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Sample records for adaptive developmental delay

  1. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.

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    Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

    2003-01-01

    A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

  2. Maternal supportive and interfering control as predictors of adaptive and social development in children with and without developmental delays.

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    Green, S; Caplan, B; Baker, B

    2014-08-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) have been found to use more controlling behaviour with their children than parents of children with typical development (TD). While controlling behaviour is related to poorer developmental outcomes in TD children, there is little research on how it predicts outcomes in DD children. Furthermore, existing research tends to use inconsistent or non-specific definitions of controlling behaviour, often combining parent control which follows the child's goal (e.g. supportive direction) and that which interferes with the child's goal (e.g. interference). Participants were 200 mother-child dyads observed at child age 3, with follow-up assessments of adaptive behaviour and social skills administered at child ages 5 and 6, respectively. We coded the frequency of both types of controlling behaviour based on mothers' interactions with their children with TD (n = 113) or DD (n = 87) at age 3. Mothers in the DD group used more interfering but not more supportive directive acts compared to mothers in the TD group. Adaptive behaviour was assessed at child age 5 and social skills were assessed at age 6. Higher frequency of supportive directive acts predicted better adaptive functioning for the TD group and better social skills for the DD group. Higher frequency of interfering acts predicted lower adaptive and social skills for children with DD but not with TD. Results are discussed in terms of the differential developmental needs of children with and without DD as well as implications for early intervention. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

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    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  4. Comparability of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale--survey form with infants evaluated for developmental delay.

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    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W

    1990-10-01

    The Vineland Social Maturity Scale and its revision, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Survey Form, were evaluated with infants referred for suspected developmental delay. Since the latter is being used more often by psychologists in evaluation and placement of children in the age group of birth to two years, comparative studies must ensure appropriate placement of children observed to have developmental delays. The present study indicated significantly higher over-all adaptive functioning on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Survey Form for 33 black and 11 white infants of mean age 12 mo. than on the original Vineland scales. Substituting the Survey Form for the original Vineland scales when evaluating developmentally delayed infants is questionable. These results are also noteworthy in that children whose Vineland Social Maturity scaled scores make them eligible for special services would be excluded if the revised form were used in the evaluation process.

  5. Comparison of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--survey form, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development with infants evaluated for developmental delay.

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    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W

    1993-12-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales is an extensive revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; however, research comparing the two scales with different populations and measures of intelligence is limited. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--Survey Form, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and the mental scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to 44 infants referred for evaluation of developmental delay. The differences between means were compared and shared variance examined. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--Survey Form scores were significantly higher than those of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Bayley Mental Development Index. No significant differences were found between the means of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Development Index. Correlations were .59 between the Bayley Index and scores on the Vineland--Survey Form and .72 between the Bayley Index and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. Between versions of the Vineland scale r = .39. Implications for diagnosis and educational classification are discussed.

  6. Developmental and functional outcomes at school age of preschool children with global developmental delay.

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    Shevell, Michael; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Webster, Richard; Birnbaum, Rena

    2005-08-01

    The later developmental trajectory of young children diagnosed early with global developmental delay was determined. Using a prospective study, preschool children diagnosed with global developmental delay were systematically reassessed during the early school years with standardized developmental and functional outcome measures (Battelle Developmental Inventory and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale). Of an original cohort of 99 children assessed and diagnosed at a mean age of 3.4 +/- 1.1 years, 48 were reassessed at a mean age of 7.3 +/- 0.9 years. Group performance on the Battelle Developmental Inventory overall was 66.4 +/- 4.3 (mean 100 +/- 15). Between 75% and 100% of the cohort performed at least 1.5 SD below the normative mean on the individual domains of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Similarly, the group mean on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale overall was 63.5 +/- 20.8 (mean 100 +/- 15), with between 61% and 76% of the cohort scoring more than 1.5 SD below the mean on each of the domains. Univariate and multivariate analyses on potential predictor variables identified a lack of an underlying etiology as predictive of poorer performance on the Battelle Developmental Inventory fine motor and motor domains and increasing severity of initial delay as predictive of poorer performance on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale communication domain and overall score. Similarly, maternal employment and paternal postsecondary education improved Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale communication scores, whereas paternal postsecondary education alone predicted better socialization and total scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Children with early global developmental delay demonstrate persistent and consistently poor performance across all developmental and functional domains. Few variables are apparent at intake to predict later performance.

  7. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

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    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  8. Risk factors of ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, L.N.; Jensen, H.; Skov, L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  9. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

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    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  10. Approach to Mental Retardation and Global Developmental Delay

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    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMental Retardation (MR or Intellectual Disability is one of three chronic and disabling neurological disorders of children and adolescents. Its prevalence is estimated 1-3% of the population. MR is defined as significant sub-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that become detectable before the age of 18. MR may come into view before 5 years as delay in at least two developmental domains which is called Global Developmental Delay (GDD.The causes of mental retardation can be considered under the titles of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. Prenatal causes account for approximately 60 -80 % of the etiological factors. All patients with GDD / MR should undergo a stepwise diagnostic approach, because a specific diagnosis leads to opportunity for treatment, future planning and genetic counseling. History, physical examination and neurodevelopmental examinations are the most important parts of the approach. Recent advances in cytogenetic investigations and neuroimaging studies have led to recognition of new disorders and improvement of the diagnostic yield.Keywords: Mental retardation ; global developmental delay; diagnostic yield.

  11. Developmental functional adaptation to high altitude: review.

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    Frisancho, A Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Various approaches have been used to understand the origins of the functional traits that characterize the Andean high-altitude native. Based on the conceptual framework of developmental functional adaptation which postulates that environmental influences during the period of growth and development have long lasting effects that may be expressed during adulthood, we initiated a series of studies addressed at determining the pattern of physical growth and the contribution of growth and development to the attainment of full functional adaptation to high-altitude of low and high altitude natives living under rural and urban conditions. Current research indicate that: (a) the pattern of growth at high altitude due to limited nutritional resources, physical growth in body size is delayed but growth in lung volumes is accelerated because of hypoxic stress); (b) low-altitude male and female urban natives can attain a full functional adaptation to high altitude by exposure to high-altitude hypoxia during the period of growth and development; (c) both experimental studies on animals and comparative human studies indicate that exposure to high altitude during the period of growth and development results in the attainment of a large residual lung volume; (d) this developmentally acquired enlarged residual lung volume and its associated increase in alveolar area when combined with the increased tissue capillarization and moderate increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration contributes to the successful functional adaptation of the Andean high-altitude native to hypoxia; and (e) any specific genetic traits that are related to the successful functional adaptation of Andean high-altitude natives have yet to be identified.

  12. Menstrual management in developmentally delayed adolescent females.

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    Chuah, Irene; McRae, Alexandra; Matthews, Kim; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2017-06-01

    Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Eighty adolescent patients with developmental delay were identified. A third (n = 28) of the patients were pre-menarcheal at first review with parent/caregivers seeking anticipatory advice. Of the post-menarcheal patients, the median age of menarche was 12 years (range 10-15 years). First and second line interventions were documented as were reasons for change where applicable. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) was the most frequently used therapy (67%), and 19 patients in total had a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) inserted (31%). Our study population differs from similar previously published groups in the marked absence of the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or the subdermal etonogestrel releasing device. As a paediatrician, it is important to address menstrual management issues and allay caregiver concerns with appropriate advice. Our study supports the use of the COCP as sound first line management in achieving menstrual suppression. The LNG-IUS appears to be a favourable second line option. Further investigation into longer-term outcomes and potential complications of device insertion is recommended. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Neuropsychological Testing of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Problems and Progress.

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    Stone, Nancy W.; Levin, Harvey S.

    1979-01-01

    The study involving 13 developmentally delayed children (36-66 months old) was conducted to determine the applicability of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Motor Impersistence Test, Graphesthesia Test, and Stereognosis-Tactile Test with developmentally delayed infants and preschoolers. (SBH)

  14. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays

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    Rivera, Diego; García, Antonio; Alarcos, Bernardo; Velasco, Juan R.; Ortega, José Eugenio; Martínez-Yelmo, Isaías

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc.) to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports. PMID:27879626

  15. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays.

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    Rivera, Diego; García, Antonio; Alarcos, Bernardo; Velasco, Juan R; Ortega, José Eugenio; Martínez-Yelmo, Isaías

    2016-11-20

    In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc.) to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  16. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays

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    Diego Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc. to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  17. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had...

  18. [Neuropsychomotor developmental delay: conceptual map, term definitions, uses and limitations].

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    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Duarte, Neuza Maria de Castro; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2015-01-01

    To retrieve the origin of the term neuropsychomotor developmental delay" (NPMD), its conceptual evolution over time, and to build a conceptual map based on literature review. A literature search was performed in the SciELO Brazil, Web of Science, Science Direct, OneFile (GALE), Pubmed (Medline), Whiley Online, and Springer databases, from January of 1940 to January of 2013, using the following keywords NPMD delay, NPMD retardation, developmental delay, and global developmental delay. A total of 71 articles were selected, which were used to build the conceptual map of the term. Of the 71 references, 55 were international and 16 national. The terms developmental delay and global developmental delay were the most frequently used in the international literature and, in Brazil, delayed NPMD was the most often used. The term developmental delay emerged in the mid 1940s, gaining momentum in the 1990 s. In Brazil, the term delayed NPMD started to be used in the 1980s, and has been frequently cited and published in the literature. Delayed development was a characteristic of 13 morbidities described in 23 references. Regarding the type of use, 19 references were found, with seven forms of use. Among the references, 34 had definitions of the term, and 16 different concepts were identified. Developmental delay is addressed in the international and national literature under different names, various applications, and heterogeneous concepts. Internationally, ways to improve communication between professionals have been indicated, with standardized definition of the term and use in very specific situations up to the fifth year of life, which was not found in Brazilian publications. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

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    C. Anthoney Lim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to lifethreatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair.

  20. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

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    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  1. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

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    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  2. Movement Exploration as a Technique for Teaching Pre-Swimming Skills to Students with Developmental Delays.

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    Buis, Joyce M.; Schane, Catherine S.

    1980-01-01

    Background, rationale, and techniques for using movement exploration to teach preswimming skills to developmentally delayed persons are given. Objectives (beyond the primary one of safety) of such a program include body awareness, spatial awareness, movement, and perceptual motor functions. Guidelins for activity selection and adaptation are…

  3. Developmental screening and detection of developmental delays in infants and toddlers with fragile X syndrome.

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    Mirrett, Penny L; Bailey, Donald B; Roberts, Jane E; Hatton, Deborah D

    2004-02-01

    Three developmental screening tests (the Denver-II, Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test, and Early Language Milestone Scale-2) were administered to 18 infants and toddlers (13 boys and 5 girls) with confirmed diagnoses of fragile X syndrome as part of a comprehensive developmental assessment at 9, 12, and 18 months of age. The Denver-II identified delays for 10 of 11 boys at 9 months of age and the Denver-II and the Early Language Milestone Scale-2 identified delays in 100% of the boys at 12 and 18 months. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test identified delays in 75% of the children at 12 and 18 months. When compared with more comprehensive developmental tests (Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale-2), the screening tests concurred at least 76% of the time at the 12- and 18-month assessments. These results indicate that developmental delays could be detected in most children with fragile X syndrome through routine developmental screening by the age of 9 to 12 months.

  4. Developmentally Delayed Musical Savant's Sensitivity to Tonal Structure.

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    Miller, Leon K.

    1987-01-01

    A five-year-old developmentally delayed, musically gifted child with no formal musical training was asked to repeat passages on the piano. Analysis of responses to melodies in each of the 24 major and minor keys indicated sensitivity to aspects of diatonic structure exhibited by mature listeners. (Author)

  5. Developmental delays at arrival and postmenarcheal Chinese adolescents' adjustment.

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    Tan, Tony X; Rice, Jessica L; Mahoney, E Emily

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children's adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children's outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M = 14.2 years, SD = 1.7) who were adopted from China at 16.6 months (SD = 17.1). In 2005, adoptive parents provided data of medical evaluation results on their children's delay status in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social development, emotional development, and cognitive development. Six years later in 2011, data on parent-child relationship quality were collected from parents, and data on the adoptees' academic competence and internalizing problems were also collected from both parents and adoptees. We found that gross motor delay at arrival predicted academic performance (parent-report: b = -.34, p < .01) and internalizing problems (self-report: b = .26, p < .05; parent-report: b = .33, p < .01). Other delays were not significant in predicting any of the outcomes. The impact of early nutritional deprivation on gross motor development was discussed.

  6. Behavior Problems in Toddlers with and without Developmental Delays: Comparison of Treatment Outcomes

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    Holtz, Casey A.; Carrasco, Jennifer M.; Mattek, Ryan J.; Fox, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an in-home parent management program for toddlers with behavior problems and developmental delays by comparing outcomes for a group of toddlers with developmental delays (n = 27) and a group of toddlers without developmental delays (n = 27). The majority of children lived in single…

  7. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Developmentally Delayed Children

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    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Developmental disorders are failure or inability to acquire various age-specific skills at expected maturational age, which affects about 5–10% of preschool children. One of the most important methods for evaluation of developmentally delayed children is neuroimaging, especially, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that provides useful information regarding brain tissue structures and anomalies. Method and Material. In this study, hospital records of 580 developmentally delayed children (aged 2 months to 15 years who admitted in pediatric ward of Golestan Hospital from 1997 to 2009 were selected. Information such as age, MRI findings were collected in the questionnaire and statistically analyzed. Results. Total, 580 children including 333 males (57.4% and 247 females (42.6% were studied. Abnormal brain MRI was observed in 340 (58.6% cases (204 Males, 136 females. The finding includes nonspecific in 38 (6.6%, congenital and developmental anomalies of brain in 39 (6.7%, recognizable syndromes in 3 (0.5%, neurovascular diseases or trauma in 218 (37.6%, and metabolic or neurodegenerative diseases in 42 (7.2% cases. Conclusion. Because 60% of all study groups showed abnormal brain MRI, using this method could be effective in diagnosis, management, and almost prognosis determination processes.

  8. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

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    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Sakamoto, Yuji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Hamatake, Satoshi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author).

  9. Adaptive synchronization of neural networks with time-varying delay and distributed delay

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    Wang, Kai; Teng, Zhidong; Jiang, Haijun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptive synchronization of neural networks with time-varying delay and distributed delay is discussed. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle of functional differential equations and the adaptive feedback control technique, some sufficient conditions for adaptive synchronization of such a system are obtained. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method.

  10. Genetics and the investigation of developmental delay/intellectual disability.

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    Srour, Myriam; Shevell, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Global developmental delay and intellectual disabilities are common reasons for diagnostic assessment by paediatricians. There are a multiplicity of possible causes many of which have genetic, management and treatment implications for the child and family. Genetic causes are estimated to be responsible for approximately a quarter to one-half of identified cases. The multiplicity of individually rare genetic causes challenges the practitioner with respect to the selection of diagnostic tests and accurate diagnosis. To assist the practitioner practice guidelines have been formulated and these are reviewed and summarised in this particular article.

  11. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay

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    Gholam Reza ZAMANI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Zamani GH, Shervin Badv R, Niksirat A, Alizadeh H. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1:25-28. ObjectiveCentral Nervous system (CNS malformations are one of the most important causes of global developmental delay (GDD in Children. About one percent of infants with GDD have an inherited metabolic disorder and 3-10 percent have a chromosomal disorder. This study aimed to survey the frequency of brain structural anomalies and their subtypes among the variety of etiologic factors in children with GDD in our patients.Materials & MethodsThis study used the results of neuroimaging studies [unenhanced brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI] of all children who had been referred for evaluation of GDD to outpatient Clinic of Pediatric neurology at Children’s Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science between September 2009 and September 2010.ResultsIn this study, unenhanced brain MRI was performed on 405 children, of which80 cases (20 percent had brain structural anomalies. In 8.7 percent of the cases, previous history of brain structural disorders existed in other children of the family and 20 percent of mothers had inadequate consumption of folate during pregnancy.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, unenhanced cranial MRI seems to be a fundamental part of evaluation in all children with GDD. Adequate folate consumption as prophylaxis as well as genetic counseling can be worthy for high-risk mothers who have previous history of CNS anomaly or miscarriage to avoid repeated CNS anomalies in their next pregnancies. References1. Fenichel M. Clinical Pediatric Neurology: A Signs and Symptoms Approach. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2009. p. 119-52.2. A guide to investigation of children with developmental delay in East Anglia 2005Available from:http://www. phgfoundation.org/file/2366.3. Williams J. Global developmental

  12. A novel online adaptive time delay identification technique

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    Bayrak, Alper; Tatlicioglu, Enver

    2016-05-01

    Time delay is a phenomenon which is common in signal processing, communication, control applications, etc. The special feature of time delay that makes it attractive is that it is a commonly faced problem in many systems. A literature search on time-delay identification highlights the fact that most studies focused on numerical solutions. In this study, a novel online adaptive time-delay identification technique is proposed. This technique is based on an adaptive update law through a minimum-maximum strategy which is firstly applied to time-delay identification. In the design of the adaptive identification law, Lyapunov-based stability analysis techniques are utilised. Several numerical simulations were conducted with Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. It is numerically demonstrated that the proposed technique works efficiently in identifying both constant and disturbed time delays, and is also robust to measurement noise.

  13. Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays

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    Oghalai, John S.; Caudle, Susan E.; Bentley, Barbara; Abaya, Homer; Lin, Jerry; Baker, Dian; Emery, Claudia; Bortfeld, Heather; Winzelberg, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Objective The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) are often unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD. Study Design Retrospective review Setting Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals Patients 204 children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and >1 year after implantation Main Outcome Measures The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index (PSI), and Preschool Language Scale (PLS). Results We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon DSM-IV criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD and 144 children did not. Prior to implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p0.1) compared to children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL, age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between two cohorts were reduced. Conclusions These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. While children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD, their

  14. Cognitive outcomes and familial stress after cochlear implantation in deaf children with and without developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalai, John S; Caudle, Susan E; Bentley, Barbara; Abaya, Homer; Lin, Jerry; Baker, Dian; Emery, Claudia; Bortfeld, Heather; Winzelberg, Jody

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of cochlear implantation for children with developmental delays (DD) often are unclear. We compared cognition, adaptive behavior, familial stress, and communication in children with and without DD. Retrospective review. Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Two hundred four children who underwent cochlear implantation assessed before and more than 1 year after implantation. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), vineland adaptive behavior scales (VABS), Parental Stress Index, and Preschool Language Scale. We developed a specific definition of DD for hearing-impaired children based upon diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, criteria for mental retardation; 60 children met the criteria for DD, and 144 children did not. Before implantation, multiple linear regression demonstrated that children with DD had lower scores in every domain of the MSEL and VABS (p 0.1) compared with children without DD. After implantation, children without DD demonstrated significant improvements in intelligence as measured by the MSEL and age-appropriate improvements in adaptive behavior as evaluated by the VABS, and their familial stress levels were not increased after cochlear implantation. In contrast, children with DD underwent implantation at a later age and demonstrated less comprehensive developmental improvements after cochlear implantation and higher stress levels. However, when the age differences were taken into account using multiple linear regression analyses, the differences between the 2 cohorts were reduced. These data indicate that our definition of DD is a reliable method of stratifying deaf children. Although children with DD have a normal developmental rate of adaptive behavior after cochlear implantation, their developmental rate of intelligence is lower, and they have higher stress levels than children without DD. However, our data suggest that if children with DD could be implanted as early as children without DD

  15. Developmental delays in preschool children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Erkan; Soylu, Nusret; Polat, Cahit; Sakallıoğlu, Öner; Uçur, Ömer; Bozdoğan, Gökçe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on general development, as well as fine and gross motor capabilities, social communication, and language development in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy by applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II. The study included 30 patients (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 53.3±12.2 months; range 32 to 72 months) who were indicated for adenotonsillectomy due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy between February 2013 and July 2013. The control group comprised 30 children participants (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 53.1±12.8 months; range 32 to 72 months) with no adenotonsillectomy indication. All participants included in the study were performed routine physical examination, flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy, and tympanometry. Brodsky scale and fiberendoscopic findings were used to categorize tonsil and adenoid sizes, respectively. Following ear, nose, and throat evaluation, a psychologist conducted Denver Developmental Screening Test-II in all participants blindly. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients had higher abnormal levels of general development (c2=7.13, p=0.028). Although patients and controls had similar levels of fine motor, gross motor, and personal-social development levels, there was a statistically borderline difference between them in terms of language development (t=1.82, p=0.074). The possibility of adenotonsillar hypertrophy should definitely be considered in children with delayed general and language developments.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessah Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.

  17. AN ADAPTIVE AQM TO PROVIDE DELAY GUARANTEES FOR DIFFERENTIATED SERVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zongkai; Liu Wei; He Jianhua; Chou Chuntung

    2005-01-01

    RIO(RED with IN and OUT) is the primary queue management mechanism proposed for assured forwarding in the DiffServ (Differentiated Service) framework. Although RIO can generally provide bandwidth guarantees, its queuing delay is sensitive to the traffic load. This paper presents a qualitative explanation for its origin. As a solution, an Adaptive RIO for Delay (ARIO-D) is proposed to provide guaranteed delay for multimedia traffic. Simulation results show that by trading loss for delay, ARIO-D can effectively improve the robustness of RIO under different and dynamic traffic, and provide stable and differentiated performance of queuing delay without any degradation in performance of throughput.

  18. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  19. Adaptive global synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-delayed and delayed coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Sun; Chen, Shihua; Guo, Wanli

    2008-10-01

    This Letter investigates the global synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-delayed and delayed coupling. Based on Lasalle's invariance principle, adaptive global synchronization criteria is obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-delayed and delayed coupling can globally asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory. What is more, the node dynamic need not satisfy the very strong and conservative uniformly Lipschitz condition and the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization criteria.

  20. Adaptive global synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-delayed and delayed coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Sun [College of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: sunwen_2201@163.com; Chen Shihua; Guo Wanli [College of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2008-10-13

    This Letter investigates the global synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-delayed and delayed coupling. Based on Lasalle's invariance principle, adaptive global synchronization criteria is obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-delayed and delayed coupling can globally asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory. What is more, the node dynamic need not satisfy the very strong and conservative uniformly Lipschitz condition and the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization criteria.

  1. Child Care Providers' Competence and Confidence in Referring Children at Risk for Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Diane; Bingham, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the benefits of early intervention for children, the majority of children with developmental delays are not identified prior to the age of 5 years. Child care providers could aid in recognition of children at risk for developmental delays; however, there is little research on this topic. This article reports on a qualitative research study…

  2. Neonatal Morbidities and Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, J.M.; Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; de Winter, A.F.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children born moderately preterm (32-35(6/7) weeks' gestation) are at increased risk of both neonatal morbidities and developmental delays in early childhood. It is unknown whether neonatal morbidities contribute to the increased risk of developmental delay. The objective o

  3. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  4. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  5. Performance analysis of adaptive turbo coded modulation with time delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍守豪; 宋文涛; 罗汉文

    2004-01-01

    The method of data fitting is applied to obtain the BER expression for turbo coded modulation, and a fitting mathematical model is proposed, which resolves the problem that there is no exact BER expression for turbo coded modulation in performance analysis. With the time delay consideration, the performance of BER of adaptive turbo coded modulation is analyzed and simulated. The results show that adaptive turbo coded modulation is very sensitive to time delay. In order to meet the target BER requirement, the total time delay should be less than 0. 001/fD.

  6. Developmental profiles from the Battelle developmental inventory: a comparison of toddlers diagnosed with Down Syndrome, global developmental delay and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Hess, Julie A; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max

    2010-01-01

    Developmental profiles and milestone attainment have been examined for children suffering from various developmental disabilities. However, research comparing the same across numerous developmental disabilities is scant. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the developmental profiles of toddlers (i.e. aged 17-34 months) who were premature, diagnosed with Down Syndrome, or diagnosed with Global Developmental Delay. A total of 28 toddlers met inclusion criteria for the study. Those diagnosed with Global Developmental Delay or Down Syndrome scored significantly lower on the Battelle Developmental Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-2), compared to those who were born premature. More specifically, differences emerged on the BDI-2 domains of personal-social and motor. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Visual abilities in students with severe developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI...

  8. An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza

    2012-12-01

    For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.

  9. Adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm with a continuously varying time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyragas, V. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Pyragas, K. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2011-10-24

    We propose a simple adaptive delayed feedback control algorithm for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. The state dependent time delay is varied continuously towards the period of controlled orbit according to a gradient-descent method realized through three simple ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm with the Roessler and Mackey-Glass chaotic systems. The stability of the controlled orbits is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents of linearized equations. -- Highlights: → A simple adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm is proposed. → It enables the control of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. → The delay time is varied continuously according to a gradient descend method. → The algorithm is embodied by three simple ordinary differential equations. → The validity of the algorithm is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents.

  10. Robust adaptive control for interval time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhong WANG; Huaguang ZHANG; Jun YANG

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the robust adaptive control problems for a class of interval time-delay systems and a class of large-scale interconnected systems. The nonlinear uncertainties of the systems under study are bounded by high-order polynomial functions with unknown gains. Firstly, the adaptive feedback controller which can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness is proposed. Then the proposed adaptive idea is extended to robust stabilizing designing method for a class of large-scale interconnected systems. Here, another problem we address is to design a decentralized feedback adaptive controller such that the closed-loop system is stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness for all admissible uncertainties and time-delay. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the validity of the proposed approach.

  11. The Association between EEG Abnormality and Behavioral Disorder: Developmental Delay in Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh; Hadi Zarafshan; Mohammad Reza Alaee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Brain defect leading to developmental delay is one of the clinical manifestations of phenylketonuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EEG abnormality and developmental delay/behavioral disorders in phenylketonuria. Patients and Methods. 105 phenylketonuria patients, who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or during follow-up evaluation, were enrolled. Patients who were seizure-free for at least six months before the study were included. The...

  12. Arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposure to lead or mercury can cause neurodevelopmental damage. Arsenic is another neurotoxicant that can affect intellectual function in children. This study was designed to explore the difference of arsenic methylation capacity indices between with and without developmental delay in preschool children. We also aimed to identify whether blood levels of lead or mercury modify the effect of arsenic methylation capacity indices. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2012. All participants recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In all, 63 children with developmental delay and 35 children without developmental delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead and mercury levels of red blood cells were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. All participants underwent developmental assessments to confirm developmental delays, including evaluations of gross motor, fine motor, speech-language, cognition, social, and emotional domains. Urinary total arsenic and MMA(V) percentage were significantly positively associated and DMA(V) percentage was negatively associated with the risk of developmental delay in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for blood lead or mercury levels and other risk factors. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that blood lead level and arsenic methylation capacity each independently contributed to the risk of developmental delay. This is the first study to show that arsenic methylation capacity is associated with developmental delay, even without obvious environmental arsenic exposure.

  13. Discrimination Acquisition in Children with Developmental Disabilities under Immediate and Delayed Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the discrimination acquisition of individuals with developmental disabilities under immediate and delayed reinforcement. In Experiment 1, discrimination between two alternatives was examined when reinforcement was immediate or delayed by 20 s, 30 s, or 40 s. In Experiment 2, discrimination between 2 alternatives was compared across an…

  14. Using Time Delay to Teach Literacy to Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Diane; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Spooner, Fred; Mims, Pamela J.; Baker, Joshua N.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1975 and 2007 on the application of time delay as an instructional procedure to teach word and picture recognition to students with severe developmental disabilities in an effort to evaluate time delay as an evidence-based practice. A total of 30 experiments were analyzed…

  15. Discrimination Acquisition in Children with Developmental Disabilities under Immediate and Delayed Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the discrimination acquisition of individuals with developmental disabilities under immediate and delayed reinforcement. In Experiment 1, discrimination between two alternatives was examined when reinforcement was immediate or delayed by 20 s, 30 s, or 40 s. In Experiment 2, discrimination between 2 alternatives was compared across an…

  16. When Do Adaptive Developmental Mechanisms Yield Maladaptive Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organisms experience environmental change during…

  17. When Do Adaptive Developmental Mechanisms Yield Maladaptive Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organisms experience environmental change during…

  18. Delay Estimator and Improved Proportionate Multi-Delay Adaptive Filtering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Verteletskaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper pertains to speech and acoustic signal processing, and particularly to a determination of echo path delay and operation of echo cancellers. To cancel long echoes, the number of weights in a conventional adaptive filter must be large. The length of the adaptive filter will directly affect both the degree of accuracy and the convergence speed of the adaptation process. We present a new adaptive structure which is capable to deal with multiple dispersive echo paths. An adaptive filter according to the present invention includes means for storing an impulse response in a memory, the impulse response being indicative of the characteristics of a transmission line. It also includes a delay estimator for detecting ranges of samples within the impulse response having relatively large distribution of echo energy. These ranges of samples are being indicative of echoes on the transmission line. An adaptive filter has a plurality of weighted taps, each of the weighted taps having an associated tap weight value. A tap allocation/control circuit establishes the tap weight values in response to said detecting means so that only taps within the regions of relatively large distributions of echo energy are turned on. Thus, the convergence speed and the degree of estimation in the adaptation process can be improved.

  19. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  20. Radiological findings in autistic and developmentally delayed children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.; Grond, J. van der; Durston, S.; Nievelstein, R.J.; Witkamp, T.; Daalen, E. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in a group of young children with developmental disorders, specifically including children that came to the attention of a child psychiatrist before the age of 3 years. METHODS: Forty-five children participated in a

  1. Pretend Play in High-Risk and Developmentally Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Sena, Rhonda

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of pretend play as a cognitive assessment tool. Examines the failure of developmental progression of play in preterm, drug-exposed, malnourished, Down's syndrome, mentally retarded, and autistic children. Examines individual differences in play, and the relationship between language and play, in these groups. (AC)

  2. Perinatal reduction of functional serotonin transporters results in developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, Y.L.; Dirven, B.; Janssen, S.; Krohnke, M.; Barte, R.M.; Middelman, A.; Bokhoven, H. van; Zhou, H.; Homberg, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    While there is strong evidence from rodent and human studies that a reduction in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) function in early-life can increase the risk for several neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood, the effects of reduced 5-HTT function on behavior across developmental stages are

  3. The Consequences of Delayed Enrollment in Developmental Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David S.; Fike, Renea

    2012-01-01

    Though a large percentage of U.S. students enter higher education with mathematics deficiencies, many institutions allow these students to decide the timing of their enrollment in developmental mathematics courses. This study of 3476 first-time-in-college students entailed the review of student outcomes (Fall GPA, Fall-to-Spring retention,…

  4. Adaptive control of uncertain time-delay chaotic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuhong ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates adaptive control of a large class of uncertain me-delay chaotic systems (UTCSs) with unknown general perturbation terms bounded by a polynomial ( unknown gains). Associated with the different cases of known and unknown system matrices, two corresponding adaptive controllers are proposed to stabilize unstable fixed points of the systems by means of Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI) which can be solved easily by convex optimization algorithms. Two examples are used for examining the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. Adaptive control method for nonlinear time-delay processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two complex properties,varying time-delay and block-oriented nonlinearity,are very common in chemical engineering processes and not easy to be controlled by routine control methods.Aimed at these two complex properties,a novel adaptive control algorithm the basis of nonlinear OFS(orthonormal functional series) model is proposed.First,the hybrid model which combines OFS and Volterra series is introduced.Then,a stable state feedback strategy is used to construct a nonlinear adaptive control algorithm that can guarantee the closed-loop stability and can track the set point curve without steady-state errors.Finally,control simulations and experiments on a nonlinear process with varying time-delay are presented.A number of experimental results validate the efficiency and superiority of this algorithm.

  6. The adaptation of spike backpropagation delays in cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi eBuskila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We measured the action potential backpropagation delays in apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex under different stimulation regimes that exclude synaptic involvement. These delays showed robust features and did not correlate to either transient change in the stimulus strength or low frequency stimulation of suprathreshold membrane oscillations. However, our results indicate that backpropagation delays correlate with high frequency (>10 Hz stimulation of membrane oscillations, and that persistent suprathreshold sinusoidal stimulation injected directly into the soma results in an increase of the backpropagation delay, suggesting an intrinsic adaptation of the bAP, which does not involve any synaptic modifications. Moreover, the calcium chelator BAPTA eliminated the alterations in the backpropagation delays, strengthening the hypothesis that increased calcium concentration in the dendrites modulates dendritic excitability and can impact the backpropagation velocity. These results emphasize the impact of dendritic excitability on bAP velocity along the dendritic tree, which affects the precision of the bAP arrival at the synapse during specific stimulus regimes, and is capable of shifting the extent and polarity of synaptic strength during suprathreshold synaptic processes such as STDP.

  7. Developmental screening in context: adaptation and standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II) for Sri Lankan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedasa, D

    2012-11-01

    Developmental problems in children can be alleviated to a great extent with early detection and intervention through periodic screening for developmental delays during pre-school ages. Currently, there is no established system for developmental screening of children in Sri Lanka. Although some developmental norms, which are similar to those of Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II), have been introduced into the Sri Lankan Child Health Developmental Record (CHDR), those norms have not been standardized to the Sri Lankan child population. The aim of this research was to establish Sri Lankan norms for DDST-II and to test the universal and regional applicability of developmental screening tests by comparing the Sri Lankan norms with the norms of DDST-II and DDST-Singapore norms, the geographically nearest standardization of DDST-II. The norms were also compared with the milestones already available in the CHDR. DDST-II was adapted and standardized on a sample of 4251 Sri Lankan children aged 0-80 months. Thirteen public health nursing sisters were trained to collect the data as part of their routine work. The 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile ages of acquiring each developmental milestone were then calculated using logistic regression. The Denver Developmental Screening Test for Sri Lankan Children (DDST-SL) was created. Most of the established DDST-SL norms were different to the comparable norms in DDST-II, DDST-Singapore and the CHDR. In view of the results of the study, it is imperative that developmental screening tests are used in context and are adapted and standardized to the populations in question before utilization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A comparison of the korean-ages and stages questionnaires and denver developmental delay screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ga, Hyo-Yun; Kwon, Jeong Yi

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate concurrent validity between the Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaires (K-ASQ) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST II), and to evaluate the validity of the K-ASQ as a screening tool for detecting developmental delay of Korean children. A retrospective chart review was done to examine concurrent validity of the screening potentials for developmental delay between the K-ASQ and the DDST II (n=226). We examined validity of the K-ASQ compared with Capute scale (n=141) and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=69) as a gold standard of developmental delay. Correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between tests. A fair to good strength relationship (k=0.442, ptest characteristics of the K-ASQ were sensitivity 76.3-90.2%, specificity 62.5-76.5%, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 2.41-3.40, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.16-0.32. Evidence of concurrent validity of the K-ASQ with DDST II was found. K-ASQ can be used for screening of developmental delay.

  9. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia. PMID:24232451

  10. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  11. School-teachers awareness of developmental co-ordination delay (DCD) in children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Background: Developmental Co-ordination Delay (DCD) is estimated to affect 5-6% of school children (1). School-teachers play an integral role in noting delayed signs of motor development in children (2). Limited research has been carried out investigating the awareness that Irish school-teachers demonstrate of DCD. Objectives: To determine the awareness that Irish primary school-teachers have of DCD, in children. Methods: Qualitative methodology involving three focus grou...

  12. Mode and delay-dependent adaptive exponential synchronization in pth moment for stochastic delayed neural networks with Markovian switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wuneng; Tong, Dongbing; Gao, Yan; Ji, Chuan; Su, Hongye

    2012-04-01

    In this brief, the analysis problem of the mode and delay-dependent adaptive exponential synchronization in th moment is considered for stochastic delayed neural networks with Markovian switching. By utilizing a new nonnegative function and the -matrix approach, several sufficient conditions to ensure the mode and delay-dependent adaptive exponential synchronization in th moment for stochastic delayed neural networks are derived. Via the adaptive feedback control techniques, some suitable parameters update laws are found. To illustrate the effectiveness of the -matrix-based synchronization conditions derived in this brief, a numerical example is provided finally.

  13. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    , Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed......AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet...... for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was easy...

  14. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors associated with developmental delay in moderately preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Sollie, Krystyna M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F; Potijk, Marieke R; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between preexisting maternal and pregnancy-related factors and developmental delay in early childhood in moderately preterm-born children. METHODS: We measured development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 43-49 months in 834 moderately preterm-born

  15. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status : Risks Multiply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on

  16. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results Abn

  17. Effects of Parent-based Video Home Training in children with developmental language delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Stoep, J.M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    An efficacy study of an indirect or Parent-based intervention programme involving Video Home Training (PVHT) was conducted with a focus on parental strategies to (re-)establish coherence in conversations between young children with Developmental Language Delay (DLD) and their parents or caregivers.

  18. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children with Low Socioeconomic Status : Risks Multiply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potijk, Marieke R; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess separate and joint effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and moderate prematurity on preschool developmental delay. Study design Prospective cohort study with a community-based sample of preterm-and term-born children (Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project). We assessed SES on

  19. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  20. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  1. Randomized Comparison of Augmented and Nonaugmented Language Interventions for Toddlers with Developmental Delays and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Cheslock, Melissa; Smith, Ashlyn; Barker, R. Michael; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the language performance of young children with developmental delays who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 parent-coached language interventions. Differences in performance on augmented and spoken word size and use, vocabulary size, and communication interaction skills were examined. Method: Sixty-eight toddlers with…

  2. Maternal Sensitivity and Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccols, Alison; Feldman, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental delay are at increased risk for behaviour problems, but little is known about risk and resilience factors. Previous research has established links between maternal sensitivity and behaviour problems in typically developing children, but no studies have examined maternal sensitivity in the development of behaviour…

  3. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results

  4. The Negative Effects of Positive Reinforcement in Teaching Children with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Gerald B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 12 children (ages 4 to 10) with developmental delay, each trained in 2 tasks, one through interactive modeling (with or without verbal reinforcement) and the other through passive modeling. Results showed that passive modeling produced better rated performance than interactive modeling and that verbal…

  5. Ring Chromosome 9 in a Girl With Developmental Delay and Dysmorphic Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibbesen, Else la Cour; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Alosi, Daniela;

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a female child with dysmorphic features and developmental delay. Chromosome microarray analysis followed by conventional karyotyping revealed a ring chromosome 9 with a 12 Mb deletion at 9pter-p23 and a 540 kb deletion at 9q34.3-qter. Four percent of the analyzed cells...

  6. Adaptive synchronization of asymmetric coupled networks with multiple coupling delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Hao, Fei; Chen, Xia

    2012-05-01

    The synchronization problem of asymmetric networks with multiple coupled delays is investigated in this paper. By using Lyapunov stability theory and Lasalle's invariance principle, several synchronization criteria are deduced for both asymmetric networks with and without norm uncertainties. Furthermore, the synchronization problem of a special complex network with each node being a Lurie system is studied. The main results show that the states of all nodes of networks globally asymptotically synchronize to a desired synchronization state by designing suitable adaptive controllers, and these controllers have strong robustness against the uncertain coupling matrixes. Finally, several illustrative examples with numerical simulations are given to show the feasibility and efficiency of theoretical results.

  7. Annual fish: developmental adaptations for an extreme environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berois, Nibia; Arezo, María J; Papa, Nicolás G; Clivio, Graciela A

    2012-01-01

    Annual fish are freshwater teleosts found in South America and Africa that are exposed to an extremely variable environment. They develop and reproduce in seasonal ponds that dry during the summer eliminating the entire adult population. Remarkably, desiccation-resistant embryos survive in these dry ponds that hatch during the next rainy season when the ponds are recreated. Among vertebrates, they represent one of the most remarkable extremophiles. They share several features with other fish models; however, they exhibit unique traits related to their peculiar life cycle. Epiboly is temporally and spatially uncoupled from organogenesis, and the embryos can undergo reversible developmental arrests (diapauses). These attributes make them a useful model to study diverse topics in developmental biology using a comparative and evolutionary approach. In this article, different aspects related to annual fish biology, taxonomy and phylogenetic considerations, reproductive strategy, and developmental characteristics with special focus on arrests, are summarized. The current challenge is to document and determine the factors that generate such high diversity and unique adaptations of annual fish. To understand this complexity, interdisciplinary approaches are being employed taking into consideration evolutionary biology, ethology, reproductive strategies, regulation of developmental mechanisms, and senescence.

  8. Decentralized adaptive synchronization of an uncertain complex delayed dynamical network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weisong ZHONG; Jun ZHAO; Georgi M.DIMIROVSKI

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the locally and globally adaptive synchronization problem for an uncertain complex dynamical network with time-varying coupling delays based on the decentralized control.The coupling terms here are bounded by high-order polynomials with known gains that are ubiquitous in a large class of complex dynamical networks.We generalize the usual technology of searching for an appropriate coordinates transformation to change the network dynamics into a series of decoupled lower-dimensional systems.Several adaptive synchronization criteria are derived by constructing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and Barbalat lemma,and the proposed criteria are simple in form and convenient for the practical engineering design.Numerical simulations illustrated by a nearest-neighbor coupling network verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  9. The effects of early positive parenting and developmental delay status on child emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norona, A N; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Emotion regulation has been identified as a robust predictor of adaptive functioning across a variety of domains (Aldao et al. ). Furthermore, research examining early predictors of competence and deficits in ER suggests that factors internal to the individual (e.g. neuroregulatory reactivity, behavioural traits and cognitive ability) and external to the individual (e.g. caregiving styles and explicit ER training) contribute to the development of ER (Calkins ). Many studies have focused on internal sources or external sources; however, few have studied them simultaneously within one model, especially in studies examining children with developmental delays (DD). Here, we addressed this specific research gap and examined the contributions of one internal factor and one external factor on emotion dysregulation outcomes in middle childhood. Specifically, our current study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine prospective, predictive relationships between DD status, positive parenting at age 4 years and child emotion dysregulation at age 7 years. Participants were 151 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with and without DD. A positive parenting factor was composed of sensitivity and scaffolding scores from mother-child interactions at home and in the research centre at child age 4 years. A child dysregulation factor was composed of a dysregulation code from mother-child interactions and a parent-report measure of ER and lability/negativity at age 7 years. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that positive parenting would mediate the relationship between DD and child dysregulation. Mothers of children with DD exhibited fewer sensitive and scaffolding behaviours compared with mothers of typically developing children, and children with DD were more dysregulated on all measures of ER. SEM revealed that both DD status and early positive parenting predicted emotion dysregulation in middle childhood. Furthermore

  10. A reduced bias delay lock loop for adaptive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangteng; Huang, Yangbo; Su, Yingxue; Li, Jingyuan; Sun, Guangfu

    2017-01-01

    Narrowband interferences (NBIs) severely degrade the quality of a received signal and can hinder the operation of GPS receivers, and therefore, they are commonly excised using an adaptive transversal filter. This filter does not cause code tracking bias in the case of an ideal analog receiver channel when its magnitude and phase response are constant; however, distortion is induced by RF cables, amplifiers, and mixers that results in an asymmetric correlation function. This correlation function is further deformed by the adaptive transversal filter, resulting in a nonzero bias. Given the adaptive nature of this transversal filter, the bias varies based on the jamming pattern. For precision navigation applications, this bias must be mitigated. With this problem in mind, a new technique called amplitude estimating delay lock loop (AEDLL) is presented. By using data related to a known structure of the adaptive transversal filter, the proposed method only needs to estimate the amplitude of the correlation function and revise the correlation function for code tracking. Simulations show that the AEDLL method is capable of reducing the RMSE of code tracking bias to less than 0.12 ns, which is significantly smaller than that achieved using existing methods.

