating such an intervention, a so called ‘exit strategy'. The results illustrate a number of considerations regarding exit strategies, including the inherent commitment to either carbon dioxide removal interventions, or the length of time the solar radiation control mechanism must be maintained for. The impacts of the various trade-offs are also discussed in the context of adaptation and adaptive resilience. The results have a bearing on policy and long term planning by illustrating some of the important assumptions regarding implementation of solar radiation management. These include baseline assumptions about emission mitigation efforts, timescale of intervention maintenance and impacts on adaptation.

  10. Adaptive Critic Based Neuro-Fuzzy Tracker for Improving Conversion Efficiency in PV Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Rashidi


    Full Text Available The output power of photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy collected by the system and it is therefore necessary to track the sun’s position with high accuracy. This study proposes multi-agent adaptive critic based nero fuzzy solar tracking system dedicated to PV panels. The proposed tracker ensures the optimal conversion of solar energy into electricity by properly adjusting the PV panels according to the position of the sun. To evaluate the usefulness of the proposed method, some computer simulations are performed and compared with fuzzy PD controller. Obtained results show the proposed control strategy is very robust, flexible and could be used to get the desired performance levels. The response time is also very fast. Simulation results that have been compared with fuzzy PD controller show that our method has the better control performance than fuzzy PD controller.

  11. A Preliminary Full Spectrum Magnetic Anomaly Database of the United States With Improved Long Wavelengths for Studying Continental Dynamics (United States)

    Ravat, D.; Sabaka, T.; Elshayat, A.; Aref, A.; Elawadi, E.; Kucks, R.; Hill, P.; Phillips, J.; Finn, C.; Bouligand, C.; Blakely, R. J.


    Under an initiative started by Thomas G. Hildenbrand of the U. S. Geological Survey, we have improved the long-wavelength (50-2500 km) content of the regional magnetic anomaly compilation for the conterminous United States by utilizing a nearly homogeneous set of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) magnetic surveys flown from 1975 to 1981. The surveys were flown in quadrangles of 2° of longitude by 1° of latitude with E-W flight-lines spaced 4.8 to 9.6 km, N-S tie-lines variably spaced, and a nominal terrain clearance of 122 m. Many of the surveys used base-station magnetometers to remove external field variations. NURE surveys were originally processed with IGRF core-field models, which left behind non- uniform residual trends in the data and discontinuities at survey boundaries. In this study, in place of the IGRF/DGRF, we used a spatially and temporally continuous model of the magnetic field known as the Comprehensive Model (CM), which allowed us to avoid discontinuities at survey boundaries. The CM simultaneously models the core magnetic field and long-wavelength ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, along with their induced components in the earth. Because of the availability of base-stations for removing external fields, we removed only the core-derived geomagnetic field based on CM4 (spherical harmonic degree 13) for our compilation. The NURE data have short-wavelength (less than 30 km) noise due to cultural sources, base-station offsets, and residual external field effects. It is possible to reduce and even remove these defects by identifying and editing them and by applying leveling and micro-leveling. There are also many high resolution individual surveys over the U.S. which could be incorporated into the improved NURE database; however, this could take a few years. Therefore, we have created a preliminary full spectrum magnetic anomaly database by combining short-wavelength magnetic anomalies from the North American Magnetic Anomaly Map (NAMAM

  12. Adaptive data analysis for characterizing the temporal variability of the solar resource (United States)

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien


    One of the key challenges associated with the large-scale penetration of solar power is the inherent spatio-temporal variability of the solar radiation impinging on the surface. Particular methods are currently employed to measure, estimate or forecast the extent and availability of the solar resource depending on the effective spatial and temporal scales of interest, such as numerical weather prediction models, satellite-based estimates, sky-imagers or in-situ ground measurements. Here we present a method for characterizing the intrinsic time-scales of the solar resource variability. The study deals with decennial time-series of daily values of the surface solar irradiance (SSI) issued from high-quality BSRN ground measurement stations. Geophysical signals, such as the SSI time-series under scrutiny, are often the result of non-linear interactions of physical processes that are also often under natural or anthropogenic non-stationary forcings. Therefore, an adaptive data analysis technique is employed that makes no beforehand assumptions about the data: neither linearity, nor stationarity of the signal is assumed. The method, called the Hilbert-Huang transform, first extracts all the embedded oscillations that have a similar time-scale, to which it then applies Hilbert spectral analysis. A time-frequency-energy representation of the signal is thus constructed, which reveals the time-varying character of the intrinsic temporal scales of variability (frequency modulation), along with any fluctuations in the intensity of the signal at the corresponding scale (amplitude modulation). In order to test whether the features extracted from the data are the expression of deterministic physical processes, as opposed to being stochastic realizations of various background processes (i.e. noise), a novel, adaptive null-hypothesis based on the statistical properties of noise is employed. It is shown that the data, irrespective of the geographical conditions, shares common time

  13. Solar Radiation-Associated Adaptive SNP Genetic Differentiation in Wild Emmer Wheat, Triticum dicoccoides (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Chen, Liang; Jin, Xiaoli; Zhang, Miaomiao; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Frenkel, Vladimir; Yin, Xuegui; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua


    Whole-genome scans with large number of genetic markers provide the opportunity to investigate local adaptation in natural populations and identify candidate genes under positive selection. In the present study, adaptation genetic differentiation associated with solar radiation was investigated using 695 polymorphic SNP markers in wild emmer wheat originated in a micro-site at Yehudiyya, Israel. The test involved two solar radiation niches: (1) sun, in-between trees; and (2) shade, under tree canopy, separated apart by a distance of 2–4 m. Analysis of molecular variance showed a small (0.53%) but significant portion of overall variation between the sun and shade micro-niches, indicating a non-ignorable genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats. Fifty SNP markers showed a medium (0.05 ≤ FST ≤ 0.15) or high genetic differentiation (FST > 0.15). A total of 21 outlier loci under positive selection were identified by using four different FST-outlier testing algorithms. The markers and genome locations under positive selection are consistent with the known patterns of selection. These results suggested that genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats is substantial, radiation-associated, and therefore ecologically determined. Hence, the results of this study reflected effects of natural selection through solar radiation on EST-related SNP genetic diversity, resulting presumably in different adaptive complexes at a micro-scale divergence. The present work highlights the evolutionary theory and application significance of solar radiation-driven natural selection in wheat improvement. PMID:28352272

  14. Solar-driven thermo- and electrochemical degradation of nitrobenzene in wastewater: Adaptation and adoption of solar STEP concept. (United States)

    Gu, Di; Shao, Nan; Zhu, Yanji; Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Baohui


    The STEP concept has successfully been demonstrated for driving chemical reaction by utilization of solar heat and electricity to minimize the fossil energy, meanwhile, maximize the rate of thermo- and electrochemical reactions in thermodynamics and kinetics. This pioneering investigation experimentally exhibit that the STEP concept is adapted and adopted efficiently for degradation of nitrobenzene. By employing the theoretical calculation and thermo-dependent cyclic voltammetry, the degradation potential of nitrobenzene was found to be decreased obviously, at the same time, with greatly lifting the current, while the temperature was increased. Compared with the conventional electrochemical methods, high efficiency and fast degradation rate were markedly displayed due to the co-action of thermo- and electrochemical effects and the switch of the indirect electrochemical oxidation to the direct one for oxidation of nitrobenzene. A clear conclusion on the mechanism of nitrobenzene degradation by the STEP can be schematically proposed and discussed by the combination of thermo- and electrochemistry based the analysis of the HPLC, UV-vis and degradation data. This theory and experiment provide a pilot for the treatment of nitrobenzene wastewater with high efficiency, clean operation and low carbon footprint, without any other input of energy and chemicals from solar energy.

  15. Progress with multi-conjugate adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (United States)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Gorceix, Nicolas; Marino, Jose; Zhang, Xianyu; Berkefeld, Thomas; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Goode, Philip R.


    The MCAO system at BBSO is the pathfinder system for a future system at the 4-meter DKIST. It deploys three DMs, one in the pupil and two in higher altitudes. The design allows to move the latter independently to adapt to the turbulence profile within about 2-9 km.The optical path has been improved in 2015, and has shown satisfying solar images. The MCAO loop was able to improve the wavefront error across the field slightly compared to classical AO.We will report on the latest improvements, on-Sun results and motivate the design of the system.

  16. Parametric Identification of Solar Series based on an Adaptive Parallel Methodology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Juan A. Gómez Pulido; Miguel A. Vega Rodríguez; Juan M. Sánchez Pérez


    In this work we present an adaptive parallel methodology to optimize the identification of time series through parametric models, applying it to the case of sunspot series. We employ high precision computation of system identification algorithms, and use recursive least squares processing and ARMAX (Autoregressive Moving Average Extensive) parametric modelling. This methodology could be very useful when the high precision mathematical modelling of dynamic complex systems is required. After explaining the proposed heuristics and the tuning of its parameters, we showthe results we have found for several solar series using different implementations. Thus, we demonstrate how the result precision improves.

  17. Analysis and adaptation of a mathematical model for the prediction of solar radiation; Analisis y adaptacion de un modelo matematico de prediccion de radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, Lorenzo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    There is an abundant, reliable, free, source of energy whose use can be planned and besides, practicably inexhaustible: the solar energy. In Mexico it constitutes an important resource, because of its geographical position; for this reason it is fundamental to know it well, either by means of measurements conducted for several years or by mathematical models. These last ones predict with meteorological variables, the values of the solar radiation with acceptable precision. At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) a model is studied for the prediction of the solar radiation to be adapted to the local conditions of Mexico. It is used in simulation studies of the solar plants functioning and other solar systems. [Espanol] Existe una fuente de energia abundante, confiable, gratuita, cuyo uso puede planearse y, ademas, es practicamente inagotable: la solar. En Mexico constituye un recurso importante, por la posicion geografica del pais; por eso es fundamental conocerlo bien, ya mediante mediciones realizadas durante algunos anos, ya mediante modelos matematicos. Estos ultimos predicen, con datos de variables meteorologicas, los valores de la radiacion solar con precision aceptable. En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) se estudia un modelo de prediccion de radiacion solar para adaptarlo a las condiciones locales de Mexico. Se usa en estudios de simulacion del funcionamiento de plantas helioelectricas y otros sistemas solares.

  18. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)


    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  19. Adapting to an innovation: Solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) (United States)

    Toonen, Hilde M.

    Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar energy is free, without unhealthy smoke or chances to burns. The idea of using solar energy for cooking is not new: many different techniques have already been tested. Most variants are expensive, and therefore not available for most families in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cheap solar cooking device is the CooKit, a cardboard panel cooker covered with aluminium foil. In the adaptation to the CooKit, as to all innovations, it is important that the users are convinced of the advantages. An important step in the adaptation process is learning how to use the cooking device; the best way to do this is by home practice. Monitoring and evaluating the real use is needed, for it is interesting to know if the CooKit is actually used, and also to find out how women have implemented the new technique in their kitchens. In 2005, the SUPO foundation started a project in Burkina Faso: Programme Energie Solaire Grand-Ouaga (PESGO). The aim of PESGO is to introduce the CooKit in the urban households in Ouagadougou by providing training sessions and home assistance. In this paper, a mid-term review on this small-scale cooking project is presented. The possibilities and challenges of solar cooking are outlined, taking the urban context of Ouagadougou in account. In PESGO, dependence on weather conditions is found to be one of the challenges: if sunrays are blocked by clouds or dust in the air, the cooking will be slowed down. The CooKit cannot replace firewood entirely, and a complementary element has to be found. SUPO is exploring the use of Jatropha oil as a complement to the CooKit. The Jatropha plant is drought tolerant and its fruits contain oil which can be used as fuel substitute. Further

  20. A Tilt-correction Adaptive Optical System for the Solar Telescope of Nanjing University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Hui Rao; Xiu-Fa Gao; Tian Mi; Wen-Han Jiang; Cheng Fang; Ning Ling; Wei-Chao Zhou; Ming-De Ding; Xue-Jun Zhang; Dong-Hong Chen; Mei Li


    A tilt-correction adaptive optical system installed on the 430 mm Solar Telescope of Nanjing University has been put in operation. It consists of a tip-tilt mirror, a correlation tracker and an imaging CCD camera. An absolute difference algorithm is used for detecting image motion in the correlation tracker. The sampling frequency of the system is 419 Hz. We give a description of the system's configuration, an analysis of its performance and a report of our observational results. A residual jitter of 0.14 arcsec has been achieved. The error rejection bandwidth of the system can be adjusted in the range 5-28 Hz according to the beacon size and the strength of atmospheric turbulence.

  1. Adaptive wavelet neural network for wind speed and solar power forecasting for Italian data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rakesh CHANDRA


    Full Text Available Conventional energy sources are nowadays exhausting and that is the reason why renewable energy sources are so important in current situation. In addition renewables are non-pollutant and freely available in nature. Wind and solar power are the fastest growing renewable energy sources for the past few decades, especially according to the 2020 energy strategy in Europe. They are having enough scope in the power market. The main problem with these renewable energy sources is their unpredictability and, in this context, issues like power quality and power system grid stability arise. In order to limit the effects of these issues, power market needs information about power generation at least one day in advance. This problem can be addressed by proper forecasting of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. Forecasting helps to schedule power properly. Adaptive Wavelet Neural Network (AWNN, a technique already assessed in literature for wind speed forecasting, is here applied also to solar power prediction. After forecasting each individual signal, the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE is calculated in different time horizons.

  2. Development of a new full-spectrum litho-density logging tool%新型全谱岩性密度测井仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓光; 柏林; 田彦民; 刘东友


    The paper introduces a new full-spectrum lithology density logging tool. It is capable to collect full spectrum data during well logging. This logging tool can generate a complete spectrogram, and provide more stratum information to satisfy users' needs. The logging tool is mainly based on field programmable logic device ( FPGA ) , which is practical for data collecting and processing. The pulse conditioning circuit is designed to ensure the accuracy of detection. In order to ensure real-time data transmission,the dual port RAM is applied with the use of the high-speed AD,which is applicable for data quantizing. This new full-spectrum lithology density logging tool can be widely used in well logging industry because the spectrogram is accurate and the system operation is stable after simulation experiments and system testing.%设计了1种新型全谱岩性密度测井仪.该仪器能在测井过程中对核脉冲信号进行全谱采集,可形成完整谱图,提供更多的地层信息,满足用户需要.该仪器基于现场可编译逻辑器件(FPGA)设计,用于数据采集和数据处理.为保证探测精度设计了脉冲调理电路,同时配合使用高速AD进行数字量化,采用双端口RAM技术保证数据传输的实时性.通过仿真实验和系统测试,仪器测得谱图准确,系统运行稳定,可广泛应用于生产测井.

  3. Instrument Description and Performance Evaluation of a High-Order Adaptive Optics System for the 1 m New Vacuum Solar Telescope at Fuxian Solar Observatory (United States)

    Rao, Changhui; Zhu, Lei; Rao, Xuejun; Zhang, Lanqiang; Bao, Hua; Kong, Lin; Guo, Youming; Zhong, Libo; Ma, Xue'an; Li, Mei; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Fan, Xinlong; Chen, Donghong; Feng, Zhongyi; Gu, Naiting; Liu, Yangyi


    A high-order solar adaptive optics (AO) system including a fine tracking loop and a high-order wavefront correction loop has been installed at the 1 m New Vacuum Solar Telescope of the Fuxian Solar Observatory, in routine operation since 2016. The high-order wavefront correction loop consists of a deformable mirror with 151 actuators, a correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with 102 subapertures of which the Absolute Difference Square Algorithm is used to extract the gradients, and a custom-built real-time controller based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and multi-core Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The frame rate of the wavefront sensor is up to 3500 Hz and this is, to our knowledge, the fastest solar AO system. This AO system can work with a Fried parameter r 0, at the 500 nm wavelength, of larger than 3 cm. The first 65 modes of the Zernike aberrations can be efficiently corrected and the Strehl ratio of the corrected TiO image for the solar pore is superior to 0.75 with the Fried parameter r 0 larger than 10 cm. In this paper, the design of the system is described, and high-resolution solar observational images are presented. Furthermore, the performances of the AO system are evaluated according to the data recorded by the real-time controller.

  4. 核辐射测井全能谱分析方法综述%The summarization for full spectrum analysis methods of radioactive logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文圣; 张立娟


    多元素能谱测井通过全能谱分析方法求取单个地层元素的产额,进而求取元素重量百分含量和矿物百分含量,为识别复杂油气藏岩石类型和矿物类型、建立复杂油气藏新的测井解释模型及应用正确评价方法开辟了新的途径,为地质问题和工程问题的解决提供了新的手段,全能谱分析方法研究是当前国内核辐射测井研究热点之一.本文表分析多元素能谱测井的重要意义和研究现状的基础上,归纳总结了全能谱分析方法的研究现状、实现步骤、标准元素谱的获取方法、定量解析方法、元素百分含量和矿物含量求取方法,分析了全能谱分析方法中标准元素谱获取的难点和各种定量解析方法的优缺点.%Using full spectrum analysis methods, Multi-element spectrum logging single element quantum is obtained and furtherly the element weight percent and formation mineral percent are calculated. The Logging breaks a new path to distinguish lithologies and mineral types of complicated oil and gas reservoirs for building their new interpretation models and applying reasonable evaluation methods. The Logging provides a new means for resolving geological problems and engineer problems. Full spectrum analysis methods are becoming one of the study hotspots in the China now. After analyzing the important significance and research status of multi-element spectrum logging, the paper summarizes the research status, analysis steps, gaining methods of standard element spectrums, quantitative analytic methods, the obtaining methods of element content and mineral content the characteristics, and analyzes the difficulties of standard element spectrum acquirement and the merits or demerits of quantitative analytic methods for full spectrum analysis methods. The analysis and summarization show that now in China, the research on full spectrum has been placed particular emphasis on quantitative analytic methods; there is not

  5. Source term boundary adaptive estimation in a first-order 1D hyperbolic PDE: Application to a one loop solar collector through

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra


    In this paper, boundary adaptive estimation of solar radiation in a solar collector plant is investigated. The solar collector is described by a 1D first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation where the solar radiation models the source term and only boundary measurements are available. Using boundary injection, the estimator is developed in the Lyapunov approach and consists of a combination of a state observer and a parameter adaptation law which guarantee the asymptotic convergence of the state and parameter estimation errors. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed identifier.

  6. An adaptive scale factor based MPPT algorithm for changing solar irradiation levels in outer space (United States)

    Kwan, Trevor Hocksun; Wu, Xiaofeng


    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are popularly used for maximizing the output of solar panels by continuously tracking the maximum power point (MPP) of their P-V curves, which depend both on the panel temperature and the input insolation. Various MPPT algorithms have been studied in literature, including perturb and observe (P&O), hill climbing, incremental conductance, fuzzy logic control and neural networks. This paper presents an algorithm which improves the MPP tracking performance by adaptively scaling the DC-DC converter duty cycle. The principle of the proposed algorithm is to detect the oscillation by checking the sign (ie. direction) of the duty cycle perturbation between the current and previous time steps. If there is a difference in the signs then it is clear an oscillation is present and the DC-DC converter duty cycle perturbation is subsequently scaled down by a constant factor. By repeating this process, the steady state oscillations become negligibly small which subsequently allows for a smooth steady state MPP response. To verify the proposed MPPT algorithm, a simulation involving irradiances levels that are typically encountered in outer space is conducted. Simulation and experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm is fast and stable in comparison to not only the conventional fixed step counterparts, but also to previous variable step size algorithms.

  7. Development of a Low-order Adaptive Optics System at Udaipur Solar Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. R. Bayanna; B. Kumar; R. E. Louis; P. Venkatakrishnan; S. K. Mathew


    A low-order Adaptive Optics (AO) system is being developed at the Udaipur Solar Observatory and we present in this paper the status of the project, which includes the image stabilization system and calibration of wavefront sensor and deformable mirror. The image stabilization system comprises of a piezo driven tip-tilt mirror, a high speed camera (955 fps), a frame grabber system for sensing the overall tilt and a Linux based Intel Pentium 4 control computer with Red Hat Linux OS. The system operates under PID control. In the closed loop, an rms image motion of 0.1–0.2 arcsec was observed with the improvement factor varying from 10–20 depending on the external conditions. Error rejection bandwidth of the system at 0 dB is 80–100 Hz. In addition to that, we report the on-going efforts in the calibration of lenslet array and deformable mirror for sensing and correcting the local tilt of the wavefront.

  8. A Dual-Responsive Nanocomposite toward Climate-Adaptable Solar Modulation for Energy-Saving Smart Windows. (United States)

    Lee, Heng Yeong; Cai, Yufeng; Bi, Shuguang; Liang, Yen Nan; Song, Yujie; Hu, Xiao Matthew


    In this work, a novel fully autonomous photothermotropic material made by hybridization of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel and antimony-tin oxide (ATO) is presented. In this photothermotropic system, the near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing ATO acts as nanoheater to induce the optical switching of the hydrogel. Such a new passive smart window is characterized by excellent NIR shielding, a photothermally activated switching mechanism, enhanced response speed, and solar modulation ability. Systems with 0, 5, 10, and 15 atom % Sb-doped ATO in PNIPAM were investigated, and it was found that a PNIPAM/ATO nanocomposite is able to be photothermally activated. The 10 atom % Sb-doped PNIPAM/ATO exhibits the best response speed and solar modulation ability. Different film thicknesses and ATO contents will affect the response rate and solar modulation ability. Structural stability tests at 15 cycles under continuous exposure to solar irradiation at 1 sun intensity demonstrated the performance stability of such a photothermotropic system. We conclude that such a novel photothermotropic hybrid can be used as a new generation of autonomous passive smart windows for climate-adaptable solar modulation.

  9. A 13µW 87dB dynamic range implantable ΔΣ modulator for full-spectrum neural recording. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Islam, Md Kafiul; Wang, Shuo; Yang, Zhi


    Experiment analysis on in-vivo data sequences suggests a wide system dynamic range (DR) is required to simultaneously record local field potentials (LFPs), extra-cellular spikes, and artifacts/interferences. In this paper, we present a 13 µW 87 dB DR ΔΣ modulator for full-spectrum neural recording. To achieve a wide DR and low power consumption, a fully-differential topology is used with multi-bit (MB) quantization scheme and switched-opamp (SO) technique. By adopting a novel fully-clocked scheme, a power-efficient current-mirror SO is developed with 50% power saving, which doubles the figure-of-merit (FOM) over its counterpart. A new static power-less multi-bit quantizer with 96% power and 69% area reduction is also introduced. Besides, instead of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor, three high-density MOS capacitor (MOSCAP) structures are employed to reduce circuit area. Measurement results show a peak signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) of 85 dB with 10 kHz bandwidth at 1.0 V supply, corresponding to an FOM of 45 fJ/conv.-step. which is implemented in a 0.18 µm CMOS.

