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Sample records for adaptive developmental delay

  1. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  2. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  3. Risk factors of ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, L.N.; Jensen, H.; Skov, L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  4. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends. PMID:23521432

  5. Approach to Mental Retardation and Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMental Retardation (MR or Intellectual Disability is one of three chronic and disabling neurological disorders of children and adolescents. Its prevalence is estimated 1-3% of the population. MR is defined as significant sub-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that become detectable before the age of 18. MR may come into view before 5 years as delay in at least two developmental domains which is called Global Developmental Delay (GDD.The causes of mental retardation can be considered under the titles of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. Prenatal causes account for approximately 60 -80 % of the etiological factors. All patients with GDD / MR should undergo a stepwise diagnostic approach, because a specific diagnosis leads to opportunity for treatment, future planning and genetic counseling. History, physical examination and neurodevelopmental examinations are the most important parts of the approach. Recent advances in cytogenetic investigations and neuroimaging studies have led to recognition of new disorders and improvement of the diagnostic yield.Keywords: Mental retardation ; global developmental delay; diagnostic yield.

  6. Clinical profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Aggarwal; Hema Mittal; Rahul Patil; Sanjib Debnath; Anuradha Rai

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly. Materials and Methods: Children attending child development clinic with developmental delay were evaluated as per protocol. Z scores of head circumference were calculated using WHO charts. Clinical, radiological and etiological profile of those with microcephaly and those without was compared. Results: Of the 414 children with developmental delay 231 had microcephaly (z score ≤ -3). Mean age of children with micr...

  7. Neuropsychological Testing of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Problems and Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nancy W.; Levin, Harvey S.

    1979-01-01

    The study involving 13 developmentally delayed children (36-66 months old) was conducted to determine the applicability of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Motor Impersistence Test, Graphesthesia Test, and Stereognosis-Tactile Test with developmentally delayed infants and preschoolers. (SBH)

  8. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI...

  9. Approach to Mental Retardation and Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveMental Retardation (MR or Intellectual Disability is one of three chronic and disabling neurological disorders of children and adolescents. Its prevalence is estimated 1-3% of the population. MR is defined as significant sub-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that become detectable before the age of 18. MR may come into view before 5 years as delay in at least two developmental domains which is called Global Developmental Delay (GDD.The causes of mental retardation can be considered under the titles of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. Prenatal causes account for approximately 60 -80 % of the etiological factors. All patients with GDD / MR should undergo a stepwise diagnostic approach, because a specific diagnosis leads to opportunity for treatment, future planning and genetic counseling. History, physical examination and neurodevelopmental examinations are the most important parts of the approach. Recent advances in cytogenetic investigations and neuroimaging studies have led to recognition of new disorders and improvement of the diagnostic yield.

  10. Neuropsychomotor developmental delay: conceptual map, term definitions, uses and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrieve the origin of the term neuropsychomotor developmental delay" (NPMD, its conceptual evolution over time, and to build a conceptual map based on literature review. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed in the SciELO Brazil, Web of Science, Science Direct, OneFile (GALE, Pubmed (Medline, Whiley Online, and Springer databases, from January of 1940 to January of 2013, using the following keywords: NPMD delay, NPMD retardation, developmental delay, and global developmental delay. A total of 71 articles were selected, which were used to build the conceptual map of the term. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of the 71 references, 55 were international and 16 national. The terms developmental delay and global developmental delay were the most frequently used in the international literature and, in Brazil, delayed NPMD was the most often used. The term developmental delay emerged in the mid 1940s, gaining momentum in the 1990s. In Brazil, the term delayed NPMD started to be used in the 1980s, and has been frequently cited and published in the literature. Delayed development was a characteristic of 13 morbidities described in 23 references. Regarding the type of use, 19 references were found, with seven forms of use. Among the references, 34 had definitions of the term, and 16 different concepts were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental delay is addressed in the international and national literature under different names, various applications, and heterogeneous concepts. Internationally, ways to improve communication between professionals have been indicated, with standardized definition of the term and use in very specific situations up to the fifth year of life, which was not found in Brazilian publications.

  11. Severe developmental delay and multiple strawberry naevi: a new syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Upton, C J; Young, I D

    1993-01-01

    An 18 month old girl with dysmorphic features, severe developmental delay, multiple strawberry naevi, and capillary naevi is described. No previous report of a similar association of features has been identified.

  12. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anthoney Lim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to lifethreatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair.

  13. Developmental trends in adaptive memory

    OpenAIRE

    Otgaar, H.; Howe, M. L.; Smeets, T; Garner, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more l...

  14. Global developmental delay with sodium valproate-induced gingival hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravi B; Urs, Pallavi; Kiran, Shital; Bargale, Seema Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) refers to a disturbance in an individual child across one or more developmental domains, which include motor, cognition, daily activities, speech and language. The present case discusses a 5-year-old child with GDD associated with infantile spasms treated with sodium valproate. Delay in the widespread acquisition of skills, epilepsy and poor oral hygiene with gingival enlargement was the main concern to seek medical aid. This case is special as the child was suffering from GDD associated with sodium valproate-induced gingival enlargement.

  15. Developmentally Delayed Musical Savant's Sensitivity to Tonal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leon K.

    1987-01-01

    A five-year-old developmentally delayed, musically gifted child with no formal musical training was asked to repeat passages on the piano. Analysis of responses to melodies in each of the 24 major and minor keys indicated sensitivity to aspects of diatonic structure exhibited by mature listeners. (Author)

  16. Developmental delays at arrival and postmenarcheal Chinese adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony X; Rice, Jessica L; Mahoney, E Emily

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children's adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children's outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M = 14.2 years, SD = 1.7) who were adopted from China at 16.6 months (SD = 17.1). In 2005, adoptive parents provided data of medical evaluation results on their children's delay status in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social development, emotional development, and cognitive development. Six years later in 2011, data on parent-child relationship quality were collected from parents, and data on the adoptees' academic competence and internalizing problems were also collected from both parents and adoptees. We found that gross motor delay at arrival predicted academic performance (parent-report: b = -.34, p < .01) and internalizing problems (self-report: b = .26, p < .05; parent-report: b = .33, p < .01). Other delays were not significant in predicting any of the outcomes. The impact of early nutritional deprivation on gross motor development was discussed.

  17. Parenting Children with Developmental Delays: The Role of Positive Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Emilie; Baker, Bruce L

    2008-07-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main effect on parenting stress at all ages, which was mediated by child behavior problems for mothers in the DD group at every age and across time. In the TD group, mediation was found at age 3 years. Additionally, support was found for a moderation effect of positive beliefs on the relation between child behavior problems and parenting stress, but only in the DD group at age 3. These findings have implications for interventions drawing on Seligman's (1991) work on learned optimism, the positive counterpart of learned helplessness. PMID:20107620

  18. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

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    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Sakamoto, Yuji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Hamatake, Satoshi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author).

  19. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author)

  20. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza ZAMANI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Zamani GH, Shervin Badv R, Niksirat A, Alizadeh H. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1:25-28. ObjectiveCentral Nervous system (CNS malformations are one of the most important causes of global developmental delay (GDD in Children. About one percent of infants with GDD have an inherited metabolic disorder and 3-10 percent have a chromosomal disorder. This study aimed to survey the frequency of brain structural anomalies and their subtypes among the variety of etiologic factors in children with GDD in our patients.Materials & MethodsThis study used the results of neuroimaging studies [unenhanced brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI] of all children who had been referred for evaluation of GDD to outpatient Clinic of Pediatric neurology at Children’s Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science between September 2009 and September 2010.ResultsIn this study, unenhanced brain MRI was performed on 405 children, of which80 cases (20 percent had brain structural anomalies. In 8.7 percent of the cases, previous history of brain structural disorders existed in other children of the family and 20 percent of mothers had inadequate consumption of folate during pregnancy.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, unenhanced cranial MRI seems to be a fundamental part of evaluation in all children with GDD. Adequate folate consumption as prophylaxis as well as genetic counseling can be worthy for high-risk mothers who have previous history of CNS anomaly or miscarriage to avoid repeated CNS anomalies in their next pregnancies. References1. Fenichel M. Clinical Pediatric Neurology: A Signs and Symptoms Approach. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2009. p. 119-52.2. A guide to investigation of children with developmental delay in East Anglia 2005Available from:http://www. phgfoundation.org/file/2366.3. Williams J. Global developmental

  1. Unraveling the "new morbidity": adolescent parenting and developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L; Passino, A W; Rellinger, E A; Sommer, K; Keogh, D

    1992-01-01

    Baumeister's concept of the "new morbidity" pertains to the linkages between poverty, adolescent mothers, and a series of developmental delays in their children. Outlined are three possible causes of the mild mental retardation and learning disabilities that are found disproportionately among the offspring of adolescents. First, there may be a direct genetic transmission of mild mental retardation. Second, adolescent mothers are likely to have a lack of support from a social network, be unprepared cognitively and emotionally to assume responsibility for child rearing, and to look to an infant to meet their own needs. Third, the interaction of genetic and environmental deficits leads to a parenting style that deprives the child of stimulation that could potentially overcome these deficits. A secure mother-infant attachment relationship provides the foundation for the development of social, emotional, attentional, and self-regulatory processes. When this attachment relationship is insecure, as a result of the mother's unreadiness to parent, the child cannot proceed to exploration of the environment--a critical component of cognitive development. If the infant has a difficult temperament, the risk of physical and emotional abuse increases, further compromising the child's future development. By 3 years of age, many of these children are showing declines in mental functioning, delays in receptive language skills, and poor motor and social skills. Research is urged to identify events in this chain that can be targeted for early intervention. PMID:12319317

  2. A novel online adaptive time delay identification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Alper; Tatlicioglu, Enver

    2016-05-01

    Time delay is a phenomenon which is common in signal processing, communication, control applications, etc. The special feature of time delay that makes it attractive is that it is a commonly faced problem in many systems. A literature search on time-delay identification highlights the fact that most studies focused on numerical solutions. In this study, a novel online adaptive time-delay identification technique is proposed. This technique is based on an adaptive update law through a minimum-maximum strategy which is firstly applied to time-delay identification. In the design of the adaptive identification law, Lyapunov-based stability analysis techniques are utilised. Several numerical simulations were conducted with Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. It is numerically demonstrated that the proposed technique works efficiently in identifying both constant and disturbed time delays, and is also robust to measurement noise.

  3. Neonatal Morbidities and Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, J.M.; Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; de Winter, A.F.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bos, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children born moderately preterm (32-35(6/7) weeks' gestation) are at increased risk of both neonatal morbidities and developmental delays in early childhood. It is unknown whether neonatal morbidities contribute to the increased risk of developmental delay. The objective o

  4. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  5. Modeling developmental transitions in adaptive resonance theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. Raijmakers; P.C.M. Molenaar

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are applied to a theoretical subject in developmental psychology: modeling developmental transitions. Two issues that are involved will be discussed: discontinuities and acquiring qualitatively new knowledge. We will argue that by the appearance of a bifurcation, a neural network can

  6. AN ADAPTIVE AQM TO PROVIDE DELAY GUARANTEES FOR DIFFERENTIATED SERVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zongkai; Liu Wei; He Jianhua; Chou Chuntung

    2005-01-01

    RIO(RED with IN and OUT) is the primary queue management mechanism proposed for assured forwarding in the DiffServ (Differentiated Service) framework. Although RIO can generally provide bandwidth guarantees, its queuing delay is sensitive to the traffic load. This paper presents a qualitative explanation for its origin. As a solution, an Adaptive RIO for Delay (ARIO-D) is proposed to provide guaranteed delay for multimedia traffic. Simulation results show that by trading loss for delay, ARIO-D can effectively improve the robustness of RIO under different and dynamic traffic, and provide stable and differentiated performance of queuing delay without any degradation in performance of throughput.