  11. Evolutionary Developmental Biology and Human Language Evolution: Constraints on Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-12-01

    A tension has long existed between those biologists who emphasize the importance of adaptation by natural selection and those who highlight the role of phylogenetic and developmental constraints on organismal form and function. This contrast has been particularly noticeable in recent debates concerning the evolution of human language. Darwin himself acknowledged the existence and importance of both of these, and a long line of biologists have followed him in seeing, in the concept of "descent with modification", a framework naturally able to incorporate both adaptation and constraint. Today, the integrated perspective of modern evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") allows a more subtle and pluralistic approach to these traditional questions, and has provided several examples where the traditional notion of "constraint" can be cashed out in specific, mechanistic terms. This integrated viewpoint is particularly relevant to the evolution of the multiple mechanisms underlying human language, because of the short time available for novel aspects of these mechanisms to evolve and be optimized. Comparative data indicate that many cognitive aspects of human language predate humans, suggesting that pre-adaptation and exaptation have played important roles in language evolution. Thus, substantial components of what many linguists call "Universal Grammar" predate language itself. However, at least some of these older mechanisms have been combined in ways that generate true novelty. I suggest that we can insightfully exploit major steps forward in our understanding of evolution and development, to gain a richer understanding of the principles that underlie human language evolution.

  12. Oral Health Characteristics and Dental Rehabilitation of Children with Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global developmental delay (GDD is a chronic neurological disturbance which includes defects in one or more developmental domains. The developmental domain can be motor, cognitive, daily activities, speech or language, and social or personal development. The etiology for GDD can be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. It can be diagnosed early in childhood as the delay or absence of one or more developmental milestones. Hence the role of pedodontist and pediatricians becomes more crucial in identifying this condition. The diagnosis of GDD requires a detailed history including family history and environmental risk factors followed by physical and neurological examinations. Investigations for GDD include diagnostic laboratory tests, brain imaging, and other evidence-based evaluations. GDD affects multiple developmental domains that not only have direct bearing on maintenance of oral health, but also require additional behavior management techniques to deliver optimal dental care. This paper describes two different spectra of children with GDD. Since the severity of GDD can vary, this paper also discusses the different behavior management techniques that were applied to provide dental treatment in such children.

  13. Developmental evidence for obstetric adaptation of the human female pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynov, Alik; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Coudyzer, Walter; Gascho, Dominic; Kellenberger, Christian; Hinzpeter, Ricarda; Ponce de León, Marcia S

    2016-05-10

    The bony pelvis of adult humans exhibits marked sexual dimorphism, which is traditionally interpreted in the framework of the "obstetrical dilemma" hypothesis: Giving birth to large-brained/large-bodied babies requires a wide pelvis, whereas efficient bipedal locomotion requires a narrow pelvis. This hypothesis has been challenged recently on biomechanical, metabolic, and biocultural grounds, so that it remains unclear which factors are responsible for sex-specific differences in adult pelvic morphology. Here we address this issue from a developmental perspective. We use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to analyze changes in pelvic morphology from late fetal stages to adulthood in a known-age/known-sex forensic/clinical sample. Results show that, until puberty, female and male pelves exhibit only moderate sexual dimorphism and follow largely similar developmental trajectories. With the onset of puberty, however, the female trajectory diverges substantially from the common course, resulting in rapid expansion of obstetrically relevant pelvic dimensions up to the age of 25-30 y. From 40 y onward females resume a mode of pelvic development similar to males, resulting in significant reduction of obstetric dimensions. This complex developmental trajectory is likely linked to the pubertal rise and premenopausal fall of estradiol levels and results in the obstetrically most adequate pelvic morphology during the time of maximum female fertility. The evidence that hormones mediate female pelvic development and morphology supports the view that solutions of the obstetrical dilemma depend not only on selection and adaptation but also on developmental plasticity as a response to ecological/nutritional factors during a female's lifetime.

  14. Association of Arsenic Methylation Capacity with Developmental Delays and Health Status in Children: A Prospective Case-Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lee, Chih-Ying; Chien, Ssu-Ning; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I.; Mu, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ru-Lan

    2016-11-01

    This case-control study identified the association between the arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delays and explored the association of this capacity with the health status of children. We recruited 120 children with developmental delays and 120 age- and sex-matched children without developmental delays. The health status of the children was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI). The arsenic methylation capacity was determined by the percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV%), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV%) through liquid chromatography and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Developmental delays were significantly positively associated with the total urinary arsenic concentration, InAs%, and MMAV%, and was significantly negatively associated with DMAV% in a dose-dependent manner. MMAV% was negatively associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQOL; -1.19 to -1.46, P children and in those with developmental delays. The arsenic methylation capacity is dose-dependently associated with developmental delays and with the health status of children, particularly those with developmental delays.

  15. A social skills training program for preschoolers with developmental delays. Generalization and social validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, L A; Matson, J L

    1995-04-01

    This investigation was designed to assess a social skills training program with 32 developmentally delayed preschoolers. Subjects were evaluated in an unstructured play session, matched for levels of appropriate and inappropriate social behaviors, and assigned to either a treatment or control condition. The treatment group (N = 16) was presented with a 6-week protocol involving positive reinforcement, modeling, rehearsal, feedback, and time out. Controls (N = 16) received no instruction beyond regular classroom activities during the 6 weeks. The two groups were reevaluated in a posttest session and again in a generalization setting where two peers with developmental delays (not included in either experimental condition) were included. Prosocial behaviors were successfully taught and maintained in generalization settings. Efforts to reduce inappropriate behaviors were less successful. A test of social validity via teachers' ratings of videotapes of pretest and posttest assessments was also conducted. Implications for generalization and social validity research are discussed.

  16. Subtelomeric FISH analysis in 76 patients with syndromic developmental delay/intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faravelli Francesca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intellectual disability affects approximately 1 to 3% of the general population. The etiology is still poorly understood and it is estimated that one-half of the cases are due to genetic factors. Cryptic subtelomeric aberrations have been found in roughly 5 to 7% of all cases. Methods We performed a subtelomeric FISH analysis on 76 unrelated children with normal standard karyotype ascertained by developmental delay or intellectual disability, associated with congenital malformations, and/or facial dysmorphisms. Results Ten cryptic chromosomal anomalies have been identified in the whole cohort (13,16%, 8 in the group of patients characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability associated with congenital malformations and facial dysmorphisms, 2 in patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability and facial dysmorphisms only. Conclusion We demonstrate that a careful clinical examination is a very useful tool for pre-selection of patients for genomic analysis, clearly enhancing the chromosomal anomaly detection rate. Clinical features of most of these patients are consistent with the corresponding emerging chromosome phenotypes, pointing out these new clinical syndromes associated with specific genomic imbalances.

  17. Predictive wavefront control for adaptive optics with arbitrary control loop delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyneer, Lisa; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    We present a modification of the closed-loop state space model for adaptive optics control that allows delays that are a noninteger multiple of the system frame rate. We derive the new forms of the predictive Fourier control Kalman filters for arbitrary delays and show that they are linear combinations of the whole-frame delay terms. This structure of the controller is independent of the delay. System stability margins and residual error variance both transition gracefully between integer-frame delays.

  18. Adaptive control for a class of discrete-time time-delay systems with regard to delay parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chai Lin; Cheng Ming; Fei Shumin; Zhai Junyong

    2009-01-01

    The memory state feedback control problem for a class of discrete-time systems with input delay and unknown state delay is addressed based on LMIs and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method. Under the action of our designed adaptive control law, the unknown time-delay parameter is included in memory state feedback controller. Using LMI technique, delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of the feedback controller are obtained. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed design method is demonstrated by a numerical example.

  19. [The pathophysiological analysis of cerebrolysin therapy of children with mental developmental delay caused by ecological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorin, N V; Zlova, T P; Akhmetova, V V; Tarasova, O A

    2008-01-01

    The treatment with cerebrolysin combined with psychological correction was conducted in 24 children, aged 4-6 years, with mental developmental delay. The effect of this drug was compared to placebo (20 patients with mental development delay) and control groups (35 healthy children). After cerebrolysin therapy effect of cerebrolysin (0,1 mg/1kg of body mass during 42 day) was assessed using neuropsychological data and a set of different pathophysiological indices which reflected the biochemical, immunological and neurophysiological status of patients. After cerebrolysin therapy significant improvement of the mental state, including preconditions of intellect, and motor functions specific for mental development delay was found. These changes were correlated with the positive dynamics of some indices - lipid peroxidation, immune status, hormonal shifts and parameters of neurodegeneration-neuroprotection processes.

  20. An Examination of the Concurrent Validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory as Compared with the Vineland Adaptive Scales and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study, involving 67 children (ages 2 to 60 months) with motor delays, found that the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) possessed moderate to high levels of concurrent validity with appropriate subtests from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. (Author/JDD)

  1. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  2. Iron deficiency in children with global developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidrak, Samuel; Yoong, Terence; Woolfenden, Susan

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for iron deficiency in children with global developmental delay and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A retrospective review was conducted of the files of children referred to community paediatric clinics in South West Sydney from May 2009 to July 2011 who were diagnosed with global developmental delay and/or ASD. Data were extracted on iron studies and potential risk factors. Data were analysed using Pearson's ÷(2) -test and Fisher's exact test. Subjects included 122 children. The prevalence of iron depletion was 2.5% (95% CI 0.5-7.0%); that of iron deficiency was 6.6% (95% CI 2.9-12.5%), and that of iron deficiency anaemia was 4.1% (95% CI 1.3-9.3%). In children with global developmental delay without ASD, the prevalence of iron depletion was 1.8% (95% CI 0-9.7%), that of iron deficiency 5.5% (95% CI 1.1-15.1%) and that of iron deficiency anaemia 5.5% (95% CI 1.1-15.1%). In children with ASD with or without global developmental delay, the prevalence of iron depletion was 3.0% (95% CI 0.4-10.4%), that of iron deficiency 7.5% (95% CI 2.5-16.6%) and that of iron deficiency anaemia 3.0% (95% CI 0.4-10.4%). Univariate analysis demonstrated three significant potential risk factors for iron depletion, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia: problems sucking, swallowing or chewing (P = 0.002); poor eating behaviour (P = 0.008); and inadequate amounts of meat, chicken, eggs or fish (P = 0.002). Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia were more common in this clinical sample of children with global developmental delay and/or ASD than in the general population. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Lan Hsieh; Wen-Chung Lee; Jui-Hsiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children p...

  4. Effects of Ordinary and Adaptive Toys on Pre-School Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Toys help children in mastering developmental tasks. This study investigated toy effect on children with developmental disabilities as they engage in using ordinary and adaptive toys. A single-subject design was used to identify the effects on their toy play abilities. Differences in toy effects between playing ordinary and adaptive toys were…

  5. Optimism and positive and negative feelings in parents of young children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Nelson, E; McIntyre, L L

    2017-07-01

    Parents' positive and negative feelings about their young children influence both parenting behaviour and child problem behaviour. Research has not previously examined factors that contribute to positive and negative feelings in parents of young children with developmental delay (DD). The present study sought to examine whether optimism, a known protective factor for parents of children with DD, was predictive of positive and negative feelings for these parents. Data were collected from 119 parents of preschool-aged children with developmental delay. Two separate hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if optimism significantly predicted positive feelings and negative feelings and whether optimism moderated relations between parenting stress and parent feelings. Increased optimism was found to predict increased positive feelings and decreased negative feelings after controlling for child problem behaviour and parenting stress. In addition, optimism was found to moderate the relation between parenting stress and positive feelings. Results suggest that optimism may impact how parents perceive their children with DD. Future research should examine how positive and negative feelings impact positive parenting behaviour and the trajectory of problem behaviour specifically for children with DD. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    -controller/processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital...... T/4 Delay PLL system. The proposed VUD adopts linear interpolation polynomial to approximate the fractional delay induced by the varying grid frequency in such a way that the control performance is enhanced. The proposed VUD has been demonstrated on a digitally controlled T/4 Delay PLL system...

  7. Relation of polymorphism of arsenic metabolism genes to arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ying-Chin; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chen, Ray-Jade; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2017-04-15

    Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with developmental delay in children. The present study was designed to explore whether polymorphisms and haplotypes of arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione-S-transferase omegas (GSTOs), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) affect arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay. A case-control study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2014. All participants were recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In total, 179 children with developmental delay and 88 children without delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphisms of AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP were performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform with iPLEX Gold chemistry. Polymorphisms of AS3MT genes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay in children, but GSTO and PNP polymorphisms were not. Participants with AS3MT rs3740392 A/G+G/G genotype, compared with AS3MT rs3740392 A/A genotype, had a significantly lower secondary methylation index. This may result in an increased OR for developmental delay. Participants with the AS3MT high-risk haplotype had a significantly higher OR than those with AS3MT low-risk haplotypes [OR and 95% CI, 1.59 (1.08-2.34)]. This is the first study to show a joint dose-response effect of this AS3MT high-risk haplotype and inefficient arsenic methylation capacity on developmental delay. Our data provide evidence that AS3MT genes are related to developmental delay and may partially influence arsenic methylation capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social determinants of state variation in special education participation among preschoolers with developmental delays and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth M; Carle, Adam C; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Ganz, Michael; Hauser-Cram, Penny; McCormick, Marie C

    2011-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at risk for secondary complications and lower academic performance, which contributes to lower health and well-being and may be ameliorated by access to special education services. This paper examines state variability in preschool special education participation among a United States population-based cohort with parent-reported developmental delays and disabilities. Analyses explore the extent to which observed variability can be explained by state socio-economic attributes and special education policy and funding. Rates of special education varied significantly across states and were highest in states with least income inequality and lowest in states with most income inequality. Place variation in preschool special education participation stems, in part, from child characteristics, but to a larger extent, from state socio-economic attributes.

  9. On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

  10. TCP-ADaLR: TCP with adaptive delay and loss response for broadband GEO satellite networks

    OpenAIRE

    Omueti, Modupe Omogbohun

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) performance degrades in broadband geostationary satellite networks due to long propagation delays and high bit error rates. In this thesis, we propose TCP with algorithm modifications for adaptive delay and loss response (TCP-ADaLR) to improve TCP performance. TCP-ADaLR incorporates delayed acknowledgement mechanism recommended for Internet hosts. We evaluate and compare the performance of TCP-ADaLR, TCP SACK, and TCP NewReno, with and without delayed ackno...

  11. Oddity learning in developmentally delayed children: facilitation by means of familiar stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J T; Deckner, C W; Soraci, S A; Baumeister, A A; Blanton, R L

    1988-09-01

    Four of 8 low-functioning, developmentally delayed children initially failed to demonstrate oddity responding under conditions in which ostensibly similar children did show oddity responding (e.g., Soraci et al., 1987). In the context of a multiple baseline across-subjects design, each of the 4 previously unsuccessful children demonstrated statistically significant increases in the percentage of correct oddity responses immediately upon introduction of familiar stimuli. These results indicate that perceptual differentiation enhances relational learning of the type required by the oddity task.

  12. Proximal trisomy 1q in a girl with developmental delay and minor anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furforo, L. [Hospital Materno Infantil Ramon Sarda, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]|[Instituto Nacional de Genetica Medica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rittler, M. [Hospital Materno Infantil Ramon Sarda, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Slavutsky, I.R. [Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-09-06

    We report on a girl with developmental delay, macrocephaly, facial asymmetry, small downturned palpebral fissures, high and narrow palate, micrognathia, short neck, a heart defect, and unilateral renal agenesis. Cytogenetic analysis showed a proximal tandem duplication of the long arm of chromosome one (1q12{r_arrow}q21.3). This abnormality was suggested by G-and C-banding but it was specifically characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clinical findings in our patient are compared with those of the literature in an attempt to delineate the phenotype in patients with proximal 1q duplication. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Adaptive synchronization under almost every initial data for stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays and distributed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Quanxin; Cao, Jinde

    2011-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the adaptive synchronization problem for a class of stochastic delayed neural networks. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle of stochastic differential delay equations and the stochastic analysis theory as well as the adaptive feedback control technique, a linear matrix inequality approach is developed to derive some novel sufficient conditions achieving complete synchronization of unidirectionally coupled stochastic delayed neural networks. In particular, the synchronization criterion considered in this paper is the globally almost surely asymptotic stability of the error dynamical system, which has seldom been applied to investigate the synchronization problem. Moreover, the delays proposed in this paper are time-varying delays and distributed delays, which have rarely been used to study the synchronization problem for coupled stochastic delayed neural networks. Therefore, the results obtained in this paper are more general and useful than those given in the previous literature. Finally, two numerical examples and their simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  14. Developmental delays in offspring of rats undernourished or zinc deprived during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, M J; Halas, E S

    1987-01-01

    Offspring of rats who were zinc or calorie deprived during lactation were administered a battery of reflex and motor tests from postnatal Day 4 to Day 21. Compared to offspring of ad lib-fed control rats, both zinc deprived and undernourished offspring exhibited developmental delays in reflexes which appeared after the first postnatal week (auditory startle, air righting, and rope descent). As the deficiencies continued the delays appeared to be more pronounced. The zinc deficiency did not add to the deficits associated with calorie restriction alone because there were no significant differences between the zinc deficient and undernourished pups on any of the measures except eye opening. When rehabilitated offspring were tested at 45 and 60 days of age for motor deficits there were no significant impairments resulting from preweaning dietary conditions. However, the growth retardation of zinc deprived and undernourished rats persisted long after dietary rehabilitation was implemented.

  15. Early developmental delay in children with autism: A study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabameri, Elahe; Sotoodeh, Mohammad Saber

    2015-05-01

    Early diagnosis is appropriate and important for developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. In many less developed countries, unfortunately, diagnosis of this disorder is delayed. The aim of the present study is to determine whether this disorder can be screened using simple strategies such as comparison of the age of acquisition of motor skills. For this purpose, 124 children with autism were chosen to enter the study, and their parents were asked to retrospectively specify the age of achieving milestones of sitting without support, standing alone and walking alone. Information obtained from the parents was compared with World Health Organization standards. Results indicate that participants (male and female) have significantly delayed age of acquisition of all three skills. Based on this result, it can be suggested that existing standards, as a simple means with low cost and easy availability, can be used for early screening of the disease at a younger age so that treatment can be provided more quickly.

  16. Does it pay to delay? Flesh flies show adaptive plasticity in reproductive timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Frank J; Kristal, Ross; Netter, Fleta; Hatle, John D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2011-02-01

    Life-history plasticity is widespread among organisms. However, an important question is whether it is adaptive. Most models for plasticity in life-history timing predict that animals, once they have reached the minimal nutritional threshold under poor conditions, will accelerate development or time to reproduction. Adaptive delays in reproduction are not common, especially in short-lived species. Examples of adaptive reproductive delays exist in mammalian populations experiencing strong interspecific (e.g., predation) and intraspecific (e.g., infanticide) competition. But are there other environmental factors that may trigger an adaptive delay in reproductive timing? We show that the short-lived flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis will delay reproduction under nutrient-poor conditions, even though it has already met the minimal nutritional threshold for reproduction. We test whether this delay strategy is an adaptive response allowing the scavenger time to locate more resources by experimentally providing supplemental protein pulses (early, mid and late) throughout the reproductive delay period. Flies receiving additional protein produced more and larger eggs, demonstrating a benefit of the delay. In addition, by tracking the allocation of carbon from the pulses using stable isotopes, we show that flies receiving earlier pulses incorporated more carbon into eggs and somatic tissue than those given a later pulse. These results indicate that the reproductive delay in S. crassipalpis is consistent with adaptive post-threshold plasticity, a nutritionally linked reproductive strategy that has not been reported previously in an invertebrate species.

  17. Vibrio cholerae hemolysin is required for lethality, developmental delay, and intestinal vacuolation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediye Nese Cinar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin (CT and toxin-co-regulated pili (TCP are the major virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains that contribute to the pathogenesis of disease during devastating cholera pandemics. However, CT and TCP negative V. cholerae strains are still able to cause severe diarrheal disease in humans through mechanisms that are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the role of other virulence factors in V. cholerae pathogenesis, we used a CT and TCP independent infection model in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and identified the hemolysin A (hlyA gene as a factor responsible for animal death and developmental delay. We demonstrated a correlation between the severity of infection in the nematode and the level of hemolytic activity in the V. cholerae biotypes. At the cellular level, V. cholerae infection induces formation of vacuoles in the intestinal cells in a hlyA dependent manner, consistent with the previous in vitro observations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data strongly suggest that HlyA is a virulence factor in C. elegans infection leading to lethality and developmental delay presumably through intestinal cytopathic changes.

  18. Diagnostic outcome following routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic yield following a routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay. Detailed retrospective review of 119 complete consecutive case notes of patients referred to one single clinical geneticist over a 14 month time period was undertaken (n = 119; 54 males, 65 females). The age at initial review ranged from 2 months to 37 years 3 months (mean 8 y 3 mo [SD 7 y 10 mo]). We made a diagnosis in 36\\/119 (30%); 21\\/36 were new diagnoses and 15\\/36 were confirmations of diagnoses. We removed a wrong diagnostic label in 8\\/119 (7%). In 3\\/8 we were able to achieve a diagnosis but in 5\\/8 no alternative diagnosis was reached. We had a better diagnostic rate where the patients were dysmorphic (odds ratio [OR] 1.825; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.065 to 3.128, p = 0.044). In the majority, the diagnosis was made by clinical examination only. Molecular diagnosis was reached in seven cases. Five cases were confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a diagnosis in three cases. This study confirms the importance of a clinical genetics assessment in the investigation of global developmental delay.

  19. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: Mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina Fierro, Jorge Arturo; Avina, Daniel Alejandro Hernández

    2014-09-01

    The Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a very rare and severe genetic disease characterized by mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism. It was first described in 1978 in patients with mental retardation and crisis of intermittent hyperventilation. The genetic cause is haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 (transcription factor 4) gene that affects the neurodevelopment in both sexes; the majority of patients have spontaneous molecular defects by point mutations or deletions in chromosome 18 at the region 18q21. The syndrome is characterized by neurological abnormalities that affect the motor coordination and balance, in patients with mental and developmental delays. The phenotype includes a peculiar face by specific craniofacial anomalies: prominent square forehead, deep-set eyes with ocular hypertelorism; prominent large nose beaked and broad flat nasal bridge; mouth wide and large, thick fleshy lips, tented bow-shaped upper lip and everted lower lip; cup-shaped ears with dysplastic broad overfolded helix. We review the literature and the photographs of 44 published patients from 2007 to 2012, to resume the principal features of craniofacial anomalies, attempting to delineate the syndrome phenotype and score the specific dysmorphism than help to achieve the early clinical diagnosis.

  20. Genetic Evaluation of Children with Global Developmental Delay--Current Status of Network Systems in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong-Lin; Chow, Julie Chi; Lai, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Kuo, Mei-Chin; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2015-08-01

    This review article aims to introduce the screening and referral network of genetic evaluation for children with developmental delay in Taiwan. For these children, integrated systems provide services from the medical, educational, and social welfare sectors. All cities and counties in Taiwan have established a network for screening, detection, referral, evaluation, and intervention services. Increased awareness improves early detection and intervention. There remains a gap between supply and demand, especially with regard to financial resources and professional manpower. Genetic etiology has a major role in prenatal causes of developmental delay. A summary of reports on some related genetic disorders in the Taiwanese population is included in this review. Genetic diagnosis allows counseling with regard to recurrence risk and prevention. Networking with neonatal screening, laboratory diagnosis, genetic counseling, and orphan drugs logistics systems can provide effective treatment for patients. In Taiwan, several laboratories provide genetic tests for clinical diagnosis. Accessibility to advanced expensive tests such as gene chips or whole exome sequencing is limited because of funding problems; however, the service system in Taiwan can still operate in a relatively cost-effective manner. This experience in Taiwan may serve as a reference for other countries.

  1. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: Mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina Fierro, Jorge Arturo; Avina, Daniel Alejandro Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a very rare and severe genetic disease characterized by mental retardation, psychomotor and developmental delays with facial dysmorphism. It was first described in 1978 in patients with mental retardation and crisis of intermittent hyperventilation. The genetic cause is haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 (transcription factor 4) gene that affects the neurodevelopment in both sexes; the majority of patients have spontaneous molecular defects by point mutations or deletions in chromosome 18 at the region 18q21. The syndrome is characterized by neurological abnormalities that affect the motor coordination and balance, in patients with mental and developmental delays. The phenotype includes a peculiar face by specific craniofacial anomalies: prominent square forehead, deep-set eyes with ocular hypertelorism; prominent large nose beaked and broad flat nasal bridge; mouth wide and large, thick fleshy lips, tented bow-shaped upper lip and everted lower lip; cup-shaped ears with dysplastic broad overfolded helix. We review the literature and the photographs of 44 published patients from 2007 to 2012, to resume the principal features of craniofacial anomalies, attempting to delineate the syndrome phenotype and score the specific dysmorphism than help to achieve the early clinical diagnosis. PMID:27625870

  2. Adaptive neural network tracking control for a class of unknown nonlinear time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weisheng; Li Junmin

    2006-01-01

    For a class of unknown nonlinear time-delay systems, an adaptive neural network (NN) control design approach is proposed. Backstepping, domination and adaptive bounding design technique are combined to construct a robust memoryless adaptive NN tracking controller. Unknown time-delay functions are approximated by NNs, such that the requirement on the nonlinear time-delay functions is relaxed. Based on Lyapunov-Krasoviskii functional, the sem-global uniformly ultimately boundedness (UUB) of all the signals in the closed-loop system is proved. The arbitrary output tracking accuracy is achieved by tuning the design parameters. The feasibility is investigated by an illustrative simulation example.

  3. Cellular and developmental adaptations to hypoxia: a Drosophila perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria Magdalena; Dekanty, Andrés; Wappner, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a widely utilized genetic model, is highly resistant to oxygen starvation and is beginning to be used for studying physiological, developmental, and cellular adaptations to hypoxia. The Drosophila respiratory (tracheal) system has features in common with the mammalian circulatory system so that an angiogenesis-like response occurs upon exposure of Drosophila larvae to hypoxia. A hypoxia-responsive system homologous to mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has been described in the fruit fly, where Fatiga is a Drosophila oxygen-dependent HIF prolyl hydroxylase, and the basic helix-loop-helix Per/ARNT/Sim (bHLH-PAS) proteins Sima and Tango are, respectively, the Drosophila homologues of mammalian HIF-alpha (alpha) and HIF-beta (beta). Tango is constitutively expressed regardless of oxygen tension and, like in mammalian cells, Sima is controlled at the level of protein degradation and subcellular localization. Sima is critically required for development in hypoxia, but, unlike mammalian model systems, it is dispensable for development in normoxia. In contrast, fatiga mutant alleles are all lethal; however, strikingly, viability to adulthood is restored in fatiga sima double mutants, although these double mutants are not entirely normal, suggesting that Fatiga has Sima-independent functions in fly development. Studies in cell culture and in vivo have revealed that Sima is activated by the insulin receptor (InR) and target-of-rapamycin (TOR) pathways. Paradoxically, Sima is a negative regulator of growth. This suggests that Sima is engaged in a negative feedback loop that limits growth upon stimulation of InR/TOR pathways.

  4. Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks with multiple delays and uncertainties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LU YIMING; HE PING; MA SHU-HUA; LI GUO-ZHI; MOBAYBEN SALEH

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a general complex dynamical network which contains multiple delays and uncertainties is introduced, which contains time-varying coupling delays, time-varying node delay, and uncertainties of both the inner- and outer-coupling matrices. A robust adaptive synchronization scheme for these general complex networks with multiple delays and uncertainties is established and raised by employing the robust adaptive control principle and the Lyapunov stability theory. We choose some suitable adaptive synchronization controllers to ensure the robust synchronization of this dynamical network. The numerical simulations of the time-delay Lorenz chaotic system as local dynamical node are provided to observe and verify the viability and productivity of the theoretical research in this paper. Compared to the achievement of previous research, theresearch in this paper seems quite comprehensive and universal.

  5. Reflections on multiple personality disorder as a developmentally complex adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J G

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of multiple personality disorder provide the groundwork for its creative reconciliation with psychoanalysis. This paper uses psychoanalytic, modern developmental, and psychological assessment perspectives to conceptualize multiple personality disorder as a developmentally protective response to chronic childhood trauma. Implications of this theory for clinical work with these patients are discussed.

  6. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Grønhøj Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient’s main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus.

  7. Adaptive Stabilization for a Class of Dynamical Systems with Nonlinear Delayed State Perturbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adaptive stabilization for a class of systems with nonlinear delayed state perturbations is considered. The bound of the perturbations is assumed to be unknown, by using the adaptive control method, an adaptive controller is designed. Based on the Lyapunov- Karasovskii functional, it is shown that the dynamical system can be stabilized by the adaptive controller. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulations.

  8. Improved adaptive fuzzy control for MIMO nonlinear time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an improved observer-based indirect adaptive fuzzy control scheme for multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear time-delay systems.The control scheme synthesizes adaptive fuzzy control with adaptive fuzzy identification.An observer is designed to observe the system state,and an identifier is developed to identify the unknown parts of the system.The update laws for parameters utilize two types of errors in the adaptive time-delay fuzzy logic systems,the observation error and the identificat...

  9. Cognitive development in children with language impairment, and correlation between language and intelligence development in kindergarten children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Su-Fen; Liu, Jui-Ching; Hsu, Chun-Ling; Chang, Ming-Yuh; Chang, Tung-Ming; Cheng, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of 65 children with developmental delay. The male-to-female ratio was 2.25 : 1, and the mean age was 5.8 years; performance IQ was 94.8, verbal IQ was 83, and full-scale IQ was 87.4. Twenty-three (35%) children had normal language development, 13 (20%) had below average language development, and 29 (45%) had developmental language disorder. Performance IQ was significantly better than verbal IQ in all children (P children with developmental language disorder and specific language impairment was significantly lower than that of children with normal language development. Performance IQ was found to be correlated with language score (r = .309, P = .012). The children with language impairment were associated with lower IQ scores. The discrepancy between performance IQ and verbal IQ persisted in children with developmental delay, not only in children with language disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Developmental Assessment for Arabic-Speaking Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrine, Sheila L.; Heji, Hayat; Sabri, Amel; Dalton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Developmental screening has become an established component of child health programs in many developed countries. The research objective of this project was to translate and adapt a developmental assessment (Oregon Project Skills Inventory) for use with young children with visual impairments who speak Arabic. The study was prompted by the lack of…

  11. The role of time delay in adaptive cellular negative feedback systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapytsko, Anastasiya; Schaber, Jörg

    2016-06-07

    Adaptation in cellular systems is often mediated by negative feedbacks, which usually come with certain time delays causing several characteristic response patterns including an overdamped response, damped or sustained oscillations. Here, we analyse generic two-dimensional delay differential equations with delayed negative feedback describing the dynamics of biochemical adaptive signal-response networks. We derive explicit thresholds and boundaries showing how time delay determines characteristic response patterns of these networks. Applying our theoretical analyses to concrete data we show that adaptation to osmotic stress in yeast is optimal in the sense of minimizing adaptation time without causing oscillatory behaviour, i.e., a critically damped response. In addition, our framework demonstrates that a slight increase of time delay in the NF-κB system might induce a switch from damped to sustained oscillatory behaviour. Thus, we demonstrate how delay differential equations can be used to explicitly study the delay in biochemical negative feedback systems. Our analysis also provides insight into how time delay may tune biological signal-response patterns and control the systems behaviour.

  12. Delayed Hepatic Adaptation to Weaning in ACBP(-/-) Mice Is Caused by Disruption of the Epidermal Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Bek, Signe; Bloksgaard, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that mice deficient in acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) display a delayed metabolic adaptation to weaning. This includes a delayed activation of the hepatic lipogenic gene program, which may result from hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol and/or cholesteryl esters in the...

  13. Feasibility of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Neece, Cameron L

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) interventions are popular as a treatment strategy for myriad diagnoses in various settings, and may be beneficial for parents of children with developmental delays (DD). However, prior research suggests extreme levels of stress and extraordinary demands on time among these parents, making the feasibility of effectively implementing MBSR with this population questionable. This study examined the feasibility of administering standard MBSR to a diverse community-based sample of parents of young children with DD. The potential impact of MBSR interventions includes improvement in parents' mental health, and collateral benefits for the family environment, including improved child behavior. Nurses may have an integral role in interdisciplinary teams providing MBSR.

  14. Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d=.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (β=.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills.

  15. De novo MEIS2 mutation causes syndromic developmental delay with persistent gastro-esophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Atsushi; Isidor, Bertrand; Piloquet, Hugues; Corre, Pierre; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-09-01

    MEIS2 aberrations are considered to be the cause of intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect, as MEIS2 copy number variation is often observed with these phenotypes. To our knowledge, only one nucleotide-level change-specifically, an in-frame MEIS2 deletion-has so far been reported. Here, we report a female patient with a de novo nonsense mutation (c.611C>G, p.Ser204*) in MEIS2. She showed severe intellectual disability, moderate motor/verbal developmental delay, cleft palate, cardiac septal defect, hypermetropia, severe feeding difficulties with gastro-esophageal reflux and constipation. By reviewing this patient and previous patients with MEIS2 point mutations, we found that feeding difficulty with gastro-esophageal reflux appears to be one of the core clinical features of MEIS2 haploinsufficiency, in addition to intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect.

  16. Application of Array-based Comparative Genome Hybridization in Children with Developmental Delay or Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jao-Shwann Liang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental delay or mental retardation (DD/MR are commonly en countered in child neurology clinics, and establishing an etiologic diagnosis is a challenge for child neurologists. Among the etiologies, chromosomal imbalance is one of the most important causes. However, many of these chromosomal imbalances are submicroscopic and cannot be detected by conventional cytogenetic methods. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH is considered to be superior in the investigation of chromosomal deletions or duplications in children with DD/MR, and has been demonstrated to improve the diagnostic detection rate for these small chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we review the recent studies of array CGH in the evaluation of patients with idiopathic DD/MR.

  17. During Drosophila disc regeneration, JAK/STAT coordinates cell proliferation with Dilp8-mediated developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Tomonori; Comoglio, Federico; Seimiya, Makiko; Cabuy, Erik; Paro, Renato

    2015-05-05

    Regeneration of fragmented Drosophila imaginal discs occurs in an epimorphic manner involving local cell proliferation at the wound site. After disc fragmentation, cells at the wound site activate a restoration program through wound healing, regenerative cell proliferation, and repatterning of the tissue. However, the interplay of signaling cascades driving these early reprogramming steps is not well-understood. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of regenerating cells in the early phase within 24 h after wounding. We found that JAK/STAT signaling becomes activated at the wound site and promotes regenerative cell proliferation in cooperation with Wingless (Wg) signaling. In addition, we showed that the expression of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (dilp8), which encodes a paracrine peptide to delay the onset of pupariation, is controlled by JAK/STAT signaling in early regenerating discs. Our findings suggest that JAK/STAT signaling plays a pivotal role in coordinating regenerative disc growth with organismal developmental timing.

  18. Analysis of an Adaptive P-Persistent MAC Scheme for WLAN Providing Delay Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Yih-Shen; Huang, Ching Yao

    The paper proposes and analyzes an adaptive p-persistent-based (APP) medium access control (MAC) scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The APP MAC scheme intends to support delay fairness for every station in each access, denoting small delay variance. It differentiates permission probabilities of transmission for stations which are incurred with various packet delays. This permission probability is designed as a function of the numbers of retransmissions and re-backoffs so that stations with larger packet delay are endowed with higher permission probability. Also, the scheme is analyzed by a Markov-chain analysis, where the collision probability, the system throughput, and the average delay are successfully obtained. Numerical results show that the proposed APP MAC scheme can attain lower mean delay and higher mean throughput. In the mean time, simulation results are given to justify the validity of the analysis, and also show that the APP MAC scheme can achieve more delay fairness than conventional algorithms.

  19. CLTC as a clinically novel gene associated with multiple malformations and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMari, Joseph; Mroske, Cameron; Tang, Sha; Nimeh, Joseph; Miller, Ryan; Lebel, Robert R

    2016-04-01

    Diagnostic exome sequencing has recently emerged as an invaluable tool in determining the molecular etiology of cases involving dysmorphism and developmental delay that are otherwise unexplained by more traditional methods of genetic testing. Our patient was large for gestational age at 35 weeks, delivered to a 27-year-old primigravid Caucasian whose pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia. Neonatal period was notable for hypoglycemia, apnea, bradycardia, hyperbilirubinemia, grade I intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, laryngomalacia, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties. The patient had numerous minor dysmorphic features. At three and a half years of age, she has global developmental delays and nystagmus, and is being followed for a mediastinal neuroblastoma that is currently in remission. Karyotype and oligo-microarray were normal. Whole-exome, next generation sequencing (NGS) coupled to bioinformatic filtering and expert medical review at Ambry Genetics revealed 14 mutations in 9 genes, and these genes underwent medical review. A heterozygous de novo frameshift mutation, c.2737_2738dupGA p.D913Efs*59, in which two nucleotides are duplicated in exon 17 of the CLTC gene, results in substitution of glutamic acid for aspartic acid at position 913 of the protein, as well as a frame shift that results in a premature termination codon situated 58 amino acids downstream. Clathrin Heavy Chain 1 (CHC1) has been shown to play an important role in the brain for vesicle recycling and neurotransmitter release at pre-synaptic nerve terminals. There is also evidence implicating it in the proper development of the placenta during the early stages of pregnancy. The CLTC alteration identified herein is likely to provide an explanation for the patient's adverse phenotype. Ongoing functional studies will further define the impact of this alteration on CHC1 function and consequently, human disease.

  20. Correlates of directiveness in the interactions of fathers and mothers of children with developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolametto, L; Tannock, R

    1994-10-01

    Twenty preschool-age children with developmental delays and language impairment participated in this study, which compared fathers' and mothers' directiveness and parental stress. Similarities between fathers and mothers were found for turntaking control, response referents, and responses to the child's participation. However, fathers differed from mothers in two of the dimensions of directiveness examined: fathers used more response control and topic control than mothers. Both parents reported similarly low levels of child-related and parenting stress, but mothers perceived more stress than fathers related to the responsibilities associated with parenting a child with a handicap. Correlations between directiveness, child characteristics, and stress revealed that fathers used greater turntaking control and topic control with children who were developmentally less mature, whereas mothers used greater topic control with children who were less involved in interaction. Both fathers' and mothers' use of response control was positively related to stress. Implications for involving fathers in parent-focused intervention include screening father-child interactions before intervention, interpreting parent-child interaction styles in terms of their role in enhancing the child's social participation, and acknowledging the role of familial factors (such as stress) on interaction styles.

  1. Longitudinal change in parenting associated with developmental delay and catch-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, C; O'Connor, T G; Keaveney, L; Groothues, C; Rutter, M

    2001-07-01

    The current study examined the predictors of parent-child relationship quality and developmental change in a sample of children adopted into the U.K. following severe early privation, and in a comparison sample of nondeprived, within-country adoptees. One hundred and fifty-eight children adopted from Romania and 52 U.K. adoptees were assessed at age 6 years; longitudinal data (age 4 and 6 years) were available on the 110 Romanian adoptees placed into U.K. homes before 24 months of age and all U.K. adoptees. Ratings of parent-child positivity and negativity during a semistructured interaction task were obtained from coders who were blind to the child's background. Results indicated that adoptive parent-child relationship quality was related to duration of deprivation and that cognitive/developmental delay mediated this association. The magnitude of this effect was modest and diminished over time. Longitudinal analyses revealed that positive change in parent-child relationship quality was most marked among children who exhibited cognitive catch-up between assessments. The direction of effects appeared to be primarily child to parent. The findings underscore the need for further research on the long-term impact of early experiences on psychosocial development.

  2. Predictors of Poor School Readiness in Children Without Developmental Delay at Age 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bergen B; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Coker, Tumaini R; Barnert, Elizabeth S; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Szilagyi, Peter G; Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Chung, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Current recommendations emphasize developmental screening and surveillance to identify developmental delays (DDs) for referral to early intervention (EI) services. Many young children without DDs, however, are at high risk for poor developmental and behavioral outcomes by school entry but are ineligible for EI. We developed models for 2-year-olds without DD that predict, at kindergarten entry, poor academic performance and high problem behaviors. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), were used for this study. The analytic sample excluded children likely eligible for EI because of DDs or very low birth weight. Dependent variables included low academic scores and high problem behaviors at the kindergarten wave. Regression models were developed by using candidate predictors feasibly obtainable during typical 2-year well-child visits. Models were cross-validated internally on randomly selected subsamples. Approximately 24% of all 2-year-old children were ineligible for EI at 2 years of age but still had poor academic or behavioral outcomes at school entry. Prediction models each contain 9 variables, almost entirely parental, social, or economic. Four variables were associated with both academic and behavioral risk: parental education below bachelor's degree, little/no shared reading at home, food insecurity, and fair/poor parental health. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 0.76 for academic risk and 0.71 for behavioral risk. Adding the mental scale score from the Bayley Short Form-Research Edition did not improve areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for either model. Among children ineligible for EI services, a small set of clinically available variables at age 2 years predicted academic and behavioral outcomes at school entry. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Exposure of children with developmental delay to social determinants of poor health: cross-sectional case record review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Brigham, P

    2015-03-01

    Research on child development in general has highlighted the importance that the family environment plays in mediating the pathway between exposure to low socio-economic position (SEP) and child well-being. While child developmental models in intellectual disability have highlighted the interplay between social context, family environment and child development, little empirical work has attempted to formally evaluate the evidence in support of specific mediating pathways between low SEP and child outcomes. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England covering a total population of 1.25 million people. Case record reviews were undertaken for 46 023 households, 2236 (4.9%) of which contained a child in the target age range with developmental delay. Children with developmental delay, when compared with their non-disabled peers, were at significantly increased risk of poorer health outcomes and of being exposed to a wide range of social determinants of poor health. Controlling for between-group differences in exposure to social determinants of poor health reduced the risk of developmental delay being associated with poorer health outcomes by 45% for behaviour problems and 89% for risk of significant harm. For children with developmental delay, parenting difficulties appears to play a particularly significant role in partially mediating the effects of low SEP. The findings of the present study point to the potential effectiveness of family-focused early intervention to prevent the emergence and escalation of behavioural difficulties and health problems in children with developmental delay. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sports participation of children with or without developmental delay: prediction from child and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Willa A; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation is beneficial to health and socioemotional adjustment in youth across development. While there is some evidence indicating lower sports participation for children with developmental delays (DD) as compared with their typically developing (TD) peers, little is known as to the predictors of this differential participation. Given the increased risk of physical and mental health difficulties for children with DD, understanding more about this disparity is important. We examined sports participation in elementary school-aged children with or without DD and examined child and family predictors of three indices of sports participation: number of sports and highest relational sport at ages 6 and 8, and consistent sports from 6 to 8. Children with TD were significantly higher on all three indicators. Mother and child factors related significantly to sports participation indices. The number of sports related positively to mother education and positive perceptions and negatively to mother employment. Relational sports were higher in boys, children with higher social skills, and lower behavior problems. In regression analyses at child age 8 that included these other variables, delay status (DD or TD) did not have a significant effect. Perspectives on varying influences on sports participation and implications for intervention are discussed.