  10. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; Saad, Ahmed S.; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi


    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models.

  11. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek eWierzchos


    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits – conceptually called rock’s habitable architecture. Additionally self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another

  12. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert. (United States)

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen


    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits-conceptually called "rock's habitable architecture." Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of adaptation.

  13. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert (United States)

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F.; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen


    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits—conceptually called “rock's habitable architecture.” Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of

  14. Describing the light intensity dependence of polymer : fullerene solar cells using an adapted Shockley diode model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L. H.; Veenstra, S. C.; Kroon, J. M.; Verhees, W.; Koster, L. J. A.; Galagan, Y.


    Solar cells are generally optimised for operation under AM1.5 100 mW cm(-2) conditions. This is also typically done for polymer solar cells. However, one of the entry markets for this emerging technology is portable electronics. For this market, the spectral shape and intensity of typical illuminati

  15. Characterizing a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of ginsenosides rb1 and rg1 to be proposed as standard reference materials. (United States)

    Kim, Il-Woung; Hong, Hee-Do; Choi, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Da-Hye; Her, Youl; Kim, Si-Kwan


    Good manufacturing practice (GMP)-based quality control is an integral component of the common technical document, a formal documentation process for applying a marketing authorization holder to those countries where ginseng is classified as a medicine. In addition, authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenoside reference materials, and qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures are prerequisites for certifying GMP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose an authentication process for isolated ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as reference materials (RM) and for these compounds to be designated as RMs for ginseng preparations throughout the world. Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of the isolated ginsenosides was made according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantitation, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides were proven to be a single compound when analyzed by three different HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.940% for Rb1 and 0.485% for Rg1, meaning that the net mass balance for ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were 99.060% and 99.515%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physicochemical properties for the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.

  16. Adaptive Control of the Packet Transmission Period with Solar Energy Harvesting Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kideok Kwon


    Full Text Available A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  17. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    , such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...

  18. Dynamic event Tress applied to sequences Full Spectrum LOCA. Calculating the frequency of exceedance of damage by integrated Safety Analysis Methodology; Arboles de sucesos dinamicos aplicados a secuencias Full Spectrum LOCA. Calculo de la frequencia de excedencia del dano mediante la metodologia Analisis Integrados de Seguridad (ISA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Magan, J. J.; Fernandez, I.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.; Queral, C.; Gonzalez-Cadelo, J.; Montero-Mayorga, J.; Rivas, J.; Ibane-Llano, C.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Melendez, E.; Hortal, J.


    The Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) methodology, developed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety council (CSN), has been applied to obtain the dynamic Event Trees (DETs) for full spectrum Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) of a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR plant. The purpose of this ISA application is to obtain the Damage Exceedance Frequency (DEF) for the LOCA Event Tree by taking into account the uncertainties in the break area and the operator actuation time needed to cool down and de pressurize reactor coolant system by means of steam generator. Simulations are performed with SCAIS, a software tool which includes a dynamic coupling with MAAP thermal hydraulic code. The results show the capability of the ISA methodology to obtain the DEF taking into account the time uncertainty in human actions. (Author)

  19. Adapting to an innovation: Solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonen, H.M.


    Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar

  20. Modeling the Corona and Solar Wind using ADAPT Maps that Include Far-Side Observations (United States)


    document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government formulated...Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...Los Alamos National Laboratory ( LANL ) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO), has developed a model that produces more realistic estimates of the

  1. My Solar System: A Developmentally Adapted Eco-Mapping Technique for Children (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Fazio-Griffith, Laura J.; Rohr, Shannon N.


    Counseling children requires specific skills and techniques, such as play therapy and expressive arts, to address developmental manifestations and to facilitate the understanding of presenting problems. This article outlines an adapted eco-mapping activity that can be used as a creative counseling technique with children in order to promote…

  2. The Palomar/Keck Adaptive Optics Survey of Young Solar Analogs: Evidence for a Universal Companion Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Metchev, Stanimir


    We present results from an adaptive optics survey for substellar and stellar companions to Sun-like stars. The survey targeted 266 F5-K5 stars in the 3Myr to 3Gyr age range with distances of 10-190pc. Results from the survey include the discovery of two brown dwarf companions (HD49197B and HD203030B), 24 new stellar binaries, and a triple system. We infer that the frequency of 0.012-0.072Msun brown dwarfs in 28-1590AU orbits around young solar analogs is 3.2% (+3.1%,-2.7%; 2sigma limits). The result demonstrates that the deficiency of substellar companions at wide orbital separations from Sun-like stars is less pronounced than in the radial velocity "brown dwarf desert." We infer that the mass distribution of companions in 28-1590AU orbits around solar-mass stars follows a continuous dN/dM_2 ~ M_2^(-0.4) relation over the 0.01-1.0Msun secondary mass range, and that it differs significantly from the mass function of isolated objects. Based on this conclusion and on similar results from other direct imaging and...

  3. Evaluation of artificial neural network (ANN and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS methods in prediction of global solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Sabziparvar


    Full Text Available Solar radiation is an important climate parameter which can affect hydrological and meteorological processes. This parameter is a key element in development of solar energy application studies. The purpose of this study is the assessment of artificial intelligence techniques in prediction of solar radiation (Rs using artificial neural network (ANN and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Minimum temperature, maximum temperature, average relative humidity, sunshine hours and daily solar radiation recorded in four synoptic stations (Esfahan, Urmieh, Shiraz and Kerman were used during the period 1992-2006. The results showed that ANN and ANFIS intelligent models are powerful tools in prediction of global solar radiation for the selected stations. Prediction by ANN was found to be more accurate than ANFIS. Also, the accuracy of prediction in Kerman with higher sunny hours was better than other stations (R2> 0.9. Additionally, using linear regression model, the most effective factors affecting Rs in each site was introduced. The results revealed that sunshine hour is the most important determining parameter affecting surface solar radiation. In contrast, in most sites minimum air temperature and mean relative humidity showed the least effect on surface global solar radiation.

  4. Precision in ground based solar polarimetry: Simulating the role of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaraju, K


    Accurate measurement of polarization in spectral lines is important for the reliable inference of magnetic fields on the Sun. For ground based observations, polarimetric precision is severely limited by the presence of Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulence (seeing) produces signal fluctuations which combined with the non-simultaneous nature of the measurement process cause intermixing of the Stokes parameters known as seeing induced polarization cross-talk. Previous analysis of this effect (Judge et al., 2004) suggests that cross-talk is reduced not only with increase in modulation frequency but also by compensating the seeing induced image aberrations by an Adaptive Optics (AO) system. However, in those studies the effect of higher order image aberrations than those corrected by the AO system was not taken into account. We present in this paper an analysis of seeing induced cross-talk in the presence of higher order image aberrations through numerical simulation. In this analysis we find that the amount...

  5. Full spectrum millimeter-wave modulation. (United States)

    Macario, Julien; Yao, Peng; Shi, Shouyuan; Zablocki, Alicia; Harrity, Charles; Martin, Richard D; Schuetz, Christopher A; Prather, Dennis W


    In recent years, the development of new lithium niobate electro-optic modulator designs and material processing techniques have contributed to support the increasing need for faster optical networks by considerably extending the operational bandwidth of modulators. In an effort to provide higher bandwidths for future generations of networks, we have developed a lithium niobate electro-optic phase modulator based on a coplanar waveguide ridged structure that operates up to 300 GHz. By thinning the lithium niobate substrate down to less than 39 µm, we are able to eliminate substrate modes and observe optical sidebands over the full millimeter-wave spectrum.

  6. Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria for Rotorcraft (United States)


    Technicians , Part 27 Airworthiness Standard: Normal Category Rotorcraft,” Federal Aviation Administration. [49] a. L. J. Polanco M.A., “Vertical Drop...Evaluation using Integrated Vehicle and Occupant Finite Element Models,” vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 387-397, 2001. [106] M. a. L. J. D. Polanco , “Vertical Drop

  7. Preliminary Rotary Wing Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria (United States)


    of the fuselage (preserving a survivable space) as well as provides controlled downward and outward displacement of the massive nacelles and...Another sensor technology candidate is ’see and remember’ technology which uses LIDAR to detect obstructions (before the DVE develops) and create a...JFTL Joint Future Theater Lift JMR Joint Multi-Role LIDAR LIght Detection And Ranging LS-DYNA Software code developed by LSTC Software, Inc. M&S

  8. Full Spectrum Operations: A Running Start (United States)


    to destroy bacteria and viruses include: electro dialysis (electric current and ion exchange), oxidation (treatment with ozone ), and photo-oxidation...better, more thorough, albeit less conveniently measured method, such as using UV, ozone , or electrolysis. Also, if RO is unnecessary for desalination...Online database. November 2008. 50 Global Healing Center. Internet Article, “Chlorine, Cancer, And

  9. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chandrasekhar


    Full Text Available Context: Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Settings and Design: Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45, a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. Statistical Analysis: t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001 in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006 in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the

  10. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura [Institute of Technical Physics of the University of Cagliari, via Marengo 1, 09123 Cagliari (Italy)


    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  11. Describing the light intensity dependence of polymer:fullerene solar cells using an adapted Shockley diode model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Verhees, W.; Koster, L.J.A.; Galagan, Y.


    Solar cells are generally optimised for operation under AM1.5 100 mW cm-2 conditions. This is also typically done for polymer solar cells. However, one of the entry markets for this emerging technology is portable electronics. For this market, the spectral shape and intensity of typical illumination

  12. [Study on the method for the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current arc full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES)]. (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-hong; Yao, Jian-zhen; Tang, Rui-ling; Zhang, Xue-mei; Li, Wen-ge; Zhang, Qin


    The method for the determmation of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES) was established. Direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectrometer with a large area of solid-state detectors has functions of full spectrum direct reading and real-time background correction. The new electrodes and new buffer recipe were proposed in this paper, and have applied for national patent. Suitable analytical line pairs, back ground correcting points of elements and the internal standard method were selected, and Ge was used as internal standard. Multistage currents were selected in the research on current program, and each current set different holding time to ensure that each element has a good signal to noise ratio. Continuous rising current mode selected can effectively eliminate the splash of the sample. Argon as shielding gas can eliminate CN band generating and reduce spectral background, also plays a role in stabilizing the are, and argon flow 3.5 L x min(-1) was selected. Evaporation curve of each element was made, and it was concluded that the evaporation behavior of each element is consistent, and combined with the effects of different spectrographic times on the intensity and background, the spectrographic time of 35s was selected. In this paper, national standards substances were selected as a standard series, and the standard series includes different nature and different content of standard substances which meet the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples. In the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limits for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 1.1, 0.09, 0.01, 0.41, and 0.56 microg x g(-1) respectively, and the precisions (RSD, n=12) for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 4.57%-7.63%, 5.14%-7.75%, 5.48%-12.30%, 3.97%-10.46%, and 4.26%-9.21% respectively. The analytical accuracy was

  13. Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system models for prediction of forest fires in the usa on the basis of solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.


    Full Text Available In this research we search for a functional dependence between the occurrence of forest fires in the USA and the factors which characterize the solar activity. For this purpose we used several methods (R/S analysis, Hurst index to establish potential links between the influx of some parameters from the sun and the occurrence of forest fires with lag of several days. We found evidence for a connection and developed a prognostic scenario based on the Adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system (ANFIS technique. This scenario allows the prediction between 79-93% of forest fires. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007

  14. The theoretical study of full spectrum analysis method for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data%航空伽玛射线全能谱数据分析方法的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Spectra of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry was found to be the synthesis of spectral components of radioelement sources by analyzing the constitution of radioactive sources for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey and establishing the models of gamma-ray measurement. The mathematical equation for analysising airborne gamma-ray full spectrometric data can be expressed into matrix and related expansions were developed for the mineral resources exploration, environmental radiaction measurement, nuclear emergency monitoring, and so on. Theoretical study showed that the atmospheric radon could be directly computed by airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data with full spectrum analysis without the use of the accessional upward-looking detectors.%通过航空伽玛能谱测量的源项分析和测量模型建立,发现航空伽玛能谱测量谱是各种源项能谱成分的合成谱。对航空伽玛射线全能谱分析方法给出了其数学分析式,其通用式可表示为矩阵式,对于矿产勘查和核环境与核应急等不同的应用领域能表达成相应的展开式。理论研究表明,航空伽玛全谱法不需要附加的上测探测器,就可直接解决大气氡修正问题,还将具有较好的经济效益。

  15. Development of single crystal CdTe solar cell for terrestrial application, adapted for use in optical concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.; Fuessl, B.; Seipp, E.; Thiel, R.


    During the first phase of the contract most of the work was done in order to optimize the most important structural elements of the solar cells, which were produced on the base of crystalline CdTe. Two approaches in development of such cells were made. In the first, n-CdTe crystals were covered with a p-type heterolayer as a window for sunlight; ZnTe was evaporated as a p-type layer. In the second, p-CdTe crystals were covered with a n-type heterolayer as a window. Here, CdS evaporation layers and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) sputtered layers were applied. Within the first approach the realization of ZnTe-layers simultaneously highly conductive and transparent was tried by using numerous dopants. Success finally was attained in July. Within the second approach, the development of p-CdTe/n-CdS solar cells, the resistances of the ohmic contacts on the back of the p-CdTe wafers were a major problem. We found some ways of preparing ohmic contacts of acceptable contact resistance, but an ideal problem solution is lacking still. We found a dependence of the contact resistance on the p-CdTe doping concentration. Solar cells made from p-CdTe crystals covered with nn/sup +/-CdS attained on open circuit voltage of 655 mV and a short circuit current density of 13,8 mA/cm/sup 2/ in a 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ light. Assuming a sufficiently low series resistance we expect an efficiency of about 6 percent. Besides the /sup +/-CdS layers n/sup +/-ITO-layers (indium-tin-oxide) were deposited on p-CdTe by sputtering. These cells exhibit a short circuit density a little higher but a lower open circuit voltage than the heterosolarcells with n/sup +/-CdS.

  16. An adaptive information technology for the operative diagnostics of the tropical cyclones; solar-terrestrial coupling mechanisms (United States)

    Krapivin, Vladimir F.; Soldatov, Vladimir Yu.; Varotsos, Costas A.; Cracknell, Arthur P.


    The tools of sequential analysis and percolation theory are herewith used to study the transition processes in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. To accomplish this aim the recently proposed instability indicator for the detection of the characteristics of the state for this system, is utilized. In more detail, the case of the transition processes for Baltic Sea assessed by the Beaufort Scale is examined by investigating the efficiency of the afore-mentioned indicator.We show that the crucial parameter is not the energy source, like the solar radiation, but the energy conversion. Numerical experiments conducted herewith showed that such an indicator facilitates the monitoring of the variability and direction of transition processes in the oceans, and is capable to predict a remarkable change of the ocean-atmosphere system states. It is finally shown that the combination of sequential and cluster analysis with the percolation procedure allows for the detection of a tropical hurricane up to three days in advance of its start. The tool presented may also be applied to the development of relevant indicators for the predictions of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and the solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. Finally, future problems on the subject are discussed.

  17. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system: enabling high-contrast imaging on solar-system scales

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, N; Guyon, O; Clergeon, C; Singh, G; Kudo, T; Garrel, V; Newman, K; Doughty, D; Lozi, J; Males, J; Minowa, Y; Hayano, Y; Takato, N; Morino, J; Kuhn, J; Serabyn, E; Norris, B; Tuthill, P; Schworer, G; Stewart, P; Close, L; Huby, E; Perrin, G; Lacour, S; Gauchet, L; Vievard, S; Murakami, N; Oshiyama, F; Baba, N; Matsuo, T; Nishikawa, J; Tamura, M; Lai, O; Marchis, F; Duchene, G; Kotani, T; Woillez, J


    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and serves as a testbed for high-contrast imaging technologies for ELTs. It is a multi-band instrument which makes use of light from 600 to 2500nm allowing for coronagraphic direct exoplanet imaging of the inner 3 lambda/D from the stellar host. Wavefront sensing and control are key to the operation of SCExAO. A partial correction of low-order modes is provided by Subaru's facility adaptive optics system with the final correction, including high-order modes, implemented downstream by a combination of a visible pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000-element deformable mirror. The well corrected NIR (y-K bands) wavefronts can then be injected into any of the available coronagraphs, including but not limited to the phase induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs, both of which offer an inner worki...

  18. Power Adaptive Data Encryption for Energy-Efficient and Secure Communication in Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Kim


    Full Text Available Basic security of data transmission in battery-powered wireless sensor networks (WSNs is typically achieved by symmetric-key encryption, which uses little energy; but solar-powered WSNs sometimes have sufficient energy to achieve a higher level of security through public-key encryption. However, if energy input and usage are not balanced, nodes may black out. By switching between symmetric-key and public-key encryption, based on an energy threshold, the level of security can be traded off against the urgency of energy-saving. This policy can also reduce the amount of energy used by some nodes in a WSN, since data encrypted using a public-key is simply relayed by intermediate nodes, whereas data encrypted using a symmetric-key must be decrypted and reencrypted in every node on its path. Through a simulation, we compared the use of either symmetric-key or public-key encryption alone with our scheme, which was shown to be more secure, to use energy more effectively, and to reduce the occurrence of node blackouts.

  19. Photon upconversion for thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, J.


    In this research one of the many possible methods to increase the efficiency of solar cells is described. The method investigated is based on adapting the solar light in such a way that the solar cell can convert more light into electricity. The part of the solar spectrum that is adapted is the part

  20. Solar mobile power supply


    Hu, Libian


    The solar mobile power supply is a comprehensive energy saving and environment protective product. Besides, it consists of solar panels, storage battery and controller as well as other important components. Based on the traditional solar charging circuit, this solar power supply combines the 5V USB interface and 12V adjustable circuit as well as the 220V inverter and power adapter to greatly improve the function of the power system.

  1. Multifluid Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar Wind Roe-Type Upwind Scheme: Magnetospheric Composition and Dynamics During Geomagnetic Storms-Initial Results (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Toth, G.; Ma, Y.; Gombosi, T.; Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L. M.


    The magnetosphere contains a significant amount of ionospheric O+, particularly during geomagnetically active times. The presence of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere has a notable impact on magnetospheric composition and processes. We present a new multifluid MHD version of the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme model of the magnetosphere to track the fate and consequences of ionospheric outflow. The multifluid MHD equations are presented as are the novel techniques for overcoming the formidable challenges associated with solving them. Our new model is then applied to the May 4, 1998 and March 31, 2001 geomagnetic storms. The results are juxtaposed with traditional single-fluid MHD and multispecies MHD simulations from a previous study, thereby allowing us to assess the benefits of using a more complex model with additional physics. We find that our multifluid MHD model (with outflow) gives comparable results to the multispecies MHD model (with outflow), including a more strongly negative Dst, reduced CPCP, and a drastically improved magnetic field at geosynchronous orbit, as compared to single-fluid MHD with no outflow. Significant differences in composition and magnetic field are found between the multispecies and multifluid approach further away from the Earth. We further demonstrate the ability to explore pressure and bulk velocity differences between H+ and O+, which is not possible when utilizing the other techniques considered

  2. 全谱反演技术在山基掩星数据处理中的应用%Full Spectrum Inversion of Mountain-based GPS Occultation Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范磊; 孙守勋; 王也英; 于江龙; 李博


    receiver are obtained from occultation data by this method. A novel Full Spectrum Inversion (FSI) is also applied for mountain-based occultation data, which can deal with the multi-path effects frequently occurring in the lower atmosphere, while the traditional method usually becomes inefficient here. FSI provides a simple and efficient tool for deriving the instantaneous frequencies of a signal composed of several narrow banded sub-signals. When certain criteria are fulfilled, FSI is capable of resolving the frequency variation of each signal component. Since FSI is based on the Fourier transform of the entire signal, the problem that different signals get to the GPS receiver at the same time in multi-path regions is thus solved. Refractivity profiles below the receiver are also obtained by FSI. The comparisons of the refractivity obtained from the same GPS radio occultation events indicate that with FSI method, the precision has been improved by 2%, and the standard deviation is less than 3%. The refractivity differences between FSI and radiosonde are also achieved in a time window of 1. 5 h and azimuth angle window of 40°, the comparison results show that the mean refractivity relative deviation is -8. 15% with a standard deviation of 1. 4%. The results suggest that the FSI is an efficient inversion scheme for mountain-based GPS radio occultation data. In the future, further research will be carried out on how to improve the inversion precision, and use this method in space GPS radio occultation data.

  3. 柔性太阳能帆板振动变论域白适应模糊控制%Vibration Control of Flexible Solar Panel Based on Variable Universe Adaptive Fuzzy Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许睿; 李东旭


    The fuzzy vibration control for the flexible solar panel with piezoelectric smart structure was studied in this paper. The dynamical equations of the solar panel were derived. Based on period variable universe, a variable universe adaptive fuzzy controller was designed according to the speciality of the vibration, which improved precision and adaptive ability of fuzzy control. The simulation results showed that the variable universe adaptive fuzzy controller could suppress the vibrations of the flexible spacecraft solar panel effectively, and it was better than the simple fuzzy controller.%研究了有压电智能结构的柔性太阳能帆板振动的模糊控制。建立了帆板的动力学方程,针对振动问题的特殊性,采用周期变论域设计了变论域自适应模糊控制器,提高了模糊控制的精度和自适应性能。仿真结果表明:变论域自适应模糊控制能有效抑制柔性太阳能帆板的振动,并明显优于简单模糊控制。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana


    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  5. Full-Spectrum Flexible Color Printing at the Diffraction Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Richner, Patrizia; Lendenmann, Tobias; Kress, Stephan J P; Kim, David K; Norris, David J; Poulikakos, Dimos


    Color printing at the diffraction limit has been recently explored by fabricating nanoscale plasmonic structures with electron beam lithography. However, only a limited color range and constant intensity throughout the structure have been demonstrated. Here we show an alternative, facile approach relying on the direct, open-atmosphere electrohydrodynamic rapid nanodrip printing of controlled amounts of red, green and blue (RGB) quantum dots at a resolution of 250 nm. The narrow emission spectrum of the dots allows the coverage of a very broad color space, exceeding standard RGB (sRGB) of modern display devices. We print color gradients of variable intensity, which to date could not be achieved with diffraction-limited resolution. Showcasing the capabilities of the technology, we present a photo-realistic printed image of a colorful parrot with a pixel size of 250 nm.