  7. MOTOR DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY IN 7500 IRANIAN INFANTS:PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sajedi MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the most common risk factors of motor developmental delay in infants.Materials & MethodsFollowing ethical approval, a study was carried out on the prevalence and risk factors of infants with motor developmental delay. The first stage was conducted through a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of motor developmental delay on 7500 infants and the second stage was an analytic case - control survey to identify the most common risk factors on 140 infants, aged one month to three years with motor developmental delay. Data was collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status questionnaire, the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a neurological assessment form, and the movement and tone assessment form.ResultsThe prevalence of motor developmental delay in 7500 infants was 18.7/1000. The most common risk factors in infants with motor developmental delay were prematurity (25.6%, low birth weight (19.2%, neonatal seizures (7.5%, hyaline membrane disease (6.7%, systemic infections of mothers during pregnancy (5.9%, severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (5% in sequence. Motor developmental delay was significantly correlated with consanguinity of parents (p=0.001, prematurity (p=0.046, abnormal head circumference at birth (p=0.038, and low birth weight (p=0.026.ConclusionThe prevalence of motor developmental delay appears to be high and further studies should focus on different preventive strategies, controlling the most common risk factors and emphasizing on early detection and treatment of high risk infants.Keywords: Motor developmental delay, Prevalence, Risk factors, Prematurity

  8. Delayed radiation effect on animals: adaptive reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptive response by micronuclei test was studied in mole-voles (Ellobius talpinus) from two populations differing in degree of radioactive contamination. It was found the significant adaptive response in animals living the left coast of the Techa River, as compared to the reference one. Some convincing evidences of the adaptive rearrangements and higher radioresistance of animals inhabiting the radiocontaminated zone during a long period and in the course of changing generations was obtained at the example of radiosensitive specie. (authors)

  9. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houman ALIZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCentral Nervous system (CNS malformations are one of the most important causes of global developmental delay (GDD in Children. About one percent of infants with GDD have an inherited metabolic disorder and 3-10 percent have a chromosomal disorder. This study aimed to survey the frequency of brain structural anomalies and their subtypes among the variety of etiologic factors in children with GDD in our patients.Materials & MethodsThis study used the results of neuroimaging studies [unenhanced brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI] of all children who had been referred for evaluation of GDD to outpatient Clinic of Pediatric neurology at Children’s Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science between September 2009 and September 2010.ResultsIn this study, unenhanced brain MRI was performed on 405 children, of which80 cases (20 percent had brain structural anomalies. In 8.7 percent of the cases, previous history of brain structural disorders existed in other children of the family and 20 percent of mothers had inadequate consumption of folate during pregnancy.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, unenhanced cranial MRI seems to be a fundamental part of evaluation in all children with GDD. Adequate folate consumption as prophylaxis as well as genetic counseling can be worthy for high-risk mothers who have previous history of CNS anomaly or miscarriage to avoid repeated CNS anomalies in their next pregnancies.

  10. Visual abilities in students with severe developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI...

  11. Performance analysis of adaptive turbo coded modulation with time delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍守豪; 宋文涛; 罗汉文

    2004-01-01

    The method of data fitting is applied to obtain the BER expression for turbo coded modulation, and a fitting mathematical model is proposed, which resolves the problem that there is no exact BER expression for turbo coded modulation in performance analysis. With the time delay consideration, the performance of BER of adaptive turbo coded modulation is analyzed and simulated. The results show that adaptive turbo coded modulation is very sensitive to time delay. In order to meet the target BER requirement, the total time delay should be less than 0. 001/fD.

  12. Mutations in TRNT1 cause congenital sideroblastic anemia with immunodeficiency, fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD)

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Pranesh K.; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Kennedy, Erin K.; Mamady, Hapsatou; Naas, Turaya; Durie, Danielle; Dean R. Campagna; Lau, Ashley; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Wiseman, Daniel H.; May, Alison; Jolles, Stephen; Connor, Philip; Powell, Colin; Heeney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    SIFD is a syndromic form of congenital sideroblastic anemia associated with immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay.SIFD is due to partial loss-of-function mutations in the CCA-adding enzyme TRNT1.

  13. Preschool Children with and without Developmental Delay: Risk, Parenting, and Child Demandingess

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mallory A.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Crnic, Keith A.; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Although past literature has established relations between early child risk factors, negative parenting, and problematic child behavior, the nature of these interrelations and pathways of influence over time remains largely unknown, especially in children with developmental delays or disabilities. In the current study data were drawn from the longitudinal Collaborative Family Study and included a sample of 260 families with preschool children with and without developmental delays. Child-relat...

  14. An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza

    2012-12-01

    For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.

  15. Dynamical singularities in adaptive delayed-feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Asaki; Konishi, Keiji

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate the dynamical characteristics of adaptive delayed-feedback control systems, exploiting a discrete-time adaptive control method derived for carrying out detailed analysis. In particular, the systems exhibit singularities such as power-law decay of the distribution of transient times and almost zero finite-time Lyapunov exponents. We can explain these results by characterizing such systems as having (1) a Jacobian matrix with unity eigenvalue in the whole phase space, and (2) parameters approaching a stability boundary proven to be identical with that of (nonadaptive) delayed-feedback control. PMID:22060398

  16. Developmental adaptations to gravity in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    Terrestrial animals have adapted to a constant gravitational stress over millions of years. Tissues of the cardiovascular system and lumbar spine in tall species of animals such as the giraffe are particularly well adapted to high and variable vectors of gravitational force. Swelling of the leg tissues in the giraffe is prevented by a variety of physiological mechanisms including (1) a natural 'antigravity suit', (2) impermeable capillaries, (3) arterial-wall hypertrophy, (4) variable blood pressures during normal activity, and (5) a large-capacity lymphatic system. These adaptations, as well as a natural hypertension, maintain blood perfusion to the giraffe's brain. The intervertebral disk is another tissue that is uniquely adapted to gravitational stress. Tall and large terrestrial animals have higher swelling pressures than their smaller or aquatic counterparts. Finally, the meniscus of the rabbit knee provides information on the effects of aging and load-bearing on cartilaginous tissues. Such tissues within the joints of animals are important for load-bearing on Earth; these connective tissues may degenerate during long-duration space flight.

  17. Arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposure to lead or mercury can cause neurodevelopmental damage. Arsenic is another neurotoxicant that can affect intellectual function in children. This study was designed to explore the difference of arsenic methylation capacity indices between with and without developmental delay in preschool children. We also aimed to identify whether blood levels of lead or mercury modify the effect of arsenic methylation capacity indices. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2012. All participants recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In all, 63 children with developmental delay and 35 children without developmental delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead and mercury levels of red blood cells were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. All participants underwent developmental assessments to confirm developmental delays, including evaluations of gross motor, fine motor, speech-language, cognition, social, and emotional domains. Urinary total arsenic and MMA(V) percentage were significantly positively associated and DMA(V) percentage was negatively associated with the risk of developmental delay in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for blood lead or mercury levels and other risk factors. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that blood lead level and arsenic methylation capacity each independently contributed to the risk of developmental delay. This is the first study to show that arsenic methylation capacity is associated with developmental delay, even without obvious environmental arsenic exposure.

  18. Robust adaptive control for interval time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhong WANG; Huaguang ZHANG; Jun YANG

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the robust adaptive control problems for a class of interval time-delay systems and a class of large-scale interconnected systems. The nonlinear uncertainties of the systems under study are bounded by high-order polynomial functions with unknown gains. Firstly, the adaptive feedback controller which can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness is proposed. Then the proposed adaptive idea is extended to robust stabilizing designing method for a class of large-scale interconnected systems. Here, another problem we address is to design a decentralized feedback adaptive controller such that the closed-loop system is stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness for all admissible uncertainties and time-delay. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the validity of the proposed approach.

  19. Discrimination Acquisition in Children with Developmental Disabilities under Immediate and Delayed Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the discrimination acquisition of individuals with developmental disabilities under immediate and delayed reinforcement. In Experiment 1, discrimination between two alternatives was examined when reinforcement was immediate or delayed by 20 s, 30 s, or 40 s. In Experiment 2, discrimination between 2 alternatives was compared across an…

  20. When do adaptive developmental mechanisms yield maladaptive outcomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankenhuis, W.E.; Giudice, M. del

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organis

  1. When Do Adaptive Developmental Mechanisms Yield Maladaptive Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organisms experience environmental change during…

  2. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  3. Radiological findings in autistic and developmentally delayed children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.; Grond, J. van der; Durston, S.; Nievelstein, R.J.; Witkamp, T.; Daalen, E. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in a group of young children with developmental disorders, specifically including children that came to the attention of a child psychiatrist before the age of 3 years. METHODS: Forty-five children participated in a

  4. Pretend Play in High-Risk and Developmentally Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Sena, Rhonda

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of pretend play as a cognitive assessment tool. Examines the failure of developmental progression of play in preterm, drug-exposed, malnourished, Down's syndrome, mentally retarded, and autistic children. Examines individual differences in play, and the relationship between language and play, in these groups. (AC)

  5. Delay Estimator and Improved Proportionate Multi-Delay Adaptive Filtering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Verteletskaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper pertains to speech and acoustic signal processing, and particularly to a determination of echo path delay and operation of echo cancellers. To cancel long echoes, the number of weights in a conventional adaptive filter must be large. The length of the adaptive filter will directly affect both the degree of accuracy and the convergence speed of the adaptation process. We present a new adaptive structure which is capable to deal with multiple dispersive echo paths. An adaptive filter according to the present invention includes means for storing an impulse response in a memory, the impulse response being indicative of the characteristics of a transmission line. It also includes a delay estimator for detecting ranges of samples within the impulse response having relatively large distribution of echo energy. These ranges of samples are being indicative of echoes on the transmission line. An adaptive filter has a plurality of weighted taps, each of the weighted taps having an associated tap weight value. A tap allocation/control circuit establishes the tap weight values in response to said detecting means so that only taps within the regions of relatively large distributions of echo energy are turned on. Thus, the convergence speed and the degree of estimation in the adaptation process can be improved.

  6. [Effect of early intervention on the interaction of developmentally delayed infants and their mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y J; Chu, H H

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the interaction patterns of mothers and their developmentally delayed infants during free play and instructional episodes; (2) to investigate the influence of an early intervention program on the interaction patterns of mothers and their developmentally delayed infants; and (3) to investigate to what extent the maternal perceptions and expectations, perceived stress and involving motivation were associated with maternal behavior while interacting with their developmentally delayed infants. The participants of this study were twenty-one developmentally delayed infants and their mothers. Each mother-child dyad was videotaped in a laboratory playroom for 10-minutes of free play and a 5-minute instructional session. Mental and psychomotor development of the child were measured by Bayley scale. The perception of child development, expectation, and the stress of mothers were measured by a self-report questionnaire which was designed by a researcher in this study. The mothers' motivation of involvement was evaluated by teachers. On year after early intervention, it was found that (1) developmentally delayed infants increased locomotion, (2) mothers demonstrated more positive emotional expression during mother-child interaction, and (3) the score of HOME, mother's involvement, and the quality of mother-child interaction which was evaluated by teachers were significantly increased. Furthermore, the differences between situations indicated that the developmentally delayed infants were more toy-oriented during play than instruction. The mothers tended to be more helpful in attitude while they instructed their children. The mother's perception of child development and stress were found to be the critical factors affecting maternal teaching, controlling, and caring behavior. PMID:8551531

  7. Adaptive control of uncertain time-delay chaotic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuhong ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates adaptive control of a large class of uncertain me-delay chaotic systems (UTCSs) with unknown general perturbation terms bounded by a polynomial ( unknown gains). Associated with the different cases of known and unknown system matrices, two corresponding adaptive controllers are proposed to stabilize unstable fixed points of the systems by means of Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI) which can be solved easily by convex optimization algorithms. Two examples are used for examining the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  8. Adaptive Stabilization for Nonholonomic Systems with Unknown Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive control strategy for a class of nonholonomic systems in chained form with virtual control coefficients, nonlinear uncertainties, and unknown time delays. State scaling technique and backstepping recursive approach are applied to design a nonlinear state feedback controller, which can guarantee the stabilization of the closed-loop systems. The simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Trajectories of Developmental Functioning Among Children of Adolescent Mothers: Factors Associated With Risk for Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2016-07-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for developmental delays. Less is known about the heterogeneity in these children's developmental trajectories, and factors associated with different patterns of development. This longitudinal study used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify distinct trajectories in children of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204). Three distinct groups emerged: (a) a Delayed/Decreasing Functioning group, (b) an At-Risk/Recovering Functioning group, and (c) a Normative/Stable Functioning group. Children with Delayed/Decreasing Functioning were more likely than those with Normative/Stable Functioning to have families with lower income, fewer learning materials at home, and adolescent mothers with more depressive symptoms and greater coparental conflict with adolescents' mother figures. The results contribute to knowledge about factors associated with risk of delay. PMID:27351701

  10. The adaptation of spike backpropagation delays in cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi eBuskila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We measured the action potential backpropagation delays in apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex under different stimulation regimes that exclude synaptic involvement. These delays showed robust features and did not correlate to either transient change in the stimulus strength or low frequency stimulation of suprathreshold membrane oscillations. However, our results indicate that backpropagation delays correlate with high frequency (>10 Hz stimulation of membrane oscillations, and that persistent suprathreshold sinusoidal stimulation injected directly into the soma results in an increase of the backpropagation delay, suggesting an intrinsic adaptation of the bAP, which does not involve any synaptic modifications. Moreover, the calcium chelator BAPTA eliminated the alterations in the backpropagation delays, strengthening the hypothesis that increased calcium concentration in the dendrites modulates dendritic excitability and can impact the backpropagation velocity. These results emphasize the impact of dendritic excitability on bAP velocity along the dendritic tree, which affects the precision of the bAP arrival at the synapse during specific stimulus regimes, and is capable of shifting the extent and polarity of synaptic strength during suprathreshold synaptic processes such as STDP.