  5. Global Developmental Delay in a Mexican Patient With Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy With Subcortical Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Misael Cerecedo Zapata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC is a neurologic disorder characterized by macrocephaly within the first year of life and the delayed onset of motor function deterioration with ataxia and spasticity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is diagnostic and shows diffusely abnormal, mildly swollen cerebral white matter and subcortical cysts. MLC exhibits an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Two genes have been associated with MLC. The first and most important gene is MLC1, The other gene involved is HEPACAM. Case Presentation: We studied a Mexican patient with a compatible diagnosis of MLC. The patient exhibited the c.353C > T, p.Thr118Met mutation, and both parents were carriers for the same mutation. To the best of our knowledge, no other cases of MLC have been reported in Mexican patient. This patient exhibited rapid deterioration of motor function. Conclusions: A diagnosis of MLC, which can be facilitated by imaging studies, should be considered in all patients who exhibit global developmental delay.

  6. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  7. Adaptive output feedback control for nonlinear time-delay systems using neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weisheng CHEN; Junmin LI

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the adaptive neural network (NN) control approaches to a class of unknown output feedback nonlinear time-delay systems. An adaptive output feedback NN tracking controller is designed by backstepping technique. NNs are used to approximate unknown functions dependent on time delay. Delay-dependent filters are introduced for state estimation. The domination method is used to deal with the smooth time-delay basis functions. The adaptive bounding technique is employed to estimate the upper bound of the NN approximation errors. Based on LyapunovKrasovskii functional, the semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system is proved.The feasibility is investigated by two illustrative simulation examples.

  8. The effectiveness of multimedia visual perceptual training groups for the preschool children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Nan; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wei, Ta-Sen; Liu, Chi-Hsin; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of three approaches to improving visual perception among preschool children 4-6 years old with developmental delays: multimedia visual perceptual group training, multimedia visual perceptual individual training, and paper visual perceptual group training. A control group received no special training. This study employed a pretest-posttest control group of true experimental design. A total of 64 children 4-6 years old with developmental delays were randomized into four groups: (1) multimedia visual perceptual group training (15 subjects); (2) multimedia visual perceptual individual training group (15 subjects); paper visual perceptual group training (19 subjects); and (4) a control group (15 subjects) with no visual perceptual training. Forty minute training sessions were conducted once a week for 14 weeks. The Test of Visual Perception Skills, third edition, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Paired-samples t-test showed significant differences pre- and post-test among the three groups, but no significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test scores among the control group. ANOVA results showed significant differences in improvement levels among the four study groups. Scheffe post hoc test results showed significant differences between: group 1 and group 2; group 1 and group 3; group 1 and the control group; and group 2 and the control group. No significant differences were reported between group 2 and group 3, and group 3 and the control group. The results showed all three therapeutic programs produced significant differences between pretest and posttest scores. The training effect on the multimedia visual perceptual group program and the individual program was greater than the developmental effect Both the multimedia visual perceptual group training program and the multimedia visual perceptual individual training program produced significant effects on visual perception. The

  9. Stability of adaptive cruise control systems taking account of vehicle response time and delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.C., E-mail: ldavis7@mailaps.org [10244 Normandy Dr., Plymouth, MI 48170 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    The region of string stability of a platoon of adaptive cruise control vehicles, taking into account the delay and response of the vehicle powertrain, is found. An upper bound on the explicit delay time as a function the first-order powertrain response time constant is determined. The system is characterized by a headway time constant, a sensitivity parameter, relative (to the vehicle immediately in front) velocity control, and delayed-velocity feedback or acceleration feedback. -- Highlights: ► I find the region of stability for a realistic adaptive cruise control system. ► Vehicle response time and explicit delay are included in the analysis. ► Delayed-feedback enlarges the parameter space that gives string stability.

  10. Delayed feedback during sensorimotor learning selectively disrupts adaptation but not strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudner, Samuel N; Kethidi, Nikhit; Graeupner, Damaris; Ivry, Richard B; Taylor, Jordan A

    2016-03-01

    In sensorimotor adaptation tasks, feedback delays can cause significant reductions in the rate of learning. This constraint is puzzling given that many skilled behaviors have inherently long delays (e.g., hitting a golf ball). One difference in these task domains is that adaptation is primarily driven by error-based feedback, whereas skilled performance may also rely to a large extent on outcome-based feedback. This difference suggests that error- and outcome-based feedback may engage different learning processes, and these processes may be associated with different temporal constraints. We tested this hypothesis in a visuomotor adaptation task. Error feedback was indicated by the terminal position of a cursor, while outcome feedback was indicated by points. In separate groups of participants, the two feedback signals were presented immediately at the end of the movement, after a delay, or with just the error feedback delayed. Participants learned to counter the rotation in a similar manner regardless of feedback delay. However, the aftereffect, an indicator of implicit motor adaptation, was attenuated with delayed error feedback, consistent with the hypothesis that a different learning process supports performance under delay. We tested this by employing a task that dissociates the contribution of explicit strategies and implicit adaptation. We find that explicit aiming strategies contribute to the majority of the learning curve, regardless of delay; however, implicit learning, measured over the course of learning and by aftereffects, was significantly attenuated with delayed error-based feedback. These experiments offer new insight into the temporal constraints associated with different motor learning processes.

  11. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Primary Caregivers of Young Children with or at Risk for Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M.; McDonald, L.; Serbin, L.; Stack, D.; Secco, M. L.; Yu, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research with families raising children with or at risk for developmental delay (DD), it is not clear whether primary caregivers of these children are at increased risk for depressive symptoms. Discrepant findings in the literature may be owing to heterogeneity of child problems. More research is needed on child,…

  12. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  13. De novo interstitial deletion of 9q32-34.1 with mental retardation, developmental delay, epilepsy, and cortical dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Karacan, C D

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a 10 year-old female patient with interstitial deletion of 9q32-q34.1 associated with mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. Interstitial......). Combination of epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings are not reported before....

  14. Effectiveness of Contrasting Approaches to Response-Contingent Learning among Children with Significant Developmental Delays and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from a randomized controlled design study of an ability-based versus needs-based approach to response-contingent learning among children with significant developmental delays and disabilities who did not use instrumental behavior to produce reinforcing consequences are reported. The ability-based intervention and needs-based intervention…

  15. Parent Concern and Enrollment in Intervention Services for Young Children with Developmental Delays: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer; Kirby, Russell S.; Gorski, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to address underenrollment and late entry to early intervention by identifying factors associated with parental concern and services for developmental delays. The authors analyzed responses from 27,566 parents of children from birth to age 5 from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health to quantify and to identify factors…

  16. OJKO-project : Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  17. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Charabi, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    months the patient's main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus....

  18. Trisomy 1q43 syndrome: a consistent phenotype with macrocephaly, characteristic face, developmental delay and cardiac anomalies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Jackson, K.E.; Tsien, F.; Marble, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Trisomy 1q43 syndrome: a consistent phenotype with macrocephaly, characteristic face, developmental delay and cardiac anomalies: Patients with trisomy (1)(q42-qter) present with psychomotor retardation, macrocephaly, occasional presence of facial capillary naevi, cardio-vascular anomalies and small

  19. Using Animation in Microsoft PowerPoint to Enhance Engagement and Learning in Young Learners with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Hourcade, Jack; Blum, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, a wide array of instructional technology applications have found their way into early intervention settings. Of particular importance to young learners who evidence developmental delays or are at risk for school failure are those technologies with the potential to more effectively teach basic emergent literacy skills: (1)…

  20. Review of Recent Research Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Chained Tasks to Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogoe, Maud; Banda, Devender R.

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed twelve studies that used the constant time delay (CTD) procedure to teach chained tasks to individuals with developmental disabilities from years 1996-2006. Variables analyzed include types of tasks that have been taught with the procedure, how effective CTD has been in teaching participants, and whether researchers have investigated…

  1. Adaptive Asymptotical Synchronization for Stochastic Complex Networks with Time-Delay and Markovian Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive asymptotical synchronization is discussed for the stochastic complex dynamical networks with time-delay and Markovian switching. By applying the stochastic analysis approach and the M-matrix method for stochastic complex networks, several sufficient conditions to ensure adaptive asymptotical synchronization for stochastic complex networks are derived. Through the adaptive feedback control techniques, some suitable parameters update laws are obtained. Simulation result is provided to substantiate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach.

  2. Adaptive Neural Control Design For a Class of Nonlinear Time-delay Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ling-ling; ZHANG Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an indirect adaptive neural control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems with time delays. Based on the backstepping technique and Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional method are combined to construct the indirect adaptive neural controller. The proposed indirect adaptive neural controller guarantees that the state variables converge to a small neighborhood of the origin and all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, an example is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  3. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  4. Robust Adaptive Exponential Synchronization of Stochastic Perturbed Chaotic Delayed Neural Networks with Parametric Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robust adaptive exponential synchronization in mean square of stochastic perturbed chaotic delayed neural networks with nonidentical parametric uncertainties. A robust adaptive feedback controller is proposed based on Gronwally’s inequality, drive-response concept, and adaptive feedback control technique with the update laws of nonidentical parametric uncertainties as well as linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The sufficient conditions for robust adaptive exponential synchronization in mean square of uncoupled uncertain stochastic chaotic delayed neural networks are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The effect of nonidentical uncertain parameter uncertainties is suppressed by the designed robust adaptive feedback controller rapidly. A numerical example is provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluza, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways.

  6. Online Algorithms for Adaptive Optimization in Heterogeneous Delay Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Chahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs are an emerging type of networks which do not need a predefined infrastructure. In fact, data forwarding in DTNs relies on the contacts among nodes which may possess different features, radio range, battery consumption and radio interfaces. On the other hand, efficient message delivery under limited resources, e.g., battery or storage, requires to optimize forwarding policies. We tackle optimal forwarding control for a DTN composed of nodes of different types, forming a so-called heterogeneous network. Using our model, we characterize the optimal policies and provide a suitable framework to design a new class of multi-dimensional stochastic approximation algorithms working for heterogeneous DTNs. Crucially, our proposed algorithms drive online the source node to the optimal operating point without requiring explicit estimation of network parameters. A thorough analysis of the convergence properties and stability of our algorithms is presented.

  7. Lethality and developmental delay in Drosophila melanogaster larvae after ingestion of selected Pseudomonas fluorescens strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika H Olcott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a well-established model organism for probing the molecular and cellular basis of physiological and immune system responses of adults or late stage larvae to bacterial challenge. However, very little is known about the consequences of bacterial infections that occur in earlier stages of development. We have infected mid-second instar larvae with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens to determine how infection alters the ability of larvae to survive and complete development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mimicked natural routes of infection using a non-invasive feeding procedure to study the toxicity of the three sequenced P. fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and Pf-5 to Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae fed with the three strains of P. fluorescens showed distinct differences in developmental trajectory and survival. Treatment with SBW25 caused a subset of insects to die concomitant with a systemic melanization reaction at larval, pupal or adult stages. Larvae fed with Pf-5 died in a dose-dependent manner with adult survivors showing eye and wing morphological defects. In addition, larvae in the Pf-5 treatment groups showed a dose-dependent delay in the onset of metamorphosis relative to control-, Pf0-1-, and SBW25-treated larvae. A functional gacA gene is required for the toxic properties of wild-type Pf-5 bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments are the first to demonstrate that ingestion of P. fluorescens bacteria by D. melanogaster larvae causes both lethal and non-lethal phenotypes, including delay in the onset of metamorphosis and morphological defects in surviving adult flies, which can be decoupled.

  8. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  9. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  10. Adaptive fuzzy predictive sliding control of uncertain nonlinear systems with bound-known input delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Mostafa; Markazi, Amir H D; Omidi, Ehsan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a new Adaptive Fuzzy Predictive Sliding Mode Control (AFP-SMC) is presented for nonlinear systems with uncertain dynamics and unknown input delay. The control unit consists of a fuzzy inference system to approximate the ideal linearization control, together with a switching strategy to compensate for the estimation errors. Also, an adaptive fuzzy predictor is used to estimate the future values of the system states to compensate for the time delay. The adaptation laws are used to tune the controller and predictor parameters, which guarantee the stability based on a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. To evaluate the method effectiveness, the simulation and experiment on an overhead crane system are presented. According to the obtained results, AFP-SMC can effectively control the uncertain nonlinear systems, subject to input delays of known bound.

  11. Comparative study of occupational performance in children with global developmental delay at 3 and 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Isabel Candeias Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to compare the occupational performance of children with global developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI, and children with typical development, at 3 and 5 years of age, and to verify what functional areas children with global developmental delay feature more difficulties. Method: This is a comparative descriptive study including a sample of 40 participants, and 20 show Typical Development with 20 presenting diagnosis of Global Development Delay. These two groups were divided into two age subgroups of 10 children (aged 3 to 5 years. Results: The Inventory Pediatric Evaluation of Disability was filled out by parents and the results show that occupational performance of children with developmental delay, inserted in SNIPI is lower than those with typical development, with 3 and 5 years old, in the areas personal, mobility and socialization autonomy. Conclusion: The publication of more studies related to the practice of occupational therapy in Portugal is crucial, thus contributing to the knowledge of professionals and students in this scientific area. In addition, more and more evidence-based practice is an approach adopted by health professionals, including occupational therapists, and to this end it is extremely important to carry out newer studies locally in Portugal.

  12. Adaptation to Delayed Speech Feedback Induces Temporal Recalibration between Vocal Sensory and Auditory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. Participants read some sentences with specific delay times of DAF (0, 30, 75, 120 ms during three minutes to induce ‘Lag Adaptation’. After the adaptation, they then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback in producing simple voice but not speech. We found that speech production with lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  13. Low Rates of Genetic Testing in Children With Developmental Delays, Intellectual Disability, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Peabody MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the routine and effective use of genetic testing for patients with intellectual disability and developmental delay (ID/DD, we conducted a prospective, randomized observational study of 231 general pediatricians (40% and specialists (60%, using simulated patients with 9 rare pediatric genetic illnesses. Participants cared for 3 randomly assigned simulated patients, and care responses were scored against explicit evidence-based criteria. Scores were calculated as a percentage of criteria completed. Care varied widely, with a median overall score of 44.7% and interquartile range of 36.6% to 53.7%. Diagnostic accuracy was low: 27.4% of physicians identified the correct primary diagnosis. Physicians ordered chromosomal microarray analysis in 55.7% of cases. Specific gene sequence testing was used in 1.4% to 30.3% of cases. This study demonstrates that genetic testing is underutilized, even for widely available tests. Further efforts to educate physicians on the clinical utility of genetic testing may improve diagnosis and care in these patients.

  14. [Association between neontal morbidity, gestational age and developmental delays in moderate to late preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut, Luisa; Pérez, Marcela; Muñoz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that children born moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) have a higher risk of hospitalisation, neonatal morbidity, and developmental delay (DD). To determine the association between DD, gestational age, and neonatal morbidity in MLP children. A case control study design nested in a cohort of MLP children born between 2006 and 2009 at a private hospital located in the Metropolitan area of Santiago. The children were assessed with the Bayley-III Scales of Infant Development at 8 or 18 months corrected age, or at 30 months of chronological age. Neonatal records were retrospectively reviewed. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of neonatal morbidity on development. A total of 130 MLP children, 25 cases and 105 controls, were studied. Most of them (83.8%) were hospitalised during the neonatal period. Significant differences between cases and controls regarding maternal age and symptomatic hypoglycaemia were observed (crude OR 3.5, adjusted OR 8.18). It was concluded that the variables that negatively affect the rate of development are male gender, being a twin, and gestational age. Symptomatic hypoglycaemia is the main risk factor for DD, while being a twin, male gender, and gestational age influenced the total development rate obtained. It is essential to develop strategies for prevention, screening, and early management of this metabolic disorder to prevent future DD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the full moon on a sample of developmentally delayed, institutionalized women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks-Caskey, W E; Potter, D R

    1991-06-01

    Over 19 lunar months reports of all aggressive acting-out misbehaviors as recorded by direct-care staff were evaluated and recorded on a day-by-day basis for a randomly selected sample of 20 developmentally delayed women, CA 18 to 50; MA, 9 to 18 months. All had been in continuous residence in a residential treatment center for a minimum of 31 months. A grid representing the 24-hr. period of the full moon (a), the three days prior to the day of the full moon (b), the three days after the full moon (c), and the balance of the lunar period (d) was placed over the record. Comparisons using the Duncan multiple-range test indicated that the mean number of misbehaviors on the day of the full moon was significantly higher than the mean number on any other day of the lunar period (the next highest was for the three days prior to the day of the full moon).

  17. Current Management of Epilepsy and Pregnancy: Fetal Outcome, Congenital Malformations, and Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffrey M.; Pacia, Steven V.; Devinsky, Orrin

    2001-04-01

    Purpose. Women with epilepsy (WWE) reportedly have increased rates of pregnancy complications and poor fetal outcomes related to both their epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These results influence decisions about conceiving. Most published studies evaluate WWE treated before 1990. We sought to better define risks to pregnant WWE at a tertiary care center, which used current epilepsy guidelines.Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 100 consecutive pregnancies in WWE from 1990 to 2000. Maternal data: epilepsy syndrome, duration, AEDs used, seizure occurrence and frequency, delivery type and complications. Fetal outcomes: fetal birth weight (FBW), gestational age, incidence of prematurity, major and minor congenital malformations, developmental delay.Results. Maternal factors: 37% generalized and 63% partial epilepsies, 59% seizure-free throughout pregnancy, 30% increased and 22% decreased seizure frequency, 90% used AEDs, 21% required polytherapy, 98% took folate, and 48% with gestational seizures delivered by cesarean section, compared with 18% without seizures (P WWE treated with current epilepsy management, the majority had excellent outcomes. Future large studies must confirm this.

  18. 7p22.1 microdeletions involving ACTB associated with developmental delay, short stature, and microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Keiko; Narai, Satoshi; Togawa, Masami; Doumoto, Tomotsune; Sangu, Noriko; Vanakker, Olivier M; de Paepe, Anne; Edwards, Matthew; Whitehall, John; Brescianini, Sally; Petit, Florence; Andrieux, Joris; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    There are no published reports of patients harboring microdeletions involving the 7p22.1 region. Although 7p22.1 microdeletions are rare, some reports have shown microduplications encompassing this region. In this study, we report five patients with overlapping deletions of the 7p22.1 region. The patients exhibited clinical similarities including non-specific developmental delay, short stature, microcephaly, and other distinctive features. The shortest region of overlap within the 7p22.1 region includes five genes, FBXL18, ACTB, FSCN1, RNF216, and ZNF815P. Of these genes, only ACTB is known to be associated with an autosomal dominant trait. Dominant negative mutations in ACTB are responsible for Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1. We analyzed ACTB expression in immortalized lymphocytes derived from one of the patients and found that it was reduced to approximately half that observed in controls. This indicates that ACTB expression is linearly correlated with the gene copy number. We suggest that haploinsufficiency of ACTB may be responsible for the clinical features of patients with 7p22.1 microdeletions.

  19. The transactional relationship between parenting and emotion regulation in children with or without developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norona, Amanda N; Baker, Bruce L

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have identified numerous internal and external factors that contribute to individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) abilities. To extend these findings, we examined the longitudinal effects of a significant external predictor (parenting) on children's ER abilities in the context of an internal predictor (intellectual functioning). We used cross-lagged panel modeling to investigate the transactional relationship between parenting and ER in children with or without developmental delays (DD) across three time points in early and middle childhood (age 3, 5, and 8). Participants were 225 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with or without DD. Child ER ability and maternal scaffolding skills were coded from mother-child interactions at ages 3, 5, and 8. Compared to children with typical development (TD), children with DD were significantly more dysregulated at all time points, and their mothers exhibited fewer scaffolding behaviors in early childhood. In addition, cross-lagged panel models revealed a significant bidirectional relationship between maternal scaffolding and ER from ages 3 to 5 in the DD group but not the TD group. These findings suggest that scaffolding may be a crucial parenting skill to target in the early treatment of children with ER difficulties.

  20. Adaptive control of bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Yuan Hui-Qun; Sun Hai-Yi; Zhang Qing-Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the stabilization of a continuous time-delayed system is considered.To control the bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system,a parameter perturbation control and a hybrid control are proposed.Then,to ensure the asymptotic stability of the system in the presence of unexpected system parameter changes,the adaptive control idea is introduced,i.e.,the perturbation control parameter and the hybrid control parameter are automatically tuned according to the adaptation laws,respectively.The adaptation algorithms are constructed based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem.The adaptive parameter perturbation control and the adaptive hybrid control methods improve the corresponding constant control methods.They have the advantages of increased stability,adaptability to the changes of the system parameters,control cost saving,and simplicity.Numerical simulations for a well-known chaotic time-delayed system are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control methods.A comparison of the two adaptive control methods is also made in an experimental study.

  1. Synchronization of Uncertain Time Delay Chaotic Systems using the Adaptive Fuzzy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关新平; 华长春

    2002-01-01

    We consider the synchronization problem of a class of first-order differential-delay chaotic systems. We utilize time-delay fuzzy logic systems to approximate continuous nonlinear time-delay functions, so that the precise mathematical model need not be known. Adopting the adaptive fuzzy control method, we construct a class of state feedback controllers which can render the closed-loop error systems to be asymptotically stable. We carry out simulations of synchronizing Mackey-Glass and logistic chaotic systems, and the results are reasonable.

  2. Adaptive output feedback control of a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei

    2012-04-01

    This article studies the adaptive output feedback control problem of a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown time delays. The systems considered are dominated by a triangular system without zero dynamics satisfying linear growth in the unmeasurable states. The novelty of this article is that a universal-type adaptive output feedback controller is presented to time-delay systems, which can globally regulate all the states of the uncertain systems without knowing the growth rate. An illustrative example is provided to show the applicability of the developed control strategy.

  3. Adaptive robust stabilisation for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hansheng

    2013-02-01

    The problem of adaptive robust stabilisation is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems with multiple time-varying delays. It is assumed that the upper bounds of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations are unknown and that the time-varying delays are any non-negative continuous and bounded functions which do not require that their derivatives have to be less than one. In particular, it is only required that the nonlinear uncertainties, which can also include time-varying delays, are bounded in any non-negative nonlinear functions which are not required to be known for the system designer. For such a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of continuous memoryless adaptive robust state feedback controllers with a rather simpler structure is proposed. It is also shown that the solutions of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly exponentially convergent towards a ball which can be as small as desired. Finally, as an application, an uncertain nonlinear time-delay ecosystem with two competing species is given to demonstrate the validity of the results.

  4. Consensus for Multiagent Systems with Nonlinear Dynamics and Time Delays Using a Two-Hop Relay Adaptive Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the consensus problem for multiagent systems with nonlinear dynamics and time delays. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol is proposed in which the time delays are explicitly included in the adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the resultant closed loop system involves doubly larger time delays, making the stability analysis nontrivial. Stability condition on maximum tolerable time delay is established and controlled by the proposed two-hop adaptive algorithm. The explicit expression of the delay margin is derived and analyzed in the frequency domain. Both the agent state errors and the estimation parameter errors converge to zero. A simulation example is illustrated to verify the theory results.

  5. Improving the utility of the fine motor skills subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers: a computerized adaptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Chou, Willy; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed at improving the utility of the fine motor subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) by developing a computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills. We built an item bank for the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills using the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT items fitting the Rasch model. We also examined the psychometric properties and efficiency of the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills with simulated computerized adaptive tests. Data from 1742 children with suspected developmental delays were retrieved. The mean scores of the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT increased along with age groups (mean scores = 1.36-36.97). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills contains 31 items meeting the Rasch model's assumptions (infit mean square = 0.57-1.21, outfit mean square = 0.11-1.17). For children of 6-71 months, the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills had high Rasch person reliability (average reliability >0.90), high concurrent validity (rs = 0.67-0.99), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic = 0.71-1.00), and large responsiveness (effect size = 1.05-3.93). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used 48-84% fewer items than the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used fewer items for assessment but was as reliable and valid as the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. Implications for Rehabilitation We developed a computerized adaptive test based on the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) for assessing fine motor skills. The computerized adaptive test has been shown to be efficient because it uses fewer items than the original measure and automatically presents the results right after the test is completed. The computerized adaptive test is as reliable and valid as the CDIIT.

  6. Interventions for children at risk of developmental delay in Low- and Middle income countries : A systematic litterature review

    OpenAIRE

    Glasberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Due to poverty and a lack of stimulation, many children living in Low- and Middle income countries suffer from developmental delay and do not develop to their full potential. Yet, remarkable recovery is often possible given that early interventions are available. The aim of this systematic literature review was to find out what could be done to decrease the gap between the current development and the developmental potential among children aged 0-8 years, living in Low –and Middle income count...

  7. Robust chaos synchronization based on adaptive fuzzy delayed feedback $\\mathcal{H}_{∞}$ control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choon Ki Ahn

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive $\\mathcal_{∞}$ synchronization strategy, called an adaptive fuzzy delayed feedback $\\mathcal_{∞}$ synchronization (AFDFHS) strategy, for chaotic systems with uncertain parameters and external disturbances. Based on Lyapunov–Krasovskii theory, Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model and adaptive delayed feedback $\\mathcal_{∞}$ control scheme, the AFDFHS controller is presented such that the synchronization error system is asymptotically stable with a guaranteed $\\mathcal_{∞}$ performance. It is shown that the design of the AFDFHS controller with adaptive law can be achieved by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be easily facilitated by using some standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed AFDFHS approach.

  8. Adaptive synchronization of two nonlinearly coupled complex dynamical networks with delayed coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Song; Wang, Shuguo; Dong, Gaogao; Bi, Qinsheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the adaptive synchronization between two nonlinearly delay-coupled complex networks with the bidirectional actions and nonidentical topological structures. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, some criteria for the synchronization between two coupled complex networks are achieved via adaptive control. To validate the proposed methods, the unified chaotic system as the nodes of the networks are analyzed in detail, and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  9. Robust adaptive control for uncertain systems with discrete and distributed delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing ZHU; Shumin FEI; Tao Li; Tianping ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a robust adaptive control scheme is proposed for the stabilization of uncertain linear systems with discrete and distributed delays and bounded peturbaturbations.The uncertainty is assumed to be an unknown continuous function with norm-bounded restriction.The perturbation is sector-bounded.Combining with the liner matrix inequality method,neural networks and adaptive control,the control scheme ensures the exponential stability of the closed-loop system for any admissible uncertainty.

  10. Developmental prosopagnosia and adaptative compensatory strategies: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anair Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Prosopagnosia is a type of visual agnosia with inability to identify faces, usually secondary to brain lesion in associative cortex areas, but there is also a congenital form known as developmental prosopagnosia. Objectives: To describe a case of developmental prosopagnosia that illustrates the specificity of the pathways for perception of faces in the visual system. Also, we will describe possible mechanisms of recognition used by this patient. Methods: R.S., a 50 year-old woman, was referred for neuropsychological assessment due to difficulties in perception of familiar faces since childhood, unexplained by any loss of visual acuity. Results: The exam showed good performance for comprehension, reasoning, concept formation, constructional abilities, criticism, judgment, mental control, memory and visual perception for other kinds of stimuli. No difficulties were seen regarding identification of ethnicity, age and types of animals. The patient was able to match celebrities' faces in different positions, but could not identify the matching pictures for unknown people. Conclusions: These findings indicate the patient had developed strategies, throughout life, to recognize familiar faces (relatives, celebrities from memorized fragments, but still had difficulties in identifying non-familiar faces holistically.

  11. Acute Retinal Necrosis Presenting in Developmentally-delayed Patients with Neonatal Encephalitis: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Kingsley; Lu, Jonathan; Thinda, Sumeer; Schwab, Ivan; Morse, Lawrence S; Park, Susanna S; Moshiri, Ala

    2016-05-18

    We report three cases of patients with developmental-delay from neonatal herpetic encephalitis and/or meningitis who presented years later with acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex virus. The diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to the patients' inability to verbalize their ocular complaints and cooperate with eye examinations. This case series documents the clinical course, pathophysiologic mechanism, and treatment of acute retinal necrosis in this patient population. Clinicians should understand the importance of prudent consideration of acute retinal necrosis in patients with a history of neonatal herpetic encephalitis and/or meningitis presenting with a red eye.

  12. Delay-aware adaptive sleep mechanism for green wireless-optical broadband access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruyan; Liang, Alei; Wu, Dapeng; Wu, Dalei

    2017-07-01

    Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Network (WOBAN) is capacity-high, reliable, flexible, and ubiquitous, as it takes full advantage of the merits from both optical communication and wireless communication technologies. Similar to other access networks, the high energy consumption poses a great challenge for building up WOBANs. To shot this problem, we can make some load-light Optical Network Units (ONUs) sleep to reduce the energy consumption. Such operation, however, causes the increased packet delay. Jointly considering the energy consumption and transmission delay, we propose a delay-aware adaptive sleep mechanism. Specifically, we develop a new analytical method to evaluate the transmission delay and queuing delay over the optical part, instead of adopting M/M/1 queuing model. Meanwhile, we also analyze the access delay and queuing delay of the wireless part. Based on such developed delay models, we mathematically derive ONU's optimal sleep time. In addition, we provide numerous simulation results to show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.

  13. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent; Mutesa, Leon

    2016-02-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ syndrome and then Edward syndrome and Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Developmental delay and connective tissue disorder in four patients sharing a common microdeletion at 6q13-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, Hilde; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Janssens, Sandra; Van Ingelghem, Ingrid; Loeys, Bart; Menten, Bjorn

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are rare, and most reported cases represent large, cytogenetically detectable deletions. The implementation of array comparative genome hybridisation in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with congenital disorders, including developmental delay, has enabled identification of many patients with smaller chromosomal imbalances. In this report, the cases are presented of four patients with a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 6q13-14, resulting in a common microdeletion of 3.7 Mb. All presented with developmental delay, mild dysmorphism and signs of lax connective tissue. Interestingly, the common deleted region harbours 16 genes, of which COL12A1 is a good candidate for the connective tissue pathology.

  15. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. PMID:26507407

  16. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Lan Hsieh

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL; and the children's upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents' satisfaction with their children's care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009 during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715.

  17. The effects of bispectral index monitoring on hemodynamics and recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Mehmet; Uluer, Mehmet Selcuk; Ozmen, Sadık

    2015-09-01

    General anesthesia is often preferred for dental surgery or rehabilitation in developmentally delayed pediatric patients. Bispectral index monitoring is used to monitor the depth of anesthesia and to ensure early recovery. However, studies on the topic in developmentally delayed pediatric patients are limited. To evaluate the effects of Bispectral Index Scale (BIS) on hemodynamics and recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery. Forty children between the ages of 6-16 years were studied in this prospective and randomized study. The children were randomized into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 20), general anesthesia was maintained with 1-2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in oxygen by standard practice. In Group 2 (n = 20), the depth of anesthesia was monitored by BIS. BIS values were continuously recorded from awake status to tracheal extubation. The duration of the surgical procedure, anesthesia, postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay was noted. To evaluate recovery profile, time to spontaneous ventilation, extubation, open eyes, and PACU discharge were also noted. There were significant differences between recovery times and Non-communicating Children's Pain Checklist - Postoperative Version (NCCPC-PV) scores of two groups. Time to spontaneous ventilation [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.17 (1.79-4.54) P < 0.001], extubation [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.13 (1.66-4.60) P < 0.001], open eyes [Difference in means (95% CI); 3.97 (2.34-5.59) P < 0.001], and PACU stay time [Difference in means (95% CI); 23.55 (18.08-29.01) P < 0.001] were significantly shorter in Group 2. In conclusion, results suggest that routine BIS monitoring may be beneficial due to its favorable effects on the recovery profile in developmentally delayed pediatric patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A novel 5q11.2 microdeletion in a child with mild developmental delay and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Paolo; Tortora, Cristina; Petillo, Roberta; Falco, Mariateresa; Miniero, Martina; De Brasi, Davide; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta

    2016-09-01

    5q11.2 Deletion is a very rare genomic disorder, and its clinical phenotype has not yet been characterized. This report describes a patient with an 8.6 Mb deletion, showing hypotonia, mild developmental delay, short stature, and distinctive dysmorphic features (frontal bossing, square face, deep-set eyes, prominent columella, long philtrum, thin lips). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  20. Diapause: delaying the developmental clock in response to a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesari, Luca; O'Connor, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal changes can induce organisms to modify their developmental growth. Many holometabolous insects, especially Lepidoptera, trigger diapause, an "actively induced" dormancy, for overwintering. Diapause is an alternative developmental pathway that reversibly blocks developmental growth during specific transitions and enhances the hibernating potential of the organism. Changes in environmental cues, such as light and temperature, trigger modifications in the levels, or in the timing, of developmental hormones. These in turn switch the developmental trajectory (diapause or direct development), strongly altering larval/pupal growth and inducing the appearance of diapause-bound seasonal morphs (polyphenism). We also discuss an example of vertebrate diapause using the killifish embryo as an example where diapause is an environmentally determined developmental switch analogous to that observed in lepidopteran dormancy. Based on the examples discussed here, we propose that the complex physiological responses leading to diapause might evolve quickly by relatively limited genetic changes in the regulation of hormonal signals that program normal developmental transitions.

  1. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  2. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  3. Our experience with the aetiological diagnosis of global developmental delay and intellectual disability: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pisón, J; García-Jiménez, M C; Monge-Galindo, L; Lafuente-Hidalgo, M; Pérez-Delgado, R; García-Oguiza, A; Peña-Segura, J L

    2014-09-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual disability (ID) are common reasons for consultation in paediatric neurology. Results from aetiological evaluations of children with GDD/ID vary greatly, and consequently, there is no universal consensus regarding which studies should be performed. We review our experience with determining aetiological diagnoses for children with GDD/ID who were monitored by the paediatric neurology unit over the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. During the study period, 995 children with GDD/ID were monitored. An aetiological diagnosis was established for 309 patients (31%), but not in 686 (69%), despite completing numerous tests. A genetic cause was identified in 142 cases (46% of the total aetiologies established), broken down as 118 cases of genetic encephalopathy and 24 of metabolic hereditary diseases. Our data seem to indicate that diagnosis is easier when GDD/ID is associated with cerebral palsy, epilepsy, infantile spasms/West syndrome, or visual deficit, but more difficult in cases of autism spectrum disorders. Genetic studies provide an increasing number of aetiological diagnoses, and they are also becoming the first step in diagnostic studies. Array CGH (microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation) is the genetic test with the highest diagnostic yield in children with unexplained GDD/ID. The cost-effectiveness of complementary studies seems to be low if there are no clinically suspected entities. However, even in the absence of treatment, aetiological diagnosis is always important in order to provide genetic counselling and possible prenatal diagnosis, resolve family (and doctors') queries, and halt further diagnostic studies. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive neural control for a class of nonlinearly parametric time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Daniel W C; Li, Junmin; Niu, Yugang

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural controller for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinearities is proposed. Based on a wavelet neural network (WNN) online approximation model, a state feedback adaptive controller is obtained by constructing a novel integral-type Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which also efficiently overcomes the controller singularity problem. It is shown that the proposed method guarantees the semiglobal boundedness of all signals in the adaptive closed-loop systems. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the approach.

  5. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  6. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Developmental Criteria for Young Children: A Preliminary Psychometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Faridah

    2014-01-01

    Authentic assessment approach applies naturalistic observation method to gather and analyse data about children's development that are socio-culturally appropriate to plan for individual teaching and learning needs. This article discusses the process of adapting an authentic developmental instrument for children of 3-6 years old. The instrument…

  7. Highly Adaptable but Not Invulnerable: Necessary and Facilitating Conditions for Research in Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudel, Grit; Benninghoff, Martin; Lettkemann, Eric; Håkansson, Elias; Whitley, Richard; Gläser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology is a highly variable scientific innovation because researchers can adapt their involvement in the innovation to the opportunities provided by their environment. On the basis of comparative case studies in four countries, we link epistemic properties of research tas

  8. Mothers and Fathers of Young Developmentally Disabled and Nondisabled Boys: Adaptation and Spousal Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Marie M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assessed the extent to which the presence of a young developmentally disabled or nondisabled male child affected adaptation and family roles for mothers and fathers, using a multimethod approach. Proposes the concept of harmonic responsiveness to explain how proffered support must be tuned to the perceived needs and expectations of spouse. (RH)

  9. My Solar System: A Developmentally Adapted Eco-Mapping Technique for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Fazio-Griffith, Laura J.; Rohr, Shannon N.

    2008-01-01

    Counseling children requires specific skills and techniques, such as play therapy and expressive arts, to address developmental manifestations and to facilitate the understanding of presenting problems. This article outlines an adapted eco-mapping activity that can be used as a creative counseling technique with children in order to promote…

  10. Adaptive lag synchronization of uncertain dynamical systems with time delays via simple transmission lag feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Wei-Dong; Sun Zhi-Yong; Wu Xiao-Ming; Yu Chang-Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an adaptive scheme to achieve lag synchronization for uncertain dynamical systems with time delays and unknown parameters.In contrast to the nonlinear feedback scheme reported in the previous literature,the proposed controller is a linear one which only involves simple feedback information from the drive system with signal propagation lags.Besides,the unknown parameters can also be identified via the proposed updating laws in spite of the existence of model delays and transmission lags,as long as the linear independence condition between the related function elements is satisfied.Two examples,i.e.,the Mackey-Glass model with single delay and the Lorenz system with multiple delays,are employed to show the effectiveness of this approach.Some robustness issues are also discussed,which shows that the proposed scheme is quite robust in switching and noisy environment.

  11. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  12. Synchronization of Coupled Chaotic Neurons with Unknown Time Delays via Adaptive Backstepping Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an adaptive Neural Network (NN based backstepping controller is proposed to realize chaos synchronization of two gap junction coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neurons with uncertain time delays. In the designed backstepping controller, a simple Radial Basis Function (RBF NN is used to approximate the uncertain nonlinear part of the error dynamical system. The weights of the NN are tuned on-line. A Lyapunov-Krasovskii function is designed to overcome the difficulties from the unknown time delays. Moreover, to relax the requirement for boundness of disturbance, an adaptive law to adapt the disturbance in real time is given. According to the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the closed error system is guaranteed. The control scheme is robust to the uncertainties such as approximate error, ionic channel noise and external disturbances. Chaos synchronization is obtained by proper choice of the control parameters. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  13. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems With Unmodeled Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shen; Shi, Peng; Yang, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an approximated-based adaptive fuzzy control approach with only one adaptive parameter is presented for a class of single input single output strict-feedback nonlinear systems in order to deal with phenomena like nonlinear uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, dynamic disturbances, and unknown time delays. Lyapunov-Krasovskii function approach is employed to compensate the unknown time delays in the design procedure. By combining the advances of the hyperbolic tangent function with adaptive fuzzy backstepping technique, the proposed controller guarantees the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system from the mean square point of view. Two simulation examples are finally provided to show the superior effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  14. Distance Constrained Based Adaptive Flocking Control for Multiagent Networks with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flocking control of multiagent system is a new type of decentralized control method, which has aroused great attention. The paper includes a detailed research in terms of distance constrained based adaptive flocking control for multiagent system with time delay. Firstly, the program on the adaptive flocking with time delay of multiagent is proposed. Secondly, a kind of adaptive controllers and updating laws are presented. According to the Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that the distance between agents can be larger than a constant during the motion evolution. What is more, velocities of each agent come to the same asymptotically. Finally, the analytical results can be verified by a numerical example.

  15. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid YAGHINI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Yaghini O, Danesh F, Mahmoudian T, Beigi B. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2: 29-32. Objective Developmental delay is one of the most common causes of conferring the pediatric neurologist. The main part of neurological growth and development occur in the first two years especially in the first 6 months of life. Metabolic or skeletal diseases are important causes of developmental delay. Early diagnosis of deviance from the normal diagram of development in lower ages is important. Materials & Methods Specific ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ for 6 months was completed in the health centers for 800 infants conferring for their vaccination in Isfahan and the retest was performed at 24 months of age by ASQ and then these two questionnaires were compared. Results 10.5% of the infants were delayed in at least one domain. At 24 months, 38.4% of them remained delayed; 21.1% in one domain, 9.6% in two domains, 3.8% in four domains and 3.8% in five domains. Of the children who had problem in communication, 20%; in gross motor, 25%; in fine motor, 20%; and in problem solving, 30% remained delayed. In the personal social domain, none of the delayed children at 6 months remained delayed at 24 months. Conclusion ASQ is feasible, inexpensive, easy to use and was appreciated by the parents. It can be used as a screening test for detection of developmental delay in lower ages, but its results must be followed by other standard tests or diagnostic tools.References Lewis R, Palfreg GS. The infant or young child with developmental delay. The New England J Med 1994;330:478-83.Cleary MA, Green A. Developmental Delay: when to suspect and how to investigate for an inborn error of metabolism. Arch Dis Child2005;90(11:1128-32.Schendel DE, Stockbauer JW, Hoffman HJ, Herman AA, Berg CJ, Schrann WF. Relation between very low birth

  16. Correlation between hyperbilirubinemia in term infants and developmental delay in 2-4 year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocky Wilar

    2010-06-01

    medical record of infants born between 2006-2007 in Division of Neonatology Prof. R.D. Kandoll General Hospital, Manado. Data from the medical record consisted of weeks of gestation, birth weight, Apgar scores, diagnosis of sepsis, congenital anomalies. Tenn infants with appropriate weight for gestational age were visited at their home to undergo developmental screening by Denver II and Vineland Social Maturity Scale test. Results Fifty one children enrolled in this study (26 children with hyperbilirubinemia and 25 without  hyperbilirubinemia consisted of 27 boys and 24 girls. Most children were 24 - 29 months old (24/51. The results of Vineland Social Maturity Scale test showed 14 children had delayed social maturation (10 Mth history of  hyperbilirubinemia. Denver II screening found 11 children had delayed language skill (10 Mth history of hyperbilirubinemia, 1 child Mth hyperbilirubinemia had delayed fine motoric and language skill. Conclusions T here is a relationship between moderate hyperbilirubinemia in tenn infants and developmental delay in 2 - 4 year old children.