  6. Gauging the Fullness of our Full Spectrum Operations (United States)


    1 Boyd L. Daystrup, The US Army Command and General Staff College: A Centennial History (Manhattan, KS: Sunflower University Press, 1982), 11-12...reinforced the dichotomy between conventional war and everything else. When FM 100-5 addressed the range of operations it said, “The prime focus of the... Sunflower University Press, 1982. Doughty, Robert A. The Evolution of US Army Tactical Doctrine, 1946-1976. Combat Studies Institute, Fort

  7. Full Spectrum Training and Development: Soldier Skills and Attributes (United States)


    Technical Services Technical Review by Christopher L. Vowels , U.S. Army Research Institute Peter B. Schaefer, U.S. Army Research Institute... assimilating the information. 15 Figure 6. Major sections of Instructor’s Guide. Formative Evaluation The goal of the formative evaluation

  8. Embracing a Full Spectrum Definition of Art Therapy (United States)

    Spooner, Heather


    In this viewpoint the author makes a case for developing a clear and concise definition of art therapy that can easily be adopted by art therapists working across a spectrum of theoretical frameworks. The reader is asked to widen the lens through which art therapy is defined by considering its influence on society, the mind, health, and behavior.…

  9. Infrascope: Full-Spectrum Phonocardiography with Automated Signal Analysis Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using digital signal analysis tools, we will generate a repeatable output from the infrascope and compare it to the output of a traditional electrocardiogram, and...

  10. Method of adaptive pole assignment control of spacecraft with solar sail%太阳帆飞行器自适应极点配置控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱锋; 杨星; 张莹


    The spacecraft with solar sail has specific requirements for its actuator. The control rod and bias momentum reac-tion flywheel are studied in this paper. Physical model of the attitude control system and attitude dynamics model of the solar sail are analyzed. As for this kind of model,the robust pole assignment method is used to design the adaptive controller and atti-tude control system of the spacecraft with solar sail. The attitude correction of attitude control system is studied by means of nu-merical simulation. The results show that the control system which adopts robust adaptive pole assignment control method can make the spacevehicle realize large angle attitude control.%太阳帆航天器对执行机构有着特定的要求,在此基于控制杆和偏置动量反作用飞轮展开研究,就姿态控制系统的物理模型及太阳帆的姿态动力学模型进行分析。并针对此类模型,利用鲁棒极点配置方法设计自适应控制器及太阳帆航天器姿态控制系统,通过数值仿真研究姿态控制中的姿态纠偏。结果表明,采用自适应鲁棒极点配置控制方法的控制系统能够使飞行器能够较快实现大角度的姿态控制要求。

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Corona (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Flares (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. Solar Indices Forecasting Tool (United States)

    Henney, Carl John; Shurkin, Kathleen; Arge, Charles; Hill, Frank


    Progress to forecast key space weather parameters using SIFT (Solar Indices Forecasting Tool) with the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model is highlighted in this presentation. Using a magnetic flux transport model, ADAPT, we estimate the solar near-side field distribution that is used as input into empirical models for predicting F10.7(solar 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, radio flux), the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, and selected bands of solar far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Input to the ADAPT model includes the inferred photospheric magnetic field from the NISP ground-based instruments, GONG & VSM. Besides a status update regarding ADAPT and SIFT models, we will summarize the findings that: 1) the sum of the absolute value of strong magnetic fields, associated with sunspots, is shown to correlate well with the observed daily F10.7 variability (Henney et al. 2012); and 2) the sum of the absolute value of weak magnetic fields, associated with plage regions, is shown to correlate well with EUV and FUV irradiance variability (Henney et al. 2015). This work utilizes data produced collaboratively between Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The ADAPT model development is supported by AFRL. The input data utilized by ADAPT is obtained by NISP (NSO Integrated Synoptic Program). NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The 10.7 cm solar radio flux data service, utilized by the ADAPT/SIFT F10.7 forecasting model, is operated by the National Research Council of Canada and National Resources Canada, with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  16. Facile realization of efficient blocking from ZnO/TiO2 mismatch interface in dye-sensitized solar cells and precise microscopic modeling adapted by circuit analysis (United States)

    Ameri, Mohsen; Samavat, Feridoun; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Fathollahi, Mohammad-Reza


    In the present research, the effect of \\text{ZnO} -based blocking layers on the operational features of \\text{Ti}{{\\text{O}}2} -based dye-sensitized solar cells is investigated. A facile solution-based coating method is applied to prepare an interfacial highly transparent \\text{ZnO} compact blocking layer (CBL) to enhance the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Different precursor molar concentration were tested to find the optimum concentration. Optical and electrical measurements were carried out to confirm the operation of the CBLs. Morphological characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the structure of the compact layers. We have also developed a set of modeling procedures to extract the effective electrical parameters including the parasitic resistances and charged carrier profiles to investigate the effect of CBLs on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance. The adopted modeling approach should establish a versatile framework for diagnosis of DSSCs and facilitates the exploration of critical factors influencing device performance.

  17. Solar building


    Zhang, Luxin


    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  18. Luminescent Solar Concentrators--a review of recent results. (United States)

    van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Barnham, Keith W J; Slooff, Lenneke H; Chatten, Amanda J; Büchtemann, Andreas; Meyer, Andreas; McCormack, Sarah J; Koole, Rolf; Farrell, Daniel J; Bose, Rahul; Bende, Evert E; Burgers, Antonius R; Budel, Tristram; Quilitz, Jana; Kennedy, Manus; Meyer, Toby; Donegá, C De Mello; Meijerink, Andries; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel


    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) generally consist of transparent polymer sheets doped with luminescent species. Incident sunlight is absorbed by the luminescent species and emitted with high quantum efficiency, such that emitted light is trapped in the sheet and travels to the edges where it can be collected by solar cells. LSCs offer potentially lower cost per Wp. This paper reviews results mainly obtained within the framework of the Full-spectrum project. Two modeling approaches are presented, i.e., a thermodynamic and a ray-trace one, as well as experimental results, with a focus on LSC stability.

  19. Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.


    This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

  20. Practical considerations for adaptive trial design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, José; Kuznetsova, Olga


    This edited volume is a definitive text on adaptive clinical trial designs from creation and customization to utilization. As this book covers the full spectrum of topics involved in the adaptive designs arena, it will serve as a valuable reference for researchers working in industry, government and academia. The target audience is anyone involved in the planning and execution of clinical trials, in particular, statisticians, clinicians, pharmacometricians, clinical operation specialists, drug supply managers, and infrastructure providers.  In spite of the increased efficiency of adaptive trials in saving costs and time, ultimately getting drugs to patients sooner, their adoption in clinical development is still relatively low.  One of the chief reasons is the higher complexity of adaptive design trials as compared to traditional trials. Barriers to the use of clinical trials with adaptive features include the concerns about the integrity of study design and conduct, the risk of regulatory non-acceptance, t...

  1. Solar Features - Solar Flares (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  2. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.


    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  3. Solar Energy. (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  4. Solar energy (United States)

    Rapp, D.


    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  5. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander


    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  6. New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With its pure aperture up to 985mm, the New Vacuum Solar Telescope of China (NVST) has become the world's biggest vacuum solar telescope. The main science task of NVST is the high-resolution observation of photosphere and chromosphere including their fine structure of magnetic field on the sun. The NVST was equipped with many new technologies and powerful instruments, such as an adaptive optical system, a polarization analyzer, two vertical spectrographs, a high-resolution image system and a very narrow Ha filter (0.125A).

  7. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper


    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  8. Screening of LED light source of the adapter solar trap lamp for trapping the citrus psyllid%适配太阳能诱虫器诱杀柑橘木虱LED光源的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄杰; 范国成; 胡菡青; 阮传清; 蔡子坚; Xia Yulu; 杜云贵; 刘波


    The citrus psyllid is the vector of Huanglongbing.In order to control citrus psyllid and prevent disease,screening of LED light source adapter solar trap lamp for citrus psyllid by using reaction vessel of insect behavior was carried out in the laboratory.The results showed that the phototaxis of 1 800 1x and 4 310 lx blue and green light sources (wavelength 460 nm and 531 nm) were best on the illumination duration of 17 h.It was also found that the phototaxis of citrus psyllid adults was positively correlated with light intensity and light duration under the same wavelength condition.It might provide an effective theoretical basis for the LED light source for forecasting and trapping citrus psyllid in the field in the future.%柑橘木虱(Dia phorina citri)是柑橘黄龙病的传播媒介.为达到治虫防病的目的,在室内利用昆虫行为反应器开展适配太阳能诱虫器的LED光源筛选,结果表明:柑橘木虱成虫对光照强度分别为1 800 lx和4 310 lx的蓝光和绿光(波长分别为460 nm和531 nm)在光照时长为17 h时的趋光性最佳,相同波长条件下,其趋光性与光照强度和光照时长成正相关.该研究结果为进一步探索适宜田间柑橘木虱测报和高效诱杀的LED光源提供理论依据.

  9. Solar Collectors (United States)


    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  10. Solar Imagery (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  11. Solar Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Features (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  13. ADAPT Dataset (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  14. Solar urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C


    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  15. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. Solar flair. (United States)

    Manuel, John S


    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams.

  17. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics. (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  18. A New Multi-Agent Approach to Adaptive E-Education (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cheng, Peng

    Improving customer satisfaction degree is important in e-Education. This paper describes a new approach to adaptive e-Education taking into account the full spectrum of Web service techniques and activities. It presents a multi-agents architecture based on artificial psychology techniques, which makes the e-Education process both adaptable and dynamic, and hence up-to-date. Knowledge base techniques are used to support the e-Education process, and artificial psychology techniques to deal with user psychology, which makes the e-Education system more effective and satisfying.

  19. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))


    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  20. European Solar Telescope: Progress status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.


    In this paper, the present status of the development of the design of the European Solar Telescope is described. The telescope is devised to have the best possible angular resolution and polarimetric performance, maximizing the throughput of the whole system. To that aim, adaptive optics and multi-c

  1. Toothbrush Adaptations. (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1987


    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  2. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible a...

  3. Simulations of Solar Jets (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmosphere, the solar wind acceleration, and the complexities of heat transfer throughout the corona.In the authors simulations, a jet is initiated as a magnetic dipole rotates at the solar surface, winding up field lines. Magnetic reconnection between the twisted lines and the background field then launches the jet from the dense and hot solar

  4. Hedonic "adaptation"



    People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to d...

  5. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul


    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  6. Solar Photovoltaic


    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng


    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  7. Solar Simulator (United States)


    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  8. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz


    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  9. Solar powered headwear fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsh, G.B.; Volk, S.; Cirrito, W.; Brann, D.


    A fan assembly is described. A housing is adapted for resting on an exterior surface of headwear. A fan mounted in the housing at one end of the housing is adapted for forcing air through an opening defined in a forward protuberance of the headwear. Solar cell means are mounted on the housing at another end of the housing opposite to and remote from the one end for powering the fan means and adapted for resting on a crown of the headwear. Vent means are defined by the housing for allowing air to be sucked into the housing and forced out of the housing when the power means drive the fan means. Mounting means are defined by the housing, including hinge means for removably mounting the modular fan assembly on an exterior surface of the headwear. A portion of the housing occupies a substantial distance between the fan means and the solar cell means. Display means are defined by the portion of the housing between the power means and the fan means for displaying of decorative graphic material.

  10. Solar Sprint (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen


    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  11. Development of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model for solar corona and solar wind simulation (United States)

    Yuan, Xingqiu; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Boteler, David

    Propagation of coronal mass ejections from solar surface to the Earth magnetosphere is strongly influenced by the conditions in solar corona and ambient solar wind. Thus, reliable simulation of the background solar wind is the primary task toward the development of numerical model for the transient events. In this paper we introduce a new numerical model which has been specifically designed for numerical study of the solar corona and ambient solar wind. This model is based on our recently developed three-dimensional Spherical Coordinate Adaptive Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) code (SCA-MHD-3D) [Yuan et al., 2009]. Modifications has been done to include the observed magnetic field at the photosphere as inner boundary conditions. The energy source term together with reduced plasma gamma are used in the nonlinear MHD equations in order to simulate the solar wind acceleration from subsonic speed at solar surface to supersonic speed at the inter-heliosphere region, and the absorbing boundary conditions are used at the solar surface. This model has been applied to simulate the background solar wind condition for several different solar rotations, and comparison between the observation and model output have shown that it reproduces many features of solar wind, including open and closed magnetic fields, fast and slow solar wind speed, sector boundaries, etc.

  12. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Rose, Mette


    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  13. Automated solar module assembly line (United States)

    Bycer, M.


    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  14. Calculation of the frequency of excedence in Full Spectrum LOCA by FSR; Calculo de la Frecuencia de excedencia en Full Spectrum LOCA mediante metodologia ISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Magan, J. J.; Queral Salazar, C.; Sanchez Perea, M.


    In this application LOCA sequences was taken into account the uncertainty in the size of rupture and the operator action times as cooling and depressurization through steam generators. The simulations were performed using the tool SCAIS, dynamically coupled with MAAP code.

  15. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  16. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  17. Increasing the efficiency of solar thermal panels (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Latinović, T.; Dobrnjac, S.; Živković, P.


    The popularity of solar heating systems is increasing for several reasons. These systems are reliable, adaptable and pollution-free, because the renewable solar energy is used. There are many variants of solar systems in the market mainly constructed with copper pipes and absorbers with different quality of absorption surface. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions, in order to increase efficiency and improve the design of solar panel, the innovative solution has been done. This new solar panel presents connection of an attractive design and the use of constructive appropriate materials with special geometric shapes. Hydraulic and thermotechnical tests that have been performed on this panel showed high hydraulic and structural stability. Further development of the solar panel will be done in the future in order to improve some noticed disadvantages.

  18. Reconstruction of the solar spectral UV irradiance for nowcasting of the middle atmosphere state on the basis of LYRA measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Egorova


    Full Text Available The LYRA instrument onboard ESA PROBA2 satellite will provide 6-hourly solar irradiance at the Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm and the Herzberg continuum (~200–220 nm wavelength range. Because the nowcasting of the neutral and ionic state of the middle atmosphere requires the solar irradiance for the wide spectral area (120–680 nm we have developed the statistical tool for the reconstruction of the full spectrum from the LYRA measurements. The accuracy of the reconstructed irradiance has been evaluated with 1-D transient radiative-convective model with neutral and ion chemistry using the daily solar spectral irradiance measured with SUSIM and SOLSTICE instruments onboard UARS satellite. We compared the results of transient 1-yr long model simulations for 2000 driven by the observed and reconstructed solar irradiance and showed that the reconstruction of the full spectrum using linear regression equation based on the solar irradiance in two LYRA channels can be successfully used for nowcasting of the middle atmosphere. We have also defined some conditions when the proposed approach does not provide reasonable accuracy.

  19. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn


    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  20. Solar Nexus. (United States)

    Murphy, Jim


    The design team for the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has pushed the state of the energy art to its current limits for the initial phase, with provisions for foreseeable and even speculative future applications. (Author/MLF)

  1. Solar Radio (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  2. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin


    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  3. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul


    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  4. Experiment Based Teaching of Solar Cell Operation and Characterization Using the SolarLab Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas


    Experiment based teaching methods are a great way to get students involved and interested in almost any topic. This paper presents such a hands-on approach for teaching solar cell operation principles along with characterization and modelling methods. This is achieved with the SolarLab platform...... interfaces for exploring different solar cell principles and topics. The exercises presented in the current paper have been adapted from the original exercises developed for the SolarLab platform and are currently included in the Photovoltaic Power Systems courses (MSc and PhD level) taught at the Department...

  5. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayigh, A.A.M. (ed.)


    The scope and advantages of solar energy are dealt with. The nature of the sun, the solar radiation spectrum, the estimation of total, direct, and diffuse radiation, and the heat transfer fundamentals for solar energy application are explained. The fundamentals, fabrication, and uses of various water and air heaters are outlined. Optics and concentrating collectors are dealt with, as well as solar furnaces. The various applications of solar energy are discussed, namely, solar pond, solar distillation, photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, solar refrigeration, solar hydrogen production, space applications, and solar measuring equipment. The cost of solar appliances is discussed. (MHR)

  6. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  7. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  8. Adaptive Origami for Efficiently Folded Structures (United States)


    public release; distribution unlimited. 7. Origami for Electromagnetic Tuning Reconfigurable RF devices hold great promise as adaptive antennas ...Nodes,” June 2014, GT • Stavros Georgakopoulos, “Origami Reconfigurable Antennas ,” April 2014, FIU • Darren Hartl, “Analysis and Design of...These applications include optimal packaging of solar cell panels, reconfigurable structures, advanced structural/material concepts, sensor

  9. Solar battery energizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M. E.


    A battery energizer for button batteries, such as zinc-silver oxide or zinc-mercuric oxide batteries, that are normally considered unchargeable, provides for energizing of the batteries in a safe and simple manner. A solar cell having a maximum current output (e.g., 20 milliamps) is operatively connected to terminals for releasably receiving a button battery. A light emitting diode, or like indicator, provides an indication of when the battery is fully energized, and additionally assists in preventing overenergization of the battery. The solar cell, terminals, LED, and the like can be mounted on a nonconductive material mounting plate which is mounted by a suction cup and hook to a window, adjacent a light bulb, or the like. A battery charger for conventional dry cell rechargeable batteries (such as nickel-cadmium batteries) utilizes the solar cells, and LED, and a zener diode connected in parallel with terminals. An adaptor may be provided with the terminal for adapting them for use with any conventional size dry cell battery, and a simple dummy battery may be utilized so that less than the full complement of batteries may be charged utilizing the charger.

  10. Microbiology of solar salt ponds (United States)

    Javor, B.


    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  11. Solar Neutrinos (United States)

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.


    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  12. Solar Energy


    Sommer-Larsen, Peter; Furbo, Simon


    This thesis is about Photovoltaic (PV) cells and its stresses in various directions by calculating the power generated using solar cells under different conditions to improve its efficiency. Our research studies found that using multi-junction cells with larger substrates can increase the efficiency to some extent which in practice is limited to 43 percent. The experiment was conducted using ten solar cells each with an area of 20.9〖cm〗 ^2, where each cell gives 0.5 V and 0.4 A and a 1.25 Ω r...

  13. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J.R.


    The paper is concerned with (1) the thermodynamic and kinetic limits for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface, and (2) the evaluation of a number of possible photochemical reactions with particular emphasis on the production of solar hydrogen from water. Procedures for generating hydrogen fuel are considered. Topics examined include the general requirements for a fuel-generation reaction, the photochemical reaction, limits on the conversion of light energy to chemical energy, an estimate of chemical storage efficiency, and the water decomposition reaction.

  14. Solar Energy and You. (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  15. The risks and efficacy of solar geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, David [Harvard University


    Solar geoengineering may enable a significant reduction in climate risks by partially offsetting climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases, however this emerging technology entails novel risks and uncertainties along with serious challenges to global governance. I will attempt a rough summary of the physics of solar geoengineering and present recent findings regarding (a) the climate's response to radiative forcing by stratospheric aerosols, (b) methods of producing appropriate aerosol distributions, and (c) risks. In closing I will discuss the trade-off between solar geoengineering, emissions reductions and adaptation in climate policy.

  16. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter


    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...

  17. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Modelling of Solar Shading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund


    to demonstrate the effect of adaptive solar shading. Much literature covers the detailed description of solar shading in correlation with the glazing system. However in order to document the benefits of the shading technology, the description of the shading device in the thermal building simulation software must...

  18. Sistema Solar


    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas


    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  19. Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene


    Thrill young astronomers with a journey through our Solar System. Find out all about the Inner and Outer Planets, the Moon, Stars, Constellations, Asteroids, Meteors and Comets. Using simplified language and vocabulary, concepts such as planetary orbits, the asteroid belt, the lunar cycle and phases of the moon, and shooting stars are all explored.

  20. Solar Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonelli


    relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in this field and on the experiments presently running or planned for the near future. The main focus at the moment is to improve the knowledge of the mass and mixing pattern and especially to study in detail the lowest energy part of the spectrum, which represents most of the solar neutrino spectrum but is still a partially unexplored realm. We discuss this research project and the way in which present and future experiments could contribute to make the theoretical framework more complete and stable, understanding the origin of some “anomalies” that seem to emerge from the data and contributing to answer some present questions, like the exact mechanism of the vacuum to matter transition and the solution of the so-called solar metallicity problem.

  1. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project. (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  2. Exploring the Full Spectrum: the Power of Combining Art and Science (United States)

    Camnasio, Sara; Fonda, Enrico


    Science is publicly perceived as a challenging discipline open only to a small elite of extremely intelligent individuals. Its historic deficiency of women and racial minorities has helped to keep it on a outwardly unreachable pedestal far higher than the public's reach. One way we can pull science out its stiff academic walls is to incorporate it into an artistic performance. I have produced a multi-disciplinary performance event, called "The View From Nowhere", which combined dance, physics and philosophy, all in one evening. The event is part of a long-term series which will attempt to translate scientific concepts into a diverse range of works by international choreographers. Because of the success of this series, both in the public feedback as well as in the amount of educational baggage acquired by the participants, I analyzed the structure of my own event and compared it to other existing ones to generate a model for multidisciplinary collaborations between the arts and the sciences. I will present a general structure for building collaborations between artists and scientists, more specifically in the context of visual, sound and performance art. From outlining the psychological aspects of human learning and their relationship with science communication, to discussing the potential of art as educational medium, I will discuss how science-inspired performances along with a pedagogy of the topic by a scientist allows a wider pool of people to have access to topics which are normally difficult to grasp in a traditional academic context. I will also be presenting the outline of a current APS-funded, long-term project which aims to build artistic collaborations between researchers in fluid dynamics from NYU, Georgia Tech, and University of Maryland and international artists which will result in an exhibit on the topic of quantum fluids at the New York City art venue Pioneer Works.

  3. Experience the Full Spectrum of Social Studies. World Cultures: Science, Reading, Mathematics, Art. (United States)

    Allen, Nancy J.