  11. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet......, Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed...... for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was easy...

  12. Motor Skill Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills of Preschoolers with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan A.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers with developmental delay (DD) are at risk for poor fundamental movement skills (FMS), but a paucity of early FMS interventions exist. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with DD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion…

  13. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results Abn

  14. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  15. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  16. Graduated Guidance Delivered by Parents to Teach Yoga to Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Deborah J.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a parent-implemented intervention to teach yoga poses to 3 children with developmental delays. Graduated guidance, provided by the participants' mothers, was introduced in a multiple baseline design across the participants. With the introduction of intervention, imitation of the response chains increased over baseline…

  17. The Negative Effects of Positive Reinforcement in Teaching Children with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Gerald B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 12 children (ages 4 to 10) with developmental delay, each trained in 2 tasks, one through interactive modeling (with or without verbal reinforcement) and the other through passive modeling. Results showed that passive modeling produced better rated performance than interactive modeling and that verbal…

  18. Maternal Immune-Mediated Conditions, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    The maternal immune system may play a role in offspring neurodevelopment. We examined whether maternal autoimmune disease, asthma, and allergy were associated with child autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delay without autism (DD) using 560 ASD cases, 391 typically developing controls, and 168 DD cases from the CHildhood Autism Risk…

  19. Emotion Discourse, Social Cognition, and Social Skills in Children with and without Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Bruce L.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parent-child emotion discourse, children's independent social information processing, and social skills outcomes in 146 families of 8-year-olds with and without developmental delays. Children's emergent social-cognitive understanding (internal state understanding, perspective taking, and causal reasoning and problem solving)…

  20. Impact of Adult Interaction on Play Behaviors and Emotional Responses of Preschoolers with Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Susan C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different patterns of adult social interaction during play on children's exploration of toys and emotional responses was investigated with four preschoolers with moderate developmental delays. Results suggested more positive emotional responses during child-centered play than during the adult-centered condition and the possible…

  1. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  2. Barriers to Success in Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Delay: The Role of Cumulative Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to…

  3. DNA Damage Analysis in Children with Non-syndromic Developmental Delay by Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Parkash; Ballambattu, Vishnu Bhat; Hanumanthappa, Nandeesha; Veeramani, Raveendranath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Majority of the developmental delays in children are non-syndromic and they are believed to have an underlying DNA damage, though not well substantiated. Hence the present study was carried out to find out if there is any increased DNA damage in children with non-syndromic developmental delay by using the comet assay. Aim The present case-control study was undertaken to assess the level of DNA damage in children with non syndromic developmental delay and compare the same with that of age and sex matched controls using submarine gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay). Materials and Methods The blood from clinically diagnosed children with non syndromic developmental delay and controls were subjected for alkaline version of comet assay – Single cell gel electrophoresis using lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood. The comets were observed under a bright field microscope; photocaptured and scored using the Image J image quantification software. Comet parameters were compared between the cases and controls and statistical analysis and interpretation of results was done using the statistical software SPSS version 20. Results The mean comet tail length in cases and control was 20.77+7.659μm and 08.97+4.398μm respectively which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Other comet parameters like total comet length and % DNA in tail also showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between cases and controls. Conclusion The current investigation unraveled increased levels of DNA damage in children with non syndromic developmental delay when compared to the controls.

  4. Decentralized adaptive synchronization of an uncertain complex delayed dynamical network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weisong ZHONG; Jun ZHAO; Georgi M.DIMIROVSKI

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the locally and globally adaptive synchronization problem for an uncertain complex dynamical network with time-varying coupling delays based on the decentralized control.The coupling terms here are bounded by high-order polynomials with known gains that are ubiquitous in a large class of complex dynamical networks.We generalize the usual technology of searching for an appropriate coordinates transformation to change the network dynamics into a series of decoupled lower-dimensional systems.Several adaptive synchronization criteria are derived by constructing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and Barbalat lemma,and the proposed criteria are simple in form and convenient for the practical engineering design.Numerical simulations illustrated by a nearest-neighbor coupling network verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  5. Developmental evidence for obstetric adaptation of the human female pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynov, Alik; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Coudyzer, Walter; Gascho, Dominic; Kellenberger, Christian; Hinzpeter, Ricarda; Ponce de León, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    The bony pelvis of adult humans exhibits marked sexual dimorphism, which is traditionally interpreted in the framework of the “obstetrical dilemma” hypothesis: Giving birth to large-brained/large-bodied babies requires a wide pelvis, whereas efficient bipedal locomotion requires a narrow pelvis. This hypothesis has been challenged recently on biomechanical, metabolic, and biocultural grounds, so that it remains unclear which factors are responsible for sex-specific differences in adult pelvic morphology. Here we address this issue from a developmental perspective. We use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to analyze changes in pelvic morphology from late fetal stages to adulthood in a known-age/known-sex forensic/clinical sample. Results show that, until puberty, female and male pelves exhibit only moderate sexual dimorphism and follow largely similar developmental trajectories. With the onset of puberty, however, the female trajectory diverges substantially from the common course, resulting in rapid expansion of obstetrically relevant pelvic dimensions up to the age of 25–30 y. From 40 y onward females resume a mode of pelvic development similar to males, resulting in significant reduction of obstetric dimensions. This complex developmental trajectory is likely linked to the pubertal rise and premenopausal fall of estradiol levels and results in the obstetrically most adequate pelvic morphology during the time of maximum female fertility. The evidence that hormones mediate female pelvic development and morphology supports the view that solutions of the obstetrical dilemma depend not only on selection and adaptation but also on developmental plasticity as a response to ecological/nutritional factors during a female’s lifetime. PMID:27114515

  6. An analysis of a developmentally delayed young girl. Coordinating analytic and developmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesker, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Clinical material is presented from a multi-year treatment of a five-year-old girl with a variety of developmental interferences, making it necessary to consider whether standard technique would suffice. History includes the fact that she was adopted five days after birth and told as early as possible about her adoption; she was placed in a restrictive brace from four months to twenty months because of congenital hip displasia. Sandy's ability to let in the outside world was limited by her intense denial, not looking, not taking in, and by her detachment. Her passivity--whether a defense (modeled on her experience of physical restraint) or an arrest--was a formidable obstacle to the development of active transference moments. I use this case as an opportunity to look at the role of developmental sequences in the context of the analytic process. While I consciously did not do anything different than I would with any child analytic patient, I intuitively stressed certain kinds of interventions. PMID:14982015

  7. Father’s Role in Parent Training for Children with Developmental Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Bagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study was a quasi-experimental examination of the impact of father involvement in parent training among 44 families with a young child who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Single-mother families were significantly more likely to drop out of treatment than two-parent...

  8. Are clusters of mental retardation correlated with clusters of developmental delay?

    OpenAIRE

    Huiling Zhen; Suzanne McDermott; Lawson, Andrew B.; C. Marjorie Aelion

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a subset of developmental delay (DD), a broader classification of childhood disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clusters of these two conditions were statistically significantly correlated. The residential addresses of 81,935 Medicaid insured pregnant women during each month of pregnancy were used to identify clusters of MR and DD in their children. Correlations between MR and DD were computed based on the sets of P-value surface from selected ...

  9. [The pathophysiological analysis of cerebrolysin therapy of children with mental developmental delay caused by ecological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorin, N V; Zlova, T P; Akhmetova, V V; Tarasova, O A

    2008-01-01

    The treatment with cerebrolysin combined with psychological correction was conducted in 24 children, aged 4-6 years, with mental developmental delay. The effect of this drug was compared to placebo (20 patients with mental development delay) and control groups (35 healthy children). After cerebrolysin therapy effect of cerebrolysin (0,1 mg/1kg of body mass during 42 day) was assessed using neuropsychological data and a set of different pathophysiological indices which reflected the biochemical, immunological and neurophysiological status of patients. After cerebrolysin therapy significant improvement of the mental state, including preconditions of intellect, and motor functions specific for mental development delay was found. These changes were correlated with the positive dynamics of some indices - lipid peroxidation, immune status, hormonal shifts and parameters of neurodegeneration-neuroprotection processes.

  10. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  11. Barriers to Success in Parent Training for Young Children With Developmental Delay: The Role of Cumulative Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based, behavioral parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Cu...

  12. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Lan Hsieh; Wen-Chung Lee; Jui-Hsiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children p...

  13. A 12p13 GRIN2B deletion is associated with developmental delay and macrocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisada, Naoya; Ioroi, Tomoaki; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Juan Ye, Ming; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (GluN2B), encoded by GRIN2B, is one of the components of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor protein. Aberrations in GRIN2B have been reported to be responsible for various types of neurodevelopmental disorders. We report a Japanese boy with an ~2 Mb interstitial deletion in 12p13 involving the entire GRIN2B gene, who presented with intellectual disability, motor developmental delay and marked macrocephaly. PMID:27656287

  14. Proximal trisomy 1q in a girl with developmental delay and minor anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furforo, L. [Hospital Materno Infantil Ramon Sarda, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]|[Instituto Nacional de Genetica Medica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rittler, M. [Hospital Materno Infantil Ramon Sarda, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Slavutsky, I.R. [Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-09-06

    We report on a girl with developmental delay, macrocephaly, facial asymmetry, small downturned palpebral fissures, high and narrow palate, micrognathia, short neck, a heart defect, and unilateral renal agenesis. Cytogenetic analysis showed a proximal tandem duplication of the long arm of chromosome one (1q12{r_arrow}q21.3). This abnormality was suggested by G-and C-banding but it was specifically characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clinical findings in our patient are compared with those of the literature in an attempt to delineate the phenotype in patients with proximal 1q duplication. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Early developmental delay in children with autism: A study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabameri, Elahe; Sotoodeh, Mohammad Saber

    2015-05-01

    Early diagnosis is appropriate and important for developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. In many less developed countries, unfortunately, diagnosis of this disorder is delayed. The aim of the present study is to determine whether this disorder can be screened using simple strategies such as comparison of the age of acquisition of motor skills. For this purpose, 124 children with autism were chosen to enter the study, and their parents were asked to retrospectively specify the age of achieving milestones of sitting without support, standing alone and walking alone. Information obtained from the parents was compared with World Health Organization standards. Results indicate that participants (male and female) have significantly delayed age of acquisition of all three skills. Based on this result, it can be suggested that existing standards, as a simple means with low cost and easy availability, can be used for early screening of the disease at a younger age so that treatment can be provided more quickly.

  16. TCP-ADaLR: TCP with adaptive delay and loss response for broadband GEO satellite networks

    OpenAIRE

    Omueti, Modupe Omogbohun

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) performance degrades in broadband geostationary satellite networks due to long propagation delays and high bit error rates. In this thesis, we propose TCP with algorithm modifications for adaptive delay and loss response (TCP-ADaLR) to improve TCP performance. TCP-ADaLR incorporates delayed acknowledgement mechanism recommended for Internet hosts. We evaluate and compare the performance of TCP-ADaLR, TCP SACK, and TCP NewReno, with and without delayed ackno...

  17. Diagnostic outcome following routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic yield following a routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay. Detailed retrospective review of 119 complete consecutive case notes of patients referred to one single clinical geneticist over a 14 month time period was undertaken (n = 119; 54 males, 65 females). The age at initial review ranged from 2 months to 37 years 3 months (mean 8 y 3 mo [SD 7 y 10 mo]). We made a diagnosis in 36\\/119 (30%); 21\\/36 were new diagnoses and 15\\/36 were confirmations of diagnoses. We removed a wrong diagnostic label in 8\\/119 (7%). In 3\\/8 we were able to achieve a diagnosis but in 5\\/8 no alternative diagnosis was reached. We had a better diagnostic rate where the patients were dysmorphic (odds ratio [OR] 1.825; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.065 to 3.128, p = 0.044). In the majority, the diagnosis was made by clinical examination only. Molecular diagnosis was reached in seven cases. Five cases were confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a diagnosis in three cases. This study confirms the importance of a clinical genetics assessment in the investigation of global developmental delay.

  18. Genetic Evaluation of Children with Global Developmental Delay--Current Status of Network Systems in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong-Lin; Chow, Julie Chi; Lai, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Kuo, Mei-Chin; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2015-08-01

    This review article aims to introduce the screening and referral network of genetic evaluation for children with developmental delay in Taiwan. For these children, integrated systems provide services from the medical, educational, and social welfare sectors. All cities and counties in Taiwan have established a network for screening, detection, referral, evaluation, and intervention services. Increased awareness improves early detection and intervention. There remains a gap between supply and demand, especially with regard to financial resources and professional manpower. Genetic etiology has a major role in prenatal causes of developmental delay. A summary of reports on some related genetic disorders in the Taiwanese population is included in this review. Genetic diagnosis allows counseling with regard to recurrence risk and prevention. Networking with neonatal screening, laboratory diagnosis, genetic counseling, and orphan drugs logistics systems can provide effective treatment for patients. In Taiwan, several laboratories provide genetic tests for clinical diagnosis. Accessibility to advanced expensive tests such as gene chips or whole exome sequencing is limited because of funding problems; however, the service system in Taiwan can still operate in a relatively cost-effective manner. This experience in Taiwan may serve as a reference for other countries.