  17. Delayed Language Onset as a Predictor of Clinical Symptoms in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmajer, Richard; Prior, Margot; Leekam, Sue; Wing, Lorna; Ong, Ben; Gould, Judith; Welham, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of 46 language-delayed and 62 normal language onset children examined whether early language delay would predict autistic symptomatology in children diagnosed with autism when young and at an older age. Results found that early language delays predicted more autistic symptomatology when young, but not at an older age. (Author/CR)

  18. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback induces the temporal recalibration effect in both speech perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    We ordinarily speak fluently, even though our perceptions of our own voices are disrupted by various environmental acoustic properties. The underlying mechanism of speech is supposed to monitor the temporal relationship between speech production and the perception of auditory feedback, as suggested by a reduction in speech fluency when the speaker is exposed to delayed auditory feedback (DAF). While many studies have reported that DAF influences speech motor processing, its relationship to the temporal tuning effect on multimodal integration, or temporal recalibration, remains unclear. We investigated whether the temporal aspects of both speech perception and production change due to adaptation to the delay between the motor sensation and the auditory feedback. This is a well-used method of inducing temporal recalibration. Participants continually read texts with specific DAF times in order to adapt to the delay. Then, they judged the simultaneity between the motor sensation and the vocal feedback. We measured the rates of speech with which participants read the texts in both the exposure and re-exposure phases. We found that exposure to DAF changed both the rate of speech and the simultaneity judgment, that is, participants' speech gained fluency. Although we also found that a delay of 200 ms appeared to be most effective in decreasing the rates of speech and shifting the distribution on the simultaneity judgment, there was no correlation between these measurements. These findings suggest that both speech motor production and multimodal perception are adaptive to temporal lag but are processed in distinct ways.

  19. Genome fluctuations in cyanobacteria reflect evolutionary, developmental and adaptive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Johan AA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria belong to an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes with pronounced variations in their cellular differentiation strategies, physiological capacities and choice of habitat. Sequencing efforts have shown that genomes within this phylum are equally diverse in terms of size and protein-coding capacity. To increase our understanding of genomic changes in the lineage, the genomes of 58 contemporary cyanobacteria were analysed for shared and unique orthologs. Results A total of 404 protein families, present in all cyanobacterial genomes, were identified. Two of these are unique to the phylum, corresponding to an AbrB family transcriptional regulator and a gene that escapes functional annotation although its genomic neighbourhood is conserved among the organisms examined. The evolution of cyanobacterial genome sizes involves a mix of gains and losses in the clade encompassing complex cyanobacteria, while a single event of reduction is evident in a clade dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Genome sizes and gene family copy numbers evolve at a higher rate in the former clade, and multi-copy genes were predominant in large genomes. Orthologs unique to cyanobacteria exhibiting specific characteristics, such as filament formation, heterocyst differentiation, diazotrophy and symbiotic competence, were also identified. An ancestral character reconstruction suggests that the most recent common ancestor of cyanobacteria had a genome size of approx. 4.5 Mbp and 1678 to 3291 protein-coding genes, 4%-6% of which are unique to cyanobacteria today. Conclusions The different rates of genome-size evolution and multi-copy gene abundance suggest two routes of genome development in the history of cyanobacteria. The expansion strategy is driven by gene-family enlargment and generates a broad adaptive potential; while the genome streamlining strategy imposes adaptations to highly specific niches, also reflected in their different

  20. Genome fluctuations in cyanobacteria reflect evolutionary, developmental and adaptive traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria belong to an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes with pronounced variations in their cellular differentiation strategies, physiological capacities and choice of habitat. Sequencing efforts have shown that genomes within this phylum are equally diverse in terms of size and protein-coding capacity. To increase our understanding of genomic changes in the lineage, the genomes of 58 contemporary cyanobacteria were analysed for shared and unique orthologs. Results A total of 404 protein families, present in all cyanobacterial genomes, were identified. Two of these are unique to the phylum, corresponding to an AbrB family transcriptional regulator and a gene that escapes functional annotation although its genomic neighbourhood is conserved among the organisms examined. The evolution of cyanobacterial genome sizes involves a mix of gains and losses in the clade encompassing complex cyanobacteria, while a single event of reduction is evident in a clade dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Genome sizes and gene family copy numbers evolve at a higher rate in the former clade, and multi-copy genes were predominant in large genomes. Orthologs unique to cyanobacteria exhibiting specific characteristics, such as filament formation, heterocyst differentiation, diazotrophy and symbiotic competence, were also identified. An ancestral character reconstruction suggests that the most recent common ancestor of cyanobacteria had a genome size of approx. 4.5 Mbp and 1678 to 3291 protein-coding genes, 4%-6% of which are unique to cyanobacteria today. Conclusions The different rates of genome-size evolution and multi-copy gene abundance suggest two routes of genome development in the history of cyanobacteria. The expansion strategy is driven by gene-family enlargment and generates a broad adaptive potential; while the genome streamlining strategy imposes adaptations to highly specific niches, also reflected in their different functional capacities. A few

  1. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  2. Reduced Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 causes developmental delay, hypotonia, and cranial abnormalities associated with increased bone gene expression in Kleefstra syndrome mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, M.C.M.; Ansar, M.; Oudakker, A.R.; Caam, A.P.M. van; Bakker, B.; Vitters, E.L.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Bruijn, D.R.H. de; Janssen, S.M.; Kuipers, A.J.; Huibers, M.M.; Maliepaard, Eliza M.; Walboomers, X.F.; Benevento, M.; Nadif Kasri, N.; Kleefstra, T.; Zhou, H.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Bokhoven, H. van

    2014-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), a chromatin modifying enzyme, is the cause of Kleefstra syndrome (KS). KS is an intellectual disability (ID) syndrome, with general developmental delay, hypotonia, and craniofacial dysmorphisms as additional core features. Recent

  3. The biology of developmental plasticity and the Predictive Adaptive Response hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick; Gluckman, Peter; Hanson, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Many forms of developmental plasticity have been observed and these are usually beneficial to the organism. The Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR) hypothesis refers to a form of developmental plasticity in which cues received in early life influence the development of a phenotype that is normally adapted to the environmental conditions of later life. When the predicted and actual environments differ, the mismatch between the individual's phenotype and the conditions in which it finds itself can have adverse consequences for Darwinian fitness and, later, for health. Numerous examples exist of the long-term effects of cues indicating a threatening environment affecting the subsequent phenotype of the individual organism. Other examples consist of the long-term effects of variations in environment within a normal range, particularly in the individual's nutritional environment. In mammals the cues to developing offspring are often provided by the mother's plane of nutrition, her body composition or stress levels. This hypothetical effect in humans is thought to be important by some scientists and controversial by others. In resolving the conflict, distinctions should be drawn between PARs induced by normative variations in the developmental environment and the ill effects on development of extremes in environment such as a very poor or very rich nutritional environment. Tests to distinguish between different developmental processes impacting on adult characteristics are proposed. Many of the mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity involve molecular epigenetic processes, and their elucidation in the context of PARs and more widely has implications for the revision of classical evolutionary theory.

  4. A low-delay 8 Kb/s backward-adaptive CELP coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, L. G.; Leblanc, W. P.; Mahmoud, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Code excited linear prediction coding is an efficient technique for compressing speech sequences. Communications quality of speech can be obtained at bit rates below 8 Kb/s. However, relatively large coding delays are necessary to buffer the input speech in order to perform the LPC analysis. A low delay 8 Kb/s CELP coder is introduced in which the short term predictor is based on past synthesized speech. A new distortion measure that improves the tracking of the formant filter is discussed. Formal listening tests showed that the performance of the backward adaptive coder is almost as good as the conventional CELP coder.

  5. Adaptive neural control of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Hong, Fan; Lee, Tong Heng

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, adaptive neural control is presented for a class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unknown time delays. The proposed design method does not require a priori knowledge of the signs of the unknown virtual control coefficients. The unknown time delays are compensated for using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals in the design. It is proved that the proposed backstepping design method is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop. In addition, the output of the system is proven to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Global adaptive output feedback control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-yong; Zha, Wen-ting

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of global output feedback control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. The nonlinearities are dominated by a triangular form satisfying linear growth condition in the unmeasurable states with an unknown growth rate. With a change of coordinates, a linear-like controller is constructed, which avoids the repeated derivatives of the nonlinearities depending on the observer states and the dynamic gain in backstepping approach and therefore, simplifies the design procedure. Using the idea of universal control, we explicitly construct a universal-type adaptive output feedback controller which globally regulates all the states of the nonlinear time-delay systems.

  7. WDR45 mutations in Rett (-like) syndrome and developmental delay: Case report and an appraisal of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Ibisler, Aysegül; Tschentscher, Anne; Dekomien, Gabriele; Bidinost, Carla; Rosa, Alberto L

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the WDR45 gene have been identified as causative for the only X-linked type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), clinically characterized by global developmental delay in childhood, followed by a secondary neurological decline with parkinsonism and/or dementia in adolescence or early adulthood. Recent reports suggest that WDR45 mutations are associated with a broader phenotypic spectrum. We identified a novel splice site mutation (c.440-2 A > G) in a 5-year-old Argentinian patient with Rett-like syndrome, exhibiting developmental delay, microcephaly, seizures and stereotypic hand movements, and discuss this finding, together with a review of the literature. Additional patients with a clinical diagnosis of Rett (-like) syndrome were also found to carry WDR45 mutations before (or without) clinical decline or signs of iron accumulation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This information indicates that WDR45 mutations should be added to the growing list of genetic alterations linked to Rett-like syndrome. Further, clinical symptoms associated with WDR45 mutations ranged from early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in a male patient with a deletion of WDR45 to only mild cognitive delay in a female patient, suggesting that analysis of this gene should be considered more often in patients with developmental delay, regardless of severity. The increasing use of next generation sequencing technologies as well as longitudinal follow-up of patients with an early diagnosis will help to gain additional insight into the phenotypic spectrum associated with WDR45 mutations.

  8. Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of six children are facing a trial on charges of aggravated manslaughter in the care a 5 1/2 month old infant who died suddenly and neglect of their four older children for causing them to be malnourished by feeding them all an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. Both parents declined plea bargains and plan to defend themselves in court. Case presentation The fifth child born to a married couple was breast-fed until 2 1/2 months. Subsequently, the parents fed the baby an exclusively raw foods diet prepared in a blender at home. The four older children, ages 18 months – 6 1/2 years also ate an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. None of the four older children had significant previous injuries or serious illnesses. At autopsy, the infant weighed 3180 mg (6.99 pounds and appeared emaciated. The thymus gland was absent and parathyroid glands were not located. The lungs were "congested." DiGeorge anomaly cannot be ruled out from these findings. Although, the coroner ruled that "malnutrition" was the sole cause of death, malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization definition, cannot be diagnosed in this infant. Compared with standard growth charts, the older children fell 2.1–4.1 standard deviations below the mean for North American children in height and weight. Labs were normal except for a low cholesterol level in all and a low prealbumin in one of three children tested. Therefore, malnutrition cannot be diagnosed in these children. The pediatrician diagnosed rickets in the four-year-old. However, chest x-rays were normal in all and long bone x-rays showed minimal changes in one child – no sign of rickets. The clinical diagnosis of rickets was not confirmed by the Center for Disease Control's criteria. A psychologist diagnosed the 18-month-old as developmentally delayed to the level of a 15-month-old, but this diagnosis is questionable. Conclusion The raw foods vegan diet and possibly inherited small

  9. The Efficacy of Arabic Version of the Developmental Assessment of Young Children Second Edition (DAYC-2) Scale in Detecting Developmental Delay among Jordanian Children Aged Birth to 71 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rawan M. Abu; Smadi, Jamil M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the developmental assessment of young children second edition (DAYC-2) Scale in detecting Developmental Delay among Jordanian children aged birth to 71 months. Firstly, the scale was translated and reviewed for language and cultural appropriateness. Secondly, the Arabic Jordanian version of the scale was…

  10. Successive cambia: a developmental oddity or an adaptive structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M R Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secondary growth by successive cambia is a rare phenomenon in woody plant species. Only few plant species, within different phylogenetic clades, have secondary growth by more than one vascular cambium. Often, these successive cambia are organised concentrically. In the mangrove genus Avicennia however, the successive cambia seem to have a more complex organisation. This study aimed (i at understanding the development of successive cambia by giving a three-dimensional description of the hydraulic architecture of Avicennia and (ii at unveiling the possible adaptive nature of growth by successive cambia through a study of the ecological distribution of plant species with concentric internal phloem. RESULTS: Avicennia had a complex network of non-cylindrical wood patches, the complexity of which increased with more stressful ecological conditions. As internal phloem has been suggested to play a role in water storage and embolism repair, the spatial organisation of Avicennia wood could provide advantages in the ecologically stressful conditions species of this mangrove genus are growing in. Furthermore, we could observe that 84.9% of the woody shrub and tree species with concentric internal phloem occurred in either dry or saline environments strengthening the hypothesis that successive cambia provide the necessary advantages for survival in harsh environmental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Successive cambia are an ecologically important characteristic, which seems strongly related with water-limited environments.

  11. De novo loss-of-function variants in STAG2 are associated with developmental delay, microcephaly, and congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Klein, Steven D; Mulatinho, Milene V; Senaratne, Tharanga Niroshini; Singh, Kathryn; Nguyen, Dzung C; Gallant, Natalie M; Strom, Samuel P; Ghahremani, Shahnaz; Rao, Nagesh P; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2017-05-01

    The cohesin complex is an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit protein complex which regulates sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Additionally, the cohesin complex regulates DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. The core of the complex consists of four subunits: SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and STAG1/2. Loss-of-function mutations in many of these proteins have been implicated in human developmental disorders collectively termed "cohesinopathies." Through clinical exome sequencing (CES) of an 8-year-old girl with a clinical history of global developmental delay, microcephaly, microtia with hearing loss, language delay, ADHD, and dysmorphic features, we describe a heterozygous de novo variant (c.205C>T; p.(Arg69*)) in the integral cohesin structural protein, STAG2. This variant is associated with decreased STAG2 protein expression. The analyses of metaphase spreads did not exhibit premature sister chromatid separation; however, delayed sister chromatid cohesion was observed. To further support the pathogenicity of STAG2 variants, we identified two additional female cases from the DECIPHER research database with mutations in STAG2 and phenotypes similar to our patient. Interestingly, the clinical features of these three cases are remarkably similar to those observed in other well-established cohesinopathies. Herein, we suggest that STAG2 is a dosage-sensitive gene and that heterozygous loss-of-function variants lead to a cohesinopathy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adaptive Output-feedback Regulation for Nonlinear Delayed Systems Using Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel adaptive neural network (NN) output-feedback regulation algorithm for a class of nonlinear time-varying time-delay systems is proposed. Both the designed observer and controller are independent of time delay. Different from the existing results,where the upper bounding functions of time-delay terms are assumed to be known, we only use an NN to compensate for all unknown upper bounding functions without that assumption. The proposed design method is proved to be able to guarantee semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed system, and the system output is proved to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the control scheme.

  13. Robust control for a biaxial servo with time delay system based on adaptive tuning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Chi; Yu, Chih-Hsien

    2009-07-01

    A robust control method for synchronizing a biaxial servo system motion is proposed in this paper. A new network based cross-coupled control and adaptive tuning techniques are used together to cancel out the skew error. The conventional fixed gain PID cross-coupled controller (CCC) is replaced with the adaptive cross-coupled controller (ACCC) in the proposed control scheme to maintain biaxial servo system synchronization motion. Adaptive-tuning PID (APID) position and velocity controllers provide the necessary control actions to maintain synchronization while following a variable command trajectory. A delay-time compensator (DTC) with an adaptive controller was augmented to set the time delay element, effectively moving it outside the closed loop, enhancing the stability of the robust controlled system. This scheme provides strong robustness with respect to uncertain dynamics and disturbances. The simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed control structure adapts to a wide range of operating conditions and provides promising results under parameter variations and load changes.

  14. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Inoue, Masayo

    2016-06-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways. Supplementary material in the form of one nets file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70172-9

  15. Robust master-slave synchronization for general uncertain delayed dynamical model based on adaptive control scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianbo; Zhou, Wuneng; Zhao, Shouwei; Yu, Weiqin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the robust exponential synchronization problem for a class of uncertain delayed master-slave dynamical system is investigated by using the adaptive control method. Different from some existing master-slave models, the considered master-slave system includes bounded unmodeled dynamics. In order to compensate the effect of unmodeled dynamics and effectively achieve synchronization, a novel adaptive controller with simple updated laws is proposed. Moreover, the results are given in terms of LMIs, which can be easily solved by LMI Toolbox in Matlab. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  16. Adaptive neural control for a class of perturbed strict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Bing; Shi, Peng

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive neural control scheme for a class of perturbed strict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients. Based on the radial basis function neural network online approximation capability, an adaptive neural controller is presented by combining the backstepping approach and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. The proposed controller guarantees the semiglobal boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and contains minimal learning parameters. Finally, three simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed scheme.

  17. Sensor fault diagnosis of time-delay systems based on adaptive observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fu-qiang; TIAN Zuo-hua; SHI Song-jiao

    2006-01-01

    Presents a novel approach for the sensor fault diagnosis of time-delay systems by using an adaptive observer technique. The sensor fault is modeled as an additive perturbation described by a time varying function. Systems without model uncertainty are initially considered, followed by a discussion of a general situation where the system is subjected to either model uncertainty or external disturbance. An adaptive diagnostic algorithm is developed to diagnose the fault, and a modified version is proposed for general system to improve robustness. The stability of fault diagnosis system is proved. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Actuator fault diagnosis of time-delay systems based on adaptive observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel approach for the actuator fault diagnosis of time-delay systems is presented by using an adaptive observer technique. Systems without model uncertainty are initially considered, followed by a discussion of a general situation where the system is subjected to either model uncertainty or external disturbance. An adaptive diagnostic algorithm is developed to diagnose the fault, and a modified version is proposed for general system to improve robustness. The selection of the threshold for fault detection is also discussed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Fragile X syndrome and an isodicentric X chromosome in a woman with multiple anomalies, developmental delay, and normal pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedenberg, D L; Gane, L W; Richards, C S; Lampe, M; Hills, J; O'Connor, R; Manchester, D; Taylor, A; Tassone, F; Hulseberg, D; Hagerman, R J; Patil, S R

    1999-07-30

    We report on an individual with developmental delays, short stature, skeletal abnormalities, normal pubertal development, expansion of the fragile X triplet repeat, as well as an isodicentric X chromosome. S is a 19-year-old woman who presented for evaluation of developmental delay. Pregnancy was complicated by a threatened miscarriage. She was a healthy child with intellectual impairment noted in infancy. Although she had global delays, speech was noted to be disproportionately delayed with few words until age 3.5 years. Facial appearance was consistent with fragile X syndrome. Age of onset of menses was 11 years with normal breast development. A maternal male second cousin had been identified with fragile X syndrome based on DNA studies. The mother of this child (S's maternal first cousin) and the grandfather (S's maternal uncle) were both intellectually normal but were identified as carrying triplet expansions in the premutation range. S's mother had some school difficulties but was not identified as having global delays. Molecular analysis of S's fragile X alleles noted an expansion of more than 400 CGG repeats in one allele. Routine cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood noted the presence of an isodicentric X in 81of 86 cells scored. Five of 86 cells were noted to be 45,X. Cytogenetic fra(X) studies from peripheral blood showed that the structurally normal chromosome had the fragile site in approximately 16% of the cells. Analysis of maternal fragile X alleles identified an allele with an expansion to approximately 110 repeats. FMRP studies detected the expression of the protein in 24% of cells studied. To our knowledge, this is the first patient reported with an isodicentric X and fragile X syndrome. Whereas her clinical phenotype is suggestive of fragile X syndrome, her skeletal abnormalities may represent the presence of the isodicentric X. Treatment of S with 20 mg/day of Prozac improved her behavior. In the climate of cost con trol, this individual

  20. Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  1. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement

    OpenAIRE

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizo...

  2. Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Control Scheme for Smart Grids with Consideration of Signal Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the smart grid, a wide-area measurement system (WAMS provides the key technical support for power system monitoring, protection and control. But 20 uncertainties in system parameters and signal transmission time delay could worsen the damping effect and deteriorate the system stability. In the presented study, the subspace system identification technique (SIT is used to firstly derive a low-order linear model of a power system from the measurements. Then, a novel adaptive wide-area damping control scheme for online tuning of the wide-area damping controller (WADC parameters using the residue method is proposed. In order to eliminate the effects of the time delay to the signal transmission, a simple and practical time delay compensation algorithm is proposed to compensate the time delay in each wide-area control signal. Detailed examples, inspired by the IEEE test system under various disturbance scenarios, have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive wide-area damping control scheme.

  3. Novel Adaptive Learning Control of Linear Systems with Completely Unknown Time Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Sheng Chen

    2009-01-01

    A novel output-feedback adaptive learning control approach is developed for a class of linear time-delay systems. Three kinds of uncertainties: time delays, number of time delays, and system parameters are all assumed to be completely unknown, which is different from the previous work. The design procedure includes two steps. First, according to the given periodic desired reference output and the allowed bound of tracking error, a suitable finite Fourier series expansion (FSE) is chosen as a practical reference output to he tracked. Second, by expressing the delayed practical reference output as a known time-varying vector multiplied by an unknown constant vector, we combine three kinds of uncertainties into an unknown constant vector and then estimate the vector by designing an adaptive law. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, it is proved that the system output can asymptotically track the practical reference signal An example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control scheme developed in this paper.

  4. Combined Adaptive and Predictive Control for a Teleoperation System with Force Disturbance and Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Franco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new discrete-time adaptive-predictive control algorithm for a system with force disturbance and input delay. This scenario is representative of a mechatronic device for percutaneous intervention with pneumatic actuation and long supply lines which is controlled remotely in the presence of an unknown external force resulting from needle-tissue interaction or gravity. The ultimate goal of this research is the robotic-assisted percutaneous intervention of the liver under Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI guidance. Since the control algorithm is intended for a digital microcontroller, it is presented in the discrete-time form. The controller design is illustrated for a 1 degree-of-freedom (DOF system and is conducted with a modular approach combining position control, adaptive disturbance compensation, and predictive control. The controller stability is analyzed and the effect of the input delay and of the tuning parameters is discussed. The controller performance is assessed with simulations considering a disturbance representative of needle insertion forces. The results indicate that the adaptive-predictive controller is effective in the presence of a variable disturbance and of a known or variable input delay.

  5. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Robertson, Robert L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sleeper, Lynn A. [New England Research Institute, Watertown, MA (United States); Sayre, James W. [UCLA Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Biostatistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  6. The beak of the other finch: coevolution of genetic covariance structure and developmental modularity during adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V

    2010-04-12

    The link between adaptation and evolutionary change remains the most central and least understood evolutionary problem. Rapid evolution and diversification of avian beaks is a textbook example of such a link, yet the mechanisms that enable beak's precise adaptation and extensive adaptability are poorly understood. Often observed rapid evolutionary change in beaks is particularly puzzling in light of the neo-Darwinian model that necessitates coordinated changes in developmentally distinct precursors and correspondence between functional and genetic modularity, which should preclude evolutionary diversification. I show that during first 19 generations after colonization of a novel environment, house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) express an array of distinct, but adaptively equivalent beak morphologies-a result of compensatory developmental interactions between beak length and width in accommodating microevolutionary change in beak depth. Directional selection was largely confined to the elimination of extremes formed by these developmental interactions, while long-term stabilizing selection along a single axis-beak depth-was mirrored in the structure of beak's additive genetic covariance. These results emphasize three principal points. First, additive genetic covariance structure may represent a historical record of the most recurrent developmental and functional interactions. Second, adaptive equivalence of beak configurations shields genetic and developmental variation in individual components from depletion by natural selection. Third, compensatory developmental interactions among beak components can generate rapid reorganization of beak morphology under novel conditions and thus greatly facilitate both the evolution of precise adaptation and extensive diversification, thereby linking adaptation and adaptability in this classic example of Darwinian evolution.

  7. Decreased frontal, striatal and cerebellar activation in adults with ADHD during an adaptive delay discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Nick; Parsons, Aisling; Whelan, Robert; Brennan, Katie; Agan, Maria L F; O'Connell, Redmond; Bramham, Jessica; Garavan, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a bias towards small immediate versus larger delayed rewards, but it is not known if this symptom is also a feature of adult ADHD. A delay-discounting task was administered to participants with adult ADHD and a comparison group in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants responded to a series of questions that required judgments between small sums of money available immediately and larger sums obtained after a temporal delay. Question parameters were adjusted by an adaptive algorithm designed to converge on each participant's discounting indifference point, an individual set point at which there is equal valuation of both choices. In all participants, robust task activation was observed in regions previously identified in functional imaging studies of delay discounting. However, adults with ADHD showed less task activation in a number of regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate nucleus and declive of the cerebellum. Additionally, the degree to which a participant discounted delayed rewards was inversely related to task activation in the cerebellum. The results suggest that the bias towards immediate rewards in childhood ADHD may not persist behaviorally, but instead present in adulthood as alterations in frontostriatal and frontocerebellar networks.

  8. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizontal layering technique, immediately after adhesive placement (IP) or after a 24h delay (DP). A filled three-component adhesive (OptiBond FL: OB) and a single-bottle, unfilled one (Prime & Bond 2.1: PB) were tested. Marginal adaptation was assessed before and after each phase of mechanical loading (250000 cycles at 50 N, 250000 cycles at 75 N and 500000 cycles at 100 N); internal adaptation was evaluated after test completion. Gold-plated resin replicas were observed in the SEM and restoration quality evaluated in percentages of continuity (C) at the margins and within the internal interface, after sample section. Adaptation to beveled enamel proved satisfactory in all groups. After loading, adaptation to gingival dentin degraded more in PB-IP (C=55.1%) than PB-DP (C=86.9%) or OB-DP (C=89%). More internal defects were observed in PB samples (IP: C=79.2% and DP: C=86.3%) compared to OB samples (IP: C=97.4% and DP: C=98.3%). The filled adhesive (OB) produced a better adaptation than the 'one-bottle' brand (PB), hypothetically by forming a stress-absorbing layer, limiting the development of adhesive failures. Postponing occlusal loading (such as the indirect approach) improved also restoration adaptation.

  9. Adaptive Neural Control of Pure-Feedback Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems via Dynamic Surface Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Wang; Xiaoping Liu; Peng Shi

    2011-12-01

    This paper is concerned with robust stabilization problem for a class of nonaffine pure-feedback systems with unknown time-delay functions and perturbed uncertainties. Novel continuous packaged functions are introduced in advance to remove unknown nonlinear terms deduced from perturbed uncertainties and unknown time-delay functions, which avoids the functions with control law to be approximated by radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. This technique combining implicit function and mean value theorems overcomes the difficulty in controlling the nonaffine pure-feedback systems. Dynamic surface control (DSC) is used to avoid "the explosion of complexity" in the backstepping design. Design difficulties from unknown time-delay functions are overcome using the function separation technique, the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, and the desirable property of hyperbolic tangent functions. RBF neural networks are employed to approximate desired virtual controls and desired practical control. Under the proposed adaptive neural DSC, the number of adaptive parameters required is reduced significantly, and semiglobal uniform ultimate boundedness of all of the signals in the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Simulation studies are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme.

  10. Adaptive filter design based on the LMS algorithm for delay elimination in TCR/FC compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Rahmat Allah; Torabian Esfahani, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Thyristor controlled reactor with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensators have the capability of compensating reactive power and improving power quality phenomena. Delay in the response of such compensators degrades their performance. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive filters (AF) is proposed in order to eliminate delay and increase the response of the TCR compensator. The algorithm designed for the adaptive filters is performed based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. In this design, instead of fixed capacitors, band-pass LC filters are used. To evaluate the filter, a TCR/FC compensator was used for nonlinear and time varying loads of electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These loads caused occurrence of power quality phenomena in the supplying system, such as voltage fluctuation and flicker, odd and even harmonics and unbalancing in voltage and current. The above design was implemented in a realistic system model of a steel complex. The simulation results show that applying the proposed control in the TCR/FC compensator efficiently eliminated delay in the response and improved the performance of the compensator in the power system.

  11. Risk of developmental delay of children aged between two and 24 months and its association with the quality of family stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro Fernandes; de Carvalho, Davi Vilela; Machado, Nathália Ádila A.; Baptista, Regiane Aparecida N.; Lemos, Stela Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between neurodevelopment and the family environment resources of children from the coverage area of a Basic Health Unit (BHU) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a tool based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample involving 298 children aged between 2-24 months old, who attended a BHU in 2010. The assessment of child development and family resources made at the BHU lasted, in average, 45 minutes and included two tests - an adaptation of the Handbook for Monitoring Child Development in the Context of IMCI and an adapted version of the Family Environment Resource (FER) inventary. The nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample included 291 assessments, with 18.2% of children between 18 and 24 months old, 53.6% male gender, and 91.4% who did not attend day care centers. According to IMCI, 31.7% of the children were in the risk group for developmental delay. The total average score in FER was 38.0 points. Although it has been found an association between the IMCI outcome and the total FER score, all groups had low scores in the family environment assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the need for childhood development screening in the primary health care and for early intervention programs aimed at this age group. PMID:24473949

  12. Synchronization transitions induced by the fluctuation of adaptive coupling strength in delayed Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Gong, Yubing; Wu, Yanan

    2015-11-01

    Introducing adaptive coupling in delayed neuronal networks and regulating the dissipative parameter (DP) of adaptive coupling by noise, we study the effect of fluctuations of the changing rate of adaptive coupling on the synchronization of the neuronal networks. It is found that time delay can induce synchronization transitions for intermediate DP values, and the synchronization transitions become strongest when DP is optimal. As the intensity of DP noise is varied, the neurons can also exhibit synchronization transitions, and the phenomenon is delay-dependent and is enhanced for certain time delays. Moreover, the synchronization transitions change with the change of DP and become strongest when DP is optimal. These results show that randomly changing adaptive coupling can considerably change the synchronization of the neuronal networks, and hence could play a crucial role in the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  13. Adaptive ant-based routing in wireless sensor networks using Energy Delay metrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-feng WEN; Yu-quan CHEN; Min PAN

    2008-01-01

    To find the optimal routing is always an important topic in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Considering a WSN where the nodes have limited energy, we propose a novel Energy*Delay model based on ant algorithms ("E&D ANTS" for short)to minimize the time delay in transferring a fixed number of data packets in an energy-constrained manner in one round. Our goal is not only to maximize the lifetime of the network but also to provide real-time data transmission services. However, because of the tradeoff of energy and delay in wireless network systems, the reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm is introduced to train the model. In this survey, the paradigm of E&D ANTS is explicated and compared to other ant-based routing algorithms like AntNet and AntChain about the issues of routing information, routing overhead and adaptation. Simulation results show that our method performs about seven times better than AntNet and also outperforms AntChain by more than 150% in terms of energy cost and delay per round.

  14. The prevalence of chromosomal deletions relating to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability in human euploid blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyin He

    Full Text Available Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy and structural (deletion, duplication or others anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34-149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision.

  15. The prevalence of chromosomal deletions relating to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability in human euploid blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Jin, Hua; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34-149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision.

  16. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Yuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Ohata, Yoshihisa [Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Mori, Shoko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Matsukawa, Shinya [Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Michiue, Tatsuo [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Research Center for Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Baien, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Kuroda, Hiroki, E-mail: ehkurod@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Does famous anti-aging drug rapamycin work from the beginning of life? The answer is yes. {yields} This study shows that developmental speed of frog embryo was dose-dependently decreased by rapamycin treatment. {yields} In additions, morphogenetic effects such as less pigmentations and gut malformation are occurred by rapamycin. -- Abstract: Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood. Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period.

  17. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) when...

  18. Effectiveness of Emotion Recognition Training for Young Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Andrew; Strand, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a basic skill that is thought to facilitate development of social and emotional competence. There is little research available examining whether therapeutic or instructional interventions can improve the emotion recognition skill of young children with various developmental disabilities. Sixteen preschool children with…

  19. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture Delays the Propagation of Kindling in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to eva...

  20. Effects of an App Incorporating Systematic Instruction to Teach Spelling to Students with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Melinda Jones; Baggerman, Melanie A.; Horn, Channon K.

    2017-01-01

    This study used a multiple probe (conditions) design across behaviors to investigate the effects of an app for the tablet computer to teach spelling of academic content words to four students with developmental disabilities. The app delivered instruction using a model-lead-test format and students typed on the on-screen keyboard. The study also…

  1. Decentralized adaptive fuzzy control of time-delayed interconnected systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The problem of decentralized adaptive fuzzy control for a class of time-delayed interconnected nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hystersis is discussed. On the basis of the principle of variable structure control (VSC) and by using the fuzzy systems with linear adjustable parameters that are used to approximate plant unknown functions, a novel decentralized adaptive fuzzy control strategy with a supervisory controller is developed. A general method, which is modeled the backlash-like hysteresis, is proposed and removes the assumption that the boundedness of disturbance, and the slope of the backlash-like hystersis are known constants. Furthermore, the interconnection term is supposed to be pth-order polynomial in time-delayed states. In addition, the plant dynamic uncertainty and modeling errors are adaptively compensated by adjusting the parameters and gains on-line for each subsystems. By theoretical analysis, it is shown that the closed-loop fuzzy control systems are globally stable, with tracking error converging to zero. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. Comparison of in-situ delay monitors for use in Adaptive Voltage Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Aryan, N.; Heiß, L.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.; Georgakos, G.; Wirnshofer, M.

    2012-09-01

    In Adaptive Voltage Scaling (AVS) the supply voltage of digital circuits is tuned according to the circuit's actual operating condition, which enables dynamic compensation to PVTA variations. By exploiting the excessive safety margins added in state-of-the-art worst-case designs considerable power saving is achieved. In our approach, the operating condition of the circuit is monitored by in-situ delay monitors. This paper presents different designs to implement the in-situ delay monitors capable of detecting late but still non-erroneous transitions, called Pre-Errors. The developed Pre-Error monitors are integrated in a 16 bit multiplier test circuit and the resulting Pre-Error AVS system is modeled by a Markov chain in order to determine the power saving potential of each Pre-Error detection approach.

  3. Decentralized adaptive fuzzy output feedback control of nonlinear interconnected systems with time-varying delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Chen, Zuwen; Song, Aiguo

    2017-01-01

    A robust adaptive output-feedback control scheme based on K-filters is proposed for a class of nonlinear interconnected time-varying delay systems with immeasurable states. It is difficult to design the controller due to the existence of the immeasurable states and the time-delay couplings among interconnected subsystems. This difficulty is overcome by use of the fuzzy system, the K-filters and the appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Based on Lyapunov theory, the closed-loop control system is proved to be semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB), and the output tracking error converges to a neighborhood of zero. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  4. Observer-based Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Time-varying Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Sheng Chen; Rui-Hong Li; Jing Li

    2010-01-01

    An observer-based adaptive iterative learning control (AILC) scheme is developed for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-varying parameters and unknown time-varying delays. The linear matrix inequality (LMI) method is employed to design the nonlinear observer. The designed controller contains a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback term in time domain. The learning law of unknown constant parameter is differential-difference-type, and the learning law of unknown time-varying parameter is difference-type. It is assumed that the unknown delay-dependent uncertainty is nonlinearly parameterized. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii-like composite energy function (CEF), we prove the boundedness of all closed-loop signals and the convergence of tracking error. A simulation example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control algorithm proposed in this paper.

  5. Combination synchronization of time-delay chaotic system via robust adaptive sliding mode control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AYUB KHAN; SHIKHA

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the methodology to achieve combination synchronization of time-delay chaotic system via robust adaptive sliding mode control is introduced. The methodology is implemented by taking identical time-delayLorenz chaotic system. The selection of switching surface and the design of control law is also discussed, which is an important issue. By utilizing rigorous mathematical theory, sufficient condition is drawn for the stability of error dynamics based on Lyapunov stability theory. Theoretical results are supported with the numerical simulations. The complexity of this methodology is useful to strengthen the security of communication. The hidden message can be partitioned into several parts loaded in two master systems to improve the accuracy of communication.

  6. Adaptive control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems preceded by unknown hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyu; Lin, Yan

    2013-08-01

    In this article, a robust adaptive neural dynamic surface control is proposed for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems preceded by saturated hystereses. Compared with the present schemes of dealing with time delay and hystereses input, the main advantages of the proposed scheme are that the prespecified transient and steady-state performance of tracking error can be guaranteed, the computational burden can be greatly reduced and the explosion of complexity problem inherent in backstepping control can be eliminated. Moreover, the utilisation of saturated-type Prandtl-Ishlinskii model makes our scheme more applicable. It is proved that the new scheme can guarantee all the closed-loop signals semiglobally uniformly ultimate bounded. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme.

  7. Combination synchronization of time-delay chaotic system via robust adaptive sliding mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayub; Shikha

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the methodology to achieve combination synchronization of time-delay chaotic system via robust adaptive sliding mode control is introduced. The methodology is implemented by taking identical time-delay Lorenz chaotic system. The selection of switching surface and the design of control law is also discussed, which is an important issue. By utilizing rigorous mathematical theory, sufficient condition is drawn for the stability of error dynamics based on Lyapunov stability theory. Theoretical results are supported with the numerical simulations. The complexity of this methodology is useful to strengthen the security of communication. The hidden message can be partitioned into several parts loaded in two master systems to improve the accuracy of communication.

  8. ADAPTIVE PINNING SYNCHRONIZATION OF COUPLED NEURAL NETWORKS WITH MIXED DELAYS AND VECTOR-FORM STOCHASTIC PERTURBATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xinsong; Cao Jinde

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we consider the global chaotic synchronization of general coupled neural networks,in which subsystems have both discrete and distributed delays.Stochastic perturbations between subsystems are also considered.On the basis of two simple adaptive pinning feedback control schemes,Lyapunov functional method,and stochastic analysis approach,several sufficient conditions are developed to guarantee global synchronization of the coupled neural networks with two kinds of delay couplings,even if only partial states of the nodes are coupled.The outer-coupling matrices may be symmetric or asymmetric.Unlike existing results that an isolate node is introduced as the pinning target,we pin to help the network realizing synchronization without introducing any isolate node when the network is not synchronized.As a by product,sufficient conditions under which the network realizes synchronization without control are derived.Numerical simulations confirm the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  9. Adaptive Synchronization between Two Different Complex Networks with Time-Varying Delay Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-Rui; JIAO Li-Cheng; WU Jian-She; WANG Xiao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    A new general network model for two complex networks with time-varying delay coupling is presented.Then we investigate its synchronization phenomena.The two complex networks of the model differ in dynamic nodes,the number of nodes and the coupling connections.By using adaptive controllers,a synchronization criterion is derived.Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained synchronization criterion.This study may widen the application range of synchronization,such as in chaotic secure communication.

  10. Fragile X astrocytes induce developmental delays in dendrite maturation and synaptic protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doering Laurie C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental impairment characterized by cognitive impairment, attention deficit and autistic behaviours. The mouse model of Fragile X is used to study the underlying neurobiology associated with behavioral deficiencies. The effect of Fragile X glial cells on the development of neurons has not been studied. We used a co-culture technique in combination with morphometrics on immunostained neurons to investigate the role of astrocytes in the development delays associated with hippocampal neuron development. Results We found that hippocampal neurons grown on Fragile X astrocytes exhibited a significant difference from the neurons grown with normal astrocytes after 7 days in vitro for many parameters including increases in dendritic branching and in area of the cell body. However, after 21 days in culture, the neurons grown on Fragile X astrocytes exhibited morphological characteristics that did not differ significantly from the neurons grown on normal astrocytes. With antibodies to the pre-synaptic protein, synapsin, and to the excitatory post-synaptic protein, PSD-95, we quantified the number of developing excitatory synapses on the dendrites. In addition to the delays in dendritic patterning, the development of excitatory synapses was also delayed in the hippocampal neurons. Conclusions These experiments are the first to establish a role for astrocytes in the delayed growth characteristics and abnormal morphological features in dendrites and synapses that characterize the Fragile X syndrome.

  11. Simple Mindreading Abilities Predict Complex Theory of Mind: Developmental Delay in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica; Mariano, Melania; Peretti, Sara; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Franco, Fabia

    2017-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the developmental trajectories of ToM abilities in two different mentalizing tasks in children with ASD compared to TD children; and (ii) to assess if a ToM simple test known as eyes-test could predict performance on…

  12. Tracking with asymptotic sliding mode and adaptive input delay effect compensation of nonlinearly perturbed delayed systems applied to traffic feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Boris; Haddad, Jack; Shtessel, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Asymptotical sliding mode-model reference adaptive control design for a class of systems with parametric uncertainty, unknown nonlinear perturbation and external disturbance, and with known input and state delays is proposed. To overcome the difficulty to directly predict the plant state under uncertainties, a control design is based on a developed decomposition procedure, where a 'generalised error' in conjunction with auxiliary linear dynamic blocks with adjustable gains is introduced and the sliding variable is formed on the basis of this error. The effect of such a decomposition is to pull the input delay out of first step of the design procedure. As a result, similarly to the classical Smith predictor, the adaptive control architecture based only on the lumped-delays, i.e. without conventional in such cases difficult-implemented distributed-delay blocks. Two new adaptive control schemes are proposed. A linearisation-based control design is constructed for feedback control of an urban traffic region model with uncertain dynamics. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed adaptive control method.

  13. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination.

  14. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  15. Opto-VLSI-based photonic true-time delay architecture for broadband adaptive nulling in phased array antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juswardy, Budi; Xiao, Feng; Alameh, Kamal

    2009-03-16

    This paper proposes a novel Opto-VLSI-based tunable true-time delay generation unit for adaptively steering the nulls of microwave phased array antennas. Arbitrary single or multiple true-time delays can simultaneously be synthesized for each antenna element by slicing an RF-modulated broadband optical source and routing specific sliced wavebands through an Opto-VLSI processor to a high-dispersion fiber. Experimental results are presented, which demonstrate the principle of the true-time delay unit through the generation of 5 arbitrary true-time delays of up to 2.5 ns each.

  16. Effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity on coherence resonance and synchronization transitions by time delay in adaptive neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huijuan; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we numerically study how time delay induces multiple coherence resonance (MCR) and synchronization transitions (ST) in adaptive Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). It is found that MCR induced by time delay STDP can be either enhanced or suppressed as the adjusting rate Ap of STDP changes, and ST by time delay varies with the increase of Ap, and there is optimal Ap by which the ST becomes strongest. It is also found that there are optimal network randomness and network size by which ST by time delay becomes strongest, and when Ap increases, the optimal network randomness and optimal network size increase and related ST is enhanced. These results show that STDP can either enhance or suppress MCR and optimal STDP can enhance ST induced by time delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into STDP's role for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  17. When is it adaptive to be patient? A general framework for evaluating delayed rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Tim W; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2012-02-01

    The tendency of animals to seek instant gratification instead of waiting for greater long-term benefits has been described as impatient, impulsive or lacking in self-control. How can we explain the evolution of such seemingly irrational behaviour? Here we analyse optimal behaviour in a variety of simple choice situations involving delayed rewards. We show that preferences for more immediate rewards should depend on a variety of factors, including whether the choice is a one-off or is likely to be repeated, the information the animal has about the continuing availability of the rewards and the opportunity to gain rewards through alternative activities. In contrast to the common assertion that rational animals should devalue delayed rewards exponentially, we find that this pattern of discounting is optimal only under restricted circumstances. We predict preference reversal whenever waiting for delayed rewards entails loss of opportunities elsewhere, but the direction of this reversal depends on whether the animal will face the same choice repeatedly. Finally, we question the ecological relevance of standard laboratory tests for impulsive behaviour, arguing that animals rarely face situations analogous to the self-control paradigm in their natural environment. To understand the evolution of impulsiveness, a more promising strategy would be to identify decision rules that are adaptive in a realistic ecological setting, and examine how these rules determine patterns of behaviour in simultaneous choice tests.