    This collection of 20 classroom activities, games, and problem sets has been revised over several years to fit the changing needs of students. They are designed to introduce students to world cultures through activity participation in the areas of science, reading, mathematics and art. The various cultures explored include: ancient Egypt, ancient…

  4. Full Spectrum Tools for Collecting, Analyzing, and Using Cultural Data in Decision Making (United States)


    half of the twentieth century. Decision theory (Savage, 1954; de Finetti , 1964; Jeffrey, 1965; Luce & Raiffa, 1957) formalizes choice in terms of...UK: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. de Finetti , B. (1964). Foresight: Its logical laws, its subjective sources. In J. Kyburg, H.E

  5. Integration of full-spectrum metrology and polishing for rapid production of large aspheres Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of three proven, non-contact, optical metrology techniques with an emerging new polishing approach in a single machine will enable the rapid production...

  6. A Complex and Volatile Environment: The Doctrinal Evolution from Full Spectrum Operations in Unified Land Operations (United States)


    thank you to my wife Lindsey, and children , Hannah and Lilah, for allowing me to focus so heavily on this project, which inevitably took precious...spectrum of conflict, which, according to Ancker, were inconsistent with Unified Action. These dueling definitions caused inconsistencies in proper

  7. The United States Army’s Full-Spectrum Training Strategy Challenge (United States)


    ARFORGEN conceptually created three equal sized force pools – reset, train/ready and available pools - (Figure 1) based on availability for steady...revolt stems from the quid pro quo nature of Arab and Jewish relations as well as the sucker culture of the region. Sucker culture simply means the...first to concede or give any concession is a sucker and will continue to give until pressed otherwise. 50 Gal Luft, “The Palestinian H-Bomb: Terror’s

  8. A prospective cohort study evaluating a novel colonoscopy platform featuring full-spectrum endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gralnek, Ian Mark; Segol, Ori; Suissa, Alain; Siersema, Peter D.; Carr-Locke, David L.; Halpern, Zamir; Santo, Erwin; Domanov, Svetlana


    Background and study aims: Although colonoscopy is the criterion standard for detecting colorectal adenomas and cancers, a significant percentage of adenomas are missed with this technique. We aimed to establish the feasibility, usability, and safety of a novel colonoscopy platform featuring full-sp

  9. The Capabilities That Medium-Armored Forces Bring to the Full Spectrum of Operations (United States)


    fi repower required to extricate soldiers trapped in Mogadishu during a raid to capture a clan warlord. During Operation Just Cause in Panama (1989... repower , and a rapid-reaction capability that foot soldiers or truck-borne infantry do not possess. Medium-Armored Forces Have Performed Well over...ferring their greater deployability compared with heavy forces and their greater mobility and fi repower compared with light forces. In Panama, air

  10. Full-Spectrum Photonic Pigments with Non-iridescent Structural Colors through Colloidal Assembly


    Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Magkiriadou, Sofia; Choi, Tae Min; Kim, Young-Seok; Manoharan, Vinothan N.


    Structurally colored materials could potentially replace dyes and pigments in many applications, but it is challenging to fabricate structural colors that mimic the appearance of absorbing pigments. We demonstrate the microfluidic fabrication of “photonic pigments” consisting of microcapsules containing dense amorphous packings of core–shell colloidal particles. These microcapsules show non-iridescent structural colors that are independent of viewing angle, a critical requirement for applicat...

  11. Full Spectrum Operations: An Analysis of Course Content at the Command and General Staff College (United States)


    Leavenworth, KS: 18 December 2007, 1-2 to 1-3. 27In his article, “Future Warfare: The Rise Of Hybrid Wars,” James Mattis describes General Charles ...Krulak’s description of the three-block war as “You are fighting like the dickens on one block, you’re handing our humanitarian supplies in the next

  12. NASA Wavelength: A Full Spectrum of NASA Resources for Earth and Space Science Education (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Porcello, D.; Kansa, E.; Shipp, S. S.; Bartolone, L.


    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have developed a digital enables easy discovery and retrieval of thousands of resources from the NASA Earth and space science education portfolio. The system has been developed based on best practices in the architecture and design of web-based information systems. The design style and philosophy emphasize simple, reusable data and services that facilitate the free flow of data across systems. The primary audiences for NASA Wavelength are STEM educators (K-12, higher education and informal education) as well as scientists, education and public outreach professionals who work with K-12, higher education, and informal education. A NASA Wavelength strandmap service features the 19 AAAS strandmaps that are most relevant to NASA science; the service also generates all of the 103 AAAS strandmaps with content from the Wavelength collection. These maps graphically and interactively provide connections between concepts as well as illustrate how concepts build upon one another across grade levels. New features have been developed for this site based on user feedback, including list-building so that users can create and share individual collections within Wavelength. We will also discuss potential methods for integrating the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into the search and discovery tools on NASA Wavelength.

  13. Integration of Full-Spectrum Metrology and Polishing for Rapid Production of Large Aspheres Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build, and test a major new instrument capable of both measuring and polishing the surface of aspheric mirrors up to 1.2 meters in diameter,...

  14. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence (United States)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria


    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  15. Structural basis for full-spectrum inhibition of translational functions on a tRNA synthetase (United States)

    Fang, Pengfei; Yu, Xue; Jeong, Seung Jae; Mirando, Adam; Chen, Kaige; Chen, Xin; Kim, Sunghoon; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Guo, Min


    The polyketide natural product borrelidin displays antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, insecticidal and herbicidal activities through the selective inhibition of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS). How borrelidin simultaneously attenuates bacterial growth and suppresses a variety of infections in plants and animals is not known. Here we show, using X-ray crystal structures and functional analyses, that a single molecule of borrelidin simultaneously occupies four distinct subsites within the catalytic domain of bacterial and human ThrRSs. These include the three substrate-binding sites for amino acid, ATP and tRNA associated with aminoacylation, and a fourth ‘orthogonal’ subsite created as a consequence of binding. Thus, borrelidin competes with all three aminoacylation substrates, providing a potent and redundant mechanism to inhibit ThrRS during protein synthesis. These results highlight a surprising natural design to achieve the quadrivalent inhibition of translation through a highly conserved family of enzymes. PMID:25824639

  16. Structural basis for full-spectrum inhibition of translational functions on a tRNA synthetase


    Fang, Pengfei; Yu, Xue; Jeong, Seung Jae; Mirando, Adam; Chen, Kaige; Chen, Xin; Kim, Sunghoon; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Guo, Min


    The polyketide natural product borrelidin displays antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, insecticidal and herbicidal activities through the selective inhibition of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS). How borrelidin simultaneously attenuates bacterial growth and suppresses a variety of infections in plants and animals is not known. Here we show, using X-ray crystal structures and functional analyses, that a single molecule of borrelidin simultaneously occupies four distinct subsit...

  17. Internalizing Full Spectrum Operations Doctrine in the U.S. Army (United States)


    United States Army B.A., New Mexico State University, 2001 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...Organization, Training, Material, Leadership, Personnel, and Facilities FAO Foreign Area Officers G.I. Typical American Soldier IMS Interagency...occupied Mexico City in 1846-1849, it necessitated a new approach to civilian interaction characterized by distinctions between sanctioned

  18. No Compromise: Establishing Balance in the US Army’s Approach to Full-Spectrum Warfare (United States)


    also needlessly prolongs corporate acceptance for a leadership culture that appreciates the ’ fluid character of warfare in the modern era. Beyond the...of Iraq, reveals that a numl?er of tactical leaders exhibited superb situational awareness and thoughtful response to extremely dynamic security...Paul D. Batchelor , Fixing Intel: · . A B lneprint for Making Intelligence Relevant in Afghanistan, Center for a New American Security, Washington

  19. Fisica solare

    CERN Document Server

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi


    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  20. Solar club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar club


    SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

  1. Energia Solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Dias de Borba


    Full Text Available Este projeto trata da implantação de células fotovoltaicas na forma de postes independentes na área externa da escola Oswaldo Cruz em Sinop- MT, mais especificamente no estacionamento do local, e também a implantação de placas solares nas guaritas e nos estacionamentos cobertos, tornando-os semi-sustentáveis.

  2. Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water. (United States)

    Tabor, Harry Z.


    Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

  3. Solar Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe


    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling the chameleons emitted by the sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST pipes, which could be within the reach...

  4. Nanostructured Solar Cells (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans


    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  5. Solar Sails (United States)

    Young, Roy


    The Solar Sail Propulsion investment area has been one of the three highest priorities within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project. In the fall of 2003, the NASA Headquarters' Science Mission Directorate provided funding and direction to mature the technology as far as possible through ground research and development from TRL 3 to 6 in three years. A group of experts from government, industry, and academia convened in Huntsville, Alabama to define technology gaps between what was needed for science missions to the inner solar system and the current state of the art in ultra1ightweight materials and gossamer structure design. This activity set the roadmap for development. The centerpiece of the development would be the ground demonstration of scalable solar sail systems including masts, sails, deployment mechanisms, and attitude control hardware and software. In addition, new materials would be subjected to anticipated space environments to quantify effects and assure mission life. Also, because solar sails are huge structures, and it is not feasible to validate the technology by ground test at full scale, a multi-discipline effort was established to develop highly reliable analytical models to serve as mission assurance evidence in future flight program decision-making. Two separate contractor teams were chosen to develop the SSP System Ground Demonstrator (SGD). After a three month conceptual mission/system design phase, the teams developed a ten meter diameter pathfinder set of hardware and subjected it to thermal vacuum tests to compare analytically predicted structural behavior with measured characteristics. This process developed manufacturing and handling techniques and refined the basic design. In 2005, both contractor teams delivered 20 meter, four quadrant sail systems to the largest thermal vacuum chamber in the world in Plum Brook, Ohio, and repeated the tests. Also demonstrated was the deployment and articulation of attitude control

  6. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV


    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  7. Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pena-Garay, Carlos


    Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (new) solar metallicity determinations. The uncertainties in iron and carbon abundances are the largest contribution to the uncertainties of the solar neutrino fluxes. The uncertainty on the ^14N+p -> ^15O+g rate is the largest of the non-composition uncertainties to the CNO neutrino fluxes. We propose an independent method to help identify which SSM is the correct one. Present neutrino data can not distinguish the solar neutrino predictions of both models but ongoing measurements can help to solve the puzzle.

  8. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi


    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  9. Supporting Adaptive and Adaptable Hypermedia Presentation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulterman, D.C.A.; Rutledge, L.; Hardman, L.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van


    Having the content of a presentation adapt to the needs, resources and prior activities of a user can be an important benefit of electronic documents. While part of this adaptation is related to the encodings of individual data streams, much of the adaptation can/should be guided by the semantics in

  10. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on the photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and biomass production of Spirulina platensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongyan; GAO Kunshan; Teruo WATANABE


    Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on Spirulina platensis were studied by investigating its photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and biomass production while exposed to full spectrum solar radiation or depleted of UVR for understanding how and to what extent UVR influences its photosynthetic physiology and production. It was found that UVR brought about an extra inhibition of photochemical efficiency by 26 %-30 %. The greatest inhibition of photochemical efficiency in S. platensis was observed at noontime, and then recovered to some extent in late afternoon no matter which treatment they were exposed to. The contents of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin and carotenoids increased during initial stage of the exposure, but decreased with elongated exposure. UVR decreased the biomass yield by about 6 %. It indicated that filtering out UVR of solar radiation would raise the productivity of S. platensis,which is an important factor that should be considered in the production.

  11. Personalized Adaptive Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravcik, Milos; Specht, Marcus; Naeve, Ambjorn


    Kravcik, M., Specht, M., & Naeve, A. (2008). Personalized Adaptive Learning. Presentation of PROLEARN WP1 Personalized Adaptive Learning at the final review meeting. February, 27, 2008, Hannover, Germany.

  12. BLM Solar Energy Zones (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  13. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polich, M.


    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  14. Solar Electricity (United States)


    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  15. Online short-term solar power forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg


    This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The method is suited to online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons of up to 36 hours. The data used is fifteen......-minute observations of solar power from 21 PV systems located on rooftops in a small village in Denmark. The suggested method is a two-stage method where first a statistical normalization of the solar power is obtained using a clear sky model. The clear sky model is found using statistical smoothing techniques....... Then forecasts of the normalized solar power are calculated using adaptive linear time series models. Both autoregressive (AR) and AR with exogenous input (ARX) models are evaluated, where the latter takes numerical weather predictions (NWPs) as input. The results indicate that for forecasts up to two hours...

  16. Solar Energy Systems (United States)


    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  17. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  18. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club


    Le CERN Solar-Club vous invite à la présentation de sa participation dans : The Cyprus Institute Solar Car Challenge du 18 au 20 juin à Chypre . en réponse à l’invitation dudit institut, dans le cadre de la demande de Chypre pour joindre le CERN . Le Club y participera avec son vénérable Photon rénové , et la Dyane E-Solaire d’un de ses membres, rénové aussi . Après la présentation, le forum est ouvert pour toutes vos questions et propositions diverses, également dans d’autres domaines des énergies renouvelables . C’est aussi l’occasion pour joindre le Club ! Où, et Quand ? Le Mercredi 7 Avril à 19 h 00, au 6ème étage du Bât. Principal, (60-6-015) à la suite de l’AG des membres du Club , à 18h00 dans...

  19. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E


    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  20. Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather. (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  1. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals. (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  2. Solar models and solar neutrino oscillations



    We provide a summary of the current knowledge, theoretical and experimental, of solar neutrino fluxes and of the masses and mixing angles that characterize solar neutrino oscillations. We also summarize the principal reasons for doing new solar neutrino experiments and what we think may be learned from the future measurements.

  3. Adaptation process of hygiene routine of the manual milking materials after implantation of a solar water heating system in rural property; Processo de adaptacao da rotina higienica de materiais de ordenha manual apos implantacao de um sistema de aquecimento solar de agua com materiais reciclaveis em propriedade rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremasco, Camila P. [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Bioestatistica], email:; Choueri, Matheus [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Silva, Helenice de O. Florentino [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Bioestatistica


    In Brazil, most of the producers of cow milk were not adequate to Instruction No. 51 (IN51), which provides health conditions for obtaining the milk using warm water for washing. The study aimed to evaluate the process of hygiene materials in milking farm through solar panels made from recyclable materials (plastic bottles and milk cartons). To conduct the study, scenarios were established before and after the deployment of the solar heating of water used in the cleaning process. In the first stage, the producer must perform the routine work without any intervention, and collected a sample of the product. For the second stage (after implementation of the heater), the producer must follow the guidelines of the IN51 washes of materials relating to milking, to then collect another sample of the product. The study was designed with the testing of counts of colony forming units per milliliter of milk (CFU/ml) in the samples. Laboratory results sought to conclude that the method is effective in preventing the contamination of milk, indicating the use of the heater in such farms. (author)

  4. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest (United States)

    Demming, Anna


    The first observations of the photoelectric effect date back to the early 19th century from work by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel, Heinrich Hertz, Wilhelm Hallwachs and J J Thomson. The theory behind the phenomena was clarified in a seminal paper by Einstein in 1905 and became an archetypical feature of the wave-particle description of light. A different manifestation of quantised electron excitation, whereby electrons are not emitted but excited into the valence band of the material, is what we call the photoconductive effect. As well as providing an extension to theories in fundamental physics, the phenomenon has spawned a field with enormous ramifications in the energy industry through the development of solar cells. Among advances in photovoltaic technology has been the development of organic photovoltaic technology. These devices have many benefits over their inorganic counterparts, such as light-weight, flexible material properties, as well as versatile materials' synthesis and low-cost large-scale production—all highly advantageous for manufacturing. The first organic photovoltaic systems were reported over 50 years ago [1], but the potential of the field has escalated in recent years in terms of efficiency, largely through band offsetting. Since then, great progress has been made in studies for optimising the efficiency of organic solar cells, such as the work by researchers in Germany and the Netherlands, where investigations were made into the percentage composition and annealing effects on composites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) [2]. Hybrid devices that aim to exploit the advantages of both inorganic and organic constituents have also proven promising. One example of this is the work reported by researchers in Tunisia and France on a systematic study for optimising the composition morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), which also led to insights

  5. Solar pond (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)


    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  6. Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting. (United States)

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing; Kuo, Chien-Cheng


    A hybrid method for using sunlight and light-emitting diode (LED) illumination powered by renewable solar energy for indoor lighting is simulated and presented in this study. We can illuminate an indoor space and collect the solar energy using an optical switching system. When the system is turned off, the full spectrum of the sunlight is concentrated by a concentrator, to be absorbed by solar photovoltaic devices that provide the electricity to power the LEDs. When the system is turned on, the sunlight collected by the concentrator is split into visible and non-visible rays by a beam splitter. The visible rays pass through the light guide into a light box where it is mixed with LED light to ultimately provide uniform illumination by a diffuser. The non-visible rays are absorbed by the solar photovoltaic devices to provide electrical power for the LEDs. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid sunlight/LED illumination with the renewable solar energy saving design is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems.

  7. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  8. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.


    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  9. STI/DOE Solar decathlon- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, Gregory [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    Team Orange successfully designed and constructed a house driven by new design concepts and technical innovations that harmonize with Southern California’s lifestyle and respect its cultural heritage. The basic elements of our 2015 proposal can be summarized as follows: Increased emphasis on the passive solar design concept, with a visually stimulating design that enhances the Southern California lifestyle; Use of design and construction techniques to create a market-ready home for an efficient and affordable lifestyle; Integrated use of new technology to create a behavior-adaptive smart home; A zero net energy house complying with the Living Building philosophy; and compliance with all DOE Solar Decathlon requirements.

  10. Development of Solar Research (United States)

    Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Originally based on a workshop on “Development of Solar Research”, held in Freiburg/Breisgau, this book contains articles on megalithic structures, the Nebra sky-disk, ancient sun cults, the observation of sunspots, the photography of the sun during eclipses, eclipse maps and expeditions, solar telescopes, solar physics during the Nazi era, archives of solar observations, scientific ballooning for solar research, site-testing on the Canary Islands, as well as on international cooperation.

  11. Solar collector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence


    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  12. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.


    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  13. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club


      Le  CERN Solar Club tiendra son Assemblée Générale le Mercredi  4 avril, à 18h00 dans la salle C, bat.61, 1e étage de 18h00  à  19h30. Grande table ronde avec  présentations de projets concernant toute forme d’Energie  Renouvelable par des membres du club,  et… par  VOUS, nos invités. Au programme : - L’E-push : petite remorque électrique, qui pousse vôtre vélo par Robert Becker. - Le Stockage Saisonnier Sous-Lacustre d’Energie Solaire (S3LES) par  William van Sprolant. - Compte-Rendu de plusieurs conférences récentes concernant les E.R. par Jacques Dupin. - VOS  Projets ou Sujets (contactez : - Partie «administrative» avec rapport d’activités, rapport fina...

  14. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.


    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  15. Predictability of Solar Flares (United States)

    Mares, Peter; Balasubramaniam, K. S.


    Solar flares are significant drivers of space weather. With the availability of high cadence solar chromospheric and photospheric data from the USAF's Optical Solar PAtrol Network (OSPAN; photosphere and chromosphere imaging) Telescope and the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG; photosphere magnetic imaging), at the National Solar Observatory, we have gained insights into potential uses of the data for solar flare prediction. We apply the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to parameterize the flaring system and extract consistent observables at solar chromospheric and photospheric layers that indicate a viable recognition of flaring activity. Rather than limiting ourselves to a few known indicators of solar activity, PCA helps us to characterize the entire system using several tens of variables for each observed layer. The components of the Eigen vectors derived from PCA help us recognize and quantify innate characteristics of solar flares and compare them. We will present an analysis of these results to explore the viability of PCA to assist in predicting solar flares.

  16. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.


    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  17. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert


    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  18. Adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmin, J.; Tierney, K.; Chu, E.; Hunter, L.M.; Roberts, J.T.; Shi, L.; Dunlap, R.E.; Brulle, R.J.


    Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the financ

  19. Generation solar case study : solar summer camp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presented a case study of the use of solar power at camp Tanamakoon in Ontario's Algonquin Park. It discussed camp facilities which include solar powered composting toilets and solar heated showers. Composting, recycling, and use of environmentally friendly products were also discussed. The camp also has a grid interactive solar electric system and a solar water heating system. The solar electric system provides backup power to critical loads such as safety lights and an emergency fridge and is also connected to the existing grid electricity system. Any excess energy from the solar system can be used by other kitchen appliances or, any other load anywhere in the camp. The main user of the solar heated water is a large automatic dishwasher which has as a built-in boost heater for those days when the solar heated water is insufficiently hot to sanitize dishes. It was concluded that while camp utility bills have been reduced by this investment in renewable energy technology, the primary objectives of the project were the protection of Tanamakoon's pristine Algonquin environment and the attraction and retention of clients for the camp by enhancing the camping experience. fig.

  20. California solar data manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, P.; Grether, D.; Martin, M.; Wahlig, M.


    Factors that determined the data contents of the manual are presented. Estimates of errors in the data are provided, and the impact of these errors on solar design is discussed. The state is divided into 15 solar zones of roughly similar solar radiation conditions, which are illustrated along with page references to the most relevant solar and climate data. A guide to the data tables and graphs is provided, which are displayed under solar, climate, and sky charts. A guide is given to simplified design methods to predict performance and cost of solar heating and cooling systems. (MHR)

  1. Solar Energy Automobile


    He, Jianhua


    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  2. Solar Thermal Propulsion (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.


    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.



    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir


    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  4. On Electron-scale Whistler Turbulence in the Solar Wind (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.; Giles, B.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Burch, J. L.; Nariyuki, Y.; Saito, S.; Gary, S. P.


    For the first time, the dispersion relation for turbulence magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is determined directly on small scales of the order of the electron inertial length, using four-point magnetometer observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The data are analyzed using the high-resolution adaptive wave telescope technique. Small-scale solar wind turbulence is primarily composed of highly obliquely propagating waves, with dispersion consistent with that of the whistler mode.

  5. Solar prominences (United States)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Török, Tibor


    Solar filaments (or prominences) are magnetic structures in the corona. They can be represented by twisted flux ropes in a bipolar magnetic environment. In such models, the dipped field lines of the flux rope carry the filament material and parasitic polarities in the filament channel are responsible for the existence of the lateral feet of prominences. Very simple laws do exist for the chirality of filaments, the so-called “filament chirality rules”: commonly dextral/sinistral filaments corresponding to left- (resp. right) hand magnetic twists are in the North/South hemisphere. Combining these rules with 3D weakly twisted flux tube models, the sign of the magnetic helicity in several filaments were identified. These rules were also applied to the 180° disambiguation of the direction of the photospheric transverse magnetic field around filaments using THEMIS vector magnetograph data (López Ariste et al. 2006). Consequently, an unprecedented evidence of horizontal magnetic support in filament feet has been observed, as predicted by former magnetostatic and recent MHD models. The second part of this review concerns the role of emerging flux in the vicinity of filament channels. It has been suggested that magnetic reconnection between the emerging flux and the pre-existing coronal field can trigger filament eruptions and CMEs. For a particular event, observed with Hinode/XRT, we observe signatures of such a reconnection, but no eruption of the filament. We present a 3D numerical simulation of emerging flux in the vicinity of a flux rope which was performed to reproduce this event and we briefly discuss, based on the simulation results, why the filament did not erupt.