  19. Refining analyses of copy number variation identifies specific genes associated with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Bradley P; Witherspoon, Kali; Rosenfeld, Jill A; van Bon, Bregje W M; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Bosco, Paolo; Friend, Kathryn L; Baker, Carl; Buono, Serafino; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke H; Hoischen, Alex; Pfundt, Rolph; Krumm, Nik; Carvill, Gemma L; Li, Deana; Amaral, David; Brown, Natasha; Lockhart, Paul J; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Alberti, Antonino; Shaw, Marie; Pettinato, Rosa; Tervo, Raymond; de Leeuw, Nicole; Reijnders, Margot R F; Torchia, Beth S; Peeters, Hilde; O'Roak, Brian J; Fichera, Marco; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y; Shendure, Jay; Mefford, Heather C; Haan, Eric; Gécz, Jozef; de Vries, Bert B A; Romano, Corrado; Eichler, Evan E

    2014-10-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with many neurocognitive disorders; however, these events are typically large, and the underlying causative genes are unclear. We created an expanded CNV morbidity map from 29,085 children with developmental delay in comparison to 19,584 healthy controls, identifying 70 significant CNVs. We resequenced 26 candidate genes in 4,716 additional cases with developmental delay or autism and 2,193 controls. An integrated analysis of CNV and single-nucleotide variant (SNV) data pinpointed 10 genes enriched for putative loss of function. Follow-up of a subset of affected individuals identified new clinical subtypes of pediatric disease and the genes responsible for disease-associated CNVs. These genetic changes include haploinsufficiency of SETBP1 associated with intellectual disability and loss of expressive language and truncations of ZMYND11 in individuals with autism, aggression and complex neuropsychiatric features. This combined CNV and SNV approach facilitates the rapid discovery of new syndromes and genes involved in neuropsychiatric disease despite extensive genetic heterogeneity. PMID:25217958

  20. Adaptive neural network tracking control for a class of unknown nonlinear time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weisheng; Li Junmin

    2006-01-01

    For a class of unknown nonlinear time-delay systems, an adaptive neural network (NN) control design approach is proposed. Backstepping, domination and adaptive bounding design technique are combined to construct a robust memoryless adaptive NN tracking controller. Unknown time-delay functions are approximated by NNs, such that the requirement on the nonlinear time-delay functions is relaxed. Based on Lyapunov-Krasoviskii functional, the sem-global uniformly ultimately boundedness (UUB) of all the signals in the closed-loop system is proved. The arbitrary output tracking accuracy is achieved by tuning the design parameters. The feasibility is investigated by an illustrative simulation example.

  1. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Grønhøj Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient’s main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus.

  2. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Developmental Assessment for Arabic-Speaking Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrine, Sheila L.; Heji, Hayat; Sabri, Amel; Dalton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Developmental screening has become an established component of child health programs in many developed countries. The research objective of this project was to translate and adapt a developmental assessment (Oregon Project Skills Inventory) for use with young children with visual impairments who speak Arabic. The study was prompted by the lack of…

  3. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    OpenAIRE

    Asahara, Masakazu; Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora...

  4. Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks with multiple delays and uncertainties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LU YIMING; HE PING; MA SHU-HUA; LI GUO-ZHI; MOBAYBEN SALEH

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a general complex dynamical network which contains multiple delays and uncertainties is introduced, which contains time-varying coupling delays, time-varying node delay, and uncertainties of both the inner- and outer-coupling matrices. A robust adaptive synchronization scheme for these general complex networks with multiple delays and uncertainties is established and raised by employing the robust adaptive control principle and the Lyapunov stability theory. We choose some suitable adaptive synchronization controllers to ensure the robust synchronization of this dynamical network. The numerical simulations of the time-delay Lorenz chaotic system as local dynamical node are provided to observe and verify the viability and productivity of the theoretical research in this paper. Compared to the achievement of previous research, theresearch in this paper seems quite comprehensive and universal.

  5. Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d=.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (β=.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills. PMID:27425563

  6. Feasibility of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Neece, Cameron L

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) interventions are popular as a treatment strategy for myriad diagnoses in various settings, and may be beneficial for parents of children with developmental delays (DD). However, prior research suggests extreme levels of stress and extraordinary demands on time among these parents, making the feasibility of effectively implementing MBSR with this population questionable. This study examined the feasibility of administering standard MBSR to a diverse community-based sample of parents of young children with DD. The potential impact of MBSR interventions includes improvement in parents' mental health, and collateral benefits for the family environment, including improved child behavior. Nurses may have an integral role in interdisciplinary teams providing MBSR.

  7. Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d=.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (β=.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills.

  8. Mutations in TRNT1 cause congenital sideroblastic anemia with immunodeficiency, fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Pranesh K; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Kennedy, Erin K; Mamady, Hapsatou; Naas, Turaya; Durie, Danielle; Campagna, Dean R; Lau, Ashley; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Wiseman, Daniel H; May, Alison; Jolles, Stephen; Connor, Philip; Powell, Colin; Heeney, Matthew M; Giardina, Patricia-Jane; Klaassen, Robert J; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Thuret, Isabelle; Thompson, Alexis A; Marques, Laura; Hughes, Stephen; Bonney, Denise K; Bottomley, Sylvia S; Wynn, Robert F; Laxer, Ronald M; Minniti, Caterina P; Moppett, John; Bordon, Victoria; Geraghty, Michael; Joyce, Paul B M; Markianos, Kyriacos; Rudner, Adam D; Holcik, Martin; Fleming, Mark D

    2014-10-30

    Mutations in genes encoding proteins that are involved in mitochondrial heme synthesis, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, and mitochondrial protein synthesis have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of the congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs). We recently described a syndromic form of CSA associated with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD). Here we demonstrate that SIFD is caused by biallelic mutations in TRNT1, the gene encoding the CCA-adding enzyme essential for maturation of both nuclear and mitochondrial transfer RNAs. Using budding yeast lacking the TRNT1 homolog, CCA1, we confirm that the patient-associated TRNT1 mutations result in partial loss of function of TRNT1 and lead to metabolic defects in both the mitochondria and cytosol, which can account for the phenotypic pleiotropy. PMID:25193871

  9. De novo MEIS2 mutation causes syndromic developmental delay with persistent gastro-esophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Atsushi; Isidor, Bertrand; Piloquet, Hugues; Corre, Pierre; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-09-01

    MEIS2 aberrations are considered to be the cause of intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect, as MEIS2 copy number variation is often observed with these phenotypes. To our knowledge, only one nucleotide-level change-specifically, an in-frame MEIS2 deletion-has so far been reported. Here, we report a female patient with a de novo nonsense mutation (c.611C>G, p.Ser204*) in MEIS2. She showed severe intellectual disability, moderate motor/verbal developmental delay, cleft palate, cardiac septal defect, hypermetropia, severe feeding difficulties with gastro-esophageal reflux and constipation. By reviewing this patient and previous patients with MEIS2 point mutations, we found that feeding difficulty with gastro-esophageal reflux appears to be one of the core clinical features of MEIS2 haploinsufficiency, in addition to intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect.

  10. Adaptive Stabilization for a Class of Dynamical Systems with Nonlinear Delayed State Perturbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adaptive stabilization for a class of systems with nonlinear delayed state perturbations is considered. The bound of the perturbations is assumed to be unknown, by using the adaptive control method, an adaptive controller is designed. Based on the Lyapunov- Karasovskii functional, it is shown that the dynamical system can be stabilized by the adaptive controller. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulations.

  11. Adaptive tuning of feedback gain in time-delayed feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, J.; Hövel, P.; Flunkert, V.; Guzenko, P. Yu.; Fradkov, A. L.; Schöll, E.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that time-delayed feedback control can be improved by adaptively tuning the feedback gain. This adaptive controller is applied to the stabilization of an unstable fixed point and an unstable periodic orbit embedded in a chaotic attractor. The adaptation algorithm is constructed using the speed-gradient method of control theory. Our computer simulations show that the adaptation algorithm can find an appropriate value of the feedback gain for single and multiple delays. Furthermore, we show that our method is robust to noise and different initial conditions.

  12. Improved adaptive fuzzy control for MIMO nonlinear time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an improved observer-based indirect adaptive fuzzy control scheme for multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear time-delay systems.The control scheme synthesizes adaptive fuzzy control with adaptive fuzzy identification.An observer is designed to observe the system state,and an identifier is developed to identify the unknown parts of the system.The update laws for parameters utilize two types of errors in the adaptive time-delay fuzzy logic systems,the observation error and the identificat...

  13. Global Developmental Delay in a Mexican Patient With Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy With Subcortical Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Misael Cerecedo Zapata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC is a neurologic disorder characterized by macrocephaly within the first year of life and the delayed onset of motor function deterioration with ataxia and spasticity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is diagnostic and shows diffusely abnormal, mildly swollen cerebral white matter and subcortical cysts. MLC exhibits an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Two genes have been associated with MLC. The first and most important gene is MLC1, The other gene involved is HEPACAM. Case Presentation: We studied a Mexican patient with a compatible diagnosis of MLC. The patient exhibited the c.353C > T, p.Thr118Met mutation, and both parents were carriers for the same mutation. To the best of our knowledge, no other cases of MLC have been reported in Mexican patient. This patient exhibited rapid deterioration of motor function. Conclusions: A diagnosis of MLC, which can be facilitated by imaging studies, should be considered in all patients who exhibit global developmental delay.

  14. The effectiveness of multimedia visual perceptual training groups for the preschool children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Nan; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wei, Ta-Sen; Liu, Chi-Hsin; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of three approaches to improving visual perception among preschool children 4-6 years old with developmental delays: multimedia visual perceptual group training, multimedia visual perceptual individual training, and paper visual perceptual group training. A control group received no special training. This study employed a pretest-posttest control group of true experimental design. A total of 64 children 4-6 years old with developmental delays were randomized into four groups: (1) multimedia visual perceptual group training (15 subjects); (2) multimedia visual perceptual individual training group (15 subjects); paper visual perceptual group training (19 subjects); and (4) a control group (15 subjects) with no visual perceptual training. Forty minute training sessions were conducted once a week for 14 weeks. The Test of Visual Perception Skills, third edition, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Paired-samples t-test showed significant differences pre- and post-test among the three groups, but no significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test scores among the control group. ANOVA results showed significant differences in improvement levels among the four study groups. Scheffe post hoc test results showed significant differences between: group 1 and group 2; group 1 and group 3; group 1 and the control group; and group 2 and the control group. No significant differences were reported between group 2 and group 3, and group 3 and the control group. The results showed all three therapeutic programs produced significant differences between pretest and posttest scores. The training effect on the multimedia visual perceptual group program and the individual program was greater than the developmental effect Both the multimedia visual perceptual group training program and the multimedia visual perceptual individual training program produced significant effects on visual perception. The

  15. [Prognosis of three-year-old children with developmental speech delay: reading and writing abilities at eight years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, T; Tomita, Y; Takeshita, K

    1990-05-01

    Of 1761 three-year-old children born in 1979-80 and lived at Yonago city, Japan, 28 (1.6%; 25 boys and girls) were diagnosed as developmental speech delay by two pediatric neurologists. Reading and writing skills were evaluated in twelve of the speech delayed children at 8 years by ITPA, Token test and their compositions. Their results showed that reading or writing skill was delayed in many of them, especially in those with behavioral disorders, such as hyperkinetic behavior and poor personal relationship at 3 years.

  16. Field Experience + Inclusive ECE Classrooms = Increased Preservice Teacher Efficacy in Working with Students with Developmental Delays or Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyunjin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether field placements within an inclusive classroom are associated with improved preservice teacher's efficacy when working with children with developmental delays or disabilities. Study participants were 165 undergraduate students enrolled in primary teacher education classes at a Midwestern university. Participants…

  17. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Primary Caregivers of Young Children with or at Risk for Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M.; McDonald, L.; Serbin, L.; Stack, D.; Secco, M. L.; Yu, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research with families raising children with or at risk for developmental delay (DD), it is not clear whether primary caregivers of these children are at increased risk for depressive symptoms. Discrepant findings in the literature may be owing to heterogeneity of child problems. More research is needed on child,…

  18. OJKO-project : Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  19. De novo interstitial deletion of 9q32-34.1 with mental retardation, developmental delay, epilepsy, and cortical dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Karacan, C D;

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a 10 year-old female patient with interstitial deletion of 9q32-q34.1 associated with mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. Interstitial de...