  18. SHARP - III: First Use Of Adaptive Optics Imaging To Constrain Cosmology With Gravitational Lens Time Delays

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Geoff C F; Wong, Kenneth C; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I Shing; Auger, Matthew W; Koopmans, Leon V E; Lagattuta, David J; McKean, John P; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the Hubble constant with an uncertainty of $\\sim 7\\%$. Since HST will not last forever, we explore adaptive-optics (AO) imaging as an alternative that can provide higher angular resolution than HST imaging but has a less stable point spread function (PSF) due to atmospheric distortion. To make AO imaging useful for time-delay-lens cosmography, we develop a method to extract the unknown PSF directly from the imaging of strongly lensed quasars. In a blind test with two mock data sets created with different PSFs, we are able to recover the important cosmological parameters (time-delay distance, external shear, lens mass profile slope, and total Einstein radius). Our analysis of the Keck AO image of the strong lens system RXJ1...

  19. Delay Prediction for Real-Time Video Adaptive Transmisson over TCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Xiong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time multimedia streaming applications are increasingly using TCP instead of UCP as underlying transport protocol, however the great end-to-end delays are the major factor to influence the quality of streaming across the Internet using TCP. In this paper, we point the requirement for transmitting real-time video with acceptable playing performance via TCP and present a stochastic prediction model which can predict the sending-delays of video frames.  Based on the prediction model, we propose a real-time video adaptive transmission scheme which can dynamically adjust video frame rate and playout buffer size according to available network bandwidth. The scheme does not require any modifications to the network infrastructure or TCP protocol stack and only wants to measure some parameters including video frame size, loss ratio, congestion windows size, RTT and RTO time before video frames are sent. The performance of proposed prediction model and adaptive scheme are evaluated through extensive simulations using the NS-2 simulator.

  20. Adaptive Control for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots Considering Time Delay and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Stephen Kofi

    Autonomous control of mobile robots has attracted considerable attention of researchers in the areas of robotics and autonomous systems during the past decades. One of the goals in the field of mobile robotics is development of platforms that robustly operate in given, partially unknown, or unpredictable environments and offer desired services to humans. Autonomous mobile robots need to be equipped with effective, robust and/or adaptive, navigation control systems. In spite of enormous reported work on autonomous navigation control systems for mobile robots, achieving the goal above is still an open problem. Robustness and reliability of the controlled system can always be improved. The fundamental issues affecting the stability of the control systems include the undesired nonlinear effects introduced by actuator saturation, time delay in the controlled system, and uncertainty in the model. This research work develops robustly stabilizing control systems by investigating and addressing such nonlinear effects through analytical, simulations, and experiments. The control systems are designed to meet specified transient and steady-state specifications. The systems used for this research are ground (Dr Robot X80SV) and aerial (Parrot AR.Drone 2.0) mobile robots. Firstly, an effective autonomous navigation control system is developed for X80SV using logic control by combining 'go-to-goal', 'avoid-obstacle', and 'follow-wall' controllers. A MATLAB robot simulator is developed to implement this control algorithm and experiments are conducted in a typical office environment. The next stage of the research develops an autonomous position (x, y, and z) and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) controllers for a quadrotor, and PD-feedback control is used to achieve stabilization. The quadrotor's nonlinear dynamics and kinematics are implemented using MATLAB S-function to generate the state output. Secondly, the white-box and black-box approaches are used to obtain a linearized

  1. Pallister-Killian syndrome in a girl with mild developmental delay and mosaicism for hexasomy 12p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ida; Lyngbye, Troels; Nielsen, Alice; Pedersen, Søren; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2009-03-01

    We report on a 5-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome (OMIM #601803) due to mosaicism of two supernumerary isochromosomes (hexasomy 12p). Hexasomy 12p was found in 20% of the cells by chromosome analysis of cultured skin fibroblasts and confirmed by FISH- and arrayCGH analysis. The girl has woolly and sparse hair, absence of lateral eyebrows, dry skin, brittle nails, hypopigmented patches, frontal bossing, hearing loss, hypertrophic dilated cardiomyopathy, polydactyly, and mild developmental delay. This is the second live case of mosaicism for hexasomy 12p to be reported. A gene-dosage hypothesis has previously suggested that cases with hexasomy 12p would have a worse phenotype than cases with tetrasomy 12p. The relatively mild symptoms found in the current girl with hexasomy 12p may to contradict this hypothesis.

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency with intrinsic factor antibodies in an infant with poor growth and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kathleen; Chowdhury, Dhiman; Penney, Lynette; Rashid, Mohsin

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare in infants and may lead to serious hematological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The present article describes a case involving a seven-month-old boy with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, likely caused by juvenile pernicious anemia, an entity rarely described. The child presented with feeding intolerance, poor growth and developmental delay. He was noted to have macrocytic anemia, a markedly low serum vitamin B12 level, and elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Antibodies to intrinsic factor were positive. The mother was healthy, with normal vitamin B12 status. Therapy with vitamin B12 supplements led to excellent recovery of symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with failure to thrive, especially when compounded with neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is essential to avoid serious complications.

  3. Novel 14q11.2 microduplication including the CHD8 and SUPT16H genes associated with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Marta; Poluha, Anna; Jaszczuk, Ilona; Bartnik, Magdalena; Bernaciak, Joanna; Nowakowska, Beata

    2016-05-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders have long been associated with chromosomal abnormalities, including microdeletions and microduplications. Submicroscopic 14q11.2 deletions involving the CHD8 and SUPT16H genes have been reported in patients with developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or macrocephaly. Recently, disruptive CHD8 mutations were described in patients with similar phenotypes further showing pivotal role of CHD8 gene in the pathogenesis of DD/ID or ASDs. We report here the first case of ~445 kb de novo microduplication, encompassing the minimal critical 14q11.2 deletion region, in 8-year-old boy showing DD, cognitive impairment and facial dysmorphism. Our results suggest that gain of the chromosomal region 14q11.2 is causative for clinical findings present in the patient.

  4. Reduction of clinically irrelevant alarms in patient monitoring by adaptive time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Felix; Goepfert, Matthias S; Franz, Frank; Laule, David; Reiter, Beate; Goetz, Alwin E; Reuter, Daniel A

    2017-02-01

    The problem of high rates of false alarms in patient monitoring in anesthesiology and intensive care medicine is well known but remains unsolved. False alarms desensitize the medical staff, leading to ignored true alarms and reduced quality of patient care. A database of intra-operative monitoring data was analyzed to find characteristic alarm patterns. The original data were re-evaluated to find relevant events and to rate the severity of these events. Based on this analysis an adaptive time delay was developed that individually delays the alarms depending on the grade of threshold deviation. The conventional threshold algorithm led to 4893 alarms. 3515 (71.84 %) of these alarms were annotated as clinically irrelevant. In total 81.0 % of all clinically irrelevant alarms were caused by only mild and/or brief threshold violations. We implemented the new algorithm for selected parameters. These parameters equipped with adaptive validation delays led to 1729 alarms. 931 (53.85 %) alarms were annotated as clinically irrelevant. 632 alarms indicated the 645 clinically relevant events. The positive predictive value of occurring alarms improved from 28.16 % (conventional algorithm) to 46.15 % (new algorithm). 13 events were missed. The false positive alarm reduction rate of the algorithm ranged from 33 to 86.75 %. The overall reduction was 73.51 %. The implementation of this algorithm may be able to suppress a large percentage of false alarms. The effect of this approach has not been demonstrated but shows promise for reducing alarm fatigue. Its safety needs to be proven in a prospective study.

  5. Adaptive synchronization in an array of linearly coupled neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms and time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Teng, Zhidong; Jiang, Haijun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the adaptive synchronization in an array of linearly coupled neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms and time delays is discussed. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle of functional differential equations and the adaptive feedback control technique, some sufficient conditions for adaptive synchronization of such a system are obtained. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method.

  6. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yaoqian [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Balazs, Louisa [Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Tigyi, Gabor [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Yue, Junming, E-mail: yue@uthsc.edu [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) leads to embryonic mortality. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to developmental delay. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to hemorrhage in various organs including brain, skin and liver. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to vascular wall remodeling. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs dysregulates the expression of miRNA and VSMC marker genes. -- Abstract: Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role of Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation.

  7. Endocannabinoid signals in the developmental programming of delayed-onset neuropsychiatric and metabolic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keimpema, Erik; Calvigioni, Daniela; Harkany, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that maternal exposure to metabolic (nutritional) stimuli, infections, illicit or prescription drugs and environmental stressors during pregnancy can predispose affected offspring to developing devastating postnatal illnesses. If detrimental maternal stimuli coincide with critical periods of tissue production and organogenesis then they can permanently derail key cellular differentiation programs. Maternal programming can thus either provoke developmental failure directly ('direct hit') or introduce latent developmental errors that enable otherwise sub-threshold secondary stressors to manifest as disease ('double hit') postnatally. Accumulating evidence suggests that nervous system development is tightly controlled by maternal metabolic stimuli, and whose synaptic wiring and integrative capacity are adversely affected by dietary and hormonal challenges, infections or episodes of illicit drug use. Endocannabinoids, a family of signal lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been implicated in neuronal fate determination, the control of axonal growth, synaptogenesis and synaptic neurotransmission. Therefore the continuum and interdependence of endocannabinoid actions during the formation and function of synapses together with dynamic changes in focal and circulating endocannabinoid levels upon maternal nutritional imbalance suggest that endocannabinoids can execute the 'reprogramming' of specific neuronal networks. In the present paper, we review molecular evidence suggesting that maternal nutrition and metabolism during pregnancy can affect the formation and function of the hippocampus and hypothalamus by altering endocannabinoid signalling such that neuropsychiatric diseases and obesity respectively ensue in affected offspring. Moreover, we propose that the placenta, fetal adipose and nervous tissues interact via endocannabinoid signals. Thus endocannabinoids are hypothesized to act as a molecular substrate of maternal

  8. Rate-adaptive AV delay and exercise performance following cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Prada-Delgado, Oscar; Campos, Ana Garcia; Grimster, Alex; Valencia, Oswaldo; Baltabaeva, Aigul; Jones, Sue; Anderson, Lisa

    2012-11-01

    Physiological shortening of the atrioventricular (AV) interval with increasing heart rate is well documented in normal human beings and is an established component of dual-chamber pacing for bradycardia. To assess the effect of exercise on optimal AV delay and the impact of a patient-specific rate-adaptive AV delay (RAAVD) on exercise capacity in patients with heart failure following cardiac resynchronization therapy. Phase 1: We performed iterative AV optimization at rest and exercise in 52 cardiac resynchronization therapy patients in atrial-sensed mode (mean age 71.6 ± 9.2 years, 25% females). Phase 2: Subsequently, 20 consecutive volunteers from this group (mean age 69.2 ± 9.6 years, 15% females) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with RAAVD individually programmed ON (RAAVD-ON) or OFF (RAAVD-OFF). Phase 1: In 94% of the patients, there was a marked reduction (mean 50%) in optimal AV delay with exercise. The optimal resting vs exercise AV delay was 114.2 ± 29 ms at a heart rate of 64.4 ± 7.1 beats/min vs 57 ± 31 ms at a heart rate of 103 ± 13 beats/min (P AV delay with exercise, and 3 (6%) showed no change. Phase 2: With RAAVD-ON, significantly better exercise times were achieved (8.7 ± 3.2 minutes) compared with RAAVD-OFF (7.9 ± 3.2 minutes; P = .003), and there was a significant improvement in Vo(2)max (RAAVD-ON 16.1 ± 4.0 vs RAAVD-OFF 14.9 ± 3.7 mL/(kg · min); P = .024). There was a dramatic reduction in optimal AV delay with physiological exercise in the majority of this heart failure cardiac resynchronization therapy cohort. Replicating this physiological response with a programmable RAAVD translated into a 10% improvement in exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippat, Claire; Bennett, Deborah H; Krakowiak, Paula; Rose, Melissa; Hwang, Hyun-Min; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-06-26

    Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that influence thyroid hormones and sex steroids, both critical for brain development. We studied phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to the risks of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay (DD). Participants were a subset of children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) case-control study. ASD and DD cases were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services system or referrals; general population controls were randomly sampled from state birth files and frequency-matched on age, sex, and broad geographic region to ASD cases. All children (50 ASD, 27 DD, 68 typically developing (TD)) were assessed with Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and Aberrant Behavior Checklist. We measured 5 phthalates in dust collected in the child's home using a high volume small surface sampler. None of the phthalates measured in dust was associated with ASD. After adjustment, we observed greater di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) concentrations in indoor dust from homes of DD children: Odds ratios (OR) were 2.10 (95% confidence interval (CI); 1.10; 4.09) and 1.40 (95% CI; 0.97; 2.04) for a one-unit increase in the ln-transformed DEHP and BBzP concentrations, respectively. Among TD children, VABS communication, daily living, and adaptive composite standard scores were lower, in association with increased diethyl phthalate (DEP) concentrations in dust. Participants with higher dibutyl phthalate (DBP) concentrations in house dust also trended toward reduced performance on these subscales. Among ASD and DD boys, higher indoor dust concentrations of DEP and DBP were associated with greater hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention. House dust levels of phthalates were not associated with ASD. The inability to distinguish past from recent exposures in house dust and the fact

  10. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  11. Screening for developmental delay in the setting of a community pediatric clinic: a prospective assessment of parent-report questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, David; Srour, Myriam; Oskoui, Maryam; Marget, Nancy; Shiller, Mitchell; Birnbaum, Rena; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael I

    2006-10-01

    Our goal for this study was to prospectively test whether parent-completed questionnaires can be effectively used in the setting of a busy ambulatory pediatric clinic to accurately screen for developmental impairments. Specific objectives included (1) assessing the feasibility of using parent-report instruments in the setting of a community pediatric clinic, (2) evaluating the accuracy of 2 available screening tests (the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Child Development Inventory), and (3) ascertaining if the pediatrician's clinical judgment could be used as a potential modifier. Subjects were recruited from the patient population of a community clinic providing primary ambulatory pediatric care. Subjects without previous developmental delay or concerns noted were contacted at the time of their routine 18-month-old visit. Those subjects who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups and completed either the Ages and Stages Questionnaire or Child Development Inventory. The child's pediatrician also completed a brief questionnaire regarding his or her opinion of the child's development. Those children for whom concerns were identified by either questionnaire underwent additional detailed testing by the Battelle Development Inventory, the "gold standard" for the purposes of this study. An equal number of children scoring within the norms of the screening measures also underwent testing with the Battelle Development Inventory. Of the 356 parents contacted, 317 parents (90%) agreed to participate. Most parents correctly completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (81%) and the Child Development Inventory (75%). Predictive values were calculated for the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and the Child Development Inventory (sensitivity: 0.67 and 0.50; specificity: 0.39 and 0.86; positive predictive value: 34% and 50%; negative predictive value: 71% and 86%, respectively). Incorporating the physician's opinion regarding the developmental status of the

  12. Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Walker, Cheryl; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed data from case groups of 538 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 163 with developmental delays (DD), and from 421 typically developing controls to assess associations with maternal influenza or fever during pregnancy. Exposure information was obtained by telephone interviews, and outcomes were clinically confirmed. Though…

  13. The Effects of Constant Time Delay Embedded into Teaching Activities for Teaching the Names of Clothes for Preschool Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odluyurt, Serhat

    2011-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of constant time delay embedded in activities for teaching clothes name for preschool children with developmental disabilities. This study included four participants having Down syndrome with an age range of 43-46 months. All experimental sessions were conducted in one to one…

  14. Modeling Skills, Signs and Lettering for Children with Down Syndrome, Autism and Other Severe Developmental Delays by Video Instruction in Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, G. B.; Freedman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses optimal strategies in teaching essential life and communication skills to children with Down syndrome, autism and other developmental delays. Evidence from the literature concerning the relative efficacy of hand-over-hand (self-modeling) in contrast to passive observational teaching techniques (e.g., video modeling) shows the…

  15. Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Walker, Cheryl; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed data from case groups of 538 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 163 with developmental delays (DD), and from 421 typically developing controls to assess associations with maternal influenza or fever during pregnancy. Exposure information was obtained by telephone interviews, and outcomes were clinically confirmed. Though…

  16. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  17. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  18. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  19. Prenatal and postnatal presentation of severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN) due to the FGFR3 Lys650Met mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zankl, A.; Elakis, G.; Susman, R.D.; Inglis, G.; Gardener, G.; Buckley, M.F.; Roscioli, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present prenatal and postnatal features of a patient with severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN). Mutation analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis by detecting the FGFR3 Lys650Met mutation. This case, one of only six with molecular analysis reported in

  20. Mitigating the Effects of Poverty and Crime: The Long-Term Effects of an Early Intervention Programme for Children Who Were Developmentally Delayed and Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Mary Anne; Gonzalez, Antonio; Katz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the long-term impact on participation in the Linda Ray Intervention Program (LRIP) for children (n = 54) who were developmentally delayed and prenatally exposed to cocaine. By identifying a group of programme graduates from a high crime/high poverty neighbourhood in Miami-Dade County using ArcGIS 10.2 software, a…

  1. Linkage of ICF-CY codes with environmental factors in studies of developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers with or at risk for motor delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ai-Wen; Liao, Hua-Fang; Granlund, Mats; Simeonsson, Rune J; Kang, Lin-Ju; Pan, Yi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Environmental variables have been explored in studies of the development of young children with motor delays. Linking environmental variables to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY), environmental factors (EFs) categories can provide a common language for documenting their contribution to developmental outcomes. This review of studies aimed to (1) link EFs for developmental outcomes in infants with or at risk for motor delays to ICF-CY categories and (2) synthesize the influences of EFs (with ICF-CY linkage) on developmental outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed of multiple databases. After applying selection criteria, environmental variables in 28 articles were linked to ICF-CY categories and underwent qualitative synthesis. Results indicated that physical environmental variables could be linked successfully to ICF-CY EFs categories, but not social environmental variables. Multiple environmental variables were associated with motor and other developmental outcomes. Difficulties in linking social factors to ICF-CY categories indicate that additional EFs codes may need to be considered in the ICF-CY revision processes. The review provides empirical data on relationships between EFs and developmental outcomes in children with or at risk for motor delay.

  2. Adaptive feedback synchronisation of complex dynamical network with discrete-time communications and delayed nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Kuangrong

    2016-08-01

    This paper considered the synchronisation of continuous complex dynamical networks with discrete-time communications and delayed nodes. The nodes in the dynamical networks act in the continuous manner, while the communications between nodes are discrete-time; that is, they communicate with others only at discrete time instants. The communication intervals in communication period can be uncertain and variable. By using a piecewise Lyapunov-Krasovskii function to govern the characteristics of the discrete communication instants, we investigate the adaptive feedback synchronisation and a criterion is derived to guarantee the existence of the desired controllers. The globally exponential synchronisation can be achieved by the controllers under the updating laws. Finally, two numerical examples including globally coupled network and nearest-neighbour coupled networks are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  3. Hybrid Adaptive/Nonadaptive Delayed Signal Cancellation-Based Phase-Locked Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    To improve the disturbance rejection capability of phase-locked loops (PLLs), which are undoubtedly the most common synchronization tool in power and energy applications, using different filtering techniques have been suggested in the literature. Among these filtering strategies, the delayed signal...... cancellation (DSC) operator is highly popular probably because it can be easily tailored for different grid scenarios. The DSC operator(s) can be used either as an in-loop filter in the PLL structure or as a preprocessing filter before the PLL input. The latter case is often preferred mainly because it results...... in a faster dynamic response in the extraction of grid voltage parameters. In this paper, a combination of an adaptive DSC operator with multiple nonadaptive DSC operators is suggested as the PLL preprocessing stage. To compensate for the phase and amplitude errors caused by the nonadaptive operators...

  4. Adaptive Output Feedback Sliding Mode Control for Complex Interconnected Time-Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Van Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the decentralized output feedback sliding mode control (SMC scheme to stabilize a class of complex interconnected time-delay systems. First, sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived such that the equivalent reduced-order system in the sliding mode is asymptotically stable. Second, based on a new lemma, a decentralized adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to guarantee the finite time reachability of the system states by using output feedback only. The advantage of the proposed method is that two major assumptions, which are required in most existing SMC approaches, are both released. These assumptions are (1 disturbances are bounded by a known function of outputs and (2 the sliding matrix satisfies a matrix equation that guarantees the sliding mode. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

  5. Adaptive Cluster Synchronization for Nondelayed and Delayed Coupling Complex Networks with Nonidentical Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the cluster synchronization problem for a kind of general networks with nondelayed and delayed coupling. Based on the pinning control scheme, a small fraction of the nodes in each cluster are pinned for successful control, and the states of the whole dynamical networks can be globally forced to the objective cluster states. Sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee the realization of the cluster synchronization pattern for all initial values by means of the Lyapunov stability theorem and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. By using the adaptive update law, relative smaller control gains are obtained, and hence the control cost can be substantially lower. Numerical simulations are also exploited to demonstrate the effectiveness and validity of the main result.

  6. Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Nonstrict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems With Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yang, Haijiao; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhu, Yanzheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural output-feedback tracking controller is designed for a class of multiple-input and multiple-output nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems with time delay. The system coefficient and uncertain functions of our considered systems are both unknown. By employing neural networks to approximate the unknown function entries, and constructing a new input-driven filter, a backstepping design method of tracking controller is developed for the systems under consideration. The proposed controller can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop systems are ultimately bounded, and the time-varying target signal can be tracked within a small error as well. The main contributions of this paper lie in that the systems under consideration are more general, and an effective design procedure of output-feedback controller is developed for the considered systems, which is more applicable in practice. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Adaptive control for a class of MIMO nonlinear time delay systems against time varying actuator failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahnaz; Ghaisari, Jafar; Askari, Javad

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive controller for a class of Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with unknown parameters, bounded time delays and in the presence of unknown time varying actuator failures. The type of considered actuator failure is one in which some inputs may be stuck at some time varying values where the values, times and patterns of the failures are unknown. The proposed approach is constructed based on a backstepping design method. The boundedness of all the closed-loop signals is guaranteed and the tracking errors are proved to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The proposed approach is employed for a double inverted pendulums benchmark and a chemical reactor system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Italy: Delayed adaptation of social institutions to changes in family behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Zanatta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.

  9. Decentralised adaptive output feedback stabilisation for stochastic time-delay systems via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ticao; Xu, Shengyuan; Lu, Junwei; Wei, Yunliang; Zou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the decentralised output feedback stabilisation problem for a class of large-scale stochastic time-delay nonlinear systems. A general theorem is firstly given to guarantee the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for stochastic time-delay systems. In addition, a stochastic version of the well-known LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem with time-varying delay is initially proposed for the controller design and stability analysis. Then, for a class of large-scale stochastic systems with time-varying delays, totally decentralised adaptive delay-dependent controllers are designed by using K-filter and backstepping approach. Via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem and constructing a general Lyapunov function, it is shown that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded almost surely and the solution is almost surely asymptotically stable. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results of this paper.

  10. Adaptive control for a class of nonlinear systems with time-varying delays in state and input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the adaptive stabilization problem of uncertain input delayed systems.A solution to this problem is given for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with time-varying delays in both state and input.An adaptive asymptotically stabilizing controller,which can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system and the convergence of the original system state,is designed by means of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional stability theory combined with linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) an...

  11. L∞-gain adaptive fuzzy fault accommodation control design for nonlinear time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huai-Ning; Qiang, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Lei

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy fault accommodation (FA) control design with a guaranteed L(∞)-gain performance is developed for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with persistent bounded disturbances. Using the Lyapunov technique and the Razumikhin-type lemma, the existence condition of the L(∞) -gain adaptive fuzzy FA controllers is provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). In the proposed FA scheme, a fuzzy logic system is employed to approximate the unknown term in the derivative of the Lyapunov function due to the unknown fault function; a continuous-state feedback control strategy is adopted for the control design to avoid the undesirable chattering phenomenon. The resulting FA controllers can ensure that every response of the closed-loop system is uniformly ultimately bounded with a guaranteed L(∞)-gain performance in the presence of a fault. Moreover, by the existing LMI optimization technique, a suboptimal controller is obtained in the sense of minimizing an upper bound of the L(∞)-gain. Finally, the achieved simulation results on the FA control of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) show the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure.

  12. Depressive and anxiety symptom trajectories from school age through young adulthood in samples with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Katherine; Brunwasser, Steven M; Lord, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to model growth in anxiety and depressive symptoms from late school age through young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and controls with developmental delay (DD), and to assess relationships among internalizing growth patterns, participant characteristics, baseline predictors, and distal outcomes. Data were collected between ages 6 and 24 years in 165 participants (n = 109 with ASD; n = 56 with nonspectrum DD), most of whom received diagnostic evaluations in both childhood and early adulthood. Questionnaires were collected approximately every 3 to 6 months between ages 9 and 24 years. Parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL), and Developmental Behaviour Checklist anxiety- and depression-related subscale distributions were modeled with mixed-effects Poisson models, covarying diagnosis, age, verbal IQ (VIQ), gender, and significant 2- and 3-way interactions. Anxiety was positively associated with VIQ, and controlling for VIQ, both anxiety and depressive symptoms were greater in ASD than nonspectrum participants. Female gender predicted greater increases over time in anxiety and depressive symptoms for both diagnostic groups. Lower maternal education was associated with increasing internalizing symptoms in a subset of less verbal individuals with ASD. In exploratory post hoc analyses, internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer emotional regulation in school age, and with lower life satisfaction and greater social difficulties in early adulthood. Findings support previous claims that individuals with ASD are at particular risk for affect- and anxiety-specific problems. Although symptom levels in females increase at a faster rate throughout adolescence, males with ASD appear to have elevated levels of depressive symptoms in school age that are maintained into young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by

  13. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan HL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsiang-Lin Chan,1,2,* Wen-Sheng Liu,3–6,* Yi-Hsuan Hsieh,1,2 Chiao-Fan Lin,1,2 Tiing-Soon Ling,2,7 Yu-Shu Huang1,2 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Zhong-Xing Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6College of Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 7Department of Family Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion: Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation

  14. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children.Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (PConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.Keywords: Baby walker, Motor skills, Infants.   

  15. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children. Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (P<0.001.ConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.

  16. From tetrapods to primates: conserved developmental mechanisms in diverging ecological adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Montiel, Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Primates are endowed with a brain about twice the size that of a mammal with the same body size, and humans have the largest brain relative to body size of all animals. This increase in brain size may be related to the acquisition of higher cognitive skills that permitted more complex social interactions, the evolution of culture, and the eventual ability to manipulate the environment. Nevertheless, in its internal structure, the primate brain shares a very conserved design with other mammals, being covered by a six-layered neocortex that, although expands disproportionately to other brain components, it does so following relatively well-defined allometric trends. Thus, the most fundamental events generating the basic design of the primate and human brain took place before the appearance of the first primate-like animal. Presumably, the earliest mammals already displayed a brain morphology radically different from that of their ancestors and that of their sister group, the reptiles, being characterized by the presence of an incipient neocortex that underwent an explosive growth in subsequent mammal evolution. In this chapter, we propose an integrative hypothesis for the origin of the mammalian neocortex, by considering the developmental modifications, functional networks, and ecological adaptations involved in the generation of this structure during the cretaceous period. Subsequently, the expansion of the primate brain is proposed to have relied on the amplification of the same, or very similar, developmental mechanisms as those involved in its primary origins, even in different ecological settings.

  17. Acetabuloplasties at Open Reduction Prevent Acetabular Dysplasia in Intentionally Delayed Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsi, M Belen; Clarke, Nicholas M P

    2016-05-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) and residual acetabular dysplasia are the two main complications of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) treatment. Although early reduction of the hip may decrease the incidence of residual dysplasia, it may increase the incidence of AVN and vice versa. However, we do not know if changes in surgical technique may lead to a modification in these outcomes. Does an incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty, as an added step to delayed open reduction, (1) diminish the risk of developing acetabular dysplasia; or (2) increase the rate of AVN compared with patients treated with open reduction alone? We conducted a retrospective matched case-control study comparing 22 patients (27 hips) with early isolated DDH who underwent intentionally delayed open reduction and acetabuloplasty from 2004 to 2010 and followed up > 4 years (88% of the cohort) with early historic controls treated with delayed open reduction alone. Of 53 patients available for matching, 45 (85%) had enough followup (> 10 years) to be considered. They were matched one to one for age at presentation and bilaterality (fuzz 45, 0). This generated a control group of 25 patients (27 hips). The mean followup was different between the groups (p dysplasia considered when center-edge angle 30° and pelvic osteotomies were used as our primary outcomes. The proportion of patients with AVN was also compared. Patients treated with open reduction and an incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty were less likely to develop acetabular dysplasia and undergo pelvic osteotomies than were patients in the control group (0% [zero of 27] versus 37% [10 of 27]; odds ratio [OR], 11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2-80; p = 0.02 and 0% [zero of 27] versus 26% [seven of 27]; OR, 8; 95% CI, 1-60; p = 0.025, respectively). With the available numbers, there was no difference in terms of the proportion of patients who developed AVN (11 of 27 [41%] both groups; OR, 1; 95% CI, 1-2; p = 1). The addition of an

  18. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome with severe developmental delay associated with deletion of chromosomic region 7p15 --> pter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliatou, V; Mavrou, A; Kolialexi, A; Kanavakis, E; Kitsiou-Tzeli, S

    2007-01-01

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome represents one of the most common types of craniosynostosis inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder while sporadic cases have also been reported. It is characterized by high penetrance and variable expressivity, leading to difficulties in clinical diagnosis. Some patients, who exhibit most of the diagnostic criteria of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, have structural abnormalities of chromosome 7. The case of a 4 year old boy with notable dysmorphic features compatible with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and severe developmental delay is described. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood samples from the patient and his parents revealed partial monosomy of chromosomal region 7p15 --> pter de novo. The TWIST gene, located on chromosome 7p21.1, is thought to be a negative transcriptional regulator involved in osteoblast differentiation and maturation and it is thought that haploinsufficiency of the gene can cause the disorder. The diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and the identification of the chromosomal abnormality in the patient facilitated genetic counseling of the family.

  19. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Hunter, Jill V; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Saleh, Mohammed A; LeDuc, Charles A; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A; Chung, Wendy K; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W; Lupski, James R

    2016-03-03

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum.

  20. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Hunter, Jill V.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Saleh, Mohammed A.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum. PMID:26942288

  1. A boy with developmental delay, malformations, and evidence of a connective tissue disorder: possibly a new type of cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linlea; Jimenez, Carmencita; Hunter, Alasdair G W

    2003-05-15

    We report a 7.5-year-old boy with loose translucent skin, aortic dilatation, hyperextensible veins, recurrent respiratory problems, pectus excavatum, arthralgias, lax joints, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and umbilical and inguinal hernias. He also has developmental delay, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, an unusual facial appearance, terminal digit hypoplasia with unusual radiographic changes in some of the phalanges, glandular hypospadias, shawl scrotum, and undescended testes. Biochemical investigations, including electrophoresis of Types 1 and 3 procollagens and collagens, and quantification of serum copper and ceruloplasmin, are normal. Relative to age-matched control patients the electron micrographs of the boy's dermis show elastin fibers to be decreased in number, and abnormal in appearance, with a low matrix to microfibril ratio. The organ distribution of abnormalities and the nature of the findings suggest a connective tissue disorder. We contrast and compare this boy's phenotype to those of the classic connective tissue disorders. We conclude that he has cutis laxa with features that distinguish him from previously described types of cutis laxa.

  2. Parental Adaptation to Out-of-Home Placement of a Child with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ’07 for the population of Polish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this article is to present the cultural adaptation of the DCDQ’07 (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire as one of the popular and most frequently-used diagnostic instruments for diagnosing DCD in school-age children.

  4. Adaptations to walking on an uneven terrain for individuals with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, J; Barnett, A L; Wilmut, K

    2016-10-01

    Given the importance of walking in everyday life, understanding why this is challenging for some populations is particularly important. Studies focusing on gait patterns of individuals with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have shown that whilst increased variability is characteristic of walking patterns for this group, differences in spatio-temporal gait variables seem only to arise when task demands increase. However, these differences occur under rather artificial conditions, for example using a treadmill. The aim of this study, therefore was to examine the step characteristics of individuals with and without DCD whilst walking along an irregular terrain. Thirty-five individuals with DCD aged 8-32years and 35 age and gender-matched controls participated in this study. Participants were divided into 3 age groups; 8-12years (n=12), 13-17years (n=12) and 18-32years (n=11). Participants walked up and down a 6m walkway for two minutes on two terrains: level and irregular. VICON 3D motion analysis was used to extract measures of foot placement, velocity and angle of the head and trunk. Results showed that both groups adapted their gait to negotiate the irregular terrain, but the DCD group was more affected than their TD peers; walking significantly slower with shorter, wider steps and inclining their head more towards the ground. This suggests an adaptive approach used by individuals with DCD to preserve stability and increase visual sampling whilst negotiating an irregular terrain.

  5. Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gutermann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects. Objective: Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT, for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after childhood abuse. Method: Two independent raters assessed 30 randomly selected sessions involving 12 D-CPT patients (age 13–20 years, M age=16.75, 91.67% female treated by 11 therapists within the pilot phase of a multicenter study. Results: Three experts confirmed the relevance and appropriateness of each item. All items and total scores for adherence (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]=0.76–1.00 and competence (ICC=0.78–0.98 yielded good to excellent inter-rater reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.59 for the adherence scale and 0.96 for the competence scale. Conclusions: The scales reliably assess adherence and competence in D-CPT for adolescent PTSD patients. The ratings can be helpful in the interpretation of treatment effects, the assessment of mediator variables, and the identification and training of therapeutic skills that are central to achieving good treatment outcomes. Both adherence and competence will be assessed as possible predictor variables for treatment success in future D-CPT trials.

  6. Adaptive Variable Structure Control of MIMO Nonlinear Systems with Time-varying Delays and Unknown Dead-zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Ping Zhang; Cai-Ying Zhou; Qing Zhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, adaptive variable structure neural control is presented for a class of uncertain multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with state time-varying delays and unknown nonlincar dead-zones. The unknown time-varying delay uncertainties are compensated for using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals in the design. The approach removes the assumption of linear function outside the deadband without necessarily constructing a dead-zone inverse as an added contribution. By utilizing the integral-type Lyapunov function and introducing an adaptive compensation term for the uppcr bound of the residual and optimal approximation error as well as the dead-zone disturbance, the closed-loop control system is proved to be semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded. In addition, a modified adaptive control algorithm is given in order to avoid the high-frequency chattering phenomenon. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  7. Cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay, wrinkly skin syndrome and gerodermia osteodysplastica: a report of two unrelated patients and a literature review

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    Carlos Eduardo Steiner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two unrelated patients of different sexes are described, both presenting with congenital redundant skin (cutis laxa, growth deficiency, mental retardation and bone dystrophy. Parental consanguinity in both families and a more pronounced severity of the neurological disease in the male patient were present. Both patients were diagnosed in infancy as having De Barsy syndrome, but clinical follow-up revealed that the clinical picture was compatible with the diagnosis of cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay (CLGDD, gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO and wrinkly-skin syndrome (WWS. It has recently been suggested that cutis laxa with growth and developmental delay, gerodermia osteodysplastica and wrinkly skin syndrome are the same condition. A review concerning this diagnosis is also presented.

  8. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J.; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E.; Dick, James R.; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M.; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by ...

  9. 儿童发育迟缓监测研究进展%Advance in Surveillance of Developmental Delay of Children(review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱民

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental delay is a subset of developmental disabilities defined as significant delay in 2 or more of the following developmental domains: gross/fine motor, speech/language, cognition, social/personal, and activities of daily living, it was estimated to affect 1% to 3% of children. It is an important public health and social problem. Developmental surveillance is an important approach to early identification of developmental delay, early intervention and prevention of disability. In order to improve the effective of surveillance, 3 aspects were implemented including: laying down policies, improving screening tool and increasing rate of referrals.%儿童发育迟缓是发育性残疾的一种,特指6岁以下儿童在粗大运动/精细运动、语言/言语、认知、社会/个人、日常活动能力等发育领域中存在2个或2个以上的明显落后,现患率约为1%~3%,是重要的公共卫生和社会问题.发育监测是早期发现儿童发育迟缓、早期干预与预防儿童发育残疾的重要途径,为提高监测有效性,目前主要从政策推动、筛查方法、转诊等方面开展相关工作.

  10. Predictive wavefront control for Adaptive Optics with arbitrary control loop delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2007-10-30

    We present a modification of the closed-loop state space model for AO control which allows delays that are a non-integer multiple of the system frame rate. We derive the new forms of the Predictive Fourier Control Kalman filters for arbitrary delays and show that they are linear combinations of the whole-frame delay terms. This structure of the controller is independent of the delay. System stability margins and residual error variance both transition gracefully between integer-frame delays.

  11. Haploinsufficiency of HDAC4 causes brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome, with brachydactyly type E, developmental delays, and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen R; Aldred, Micheala A; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Halal, Fahed; Gowans, Gordon; McLeod, D Ross; Zondag, Sara; Toriello, Helga V; Magenis, R Ellen; Elsea, Sarah H

    2010-08-13

    Brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR) is associated with a deletion involving chromosome 2q37. BDMR presents with a range of features, including intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities (including brachydactyly type E), and autism spectrum disorder. To date, only large deletions of 2q37 have been reported, making delineation of a critical region and subsequent identification of candidate genes difficult. We present clinical and molecular analysis of six individuals with overlapping deletions involving 2q37.3 that refine the critical region, reducing the candidate genes from >20 to a single gene, histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Driven by the distinct hand and foot anomalies and similar cognitive features, we identified other cases with clinical findings consistent with BDMR but without a 2q37 deletion, and sequencing of HDAC4 identified de novo mutations, including one intragenic deletion probably disrupting normal splicing and one intragenic insertion that results in a frameshift and premature stop codon. HDAC4 is a histone deacetylase that regulates genes important in bone, muscle, neurological, and cardiac development. Reportedly, Hdac4(-/-) mice have severe bone malformations resulting from premature ossification of developing bones. Data presented here show that deletion or mutation of HDAC4 results in reduced expression of RAI1, which causes Smith-Magenis syndrome when haploinsufficient, providing a link to the overlapping findings in these disorders. Considering the known molecular function of HDAC4 and the mouse knockout phenotype, taken together with deletion or mutation of HDAC4 in multiple subjects with BDMR, we conclude that haploinsufficiency of HDAC4 results in brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome.

  12. Reduced cortical complexity in children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and its association with cognitive impairment and developmental delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akvile Lukoshe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms involving not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system dysfunction. Previously, qualitative studies reported polymicrogyria in adults with PWS. However, there have been no quantitative neuroimaging studies of cortical morphology in PWS and no studies to date in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate and quantify cortical complexity in children with PWS compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated differences between genetic subtypes of PWS and the relationship between cortical complexity and intelligence within the PWS group. METHODS: High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 24 children with genetically confirmed PWS (12 carrying a deletion (DEL, 12 with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD and 11 age- and sex-matched typically developing siblings as healthy controls. Local gyrification index (lGI was obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. RESULTS: Four large clusters, two in each hemisphere, comprising frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, had lower lGI in children with PWS, compared to healthy controls. Clusters with lower lGI also had significantly lower cortical surface area in children with PWS. No differences in cortical thickness of the clusters were found between the PWS and healthy controls. lGI correlated significantly with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness. Within the PWS group, lGI in both hemispheres correlated with Total IQ and Verbal IQ, but not with Performance IQ. Children with mUPD, compared to children with DEL, had two small clusters with lower lGI in the right hemisphere. lGI of these clusters correlated with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness or IQ. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lower cortical complexity in children with PWS partially underlies cognitive impairment and developmental delay, probably due to

  13. Control of Halo-Chaos in Beam Transport Network via Neural Network Adaptation with Time-Delayed Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jin-Qing; LUO Xiao-Shu; HUANG Guo-Xian

    2006-01-01

    Subject of the halo-chaos control in beam transport networks (channels) has become a key concerned issue for many important applications of high-current proton beam since 1990'. In this paper, the magnetic field adaptive control based on the neuralnetwork with time-delayed feedback is proposed for suppressing beam halo-chaos in the beam transport network with periodic focusing channels. The envelope radius of high-current proton beam is controlled to reach the matched beam radius by suitably selecting the control structure and parameter of the neural network, adjusting the delayed-time and control coefficient of the neural network.

  14. An adaptive line enhancement method for UWB proximity fuze signal processing based on correlation matrix estimation with time delay factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Zhonghua

    2016-10-01

    Signal processing for an ultra-wideband radio fuze receiver involves some challenges: it requires high real-time performance; the output signal is mixed with broadband noise; and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases with increased detection range. The adaptive line enhancement method is used to filter the output signal of the ultra-wideband radio fuze receiver, and thus suppress the wideband noise from the output signal of the receiver and extract the target characteristic signal. The filter input correlation matrix estimation algorithm is based on the delay factor of an adaptive line enhancer. The proposed adaptive algorithm was used to filter and reduce noise in the output signal from the fuze receiver. Simulation results showed that the SNR of the output signal after adaptive noise reduction was improved by 20 dB, which was higher than the SNR of the output signal after finite impulse response (FIR) filtering of around 10 dB.

  15. Effects of Choice of Reinforcement on the On-­‐Task Behavior of Kindergarten Students with Developmental Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Binette, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A high degree of external control is maintained in classrooms serving students with behavioral and developmental disabilities. However, decision making is an important developmental objective related to personal control and dignity. Choice making and discriminating preferred over less preferred outcomes is an important skill that is seldom taught to students with developmental disabilities. Previous research includes studies conducted in clinical settings or with populations with severe disab...

  16. Research on Adaptive Neural Network Control System Based on Nonlinear U-Model with Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available U-model can approximate a large class of smooth nonlinear time-varying delay system to any accuracy by using time-varying delay parameters polynomial. This paper proposes a new approach, namely, U-model approach, to solving the problems of analysis and synthesis for nonlinear systems. Based on the idea of discrete-time U-model with time-varying delay, the identification algorithm of adaptive neural network is given for the nonlinear model. Then, the controller is designed by using the Newton-Raphson formula and the stability analysis is given for the closed-loop nonlinear systems. Finally, illustrative examples are given to show the validity and applicability of the obtained results.

  17. Decentralized Adaptive Control of Large-Scale Non-Affine Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems Using Wavelet Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Saeedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a decentralized adaptive controller with using wavelet neural network is used for a class of large-scale nonlinear systems with time- delay unknown nonlinear non- affine subsystems. The entered interruptions in subsystems are considered nonlinear with time delay, this is closer the reality, compared with the case in which the delay is not considered for interruptions. In this paper, the output weights of wavelet neural network and the other parameters of wavelet are adjusted online. The stability of close loop system is guaranteed with using the Lyapanov- Krasovskii method. Moreover the stability of close loop systems, guaranteed tracking error is converging to neighborhood zero and also all of the signals in the close loop system are bounded. Finally, the proposed method, simulated and applied for the control of two inverted pendulums that connected by a spring and the computer results, show that the efficiency of suggested method in this paper.