  6. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr


    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  7. Solar Cells Based on Low-dimensional Nanocomposite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Khrypko


    Full Text Available Converting solar energy into electric energy with using of solar batteries is a major task for developers and research teams. In this article we will look at the development of different generations of solar batteries for to create a nanocomposite structure. Production of solar batteries has gone through some steps, taking into account technological and economic aspects that have been associated with improved of their parameters. Thus the first generations of solar batteries have been based on the single-crystal silicon substrates (с-Si. The use of polycrystalline silicon and multi- crystalline allowed lower costs of modules, but due to the efficiency of solar energy conversion. The solar batteries of the second generation were based on thin-film technology, in which use different materials: silicon films based on amorphous silicon (a-Si, a film based on cadmium telluride (CdTe and film selenide copper-indium-gallium (CuInGaSe2, or CIGS. The use of such technology has allowed increasing the coefficient of performance (COP solar cell with a significant reduction in costs. The solar batteries of third-generation based on nanotechnology, nanocrystals and nano-sized clusters of semiconductors. The creation of such solar cells requires availability of a low-dimensional composite structure. Low-dimensional nanocomposite structures that are constructed on quantum dots and nano-porous materials have new modified optoelectronic properties. They can be used in solar elements, where absorption bands can be optimally adapted to the wavelength of radiation light. These structures could theoretically can lead to increased efficiency of solar energy conversion more than 65%, which can double practically current efficiency of solar batteries.

  8. Resilience through adaptation (United States)

    van Voorn, George A. K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap


    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover’s distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system. PMID:28196372



    Benli, Deniz Ahmet


    A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. There are different types of solar cells but this report mainly focuses on a type of new generation solar cell that has the name organo-metal halide perovskite, shortly perovskite solar cells. In this respect, the efficiency of power conversion is taken into account to replace the dominancy of traditional and second generation solar cell fields by perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell including a...

  10. [Individual adaptation strategies]. (United States)

    Aldasheva, A A


    The article looks at the relation between adaptation strategy and individual style of activity based on the doctrine of human adaptation of V.I. Medvedev that enables opening up characteristics of professional activity in diverse environments. It illustrates a role and the relation between physiological and psychological mechanisms, which can vary, depending on individual adaptation strategies of a person. Theoretical and practical studies based on activity paradigm allow us to look at the basic principles of human interaction with the environment from a new perspective. Based on the law on the conceptual model of adaptation proposed by V.I. Medvedev, the article illustrates that humans are active figures in adaptation situations, modeling their own adaption strategies, using different individual styles manifested in the programs of adaptive behaviour.

  11. A Study on a Solar Simulator for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jun Lee


    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC are emerging low-cost, simple alternatives to conventional solar cells. While there has been considerable study on improving the efficiency of DSSCs, there has not been sufficient research on a photovoltaic power conditioning system adaptable to DSSCs or on a solar simulator for DSSCs. When DSSCs are commercialized in the near future, the DSSC modules must be connected to an adaptable power conditioning system in order to manage the energy produced and provide a suitable interface to the load. In the process of developing a power conditioning system, a solar simulator with the characteristics of DSSCs is essential to show the performance of the maximum power point tracking. In this paper, a virtual DSSC is designed and simulated in PSIM. Irradiation factors, temperature and shadow effects are considered in dynamic link library block in PSIM which is linked to the external C routine. A 100 W converter is built to show the performance of a DSSC as the solar simulator controlled by a digital signal processor.

  12. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.


    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  13. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.


    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  14. Solar Dynamics Observatory (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...

  15. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion (United States)

    Sercel, J. C.


    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  16. Solar-Collector Radiometer (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr


    Water-cooled Kendall radiometer measures output of solar energy concentrators. Unit measures irradiance up to 30,000 solar constants with 1 percent accuracy and responds to wavelengths from ultraviolet to far infrared.

  17. Future Solar Neutrino Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu, Japan, 506-1205 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    The value of future solar neutrino experiments is discussed from particle physics and astrophysics points of view based on current understanding of solar neutrino oscillations. R and D statuses of future experiments are also discussed.

  18. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, J.S.


    This book introduces the reader to solar energy engineering, covering topics such as radiation, absorption, its practical applications in space and hot water heating, and solar geometrical and geographical forms.

  19. Solar Wind Five (United States)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor)


    Topics of discussion were: solar corona, MHD waves and turbulence, acceleration of the solar wind, stellar coronae and winds, long term variations, energetic particles, plasma distribution functions and waves, spatial dependences, and minor ions.

  20. Aeronet Solar Flux (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  1. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  2. Solar Indices - Plage Regions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Solar radiation models - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamil Ahmad, G.N. Tiwari


    Full Text Available In the design and study of solar energy, information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential. Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists and hydrologists for many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying and interior illumination of buildings. For this purpose, in the past, several empirical correlations have been developed in order to estimate the solar radiation around the world. The main objective of this study is to review the global solar radiation models available in the literature. There are several formulae which relate global radiation to other climatic parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity and maximum temperature. The most commonly used parameter for estimating global solar radiation is sunshine duration. Sunshine duration can be easily and reliably measured and data are widely available.

  4. Solar Energy Technician/Installer (United States)

    Moore, Pam


    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  5. Durable solar mirror films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Mark B.; Henderson, Andrew J.; Hebrink, Timothy J.; Katare, Rajesh K.; Jing, Naiyong; North, Diane; Peterson, Eric M.


    The present disclosure generally relates to durable solar mirror films, methods of making durable solar mirror films, and constructions including durable solar mirror films. In one embodiment, the present disclosure relates to a solar mirror film comprising: a multilayer optical film layer including having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion of less than about 30 ppm per percent relative humidity; and a reflective layer having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion.

  6. Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd. is backed by Tsinghua University, one of the most prestigious universities in China. Tsinghua Solar invented "graded Al-N/Al selective coating," which is the key technology of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes. The company owns the independent intellectual property rights over the key technology of all-glass vacuum solar water heaters. The registered capital of the company is 153.5 mil-

  7. Solar Neutrino Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Acker, A; Acker, Andy; Pakvasa, Sandip


    We re-examine the neutrino decay solution to the solar neutrino problem in light of the new data from Gallex II and Kamiokande III. We compare the experimental data with the solar models of Bahcall and Pinsonneault and Turck-Chieze and find that neutrino decay is ruled out as a solution to the solar neutrino problem at better than the 98\\% c.l. even when solar model uncertainties are taken into account.

  8. Pointing a solar telescope (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick


    As far as pointing is concerned, a solar telescope is merely an ordinary astronomical telescope but with enhancements for observing solar and coronal features. The paper discusses the additional coordinate systems that need to be supported, shows how to generate the required solar ephemerides (both orbital and physical), and sets out a suitable application programming interface for the telescope control system to use when making solar observations.

  9. Industrialization of Polymer Solar Cells – phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Bork, Jakob; Andersen, Rasmus B.

    Polymer solar cells have unique features such as low weight, slim outline, robustness against breakage and excellent adaptability of size, shape and curvature to the actual application. These features open, not only for cost- and energy effective application of the cell, but also for aesthetic...... into more refined products. Such refined products might be self-powered electronic devices designed for easy integration in the customer’s production or solar-powered products for the end-user. A three-phased project with the objective to industrialize DTU’s basic polymer solar cell technology was started...... the electronic system comprising a polymer solar cell, a battery and the electronic function to be powered, are available on Faktor 3’s homepage, Small LED torches have served as a case for gaining experiences with development and production of so-lar powered products. A range of conceptual...

  10. Model development and validation of a solar cooling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, Darine; Garcia-Gabin, Winston [Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Los Andes, La Hechicera, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Bordons, Carlos; Camacho, Eduardo F. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, Sevilla 41092 (Spain)


    This paper describes the dynamic model of a solar cooling plant that has been built for demonstration purposes using market-available technology and has been successfully operational since 2001. The plant uses hot water coming from a field of solar flat collectors which feed a single-effect absorption chiller of 35 kW nominal cooling capacity. The work includes model development based on first principles and model validation with a set of experiments carried out on the real plant. The simulation model has been done in a modular way, and can be adapted to other solar cooling-plants since the main modules (solar field, absorption machine, accumulators and auxiliary heater) can be easily replaced. This simulator is a powerful tool for solar cooling systems both during the design phase, when it can be used for component selection, and also for the development and testing of control strategies. (author)

  11. Comparison of Direct Solar Energy to Resistance Heating for Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gustafson, Robert J.


    A comparison of two methods of delivering thermal energy to regolith for the carbo thermal reduction process has been performed. The comparison concludes that electrical resistance heating is superior to direct solar energy via solar concentrators for the following reasons: (1) the resistance heating method can process approximately 12 times as much regolith using the same amount of thermal energy as the direct solar energy method because of superior thermal insulation; (2) the resistance heating method is more adaptable to nearer-term robotic exploration precursor missions because it does not require a solar concentrator system; (3) crucible-based methods are more easily adapted to separation of iron metal and glass by-products than direct solar energy because the melt can be poured directly after processing instead of being remelted; and (4) even with projected improvements in the mass of solar concentrators, projected photovoltaic system masses are expected to be even lower.

  12. Solar tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.


    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  13. Solar energy directories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.


    This annotated bibliography lists 275 directories relating to solar energy and renewable energy resources. The references include the newsletters and in-house publications of small firms and groups, plans and designs for solar housing, catalogs, and directories of agencies and organizations involved in solar energy. The references are listed in alphabetical order.

  14. Experimenting with Solar Energy (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

  15. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  16. Alternatives in solar energy (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.


    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  17. Inexpensive Photovoltaic Solar Radiometer. (United States)

    Kissner, Fritz


    Describes a low-cost instrument using a solar cell as a sensor to measure both instantaneous and integrated value of solar flux. Constructing and calibrating such an instrument constitutes an undergraduate experimental project, affording students an opportunity to examine a variety of aspects associated with solar energy measurements. (Author/SK)

  18. Solar Photovoltaic Cells. (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.


    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  19. Bringing Perfect Vision to the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (United States)

    Matijevich, Russ; Johansson, Erik; Johnson, Luke; Cavaco, Jeff; National Solar Observatory


    The world's largest ground-based solar telescope is one step closer to operation with the acceptance of the deformable mirror engineered by AOA Xinetics, a Northrop Grumman Corporation company. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), currently under construction in Haleakala, Hawaii, will offer unprecedented high-resolution images of the sun using the latest adaptive optics technology to provide its distortion-free imaging.Led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), the Inouye Solar Telescope will help scientists better understand how magnetic fields affect the physical properties of the Sun, what roles they play in our solar system and how they affect Earth.Ground-based telescopes, whether observing the sun or the night sky must contend with atmospheric turbulence that acts as a flexible lens, constantly reshaping observed images. This turbulence makes research on solar activity difficult and drives the need for the latest adaptive optics technology.To provide DKIST with the distortion-free imaging it requires, AOA Xinetics designed a deformable mirror with 1,600 actuators, four times the normal actuator density. This deformable mirror (DM) is instrumental in removing all of the atmospheric blurriness that would otherwise limit the telescope's performance. The mirror also has an internal thermal management system to handle the intense solar energy coming from DKIST's telescope. This poster provides the history behind this incredible success story.

  20. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.


    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  1. Downconversion for solar cells in YF3:Nd3+ , Yb3+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.M.; Aarts, L.; van der Ende, B.M.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Meijerink, A.


    Energy losses inherent to the conversion of sunlight to electricity in solar cells are mainly due to the so-called spectral mismatch: low energy photons are not absorbed while the energy of high energy photons is only partly used by the solar cell. The losses can be significantly reduced by adapting

  2. Downconversion for solar cells in YF3:Nd3+, Yb3+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.M.; Aarts, L.; Van der Ende, B.M.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Meijerink, A.


    Energy losses inherent to the conversion of sunlight to electricity in solar cells are mainly due to the so-called spectral mismatch: low energy photons are not absorbed while the energy of high energy photons is only partly used by the solar cell. The losses can be significantly reduced by adapting

  3. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.


    Integration of solar renewable energy into the power grid, like wind energy, is hindered by the variable nature of the solar resource. One challenge of the integration problem for shorter time periods is the phenomenon of "ramping events" where the electrical output of the solar power system increases or decreases significantly and rapidly over periods of minutes or less. Advance warning, of even just a few minutes, allows power system operators to compensate for the ramping. However, the ability for short-term prediction on such local "point" scales is beyond the abilities of typical model-based weather forecasting. Use of surface-based solar radiation measurements has been recognized as a likely solution for providing input for near-term (5 to 30 minute) forecasts of solar energy availability and variability. However, it must be noted that while fixed-orientation photovoltaic panel systems use the total (global) downwelling solar radiation, tracking photovoltaic and solar concentrator systems use only the direct normal component of the solar radiation. Thus even accurate near-term forecasts of total solar radiation will under many circumstances include inherent inaccuracies with respect to tracking systems due to lack of information of the direct component of the solar radiation. We will present examples and statistical analyses of solar radiation partitioning showing the differences in the behavior of the total/direct radiation with respect to the near-term forecast issue. We will present an overview of the possibility of using a network of unique new commercially available total/diffuse radiometers in conjunction with a near-real-time adaptation of the Shortwave Radiative Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long et al., 2006). The results are used, in conjunction with persistence and tendency forecast techniques, to provide more accurate near-term forecasts of cloudiness, and both total and direct normal solar irradiance availability and

  4. Photon upconversion for thin film solar cells (United States)

    de Wild, J.


    In this research one of the many possible methods to increase the efficiency of solar cells is described. The method investigated is based on adapting the solar light in such a way that the solar cell can convert more light into electricity. The part of the solar spectrum that is adapted is the part that cannot be absorbed by the solar cells, because the photon energy is too low. This conversion of light is done by so called upconversion, which means that lower energy photons are converted into higher energy photons that can be absorbed by the solar cell. The upconverters used in this thesis are those based on lanthanide ions doped in crystalline hosts. Lanthanide ions have very specific absorption and emission lines, which means that by choosing an appropriate ion one can convert any arbitrary wavelength. One of the most important aspects when one wants to apply upconverters onto solar cells is the light intensity necessary for efficient conversion. Because the upconversion process requires two photons to make a new, higher energy photon, the conversion process is non-linearly dependent on the light intensity. This is the main limitation for practical applications. Therefore, next to applying upconverters onto solar cells also more fundamental questions are addressed in this thesis, for instance, the question what determines efficient conversion. At first the upconverter materials in different hosts are characterized and investigated. The host material influences non-radiative decays, the absorption strength, the lifetime and the energy transfer rate between the lanthanide ions. By investigating two upconverter hosts with small differences (α and β-NaYF4 doped with Er3+ and Yb3+), we have tried to investigate the origin of the difference in upconversion efficiency. For this, emission and absorption spectra are measured under the same conditions and concentrations of the lanthanide ions. Also the absorption strength on the upconverter efficiency is investigated

  5. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S


    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  6. Technology transfer for adaptation (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia


    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  7. Origins of adaptive immunity. (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister


    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  8. Solar Cycle #24 and the Solar Dynamo (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth; Pesnell, W. Dean


    We focus on two solar aspects related to flight dynamics. These are the solar dynamo and long-term solar activity predictions. The nature of the solar dynamo is central to solar activity predictions, and these predictions are important for orbital planning of satellites in low earth orbit (LEO). The reason is that the solar ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiances inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth, forming the thermosphere and exosphere through which these satellites orbit. Concerning the dynamo, we discuss some recent novel approaches towards its understanding. For solar predictions we concentrate on a solar precursor method, in which the Sun's polar field plays a major role in forecasting the next cycle s activity based upon the Babcock-Leighton dynamo. With a current low value for the Sun s polar field, this method predicts that solar cycle #24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 130 plus or minus 30 (2 sigma), in the 2013 timeframe. One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. Concomitant effects of low solar activity upon satellites in LEO will need to be considered, such as enhancements in orbital debris. Support for our prediction of a low solar cycle #24 is borne out by the lack of new cycle sunspots at least through the first half of 2007. Usually at the present epoch in the solar cycle (approx. 7+ years after the last solar maximum), for a normal size following cycle, new cycle sunspots would be seen. The lack of their appearance at this time is only consistent with a low cycle #24. Polar field observations of a weak magnitude are consistent with unusual structures seen in the Sun s corona. Polar coronal holes are the hallmarks of the Sun's open field structures. At present, it appears that the polar coronal holes are relatively weak, and there have been many equatorial coronal holes

  9. Adaptive Pairing Reversible Watermarking. (United States)

    Dragoi, Ioan-Catalin; Coltuc, Dinu


    This letter revisits the pairwise reversible watermarking scheme of Ou et al., 2013. An adaptive pixel pairing that considers only pixels with similar prediction errors is introduced. This adaptive approach provides an increased number of pixel pairs where both pixels are embedded and decreases the number of shifted pixels. The adaptive pairwise reversible watermarking outperforms the state-of-the-art low embedding bit-rate schemes proposed so far.

  10. Solar energy modulator (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.


    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  11. A solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, Yu.V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Gagiyan, L.A.; Kharapetyan, G.S.; Vartanyan, A.V.


    This invention is designed for solar energy collectors in the form of heat pipes. A solar power plant is proposed that contains a solar concentrator in the form of at least one heat pipe with evaporation and condensation sections, the first of which is constructed to absorb solar emission and the second located in a heat exchanger equipped with inlet and outlet pipes. In order to simplify the design, the solar power plant is equipped with an additional heat exchanger connected through a connector to the inlet and outlet pipes, while the evaporation section holds an additional section in the lower half, within the auxiliary heat exchanger. During operation as a solar energy collector, the evaporation region absorbs the solar energy and converts it to heat, which is then carried by the heat transfer medium to the heating tube.

  12. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.


    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  13. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis


    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  14. Quantifying the adaptive cycle (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika


    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  15. Adapt or Become Extinct!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goumas, Georgios; McKee, Sally A.; Själander, Magnus


    during the execution of an application can be utilized to adapt the execution context and may lead to performance gains beyond those provided by static information and compile-time adaptation. We consider specialization based on dynamic information like user input, architectural characteristics...... static analysis (either during ahead-of-time or just-in-time) compilation. We extend the notion of information-driven adaptation and outline the architecture of an infrastructure designed to enable information ow and adaptation throughout the life-cycle of an application....

  16. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  17. Solar heaters, should they be seen or not?; Calentadores solares, mostrarlos u ocultarlos?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Martinez, Octavio [Modulo Solar, S.A. de C.V., Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    Talking about Solar Heaters, architects have two opposite points of view about aesthetics. Some architects are convinced that the collector field should be integrated into the original design or in buildings already built, these fields should be adapted and fully shown. On the other hand, there are those who prefer collectors not to be seen. This work, based on our experience since 1975, will show with photographOut experience since 1975 will be show with solutions that have satisfy each part. With worldwide expectations of massive use of solar energy in the first decade of the millennium, we think that is important to discuss whether: SOLAR HEATERS, should they be seen or not?. [Spanish] Con respecto a los aspectos esteticos de los equipos solares, en el medio arquitectonico existen dos corrientes plenamente contrapuestas: 1.- Aquellos que estan convencidos que hay que integrar los campos de colectores al diseno original o que hay que resolver en las edificaciones existentes la adaptacion de los mismos mostrandolos plenamente y 2.- Aquellos que prefieren ocultarlos. En este trabajo, basado en experiencias desde 1975, mostrara, mediante imagenes, ejemplos de soluciones que hay satisfecho a cada corriente. Con las expectativas mundiales del uso masivo de la energia solar en la primera decada del milenio, seria importante, de una buena vez, encauzar la polemica: EQUIPOS SOLARES SE DEBEN VER O NO?.

  18. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings? (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J


    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive.

  19. Solar engineering of thermal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duffie, John A


    The updated fourth edition of the ""bible"" of solar energy theory and applications Over several editions, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes has become a classic solar engineering text and reference. This revised Fourth Edition offers current coverage of solar energy theory, systems design, and applications in different market sectors along with an emphasis on solar system design and analysis using simulations to help readers translate theory into practice. An important resource for students of solar engineering, solar energy, and alternative energy as well

  20. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi...

  1. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)


    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  2. [Postvagotomy adaptation syndrome]. (United States)

    Shapovalov, V A


    It was established in experiment, that the changes of the natural resistance of organism indexes and of the peritoneal cavity cytology has compensatory-adaptational character while the denervation-adaptational syndrome occurrence and progress, which may be assessed as eustress. Vagotomy and operative trauma cause qualitatively different reactions of an organism.

  3. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)


    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  4. Solar Cycle 24 and the Solar Dynamo (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Schatten, K.


    We will discuss the polar field precursor method for solar activity prediction, which predicts cycle 24 will be significantly lower than recent activity cycles, and some new ideas rejuvenating Babcock's shallow surface dynamo. The polar field precursor method is based on Babcock and Leighton's dynamo models wherein the polar field at solar minimum plays a major role in generating the next cycle's toroidal field and sunspots. Thus, by examining the polar fields of the Sun near solar minimum, a forecast for the next cycle's activity is obtained. With the current low value for the Sun's polar fields, this method predicts solar cycle 24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 135 plus or minus 35 (2 sigma), in the 2012-2013 timeframe (equivalent to smoothed Rz near 80 plus or minus 35 [2 sigma]). One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. We discuss unusual behavior in the Sun's polar fields that support this prediction. Normally, the solar precursor method is consistent with the geomagnetic precursor method, wherein geomagnetic variations are thought to be a good measure of the Sun's polar field strength. Because of the unusual polar field, the Earth does not appear to be currently bathed in the Sun's extended polar field (the interplanetary field), hence negating the primal cause behind the geomagnetic precursor technique. We also discuss how percolation may support Babcock's original shallow solar dynamo. In this process ephemeral regions from the solar magnetic carpet, guided by shallow surface fields, may collect to form pores and sunspots.