  20. Neural Correlates of Face and Object Recognition in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Carver, Leslie; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Panagiotides, Herachles; McPartland, James; Webb, Sara J.

    2002-01-01

    Compared face recognition ability in young children with autism to that of children with typical development and developmental delay. Took electroencephalographic recordings of brain activity while children viewed pictures of their mothers and unfamiliar females, and familiar and unfamiliar toys. Found that autistic children showed no differences…

  1. OJKO-project: Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colla, Stephy; Van Keer, Ines; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Visser, Linda; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla; van der Meulen, Bieuwe

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  2. Effectiveness of Contrasting Approaches to Response-Contingent Learning among Children with Significant Developmental Delays and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from a randomized controlled design study of an ability-based versus needs-based approach to response-contingent learning among children with significant developmental delays and disabilities who did not use instrumental behavior to produce reinforcing consequences are reported. The ability-based intervention and needs-based intervention…

  3. Will adaptation delay the transition to clean energy systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Bahn, O.; Bruin, Kelly; Fertel, C

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest environmental challenges facing our planet in the foreseeable future, yet, despite international environmental agreements, global GHG emissions are still increasing. In this context, adaptation measures are an alternative to mitigation efforts. These measures involve adjustments to economic or social structures to limit the impact of climate change without limiting climate change itself. To assess the interplay of adaptation and mitigation, we propose AD-...

  4. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  5. Adaptive output feedback control for nonlinear time-delay systems using neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weisheng CHEN; Junmin LI

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the adaptive neural network (NN) control approaches to a class of unknown output feedback nonlinear time-delay systems. An adaptive output feedback NN tracking controller is designed by backstepping technique. NNs are used to approximate unknown functions dependent on time delay. Delay-dependent filters are introduced for state estimation. The domination method is used to deal with the smooth time-delay basis functions. The adaptive bounding technique is employed to estimate the upper bound of the NN approximation errors. Based on LyapunovKrasovskii functional, the semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system is proved.The feasibility is investigated by two illustrative simulation examples.

  6. Delayed feedback during sensorimotor learning selectively disrupts adaptation but not strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudner, Samuel N; Kethidi, Nikhit; Graeupner, Damaris; Ivry, Richard B; Taylor, Jordan A

    2016-03-01

    In sensorimotor adaptation tasks, feedback delays can cause significant reductions in the rate of learning. This constraint is puzzling given that many skilled behaviors have inherently long delays (e.g., hitting a golf ball). One difference in these task domains is that adaptation is primarily driven by error-based feedback, whereas skilled performance may also rely to a large extent on outcome-based feedback. This difference suggests that error- and outcome-based feedback may engage different learning processes, and these processes may be associated with different temporal constraints. We tested this hypothesis in a visuomotor adaptation task. Error feedback was indicated by the terminal position of a cursor, while outcome feedback was indicated by points. In separate groups of participants, the two feedback signals were presented immediately at the end of the movement, after a delay, or with just the error feedback delayed. Participants learned to counter the rotation in a similar manner regardless of feedback delay. However, the aftereffect, an indicator of implicit motor adaptation, was attenuated with delayed error feedback, consistent with the hypothesis that a different learning process supports performance under delay. We tested this by employing a task that dissociates the contribution of explicit strategies and implicit adaptation. We find that explicit aiming strategies contribute to the majority of the learning curve, regardless of delay; however, implicit learning, measured over the course of learning and by aftereffects, was significantly attenuated with delayed error-based feedback. These experiments offer new insight into the temporal constraints associated with different motor learning processes. PMID:26792878

  7. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    -controller/processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system......Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro...... with a sampling frequency of 10-kHz) to create a 90 ◦-lagging voltage in order to achieve the grid synchronization with the orthogonal voltage system. However, in practice, the grid frequency is a time-variant parameter due to various eventualities, and thus rounding the number of the unit delays for the T/4...

  8. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  9. Adaptive output-feedback following control for time-delay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tárník Marián

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive control of the time-delay systems is presented in the paper. Despite the use of MRAC based design, only the model following (not perfect model following is considered. The methods of a classical MRAC design are preserved to the maximum extent which allows further extensions of the algorithm such as the robust adaptive control modifications. The adaptive algorithm effectiveness is presented by means of illustrative examples.

  10. Adaptive Neural Control Design For a Class of Nonlinear Time-delay Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ling-ling; ZHANG Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an indirect adaptive neural control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems with time delays. Based on the backstepping technique and Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional method are combined to construct the indirect adaptive neural controller. The proposed indirect adaptive neural controller guarantees that the state variables converge to a small neighborhood of the origin and all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, an example is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  11. Adaptive Asymptotical Synchronization for Stochastic Complex Networks with Time-Delay and Markovian Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive asymptotical synchronization is discussed for the stochastic complex dynamical networks with time-delay and Markovian switching. By applying the stochastic analysis approach and the M-matrix method for stochastic complex networks, several sufficient conditions to ensure adaptive asymptotical synchronization for stochastic complex networks are derived. Through the adaptive feedback control techniques, some suitable parameters update laws are obtained. Simulation result is provided to substantiate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach.

  12. Waterborne exposure to triadimefon causes thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental delay in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Li, Shuying; Yao, Tingting; Zhao, Renjie; Wang, Qiangwei; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-08-01

    Triadimefon (TDF) is a triazole-derivative fungicide that is detectable in the environment and target agricultural products, prompting concern over its risk to wildlife and human health. In our study, Nieuwkoop & Faber stage 51 Xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to different nominal concentrations TDF (0, 0.112, and 1.12mg/L) for 21 days while the tadpoles were undergoing pre-morphological development. Developmental condition, bioaccumulation and thyroid hormone levels, and mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined. Exposure to TDF caused a reduction in developmental rates on pre-metamorphosis of X. laevis. TDF exposure significantly decreased thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) concentrations, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The downregulation of thyroglobulin and upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (ugt1ab) might be responsible for the decreased thyroid hormone concentrations. Treatment with TDF also significantly increased mRNA expression of genes involved in thyroid-stimulating hormone as a compensatory mechanism response to decreased thyroid hormone concentrations. Gene expression and in silico ligand docking studies were combined to study the interaction between TDF and thyroid hormone receptor. Results showed that TDF could consequently affect the HPT axis signaling pathway. In addition, bioconcentration of TDF was observed in tadpoles, indicating the bioactivity of this compound. Taken together, the results suggest that TDF alters the HPT axis-related genes and changes thyroid hormone contents in X. laevis tadpoles, thus causing thyroid endocrine disruption and consequently delaying thyroid hormones-dependent metamorphic development. PMID:27289584

  13. Lethality and developmental delay in Drosophila melanogaster larvae after ingestion of selected Pseudomonas fluorescens strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika H Olcott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a well-established model organism for probing the molecular and cellular basis of physiological and immune system responses of adults or late stage larvae to bacterial challenge. However, very little is known about the consequences of bacterial infections that occur in earlier stages of development. We have infected mid-second instar larvae with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens to determine how infection alters the ability of larvae to survive and complete development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mimicked natural routes of infection using a non-invasive feeding procedure to study the toxicity of the three sequenced P. fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and Pf-5 to Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae fed with the three strains of P. fluorescens showed distinct differences in developmental trajectory and survival. Treatment with SBW25 caused a subset of insects to die concomitant with a systemic melanization reaction at larval, pupal or adult stages. Larvae fed with Pf-5 died in a dose-dependent manner with adult survivors showing eye and wing morphological defects. In addition, larvae in the Pf-5 treatment groups showed a dose-dependent delay in the onset of metamorphosis relative to control-, Pf0-1-, and SBW25-treated larvae. A functional gacA gene is required for the toxic properties of wild-type Pf-5 bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments are the first to demonstrate that ingestion of P. fluorescens bacteria by D. melanogaster larvae causes both lethal and non-lethal phenotypes, including delay in the onset of metamorphosis and morphological defects in surviving adult flies, which can be decoupled.

  14. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  15. An Adaptive Loss-Aware Flow Control Scheme for Delay-Sensitive Applications in OBS Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hongkyu; Choi, Jungyul; Mo, Jeonghoon; Kang, Minho

    Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is one of the most promising switching technologies for next generation optical networks. As delay-sensitive applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) have recently become popular, OBS networks should guarantee stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for such applications. Thus, this paper proposes an Adaptive Loss-aware Flow Control (ALFC) scheme, which adaptively decides on the burst offset time based on loss-rate information delivered from core nodes for assigning a high priority to delay-sensitive application traffic. The proposed ALFC scheme also controls the upper-bounds of the factors inducing delay and jitter for guaranteeing the delay and jitter requirements of delay-sensitive application traffic. Moreover, a piggybacking method used in the proposed scheme accelerates the guarantee of the loss, delay, and jitter requirements because the response time for flow control can be extremely reduced up to a quarter of the Round Trip Time (RTT) on average while minimizing the signaling overhead. Simulation results show that our mechanism can guarantee a 10-3 loss-rate under any traffic load while offering satisfactory levels of delay and jitter for delay-sensitive applications.

  16. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed.

  17. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. PMID:23584184

  18. The transactional relationship between parenting and emotion regulation in children with or without developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norona, Amanda N; Baker, Bruce L

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have identified numerous internal and external factors that contribute to individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) abilities. To extend these findings, we examined the longitudinal effects of a significant external predictor (parenting) on children's ER abilities in the context of an internal predictor (intellectual functioning). We used cross-lagged panel modeling to investigate the transactional relationship between parenting and ER in children with or without developmental delays (DD) across three time points in early and middle childhood (age 3, 5, and 8). Participants were 225 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with or without DD. Child ER ability and maternal scaffolding skills were coded from mother-child interactions at ages 3, 5, and 8. Compared to children with typical development (TD), children with DD were significantly more dysregulated at all time points, and their mothers exhibited fewer scaffolding behaviors in early childhood. In addition, cross-lagged panel models revealed a significant bidirectional relationship between maternal scaffolding and ER from ages 3 to 5 in the DD group but not the TD group. These findings suggest that scaffolding may be a crucial parenting skill to target in the early treatment of children with ER difficulties.

  19. Detection of chromosomal breakpoints in patients with developmental delay and speech disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagistia H Utami

    Full Text Available Delineating candidate genes at the chromosomal breakpoint regions in the apparently balanced chromosome rearrangements (ABCR has been shown to be more effective with the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies. We employed a large-insert (7-11 kb paired-end tag sequencing technology (DNA-PET to systematically analyze genome of four patients harbouring cytogenetically defined ABCR with neurodevelopmental symptoms, including developmental delay (DD and speech disorders. We characterized structural variants (SVs specific to each individual, including those matching the chromosomal breakpoints. Refinement of these regions by Sanger sequencing resulted in the identification of five disrupted genes in three individuals: guanine nucleotide binding protein, q polypeptide (GNAQ, RNA-binding protein, fox-1 homolog (RBFOX3, unc-5 homolog D (C.elegans (UNC5D, transmembrane protein 47 (TMEM47, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP. Among them, XIAP is the causative gene for the immunodeficiency phenotype seen in the patient. The remaining genes displayed specific expression in the fetal brain and have known biologically relevant functions in brain development, suggesting putative candidate genes for neurodevelopmental phenotypes. This study demonstrates the application of NGS technologies in mapping individual gene disruptions in ABCR as a resource for deciphering candidate genes in human neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs.

  20. Pancreatic hypoplasia presenting with neonatal diabetes mellitus in association with congenital heart defect and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, M; Shield, J P H; Acerini, C L; Walker, J; Ellard, S; Marchand, M; Polak, M; Vaxillaire, M; Crolla, J A; Bunyan, D J; Mackay, D J G; Temple, I K

    2010-02-01

    Congenital pancreatic hypoplasia is a rare cause of neonatal diabetes. We report on a series of three patients with pancreatic agenesis and congenital heart defects. All had abdominal scan evidence of pancreatic agenesis. In addition, Patient 1 had a ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary artery stenosis; Patient 2 had a truncus arteriosus and Patient 3 had tetralogy of Fallot. Two of the three patients have developmental delay. All three patients were isolated cases within the family. Investigations included sequencing of GCK, ABCC8, IPF1, NEUROD1, PTF1A, HNF1B, INS, ISL1, NGN3, HHEX, G6PC2, TCF7L2, SOX4, FOXP3 (Patients 1 and 2), GATA4 and KCNJ11 genes (all three patients), but no mutations were found. Genetic investigation to exclude paternal UPD 6, methylation aberrations and duplications of 6q24 was also negative in all three. 22q11 deletion was excluded in all three patients. Array CGH in Patient (1) showed a approximately 250 kb, paternally inherited duplication of chromosome 12q [arr cgh 12q24.33 (B35:CHR12:131808577-132057649++) pat], not found in the other two patients. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus due to pancreatic hypoplasia with congenital heart defects has been reported before and may represent a distinct condition. We discuss this rare association and review previously reported literature. PMID:20082465

  1. Robust Adaptive Exponential Synchronization of Stochastic Perturbed Chaotic Delayed Neural Networks with Parametric Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robust adaptive exponential synchronization in mean square of stochastic perturbed chaotic delayed neural networks with nonidentical parametric uncertainties. A robust adaptive feedback controller is proposed based on Gronwally’s inequality, drive-response concept, and adaptive feedback control technique with the update laws of nonidentical parametric uncertainties as well as linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The sufficient conditions for robust adaptive exponential synchronization in mean square of uncoupled uncertain stochastic chaotic delayed neural networks are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The effect of nonidentical uncertain parameter uncertainties is suppressed by the designed robust adaptive feedback controller rapidly. A numerical example is provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluza, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways.