  18. Adaptive NN backstepping output-feedback control for stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Jiao, Licheng; Li, Jing; Li, Ruihong

    2010-06-01

    For the first time, this paper addresses the problem of adaptive output-feedback control for a class of uncertain stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems with time-varying delays using neural networks (NNs). The circle criterion is applied to designing a nonlinear observer, and no linear growth condition is imposed on nonlinear functions depending on system states. Under the assumption that time-varying delays exist in the system output, only an NN is employed to compensate for all unknown nonlinear terms depending on the delayed output, and thus, the proposed control algorithm is more simple even than the existing NN backstepping control schemes for uncertain systems described by ordinary differential equations. Three examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control scheme proposed in this paper.

  19. Memory State-Feedback Stabilization for a Class of Time-Delay Systems with a Type of Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilization of a class of systems with time delay is studied using adaptive control. With the help of the “error to error” technique and the separated “descriptor form” technique, the memory state-feedback controller is designed. The adaptive controller designed can guarantee asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system via a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Some sufficient conditions are derived for the stabilization together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI design approach. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control design methodology is demonstrated in numerical simulations.

  20. Variable Delay With Directly-Modulated R-SOA and Optical Filters for Adaptive Antenna Radio-Fiber Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Presi, Marco; Chiuchiarelli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    on a directly-modulated reflective emiconductor amplifier (R-SOA) and exploits the interplay between transmission-line dispersion and tunable optical filtering to achieve flexible true time delay, with $2pi$ beam steering at the different antennas. The system was characterized, then successfully tested with two......We present an all-optical adaptive-antenna radio over fiber transport system that uses proven, commercially-available components to effectively deliver standard-compliant optical signaling to adaptive multiantenna arrays for current and emerging radio technology implementations. The system is based...

  1. Output Feedback Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Uncertain Time Delays via RBFNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an adaptive dynamic surface control based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network for a fourth-order permanent magnet synchronous motor system wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, chaos, and uncertain time delays are presented. Neural Network systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate accurate parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller has been obtained by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been illustrated through simulation results.

  2. General solution to diagonal model matching control of multiple-output-delay systems and its applications in adaptive scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingmin Jia

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the model matching problem of multiple-output-delay systems in which the reference model is assigned to a diagonal transfer function matrix.A new model matching controller structure is first developed,and then,it is shown that the controller is feasible if and only if the sets of Diophantine equations have common solutions.The obtained controller allows a parametric representation,which shows that an adaptive scheme can be used to tolerate parameter variations in the plants.The resulting adaptive law can guarantee the global stability of the closed-loop systems and the convergence of the output error.

  3. Disruption of the acyl-coa binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Bloksgaard, Maria; Sørensen, Signe Bek;

    2011-01-01

    , little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice go through a crisis with overall weakness, and a slightly decreased growth...... rate. Using microarray analysis we show that the liver of ACBP-/- mice display a significantly delayed adaptation to weaning with late induction of target genes of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) family. As a result, hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is decreased at weaning....... The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning and leads...

  4. Adaptive neural tracking control of a class of MIMO pure-feedback time-delay nonlinear systems with input saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yue, Dong; Yuan, Deming

    2016-11-01

    Considering interconnections among subsystems, we propose an adaptive neural tracking control scheme for a class of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) non-affine pure-feedback time-delay nonlinear systems with input saturation. Neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate unknown functions in the design procedure, and the separation technology is introduced here to tackle the problem induced from unknown time-delay items. The adaptive neural tracking control scheme is constructed by combining Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, NNs, the auxiliary system, the implicit function theory and the mean value theorem along with the dynamic surface control technique. Also, it is proven that the strategy guarantees tracking errors converge to a small neighbourhood around the origin by appropriate choice of design parameters and all signals in the closed-loop system uniformly ultimately bounded. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  5. Adaptive Generalized Projective Synchronization of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Drive-response Dynamical Networks with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Ai

    2012-02-01

    Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle, a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor. A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived. Moreover, numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.

  6. Studies on effects of feedback delay on the convergence performance of adaptive time-domain equalizers for fiber dispersive channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qun; Xu, Bo; Qiu, Kun

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive time-domain equalizer (TDE) is an important module for digital optical coherent receivers. From an implementation perspective, we analyze and compare in detail the effects of error signal feedback delay on the convergence performance of TDE using either least-mean square (LMS) or constant modulus algorithm (CMA). For this purpose, a simplified theoretical model is proposed based on which iterative equations on the mean value and the variance of the tap coefficient are derived with or without error signal feedback delay for both LMS- and CMA-based methods for the first time. The analytical results show that decreased step size has to be used for TDE to converge and a slower convergence speed cannot be avoided as the feedback delay increases. Compared with the data-aided LMS-based method, the CMA-based method has a slower convergence speed and larger variation after convergence. Similar results are confirmed using numerical simulations for fiber dispersive channels. As the step size increases, a feedback delay of 20 clock cycles might cause the TDE to diverge. Compared with the CMA-based method, the LMS-based method has a higher tolerance on the feedback delay and allows a larger step size for a faster convergence speed.

  7. Rolling bearing fault diagnosis based on time-delayed feedback monostable stochastic resonance and adaptive minimum entropy deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2017-08-01

    Rolling bearings are the key components in the modern machinery, and tough operation environments often make them prone to failure. However, due to the influence of the transmission path and background noise, the useful feature information relevant to the bearing fault contained in the vibration signals is weak, which makes it difficult to identify the fault symptom of rolling bearings in time. Therefore, the paper proposes a novel weak signal detection method based on time-delayed feedback monostable stochastic resonance (TFMSR) system and adaptive minimum entropy deconvolution (MED) to realize the fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. The MED method is employed to preprocess the vibration signals, which can deconvolve the effect of transmission path and clarify the defect-induced impulses. And a modified power spectrum kurtosis (MPSK) index is constructed to realize the adaptive selection of filter length in the MED algorithm. By introducing the time-delayed feedback item in to an over-damped monostable system, the TFMSR method can effectively utilize the historical information of input signal to enhance the periodicity of SR output, which is beneficial to the detection of periodic signal. Furthermore, the influence of time delay and feedback intensity on the SR phenomenon is analyzed, and by selecting appropriate time delay, feedback intensity and re-scaling ratio with genetic algorithm, the SR can be produced to realize the resonance detection of weak signal. The combination of the adaptive MED (AMED) method and TFMSR method is conducive to extracting the feature information from strong background noise and realizing the fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. Finally, some experiments and engineering application are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed AMED-TFMSR method in comparison with a traditional bistable SR method.

  8. Adaptive variable structure control for large-scale time-delayed systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Qikun; Zhang Tianping

    2007-01-01

    The problem of adaptive fuzzy control for a class of large-scale, time-delayed systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone is discussed here. Based on the principle of variable structure control, a design scheme of adaptive, decentralized, variable structure control is proposed. The approach removes the conditions that the dead-zone slopes and boundaries are equal and symmetric, respectively. In addition, it does not require that the assumptions that all parameters of the nonlinear dead-zone model and the lumped uncertainty are known constants. The adaptive compensation terms of the approximation errors are adopted to minimize the influence of modeling errors and parameter estimation errors. By theoretical analysis, the closed-loop control system is proved to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded, with tracking errors converging to zero. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. Neural Network-Based Adaptive Leader-Following Consensus Control for a Class of Nonlinear Multiagent State-Delay Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoxing; Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Yan-Jun; Liu, Zhi

    2016-10-11

    Compared with the existing neural network (NN) or fuzzy logic system (FLS) based adaptive consensus methods, the proposed approach can greatly alleviate the computation burden because it needs only to update a few adaptive parameters online. In the multiagent agreement control, the system uncertainties derive from the unknown nonlinear dynamics are counteracted by employing the adaptive NNs; the state delays are compensated by designing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Finally, based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is demonstrated that the proposed consensus scheme can steer a multiagent system synchronizing to the predefined reference signals. Two simulation examples, a numerical multiagent system and a practical multimanipulator system, are carried out to further verify and testify the effectiveness of the proposed agreement approach.

  10. Adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in local system on prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-01-01

    This article includes the analysis of possibility specific adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in Local System of Prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model.

  11. Adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in local system on prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of possibility specific adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in Local System of Prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model.

  12. Pathogenic Variant in ACTB, p.Arg183Trp, Causes Juvenile-Onset Dystonia, Hearing Loss, and Developmental Delay without Midline Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Conboy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ACTB encodes the β-actin, and pathogenic variations in this gene have typically been associated with Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome, a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by short stature, craniofacial anomalies, and cerebral anomalies. Here, we describe the third case with the p.Arg183Trp variant in ACTB causing juvenile-onset dystonia. Our patient has severe, intractable dystonia, developmental delay, and sensorineural hearing loss, besides hyperintensities in the caudate nuclei and putamen on the brain MRI, which is a distinct but overlapping phenotype with the previously reported case of identical twins with the same alteration in ACTB.

  13. An FPGA Implementation of a Polychronous Spiking Neural Network with Delay Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runchun; Cohen, Gregory; Stiefel, Klaus M; Hamilton, Tara Julia; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André

    2013-01-01

    We present an FPGA implementation of a re-configurable, polychronous spiking neural network with a large capacity for spatial-temporal patterns. The proposed neural network generates delay paths de novo, so that only connections that actually appear in the training patterns will be created. This allows the proposed network to use all the axons (variables) to store information. Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity is used to fine-tune and add dynamics to the network. We use a time multiplexing approach allowing us to achieve 4096 (4k) neurons and up to 1.15 million programmable delay axons on a Virtex 6 FPGA. Test results show that the proposed neural network is capable of successfully recalling more than 95% of all spikes for 96% of the stored patterns. The tests also show that the neural network is robust to noise from random input spikes.

  14. From parent-child mutuality to security to socialization outcomes: developmental cascade toward positive adaptation in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age eight. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS. The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident.

  15. Based on interval type-2 adaptive fuzzy H∞ tracking controller for SISO time-delay nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Chih; Roopaei, Mehdi

    2010-12-01

    In this article, based on the adaptive interval type-2 fuzzy logic, by adjusting weights, centers and widths of proposed fuzzy neural network (FNN), the modeling errors can be eliminated for a class of SISO time-delay nonlinear systems. The proposed scheme has the advantage that can guarantee the H∞ tracking performance to attenuate the lumped uncertainties caused by the unmodelled dynamics, the approximation error and the external disturbances. Moreover, the stability analysis of the proposed control scheme will be guaranteed in the sense that all the states and signals are uniformly bounded and arbitrary small attenuation level. The simulation results are demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the advocated design methodology.

  16. Disruption of the Acyl-CoA binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Bloksgaard, Maria;

    -CoA esters between different enzymatic systems. However, little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice show decreased growth...... to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP causes elevated levels of plasma and hepatic lipids during weaning, which interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning by delaying induction of the lipogenic gene programs in the liver....

  17. SHARP - III. First use of adaptive-optics imaging to constrain cosmology with gravitational lens time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Geoff C.-F.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I. Shing; Auger, Matthew W.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Lagattuta, David J.; McKean, John P.; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-11-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the Hubble constant with an uncertainty of ˜7 per cent. Since HST will not last forever, we explore adaptive-optics (AO) imaging as an alternative that can provide higher angular resolution than HST imaging but has a less stable point spread function (PSF) due to atmospheric distortion. To make AO imaging useful for time-delay-lens cosmography, we develop a method to extract the unknown PSF directly from the imaging of strongly lensed quasars. In a blind test with two mock data sets created with different PSFs, we are able to recover the important cosmological parameters (time-delay distance, external shear, lens-mass profile slope, and total Einstein radius). Our analysis of the Keck AO image of the strong lens system RXJ 1131-1231 shows that the important parameters for cosmography agree with those based on HST imaging and modelling within 1σ uncertainties. Most importantly, the constraint on the model time-delay distance by using AO imaging with 0.09 arcsec resolution is tighter by ˜50 per cent than the constraint of time-delay distance by using HST imaging with 0.09 arcsec when a power-law mass distribution for the lens system is adopted. Our PSF reconstruction technique is generic and applicable to data sets that have multiple nearby point sources, enabling scientific studies that require high-precision models of the PSF.

  18. Deletion of SNURF / SNRPN U1B and U1B* upstream exons in a child with developmental delay and excessive weight

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    COSTAS KOUFARIS; ANGELOS ALEXANDROU; IOANNIS PAPAEVRIPIDOU; IOANNA ALEXANDROU; VIOLETTA CHRISTOPHIDOU- ANASTASIADOU; CAROLINA SISMANI

    2016-09-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay and excessive appetite. This syndrome is caused by the loss of function of paternally-expressed genes located in an imprinting centre in 15q11-q13. Here, we report the case of a patient who was referred to us with Prader–Willi syndrome-like symptoms including obesity and developmental delay. Examination of this patient revealed that he was a carrier of a paternally inherited deletion that affected the U1B and U1B* upstream exons of the SNURF–SNRNP gene within the 15q11-q13 imprinted region. Mutations localized within this genomic region have not been previously reported in Prader–Willi syndrome patients. It is possible that disruption of upstream exons of SNURF–SNRNP could contribute to Prader–Willi phenotype by disrupting brain-specific alternative transcripts, although, case reports from further patients with a comparable phenotype are required

  19. The Fate of Early Experience Following Developmental Change: Longitudinal Approaches to Individual Adaptation in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined Bowlby's proposition that early experiences and the adaptations to which they give rise influence later development, even beyond the influence of current circumstances or very recent adaptation. Groups whose adaptation were similar during preschool years but consistently different earlier were defined and compared. Results supported…

  20. The Parental Concerns Questionnaire: A Brief Screening Instrument for Potentially Severe Behavior Problems in Infants and Toddlers At-Risk for Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stephen R; Rojahn, Johannes; An, Xiaozhu; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; Leblanc, Judith

    2014-04-01

    The Parental Concerns Questionnaire (PCQ) was designed as a parent-interview screening instrument for young children with developmental concerns at risk for potentially severe behavior problems (SBDs). Parents of 262 young children (4 to 48 months) answered to the 15 dichotomous PCQ items interviewed by trained staff. Cluster analysis for items revealed three item clusters, which we labeled Developmental/Social (8 items), Biomedical (3 items), and Behavior Problems (3 items). This paper discussed primarily the Behavior Problems cluster, with items referring to self-injurious, aggressive, and destructive behaviors. Parents' concerns about behavior problems were high, with item-endorsements of the Behavior Problems cluster ranging from 41.8 % to 68.8 %. The Behavior Problems cluster was significantly correlated with all three subscales of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), with select subscales of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and with the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) providing some evidence for concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity data were computed for the three PCQ items as well as for the cluster score in comparison with the BPI-01, ABC, and RBS-R showing strong sensitivity. The PCQ Behavior Problems cluster is a useful screening checklist with high sensitivity for potential SBDs in young children at-risk for developmental delays.

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  2. Impairments in Monkey and Human Face Recognition in 2-Year-Old Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition impairments are well documented in older children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); however, the developmental course of the deficit is not clear. This study investigates the progressive specialization of face recognition skills in children with and without ASD. Experiment 1 examines human and monkey face recognition in…

  3. Output-feedback adaptive neural control for stochastic nonlinear time-varying delay systems with unknown control directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tieshan; Li, Zifu; Wang, Dan; Chen, C L Philip

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an adaptive output-feedback neural network (NN) control scheme for a class of stochastic nonlinear time-varying delay systems with unknown control directions. To make the controller design feasible, the unknown control coefficients are grouped together and the original system is transformed into a new system using a linear state transformation technique. Then, the Nussbaum function technique is incorporated into the backstepping recursive design technique to solve the problem of unknown control directions. Furthermore, under the assumption that the time-varying delays exist in the system output, only one NN is employed to compensate for all unknown nonlinear terms depending on the delayed output. Moreover, by estimating the maximum of NN parameters instead of the parameters themselves, the NN parameters to be estimated are greatly decreased and the online learning time is also dramatically decreased. It is shown that all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded in probability. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by the simulation results.

  4. Adaptive Generalized Projective Synchronization of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Drive-response Dynamical Networks with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yong-Ai

    2012-01-01

    Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle, a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor. A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived. Moreover, numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.%Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks.Based on the LaSalle invariant principle,a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor.A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived.Moreover,numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.

  5. Adaptive Delayed Acknowledgement Algorithm for MPEG-4 Traffic in UWB Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; DAI Qionghai; WU Qiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Although ultra-wideband transmission rates are very high in the physical layer, the bandwidth utili-zation efficiency is very low in the medium access control (MAC) layer. The bandwidth utilization efficiencycan be improved and the quality of service for delay-sensitive variable bit rate traffic such as high rate mo-tion picture experts group (MPEG)-4 traffic can be guaranteed by a simple and efficient algorithm that dy-namically sets the burst size of the delayed-acknowledgement (Dly-ACK) based on the IEEE 802.15.3 stan-dard. The burst size was adjusted in response to the wireless channel quality. Furthermore, the burst sizewas bounded by a maximum acknowledgement burst size setting and the remaining number of un-receivedblocks of a current supra-block. Simulation results show that the method achieves significant performanceenhancement in the job failure rate and throughput compared to immediate-acknowledgement (Imm-ACK)and other fixed burst size Dly-ACK schemes. This algorithm can also be applied in generalized time divisionmultiple access (TDMA) systems by using the block acknowledgement mechanism for delay sensitive traffic.

  6. Adaptive developmental plasticity: Compartmentalized responses to environmental cues and corresponding internal signals provide phenotypic flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateus, A.R.A.; Marques-Pita, M.; Oostra, V.; Lafuente, E.; Brakefield, P.M.; Zwaan, B.J.; Beldade, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The environmental regulation of development can result in the production of distinct phenotypes from the same genotype and provide the means for organisms to cope with environmental heterogeneity. The effect of the environment on developmental outcomes is typically mediated by hormonal si

  7. Postural Adaptations to a Suprapostural Memory Task among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chang, Chihu-Hui; Wade, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the effects of varying the cognitive demands of a memory task (a suprapostural task) while recording postural motion on two groups of children, one diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and an age-matched group of typically developing children. Method: Two groups, each comprising 38 child…

  8. Status adaptive routing with delayed rebroadcast scheme in AODV-based MANETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ting; TANG Rui-bo; JI Hong

    2008-01-01

    An efficient solution is proposed in this article to determine the best reliable route and to prolong the lifetime of the mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs). In the proposed solution, the route discovery process of the Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol (AODV) has been modified using a novel delayed rebroadcast scheme. It combines the shortest route selection criterion of AODV with the real network status including the wireless link quality, the remaining power capacity, as well as the traffic load at each node. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can significantly extend the network lifetime and provide fewer packet losses than the conventional AODV protocol.

  9. Tcf4 transgenic female mice display delayed adaptation in an auditory latent inhibition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Rossner, M J; de Hoz, L

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1 % of the human population. Patients show severe deficits in cognitive processing often characterized by an improper filtering of environmental stimuli. Independent genome-wide association studies confirmed a number of risk variants for SZ including several associated with the gene encoding the transcription factor 4 (TCF4). TCF4 is widely expressed in the central nervous system of mice and humans and seems to be important for brain development. Transgenic mice overexpressing murine Tcf4 (Tcf4tg) in the adult brain display cognitive impairments and sensorimotor gating disturbances. To address the question of whether increased Tcf4 gene dosage may affect cognitive flexibility in an auditory associative task, we tested latent inhibition (LI) in female Tcf4tg mice. LI is a widely accepted translational endophenotype of SZ and results from a maladaptive delay in switching a response to a previously unconditioned stimulus when this becomes conditioned. Using an Audiobox, we pre-exposed Tcf4tg mice and their wild-type littermates to either a 3- or a 12-kHz tone before conditioning them to a 12-kHz tone. Tcf4tg animals pre-exposed to a 12-kHz tone showed significantly delayed conditioning when the previously unconditioned tone became associated with an air puff. These results support findings that associate TCF4 dysfunction with cognitive inflexibility and improper filtering of sensory stimuli observed in SZ patients.

  10. Adaptive Transmitter Optimization in Multiuser Multiantenna Systems: Theoretical Limits, Effect of Delays, and Performance Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardzija Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in programmable and reconfigurable radios have rendered feasible transmitter optimization schemes that can greatly improve the performance of multiple-antenna multiuser systems. Reconfigurable radio platforms are particularly suitable for implementation of transmitter optimization at the base station. We consider the downlink of a wireless system with multiple transmit antennas at the base station and a number of mobile terminals (i.e., users each with a single receive antenna. Under an average transmit power constraint, we consider the maximum achievable sum data rates in the case of (1 zero-forcing (ZF spatial prefilter, (2 modified zero-forcing (MZF spatial prefilter, and (3 triangularization spatial prefilter coupled with dirty-paper coding (DPC transmission scheme. We show that the triangularization with DPC approaches the closed-loop MIMO rates (upper bound for higher SNRs. Further, the MZF solution performs very well for lower SNRs, while for higher SNRs, the rates for the ZF solution converge to the MZF rates. An important impediment that degrades the performance of such transmitter optimization schemes is the delay in channel state information (CSI. We characterize the fundamental limits of performance in the presence of delayed CSI and then propose performance enhancements using a linear MMSE predictor of the CSI that can be used in conjunction with transmitter optimization in multiple-antenna multiuser systems.

  11. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-03-01

    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance.

  12. Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems with Unknown Dead-Zone Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang-Cheng Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tracking control problem of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown dead-zone input is tackled by a robust adaptive fuzzy control scheme. Because the nonlinear gain function and the uncertainties of the controlled system including matched and unmatched uncertainties are supposed to be unknown, fuzzy logic systems are employed to approximate the nonlinear gain function and the upper bounded functions of these uncertainties. Moreover, the upper bound of the uncertainty caused by the fuzzy modeling error is also estimated. According to these learning fuzzy models and some feasible adaptive laws, a robust adaptive fuzzy tracking controller is developed in this paper without constructing the dead-zone inverse. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, the proposed controller not only guarantees that the robust stability of the whole closed-loop system in the presence of uncertainties and unknown dead-zone input can be achieved, but it also obtains that the output tracking error can converge to a neighborhood of zero exponentially. Some simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach.

  13. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SEROTONIN SIGNALING: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY BRAIN FUNCTION, BEHAVIOR AND ADAPTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRUMMELTE, S.; GLANAGHY, E. MC; BONNIN, A.; OBERLANDER, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a central role in brain development, regulation of mood, stress reactivity and risk of psychiatric disorders, and thus alterations in 5-HT signaling early in life have critical implications for behavior and mental health across the life span. Drawing on preclinical and emerging human evidence this narrative review paper will examine three key aspects when considering the consequences of early life changes in 5-HT: (1) developmental origins of variations of 5-HT signaling; (2) influence of genetic and epigenetic factors; and (3) preclinical and clinical consequences of 5-HT-related changes associated with antidepressant exposure (SSRIs). The developmental consequences of altered prenatal 5-HT signaling varies greatly and outcomes depend on an ongoing interplay between biological (genetic/epigenetic variations) and environmental factors, both pre and postnatally. Emerging evidence suggests that variations in 5-HT signaling may increase sensitivity to risky home environments, but may also amplify a positive response to a nurturing environment. In this sense, factors that change central 5-HT levels may act as ‘plasticity’ rather than ‘risk’ factors associated with developmental vulnerability. Understanding the impact of early changes in 5-HT levels offers critical insights that might explain the variations in early typical brain development that underlies behavioral risk. PMID:26905950

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a Family Quality of Life Scale for Taiwanese Families of Children With Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Yu; Seo, Hyojeong; Turnbull, Ann P; Summers, Jean Ann

    2017-04-01

    The Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale is an internationally validated instrument for measuring family outcomes. To revise the scale for better alignment with the Family Quality of Life theory, the authors excluded non-outcome items in this revision. In this study, we examined reliability and validity of the revised scale (i.e., the FQoL Scale-21) and its scores for Taiwanese families of children and youth with intellectual disability and developmental delay (age 0-18). Results from 400 Taiwanese respondents suggested that the FQoL Scale-21 has the potential to be used as an indicator of positive outcomes in intervention evaluation, policy making, and service delivery.

  15. Adaptable System Increasing the Transmission Speed and Reliability in Packet Network by Optimizing Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Kocur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great diversity in the transmission technologies in current data networks. Individual technologies are in most cases incompatible at physical and partially also at the link layer of the reference ISO/OSI model. Network compatibility, as the ability to transmit data, is realizable through the third layer, which is able to guarantee the operation of the different devices across their technological differences. The proposed inverse packet multiplexer addresses increase of the speed and reliability of packet transmission to the third layer, and at the same time it increases the stability of the data communication by the regulation of the delay value during the transmission. This article presents implementation of a communication system and its verification in real conditions. The conclusion compares the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed control system.

  16. A brief review of risk-factors for growth and developmental delay among preschool children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highly prevalent risk factors influencing growth and development among pre-school children in rural population of developing countries. A child′s brain during the first 3 years of life is rapidly developing through generation of neurons, synaptogenesis, axonal, and dendric growth and synaptic pruning each of which build upon each other. Any interruption in this process, such as trauma, stress, under-nutrition or lack of nutrients can have long-term effects on the brain′s structure and on the child′s socio-emotional development. Children′s development is essentially cumulative in nature and hence, the early years of life are the foundation for later development. A Med-line search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on evaluation of risk factors influencing child development. Data were constructed and issues were reviewed from there. Influences upon children′s development tend to be specific in nature and developmental influences rarely operate in isolation from each other. Developmental risk factors tend to cluster together thereby, interventions designed to facilitate development must be multifocal in nature, integrating influences from different domains.

  17. Adaptive fuzzy output-feedback controller design for nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown control direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Chang-Chun; Wang, Qing-Guo; Guan, Xin-Ping

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the robust-control problem is investigated for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems via dynamic output-feedback approach. The considered system is in the strict-feedback form with unknown control direction. A full-order observer is constructed with the gains computed via linear matrix inequality at first. Then, with the bounds of uncertain functions known, we design the dynamic output-feedback controller such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable. Furthermore, when the bound functions of uncertainties are not available, the adaptive fuzzy-logic system is employed to approximate the uncertain function, and the corresponding output-feedback controller is designed. It is shown that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in the sense of semiglobal uniform ultimate boundedness. Finally, simulations are done to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  18. Observer-Based Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for a Class of Nonlinear Time Delay Systems with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ming Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive iterative learning control scheme for the output tracking of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-varying delays and input saturation nonlinearity. An observer is presented to estimate the states and linear matrix inequality (LMI method is employed for observer design. The assumption of identical initial condition for ILC is relaxed by introducing boundary layer function. The possible singularity problem is avoided by introducing hyperbolic tangent function. The uncertainties with time-varying delays are compensated for by the combination of appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and Young’s inequality. Both time-varying and time-invariant radial basis function neural networks are employed to deal with system uncertainties. On the basis of a property of hyperbolic tangent function, the system output is proved to converge to a small neighborhood of the desired trajectory by constructing Lyapunov-like composite energy function in two cases, while keeping all the closed-loop signals bounded. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Recurrent-Neural-Network-Based Multivariable Adaptive Control for a Class of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems With Time-Varying Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Lyang; Jan, Chau

    2016-02-01

    At the beginning, an approximate nonlinear autoregressive moving average (NARMA) model is employed to represent a class of multivariable nonlinear dynamic systems with time-varying delay. It is known that the disadvantages of robust control for the NARMA model are as follows: 1) suitable control parameters for larger time delay are more sensitive to achieving desirable performance; 2) it only deals with bounded uncertainty; and 3) the nominal NARMA model must be learned in advance. Due to the dynamic feature of the NARMA model, a recurrent neural network (RNN) is online applied to learn it. However, the system performance becomes deteriorated due to the poor learning of the larger variation of system vector functions. In this situation, a simple network is employed to compensate the upper bound of the residue caused by the linear parameterization of the approximation error of RNN. An e -modification learning law with a projection for weight matrix is applied to guarantee its boundedness without persistent excitation. Under suitable conditions, the semiglobally ultimately bounded tracking with the boundedness of estimated weight matrix is obtained by the proposed RNN-based multivariable adaptive control. Finally, simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control.

  20. Adaptive statistic tracking control based on two-step neural networks with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yang; Guo, Lei; Wang, Hong

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of control framework for dynamical stochastic systems, called statistic tracking control (STC). The system considered is general and non-Gaussian and the tracking objective is the statistical information of a given target probability density function (pdf), rather than a deterministic signal. The control aims at making the statistical information of the output pdfs to follow those of a target pdf. For such a control framework, a variable structure adaptive tracking control strategy is first established using two-step neural network models. Following the B-spline neural network approximation to the integrated performance function, the concerned problem is transferred into the tracking of given weights. The dynamic neural network (DNN) is employed to identify the unknown nonlinear dynamics between the control input and the weights related to the integrated function. To achieve the required control objective, an adaptive controller based on the proposed DNN is developed so as to track a reference trajectory. Stability analysis for both the identification and tracking errors is developed via the use of Lyapunov stability criterion. Simulations are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  1. Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Ionel; Hoelle, Katharina; Angiolini, Emily; Constância, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The placenta is a transient organ found in eutherian mammals that evolved primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus, thereby regulating intrauterine development. Recent studies show that the placenta is not just a passive organ mediating maternal-fetal exchange. It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. However, some of these adaptations may also affect the development of individual fetal tissues, with patho-physiological consequences long after birth. Here, this review summarizes current knowledge on the causes, possible mechanisms and consequences of placental adaptive responses, with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles that imprinted genes and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play in placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social skills and developmental delay: importance in predicting the auditory and speech outcomes after cochlear implantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Soo; Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Ahn, Jungmin; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-02-01

    Preoperative evaluation of social interaction and global development levels using the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd edition (BSID-II) may be beneficial in predicting the postoperative outcome in pediatric cochlear implant recipients. In particular, cautious preoperative counseling regarding the poor postoperative prognosis may be necessary in children with low social skills and developmental status. To determine the clinical benefit of preoperative evaluation of social interaction and global development levels using VSMS and BSID-II in predicting the postoperative outcome in pediatric cochlear implant recipients. A total of 65 deaf children who underwent cochlear implantation (CI) were included in this study. Age at the time of implantation ranged from 12 to 76 months. All of the children underwent a comprehensive preimplant psychological assessment by a clinical psychologist. The VSMS and BSID-II were used for evaluating social skills and a child's development preoperatively. A social quotient (SQ) was calculated by using the VSMS for each subject using the following formula: (social age/chronological age) × 100. The auditory perception and speech production abilities were evaluated using the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scale and the Korean version of the Ling's stage (K-Ling), respectively, at 1 year after CI. The associations between the preoperative SQ/developmental levels and the postoperative auditory/speech outcomes were evaluated. The mean SQ was significantly decreased in the enrolled children (90.6 ± 26.1). The improvement in CAP score at 1 year after CI was correlated with preoperative SQ. The improvements in phonemic and phonologic levels of K-Ling were correlated with preoperative VSMS and BSID-II scores.

  3. Children's Conscience during Toddler and Preschool Years, Moral Self, and a Competent, Adaptive Developmental Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Koenig, Jamie L.; Barry, Robin A.; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether children's robust conscience, formed during early family socialization, promotes their future adaptive and competent functioning in expanded ecologies. We assessed two dimensions of conscience in young children (N = 100) at 25, 38, and 52 months in scripted laboratory contexts: internalization of their mothers' and fathers'…

  4. Thyroid Allostasis–Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Chatzitomaris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid feedback control is a dynamic, adaptive system. In situations of illness and deprivation of energy representing type 1 allostasis, the stress response operates to alter both its set point and peripheral transfer parameters. In contrast, type 2 allostatic load, typically effective in psychosocial stress, pregnancy, metabolic syndrome, and adaptation to cold, produces a nearly opposite phenotype of predictive plasticity. The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS or thyroid allostasis in critical illness, tumors, uremia, and starvation (TACITUS, commonly observed in hospitalized patients, displays a historically well-studied pattern of allostatic thyroid response. This is characterized by decreased total and free thyroid hormone concentrations and varying levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH ranging from decreased (in severe cases to normal or even elevated (mainly in the recovery phase TSH concentrations. An acute versus chronic stage (wasting syndrome of TACITUS can be discerned. The two types differ in molecular mechanisms and prognosis. The acute adaptation of thyroid hormone metabolism to critical illness may prove beneficial to the organism, whereas the far more complex molecular alterations associated with chronic illness frequently lead to allostatic overload. The latter is associated with poor outcome, independently of the underlying disease. Adaptive responses of thyroid homeostasis extend to alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations during fetal life, periods of weight gain or loss, thermoregulation, physical exercise, and psychiatric diseases. The various forms of thyroid allostasis pose serious problems in differential diagnosis of thyroid disease. This review article provides an overview of physiological mechanisms as well as major diagnostic and therapeutic implications of thyroid allostasis under a variety of developmental and straining conditions.

  5. Adaptation to a spouse's disability by parents of adult children with mental illness or developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subharati; Greenberg, Jan S; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the effects on well-being of a spouse's disability among aging parents already serving as caregivers of adult children with severe mental illness or a developmental disability. The study sample consisted of two groups of participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study of 1957 high school graduates and their randomly selected siblings-those who had a child with a disability (N=227) and a matched comparison group of parents who did not have a child with a disability (N=1,463). The participants were surveyed in 1992-1994 and 2004-2006, and participants with a spouse with a disability in 1992-1994 were excluded from the analysis. The effect of multiple caregiving roles was investigated by using regression analysis. Parents of adult children with severe mental illness were more likely than either parents of adult children with developmental disabilities or the comparison group to report that their spouse developed a disability in the early retirement years. The experience of caring for a spouse with a disability and the experience of caring for an adult child with disabilities had additive effects in eroding the well-being of older adults. Parents of adult children with severe mental illness in general had the lowest levels of well-being. As they move into their retirement years, aging parents who care for children with long-term disabilities are likely to experience multiple caregiving responsibilities. Service providers must address the needs of these aging parents and develop interventions to help them cope and plan for their future.

  6. How do children with autism spectrum disorders express pain? A comparison with developmentally delayed and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattaz, Cécile; Dubois, Amandine; Michelon, Cécile; Viellard, Marine; Poinso, François; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about pain reactions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who have often been considered as insensitive to pain. The objective of this study was to describe the facial, behavioral and physiological reactions of children with ASD during venipuncture and to compare them to the reactions of children with an intellectual disability and nonimpaired control children. We also examined the relation between developmental age and pain reactions. The sample included 35 children with ASD, 32 children with an intellectual disability, and 36 nonimpaired children. The children were videotaped during venipuncture and their heart rate was recorded. Facial reactions were assessed using the Child Facial Coding System (CFCS) and behavioral reactions were scored using the Noncommunicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC). A linear mixed-effects model showed that children's reactions increased between baseline and venipuncture and decreased between the end of venipuncture and the recovery period. There was no significant difference between groups regarding the amount of facial, behavioral and physiological reactions. However, behavioral reactions seemed to remain high in children with ASD after the end of the venipuncture, in contrast with children in the 2 other groups. Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in pain expression with age in nonimpaired children, but no such effect was found regarding children with ASD. The data reveal that children with ASD displayed a significant pain reaction in this situation and tend to recover more slowly after the painful experience. Improvement in pain assessment and management in this population is necessary.

  7. Molecular identification of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors and their developmental dependence on ret signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenqin; Enomoto, Hideki; Rice, Frank L; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Ginty, David D

    2009-12-24

    In mammals, the first step in the perception of form and texture is the activation of trigeminal or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mechanosensory neurons, which are classified as either rapidly (RA) or slowly adapting (SA) according to their rates of adaptation to sustained stimuli. The molecular identities and mechanisms of development of RA and SA mechanoreceptors are largely unknown. We found that the "early Ret(+)" DRG neurons are RA mechanoreceptors, which form Meissner corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, and longitudinal lanceolate endings. The central projections of these RA mechanoreceptors innervate layers III through V of the spinal cord and terminate within discrete subdomains of the dorsal column nuclei. Moreover, mice lacking Ret signaling components are devoid of Pacinian corpuscles and exhibit a dramatic disruption of RA mechanoreceptor projections to both the spinal cord and medulla. Thus, the early Ret(+) neurons are RA mechanoreceptors and Ret signaling is required for the assembly of neural circuits underlying touch perception.

  8. The Adaptation of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme for Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Community-Engaged Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kristie L.; Bandini, Linda G.; Folta, Sara C.; Wansink, Brian; Must, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidenced-based health promotion programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are notably absent. Barriers include a lack of understanding of how to adapt existing evidence-based programmes to their needs, maximize inclusion and support mutual goals of health and autonomy. Methods: We undertook a…

  9. Normal perception of Mooney faces in developmental prosopagnosia: Evidence from the N170 component and rapid neural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, John; Gosling, Angela; Duchaine, Bradley; Eimer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) have a severe difficulty recognizing the faces of known individuals in the absence of any history of neurological damage. These recognition problems may be linked to selective deficits in the holistic/configural processing of faces. We used two-tone Mooney images to study the processing of faces versus non-face objects in DP when it is based on holistic information (or the facial gestalt) in the absence of obvious local cues about facial features. A rapid adaptation procedure was employed for a group of 16 DPs. Naturalistic photographs of upright faces were preceded by upright or inverted Mooney faces or by Mooney houses. DPs showed face-sensitive N170 components in response to Mooney faces versus houses, and N170 amplitude reductions for inverted as compared to upright Mooney faces. They also showed the typical pattern of N170 adaptation effects, with reduced N170 components when upright naturalistic test faces were preceded by upright Mooney faces, demonstrating that the perception of Mooney and naturalistic faces recruits shared neural populations. Our findings demonstrate that individuals with DP can utilize global information about face configurations for categorical discriminations between faces and non-face objects, and suggest that face processing deficits emerge primarily at more fine-grained higher level stages of face perception.

  10. Riboflavin transporter-2 (rft-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans: Adaptive and developmental regulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishnan Gandhimathi; Sellamuthu Karthi; Paramasivam Manimaran; Perumal Varalakshmi; Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar

    2015-06-01

    Riboflavin transporter (rft-1 and rft-2), orthologous to human riboflavin transporter-3 (hR VFT-3), are identified and characterized in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, studies pertaining to functional contribution of rft-2 in maintaining body homeostatic riboflavin levels and its regulation are very limited. In this study, the expression pattern of rft-2 at different life stages of C. elegans was studied through real-time PCR, and found to be consistent from larval to adult stages that demonstrate its involvement in maintaining the body homeostatic riboflavin levels at whole animal level all through its life. A possible regulation of rft-2 expression at mRNA levels at whole animal was studied after adaptation to low and high concentrations of riboflavin. Abundance of rft-2 transcript was upregulated in riboflavin-deficient conditions (10 nM), while it was downregulated with riboflavin-supplemented conditions (2 mM) as compared with control (10 M). Further, the 5′-regulatory region of the rft-2 gene was cloned, and transgenic nematodes expressing transcriptional rft-2 promoter::GFP fusion constructs were generated. The expression of rft-2 was found to be adaptively regulated in vivo when transgenic worms were maintained under different extracellular riboflavin levels, which was also mediated partly via changes in the rft-2 levels that directs towards the possible involvement of transcriptional regulatory events.

  11. Developmental cascade effects of the New Beginnings Program on adolescent adaptation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Darya Bonds; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Millsap, Roger E

    2010-11-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9-12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid- to late adolescence (15-19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality that was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results were also consistent with a model in which the program increased maternal effective discipline that was related to decreased child externalizing problems, which was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use, and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development.

  12. Adaptation to alkalosis induces cell cycle delay and apoptosis in cortical collecting duct cells: role of Aquaporin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Valeria; Flamenco, Pilar; Melamud, Luciana; Galizia, Luciano; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2010-08-01

    Collecting ducts (CD) not only constitute the final site for regulating urine concentration by increasing apical membrane Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression, but are also essential for the control of acid-base status. The aim of this work was to examine, in renal cells, the effects of chronic alkalosis on cell growth/death as well as to define whether AQP2 expression plays any role during this adaptation. Two CD cell lines were used: WT- (not expressing AQPs) and AQP2-RCCD(1) (expressing apical AQP2). Our results showed that AQP2 expression per se accelerates cell proliferation by an increase in cell cycle progression. Chronic alkalosis induced, in both cells lines, a time-dependent reduction in cell growth. Even more, cell cycle movement, assessed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase and propidium iodide analyses, revealed a G2/M phase cell accumulation associated with longer S- and G2/M-transit times. This G2/M arrest is paralleled with changes consistent with apoptosis. All these effects appeared 24 h before and were always more pronounced in cells expressing AQP2. Moreover, in AQP2-expressing cells, part of the observed alkalosis cell growth decrease is explained by AQP2 protein down-regulation. We conclude that in CD cells alkalosis causes a reduction in cell growth by cell cycle delay that triggers apoptosis as an adaptive reaction to this environment stress. Since cell volume changes are prerequisite for the initiation of cell proliferation or apoptosis, we propose that AQP2 expression facilitates cell swelling or shrinkage leading to the activation of channels necessary to the control of these processes.

  13. Forskolin suppresses delayed-rectifier K+ currents and enhances spike frequency-dependent adaptation of sympathetic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I Angel-Chavez

    Full Text Available In signal transduction research natural or synthetic molecules are commonly used to target a great variety of signaling proteins. For instance, forskolin, a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, has been widely used in cellular preparations to increase the intracellular cAMP level. However, it has been shown that forskolin directly inhibits some cloned K+ channels, which in excitable cells set up the resting membrane potential, the shape of action potential and regulate repetitive firing. Despite the growing evidence indicating that K+ channels are blocked by forskolin, there are no studies yet assessing the impact of this mechanism of action on neuron excitability and firing patterns. In sympathetic neurons, we find that forskolin and its derivative 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin, reversibly suppress the delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. Besides, forskolin reduced the spike afterhyperpolarization and enhanced the spike frequency-dependent adaptation. Given that IKV is mostly generated by Kv2.1 channels, HEK-293 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding for the Kv2.1 α subunit, to characterize the mechanism of forskolin action. Both drugs reversible suppressed the Kv2.1-mediated K+ currents. Forskolin inhibited Kv2.1 currents and IKV with an IC50 of ~32 μM and ~24 µM, respectively. Besides, the drug induced an apparent current inactivation and slowed-down current deactivation. We suggest that forskolin reduces the excitability of sympathetic neurons by enhancing the spike frequency-dependent adaptation, partially through a direct block of their native Kv2.1 channels.