  5. User-Centered Evaluation of Adaptive and Adaptable Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van Lex; Geest, van der Thea M.; Klaassen, Rob F.


    Adaptive and adaptable systems provide tailored output to various users in various contexts. While adaptive systems base their output on implicit inferences, adaptable systems use explicitly provided information. Since the presentation or output of these systems is adapted, standard user-centered ev

  6. Financing climate change adaptation. (United States)

    Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H


    This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability.

  7. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai N. Lee


    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  8. Adaptive noise cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Akram, N


    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique.

  9. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Cuesta-Santianes, M. J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.


    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  10. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit. (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…


    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.


  12. Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating. (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

  13. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions (United States)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.


    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  14. The Solar Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Hathaway, David H


    The Solar Cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev-Ohl (even-odd) Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  15. Solar thermal aircraft (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.


    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  16. The Solar Cycle. (United States)

    Hathaway, David H

    The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev-Ohl (even-odd) Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  17. High Resolution Observations using Adaptive Optics: Achievements and Future Needs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Sankarasubramanian; T. Rimmele


    Over the last few years, several interesting observations were obtained with the help of solar Adaptive Optics (AO). In this paper, few observations made using the solarAOare enlightened and briefly discussed. A list of disadvantages with the current AO system are presented. With telescopes larger than 1.5 m expected during the next decade, there is a need to develop the existing AO technologies for large aperture telescopes. Some aspects of this development are highlighted. Finally, the recent AO developments in India are also presented.

  18. Solar Neutrino Data, Solar Model Uncertainties and Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, L M; White, M; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Gates, Evalyn; White, Martin


    We incorporate all existing solar neutrino flux measurements and take solar model flux uncertainties into account in deriving global fits to parameter space for the MSW and vacuum solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  19. Solar Neutrino Data, Solar Model Uncertainties and Neutrino Oscillations



    We incorporate all existing solar neutrino flux measurements and take solar model flux uncertainties into account in deriving global fits to parameter space for the MSW and vacuum solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  20. Solar Asset Management Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Aaron [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Zviagin, George [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)


    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  1. Solar energy emplacement developer (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob


    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  2. Horizontally mounted solar collector (United States)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)


    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.



    R. Ahiska; Nykyruy, L. I.; Omer, G.; G. D. Mateik


    In this study, load characteristics of thermoelectric and photovoltaic solar panels are investigated and compared with each other with experiments. Thermoelectric solar panels converts the heat generated by sun directly to electricity; while, photovoltaic solar pales converts photonic energy from sun to electricity. In both types, maximum power can be obtained when the load resistance is equal to internal resistance. According to experimental results, power generated from unit surface with th...

  4. Solar Tracking System


    Nguyen, Nam


    The goal of this thesis was to develop a laboratory prototype of a solar tracking system, which is able to enhance the performance of the photovoltaic modules in a solar energy system. The operating principle of the device is to keep the photovoltaic modules constantly aligned with the sunbeams, which maximises the exposure of solar panel to the Sun’s radiation. As a result, more output power can be produced by the solar panel. The work of the project included hardware design and implemen...

  5. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D


    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  6. Solar neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)


    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial {sup 51}Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs.

  7. CERN... Solar Style

    CERN Multimedia


    Inventor William van Sprolant presenting the Solar Club's latest invention, the solar fountain. The CERN Solar Club is giving new meaning to the phrase 'fun in the sun' with their most recently developed contraption, the Solar Fountain. The Fountain was presented to the public just outside of Restaurant 1 on Wednesday October, 17th and uses solar energy to run a water pump at its base to propel a golden plastic ball up into the air. As lovely as the fountain is, the funny thing about it is that the height of the water jet and the ball are an artistic method of measuring the amount of solar power being captured by the photovoltaique panel (no batteries included). The day it was presented started out cloudy, but as the afternoon wore on, the weather brightened and the fountain jumped to life. William van Sprolant, the Solar Fountain's inventor, had great fun with the fountain in front of a group of visiting children swiveling the solar panel in multiple directions. 'Everyone who installs solar panels worrie...

  8. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir


    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  9. Rectenna solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moddel, Garret


    Rectenna Solar Cells discusses antenna-coupled diode solar cells, an emerging technology that has the potential to provide ultra-high efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion. This book will provide an overview of solar rectennas, and provide thorough descriptions of the two main components: the diode, and the optical antenna. The editors discuss the science, design, modeling, and manufacturing of the antennas coupled with the diodes. The book will provide concepts to understanding the challenges, fabrication technologies, and materials required to develop rectenna structures. Written by e

  10. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent


    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  11. Solar Cycle Predictions (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean


    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as you consume the reduced propellant load more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future will be discussed.

  12. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.


    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  13. Harnessing solar heat

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Brian


    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  14. Solar shading how to integrate solar shading in sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmans, Dick; Dutoo, Gonzague; Hall, Anders; Seppänen, Olli


    Solar Shading Guidebook gives a solid background on the physics of solar radiation and its behaviour in window with solar shading systems. Major focus of the Guidebook is on the effect of solar shading in the use of energy for cooling, heating and lighting. The book gives also practical guidance for selection, installation and operation of solar shading as well as future trends in integration of HVAC-systems with solar control.

  15. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.


    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  16. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology]. (United States)

    Saleh, M


    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy.

  17. Adaptive Vertex Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Frühwirth, R; Vanlaer, Pascal


    Vertex fitting frequently has to deal with both mis-associated tracks and mis-measured track errors. A robust, adaptive method is presented that is able to cope with contaminated data. The method is formulated as an iterative re-weighted Kalman filter. Annealing is introduced to avoid local minima in the optimization. For the initialization of the adaptive filter a robust algorithm is presented that turns out to perform well in a wide range of applications. The tuning of the annealing schedule and of the cut-off parameter is described, using simulated data from the CMS experiment. Finally, the adaptive property of the method is illustrated in two examples.

  18. Colored solar collectors - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.


    dip-coater, which is placed in a UV-screened laminar flow chapel. An industrial partner for the prototype fabrication of colored collector glazing has been found. For a first attempt of industrial scale production, adapted multilayer designs have been proposed. First tests on the industrial magnetron sputtering equipment have shown encouraging results, but some adaptations are still needed. Possible ways of implementation of the novel colored solar collectors/solar facades are investigated and discussed with facade manufacturers and architects. (authors)

  19. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  20. Make Your Own Solar Panel. (United States)

    Suzuki, David


    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  1. Limiting efficiencies of solar energy conversion and photo-detection via internal emission of hot electrons and hot holes in gold

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang


    We evaluate the limiting efficiency of full and partial solar spectrum harvesting via the process of internal photoemission in Au-semiconductor Schottky junctions. Our results based on the ab initio calculations of the electron density of states (e-DOS) reveal that the limiting efficiency of the full-spectrum Au converter based on hot electron injection is below 4%. This value is even lower than previously established limit based on the parabolic approximation of the Au electron energy bands. However, we predict limiting efficiency exceeding 10% for the hot holes collection through the Schottky junction between Au and p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such converters have more potential if used as a part of the hybrid system for harvesting high- and low-energy photons of the solar spectrum.

  2. Effects of Space Weather on Biomedical Parameters during the Solar Activity Cycles 23-24. (United States)

    Ragul'skaya, M V; Rudenchik, E A; Chibisov, S M; Gromozova, E N


    The results of long-term (1998-2012) biomedical monitoring of the biotropic effects of space weather are discussed. A drastic change in statistical distribution parameters in the middle of 2005 was revealed that did not conform to usual sinusoidal distribution of the biomedical data reflecting changes in the number of solar spots over a solar activity cycle. The dynamics of space weather of 2001-2012 is analyzed. The authors hypothesize that the actual change in statistical distributions corresponds to the adaptation reaction of the biosphere to nonstandard geophysical characteristics of the 24th solar activity cycle and the probable long-term decrease in solar activity up to 2067.

  3. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos



    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consis...

  4. Exploring Adaptive Program Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions. B...

  5. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan


    Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  6. The genomics of adaptation. (United States)

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław


    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of adaptation genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of adaptation.

  7. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F


    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  8. The Adaptive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia


    Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging organizatio......Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging...... experiential insights from the fast response processes can be aggregated systematically from frontline employees and fed into the slow process of reasoning. When the fast and slow processes interact they form a dynamic system that adapts organizational activities to the changing conditions which identifies...... the adaptive organization....

  9. On the Path to SunShot: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges in Financing Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This report analyzes solar financing strategies and their role in achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot goals. Financing is critical to solar deployment, because the costs of solar technologies are paid up front, while their benefits are realized over decades. Solar financing has been shaped by government solar incentives, particularly federal tax incentives, which have spawned complex tax-equity structures that monetize tax benefits for project sponsors who otherwise could not use them efficiently. Although these structures have helped expand solar deployment, they are relatively costly and inefficient. This has spurred solar stakeholders to develop lower-cost financing solutions such as securitization of solar project portfolios, solar-specific loan products, and methods for incorporating residential solar's value into home values. To move solar further toward an unsubsidized SunShot future, additional financial innovation must occur. Development of a larger, more mature U.S. solar industry will likely increase financial transparency and investor confidence, which in turn will enable simpler, lower-cost financing methods. Utility-scale solar might be financed more like conventional generation assets are today, non-residential solar might be financed more like a new roof, and residential solar might be financed more like an expensive appliance. Assuming a constant, SunShot-level installed photovoltaic (PV) system price, such financing innovations could reduce PV's levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by an estimated 25%-50% compared with historical financing approaches. These results suggest that financing can adapt to changing conditions and might ease the transition away from a reliance on tax incentives while driving solar's LCOE toward the SunShot goals.

  10. Frustratingly Easy Domain Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal


    We describe an approach to domain adaptation that is appropriate exactly in the case when one has enough ``target'' data to do slightly better than just using only ``source'' data. Our approach is incredibly simple, easy to implement as a preprocessing step (10 lines of Perl!) and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on a range of datasets. Moreover, it is trivially extended to a multi-domain adaptation problem, where one has data from a variety of different domains.

  11. From equivalence to adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  12. Adaptable DC offset correction (United States)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)


    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  13. Network and adaptive sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit


    Combining the two statistical techniques of network sampling and adaptive sampling, this book illustrates the advantages of using them in tandem to effectively capture sparsely located elements in unknown pockets. It shows how network sampling is a reliable guide in capturing inaccessible entities through linked auxiliaries. The text also explores how adaptive sampling is strengthened in information content through subsidiary sampling with devices to mitigate unmanageable expanding sample sizes. Empirical data illustrates the applicability of both methods.

  14. Future: Solar energy. Zukunft: Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, V.


    The first chapter, 'Solar energy - more than just Utopia' deals with the following: Alternatives to nuclear energy problems of energy supply, solar energy use, commencement of the solar age in space, solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany, solar collectors, wind power, energy from hydrogen. The second chapter 'Solar energy - its contribution to future energy supply' discusses prospects for the future (interviews with scientists and engineers). The third and last chapter gives practical hints (solar energy use: self-construction of solar plants). (HWJ).

  15. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  16. Adaptive context exploitation (United States)

    Steinberg, Alan N.; Bowman, Christopher L.


    This paper presents concepts and an implementation scheme to improve information exploitation processes and products by adaptive discovery and processing of contextual information. Context is used in data fusion - and in inferencing in general - to provide expectations and to constrain processing. It also is used to infer or refine desired information ("problem variables") on the basis of other available information ("context variables"). Contextual exploitation becomes critical in several classes of inferencing problems in which traditional information sources do not provide sufficient resolution between entity states or when such states are poorly or incompletely modeled. An adaptive evidence-accrual inference method - adapted from developments in target recognition and scene understanding - is presented; whereby context variables are selected on the basis of (a) their utility in refining explicit problem variables, (b) the probability of evaluating these variables to within a given accuracy, given candidate system actions (data collection, mining or processing), and (c) the cost of such actions. The Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Data Fusion Model, with its extension to dual Resource Management functions, has been adapted to accommodate adaptive information exploitation, to include adaptive context exploitation. The interplay of Data Fusion and Resource Management (DF&RM) functionality in exploiting contextual information is illustrated in terms of the dual-node DF&RM architecture. An important advance is in the integration of data mining methods for data search/discovery and for abductive model refinement.

  17. Adaptation through proportion (United States)

    Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao


    Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features.

  18. Solar energy in Czechoslovakia


    Lindberg, Eva


    The purpose of my tour to Czechoslovakia was to participate the Third International Conference Applied Optics in Solar Energy, which was held in Prague, Octoher 2-6, 1989, and then visit some scientific institutes and solar collector plants as guest of the Czechoslovakian Academy of Science. This was made possihle hy an exchange researcher grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.

  19. The lower solar atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.


    This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low chromosphere in the context of chemical composition studies. The highly dynamical nature of the photosphere does not seem to jeopardize precise determination of solar abundances in classical fashion. It is still an open question how th

  20. Solar array deployment mechanism (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell


    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  1. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis


    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  2. Future Solar Neutrino Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida-city, 506-1205 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    The purpose of the future solar neutrino experiments is briefly reviewed. The future experimental programs which aim to measure the low energy solar neutrinos are described. We do not cover all the projects. Experiments using noble gases are promising for the pp-neutrino measurements.

  3. Solar Electricity for Homes (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  4. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer. (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  5. Solar Energy: Home Heating. (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  6. Solar Energy: Heat Storage. (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  7. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.-S.


    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still remain

  8. Solar '77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, G


    This manual was designed to give everyone a basic understanding of necessary conservation and system features for an efficient, cost effective, and comfortable solar tempered dwelling. Primary emphasis was given to energy efficient design features and construction in new and existing dwellings. A solar glossary is included. (MHR)

  9. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K


    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  10. Solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa


    The focus in the present Ph.D. thesis is on the active use of solar energy for domestic hot water and space heating in so-called solar combi systems. Most efforts have been put into detailed investigations on the design of solar combi systems and on devices used for building up thermal...... the thermal behaviour of different components, and the theoretical investigations are used to study the influence of the thermal behaviour on the yearly thermal performance of solar combi systems. The experimental investigations imply detailed temperature measurements and flow visualization with the Particle...... Image Velocimetry measurement method. The theoretical investigations are based on the transient simulation program TrnSys and Computational Fluid Dynamics. The Ph.D. thesis demonstrates the influence on the thermal performance of solar combi systems of a number of different parameters...

  11. A Little Solar Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir


    Experiences from use of solar cookers in India and many other places are different. But the story which is based on a field study in Gujarat state of India shows that during last twenty years there has been a tendency that many families do not continue to use their solar cookers. The study shows...... that the tendency is related with the lack of compatibility of this new technology (solar cooker) with the everyday real-life conditions of the families. In principle the findings are supported by an evaluation report on a solar cooker project in Burkina Faso. The conclusion is that the user should be involved...... in the solar cooker technological development process....

  12. Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (United States)

    Santillan, A.; Hernandez-Cervantes, L.; Gonzalez-Ponce, A.; Hill, F.; Blanco-Cano, X.


    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) concept contains software tools for searching, manipulating, and analyzing data from archives of solar data at many different observatories around the world (Hill 2000). The VSO not only provides fast and reliable access to the existing solar data, but also represents a powerful and unique machinery to perform numerical simulations for the evolution of a variety of different phenomena associated with solar activity. Two Mexican Universities, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the Universidad de Sonora, are working together to create the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) that will be part of a wider National effort. In this work we present a general description of the MVSO project, as well as the advances obtained in the development of Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to Remotely Perform Numerical Simulation of the Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejection in the Interplanetary Medium.

  13. Solar wind travel time (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    A useful rule of thumb in solar terrestrial studies is that the solar wind travels 4 Earth radii (RE) per minute. Long-term studies of solar wind velocity [e.g., Luhmann et al., 1993; 1994] show that the median velocity is about 420 km/s, corresponding to 3.96 RE min-1. The quartiles are about 370 km/s and 495 km/s, corresponding to 3.48 Re min-1 and 4.66 Re min-1 respectively. This number helps estimate the delays expected when observing a discontinuity at a solar wind monitor; one example is ISEE-3 when it was at the forward libration point (about 60 min). It is also helpful for estimating how much time passes before the dayside magnetosphere is compressed as denser solar wind flows by (about 2.5 min).

  14. Solar heating and cooling. (United States)

    Duffie, J A; Beckman, W A


    We have adequate theory and engineering capability to design, install, and use equipment for solar space and water heating. Energy can be delivered at costs that are competitive now with such high-cost energy sources as much fuel-generated, electrical resistance heating. The technology of heating is being improved through collector developments, improved materials, and studies of new ways to carry out the heating processes. Solar cooling is still in the experimental stage. Relatively few experiments have yielded information on solar operation of absorption coolers, on use of night sky radiation in locations with clear skies, on the combination of a solar-operated Rankine engine and a compression cooler, and on open cycle, humidification-dehumidification systems. Many more possibilities for exploration exist. Solar cooling may benefit from collector developments that permit energy delivery at higher temperatures and thus solar operation of additional kinds of cycles. Improved solar cooling capability can open up new applications of solar energy, particularly for larger buildings, and can result in markets for retrofitting existing buildings. Solar energy for buildings can, in the next decade, make a significant contribution to the national energy economy and to the pocketbooks of many individual users. very large-aggregate enterprises in manufacture, sale, and installation of solar energy equipment can result, which can involve a spectrum of large and small businesses. In our view, the technology is here or will soon be at hand; thus the basic decisions as to whether the United States uses this resource will be political in nature.

  15. Delft's solar car wins Solar Challenge 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.


    There were remarkable scenes in Adelaide, Australia,on the afternoon of Wednesday 22 October 2003 when a swathe of orange spilled through the city. Barely visible at the heart of this burst of colour was the Nuna II, a futuristic vehicle which had just won the Solar Challenge 2003, a four-day journe

  16. Adaptation and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL


    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnikov A. V.


    Full Text Available Promising is the direction and, above all, in matters of energy saving and energy efficiency of Autonomous systems of power supply, the use of renewable sources-newable energy as a major source of energy for consumers in remote areas. Here priority is given to solar energy. Since solar radiation can be change place not only in heat and electrical. The article contains three main structural schematics of electricity supply with solar power plants. The features of their work are disclosed, as well as an algorithm for calculating solar energy systems, the sequence of which is to define the required parameters, the daily energy consumption by consumers of electric power, the calculation capacity of the battery, the choice of the inverter and determining the area of solar batteries. The article reveals the conditions that affect the calculation of the PV system. It is shown that the greatest efficiency, including economic and reliability we have at combined (hybrid Autonomous system, which was carried out with both solar power and wind power and gas stations. The important matters of improving the reliability of solar systems are the introduction to the design of a new element of the base, and first and foremost, Autonomous inventors performed on a single-phase transformer with a rotating magnetic field

  18. Solar Energetic Particles (United States)

    Király, Péter

    Energetic particles recorded in the Earth environment and in interplanetary space have a multitude of origins, i.e. acceleration and propagation histories. At early days practically all sufficiently energetic particles were considered to have come either from solar flares or from interstellar space. Later on, co-rotating interplanetary shocks, the termination shock of the supersonic solar wind, planetary bow shocks and magnetospheres, and also coronal mass ejections (CME) were recognized as energetic particle sources. It was also recognized that less energetic (suprathermal) particles of solar origin and pick-up ions have also a vital role in giving rise to energetic particles in interplanetary disturbances. The meaning of the term "solar energetic particles" (SEP) is now somewhat vague, but essentially it refers to particles produced in disturbances fairly directly related to solar processes. Variation of intensity fluctuations with energy and with the phase of the solar cycle will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to extremes of time variation, i.e. to very quiet periods and to large events. While quiet-time fluxes are expected to shed light on some basic coronal processes, large events dominate the fluctuation characteristics of cumulated fluence, and the change of that fluctuation with energy and with the phase of the solar cycle may also provide important clues. Mainly ISEE-3 and long-term IMP-8 data will be invoked. Energetic and suprathermal particles that may never escape into interplanetary space may play an important part in heating the corona of the sun.

  19. Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Array and Solar Lantern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith


    Full Text Available A very detailed theortical analysis of a solar array has been carried out based on established values of solar radiation data to predict the performance of solar lamp . The analysis is based on established theory about flat-plate collectors. Top heat loss coefficient (Ut, Bottom heat loss coefficient (Ub, Overall heat loss coefficient (Ul, Useful energy (Qu, efficiency (hp of the flat-plate solar array and efficiency (hl of the solar lantern has been calculated.

  20. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory


    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  1. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten


    This article develops a model where ownership improves the efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only...... by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...... adaptation of the home choose ownership. This article analyses the consumer's optimization. The model provides an explanation for the observation that homeowners typically live in larger dwelling units than tenants. It also provides an explanation for a high price of housing services tending to reduce...

  2. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten


    This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...... of the home choose ownership. This article analyses the consumer's optimization. The model provides an explanation for the observation that homeowners typically live in larger dwelling units than tenants. It also provides and explanation for a high price on housing services tending to reduce homeownership...

  3. Adaptable Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbôa, Carlos; Carro, Luigi


    As embedded systems become more complex, designers face a number of challenges at different levels: they need to boost performance, while keeping energy consumption as low as possible, they need to reuse existent software code, and at the same time they need to take advantage of the extra logic available in the chip, represented by multiple processors working together.  This book describes several strategies to achieve such different and interrelated goals, by the use of adaptability. Coverage includes reconfigurable systems, dynamic optimization techniques such as binary translation and trace reuse, new memory architectures including homogeneous and heterogeneous multiprocessor systems, communication issues and NOCs, fault tolerance against fabrication defects and soft errors, and finally, how one can combine several of these techniques together to achieve higher levels of performance and adaptability.  The discussion also includes how to employ specialized software to improve this new adaptive system, and...

  4. Experimental adaptive process tomography (United States)

    Pogorelov, I. A.; Struchalin, G. I.; Straupe, S. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kravtsov, K. S.; Kulik, S. P.


    Adaptive measurements were recently shown to significantly improve the performance of quantum state tomography. Utilizing information about the system for the online choice of optimal measurements allows one to reach the ultimate bounds of precision for state reconstruction. In this article we generalize an adaptive Bayesian approach to the case of process tomography and experimentally show its superiority in the task of learning unknown quantum operations. Our experiments with photonic polarization qubits cover all types of single-qubit channels. We also discuss instrumental errors and the criteria for evaluation of the ultimate achievable precision in an experiment. It turns out that adaptive tomography provides a lower noise floor in the presence of strong technical noise.

  5. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter


    suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used......Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs....... With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...