  3. Delay-Optimal Buffer-Aware Probabilistic Scheduling with Adaptive Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cross-layer scheduling is a promising way to improve Quality of Service (QoS) given a power constraint. In this paper, we investigate the system with random data arrival and adaptive transmission. Probabilistic scheduling strategies aware of the buffer state are applied to generalize conventional deterministic scheduling. Based on this, the average delay and power consumption are analysed by Markov reward process. The optimal delay-power tradeoff curve is the Pareto frontier of the feasible d...

  4. Adaptive control of bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Yuan Hui-Qun; Sun Hai-Yi; Zhang Qing-Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the stabilization of a continuous time-delayed system is considered.To control the bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system,a parameter perturbation control and a hybrid control are proposed.Then,to ensure the asymptotic stability of the system in the presence of unexpected system parameter changes,the adaptive control idea is introduced,i.e.,the perturbation control parameter and the hybrid control parameter are automatically tuned according to the adaptation laws,respectively.The adaptation algorithms are constructed based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem.The adaptive parameter perturbation control and the adaptive hybrid control methods improve the corresponding constant control methods.They have the advantages of increased stability,adaptability to the changes of the system parameters,control cost saving,and simplicity.Numerical simulations for a well-known chaotic time-delayed system are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control methods.A comparison of the two adaptive control methods is also made in an experimental study.

  5. Adaptive output feedback control of a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei

    2012-04-01

    This article studies the adaptive output feedback control problem of a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown time delays. The systems considered are dominated by a triangular system without zero dynamics satisfying linear growth in the unmeasurable states. The novelty of this article is that a universal-type adaptive output feedback controller is presented to time-delay systems, which can globally regulate all the states of the uncertain systems without knowing the growth rate. An illustrative example is provided to show the applicability of the developed control strategy.

  6. Adaptive robust stabilisation for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hansheng

    2013-02-01

    The problem of adaptive robust stabilisation is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems with multiple time-varying delays. It is assumed that the upper bounds of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations are unknown and that the time-varying delays are any non-negative continuous and bounded functions which do not require that their derivatives have to be less than one. In particular, it is only required that the nonlinear uncertainties, which can also include time-varying delays, are bounded in any non-negative nonlinear functions which are not required to be known for the system designer. For such a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of continuous memoryless adaptive robust state feedback controllers with a rather simpler structure is proposed. It is also shown that the solutions of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly exponentially convergent towards a ball which can be as small as desired. Finally, as an application, an uncertain nonlinear time-delay ecosystem with two competing species is given to demonstrate the validity of the results.

  7. Developmental delay and connective tissue disorder in four patients sharing a common microdeletion at 6q13-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, Hilde; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Janssens, Sandra; Van Ingelghem, Ingrid; Loeys, Bart; Menten, Bjorn

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are rare, and most reported cases represent large, cytogenetically detectable deletions. The implementation of array comparative genome hybridisation in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with congenital disorders, including developmental delay, has enabled identification of many patients with smaller chromosomal imbalances. In this report, the cases are presented of four patients with a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 6q13-14, resulting in a common microdeletion of 3.7 Mb. All presented with developmental delay, mild dysmorphism and signs of lax connective tissue. Interestingly, the common deleted region harbours 16 genes, of which COL12A1 is a good candidate for the connective tissue pathology.

  8. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent; Mutesa, Leon

    2016-02-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ Karyotype analysis was performed in all patients and revealed 260 chromosomal abnormalities. The most frequent chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome and then Edward syndrome and Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. PMID:26507407

  9. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Lan Hsieh

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL; and the children's upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents' satisfaction with their children's care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009 during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715.

  10. Mothers’ perceived physical health during early and middle childhood: Relations with child developmental delay and behavior problems

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; n = 116) or typical development (TD; n = 129) was examined across child ages 3–9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that mothers in the DD group experienced poorer health from age 3 but that the two groups showed similar growth across ...

  11. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  12. A novel 5q11.2 microdeletion in a child with mild developmental delay and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Paolo; Tortora, Cristina; Petillo, Roberta; Falco, Mariateresa; Miniero, Martina; De Brasi, Davide; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta

    2016-09-01

    5q11.2 Deletion is a very rare genomic disorder, and its clinical phenotype has not yet been characterized. This report describes a patient with an 8.6 Mb deletion, showing hypotonia, mild developmental delay, short stature, and distinctive dysmorphic features (frontal bossing, square face, deep-set eyes, prominent columella, long philtrum, thin lips). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Symbolic Play of Preschoolers with Severe Communication Impairments with Autism and Other Developmental Delays: More Similarities than Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S.; Brady, Nancy C.; Fleming, Kandace K.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism are often described as having deficient play skills, particularly symbolic play. We compared the play of 35 children with autism to 38 children with other developmental delays. All children were preschool-age and produced less than 20 different words. Results indicated no significant differences across the two groups in their play. Children with autism engaged in more conventional play, that is, putting objects together according to how the toys were constructed (e.g., pi...

  14. Understanding developmental and adaptive cues in pine through metabolite profiling and co-expression network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Rafael A.; Canales, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Carmen; Granados, Jose M.; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martín, María L.; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Conifers include long-lived evergreen trees of great economic and ecological importance, including pines and spruces. During their long lives conifers must respond to seasonal environmental changes, adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses, and co-ordinate their adaptive adjustments with internal developmental programmes. To gain insights into these responses, we examined metabolite and transcriptomic profiles of needles from naturally growing 25-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L....

  15. Robust chaos synchronization based on adaptive fuzzy delayed feedback $\\mathcal{H}_{∞}$ control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choon Ki Ahn

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive $\\mathcal_{∞}$ synchronization strategy, called an adaptive fuzzy delayed feedback $\\mathcal_{∞}$ synchronization (AFDFHS) strategy, for chaotic systems with uncertain parameters and external disturbances. Based on Lyapunov–Krasovskii theory, Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model and adaptive delayed feedback $\\mathcal_{∞}$ control scheme, the AFDFHS controller is presented such that the synchronization error system is asymptotically stable with a guaranteed $\\mathcal_{∞}$ performance. It is shown that the design of the AFDFHS controller with adaptive law can be achieved by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be easily facilitated by using some standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed AFDFHS approach.

  16. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  17. Robust adaptive control for uncertain systems with discrete and distributed delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing ZHU; Shumin FEI; Tao Li; Tianping ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a robust adaptive control scheme is proposed for the stabilization of uncertain linear systems with discrete and distributed delays and bounded peturbaturbations.The uncertainty is assumed to be an unknown continuous function with norm-bounded restriction.The perturbation is sector-bounded.Combining with the liner matrix inequality method,neural networks and adaptive control,the control scheme ensures the exponential stability of the closed-loop system for any admissible uncertainty.

  18. Are clusters of mental retardation correlated with clusters of developmental delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Zhen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation (MR is a subset of developmental delay (DD, a broader classification of childhood disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clusters of these two conditions were statistically significantly correlated. The residential addresses of 81,935 Medicaid insured pregnant women during each month of pregnancy were used to identify clusters of MR and DD in their children. Correlations between MR and DD were computed based on the sets of P-value surface from selected centroid points, where the P-value for cumulative relative risk of MR and DD was known. The correlations are quite small for all the 10 gestational months for which maternal addresses were available, but they are all statistically significant. This indicates MR and DD are correlated, but they are not linear. When MR was used as the centroid point to identify a cluster the only correlations that were statistically significant were for gestational month 5 and 6 with correlation 0.14 (P = 0.007 for both months. When the centroid points were selected based on the significance of risk of DD, the correlations between MR and DD are not statistically significant for any month. Correlation between MR and DD based on the sets of P-value surfaces from 4 MR clusters are significant in gestational month 5, 6 and 7 with correlation 0.17 (P = 0.047, 0.16 (P = 0.060 and 0.17 (P = 0.044, respectively. Our finding suggests that locations of high risk for the more severe condition, MR, also identify a spatial area where less severe cases of DD might be present, however the reverse is not the case.

  19. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  20. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  1. Indexing Effects of Copy Number Variation on Genes Involved in Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammed; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; D'Abate, Lia; Merico, Daniele; Chan, Ada; Zarrei, Mehdi; Tammimies, Kristiina; Walker, Susan; Gazzellone, Matthew J; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Yuen, Ryan K C; Devriendt, Koenraad; Mathonnet, Géraldine; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Nizard, Sonia; Shago, Mary; Joseph-George, Ann M; Noor, Abdul; Carter, Melissa T; Yoon, Grace; Kannu, Peter; Tihy, Frédérique; Thorland, Erik C; Marshall, Christian R; Buchanan, Janet A; Speevak, Marsha; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J; Scherer, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in clinical genomics is to predict whether copy number variation (CNV) affecting a gene or multiple genes will manifest as disease. Increasing recognition of gene dosage effects in neurodevelopmental disorders prompted us to develop a computational approach based on critical-exon (highly expressed in brain, highly conserved) examination for potential etiologic effects. Using a large CNV dataset, our updated analyses revealed significant (P < 1.64 × 10(-15)) enrichment of critical-exons within rare CNVs in cases compared to controls. Separately, we used a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to construct an unbiased protein module from prenatal and adult tissues and found it significantly enriched for critical exons in prenatal (P < 1.15 × 10(-50), OR = 2.11) and adult (P < 6.03 × 10(-18), OR = 1.55) tissues. WGCNA yielded 1,206 proteins for which we prioritized the corresponding genes as likely to have a role in neurodevelopmental disorders. We compared the gene lists obtained from critical-exon and WGCNA analysis and found 438 candidate genes associated with CNVs annotated as pathogenic, or as variants of uncertain significance (VOUS), from among 10,619 developmental delay cases. We identified genes containing CNVs previously considered to be VOUS to be new candidate genes for neurodevelopmental disorders (GIT1, MVB12B and PPP1R9A) demonstrating the utility of this strategy to index the clinical effects of CNVs. PMID:27363808

  2. Are clusters of mental retardation correlated with clusters of developmental delay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Huiling; McDermott, Suzanne; Lawson, Andrew B; Aelion, Marjorie

    2009-11-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a subset of developmental delay (DD), a broader classification of childhood disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clusters of these two conditions were statistically significantly correlated. The residential addresses of 81,935 Medicaid insured pregnant women during each month of pregnancy were used to identify clusters of MR and DD in their children. Correlations between MR and DD were computed based on the sets of P-value surface from selected centroid points, where the P-value for cumulative relative risk of MR and DD was known. The correlations are quite small for all the 10 gestational months for which maternal addresses were available, but they are all statistically significant. This indicates MR and DD are correlated, but they are not linear. When MR was used as the centroid point to identify a cluster the only correlations that were statistically significant were for gestational month 5 and 6 with correlation 0.14 (P = 0.007) for both months. When the centroid points were selected based on the significance of risk of DD, the correlations between MR and DD are not statistically significant for any month. Correlation between MR and DD based on the sets of P-value surfaces from 4 MR clusters are significant in gestational month 5, 6 and 7 with correlation 0.17 (P = 0.047), 0.16 (P = 0.060) and 0.17 (P = 0.044), respectively. Our finding suggests that locations of high risk for the more severe condition, MR, also identify a spatial area where less severe cases of DD might be present, however the reverse is not the case. PMID:19908187

  3. Adapting Western developmental measures for use in resource poor settings: methodological issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar, Amina; Alcock, Katie J.; Holding, Penny

    2008-01-01

    We applaud the efforts of Gladstone et al[1] in their adaptation of developmental assessment tools for use in sub-Saharan Africa. We would like however to offer some advice for those attempting to follow in their footsteps with no background in cross-cultural psychology or psychometrics.

  4. Highly Adaptable but Not Invulnerable: Necessary and Facilitating Conditions for Research in Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudel, Grit; Benninghoff, Martin; Lettkemann, Eric; Håkansson, Elias; Whitley, Richard; Gläser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology is a highly variable scientific innovation because researchers can adapt their involvement in the innovation to the opportunities provided by their environment. On the basis of comparative case studies in four countries, we link epistemic properties of research tas

  5. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  6. My Solar System: A Developmentally Adapted Eco-Mapping Technique for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Fazio-Griffith, Laura J.; Rohr, Shannon N.