  14. Early-Emerging Social Adaptive Skills in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Item Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventola, Pamela; Saulnier, Celine A.; Steinberg, Elizabeth; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Klin, Ami

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with ASD have significant impairments in adaptive skills, particularly adaptive socialization skills. The present study examined the extent to which 20 items from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Socialization Domain differentiated between ASD and developmentally delayed (DD) groups. Participants included 108 toddlers with ASD or…

  15. A de novo interstitial deletion of 8p11.2 including ANK1 identified in a patient with spherocytosis, psychomotor developmental delay, and distinctive facial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miya, Kazushi; Shimojima, Keiko; Sugawara, Midori; Shimada, Shino; Tsuri, Hiroyuki; Harai-Tanaka, Tomomi; Nakaoka, Sachiko; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Miyawaki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2012-09-10

    The contiguous gene syndrome involving 8p11.2 is recognized as a combined phenotype of both Kallmann syndrome and hereditary spherocytosis, because the genes responsible for these 2 clinical entities, the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and ankyrin 1 (ANK1) genes, respectively, are located in this region within a distance of 3.2Mb. We identified a 3.7Mb deletion of 8p11.2 in a 19-month-old female patient with hereditary spherocytosis. The identified deletion included ANK1, but not FGFR1, which is consistent with the absence of any phenotype or laboratory findings of Kallmann syndrome. Compared with the previous studies, the deletion identified in this study was located on the proximal end of 8p, indicating a pure interstitial deletion of 8p11.21. This patient exhibited mild developmental delay and distinctive facial findings in addition to hereditary spherocytosis. Thus, some of the genes included in the deleted region would be related to these symptoms.

  16. Increased risk for developmental delay in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is associated with TWIST deletions: an improved strategy for TWIST mutation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Juanliang; Goodman, Barbara K; Patel, Ankita S; Mulliken, John B; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Hoganson, George E; Paznekas, William A; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Sheffer, Ruth; Cunningham, Michael L; Daentl, Donna L; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2003-12-01

    The majority of patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome have mutations in the TWIST gene, which codes for a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. Of the genetic alterations identified in TWIST, nonsense mutations, frameshifts secondary to small deletions or insertions, and large deletions implicate haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism. We identified three novel intragenic mutations and six deletions in our patients by using a new strategy to screen for TWIST mutations. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with subsequent sequencing to identify point mutations and small insertions or deletions in the coding region, and real-time PCR-based gene dosage analysis to identify large deletions encompassing the gene, with confirmation by microsatellite and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. The size of the deletions can also be analyzed by using the gene dosage assay with "PCR walking" across the critical region. In 55 patients with features of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, 11% were detected to have deletions by real-time gene dosage analysis. Two patients had a translocation or inversion at least 260 kb 3' of the gene, suggesting they had position-effect mutations. Of the 37 patients with classic features of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, the overall detection rate for TWIST mutations was 68%. The risk for developmental delay in patients with deletions involving the TWIST gene is approximately 90% or eight times more common than in patients with intragenic mutations.

  17. A Case of 17q21.31 Microduplication and 7q31.33 Microdeletion, Associated with Developmental Delay, Microcephaly, and Mild Dysmorphic Features

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    Adrian Mc Cormack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent cryptic microdeletion and microduplication syndromes have recently started to reveal themselves with the advent of microarray technology. Analysis has shown that low-copy repeats (LCRs have allowed chromosome regions throughout the genome to become hotspots for nonallelic homologous recombination to take place. Here, we report a case of a 7.5-year-old girl who manifests microcephaly, developmental delay, and mild dysmorphic features. Microarray analysis identified a microduplication in chromosome 17q21.31, which encompasses the CRHR1, MAPT, and KANSL1 genes, as well as a microdeletion in chromosome 7q31.33 that is localised within the GRM8 gene. To our knowledge this is one of only a few cases of 17q21.31 microduplication. The clinical phenotype of patients with this microduplication is milder than of those carrying the reciprocal microdeletions, and suggests that the lower incidence of the former compared to the latter may be due to underascertainment.

  18. A complex background in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders: developmental delay, dyslexia, heredity, slow cognitive processing and adverse social factors in a multifactorial entirety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, M

    1999-09-01

    A consecutive cohort of 112 children, 42 girls and 70 boys, aged 5-17 years, receiving child psychiatric inpatient care, was investigated regarding the probability of a complex background of concomitant biological and social factors. Most of the subjects showed maladjustment and depressive states, school problems, problems with peers, psychosomatic complaints and anxiety. A very high rate of factors indicating neurodevelopmental dysfunctions was found particularly in boys, who exhibited developmental delay, dyslexia, heredity for dyslexia, and a slow complex reaction time (CRT) - suggesting slow cognitive processing - considered an impairment in itself. Further, many children obtained errors on the CRT task, indicating attention deficit and deterioration during the test, pointing toward exhaustion. The social background displayed frequent problems such as broken homes, care outside the biological home, and disordered and/or abusing parents. The biological and social factors created a complex web, predisposing the child to primary, secondary and/or comorbidity problems, and leading to an interactive process reducing the child's psychosocial capacity and competence. A pattern was developed of an impaired child, living in an inadequate/insufficient family milieu in a modern society, with increasing demands on children.

  19. Subtelomeric rearrangements in Indian children with idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay: Frequency estimation & clinical correlation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shruthi; Koshy, Teena; Vekatachalam, Perumal; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Yesodharan, Dhanya; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Kumar, Jeevan; Ravichandran, Latha; Joseph, Santhosh; Chandrasekaran, Anupama; Paul, Solomon F. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Subtelomeres are prone to deleterious rearrangements owing to their proximity to unique sequences on the one end and telomeric repetitive sequences, which increase their tendency to recombine, on the other end. These subtelomeric rearrangements resulting in segmental aneusomy are reported to contribute to the aetiology of idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD). We undertook this study to estimate the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in children with ID/DD. Methods: One hundred and twenty seven children with idiopathic ID/DD were tested for subtelomeric rearrangements using karyotyping and FISH. Blood samples were cultured, harvested, fixed and GTG-banded using the standard protocols. Results: Rearrangements involving the subtelomeres were observed in 7.8 per cent of the tested samples. Detection of rearrangements visible at the resolution of the karyotype constituted 2.3 per cent, while those rearrangements detected only with FISH constituted 5.5 per cent. Five deletions and five unbalanced translocations were detected. Analysis of parental samples wherever possible was informative regarding the inheritance of the rearrangement. Interpretation & conclusions: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements observed in this study was within the reported range of 0-35 per cent. All abnormal genotypes were clinically correlated. Further analysis with array technologies presents a future prospect. Our results suggest the need to test individuals with ID/DD for subtelomeric rearrangements using sensitive methods such as FISH. PMID:27934799

  20. Subtelomeric rearrangements in Indian children with idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay: Frequency estimation & clinical correlation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Subtelomeres are prone to deleterious rearrangements owing to their proximity to unique sequences on the one end and telomeric repetitive sequences, which increase their tendency to recombine, on the other end. These subtelomeric rearrangements resulting in segmental aneusomy are reported to contribute to the aetiology of idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD. We undertook this study to estimate the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in children with ID/DD. Methods: One hundred and twenty seven children with idiopathic ID/DD were tested for subtelomeric rearrangements using karyotyping and FISH. Blood samples were cultured, harvested, fixed and GTG-banded using the standard protocols. Results: Rearrangements involving the subtelomeres were observed in 7.8 per cent of the tested samples. Detection of rearrangements visible at the resolution of the karyotype constituted 2.3 per cent, while those rearrangements detected only with FISH constituted 5.5 per cent. Five deletions and five unbalanced translocations were detected. Analysis of parental samples wherever possible was informative regarding the inheritance of the rearrangement. Interpretation & conclusions: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements observed in this study was within the reported range of 0-35 per cent. All abnormal genotypes were clinically correlated. Further analysis with array technologies presents a future prospect. Our results suggest the need to test individuals with ID/DD for subtelomeric rearrangements using sensitive methods such as FISH.

  1. Obesity with associated developmental delay and/or learning disability in patients exhibiting additional features: report of novel pathogenic copy number variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Kohl, Ilana; Varela, Monica Castro; de Castro, Cláudia Irene Emílio; Kim, Chong Ae; Bertola, Débora Romeo; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Perez, Ana Beatriz Alvarez; Koiffmann, Celia Priszkulnik

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a major threat to public health worldwide, and there is now mounting evidence favoring a role for the central nervous system (CNS) in weight control. A causal relationship has been recognized in both monogenic (e.g., BDNF, TRKB, and SIM1 deficiencies) and syndromic forms of obesity [e.g., Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)]. Syndromic obesity arising from chromosomal abnormalities, that typically also affect learning and development, are often associated with congenital malformations and behavioral characteristics. We report on nine unrelated patients with a diagnosis of learning disability and/or developmental delay (DD) in addition to obesity that were found to have copy number variants (CNVs) by single nucleotide polymorphism array-based analysis. Each patient also had a distinct and complex phenotype, and most had hypotonia and other neuroendocrine issues, such as hyperphagia and hypogonadism. Molecular and clinical characterization of these patients enabled us to determine with confidence that the CNVs we observed were pathogenic or likely to be pathogenic. Overall, the CNVs reported here encompassed a candidate gene or region (e.g., SIM1) that has been reported in patients associating obesity and DD and/or intellectual disability (ID) and novel candidate genes and regions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Molecular Delineation of Partial Trisomy 14q and Partial Trisomy 12p in a Patient with Dysmorphic Features, Heart Defect and Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Divya; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Venkatesh, K S; Aiyaz, Mohamed; Shetty, Mitesh; Rao, Sudha N; Kutty, A V M

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a molecular analysis of partial trisomy 14q and partial trisomy 12p in a 5-year-old male child presenting with dysmorphic features, congenital heart disease and global developmental delay. Chromosomal analysis of the patient with GTG bands revealed a 47,XY,+der(14)t(12;14)(p13;q22)mat karyotype; the mother's karyotype was 46,XX,t(12;14)(p13;q22). Further, oligonucleotide array- CGH studies revealed an amplification of 32.3 Mb in the 14q11.1q22.1 region, substantiating partial trisomy 14q and additionally displaying an amplification of ∼1 Mb in the 12p13.3pter region for partial trisomy 12p. This is the first study to demonstrate a novel association of partial trisomies of 14q and 12p due to a 3:1 segregation of a maternal balanced translocation involving chromosomes 12 and 14. Gene ontology studies indicated 5 potential candidate genes in the amplified regions for the observed congenital anomalies.

  3. Ring Chromosome 9 and Chromosome 9p Deletion Syndrome in a Patient Associated with Developmental Delay: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, Aswini; Kanakavalli, Murthy K; Anuradha, Deenadayalu; Samuel, Chandra R; Kandukuri, Lakshmi R

    2016-01-01

    Ring chromosomes have been described for all human chromosomes and are typically associated with physical and/or mental abnormalities resulting from a deletion of the terminal ends of both chromosome arms. This report describes the presence of a ring chromosome 9 in a 2-year-old male child associated with developmental delay. The proband manifested a severe phenotype comprising facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects, and seizures. The child also exhibited multiple cell lines with mosaic patterns of double rings, a dicentric ring and loss of the ring associated with mitotic instability and dynamic tissue-specific mosaicism. His karyotype was 46,XY,r(9)(p22q34)[89]/46,XY,dic r(9; 9)(p22q34;p22q34)[6]/45, XY,-9[4]/47,XY,r(9),+r(9)[1]. However, the karyotypes of his parents and elder brother were normal. FISH using mBAND probe and subtelomeric probes specific for p and q arms for chromosome 9 showed no deletion in any of the regions. Chromosomal microarray analysis led to the identification of a heterozygous deletion of 15.7 Mb from 9p22.3 to 9p24.3. The probable role of the deleted genes in the manifestation of the phenotype of the proband is discussed.

  4. Spermine either delays or promotes cell death in Nicotiana tabacum L. corolla depending on the floral developmental stage and affects the distribution of transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Giampiero; Della Mea, Massimiliano; Faleri, Claudia; Fattorini, Laura; Aloisi, Iris; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    The role of spermine (SM) was studied to verify if SM supplied to Nicotiana tabacum flower can modulate programmed cell death (PCD) of the corolla. SM has strong effects on the development and senescence of excised flowers despite its low physiological levels. The timing and duration of SM treatment is a key factor; SM counteracts PCD (verified by morphological observations, pigment contents and DNA laddering) only in the narrow developmental window of corolla expansion. Before and after, SM promotes PCD. SM exerts its pro-survival role by delaying fresh weight loss, by inhibiting reduction of pigments and finally by preventing DNA degradation. Moreover, SM deeply alters the distribution of the PA-conjugating enzyme transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is present in the epidermis during development, but it sprays also in the cell walls of inner parenchyma at senescence. After SM treatment, parenchyma cells accumulate TGase, increase in size and their cell walls do not undergo stiffening contrarily to control cells. The subcellular localization of TGase has been validated by biolistic-transformation of onion epidermal cells. Results indicated that SM is a critical factor in the senescence of N. tabacum corolla by controlling biochemical and morphological parameters; the lasts are probably interconnected with the action of TGase.

  5. [17p13.3 duplication as a cause of psychomotor developmental delay in an infant - a further case of a new syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska-Kruszewska, Amanda; Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Krzywdzińska, Amanda; Smyk, Marta; Nowakowska, Beata; Gryglicka, Halina; Obersztyn, Ewa; Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2016-04-01

    17p13.3 duplication is a rare and heterogeneous genetic syndrome. Microdeletions of this region are responsible for the symptoms of Miller-Dieker syndrome. We present a case of 17p13.3 duplication consisting of about 730kb in a patient with psychomotor developmental delay, concerning eye-hand coordination, posture, locomotion and speech. Among other symptoms, we found excessive physical development in relation to age, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features (high and prominent forehead, low-set ears, hypertelorism, short nose, small upturned nose, narrow lips and pointed chin) and discrete changes in the CNS - enhanced frontal horns of the lateral ventricles and quite narrow corpus callosum. These symptoms overlap with phenotype of previously described patients with 17p13.3 duplication. The aberration has been identified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This publication presents a detailed, comparative characteristic of clinical fetures expression in discussed patient with 17p13.3 duplication and patients previously described in medical literature. Further cases with different variants of 17p13.3 duplication may contribute to characterise the specific genotypephenotype correlation.

  6. A clear bias in parental origin of de novo pathogenic CNVs related to intellectual disability, developmental delay and multiple congenital anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruiyu; Deng, Linbei; Xia, Yan; Wei, Xianda; Cao, Yingxi; Guo, Ruolan; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Jing; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is of great significance in human evolution and disorders. Through tracing the parent-of-origin of de novo pathogenic CNVs, we are expected to investigate the relative contributions of germline genomic stability on reproductive health. In our study, short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were used to determine the parent-of-origin of 87 de novo pathogenic CNVs found in unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID), developmental delay (DD) and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The results shown that there was a significant difference on the distribution of the parent-of-origin for different CNVs types (Chi-square test, p = 4.914 × 10−3). An apparently paternal bias existed in deletion CNVs and a maternal bias in duplication CNVs, indicating that the relative contribution of paternal germline variations is greater than that of maternal to the origin of deletions, and vice versa to the origin of duplications. By analyzing the sequences flanking the breakpoints, we also confirmed that non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) served as the major mechanism for the formation of recurrent CNVs whereas non-SDs-based mechanisms played a part in generating rare non-recurrent CNVs and might relate to the paternal germline bias in deletion CNVs.

  7. Neural-adaptive control of single-master-multiple-slaves teleoperation for coordinated multiple mobile manipulators with time-varying communication delays and input uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, adaptive neural network control is investigated for single-master-multiple-slaves teleoperation in consideration of time delays and input dead-zone uncertainties for multiple mobile manipulators carrying a common object in a cooperative manner. Firstly, concise dynamics of teleoperation systems consisting of a single master robot, multiple coordinated slave robots, and the object are developed in the task space. To handle asymmetric time-varying delays in communication channels and unknown asymmetric input dead zones, the nonlinear dynamics of the teleoperation system are transformed into two subsystems through feedback linearization: local master or slave dynamics including the unknown input dead zones and delayed dynamics for the purpose of synchronization. Then, a model reference neural network control strategy based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and adaptive techniques is proposed. The developed control approach ensures that the defined tracking errors converge to zero whereas the coordination internal force errors remain bounded and can be made arbitrarily small. Throughout this paper, stability analysis is performed via explicit Lyapunov techniques under specific LMI conditions. The proposed adaptive neural network control scheme is robust against motion disturbances, parametric uncertainties, time-varying delays, and input dead zones, which is validated by simulation studies.

  8. The anuran Bauplan: a review of the adaptive, developmental, and genetic underpinnings of frog and tadpole morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Anurans (frogs, toads, and their larvae) are among the most morphologically derived of vertebrates. While tightly conserved across the order, the anuran Bauplan (body plan) diverges widely from that of other vertebrates, particularly with respect to the skeleton. Here we address the adaptive, ontogenetic, and genetic bases of three such hallmark anuran features: (1) the absence of discrete caudal vertebrae, (2) a truncated axial skeleton, and (3) elongate hind limbs. We review the functional significance of each as it relates to the anuran lifestyle, which includes locomotor adaptations to both aquatic and terrestrial environments. We then shift our focus to the proximal origins of each feature, namely, ontogeny and its molecular regulation. Drawing on relatively limited data, we detail the development of each character and then, by extrapolating from comparative vertebrate data, propose molecular bases for these processes. Cast in this light, the divergent morphology of anurans emerges as a product of evolutionary modulation of the generalised vertebrate developmental machinery. Specifically, we hypothesise that: (1) the formation of caudal vertebrae is precluded due to a failure of sclerotomes to form cartilaginous condensations, perhaps resulting from altered expression of a suite of genes, including Pax1, Pax9, Msx1, Uncx-4.1, Sonic hedgehog, and noggin; (2) anteriorised Hox gene expression in the paraxial mesoderm has led to a rostral shift of morphological boundaries of the vertebral column; and, (3) spatial and temporal shifts in Hox expression may underlie the expanded tarsal elements of the anuran hind limb. Technology is currently in place to investigate each of these scenarios in the African clawed frog Xenopus. Experimental corroboration will further our understanding of the molecular regulation of the anuran Bauplan and provide insight into the origin of vertebrate morphological diversity as well as the role of development in evolution.

  9. Developmental modes and developmental mechanisms can channel brain evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Charvet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anseriform birds (ducks and geese as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own, parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents. We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  10. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2011-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  11. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E; Dick, James R; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by two-sample t tests. Relatively few differences were seen between erythrocyte fatty acids in autism and TD subjects although the former had an increased arachidonic acid (ARA):EPA ratio. This ratio was also increased in plasma samples from the same children. No changes in n-3 fatty acids or ARA:EPA ratio were seen when comparing autism with DD subjects but some SFA and MUFA were decreased in the DD subjects, most notably 24 : 0 and 24 : 1, which are essential components of axonal myelin sheaths. However, if multiple comparisons are taken into account, and a stricter level of significance applied, most of these values would not be significant. Autism subjects consuming fish oil showed reduced erythrocyte ARA, 22 : 4n-6, 22 : 5n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids and increased EPA, 22 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids along with reduced n-6:n-3 and ARA:EPA ratios. Collectively, the autism subjects did not have an underlying phospholipid disorder, based on erythrocyte fatty acid compositions, although the increased ARA:EPA ratio observed suggested that an imbalance of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids may be present in a cohort of autism subjects.

  12. Deletion of exon 20 of the Familial Dysautonomia gene Ikbkap in mice causes developmental delay, cardiovascular defects, and early embryonic lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dietrich

    Full Text Available Familial Dysautonomia (FD is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects 1/3,600 live births in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and leads to death before the age of 40. The disease is characterized by abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. A single base pair substitution in intron 20 of the Ikbkap gene accounts for 98% of FD cases, and results in the expression of low levels of the full-length mRNA with simultaneous expression of an aberrantly spliced mRNA in which exon 20 is missing. To date, there is no animal model for the disease, and the essential cellular functions of IKAP--the protein encoded by Ikbkap--remain unknown. To better understand the normal function of IKAP and in an effort to generate a mouse model for FD, we have targeted the mouse Ikbkap gene by homologous recombination. We created two distinct alleles that result in either loss of Ikbkap expression, or expression of an mRNA lacking only exon 20. Homozygosity for either mutation leads to developmental delay, cardiovascular and brain malformations, accompanied with early embryonic lethality. Our analyses indicate that IKAP is essential for expression of specific genes involved in cardiac morphogenesis, and that cardiac failure is the likely cause of abnormal vascular development and embryonic lethality. Our results also indicate that deletion of exon 20 abolishes gene function. This implies that the truncated IKAP protein expressed in FD patients does not retain any significant biological function.

  13. Dextrocardia, atrial septal defect, severe developmental delay, facial anomalies, and supernumerary ribs in a child with a complex unbalanced 8;22 translocation including partial 8p duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kathleen; Samanich, Joy; Ramesh, K H; Cannizzaro, Linda; Pan, Qiulu; Babcock, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    We report on a child with dextrocardia, atrial septal defect (ASD), severe developmental delay, hypotonia, 13 pairs of ribs, left preauricular choristoma, hirsutism, and craniofacial abnormalities. Prenatal cytogenetic evaluation showed karyotype 46,XY,?dup(8p)ish del(8)pter. Postnatal array CGH demonstrated a 6.8 Mb terminal deletion at 8p23.3-p23, an interstitial 31.1 Mb duplication within 8p23.1-p11, and a terminal duplication of 0.24 Mb at 22q13.33, refining the karyotype to 46,XY,der(8)dup(8)(p23.1p11.1)t(8;22)(p23.1;q13.1).ish der(8)dup(8)(p23.1p11.1)t(8;22)(p23.1;q13.1) (D8S504-,MS607 + ,ARSA + ,D8Z1 + , RP115713 + +). Previous reports of distal 8p deletion, 8p duplication, and distal 22q duplication have shown similar manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual impairment, and multiple minor anomalies. We correlate the patient's clinical findings with these particular areas of copy number. This case study supports the use of aCGH to identify subtle chromosomal rearrangement in infants with cardiac malformation as their most significant or only apparent birth defect. Additionally, it illustrates why aCGH is essential in the description of chromosome rearrangements, even those seemingly visible via routine karyotype. This method shows that there is often greater complexity submicroscopically, essential to an adequate understanding of a patient's genotype and phenotype.

  14. Procedural Adaptations for Use of Constant Time Delay to Teach Highly Motivating Words to Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Guerra, Jennifer A.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay is an evidence-based practice to teach sight word recognition to students with a variety of disabilities. To date, two studies have documented its effectiveness for teaching braille. Methods: Using a multiple-baseline design, we evaluated the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach highly motivating words to…

  15. European-French cross-cultural adaptation of the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire and pretest in French-speaking Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray-Kaeser, S.; Satink, T.J.; Andresen, M.; Martini, R.; Thommen, E.; Bertrand, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version d

  16. Implications of Childhood Experiences for the Health and Adaptation of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals: Sensitivity to Developmental Process in Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The empirical literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals has predominantly focused on sexual-orientation disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals on health and adaptation, as well as on the role of gay-related or minority stress in the health and adaptation of LGB individuals. Aside from demographic control variables, the initial predictor is a marker of sexual orientation or LGB-related experience (e.g., minority stress). Missing are potential strengths and vulnerabilities that LGB individuals develop over time and bring to bear on their sexual identity development and other LGB-related experiences. Those strengths and vulnerabilities may have profound consequences for the sexual identity development, health, and adaptation of LGB individuals. Here, I focus on one such set of strengths and vulnerabilities derived from attachment. I conclude by emphasizing the importance of attachment in the lives of LGB individuals and the need to identify other developmental processes that may be equally consequential. PMID:26900586

  17. PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR, STRABISMUS AND AMBLYOPIA AMONG CHILDREN WITH NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY/INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY ATTENDING OPHTHALMOLOGY OPD AT KLES HOSPITAL, BELAGAVI- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha K. S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Global developmental delay/intellectual disability are on a rise in children in the present time. Ocular and visual anomalies are frequently associated with it of which refractive errors are the most frequent. This if goes unnoticed leads to strabismus and amblyopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error, strabismus and amblyopia among children with normal development or global developmental delay/intellectual disability attending ophthalmology OPD at KLES Hospital, Belagavi. Case records of all 200 new patients less than or equal to 12 years of age group who attended KLES, Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital between January 2015 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS The male:female ratio was 1.22:1. Out of the total evaluated 200 cases, 130 cases were with normal development and 70 with GDD/ID. Refractive errors were 85%, whereas the cases of amblyopia was 45.50% and strabismus 39.50%. Amblyopia with refractive error having GDD/ID was stastically significant as compared to amblyopia with refractive error having normal development (p=0.001. CONCLUSION Refractive error was the most common ocular disorder seen. Refractive error with amblyopia is more in children with GDD/ID as compared to normal children. Owing to the high percentage of visual anomalies, ophthalmological referral becomes essential in children with developmental anomalies.

  18. Adaptation and Extension of the European Recommendations (EACD) on Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) for the UK context

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects the learning and performance of everyday motor skills. It commonly co-occurs with other 10 developmental disorders and a range of associated psycho-social impairments. Recent evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis, assessment, and intervention provide valuable information for practitioners. However these are directed primarily at German speaking countries and focus on work with children. Aim: The aim of this project was to cons...

  19. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to identify neurodevelopmental problems in children with Congenital Hyperinsulinism (CHI)

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon Estebanez, Maria; Mohamed, Zainab; Michaelidou, Maria; Collins, Hannah; Rigby, Lindsey; Skae, Mars; Padidela, Raja; Rust, Stewart; Dunne, Mark; Cosgrove, Karen; Banerjee, Indraneel; Nicholson, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background Congenital Hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a disease of severe hypoglycaemia caused by excess insulin secretion and associated with adverse neurodevelopment in a third of children. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition (VABS-II) is a parent report measure of adaptive functioning that could be used as a developmental screening tool in patients with CHI. We have investigated the performance of VABS-II as a screening tool to identify developmental delay in a relatively large c...

  20. 时滞TCP网络的自适应滑模控制%Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for TCP Networks with Time-delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶成荫

    2011-01-01

    For the problem of congestion control in TCP networks with input-delay and state-delay, an active queue management algorithm is presented based on an adaptive sliding mode control. A particular linear transformation is used to turn the original time-delay system into a delay-free system and to eliminate the impact of time-delay.Considering the upper bound of the network system uncertainties may not be easily obtained, a simply adaptive law for the upper bound of system uncertainties is presented and a sliding mode controller is designed according to that adaptive law. The controller not only enables the queue length to converge to set value quickly but also keeps the queue oscillation small. Simulation results demonstrate that this algorithm can obtain good transient and steady state responses, and the algorithm is superior to the traditional PI control and sliding mode control.%针对具有输入时滞和状态时滞的TCP网络的拥塞控制问题,提出了一种基于自适应滑模控制的主动队列管理算法.通过引入一个特殊变换将原时滞系统转化为无时滞系统,从而消除时滞带来的影响.考虑到网络系统不确定性上界很难获得,提出了一种自适应律以适应系统的不确定的上界,并根据此自适应律设计了一个滑模控制器,所设计的控制器不仅可以使队列长度快速收敛到设定值,而且维持较小的队列振荡.仿真结果表明,该算法可以获得良好的暂态和稳态响应,该方法优于传统的PI控制和滑模控制.

  1. SHARP - III. First use of adaptive-optics imaging to constrain cosmology with gravitational lens time delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Geoff C. -F; Suyu, Sherry H.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I. Shing; Auger, Matthew W.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Lagattuta, David J.; McKean, John P.; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the Hubb

  2. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania

    2015-01-01

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-...... in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies....

  3. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Feedback Method Applied to Fin Control for Time-Delay Ship Roll Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ship roll stabilization by fin control system is considered in this paper. Assuming that angular velocity in roll cannot be measured, an adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control is investigated. The fuzzy logic system is used to approximate the uncertain term of the controlled system, and a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By utilizing the fuzzy state observer and combining the adaptive backstepping technique with adaptive fuzzy control design, an observer-based adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control approach is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB, and the control strategy is effective to decrease the roll motion. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. An Evaluation of the EQUIP Treatment Programme with Men who have Intellectual or Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E.; Murphy, Glynis H.; Clare, Isabel C.H.; Palmer, Emma J.; Rees, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Equipping Youth to Help One Another Programme (EQUIP) was designed for young offenders to address a developmental delay in moral reasoning, distorted cognitions and social skills. Methods: The present authors undertook a single case series study and piloted an adapted version of the EQUIP programme with three men with intellectual…

  5. Decentralized Output Feedback Adaptive NN Tracking Control for Time-Delay Stochastic Nonlinear Systems With Prescribed Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the dynamic output feedback tracking control problem for stochastic interconnected time-delay systems with the prescribed performance. The subsystems are in the form of triangular structure. First, we design a reduced-order observer independent of time delay to estimate the unmeasured state variables online instead of the traditional full-order observer. Then, a new state transformation is proposed in consideration of the prescribed performance requirement. Using neural network to approximate the composite unknown nonlinear function, the corresponding decentralized output tracking controller is designed. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of uniformly ultimately boundedness and that both transient-state and steady-state performances are preserved. Finally, a simulation example is given, and the result shows the effectiveness of the proposed control design method.

  6. Adaptive Transmission Opportunity Scheme Based on Delay Bound and Network Load in IEEE 802.11e Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11e EDCA (Enhanced Distributed Channel Access is able to provide QoS (Quality of Service by adjusting the transmission opportunities (TXOPs, which control the period to access the medium. The EDCA has a fairness problem among competing stations, which support multimedia applications with different delay bounds. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective scheme for alleviating the fairness problem. The proposed scheme dynamically allocates the TXOP value based on the delay bounds of the data packets in a queue and the traffic load of network. Performance of the proposed scheme is investigated by simulation. Our results show that compared to conventional scheme, the proposed scheme significantly improves network performance, and achieves a high degree of fairness among stations with different multimedia applications.

  7. Adaptive Neural Network Dynamic Surface Control for a Class of Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems With Hysteresis Inputs and Dynamic Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyu; Su, Chun-Yi; Lin, Yan; Ma, Lianwei; Wang, Jianguo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural network (NN) dynamic surface control is proposed for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems with dynamic uncertainties and unknown hysteresis. The main advantages of the developed scheme are: 1) NNs are utilized to approximately describe nonlinearities and unknown dynamics of the nonlinear time-delay systems, making it possible to deal with unknown nonlinear uncertain systems and pursue the L∞ performance of the tracking error; 2) using the finite covering lemma together with the NNs approximators, the Krasovskii function is abandoned, which paves the way for obtaining the L∞ performance of the tracking error; 3) by introducing an initializing technique, the L∞ performance of the tracking error can be achieved; 4) using a generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model, the limitation of the traditional PI hysteresis model is overcome; and 5) by applying the Young's inequalities to deal with the weight vector of the NNs, the updated laws are needed only at the last controller design step with only two parameters being estimated, which reduces the computational burden. It is proved that the proposed scheme can guarantee semiglobal stability of the closed-loop system and achieves the L∞ performance of the tracking error. Simulation results for general second-order time-delay nonlinear systems and the tuning metal cutting system are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Aggressive Behaviors in Social Interaction and Developmental Adaptation: A Narrative Analysis of Interpersonal Conflicts during Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongling; Swift, Dylan J.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Cairns, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated interactional properties and developmental functions of the following four types of aggressive behaviors in adolescents: social aggression, direct relational aggression, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. Found that the majority of conflict interactions involved more than a dyad, and that social aggression was an initiating…

  9. Lifespan Development of Neuromodulation of Adaptive Control and Motivation as an Ontogenetic Mechanism for Developmental Niche Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Instead of viewing organisms and individuals as passive recipients of their biological, ecological, and cultural inheritances, the developmental niche construction theory and the biocultural co-construction framework both emphasize that the individual's agency plays a key role in regulating how environmental and sociocontextual influences may…

  10. Computerized adaptive testing for measuring development of young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobusse, G.; Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    Developmental indicators that are used for routine measurement in The Netherlands are usually chosen to optimally identify delayed children. Measurements on the majority of children without problems are therefore quite imprecise. This study explores the use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to

  11. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  12. Developmental trajectories and reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity : A three-wave longitudinal study with adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was two-fold. First, we investigated patterns of stability and change in career adaptability and vocational identity in adolescents. Second, we examined reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity. In addressing both research aim

  13. Sunshine School's S.O.P.: Sequenced Objectives for Preschoolers. An Evaluation and Instruction Guide for Working with the Developmentally Delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine School, Gainesville, FL.

    Developed by professional educational staff, the curriculum of developmentally sequenced objectives for preschoolers (SOP) is designed for use in infant stimulation programs, for preschool training for all levels of retardation, with severely and profoundly retarded school age children, and for trainable and educable children during the earlier…

  14. The Effectiveness of the Constant Time Delay Procedure in Teaching Pre-School Academic Skills to Children with Developmental Disabilities in a Small Group Teaching Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Ozgul; Gursel, Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are trained using different teaching arrangements. One of these arrangements is called small-group teaching. It has been ascertained that a small-group teaching arrangement is more effective than a one-to-one teaching arrangement. In that sense, teaching academic skills to pre-school children in small-group…

  15. Patient-dependent count-rate adaptive normalization for PET detector efficiency with delayed-window coincidence events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Hongwei; Xia, Ting; Asma, Evren; Winkler, Mark; Gagnon, Daniel; Wang, Wenli

    2015-07-07

    Quantitative PET imaging is widely used in clinical diagnosis in oncology and neuroimaging. Accurate normalization correction for the efficiency of each line-of- response is essential for accurate quantitative PET image reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a normalization calibration method by using the delayed-window coincidence events from the scanning phantom or patient. The proposed method could dramatically reduce the 'ring' artifacts caused by mismatched system count-rates between the calibration and phantom/patient datasets. Moreover, a modified algorithm for mean detector efficiency estimation is proposed, which could generate crystal efficiency maps with more uniform variance. Both phantom and real patient datasets are used for evaluation. The results show that the proposed method could lead to better uniformity in reconstructed images by removing ring artifacts, and more uniform axial variance profiles, especially around the axial edge slices of the scanner. The proposed method also has the potential benefit to simplify the normalization calibration procedure, since the calibration can be performed using the on-the-fly acquired delayed-window dataset.

  16. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Unknown Output Feedback Nonlinear Time-delay Systems%未知输出反馈非线性时滞系统自适应神经网络跟踪控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为胜; 李俊民

    2005-01-01

    An adaptive output feedback neural network tracking controller is designed for a class of unknown output feedback nonlinear time-delay systems by using backstepping technique. Neural networks are used to approximate unknown time-delay functions. Delay-dependent filters are introduced for state estimation. The domination method is used to deal with the smooth time-delay basis functions. The adaptive bounding technique is employed to estimate the upper bound of the neural network reconstruction error. Based on Lyapunov-Krasoviskii functional, the semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness (SGUUB) of all the signals in the closed-loop system is proved. The arbitrary output tracking accuracy is achieved by tuning the design parameters and the neural node number.The feasibility is investigated by an illustrative simulationexample.

  17. Biochemical Measurements of Free Opsin in Macular Degeneration Eyes: Examining the 11-CIS Retinal Deficiency Hypothesis of Delayed Dark Adaptation (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneken, Anne; Neikirk, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer; Kono, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that delayed dark adaptation in patients with macular degeneration is due to an excess of free unliganded opsin (apo-opsin) and a deficiency of the visual chromophore, 11-cis retinal, in rod outer segments. A total of 50 human autopsy eyes were harvested from donors with and without macular degeneration within 2-24 hrs. postmortem. Protocols were developed which permitted dark adaptation of normal human eyes after death and enucleation. Biochemical methods of purifying rod outer segments were optimized and the concentration of rhodopsin and apo-opsin was measured with UV-visible scanning spectroscopy. The presence of apo-opsin was calculated by measuring the difference in the rhodopsin absorption spectra before and after the addition of 11-cis retinal. A total of 20 normal eyes and 16 eyes from donors with early, intermediate and advanced stages of macular degeneration were included in the final analysis. Dark adaptation was achieved by harvesting whole globes in low light, transferring into dark (light-proof) canisters and dissecting the globes using infrared light and image converters for visualization. Apo-opsin was readily detected in positive controls after the addition of 11-cis retinal. Normal autopsy eyes showed no evidence of apo-opsin. Eyes with macular degeneration also showed no evidence of apo-opsin, regardless of the severity of disease. Methods have been developed to study dark adaptation in human autopsy eyes. Eyes with age-related macular degeneration do not show a deficiency of 11-cis retinal or an excess of apo-opsin within rod outer segments.

  18. Adaptive PSF fitting - a highly performing photometric method and light curves of the GLS H1413+117: time delays and micro-lensing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhunov, T. A.; Wertz, O.; Elyiv, A.; Gaisin, R.; Artamonov, B. P.; Dudinov, V. N.; Nuritdinov, S. N.; Delvaux, C.; Sergeyev, A. V.; Gusev, A. S.; Bruevich, V. V.; Burkhonov, O.; Zheleznyak, A. P.; Ezhkova, O.; Surdej, J.

    2017-03-01

    We present new photometric observations of H1413+117 acquired during seasons between 2001 and 2008 in order to estimate the time delays between the lensed quasar images and to characterize at best the on-going micro-lensing events. We propose a highly performing photometric method called the adaptive point spread function fitting and have successfully tested this method on a large number of simulated frames. This has enabled us to estimate the photometric error bars affecting our observational results. We analysed the V- and R-band light curves and V-R colour variations of the A-D components which show short- and long-term brightness variations correlated with colour variations. Using the χ2 and dispersion methods, we estimated the time delays on the basis of the R-band light curves over the seasons between 2003 and 2006. We have derived the new values: ΔtAB = -17.4 ± 2.1, ΔtAC = -18.9 ± 2.8 and ΔtAD = 28.8 ± 0.7 d using the χ2 method (B and C are leading, D is trailing) with 1σ confidence intervals. We also used available observational constraints (resp. the lensed image positions, the flux ratios in mid-IR and two sets of time delays derived in the present work) to update the lens redshift estimation. We obtained z_l = 1.95^{+0.06}_{-0.10} which is in good agreement with previous estimations. We propose to characterize two kinds of micro-lensing events: micro-lensing for the A, B, C components corresponds to typical variations of ∼10-4 mag d-1 during all the seasons, while the D component shows an unusually strong micro-lensing effect with variations of up to ∼10-3 mag d-1 during 2004 and 2005.

  19. Norms for developmental milestones using VABS-II and association with anthropometric measures among apparently healthy urban Indian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Shetty, Priya; Zhu, Jianjun; Raman, Vijaya; Khanna, Deepti; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of developmental milestones based on locally developed norms is critical for accurate estimate of overall development of a child's cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional development. A cross-sectional study was done to develop age specific norms for developmental milestones using Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS-II) (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005) for apparently healthy children from 2 to 5 years from urban Bangalore, India, and to examine its association with anthropometric measures. Mothers (or caregivers) of 412 children participated in the study. Age-specific norms using inferential norming method and adaptive levels for all domains and subdomains were derived. Low adaptive level, also called delayed developmental milestone, was observed in 2.3% of the children, specifically 2.7% in motor and daily living skills and 2.4% in communication skills. When these children were assessed on the existing U.S. norms, there was a significant overestimation of delayed development in socialization and motor skills, whereas delay in communication and daily living skills were underestimated (all p VABS-II in preschool children, the prevalence of developmental delay could either be under- or overestimated using Western norms. Thus, locally referenced norms are critical for reliable assessments of development in children. Stunted and underweight children are more likely to have poorer developmental scores compared with healthy children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Adaptive Backstepping Control for a Class of Uncertain Nonaffine Nonlinear Time-Varying Delay Systems with Unknown Dead-Zone Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive backstepping controller is constructed for a class of nonaffine nonlinear time-varying delay systems in strict feedback form with unknown dead zone and unknown control directions. To simplify controller design, nonaffine system is first transformed into an affine system by using mean value theorem and the unknown nonsymmetric dead-zone nonlinearity is treated as a combination of a linear term and a bounded disturbance-like term. Owing to the universal approximation property, fuzzy logic systems (FLSs are employed to approximate the uncertain nonlinear part in controller design process. By introducing Nussbaum-type function, the a priori knowledge of the control gains signs is not required. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, the effect of time-varying delay is compensated. Theoretically, it is proved that this scheme can guarantee that all signals in closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SUUB and the tracking error converges to a small neighbourhood of the origin. Finally, the simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  1. Developmental plasticity and acclimation both contribute to adaptive responses to alternating seasons of plenty and of stress in Bicyclus butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul M Brakefield; Jeroen Pijpe; Bas J Zwaan

    2007-04-01

    Plasticity is a crucial component of the life cycle of invertebrates that live as active adults throughout wet and dry seasons in the tropics. Such plasticity is seen in the numerous species of Bicyclus butterflies in Africa which exhibit seasonal polyphenism with sequential generations of adults with one or other of two alternative phenotypes. These differ not only in wing pattern but in many other traits. This divergence across a broad complex of traits is associated with survival and reproduction either in a wet season that is favourable in terms of resources, or mainly in a dry season that is more stressful. This phenomenon has led us to examine the bases of the developmental plasticity in a model species, B. anynana, and also the evolution of key adult life history traits, including starvation resistance and longevity. We now understand something about the processes that generate variation in the phenotype, and also about the ecological context of responses to environmental stress. The responses clearly involve a mix of developmental plasticity as cued by different environments in pre-adult development, and the acclimation of life history traits in adults to their prevailing environment.

  2. Cardiac adaptivity to attention-demanding tasks in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M; Aarnoudse, CC; Minderaa, RB; Mulder, Gysbertus; Mulder, Lambertus

    1999-01-01

    Background: Decreases in heart rate variability (HRV) have been repeatedly demonstrated to be an index of effort allocation to attention-demanding tasks. Children with autistic-type problems in social interaction and in adapting to unfamiliar situations (DSM-IV: PDD-NOS) have been shown to have

  3. Critical comment on Hicks-Caskey and Potter, "Effect of the full moon on a sample of developmentally delayed, institutionalized women".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, M

    1991-12-01

    Hicks-Caskey and Potter (1991) claim to have found a "full moon effect" on women in a developmental center. Further, they suggest the discrepancies in findings on lunar effects can be accounted for by (i) a lack of equivalent operational definitions and (ii) a person selection factor. It is argued that the Hicks-Caskey and Potter findings are undermined by weekday, holiday, season, weather, particular staff-subject interactions, and expectancy effects. In addition, the proposed explanations for differing outcomes in lunar studies do not explain both the negative findings and conflicting positive findings.

  4. Developmental delay and facial dysmorphism in a child with an 8.9 Mb de novo interstitial deletion of 3q25.1-q25.32: Genotype-phenotype correlations of chromosome 3q25 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, Stephanie; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Maystadt, Isabelle; Parmentier, Benoit; Grisart, Bernard; Hennecker, Jean-Luc; Destree, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 3 are rare and detailed genotype-phenotype correlations are not well established. We report on the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular findings of a 5-year-old patient with a de novo interstitial deletion from 3q25.1 to 3q25.32. Clinical features include relative microcephaly, developmental delay and facial dysmorphism with a coarse face, ptosis, synophrys, epicanthic folds, broad nasal bridge, long philtrum, large mouth with full lips, dysplastic and low-set ears. Revealed by conventional banding techniques, the deleted region of 8.9 Mb was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). To our knowledge, this is the smallest interstitial deletion reported in the 3q25 region. The phenotype of our patient is compared with the 10 previously reported cases implicating the 3q25 region.