  6. Relativistic implications of solar astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino


    The modern methods of measurement of the solar diameter and oblateness are reviewed. Either ground-based or balloon-borne and satellite measurements are considered. The importance of solar astrometry for General Relativity is emphasized, particularly attention is given to the solar oblateness problem, as well as the studies of solar astrophysics to the whole world of physics from nucleosynthesis to neutrinos.

  7. Dye sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Wei, Di


    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  8. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei


    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  9. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Matthias; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter


    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope.

  10. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany)


    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope. (orig.)

  11. Solar flares. [plasma physics (United States)

    Rust, D. M.


    The present paper deals with explosions in a magnetized solar plasma, known as flares, whose effects are seen throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-rays through the visible and to the radio band. The diverse phenomena associated with flares are discussed, along with the physical mechanisms that have been advanced to explain them. The impact of solar flare research on the development of plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics is noted. The rapid development of solar flare research during the past 20 years, owing to the availability of high-resolution images, detailed magnetic field measurements, and improved spectral data, is illustrated.

  12. Infrared Solar Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Penn


    Full Text Available The infrared solar spectrum contains a wealth of physical data about our Sun, and is explored using modern detectors and technology with new ground-based solar telescopes. The scientific motivation behind exploring these wavelengths is presented, along with a brief look at the rich history of observations here. Several avenues of solar physics research exploiting and benefiting from observations at infrared wavelengths from roughly 1000 nm to 12 400 nm are discussed, and the instrument and detector technology driving this research is briefly summarized. Finally, goals for future work at infrared wavelengths are presented in conjunction with ground and space-based observations.

  13. Physics of solar energy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian


    The definitive guide to the science of solar energy You hold in your hands the first, and only, truly comprehensive guide to the most abundant and most promising source of alternative energy-solar power. In recent years, all major countries in the world have been calling for an energy revolution. The renewable energy industry will drive a vigorous expansion of the global economy and create more ""green"" jobs. The use of fossil fuels to power our way of living is moving toward an inevitable end, with sources of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being fiercely depleted. Solar energy

  14. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang


    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  15. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter


    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  16. Human Electro-Muscular Incapacitation (HEMI) Use in the Military/Applicability Across the Full Spectrum of Operations (United States)


    does not: damage nerve tissue; cause " electrocution " in a wet environment; or generally cause urination or defecation. 16 6 However, use of an HEMI...force during initial contact in a confrontation appears to be the solution in ending conflict quickly and thereby statistically reducing the likihood

  17. Filmed versus Live Delivery of Full-Spectrum Home Training for Primary Enuresis: Presenting the Information Is Not Enough. (United States)

    Houts, Arthur C.; And Others


    Compared the effectiveness of live versus videotape delivery of a behavioral treatment package for enuresis. Outcome was superior for the live delivery. Pretreatment measures of family and child psychosocial adjustment failed to predict treatment response. Film delivery resulted in higher confidence in children of their parents, but lower…

  18. SAS Enterprise Data Integration Server - A Complete Solution Designed To Meet the Full Spectrum of Enterprise Data Integration Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia BOLOHAN


    Full Text Available This paper is about why is Data Integration important for organisations around the world. Organizations struggle daily with the challenges of large distributed data volumes, inconsistently defined data across disparate systems and the high expectations of data consumers who depend on information to be correct, complete and available when they need it. SAS Enterprise Data Integration Server provides a comprehensive solution that enables organizations to solve these challenges in a timely, cost-effective manner with the ability to efficiently manage data integration projects on an enterprise scale, increasing overall productivity and reducing the total cost of ownership.

  19. Enhancing Full-Spectrum Flexibility: Striking the Balance to Maximize Air Force Effectiveness in Conventional and Counterinsurgency Operations (United States)


    minds.” -- Samuel Adams The first thing that must be understood about an insurgency is that it is formed around intangible objectives that cannot...his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.” -- 1 Samuel 17:49 Much is made of the word ‘asymmetric’ in current discussions of...therefore, they must be killed or captured.” 41 Cited in Ian F.W. Beckett , Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies: Guerillas and Their Opponents

  20. Acknowledging and Appreciating the Full Spectrum of the Human Condition: School Psychology's (Limited) Focus on Positive Psychological Functioning (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Huebner, E. Scott; Youssef, Al-Jameela; Conte, Vincent


    This study is a content analysis of a random selection of 20% (N = 1,168) of articles from "School Psychology Quarterly", "Psychology in the Schools", the "Journal of School Psychology", and "School Psychology Review". Across the four journals, 27% of the articles had a positive focus, and the percentage of articles focused on the positive has…

  1. Redefining lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) classification: integrating the full spectrum of morphological alterations in a biomechanical continuum. (United States)

    Mahato, Niladri Kumar


    In light of advancements in imaging techniques and basic science studies, this study proposes modifications in the existing Castellvi's classification for better clinical and biomechanical correlation of LSTV subtypes. LSTVs are commonly occurring variations of the lower spine. The current system does not include functionally important structural variations of the neural arch components and sacral auricular surfaces induced by LSTV afflictions within the classification. This study is an attempt to integrate vital biomechanical correlates into the proposed modification. Emerging diagnostic and clinical evidence also point out the need of understating subdivisions within LSTV anomalies as distinctly stratified entities to get a better correlation with the biomechanical continuum involved with LSTV associated low back pain. Important neural arch element and sacral auricular surface alterations associated with each LSTV subtypes were studied from a large number of osseous samples and data available from published LSTV related clinical and morphological studies. Sacralisation and lumbarisation were designated separate stratifications in the proposed revision, with arrangement of the LSTV subtypes as members of a LSTV anatomical 'array' extending cranio-caudally at the lumbo-sacral junction. The proposed modification is capable of identifying LSTV associated structural defects (in anterior and posterior elements), their exact level of occurrence and status of facet and auricular surface morphologies. Coding for the inclusion of biomechanically important alterations associated with LSTV types within the proposed new classification would probably be helpful in better clinical correlation of LSTV.

  2. Managing Within Constraints: Balancing U.S. Army Forces to Address a Full Spectrum of Possible Operational Needs (United States)


    providers need help, DOD provides the kind of support set forth in the NRF, Emergency Support Function (ESF) #8. • Oil and Hazardous Substance Spills—DOD...reconnaissance, counter- drug related training, non-herbicidal cannabis eradication, linguist support, aerial and ground transportation, intelligence

  3. Proximal Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy to Predict Soil Properties Using Windows and Full-Spectrum Analysis Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, H.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Henten, van E.J.


    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer

  4. Effects of Free Carriers on the Optical Properties of Doped CdO for Full-Spectrum Photovoltaics (United States)

    Liu, Chao Ping; Foo, Yishu; Kamruzzaman, M.; Ho, Chun Yuen; Zapien, J. A.; Zhu, Wei; Li, Y. J.; Walukiewicz, Wladek; Yu, Kin Man


    CdO-based transparent-conducting oxide thin films have great potential applications in optoelectronic devices due their high mobility, low resistivity, and high transparency over a wide spectral range. In this paper, we report the results of a comprehensive study of optical properties of CdO thin films doped with different donors (In, Ga, V, Ti) with a carrier concentration in the range of 1020 to >1021/cm3 . Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) studies reveal that the complex dielectric function of CdO thin films drastically depends on the carrier concentration. Specifically, with increasing carrier concentration, (1) the net effect of Burstein-Moss shift and band-gap renormalization gives rise to an increase in the optical band gap from 2.6 to 3.2 eV; (2) the free-carrier absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 1200 nm increases from 102 to 1 ×104 cm-1 ; (3) the refractive index decreases from 2.4 to 2.05 at 600 nm; (4) the high-frequency dielectric constant reduces from 5.5 to 4.8. The SE results are analyzed with results from Hall measurements to obtain information on the electron effective mass and optical mobility of CdO thin films. The significantly higher effective mass of V- and Ti-doped CdO thin film is attributed to the modification of the conduction band due to an anticrossing interaction between the localized d levels of V and Ti atoms and the CdO conduction-band extended states. The effective mass of In- and Ga-doped CdO increases with the electron concentration, consistent with the prediction from the nonparabolic conduction-band model. We also find that the optical mobility μopt is close to the Hall mobility μHall when the μHall<60 cm2/V s , while μopt<μHall for materials with higher μHall .

  5. The Integration of Information and Communications Technology in Full Spectrum Operations: A Case Study of CJTF-101 in Afghanistan (United States)


    enable Afghanistan to benefit further from Information and Communication Technologies by becoming part of the global information society while... information society . This meeting was named the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) and presented a forum for emerging technologies. In 2007 the...2Ibid. 3Ibid. 4International Telecommunications Union, “World Summit on The Information Society Forum 2009,” Brochure, May 2009. 32 5Global

  6. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia (United States)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  7. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson


    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  8. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter


    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  9. Adaptive Learning Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moisa


    Full Text Available This article is an introduction to a new model for an adaptive Learning Management System. It presents the current e-learning standards and describes the elements that can be used to create the system: the sequencing control modes, sequencing rules, navigation controls, learning records and learning record stores. The model is based on artificial intelligent algorithms that analyze the data captured for each user and creates an adaptive navigation path through the learning content of the system, allowing each user to experience the content in different ways

  10. Postnatal Cardiovascular Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu


    Full Text Available Fetus depends on placental circulation in utero. A successful transition from intrauterin to extrauterine life depends on succesful physiological changes during labor. During delivery, fetus transfers from a liquid environment where oxygen comes via umbilical vein to air environement where oxygenation is supported via air breathing. Endocrinological changes are important for fetus to adapt to extrauterine life. In addition to these, cord clemping plays a crucial role in postnatal adaptation. Establishment of neonatal postnatal life and succesful overcome, the fetal cardiovascular transition period are important to stay on. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 181-190

  11. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    . The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up concept...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Holland


    Complex adaptive systems (cas) - systems that involve many components that adapt or learn as they interact - are at the heart of important contemporary problems. The study of cas poses unique challenges: Some of our most powerful mathematical tools, particularly methods involving fixed points, attractors, and the like, are of limited help in understanding the development of cas. This paper suggests ways to modify research methods and tools, with an emphasis on the role of computer-based models, to increase our understanding of cas.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang


    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  14. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.


    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  15. Key aspects of cost effective collector and solar field design (United States)

    von Reeken, Finn; Nicodemo, Dario; Keck, Thomas; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Balz, Markus


    A study has been performed where different key parameters influencing solar field cost are varied. By using levelised cost of energy as figure of merit it is shown that parameters like GoToStow wind speed, heliostat stiffness or tower height should be adapted to respective site conditions from an economical point of view. The benchmark site Redstone (Northern Cape Province, South Africa) has been compared to an alternate site close to Phoenix (AZ, USA) regarding site conditions and their effect on cost-effective collector and solar field design.

  16. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power (United States)

    Stark, Philip


    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  17. Onboard low-complexity compression of solar stereo images. (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Cui, Lijuan; Cheng, Samuel; Stanković, Lina; Stanković, Vladimir


    We propose an adaptive distributed compression solution using particle filtering that tracks correlation, as well as performing disparity estimation, at the decoder side. The proposed algorithm is tested on the stereo solar images captured by the twin satellites system of NASA's Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) project. Our experimental results show improved compression performance w.r.t. to a benchmark compression scheme, accurate correlation estimation by our proposed particle-based belief propagation algorithm, and significant peak signal-to-noise ratio improvement over traditional separate bit-plane decoding without dynamic correlation and disparity estimation.

  18. Modeling and reconfiguration of solar photovoltaic arrays under non-uniform shadow conditions (United States)

    Nguyen, Dung Duc

    will focus on the development of an adaptable solar array that is able to optimize power output, reconfigure itself when solar cells are damaged and create controllable output voltages and currents. This study will be a technological advancement over the existing technology of solar PV. Presently solar arrays are fixed arrays that require external device to control their output. In this research, the solar array will be able to self-reconfigure, leading to the following advantages: (1) Higher efficiency because no external devices are used. (2) Can reach maximum possible output power that is much higher than the maximum power of fixed solar arrays by arranging the solar cells in optimized connections. (3) Elimination of the hot spot effects. The proposed research has the following goals: First, to create a modeling and computing algorithm, which is able to simulate and analyze the effects of non-uniform changing shadows on the output power of solar PV arrays. Our model will be able to determine the power losses in each solar cell and the collective hot spots of an array. Second, to propose new methods, which are able to predict the performance of solar PV arrays under shadow conditions for long term (days, months, years). Finally, to develop adaptive reconfiguration algorithms to reconfigure connections within solar PV arrays in real time, under shadow conditions, in order to optimize output power.

  19. The Solar Eclipse (United States)

    Stern, David


    Instructions for observing the Solar Eclipse on Saturday, March 7, 1970, which will be total along a strip about 85 miles wide along the Atlantic Seaboard. Safety precautions and how to construct a pinhole camera to observe eclipse. (BR)

  20. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar Activity (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  1. Welded solar cell interconnection (United States)

    Stofel, E. J.; Browne, E. R.; Meese, R. A.; Vendura, G. J.


    The efficiency of the welding of solar-cell interconnects is compared with the efficiency of soldering such interconnects, and the cases in which welding may be superior are examined. Emphasis is placed on ultrasonic welding; attention is given to the solar-cell welding machine, the application of the welding process to different solar-cell configurations, producibility, and long-life performance of welded interconnects. Much of the present work has been directed toward providing increased confidence in the reliability of welding using conditions approximating those that would occur with large-scale array production. It is concluded that there is as yet insufficient data to determine which of three methods (soldering, parallel gap welding, and ultrasonic welding) provides the longest-duration solar panel life.

  2. Solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srubabati Goswami


    This article summarises the status of the solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology at the end of 2002 in the light of the SNO and KamLAND results. We first present the allowed areas obtained from global solar analysis and demonstrate the preference of the solar data towards the large-mixing-angle (LMA) MSW solution. A clear confirmation in favour of the LMA solution comes from the KamLAND reactor neutrino data. the KamLAND spectral data in conjunction with the global solar data further narrows down the allowed LMA region and splits it into two allowed zones - a low $ m^{2}$ region (low-LMA) and high $ m^{2}$ region (high-LMA). We demonstrate through a projected analysis that with an exposure of 3 kton-year (kTy) KamLAND can remove this ambiguity.

  3. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred


    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  4. Space Solar Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha


    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  5. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  6. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J


    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  7. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J


    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  8. Solar thermoelectric generator (United States)

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.


    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  9. The Solar Dynamo Zoo (United States)

    Egeland, Ricky; Soon, Willie H.; Baliunas, Sallie L.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Henry, Gregory W.


    We present composite time series of Ca II H & K line core emission indices of up to 50 years in length for a set of 27 solar-analog stars (spectral types G0-G5; within ~10% of the solar mass) and the Sun. These unique data are available thanks to the long-term dedicated efforts of the Mount Wilson Observatory HK project, the Lowell Observatory Solar-Stellar Spectrograph, and the National Solar Observatory/Air Force Research Laboratory/Sacremento Peak K-line monitoring program. The Ca II H & K emission originates in the lower chromosphere and is strongly correlated with the presence of magnetic plage regions in the Sun. These synoptic observations allow us to trace the patterns long-term magnetic variability and explore dynamo behavior over a wide range of rotation regimes and stellar evolution timescales.

  10. Boosting Solar Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konika Gera


    Full Text Available Solar energy being most common form of renewable energy fails to hold its use in daily life because of its low efficiency and high maintenance costs. However, these short comings can be fought by using the electrostatic mechanism. In this, we charge the dust particles such that they are repelled by the solar panel itself and then removed. This mechanism is relatively cheaper and the power consumption of the same sums to almost zero. Also, efficiency can further be increased by using perovskites that forms an opaque layer over the solar panel. When both of these methods are used as a single hand, the efficiency increases drastically and can be easily employed in mega industries using mega solar panels.

  11. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk


    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahiska


    Full Text Available In this study, load characteristics of thermoelectric and photovoltaic solar panels are investigated and compared with each other with experiments. Thermoelectric solar panels converts the heat generated by sun directly to electricity; while, photovoltaic solar pales converts photonic energy from sun to electricity. In both types, maximum power can be obtained when the load resistance is equal to internal resistance. According to experimental results, power generated from unit surface with thermoelectric panel is 30 times greater than the power generated by photovoltaic panel. From a panel surface of 1 m2, thermoelectric solar panel has generated 4 kW electric power, while from the same surface, photovoltaic panel has generated 132 W only.

  13. Solar sail mission design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipold, M.


    The main subject of this work is the design and detailed orbit transfer analysis of space flight missions with solar sails utilizing solar pressure for primary propulsion. Such a sailcraft requires ultra-light weight, gossamer-like deployable structures and materials in order to effectively utilize the transfer of momentum of solar photons. Different design concepts as well as technological elements for solar sails are considered, and an innovative design of a deployable sail structure including new methods for sail folding and unfolding is presented. The main focus of this report is on trajectory analysis, simulation and optimization of planetocentric as well as heliocentric low-thrust orbit transfers with solar sails. In a parametric analysis, geocentric escape spiral trajectories are simulated and corresponding flight times are determined. In interplanetary space, solar sail missions to all planets in our solar system as well as selected minor bodies are included in the analysis. Comparisons to mission concepts utilizing chemical propulsion as well as ion propulsion are included in order to assess whether solar sailing could possibly enhance or even enable this mission. The emphasis in the interplanetary mission analysis is on novel concepts: a unique method to realize a sun-synchronous Mercury orbiter, fast missions to the outer planets and the outer heliosphere applying a ''solar photonic assist'', rendezvous and sample return missions to asteroids and comets, as well as innovative concepts to reach unique vantage points for solar observation (''Solar Polar Orbiter'' and ''Solar Probe''). Finally, a propellant-less sailcraft attitude control concept using an external torque due to solar pressure is analyzed. Examples for sail navigation and control in circular Earth orbit applying a PD-control algorithm are shown, illustrating the maneuverability of a sailcraft. (orig.) [German] Gegenstand dieser

  14. Solar Indices Bulletin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  15. Solar Imagery - GONG (Magnetogram) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  16. Solar Imagery - GONG (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  17. Solar system sputtering (United States)

    Tombrello, T. A.


    The sites and materials involved in solar system sputtering of planetary surfaces are reviewed, together with existing models for the processes of sputtering. Attention is given to the interaction of the solar wind with planetary atmospheres in terms of the role played by the solar wind in affecting the He-4 budget in the Venus atmosphere, and the erosion and differentiation of the Mars atmosphere by solar wind sputtering. The study is extended to the production of isotopic fractionation and anomalies in interplanetary grains by irradiation, and to erosion effects on planetary satellites with frozen volatile surfaces, such as with Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Further measurements are recommended of the molecular form of the ejected material, the yields and energy spectra of the sputtered products, the iosotopic fractionation sputtering causes, and the possibility of electronic sputtering enhancement with materials such as silicates.

  18. Solar cell radiation handbook (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.


    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  19. Tehnical day: solar energy


    Carli, Barbara


    This dissertation presents an example of planning and carrying out a technical activity day in the field of solar energy in primary school grades 7 and 9. Firstly, we briefly present technical activity days, the goals and criteria for the planning of technical days, and the topics and devices connected to the technical day in question and were needed in the execution of the experiments. We have selected four simple experiments in the field of solar energy and prepared the needed worksheets fo...

  20. Solar fuels generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.


    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  1. Solar Power Shines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    While still in its infancy, the solar energy industry is growing in China as the country seeks clean, cheap and renewable sources of power Shi Zhengrong, President and CEO of Suntech Power Holdings Co. Ltd., was not a very familiar face to people outside the solar power industry until December 14 last year. On that day, Suntech, based in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, became the first Chinese

  2. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.


    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  3. Solar system. Das Sonnensystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.


    A comprehensive review is given of the most recent findings on the solar system. The physical processes in the sun are presented, their interactions in the interplanetary space, and the planets and moons of the solar system. The sun and the moon are discussed in great detail. The text is supplemented by excellent satellite pictures, including the latest pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons.

  4. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  5. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  6. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval (United States)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang


    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  7. Cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, G.J.L.; Molengraft, R. van de; Ploeg, J.


    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) enables automatic following of a preceding vehicle, based on measurements of the inter-vehicle distance xr,i and the relative velocity ˙ xr,i. Commonly, a radar is used for these measurements, see Figure 1. Decreasing the inter-vehicle distance to a small value of only

  8. Adapting Bulls to Florida (United States)

    The adaptation of bulls used for natural breeding purposes to the Gulf Coast region of the United States including all of Florida is an important topic. Nearly 40% of the U.S. cow/calf population resides in the Gulf Coast and Southeast. Thus, as A.I. is relatively rare, the number of bulls used for ...

  9. The Adaptability of Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry


    to the premise that “fit” between an organization’s external context and its internal structure may enhance performance, but also to the suggestion that the adaptation process may be asymmetric (Moon et al., 2004). Further, the paper contributes to practice by highlighting both the opportunities and risks...

  10. Compiler Assisted Runtime Adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sima, V.M.


    In this dissertation, we address the problem of runtime adaptation of the application to its execution environment. A typical example is changing theprocessing element on which a computation is executed, considering the available processing elements in the system. This is done based on the informati

  11. The governance of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien


    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative princi

  12. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...

  13. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan


    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  14. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Within the 3rd International Conference on solar air-conditioning in Palermo (Italy) at 30th September to 2nd October, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Removal of non-technological barriers to solar cooling technology across Southern European islands (Stefano Rugginenti); (2) The added economic and environmental value of solar thermal systems in microgrids with combined heat and power (Chris Marney); (3) Australian solar cooling interest group (Paul Kohlenbach); (4) Designing of a technology roadmap for solar assisted air conditioning in Austria (Hilbert Focke); (5) Solar cooling in the new context of renewable policies at European level (Raffaele Piria); (6) Prototype of a solar driven steam jet ejector chiller (Clemens Pollerberg); (7) New integrated solar air conditioning system (Joan Carlos Bruno); (8) Primary energy optimised operation of solar driven desiccant evaporative cooling systems through innovative control strategies; (9) Green chiller association (Uli Jakob); (10) Climate Well {sup registered} (Olof Hallstrom); (11) Low capacity absorption chillers for solar cooling applications (Gregor Weidner); (12) Solar cooling in residential, small scale commercial and industrial applications with adsorption technology (Walter Mittelbach); (13) French solar heating and cooling development programme based on energy performance (Daniel Mugnier); (14) Mirrox fresnel process heat collectors for industrial applications and solar cooling (Christian Zahler); (15) Modelling and analyzing solar cooling systems in polysun (Seyen Hossein Rezaei); (16) Solar cooling application in Valle Susa Italy (Sufia Jung); (17) Virtual case study on small solar cooling systems within the SolarCombi+Project (Bjoern Nienborg); (18) Design of solar cooling plants under uncertainty (Fernando Dominguez-Munoz); (19) Fast pre-design of systems using solar thermally driven chillers (Hans-Martin Henning); (20) Design of a high fraction solar heating and cooling plant in southern

  15. Anomalously Weak Solar Convection (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.


    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical- harmonic degree l..Within the wavenumber band l convective velocities are 20-100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers l convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient.