    2008-01-01

    Counseling children requires specific skills and techniques, such as play therapy and expressive arts, to address developmental manifestations and to facilitate the understanding of presenting problems. This article outlines an adapted eco-mapping activity that can be used as a creative counseling technique with children in order to promote…

  7. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  8. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid YAGHINI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Yaghini O, Danesh F, Mahmoudian T, Beigi B. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2: 29-32. Objective Developmental delay is one of the most common causes of conferring the pediatric neurologist. The main part of neurological growth and development occur in the first two years especially in the first 6 months of life. Metabolic or skeletal diseases are important causes of developmental delay. Early diagnosis of deviance from the normal diagram of development in lower ages is important. Materials & Methods Specific ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ for 6 months was completed in the health centers for 800 infants conferring for their vaccination in Isfahan and the retest was performed at 24 months of age by ASQ and then these two questionnaires were compared. Results 10.5% of the infants were delayed in at least one domain. At 24 months, 38.4% of them remained delayed; 21.1% in one domain, 9.6% in two domains, 3.8% in four domains and 3.8% in five domains. Of the children who had problem in communication, 20%; in gross motor, 25%; in fine motor, 20%; and in problem solving, 30% remained delayed. In the personal social domain, none of the delayed children at 6 months remained delayed at 24 months. Conclusion ASQ is feasible, inexpensive, easy to use and was appreciated by the parents. It can be used as a screening test for detection of developmental delay in lower ages, but its results must be followed by other standard tests or diagnostic tools.References Lewis R, Palfreg GS. The infant or young child with developmental delay. The New England J Med 1994;330:478-83.Cleary MA, Green A. Developmental Delay: when to suspect and how to investigate for an inborn error of metabolism. Arch Dis Child2005;90(11:1128-32.Schendel DE, Stockbauer JW, Hoffman HJ, Herman AA, Berg CJ, Schrann WF. Relation between very low birth

  10. Adaptive neural control for a class of nonlinearly parametric time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Daniel W C; Li, Junmin; Niu, Yugang

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural controller for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinearities is proposed. Based on a wavelet neural network (WNN) online approximation model, a state feedback adaptive controller is obtained by constructing a novel integral-type Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which also efficiently overcomes the controller singularity problem. It is shown that the proposed method guarantees the semiglobal boundedness of all signals in the adaptive closed-loop systems. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the approach.

  11. Multivariable output feedback robust adaptive tracking control design for a class of delayed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Boris; Gutman, Per-Olof

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a model reference adaptive control scheme for a class of multi-input multi-output nonlinearly perturbed dynamic systems with unknown time-varying state delays which is also robust with respect to an external disturbance with unknown bounds. The output feedback adaptive control scheme uses feedback actions only, and thus does not require a direct measurement of the command or disturbance signals. A suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii type functional is introduced to design the adaptation algorithms and to prove stability.

  12. Adaptive lag synchronization of uncertain dynamical systems with time delays via simple transmission lag feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Wei-Dong; Sun Zhi-Yong; Wu Xiao-Ming; Yu Chang-Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an adaptive scheme to achieve lag synchronization for uncertain dynamical systems with time delays and unknown parameters.In contrast to the nonlinear feedback scheme reported in the previous literature,the proposed controller is a linear one which only involves simple feedback information from the drive system with signal propagation lags.Besides,the unknown parameters can also be identified via the proposed updating laws in spite of the existence of model delays and transmission lags,as long as the linear independence condition between the related function elements is satisfied.Two examples,i.e.,the Mackey-Glass model with single delay and the Lorenz system with multiple delays,are employed to show the effectiveness of this approach.Some robustness issues are also discussed,which shows that the proposed scheme is quite robust in switching and noisy environment.

  13. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  14. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems With Unmodeled Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shen; Shi, Peng; Yang, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an approximated-based adaptive fuzzy control approach with only one adaptive parameter is presented for a class of single input single output strict-feedback nonlinear systems in order to deal with phenomena like nonlinear uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, dynamic disturbances, and unknown time delays. Lyapunov-Krasovskii function approach is employed to compensate the unknown time delays in the design procedure. By combining the advances of the hyperbolic tangent function with adaptive fuzzy backstepping technique, the proposed controller guarantees the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system from the mean square point of view. Two simulation examples are finally provided to show the superior effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:26302525

  15. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems With Unmodeled Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shen; Shi, Peng; Yang, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an approximated-based adaptive fuzzy control approach with only one adaptive parameter is presented for a class of single input single output strict-feedback nonlinear systems in order to deal with phenomena like nonlinear uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, dynamic disturbances, and unknown time delays. Lyapunov-Krasovskii function approach is employed to compensate the unknown time delays in the design procedure. By combining the advances of the hyperbolic tangent function with adaptive fuzzy backstepping technique, the proposed controller guarantees the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system from the mean square point of view. Two simulation examples are finally provided to show the superior effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  16. WDR45 mutations in Rett (-like) syndrome and developmental delay: Case report and an appraisal of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Ibisler, Aysegül; Tschentscher, Anne; Dekomien, Gabriele; Bidinost, Carla; Rosa, Alberto L

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the WDR45 gene have been identified as causative for the only X-linked type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), clinically characterized by global developmental delay in childhood, followed by a secondary neurological decline with parkinsonism and/or dementia in adolescence or early adulthood. Recent reports suggest that WDR45 mutations are associated with a broader phenotypic spectrum. We identified a novel splice site mutation (c.440-2 A > G) in a 5-year-old Argentinian patient with Rett-like syndrome, exhibiting developmental delay, microcephaly, seizures and stereotypic hand movements, and discuss this finding, together with a review of the literature. Additional patients with a clinical diagnosis of Rett (-like) syndrome were also found to carry WDR45 mutations before (or without) clinical decline or signs of iron accumulation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This information indicates that WDR45 mutations should be added to the growing list of genetic alterations linked to Rett-like syndrome. Further, clinical symptoms associated with WDR45 mutations ranged from early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in a male patient with a deletion of WDR45 to only mild cognitive delay in a female patient, suggesting that analysis of this gene should be considered more often in patients with developmental delay, regardless of severity. The increasing use of next generation sequencing technologies as well as longitudinal follow-up of patients with an early diagnosis will help to gain additional insight into the phenotypic spectrum associated with WDR45 mutations.

  17. Successive cambia: a developmental oddity or an adaptive structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M R Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secondary growth by successive cambia is a rare phenomenon in woody plant species. Only few plant species, within different phylogenetic clades, have secondary growth by more than one vascular cambium. Often, these successive cambia are organised concentrically. In the mangrove genus Avicennia however, the successive cambia seem to have a more complex organisation. This study aimed (i at understanding the development of successive cambia by giving a three-dimensional description of the hydraulic architecture of Avicennia and (ii at unveiling the possible adaptive nature of growth by successive cambia through a study of the ecological distribution of plant species with concentric internal phloem. RESULTS: Avicennia had a complex network of non-cylindrical wood patches, the complexity of which increased with more stressful ecological conditions. As internal phloem has been suggested to play a role in water storage and embolism repair, the spatial organisation of Avicennia wood could provide advantages in the ecologically stressful conditions species of this mangrove genus are growing in. Furthermore, we could observe that 84.9% of the woody shrub and tree species with concentric internal phloem occurred in either dry or saline environments strengthening the hypothesis that successive cambia provide the necessary advantages for survival in harsh environmental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Successive cambia are an ecologically important characteristic, which seems strongly related with water-limited environments.

  18. Global developmental delay in guanidionacetate methyltransferase deficiency : differences in formal testing and clinical observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, Krijn T.; Knijff, Wilma A.; Soorani-Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Sijens, Paul E.; Verhoeven, Nanda M.; Salomons, Gajja S.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Siena M.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2007-01-01

    Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a defect in the biosynthesis of creatine (Cr). So far, reports have not focused on the description of developmental abilities in this disorder. Here, we present the result of formal testing of developmental abilities in a GAMT-deficient patie

  19. Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of six children are facing a trial on charges of aggravated manslaughter in the care a 5 1/2 month old infant who died suddenly and neglect of their four older children for causing them to be malnourished by feeding them all an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. Both parents declined plea bargains and plan to defend themselves in court. Case presentation The fifth child born to a married couple was breast-fed until 2 1/2 months. Subsequently, the parents fed the baby an exclusively raw foods diet prepared in a blender at home. The four older children, ages 18 months – 6 1/2 years also ate an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. None of the four older children had significant previous injuries or serious illnesses. At autopsy, the infant weighed 3180 mg (6.99 pounds and appeared emaciated. The thymus gland was absent and parathyroid glands were not located. The lungs were "congested." DiGeorge anomaly cannot be ruled out from these findings. Although, the coroner ruled that "malnutrition" was the sole cause of death, malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization definition, cannot be diagnosed in this infant. Compared with standard growth charts, the older children fell 2.1–4.1 standard deviations below the mean for North American children in height and weight. Labs were normal except for a low cholesterol level in all and a low prealbumin in one of three children tested. Therefore, malnutrition cannot be diagnosed in these children. The pediatrician diagnosed rickets in the four-year-old. However, chest x-rays were normal in all and long bone x-rays showed minimal changes in one child – no sign of rickets. The clinical diagnosis of rickets was not confirmed by the Center for Disease Control's criteria. A psychologist diagnosed the 18-month-old as developmentally delayed to the level of a 15-month-old, but this diagnosis is questionable. Conclusion The raw foods vegan diet and possibly inherited small

  20. Submicroscopic subtelomeric aberrations in Chinese patients with unexplained developmental delay/mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liwen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtelomeric imbalance is widely accepted as related to developmental delay/mental retardation (DD/MR. Fine mapping of aberrations in gene-enriched subtelomeric regions provides essential clues for localizing critical regions, and provides a strategy for identifying new candidate genes. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted on subtelomeric aberrations in DD/MR patients in mainland China. Methods This study included 451 Chinese children with moderate to severe clinically unexplained DD/MR. The subtelomere-MLPA (multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification and Affymetrix human SNP array 6.0 were used to determine the subtelomeric copy number variations. The exact size and the breakpoint of each identified aberration were well defined. Results The submicroscopic subtelomeric aberrations were identified in 23 patients, with a detection rate of 5.1%. 16 patients had simple deletions, 2 had simple duplications and 5 with both deletions and duplications. The deletions involved 14 different subtelomeric regions (1p, 2p, 4p, 6p, 7p, 7q, 8p, 9p, 10p, 11q, 14q, 15q, 16p and 22q, and duplications involved 7 subtelomeric regions (3q, 4p, 6q, 7p, 8p, 12p and 22q. Of all the subtelomeric aberrations found in Chinese subjects, the most common was 4p16.3 deletion. The sizes of the deletions varied from 0.6 Mb to 12 Mb, with 5-143 genes inside. Duplicated regions were 0.26 Mb to 11 Mb, with 6-202 genes inside. In this study, four deleted subtelomeric regions and one duplicated region were smaller than any other previously reported, specifically the deletions in 11q25, 8p23.3, 7q36.3, 14q32.33, and the duplication in 22q13. Candidate genes inside each region were proposed. Conclusions Submicroscopic subtelomeric aberrations were detected in 5.1% of Chinese children with clinically unexplained DD/MR. Four deleted subtelomeric regions and one duplicated region found in this study were smaller than any previously reported, which

  1. Adaptive neural control of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Hong, Fan; Lee, Tong Heng

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, adaptive neural control is presented for a class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unknown time delays. The proposed design method does not require a priori knowledge of the signs of the unknown virtual control coefficients. The unknown time delays are compensated for using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals in the design. It is proved that the proposed backstepping design method is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop. In addition, the output of the system is proven to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Global adaptive output feedback control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-yong; Zha, Wen-ting

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of global output feedback control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. The nonlinearities are dominated by a triangular form satisfying linear growth condition in the unmeasurable states with an unknown growth rate. With a change of coordinates, a linear-like controller is constructed, which avoids the repeated derivatives of the nonlinearities depending on the observer states and the dynamic gain in backstepping approach and therefore, simplifies the design procedure. Using the idea of universal control, we explicitly construct a universal-type adaptive output feedback controller which globally regulates all the states of the nonlinear time-delay systems.