  5. 早期作业治疗对全面性发育迟缓患儿认知发育的影响%Effect of early cognitive occupational therapy on children with global developmental delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继红; 郭春光; 周平秋; 刘丽君; 陈建树; 张惠佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨早期作业疗法对全面性发育迟缓患儿智力发育的影响。方法:将62例全面性发育迟缓患儿分为观察组38例和对照组24例,对照组患儿接受运动训练、慢性小脑电刺激、水疗等康复训练治疗,观察组在此基础上进行早期作业治疗。2组治疗前和治疗12周后分别进行 Gesell 智力测试评估检查(GDS)和 Peabody 运动发育量表(PDMS)测试。结果:治疗12周后,2组 GDS 及 PDMS 各项评分均较治疗前明显提高(P <0.05),且观察组更高于对照组(P <0.05)。在不同年龄段,治疗前后观察组患儿的 GDS 各项评分差值有统计学差异(P <0.05),1岁以内的患儿治疗前后发育商差值最大。结论:早期作业训练治疗可有效的提高全面性发育迟缓患儿的智力各能区的发育水平,越早干预效果越好,值得临床推广。%Objective:To evaluate the effect of early occupational therapy on cognitive development of children withglobal developmental delay.Methods:Sixty-two children with global developmental delay were divided into observationgroup (n=38)and control group (n=24).Observation group accepted early occupational therapy and generalcomprehensive rehabilitation therapies,such as exercise training,low-frequency cerebellum electrical stimulation,hydrotherapy and so on,while the control group only accepted the comprehensive rehabilitation therapy.Each groupwas assessed with Gesell developmental scale (GDS)and Peabody developmental motor scale (PDMS)before and 12weeks after treatment.Results:The scores of GDS and PDMS in the observation group and the control group weresignificantly increased after 12-week treatment (P <0.05),more significantly in the observation group than in thecontrol group (P <0.05).At different age states,and before and after treatment,the GDS scores showed significantdifferences in the observation group (P <0.05).The difference in GDS scores was

  6. Adaptation to a Spouse’s Disability by Parents of Adult Children With Mental Illness or Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subharati; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects on well-being of a spouse’s disability among aging parents already serving as caregivers of adult children with severe mental illness or a developmental disability Methods The study sample consisted of two groups of participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study of 1957 high school graduates and their randomly selected siblings—those who had a child with a disability (N=227) and a matched comparison group of parents who did not have a child with a disability (N=1,463). The participants were surveyed in 1992–1994 and 2004–2006, and participants with a spouse with a disability in 1992–1994 were excluded from the analysis. The effect of multiple caregiving roles was investigated by using regression analysis. Results Parents of adult children with severe mental illness were more likely than either parents of adult children with developmental disabilities or the comparison group to report that their spouse developed a disability in the early retirement years. The experience of caring for a spouse with a disability and the experience of caring for an adult child with disabilities had additive effects in eroding the well-being of older adults. Parents of adult children with severe mental illness in general had the lowest levels of well-being. Conclusions As they move into their retirement years, aging parents who care for children with long-term disabilities are likely to experience multiple caregiving responsibilities. Service providers must address the needs of these aging parents and develop interventions to help them cope and plan for their future. PMID:22948898

  7. Developmental origins of adult phonology: the interplay between phonetic emergents and the evolutionary adaptations of sound patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, B

    2000-01-01

    In this paper fragments of a theory of emergent phonology are presented. Phonological patterns are seen as products of cultural evolution adapted to universal biological constraints on listening, speaking and learning. It is proposed that children develop adult phonology thanks to the interaction of the emergent patterning of phonetic content and the adaptive organization of sound structure. Emergence - here used in the technical sense of qualitatively new development - is illustrated with examples from the study of perception, motor mechanisms and memory encoding. In this framework, there is no split between 'behavioral phonetics' and 'abstract phonology'. Phonology differs qualitatively from phonetics in that it represents a new, more complex and higher level of organization of speech behavior. Accordingly, the phonology that the child ends up with as an adult is neither abstract nor independent of use. It represents an emergent patterning of phonetic content.

  8. Chromosome 12q24.31-q24.33 deletion causes multiple dysmorphic features and developmental delay: First mosaic patient and overview of the phenotype related to 12q24qter defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakati Nadia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imbalances of the 12q telomere are rare; only a few patients having 12q24.31-q24.33 deletions were reported. Interestingly none of these were mosaic. Although some attempts have been made to establish phenotype/genotype interaction for the deletions in this region, no clear relationship has been established to date. Results We have clinically screened more than 100 patients with dysmorphic features, mental retardation and normal karyotype using high density oligo array-CGH (aCGH and identified a ~9.2 Mb hemizygous interstitial deletion at the 12q telomere (Chromosome 12: 46,XY,del(12(q24.31q24.33 in a severely developmentally retarded patient having dysmorphic features such as low set ears, microcephaly, undescended testicles, bent elbow, kyphoscoliosis, and micropenis. Parents were found to be not carriers. MLPA experiments confirmed the aCGH result. Interphase FISH revealed mosaicism in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conclusions Since conventional G-Banding technique missed the abnormality; this work re-confirms that any child with unexplained developmental delay and systemic involvement should be studied by aCGH techniques. The FISH technique, however, would still be useful to further delineate the research work and identify such rare mosaicism. Among the 52 deleted genes, P2RX2, ULK1, FZD10, RAN, NCOR2 STX2, TESC, FBXW8, and TBX3 are noteworthy since they may have a role in observed phenotype.

  9. Adaptation of ovarian cancer cells to the peritoneal environment: Multiple mechanisms of the developmental patterning gene HOXA9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Song Yi; Naora, Honami

    2015-01-01

    The lethality of ovarian cancer stems from its propensity to involve the peritoneal cavity. However, the mechanisms that enable ovarian cancer cells to readily adapt to the peritoneal environment are not well understood. Here, we describe our recent studies in which we identified the mechanisms by which the transcription factor encoded by the patterning gene HOXA9 promotes the aggressive behavior of ovarian cancer. Firstly, we identified that HOXA9 promotes ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis by activating the gene encoding transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), which in turn stimulates peritoneal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells to acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. Secondly, by inducing TGF-β2 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, HOXA9 stimulates peritoneal macrophages to acquire an immunosuppressive phenotype. Thirdly, HOXA9 stimulates attachment of ovarian cancer cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells by inducing expression of P-cadherin. By inducing P-cadherin, HOXA9 also enables floating cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity to form aggregates and escape anoikis. Together, our studies demonstrate that HOXA9 enables ovarian cancer cells to adapt to the peritoneal environment and ‘educates’ different types of stromal cells to become permissive for tumor growth. Our studies provide new insights into the regulation of tumor-stroma interactions in ovarian cancer and implicate several key effector molecules as candidate therapeutic targets. PMID:26000332

  10. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) can adapt to perceptible and subliminal rhythm changes but are more variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Renuka; Viswanathan, Priya; Clark, Jane E; Whitall, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Children with DCD demonstrate impairments in bimanual finger tapping during self-paced tapping and tapping in synchrony to different frequencies. In this study, we investigated the ability of children with DCD to adapt motorically to perceptible or subliminal changes of the auditory stimuli without a change in frequency, and compared their performance to typically developing controls (TDC). Nineteen children with DCD between ages 6-11years (mean age±SD=114±21months) and 17 TDC (mean age±SD=113±21months) participated in this study. Auditory perceptual threshold was established. Children initially tapped bimanually to an antiphase beat and then to either a perceptible change in rhythm or to gradual subliminal changes in rhythm. Children with DCD were able to perceive changes in rhythm similar to TDC. They were also able to adapt to both perceptible and subliminal changes in rhythms similar to their age- and gender- matched TDC. However, these children were significantly more variable compared with TDC in all phasing conditions. The results suggest that the performance impairments in bilateral tapping are not a result of poor conscious or sub-conscious perception of the auditory cue. The increased motor variability may be associated with cerebellar dysfunction but further behavioral and neurophysiological studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Improved Robust Adaptive Control Design for a Class of Neutral Delay Systems%一类中立时滞系统的一种改进的鲁棒自适应控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙希明; 孙文安; 赵军

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adaptive robust control is addressed for a class of neutral delay systems.All uncertainties are assumed to be bounded by unknown constants. An improved adaptation law is proposed to estimate the square of these unknown bounds. Then, by making use of the updated values of the squared unknown bounds, an adaptive controller is designed to make the solution of the resultant closed-loop system uniformly ultimately bounded. Furthermore, this method avoids chattering and improves the performance. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.

  12. Improved motor development and good long-term glycaemic control with sulfonylurea treatment in a patient with the syndrome of intermediate developmental delay, early-onset generalised epilepsy and neonatal diabetes associated with the V59M mutation in the KCNJ11 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, A. S.; Nuboer, R.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Hattersley, A. T.; Bruining, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the K-ATP channels in pancreatic beta cells are a common cause of neonatal diabetes. One-third of patients also have developmental delay, which probably results from mutated K-ATP channels in muscle, nerve and bra

  13. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  14. A transactional framework for pediatric rehabilitation: shifting the focus to situated contexts, transactional processes, and adaptive developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Imms, Christine; Stewart, Debra; Freeman, Matt; Nguyen, Tram

    2017-04-11

    A paradigm shift is taking place in pediatric rehabilitation research, practice, and policy - a shift towards the real-life contexts of clients rather than requiring clients to navigate the world of pediatric rehabilitation. This article proposes a conceptual framework to bring about a broader awareness of clients' lives and transactional processes of change over the life course. The framework draws attention to transactional processes by which individuals, situated in life contexts, change and adapt over the life course and, in turn, influence their contextual settings and broader environments. This framework is based on (a) basic tenets derived from foundational theories taking a life course perspective to change, and (b) transactional processes identified from relevant pediatric rehabilitation models that bring these foundational theories into the pediatric rehabilitation sphere. The framework identifies three types of transactional processes relevant to pediatric rehabilitation: facilitative, resiliency, and socialization processes. These processes describe how contexts and people mutually influence each other via opportunities and situated experiences, thus facilitating capacity, adaptation to adversity, and socialization to new roles and life transitions. The utility of the framework is considered for research, practice, service organizations, and policy. Implications for Rehabilitation The framework supports practitioners going beyond person and environment as separate entities, to provide services to the "situated person" in real-life contexts The framework shifts the focus from "body structures/functions" and "person in activity" to "person in changing and challenging life contexts" Working from a transactional perspective, practitioner-client conversations will change; practitioners will view client situations through a lens of opportunities and experiences, assess client experiences in real-life contexts, and strive to create context-based therapy

  15. Does adaptive strategy for delayed seed dispersion affect extinction probability of a desert species? an assessment using the population viability analysis and glass house experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Mathur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Canopy seed bank is an important adaptive evolutionary trait that provides various types of protection to the seeds. However, costing of such evolutionary trait on plant survival is largely unknown. Present investigation provided a new insight on the serotonious habit of Blepharis sindica associated with its endangerment status. Extinction probabilities of two available population of B. sindica were quantified using two types of census data, i.e., fruiting body number and actual population size. Population Viability Analysis (PVA revealed that delayed seed release tendency (higher fruiting body number was not synchronized with actual ground conditions (lower population size. PVA analysis based on actual population size indicated that both the available populations would vanish within 20 years. The mean time of extinction calculated from both type census data indicated its extinction within 48 years. For assessing the conservation criteria, a glass house experiment was carried out with different soil types and compositions. Pure sand and higher proportions of sand -silt were more suitable compared to clay; further, gravelly surface was the most unsuitable habitat for this species. Collection of the seeds from mature fruits/capsule and their sowing with moderate moisture availability with sandy soil could be recommended.

  16. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth...

  17. Elevational differences in developmental plasticity determine phenological responses of grasshoppers to recent climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lauren B; Nufio, César R; Kirk, Evan M; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2015-06-22

    Annual species may increase reproduction by increasing adult body size through extended development, but risk being unable to complete development in seasonally limited environments. Synthetic reviews indicate that most, but not all, species have responded to recent climate warming by advancing the seasonal timing of adult emergence or reproduction. Here, we show that 50 years of climate change have delayed development in high-elevation, season-limited grasshopper populations, but advanced development in populations at lower elevations. Developmental delays are most pronounced for early-season species, which might benefit most from delaying development when released from seasonal time constraints. Rearing experiments confirm that population, elevation and temperature interact to determine development time. Population differences in developmental plasticity may account for variability in phenological shifts among adults. An integrated consideration of the full life cycle that considers local adaptation and plasticity may be essential for understanding and predicting responses to climate change.

  18. Elevational differences in developmental plasticity determine phenological responses of grasshoppers to recent climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lauren B.; Nufio, César R.; Kirk, Evan M.; Kingsolver, Joel G.

    2015-01-01

    Annual species may increase reproduction by increasing adult body size through extended development, but risk being unable to complete development in seasonally limited environments. Synthetic reviews indicate that most, but not all, species have responded to recent climate warming by advancing the seasonal timing of adult emergence or reproduction. Here, we show that 50 years of climate change have delayed development in high-elevation, season-limited grasshopper populations, but advanced development in populations at lower elevations. Developmental delays are most pronounced for early-season species, which might benefit most from delaying development when released from seasonal time constraints. Rearing experiments confirm that population, elevation and temperature interact to determine development time. Population differences in developmental plasticity may account for variability in phenological shifts among adults. An integrated consideration of the full life cycle that considers local adaptation and plasticity may be essential for understanding and predicting responses to climate change. PMID:26041342

  19. Effect of Early Cognitive and Speech Intervention on Developmental Delay%早期认知语言康复训练对发育迟缓患儿各发育能区的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继红; 周平秋; 郭春光; 刘丽君; 陈建树; 张惠佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨早期认知语言康复训练对发育迟缓患儿各项发育能区的影响。方法2014年6月~2015年6月住院和门诊治疗的发育迟缓患儿58例,根据诊疗情况分为观察组(n=32)和对照组(n=26)。观察组接受早期认知语言康复训练和常规康复,对照组仅接受常规康复。两组患儿在治疗前和治疗3个月后,分别采用Gesell发育量表进行评定。结果两组治疗后,大运动、精细动作、语言、个人-社交能区发育商均有显著改善(t>2.90, P2.84, P36.52, P2.90, P2.84, P36.52, P<0.01). Conclusion Early cognitive and speech intervention may improve development of many dimensions in children with developmental delay. The earlier the intervention, the better the outcome.

  20. Coarctation of the aorta and mild to moderate developmental delay in a child with a de novo deletion of chromosome 15(q21.1q22.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sarika U

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion of 15q21q22 is a rare chromosomal anomaly. To date, there have been nine reports describing ten individuals with different segmental losses involving 15q21 and 15q22. Many of these individuals have common features of growth retardation, hypotonia and moderate to severe mental retardation. Congenital heart disease has been described in three individuals with interstitial deletion involving this region of chromosome 15. Case presentation We report a child with coarctation of the aorta, partial agenesis of corpus callosum and mild to moderate developmental delay, with a de novo deletion of 15q21.1q22.2, detected by the array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH. We utilized chromosome 15-specific microarray-based CGH to define the chromosomal breakpoints in this patient. Conclusion This is the first description of mapping of an interstitial deletion involving the chromosome 15q21q22 segment using the chromosome 15-specific array-CGH. The report also expands the spectrum of clinical phenotype associated with 15q21q22 deletion.

  1. An Improved Algorithm of Model-free Adaptive Control for Large Time-delay System%一种大时滞系统的无模型自适应控制改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琛; 何小阳

    2012-01-01

    利用无模型自适应控制(Model-free adaptive control,MFAC)方法仅需要被控对象输入和输出数据,而不需要其他任何信息的优点.针对工业生产过程中普遍存在的大时间滞后的特点,提出针对未知模型的大时滞对象的无模型自适应控制改进算法(Improved MFAC on Large Time-delay System,LTDS-IMFAC).在改进算法中,在基本无模型自适应控制算法的基础上引入了带有滞后时间的输入变化率的约束项,以此来减小大时间滞后对整个控制过程的影响.通过MATLAB仿真试验证明了改进算法对于大时滞系统的控制具有较好的有效性.%The model-free adaptive control(MFAC)is only using I/O data of the controlled system,and doesn't include any system model information. According to the common characteristics of the controlled object with large time-delay in the industrial production process,an improved algorithm of model-free adaptive control for large time-delay system (LTDS-IM-FAC)is presented. A constraint entry of the rate of change of the input with large time-delay to reducing the impact of the controlled plant with large time-delay is introduced. The MATLAB simulation results show that the improved algorithm has better validity.

  2. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  3. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  4. A New Criterion of Fault Estimation for Neutral Delay Systems Using Adaptive Observer%一种新的基于自适应观测器中立时滞系统故障估计的设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柯; 姜斌; SHUMSKY Alexey

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of fault estimation of neutral delay systems using adaptive observer. A novel fast adaptive fault estimation (FAFE) algorithm based on adaptive observer is first proposed to enhance the performance of fault estimation including rapidity and accuracy. Meanwhile, a delay-dependent criterion is established to reduce the conservatism of design procedures especially for small delay systems. Then, comprehensive analysis is presented to discuss the calculating steps using linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  5. 一种基于MAC层时延上限的VANET自适应分簇算法%MAC upperb and delay based adaptive clustering algorithm for VANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼; 邢松; 夏玮玮; 沈连丰

    2016-01-01

    To improve the performance of media access control ( MAC) protocols in vehicular ad hoc netw ork ( VANET) in the case of large vehicle density, a MAC upper band deal y based adap-tive ( MDBA) clusterign alg orithm si proposed.The MDBA clustering algorithm includes the cluster head election algorithm and the cluster maintenance algorithm.Under the restriction of MAC upper bound delay, the speed, acceleration, position, and destination are comprehensively considered to select the clustre eh ad in the cluster head election algorithm.In the cluster maintenance algorithm, clusters are adaptively adjusted according to the hc anges of network topology.Then, the traffic sim-ulation software VISSIM is used to create simulation scenario to evaluate the performance of the MD-BA clustering algorithm.The simulation results show that compared with the classic clustering algo-rithm in wireless sensor network and that in mobile ad hoc network, cluster head and cluster mem-bers in the MDBA clustering algorithm have longer life cycle, indicating that the MDBA clustering algorithm has better performance, thus it is more suitable for VANET.%为提高车辆自组织网络( VANET )中媒体接入控制( MAC )协议在车辆密集情况下的性能,提出了一种基于MAC层时延上限的自适应( MDBA)分簇算法,该算法包括簇头选举算法和簇维护算法。在MAC层消息传输的时延上限制约下,簇头选举算法通过综合考虑车辆节点的速度、加速度、位置和目的地4种因素来选取簇头;针对网络拓扑的变化,簇维护算法对分簇进行自适应调整。利用交通流仿真软件VISSIM创建仿真场景,以考察MDBA分簇算法的性能。仿真结果表明,与传统无线传感器网络和移动自组织网络中的典型分簇算法相比,M DBA分簇算法中簇头和簇成员的生存时间较长,算法性能更优,更加适用于车辆自组织网络。

  6. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  7. 磁共振扩散张量成像在婴幼儿脑瘫诊断中的应用价值%Signiifcance of Applying DTI in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy in Infants with Developmental Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朋; 刘鹏; 刘杰; 王颖; 高修成; 张见

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of applying DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy in infants with developmental delays. Methods Thirty-three cases of cerebral palsy infants were selected as the cerebral palsy group, while 33 cases of healthy children as the control group. Then, DTI was performed on both the groups so as to observe the changes of the ifber tracts and research DTI features and its relevance with cerebral palsy. Additionally, the statistical method was applied to compare each FA (Fractional Anisotropy) value in the ROIs (Region-of-Interest) between the cerebral palsy group and the control group. Results Of 33 cerebral palsy infants, sparse and interrupted ifber tracts with abnormal orientation were revealed in different extent in 23 cases on different regions;no obvious changes of ifber tracts were revealed in 10 cases. The FA value in the ROIs of the cerebral palsy group was lower than that of the control group. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the two groups. Conclusion Abnormalities revealed by DTI were correlated with cerebral palsy. As an useful method for diagnosis of cerebral palsy in infants and young children with developmental delays, DTI can provide the basis for clinicians to make reasonable treatment plan.%目的:探讨磁共振张量成像(DTI)在婴幼儿脑瘫诊断中的应用价值。方法选取33例脑瘫婴幼儿作为脑瘫组,33例正常婴幼儿作为对照组,分别对其行DTI检查。观察神经纤维束的改变,研究DTI成像特点及其与脑瘫的相关性,并采用统计学方法比较脑瘫组和对照组感兴趣区的各向异性(FA)值。结果33例脑瘫患儿中,23例伴有不同部位和不同程度的神经纤维束稀疏、中断及走行异常,10例患儿神经纤维束改变不明显;脑瘫组患儿感兴趣区的FA值较低,与对照组相比有显著差异(P<0.05)。结论DTI异常表现与脑性瘫痪具有相关性,DTI

  8. 基于数据中心负载分析的自适应延迟调度算法%Adaptive delay scheduling algorithm based on data center load analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金嘉晖; 罗军舟; 宋爱波; 东方

    2011-01-01

    由于已有的延迟调度算法基于静态的等待时间阈值,因此不能适应云计算数据中心动态的负载变化.针对该问题,提出了等待时间阈值自适应调整模型.基于该模型,设计了自适应延迟调度算法(ADS).ADS算法通过分析空闲计算节点的到达强度、网络带宽和作业执行状态等参数,自适应调整等待时间阈值,以减少作业响应时间.基于开发的原型系统,验证了自适应调整模型,测试了算法性能.结果表明,ADS算法在作业响应时间等方面优于已有的延迟调度算法.%Current delay scheduling algorithms, based on static waiting time threshold, can not adapt to dynamic load of a data center. To address this issue, an adaptive waiting time threshold model was proposed. Based on this model, an adap-tive delay scheduling algorithm (ADS) was designed. ADS adjusts jobs' waiting time threshold dynamically to reduce the job response time, according to the information of idle servers' arrival intensity, available network bandwidth and job running status. A prototype system using ADS was developed, on which the validation of the adaptive waiting time threshold model and the evaluation of ADS's performance were carried out It is shown that ADS outperforms previous delay scheduling algorithms in term of the job response time.

  9. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica ERCEG-DJURACIC

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders represent obviously a heterogeneous group of disorders, whose clinical expressions, courses and prospects differ significantly. Common to all these disorders, expect essential diagnostic characteristics, is the fact that they are life-long problems, thus, these are disorders without possibility of complete relief. Although measures of secondary prevention in these disorders do exert a limited effect, it is possible to achieve indubitable improvements in three fields:· well-timed application of adequate treatment may influence the essential characteristics of a disorder in the direction of adaptation to requirements of social environment, improvement of communication and enrichment of poor activity repertoire;· slowing down and delaying of unfavorable disorder evolution and· helping in understanding, accepting and adapting of child’s family to a pervasive developmental disorder.Value of early established diagnosis is not reflected only in foundation of organized adequate treatment. Early established diagnosis enables a well-timed giving of genetic advice to the family which is, as a rule, young, and without genetic load. On the other hand, well-timed diagnosis enables planning of life-long complete care for the patient with the disorder.

  10. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients.......Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition...

  11. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  12. Comparison of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form age equivalent and standard score with the Bayley Mental Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W; Bass, J D

    1994-08-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form standard score, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form age equivalent and Bayley scales' Mental Development Index were given to 44 high-risk infants age 12 mo. and suspected of developmental delay. The VABS-Survey Form, a revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale is frequently used in assessment of developmental delay; however, questions have arisen as to whether the standard score or age equivalent is the better measure. A developmental quotient based on VABS-SF age equivalent and VABS-SF standard score was compared with the Bayley Mental Development Index. The mean VABS-SF standard score was significantly higher than the age equivalent quotient and the Bayley Mental Development Index. Implications for the use of VABS-SF age equivalent in evaluating such infants are discussed.

  13. Twins and virtual twins: Do genetic (as well as experiential) factors affect developmental risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; Tan, Tony Xing; Graham, Jamie L

    2015-08-01

    Factors underlying developmental delays and psychosocial risks are of interest to international adoption communities. The current study administered a Pre-Adoption Adversity (PAA) Questionnaire to mostly American parents raising (a) adopted Chinese twins or (b) same-age unrelated adopted siblings. A goal was to replicate earlier analyses of pre-adoption adversity/adjustment among adopted preschool-age Chinese girls. A second goal was to conduct genetic analyses of four content areas (Developmental Delays at Adoption, Initial Adaptation to Adoption, Crying/Clinging, and Refusal/Avoidance) derived from the PAA Questionnaire. A key finding was that age at adoption added less than other predictors to adoptees' externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Family factors (e.g., parental education) contributed significantly to behavioral outcomes among the adopted Chinese twins. Genetic effects were indicated for all four content areas, with shared environmental effects evident for Developmental Delays at Adoption and Crying/Clinging. Future investigators should consider incorporating genetically sensitive designs into developmental research programs.

  14. Adaptive NN State-Feedback Control for Stochastic High-Order Nonlinear Systems with Time-Varying Control Direction and Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Min

    2015-01-01

    and dynamic surface control technique, an adaptive NN controller is constructed to render the closed-loop system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB. Finally, a simulation example is shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  15. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development.

  16. Developmental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1994-01-01

    Developmental evaluation is proposed as a term to describe certain long-term partnering relationships with clients who are, themselves, engaged in ongoing program development. Rather than a model, developmental evaluation is a relationship founded on a shared purpose and is a way of being useful in innovative settings. (SLD)

  17. The usefulness of the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, F P; Byrne, K E

    1993-05-01

    Recent research supporting the effectiveness of early intervention and laws expanding services have increased the demand for accurate developmental screening tests. The Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDIST), for children 6 months to 8 years old, has a number of desirable features, including subtests for fine and gross motor, adaptive, personal-social, receptive and expressive language, and cognitive skills; a range cutoff and age-equivalent scores; and national standardization. To assess its accuracy, the BDIST was administered to 104 children 7 to 83 months old, along with several other screening tests and a battery of criterion measures. Tied to 1.5 standard deviations below the mean, BDIST failing scores were moderately sensitive, detecting 75% of the children with developmental problems, such as mental retardation, borderline intelligence, language delays, and learning disabilities. Since 73% of the nonhandicapped children passed the BDIST, the test showed moderate specificity. Children within one month of their birthdays were likely to be over- or underreferred. Although the BDIST needs further research, it is a promising developmental screening instrument. The Receptive Language (RL) subtest, slightly more sensitive than the total BDIST but less specific, takes only a few minutes and thus is useful for prescreening in time-limited settings, such as pediatric practice.

  18. The Predictive Validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory as a Measure of Adaptive Behavior : A 2-3 Year, Longitudinal Comparison with the Scales of Independent Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jentzsch, Clarice E.

    1994-01-01

    Within the last 5 years, researchers have given increased attention to preschool assessment. One test, the Battelle Developmental Inventory, has become increasingly popular for use with preschool-age children. Despite its frequent use by early intervention programs, few researchers have studied the technical adequacy of the Battelle. The predictive validity of the Battelle was examined, using 154 children with disabilities. Scores on the Battelle for children 3 to 5 years of age were compared...

  19. 一类时滞系统的自校正模糊Smith控制器设计%Adaptive-Fuzzy-Smith Controller Design of a Class of Systems with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪洲; 龚磊

    2009-01-01

    Smith预估控制是解决时滞系统控制的有效方法,但其对系统模型参数的精确要求限制了其应用.而模糊控制本质上属于PD控制,无法消除系统的稳态误差.文中设计了一种自校正模糊Smith 控制器,结合模糊控制、Smith预估器及自校正控制的优点,既保持了模糊控制鲁棒性较强的特点,又消除了系统的稳态误差,且改善了系统的动态性能.仿真结果表明了自校正模糊控制器的有效性和优越性.%Smith predictive controller is an effective method to control the time delay systems, however, the drawback of high rigourness of Smith controller limits its application. Fuzzy-Smith control belongs to PD control and can't avoid the steady-state error. An adaptive-Fuzzy-Smith controller is designed, combining the advantages of fuzzy control, Smith predictive control and adaptive control, it keeps the good robustness of fuzzy control and improves the dynamic performance of the system. The simulation results show the effectiveness and superiority of the adaptive-Fuzzy-Smith controller.

  20. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  1. 遗传学新技术在发育迟缓患儿病因诊断中的应用价值%The application of new genetic technology in the children with developmental delay and mental retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎芳; 宇亚芬; 麻宏伟

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨遗传学新技术在儿童发育迟缓(DD)病因诊断中的应用价值。方法应用常规染色体核型分析、染色体微缺失检测、致病基因突变分析、串联质谱、气相色谱-质谱技术,对儿童保健门诊2013年9月至2014年9月就诊的180例DD患儿进行外周血或尿液分析。结果异常检出率为27.2%(49/180),其中49.0%(24/49)是应用常规染色体核型分析技术确诊:15例为21-三体综合征,9例为其他染色体异常;51.0%(25/49)是应用新近开展的遗传学新技术确诊:14例为染色体微缺失综合征,6例为遗传代谢病,5例为致病基因突变所致。14例染色体微缺失综合征中3例为Prader-Willi综合征,天使综合征、22q13缺失综合征、Williams综合征及Smith-Magenis综合征各2例,猫叫综合征、22q11微缺失综合征及1p36缺失综合征各1例;6例遗传代谢病中3例为甲基丙二酸血症;枫糖尿症、酪氨酸血症和戊二酸尿症各1例;5例基因突变中3例为脆性X综合征,2例为德朗热综合征。结论遗传学新技术提高了对DD患儿的病因学诊断;常规染色体检查正常的儿童不能排除染色体微缺失综合征和遗传代谢病。常规染色体核型分析、染色体微缺失检测、基因突变检测、串联质谱及气相色谱-质谱分析在临床应用中具有互补作用,彼此不能完全替代,临床上应根据不同的特殊面容和临床特征,选择相应的遗传学检测技术。%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of new genetic technology inthe child with developmental delay and mental retardation.MethodThe peripheral blood and urine of 180 children with developmental retardation which were collected from the patients in the child care department from September 2013 to September 2014 were analyzed using chromosomal karyotype analysis, MLPA ,genetic mutation analysis, MS-MS and GC-MS.ResultsThe anomaly detection rate was 27.2% (49

  2. Joint phase noise and frequency offset estimation and mitigation for optically coherent QAM based on adaptive multi-symbol delay detection (MSDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselniker, Igor; Sigron, Netta; Nazarathy, Moshe

    2012-05-07

    This paper extends our prior coherent MSDD Carrier Recovery system from QPSK to QAM operation and also characterizes for the first time the Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) mitigation capabilities of the novel MSDD for QAM systems. We introduce and numerically investigate the performance of an improved MSDD carrier recovery system (differing from the one disclosed in our MSDD for QPSK prior paper), automatically adapting to the channel statistics for optimal phase-noise mitigation. Remarkably, we do not require a separate structure to estimate and mitigate CFO, but the same adaptive structure originally intended for phase noise mitigation is shown to also automatically provide frequency offset estimation and recovery functionality. The CFO capture range of our system is in principle infinite, whereas prior CFO mitigation systems have CFO capture ranges limited to a small a fraction of the baud-rate. When used for 16-QAM with coherent-grade lasers of 100 KHz linewidth, our MSDD system attains the best tradeoffs between performance and complexity, relative to other carrier recovery systems combining blind-phase-search with maximum likelihood detection. We also present additional MSDD phase-noise recovery system variants whereby substantially reduced complexity is traded off for slightly degraded performance. Our MSDD system is able to switch "on-the-fly" to various m-QAM constellation sizes, e.g. seamlessly transition between 16-QAM and QPSK, which may be useful for dynamically adaptive optical networks.

  3. Performance analysis of low-complexity adaptive frequency-domain equalization and MIMO signal processing for compensation of differential mode group delay in mode-division multiplexing communication systems using few-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission systems utilizing few-mode fibers (FMF) have been intensively explored to sustain continuous traffic growth. The key challenges of MDM systems are inter-modal crosstalk due to random mode coupling (RMC), and largely-accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), whilst hinders mode-demultiplexer implementation. The adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) can dynamically compensate DMGD using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The frequency-domain least-mean squares (FD-LMS) algorithm has been universally adopted for high-speed MDM communications, mainly for its relatively low computational complexity. However, longer training sequence is appended for FD-LMS to achieve faster convergence, which incurs prohibitively higher system overhead and reduces overall throughput. In this paper, we propose a fast-convergent single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive least-squares (FD-RLS) algorithm with reduced complexity for DMGD compensation at MDM coherent receivers. The performance and complexity comparison of FD-RLS, with signal-PSD-dependent FD-LMS method and conventional FD-LMS approach, are performed in a 3000 km six-mode transmission system with 65 ps/km DMGD. We explore the convergence speed of three adaptive algorithms, including the normalized mean-square-error (NMSE) per fast Fourier transform (FFT) block at 14-30 dB OSNR. The fast convergence of FD-RLS is exploited at the expense of slightly-increased necessary tap numbers for MIMO equalizers, and it can partially save the overhead of training sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate adaptive FD-RLS can also be used for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation without increasing the filter tap length, thus prominently reducing the DSP implementation complexity for MDM systems.

  4. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  5. Adaptive and maladaptive correlates of repetitive behavior and restricted interests in persons with down syndrome and developmentally-matched typical children: a two-year longitudinal sequential design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI in children with and without Down syndrome (DS over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA levels: "younger" 2-4 years; "older" 5-11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

  6. Simulation Based Verification of the Applicability of a Novel Branch of Computational Cybernetics in the Adaptive Control of Imperfectly Modeled Physical Systems of Asymmetric Delay Time and Strong Non-linearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József K. Tar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the applicability of an adaptive control based on a novel branch ofComputational Cybernetics is illustrated for two different, imperfectly andinaccurately modeled particular physical sytems. One of them is a water tankstirring cold and hot water as input and releasing the mixture through a long pipe.The mass flow rate and the temperature are prescribed at the free end of the exitpipe while the taps at the input side can diretly be controlled. Due to theincompressibility of the fluid the variation of the mass flow rate of the output isimmediately observableat the pipe’s end and is related to the control action at theinput taps, while its effect on the temperature becomes measurable at the free endof the pipe only after a delay time needed for the fluid to flow through the pipe.This results in asymmetric and non-constant delay time. The other paradigm is thethermal decay of the molecular nitrogen during a throttling down process. As iswell known chemical reactions hav very drastic non-linearities and it is not easyto construct their “exact” or satisfacorily avccurate model. The fundamentalprinciples of this new branch of Computational Cybernetics are briefly presentedin the paper. To some extent it is similar to the traditional Soft Computing, but byusing a priori known, uniform, lucid structure of reduced size, it can evade theenormous structures so characteristic to the usual approach. Clumsydeterministic, semi-stochastic or stochastic machine learning is replaced bysimple, short, explicit algebraic procedures especially fit to real time applications.The costs of these advantages may manifest themselves in the expected limitationof the applicabilityof this new approach. However, the simulation resultsexemplify the applicability of the new method in the control of systems of strongnon-linearities and asymmetric delay time.

  7. Adaptive Long-Term Coding of LSF Parameters Trajectories for Large-Delay/Very- to Ultra-Low Bit-Rate Speech Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Girin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model-based method for coding the LSF parameters of LPC speech coders on a “long-term” basis, that is, beyond the usual 20–30 ms frame duration. The objective is to provide efficient LSF quantization for a speech coder with large delay but very- to ultra-low bit-rate (i.e., below 1 kb/s. To do this, speech is first segmented into voiced/unvoiced segments. A Discrete Cosine model of the time trajectory of the LSF vectors is then applied to each segment to capture the LSF interframe correlation over the whole segment. Bi-directional transformation from the model coefficients to a reduced set of LSF vectors enables both efficient “sparse” coding (using here multistage vector quantizers and the generation of interpolated LSF vectors at the decoder. The proposed method provides up to 50% gain in bit-rate over frame-by-frame quantization while preserving signal quality and competes favorably with 2D-transform coding for the lower range of tested bit rates. Moreover, the implicit time-interpolation nature of the long-term coding process provides this technique a high potential for use in speech synthesis systems.

  8. Group Mobility Adaptive Event Delivery Scheme for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks%延迟容忍传感器网络中基于群组运动的事件传输

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴磊; 王晓敏; 刘明; 陈贵海; 龚海刚

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient event delivery algorithm called distributed group mobility adaptive event delivery (GMED) for delay tolerant mobile sensor networks (DTMSN). GMED is designed to establish a group-based event delivery model by effectively finding and utilizing the groups generated by moving sensor nodes which then lead an improved performance: On one hand, Inter-Group delivery will be achieved by multi-replica delivery based on its delivery probability to the sink. On the other hand, Intra-Group delivery will be performed by single-replica delivery through established transmission paths because each node have stable neighbor sets inside group. Meanwhile, delivery prioritizing will be based on event priority in the queue. Furthermore, a redundant replica control mechanism is also introduced to optimize replica management and network overload. Simulation results have shown that GMED not only achieves a relatively long network lifetime, but also has a higher message delivery ratio at lower transmission overhead and delay than other DTMSN data delivering approaches.%提出了一种基于分布式群组移动的事件分类传输策略GMED(distributed group mobility adaptive event delivery).通过有效地发现和利用传感器节点在运动过程中形成的群组,建立基于群组的事件分类传输模型,改善数据传输性能.其中,群组的转发是依据各自与汇聚点的机会概率按照多副本方式进行的;而群内的事件传输则是基于各成员的稳定邻居集建立传输路径,并以单副本方式进行.队列管理则根据事件的优先级决定递交的顺序和丢弃原则.此外,引入冗余副本控制机制,优化副本管理,降低网络负载.模拟实验结果表明,与现有的几种DTMSN(delay tolerant mobile sensor networks)数据传输算法相比,GMED能以较低的数据传输能耗和传输延迟获得较高的数据传输成功率,且网络寿命相对较长.

  9. Adaptive management of energy consumption, reliability and delay of wireless sensor node: Application to IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, Cheick Tidjane; Mathias, Jean-Denis; De Sousa, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Designing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to achieve a high Quality of Service (QoS) (network performance and durability) is a challenging problem. We address it by focusing on the performance of the 802.15.4 communication protocol because the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard is actually considered as one of the reference technologies in WSNs. In this paper, we propose to control the sustainable use of resources (i.e., energy consumption, reliability and timely packet transmission) of a wireless sensor node equipped with photovoltaic cells by an adaptive tuning not only of the MAC (Medium Access Control) parameters but also of the sampling frequency of the node. To do this, we use one of the existing control approaches, namely the viability theory, which aims to preserve the functions and the controls of a dynamic system in a set of desirable states. So, an analytical model, describing the evolution over time of nodal resources, is derived and used by a viability algorithm for the adaptive tuning of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol. The simulation analysis shows that our solution allows ensuring indefinitely, in the absence of hardware failure, the operations (lifetime duration, reliability and timely packet transmission) of an 802.15.4 WSN and one can temporarily increase the sampling frequency of the node beyond the regular sampling one. This latter brings advantages for agricultural and environmental applications such as precision agriculture, flood or fire prevention. Main results show that our current approach enable to send more information when critical events occur without the node runs out of energy. Finally, we argue that our approach is generic and can be applied to other types of WSN.

  10. Adaptive management of energy consumption, reliability and delay of wireless sensor node: Application to IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Designing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to achieve a high Quality of Service (QoS) (network performance and durability) is a challenging problem. We address it by focusing on the performance of the 802.15.4 communication protocol because the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard is actually considered as one of the reference technologies in WSNs. In this paper, we propose to control the sustainable use of resources (i.e., energy consumption, reliability and timely packet transmission) of a wireless sensor node equipped with photovoltaic cells by an adaptive tuning not only of the MAC (Medium Access Control) parameters but also of the sampling frequency of the node. To do this, we use one of the existing control approaches, namely the viability theory, which aims to preserve the functions and the controls of a dynamic system in a set of desirable states. So, an analytical model, describing the evolution over time of nodal resources, is derived and used by a viability algorithm for the adaptive tuning of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol. The simulation analysis shows that our solution allows ensuring indefinitely, in the absence of hardware failure, the operations (lifetime duration, reliability and timely packet transmission) of an 802.15.4 WSN and one can temporarily increase the sampling frequency of the node beyond the regular sampling one. This latter brings advantages for agricultural and environmental applications such as precision agriculture, flood or fire prevention. Main results show that our current approach enable to send more information when critical events occur without the node runs out of energy. Finally, we argue that our approach is generic and can be applied to other types of WSN. PMID:28235097

  11. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  12. Evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-02-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  13. Delays in GABAergic interneuron development and behavioral inhibition after prenatal stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lussier, Stephanie J; Stevens, Hanna E

    2016-01-01

    .... Prenatal stress delays GABAergic progenitor migration, but the significance of these early developmental disruptions for the continued development of GABAergic cells in the juvenile brain is unclear...

  14. 一类非线性时滞混沌系统的自适应脉冲同步%Adaptive Impulsive Synchronization for a Class of Nonlinear Time-Delay Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 姜海波; 毕勤胜

    2012-01-01

    A new scheme of adaptive impulsive synchronization for a class of nonlinear time-delay chaotic systems is proposed in this paper. Firstly based on the Lyapunov stability theory, adaptive control theory and impulsive control theory, the adaptive controller, the impulsive controller and the parametric update laws are designed respectively. Then by the generalized Barbalat's lemma, global asymptotic synchronization between the driving system and the responding system are proved and some corresponding sufficient conditions are also obtained. Some parameters are used to approximate the Lipschitz constants, so that the assumptions that Lipschitz constants are known prior are not needed. Two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.%针对一类非线性时滞混沌系统,提出了一种新的自适应脉冲同步方案.首先基于Lyapunov稳定性理论、自适应控制理论及脉冲控制理论设计了自适应控制器、脉冲控制器及参数自适应律,然后利用推广的Barbalat引理,理论证明响应系统与驱动系统全局渐近同步,并给出了相应的充分条件.方案利用参数逼近Lipschitz常数,从而取消了Lipschitz常数已知的假设.两个数值仿真例子表明本方法的有效性.

  15. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... is eventually attained when the embryo acquires the capacity to impose a number of developmental constraints on its constituting parts in a top-down direction. The acquisition of this capacity allows a semiotic threshold to emerge between the living cellular world and the underlying nonliving molecular world...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  16. Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, intended for use with handicapped and nonhandicapped children ages 0-8, are examined. The instruments measure personal-social, adaptive, motor, communication, and cognitive skills, for use in screening, diagnosis, identification, assessment, and program evaluation. The paper discusses test…

  17. Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.

  18. Toward a Developmental Operational Definition of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Jane E.; Carter, Alice S.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2000-01-01

    Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales scores and measures of intellectual functioning obtained for 44 children (ages 4-13) with autism, 21 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, and 30 with developmental disorders, indicated autism and combined nonautism groups could be differentiated on socialization, daily living skills, and…

  19. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  20. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...