  16. Solar History An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio


    Beyond the four centuries of sunspot observation and the five decades during which artificial satellites have monitored the Sun – that is to say for 99.99999% of the Sun’s existence – our knowledge of solar history depends largely on analogy with kindred main sequence stars, on the outcome of various kinds of modelling, and on indirect measures of solar activity. They include the analysis of lunar rocks and meteorites for evidence of solar flares and other components of the solar cosmic-ray (SCR) flux, and the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in wood, stratified ice and marine sediments to evaluate changes in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux and thus infer changes in the sheltering magnetic fields of the solar wind. In addition, shifts in the global atmospheric circulation which appear to result from cyclic fluctuations in solar irradiance have left their mark in river sediments and in the isotopic composition of cave deposits. In this volume the results these sources have already produced have bee...

  17. Solar Physics at Evergreen (United States)

    Zita, E. J.; Bogdan, T. J.; Carlsson, M.; Judge, P.; Heller, N.; Johnson, M.; Petty, S.


    We have recently established a solar physics research program at The Evergreen State College. Famed for its cloudy skies, the Pacific Northwest is an ideal location for solar physics research activities that do not require local observations. Collaborators from the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research have shared solar data from satellite-borne instruments such as TRACE and SUMER. HAO colleagues also share data from computer simulations of magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in the chromosphere, generated by the Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics (ITA) at the University of Oslo. Evergreen students and faculty learned to analyze data from satellites and simulations, in Boulder and Oslo, and established an infrastructure for continuing our analyses in Olympia. We are investigating the role of magnetic waves in heating the solar atmosphere. Comparing data from satellites and simulations shows that acoustic oscillations from the photosphere cannot effectively propagate into the chromosphere, but that magnetic waves can carry energy up toward the hot, thin corona. We find that acoustic waves can change into magnetic waves, especially near the magnetic "canopy," a region where the sound speed is comparable to magnetic wave speeds. Understanding MHD wave transformations and their role in energy transport can help answer outstanding questions about the anomalous heating of the solar atmosphere. Ref: Waves in the magnetized solar atmosphere II: Waves from localized sources in magnetic flux concentrations. Bogdan et al., 2003, ApJ 597

  18. Cost effective solar Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarathna M


    Full Text Available Solar energy the most efficient, eco-friendly and abundantly available energy source in the nature. It can be converted into electrical energy in cost effective manner. In recent years, the interest in solar energy has risen due to surging oil prices and environmental concern. In many remote or underdeveloped areas, direct access to an electric grid is impossible and a photovoltaic inverter system would make life much simpler and more convenient. With this in mind, it is aimed to design, build, and test a solar panel inverter. This inverter system could be used as backup power during outages, battery charging, or for typical household applications. The main components of this solar system are solar cell, dc to dc boost converters, and inverter. Sine wave push pull inverter topology is used for inverter. In this topology only two MOSFETs are used and isolation requirement between control circuit and power circuit is also less which helps to decrease the cost of solar inverter.

  19. Solar generation; Generation solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, J.


    Solar energy might become the main energy resource for mankind in the next 50 years. The author describes the assets of photovoltaic energy and helio-thermodynamics and reviews the conditions required for such a future. The first condition is an integrated approach for the development of solar energy in buildings, it means to develop in parallel the use of low-power appliances, to insulate buildings, to use daylight. Secondly to find an efficient solution to store solar energy. In the building sector this solution could be the use of solar energy (through solar panels) and geothermal heat pump to be able to recover in winter the calories caught in summer and stored in the ground. In a warmer and warmer world, the production of cold from solar calories has the advantage of sparing electricity and to make the demand for calories corresponding with the peak of the resource. A graph shows that the expected cost of photovoltaic electricity in 2020 will be half the 2011 cost and will correspond to the retail price of electricity. (A.C.)

  20. Solar Thermal Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun A. Abhyankar


    Full Text Available Increasing energy consumption, shrinking resources and rising energy costs will have significant impact on our standard of living for future generations. In this situation, the development of alternative, cost effective sources of energy has to be a priority. This project presents the advanced technology and some of the unique features of a novel solar system that utilizes solar energy for space heating and water heating purpose in residential housing and commercial buildings. The improvements in solar technology offers a significant cost reduction, to a level where the solar system can compete with the energy costs from existing sources. The main goal of the project is to investigate new or advanced solutions for storing heat in systems providing heating. which can be achieved using phase change material(PCM.A phase change material with a melting/solidification temperature of 50ºC to 60ºC is used for solar heat storage. When the PCM undergoes the phase change, it can absorb or release a large amount of energy as latent heat. This heat can be used for further applications like water heating and space heating purposes. Thus solar thermal energy is widely use

  1. Multi-Adaptive Galerkin Methods for ODEs II: Implementation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Logg, Anders


    Continuing the discussion of the multi-adaptive Galerkin methods mcG(q) and mdG(q) presented in [A. Logg, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 24 (2003), pp. 1879-1902], we present adaptive algorithms for global error control, iterative solution methods for the discrete equations, features of the implementation Tanganyika, and computational results for a variety of ODEs. Examples include the Lorenz system, the solar system, and a number of time-dependent PDEs.

  2. Photovoltaic solar energy; Energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru; Vilela, Olga de Castro; Barbosa, Elielza Moura de Souza [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco(UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia


    This chapter gives an overview on energy generation from thermal solar energy, analysing the international markets of the photovoltaic modules, the changes which are being produced in the application character, the environmental phenomena resulting from the modules production, briefly describes the physical phenomena explaining the photovoltaic effect, analyses the process of module price formation and performs the energy costs resultant for the user and subsides politics being practiced in various countries.

  3. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient. (United States)

    Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J


    All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.

  4. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Yaghoobi


    Full Text Available Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed “Heat Trap” effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  5. Solar thermophotovoltaics: reshaping the solar spectrum (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Sakr, Enas; Sun, Yubo; Bermel, Peter


    Recently, there has been increasing interest in utilizing solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) to convert sunlight into electricity, given their potential to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. Encouragingly, there have also been several recent demonstrations of improved system-level efficiency as high as 6.2%. In this work, we review prior work in the field, with particular emphasis on the role of several key principles in their experimental operation, performance, and reliability. In particular, for the problem of designing selective solar absorbers, we consider the trade-off between solar absorption and thermal losses, particularly radiative and convective mechanisms. For the selective thermal emitters, we consider the tradeoff between emission at critical wavelengths and parasitic losses. Then for the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes, we consider the trade-off between increasing the potential short-circuit current, and maintaining a reasonable opencircuit voltage. This treatment parallels the historic development of the field, but also connects early insights with recent developments in adjacent fields.With these various components connecting in multiple ways, a system-level end-to-end modeling approach is necessary for a comprehensive understanding and appropriate improvement of STPV systems. This approach will ultimately allow researchers to design STPV systems capable of exceeding recently demonstrated efficiency values.

  6. Radiation effects on solar cells: experiments, models, and simulations: DLTS vs. SRIM for trap data (United States)

    Fedoseyev, Alex; Turowski, Marek; Bald, Timothy; Raman, Ashok; Warner, Jeffrey H.


    A predictive computational approach that limits use of DLTS experiments is presented, developed using the experimental data and proposed physics based models. Three-dimensional NanoTCAD simulations are used for physicsbased prediction of space radiation effects in III-V solar cells, and validated with experimentally measured characteristics of a p+n GaAs solar cell with AlGaAs window. The computed dark and illuminated I-V curves as well as corresponding performance parameters matched very well experimental data for 2 MeV proton irradiation at various fluences. We analyze the role of majority vs. minority and deep vs. shallow carrier traps in the solar cell performance degradation. The traps/defects parameters used in the simulations were derived from Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) data obtained at NRL. It was noticed that the degradation caused by deep traps observed in single-trap numerical tests exhibit a very similar trend to the degradation caused by a full spectrum of defect traps, but to a lesser degree. This led to the development of a method to accurately simulate the degradation of a solar cell by using only a single deep level defect whose density is calculated by the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code. Using SRIM, we calculated the number of vacancies produced by 2 MeV proton irradiation for fluences ranging from 6x1010 cm-2 to 5x1012 cm-2. Based on the SRIM results, we applied trap models in NanoTCAD and performed full I-V simulations from which the amount of degradation of performance parameters (Isc, Voc, Pmax) was calculated. The physics-based models using SRIM allowed obtaining good match with experimental data.

  7. Adaptation: Needs, Financing and Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Richard J.T.; Kartha, Sivan; Persson, Aasa; Watkiss, Paul; Ackerman, Frank; Downing, Thomas E.; Kjellen, Bo; Schipper, Lisa (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm (SE))


    Regardless of the efforts put into mitigation, some impacts of climate change are already unavoidable. Adaptation to climate change has therefore become a key component of domestic climate policy, along with mitigation. Adaptation has also become key to the success of global climate policy. Without an agreement on supporting adaptation in developing countries, there will be no agreement on mitigation. Strong mitigation efforts make it more likely that adaptation will be effective and affordable. The world cannot rely on adaptation alone: it would eventually lead to a level of climate change to which adaptation is no longer feasible. Government action is needed to create an enabling environment for adaptation. This includes removing existing financial, legal, institutional and knowledge barriers to adaptation, and strengthening the capacity of people and organisations to adapt. The success of adaptation relies on the success of development, and vice versa. Poverty reduction, good governance, education, environmental protection, health and gender equality all contribute to adaptive capacity. Substantially more money is needed to support adaptation in developing countries. Current levels of funding will soon have to be scaled up by two orders of magnitude (from US$ hundreds of million to US$ tens of billion per year). An agreement on adaptation in Copenhagen in 2009 will need to include concrete steps towards a strengthened knowledge base for adaptation, substantially more funding for developing countries, and enhanced adaptation planning and implementation at the national level. Recommendations: Developed countries should accept a transparent, principle-based allocation of responsibility for adaptation funding, resulting in adequate, new and additional money to support adaptation programmes in developing countries. Levies on carbon market transactions and auctioning emission permits are two existing mechanisms of generating new and additional funds consistent with

  8. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos. (United States)

    Nakahata, Masayuki


    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the "solar neutrino problem". Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. (Communicated by Toshimitsu Yamazaki, M.J.A.).

  9. A highly diverse, desert-like microbial biocenosis on solar panels in a Mediterranean city. (United States)

    Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Vilanova, Cristina; Peretó, Juli; Codoñer, Francisco M; Ramón, Daniel; Porcar, Manuel


    Microorganisms colonize a wide range of natural and artificial environments although there are hardly any data on the microbial ecology of one the most widespread man-made extreme structures: solar panels. Here we show that solar panels in a Mediterranean city (Valencia, Spain) harbor a highly diverse microbial community with more than 500 different species per panel, most of which belong to drought-, heat- and radiation-adapted bacterial genera, and sun-irradiation adapted epiphytic fungi. The taxonomic and functional profiles of this microbial community and the characterization of selected culturable bacteria reveal the existence of a diverse mesophilic microbial community on the panels' surface. This biocenosis proved to be more similar to the ones inhabiting deserts than to any human or urban microbial ecosystem. This unique microbial community shows different day/night proteomic profiles; it is dominated by reddish pigment- and sphingolipid-producers, and is adapted to withstand circadian cycles of high temperatures, desiccation and solar radiation.

  10. Soiling and degradation analysis of solar mirrors (United States)

    Delord, Christine; Blaise, Anthony; Fernandez-García, Aránzazu; Martínez-Arcos, Lucía; Sutter, Florian; Reche-Navarro, Tomás Jesús


    The degradation and the soiling of the mirrors are dependent of the solar field and the mirrors technologies, the local climate, the meteorological events, the O&M tasks and the human activities around the site. In the frame of the European project SFERA II, the SODAM project has been the opportunity to compare the soiling and the degradation mechanisms on a Fresnel solar field installed in the South of France and on a parabolic-through solar field installed in the South of Spain. The analysis of the soiling has shown equivalent maximum weekly reflectance loss due to soiling in both sites but a double mean weekly reflectance loss in Spain respect to France, as well as typical meteorological events to be taken into account to adapt the cleaning strategies. Among the meteorological parameters mainly influencing the soiling, the study has revealed the effect of the rain and of the DNI. In parallel, the analysis of the degradation mechanisms has highlighted a common chalking of the protective back paint layers due to the irradiation. This chalking being associated to a leaching of the paint layers in the site of Cadarache due to the high presence of liquid water. A difference in the speed of corrosion of the silver layer has been also noticed, leading to a difference in the mechanisms of delamination of the paints layers.

  11. Modification and upgrade of AzRISE/TEP solar photovoltaic test yard (United States)

    Bennett, Whit; Fishgold, Asher; Lai, Teh; Elwood, Teri; Potter, Barrett G.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly


    The University of Arizona AzRISE (Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy) and Tucson Electric Power solar test yard is currently undergoing renovations to upgrade and standardize the data acquisition capabilities throughout the yard. Test yard improvements have enabled increased data collection reliability through state-of-the-art and environmentallyrobust data logging and real-time analysis. Enhanced capabilities include 10 msec max. data resolution, precision PV backside temperature monitoring of both individual and strings of modules, measurement of both AC and DC outputs as well as GHI and POA irradiance, active data backup to eliminate data intermittency, and robust Ethernet connectivity for data collection. An on-site weather station, provides wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and air temperature data. The information collected is accessed remotely via web server and includes raw performance and environmental conditions as well as extracted figures of performance for systems under test. Complementing the UA's existing accelerated environmental-testing chamber, the new test yard acquisition capabilities have enabled high fidelity system and sub-system-level operational testing under a range of field-level test conditions. The combined facilities, thus, provide a full-spectrum testing resource for photovoltaic performance and degradation analysis. Specific measurement characteristics and sample data collected from a polysilicon module test string are utilized to illustrate test yard capabilities.

  12. Discovering the Solar System (United States)

    Jones, Barrie W.


    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  13. Technical use of solar energy: Conversion from solar to thermal energy, solar cooling and thermal energy storage (United States)

    Arafa, A.; Fisch, N.; Hahne, E.; Kraus, K.; Seemann, D.; Seifert, B.; Sohns, J.; Schetter, G.; Schweigerer, W.


    Experimental and theoretical studies in the field of solar energy utilization are reviewed. Specific topics considered are: flat plate water collectors, solar absorbers, air collectors, solar absorption cooling, solar simulators, aquifiers, latent heat stores, and space heating systems.

  14. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars


    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...... to the behavior of the interacting person. This paper presents a simple ball game between a single player and a mobile robot platform. The algorithm has been validated using simulation and real world experiments....

  15. Bacterial surface adaptation (United States)

    Utada, Andrew


    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  16. Adaptive manifold learning. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyue; Wang, Jing; Zha, Hongyuan


    Manifold learning algorithms seek to find a low-dimensional parameterization of high-dimensional data. They heavily rely on the notion of what can be considered as local, how accurately the manifold can be approximated locally, and, last but not least, how the local structures can be patched together to produce the global parameterization. In this paper, we develop algorithms that address two key issues in manifold learning: 1) the adaptive selection of the local neighborhood sizes when imposing a connectivity structure on the given set of high-dimensional data points and 2) the adaptive bias reduction in the local low-dimensional embedding by accounting for the variations in the curvature of the manifold as well as its interplay with the sampling density of the data set. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods for improving the performance of manifold learning algorithms using both synthetic and real-world data sets.

  17. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J


    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  18. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph


    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  19. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  20. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  1. Adapt or Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green


    read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost...... several different notions of non-adaptivity and identify key properties that must be dealt with if we are to prove polynomial lower bounds without restrictions on the data structures. Finally, our results also unveil an interesting connection between data structures and depth-2 circuits. This allows us...... to translate conjectured hard data structure problems into good candidates for high circuit lower bounds; in particular, in the area of linear circuits for linear operators. Building on lower bound proofs for data structures in slightly more restrictive models, we also present a number of properties of linear...

  2. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Séguier


    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  3. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa


    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  4. Designing Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter


    Learning system to study a discipline. In business to business interaction, different requirements and parameters of exchanged business requests might be served by different services from third parties. Such applications require certain intelligence and a slightly different approach to design. Adpative web...... adaptation to the changed parameters of environments, user or context. Adaptation can be seen as an orthogonal concern or viewpoint in a design process. In this paper I will discuss design abstractions which are employed in current design methods for web applications. I will exemplify the use......The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the e...

  5. Improved Adaptive Fingerprint Binarization


    Bartunek, Josef Ström; Nilsson, Mikael; Nordberg, Jörgen; Claesson, Ingvar


    In this paper improvements to a previous work are presented. Removing the redundant artifacts in the fingerprint mask is introduced enhancing the final result. The proposed method is entirely adaptive process adjusting to each fingerprint without any further supervision of the user. Hence, the algorithm is insensitive to the characteristics of the fingerprint sensor and the various physical appearances of the fingerprints. Further, a detailed description of fingerprint mask generation not ful...

  6. Adaptable positioner; Posicionador adaptativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrador Pavon, I.


    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref.

  7. Adaptive positioner; Posicionador adaptativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrador Pavon, I.


    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs.

  8. Reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing (United States)

    Coxe, Robin L. (Inventor); Galica, Gary E. (Inventor)


    Described are methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing technology. An environmental signal representative of an external environmental condition is received. A processing configuration is automatically selected, based on the environmental signal, from a plurality of processing configurations. A reconfigurable processing element is reconfigured to operate according to the selected processing configuration. In some examples, the environmental condition is detected and the environmental signal is generated based on the detected condition.

  9. Robust Adaptive Control. (United States)


    13.2 3.6. 14.0. 1.8. 11111.52 *.6 L 3 n1 i erated ~~~m nc. AFOSR-TR- 798 s AD-A 161 349 ROBUST ADAPTIVE CONTROL * FINAL REPORT PREPARED BY: R~ OBERT L... Centre Block Computes the Norm of the [1I] Solo, V., "Time Series Recursions and Stochastc Regressors. The Rematning Elemerts Imple- Approximation

  10. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  11. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation. (United States)

    Honig, P K; Hirsch, G


    Adaptive Biomedical Innovation (ABI) is a multistakeholder approach to product and process innovation aimed at accelerating the delivery of clinical value to patients and society. ABI offers the opportunity to transcend the fragmentation and linearity of decision-making in our current model and create a common collaborative framework that optimizes the benefit and access of new medicines for patients as well as creating a more sustainable innovation ecosystem.

  12. Adaptation to High Altitude



    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  13. Solar neutrinos, solar flares, solar activity cycle and the proton decay (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, P.


    It is shown that there may be a correlation between the galactic cosmic rays and the solar neutrino data, but it appears that the neutrino flux which may be generated during the large solar cosmic ray events cannot in any way effect the solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. Only initial stage of mixing between the solar core and solar outer layers after the sunspot maximum in the solar activity cycle can explain the higher (run number 27 and 71) of solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. But solar flare induced atmospheric neutrino flux may have effect in the nucleon decay detector on the underground. The neutrino flux from solar cosmic rays may be a useful guide to understand the background of nucleon decay, magnetic monopole search, and the detection of neutrino flux in sea water experiment.

  14. Adaptive colouration in amphibians. (United States)

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna


    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians.

  15. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (United States)

    Parliament, Hugh A.


    The design and implementation of a system for the acquisition, processing, and analysis of signal data is described. The initial application for the system is the development and analysis of algorithms for excision of interfering tones from direct sequence spread spectrum communication systems. The system is called the Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) and is an integrated hardware and software system built around the TMS320C30 chip. The hardware consists of a radio frequency data source, digital receiver, and an adaptive signal processor implemented on a Sun workstation. The software components of the ASPT consists of a number of packages including the Sun driver package; UNIX programs that support software development on the TMS320C30 boards; UNIX programs that provide the control, user interaction, and display capabilities for the data acquisition, processing, and analysis components of the ASPT; and programs that perform the ASPT functions including data acquisition, despreading, and adaptive filtering. The performance of the ASPT system is evaluated by comparing actual data rates against their desired values. A number of system limitations are identified and recommendations are made for improvements.

  16. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar


    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  17. Adaptive Structural Mode Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes the development of an adaptive structural mode control system. The adaptive control system will begin from a "baseline" dynamic model of the...

  18. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren


    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...... or small hot-water consumption and the risk of oversized solar heating systems and oversized tank volumes is reduced by using smart solar tanks. Based on the investigations it is recommended to start development of smart solar tank units with an oil-fired boiler or a natural gas burner as auxiliary energy...

  19. Combined solar collector


    Voznyak, O.; Shapoval, S.; Pona, O.; Vengryn, I.


    In this article was analyzing the efficiency of the combined solar collector for heating buildings. This enhances the efficiency of solar system by increasing the area of the absorption of solar energy. There are describes the results of the research on solar radiation input on a combined solar collector. Проаналізовано ефективність використання комбінованого сонячного колектора для теплопостачання будівель. Він забезпечує підвищення ефективності геліосистеми за рахунок збільшення площі погли...

  20. Searchable solar feature catalogues (United States)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Aboudarham, J.; Zharkov, S.; Ipson, S. S.; Benkhalil, A. K.; Fuller, N.

    The searchable Solar Feature Catalogues (SFCs) are developed from digitized solar images using automated pattern recognition techniques. The techniques were applied for the detection of sunspots, active regions, filaments and line-of-sight magnetic neutral lines in automatically standardized full disk solar images in Ca II K1, Ca II K3 and Ha lines taken at the Paris-Meudon Observatory and white light images and magnetograms from SOHO/MDI. The results of the automated recognition were verified with manual synoptic maps and available statistical data that revealed good detection accuracy. Based on the recognized parameters, a structured database of Solar Feature Catalogues was built on a MySQL server for every feature and published with various pre-designed search pages on the Bradford University web site The SFCs with nine year coverage (1996-2004) is to be used for deeper investigation of the feature classification and solar activity forecast.