  3. Adaptive exponential synchronization of delayed neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Li [School of Communication and Control Engineering, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Yang Huizhong [School of Communication and Control Engineering, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)], E-mail: victory8209@yahoo.com.cn; Lou Xuyang [School of Communication and Control Engineering, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)

    2009-04-30

    This paper presents an exponential synchronization scheme for a class of neural networks with time-varying and distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms. An adaptive synchronization controller is derived to achieve the exponential synchronization of the drive-response structure of neural networks by using the Lyapunov stability theory. At the same time, the update laws of parameters are proposed to guarantee the synchronization of delayed neural networks with all parameters unknown. It is shown that the approaches developed here extend and improve the ideas presented in recent literatures.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Robertson, Robert L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sleeper, Lynn A. [New England Research Institute, Watertown, MA (United States); Sayre, James W. [UCLA Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Biostatistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  6. A 20 year review of punishment and alternative methods to treat problem behaviors in developmentally delayed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, J L; Taras, M E

    1989-01-01

    Relevant journals were reviewed (n = 23) for a 20 year period (1967 to 1987) to assess the status of treatments for severe behavior problems of developmentally delayed persons. A hand search of journals was made; 382 studies were identified. Procedures were analyzed by problem behaviors treated, side effects reported, whether the procedure involved painful stimuli, nonpainful stimuli, food satiation, positive procedures, extinction or combinations of methods. The number of studies reported yearly was also plotted. The implication of these data for federal and state policy makers and for treatment programs dealing with difficult to treat clients is discussed. PMID:2648505

  7. Becoming a Coach in Developmental Adaptive Sailing: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Tiago; Culver, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Life-story methodology and innovative methods were used to explore the process of becoming a developmental adaptive sailing coach. Jarvis's (2009) lifelong learning theory framed the thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the coach, Jenny, was exposed from a young age to collaborative environments. Social interactions with others such as mentors, colleagues, and athletes made major contributions to her coaching knowledge. As Jenny was exposed to a mixture of challenges and learning sit...

  8. Robust Adaptive Control and L2 Disturbance Attenuation for Uncertain Hamiltonian Systems with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the robust stabilizability and L2 disturbance attenuation for a class of time-delay Hamiltonian control systems with uncertainties and external disturbances. Firstly, the robust stability of the given systems is studied, and delay-dependent criteria are established based on the dissipative structural properties of the Hamiltonian systems and the Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K functional approach. Secondly, the problem of L2 disturbance attenuation is considered for the Hamiltonian systems subject to external disturbances. An adaptive control law is designed corresponding to the time-varying delay pattern involved in the systems. It is shown that the closed-loop systems under the feedback control law can guarantee the γ-dissipative inequalities be satisfied. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical developments.

  9. Adaptive Output-feedback Regulation for Nonlinear Delayed Systems Using Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel adaptive neural network (NN) output-feedback regulation algorithm for a class of nonlinear time-varying time-delay systems is proposed. Both the designed observer and controller are independent of time delay. Different from the existing results,where the upper bounding functions of time-delay terms are assumed to be known, we only use an NN to compensate for all unknown upper bounding functions without that assumption. The proposed design method is proved to be able to guarantee semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed system, and the system output is proved to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the control scheme.

  10. Adaptive Synchronization of Memristor-Based Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Yin, Quan; Zhang, Guodong

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, adaptive synchronization of memristor-based neural networks (MNNs) with time-varying delays is investigated. The dynamical analysis here employs results from the theory of differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides as introduced by Filippov. Sufficient conditions for the global synchronization of MNNs are established with a general adaptive controller. The update gain of the controller can be adjusted to control the synchronization speed. The obtained results complement and improve the previously known results. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:25389244

  11. Actuator fault diagnosis of time-delay systems based on adaptive observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel approach for the actuator fault diagnosis of time-delay systems is presented by using an adaptive observer technique. Systems without model uncertainty are initially considered, followed by a discussion of a general situation where the system is subjected to either model uncertainty or external disturbance. An adaptive diagnostic algorithm is developed to diagnose the fault, and a modified version is proposed for general system to improve robustness. The selection of the threshold for fault detection is also discussed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. Adaptive neural control for a class of perturbed strict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Bing; Shi, Peng

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive neural control scheme for a class of perturbed strict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients. Based on the radial basis function neural network online approximation capability, an adaptive neural controller is presented by combining the backstepping approach and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. The proposed controller guarantees the semiglobal boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and contains minimal learning parameters. Finally, three simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed scheme.

  13. Sensor fault diagnosis of time-delay systems based on adaptive observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fu-qiang; TIAN Zuo-hua; SHI Song-jiao

    2006-01-01

    Presents a novel approach for the sensor fault diagnosis of time-delay systems by using an adaptive observer technique. The sensor fault is modeled as an additive perturbation described by a time varying function. Systems without model uncertainty are initially considered, followed by a discussion of a general situation where the system is subjected to either model uncertainty or external disturbance. An adaptive diagnostic algorithm is developed to diagnose the fault, and a modified version is proposed for general system to improve robustness. The stability of fault diagnosis system is proved. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Inoue, Masayo

    2016-06-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways. Supplementary material in the form of one nets file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70172-9

  15. Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Control Scheme for Smart Grids with Consideration of Signal Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the smart grid, a wide-area measurement system (WAMS provides the key technical support for power system monitoring, protection and control. But 20 uncertainties in system parameters and signal transmission time delay could worsen the damping effect and deteriorate the system stability. In the presented study, the subspace system identification technique (SIT is used to firstly derive a low-order linear model of a power system from the measurements. Then, a novel adaptive wide-area damping control scheme for online tuning of the wide-area damping controller (WADC parameters using the residue method is proposed. In order to eliminate the effects of the time delay to the signal transmission, a simple and practical time delay compensation algorithm is proposed to compensate the time delay in each wide-area control signal. Detailed examples, inspired by the IEEE test system under various disturbance scenarios, have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive wide-area damping control scheme.

  16. Novel Adaptive Learning Control of Linear Systems with Completely Unknown Time Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Sheng Chen

    2009-01-01

    A novel output-feedback adaptive learning control approach is developed for a class of linear time-delay systems. Three kinds of uncertainties: time delays, number of time delays, and system parameters are all assumed to be completely unknown, which is different from the previous work. The design procedure includes two steps. First, according to the given periodic desired reference output and the allowed bound of tracking error, a suitable finite Fourier series expansion (FSE) is chosen as a practical reference output to he tracked. Second, by expressing the delayed practical reference output as a known time-varying vector multiplied by an unknown constant vector, we combine three kinds of uncertainties into an unknown constant vector and then estimate the vector by designing an adaptive law. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, it is proved that the system output can asymptotically track the practical reference signal An example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control scheme developed in this paper.

  17. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement

    OpenAIRE

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizo...

  18. Missile Acceleration Controller Design using PI and Time-Delay Adaptive Feedback Linearization Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Seo, Min-Guk; Tahk, Min-Jea; Lee, Jin-Ik; Jun, Byung-Eul

    2012-01-01

    A straight forward application of feedback linearization to the missile autopilot design for acceleration control may be limited due to the nonminimum characteristics and the model uncertainties. As a remedy, this paper presents a cascade structure of an acceleration controller based on approximate feedback linearization methodology with a time-delay adaptation scheme. The inner loop controller is constructed by applying feedback linearization to the approximate system which is a minimum phas...

  19. Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  20. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizontal layering technique, immediately after adhesive placement (IP) or after a 24h delay (DP). A filled three-component adhesive (OptiBond FL: OB) and a single-bottle, unfilled one (Prime & Bond 2.1: PB) were tested. Marginal adaptation was assessed before and after each phase of mechanical loading (250000 cycles at 50 N, 250000 cycles at 75 N and 500000 cycles at 100 N); internal adaptation was evaluated after test completion. Gold-plated resin replicas were observed in the SEM and restoration quality evaluated in percentages of continuity (C) at the margins and within the internal interface, after sample section. Adaptation to beveled enamel proved satisfactory in all groups. After loading, adaptation to gingival dentin degraded more in PB-IP (C=55.1%) than PB-DP (C=86.9%) or OB-DP (C=89%). More internal defects were observed in PB samples (IP: C=79.2% and DP: C=86.3%) compared to OB samples (IP: C=97.4% and DP: C=98.3%). The filled adhesive (OB) produced a better adaptation than the 'one-bottle' brand (PB), hypothetically by forming a stress-absorbing layer, limiting the development of adhesive failures. Postponing occlusal loading (such as the indirect approach) improved also restoration adaptation.

  1. Parent Training for Children With or at Risk for Developmental Delay: The Role of Parental Homework Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosmary; Hernandez, Jennifer; Graziano, Paulo A; Bagner, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental homework completion during behavioral parent training (BPT) for children with or at risk for developmental delay contributed to parenting and child outcomes. Parents of 48 children (Mage=44.17 months, SD=14.29; 73% male; 72% White) with developmental delay (IQhomework completion was measured using parental report of home practice of treatment skills collected weekly by therapists. Parents also reported on child externalizing behavior problems and levels of parenting stress, while parenting skills were observed during a 5-min child directed play and child compliance was observed during a 5-min cleanup situation. Results indicated that higher rates of parental homework completion predicted parenting outcomes (i.e., increased positive parenting skills and decreased levels of parenting stress) and child outcomes (i.e., lower levels of externalizing behavior problems). Additionally, although limited by temporal precedence, there was an indirect effect of reductions in parenting stress on the negative association between parental homework completion and child externalizing behavior problems. These findings highlight the importance of parents practicing skills learned during BPT for optimizing treatment outcome. Parenting stress was also identified as a potential mechanism by which high levels of parental homework completion contributed to reductions in child externalizing behavior problems. PMID:26763493

  2. Risk of developmental delay of children aged between two and 24 months and its association with the quality of family stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro Fernandes; de Carvalho, Davi Vilela; Machado, Nathália Ádila A.; Baptista, Regiane Aparecida N.; Lemos, Stela Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between neurodevelopment and the family environment resources of children from the coverage area of a Basic Health Unit (BHU) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a tool based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample involving 298 children aged between 2-24 months old, who attended a BHU in 2010. The assessment of child development and family resources made at the BHU lasted, in average, 45 minutes and included two tests - an adaptation of the Handbook for Monitoring Child Development in the Context of IMCI and an adapted version of the Family Environment Resource (FER) inventary. The nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample included 291 assessments, with 18.2% of children between 18 and 24 months old, 53.6% male gender, and 91.4% who did not attend day care centers. According to IMCI, 31.7% of the children were in the risk group for developmental delay. The total average score in FER was 38.0 points. Although it has been found an association between the IMCI outcome and the total FER score, all groups had low scores in the family environment assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the need for childhood development screening in the primary health care and for early intervention programs aimed at this age group. PMID:24473949

  3. Effectiveness of Emotion Recognition Training for Young Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Andrew; Strand, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a basic skill that is thought to facilitate development of social and emotional competence. There is little research available examining whether therapeutic or instructional interventions can improve the emotion recognition skill of young children with various developmental disabilities. Sixteen preschool children with…

  4. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) wh...

  5. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Yuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Ohata, Yoshihisa [Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Mori, Shoko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Matsukawa, Shinya [Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Michiue, Tatsuo [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Research Center for Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Baien, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Kuroda, Hiroki, E-mail: ehkurod@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Department of Education (Sciences), Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Does famous anti-aging drug rapamycin work from the beginning of life? The answer is yes. {yields} This study shows that developmental speed of frog embryo was dose-dependently decreased by rapamycin treatment. {yields} In additions, morphogenetic effects such as less pigmentations and gut malformation are occurred by rapamycin. -- Abstract: Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood. Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period.

  6. Adaptive filter design based on the LMS algorithm for delay elimination in TCR/FC compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Rahmat Allah; Torabian Esfahani, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Thyristor controlled reactor with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensators have the capability of compensating reactive power and improving power quality phenomena. Delay in the response of such compensators degrades their performance. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive filters (AF) is proposed in order to eliminate delay and increase the response of the TCR compensator. The algorithm designed for the adaptive filters is performed based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. In this design, instead of fixed capacitors, band-pass LC filters are used. To evaluate the filter, a TCR/FC compensator was used for nonlinear and time varying loads of electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These loads caused occurrence of power quality phenomena in the supplying system, such as voltage fluctuation and flicker, odd and even harmonics and unbalancing in voltage and current. The above design was implemented in a realistic system model of a steel complex. The simulation results show that applying the proposed control in the TCR/FC compensator efficiently eliminated delay in the response and improved the performance of the compensator in the power system.

  7. Adaptive Neural Control of Pure-Feedback Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems via Dynamic Surface Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Wang; Xiaoping Liu; Peng Shi

    2011-12-01

    This paper is concerned with robust stabilization problem for a class of nonaffine pure-feedback systems with unknown time-delay functions and perturbed uncertainties. Novel continuous packaged functions are introduced in advance to remove unknown nonlinear terms deduced from perturbed uncertainties and unknown time-delay functions, which avoids the functions with control law to be approximated by radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. This technique combining implicit function and mean value theorems overcomes the difficulty in controlling the nonaffine pure-feedback systems. Dynamic surface control (DSC) is used to avoid "the explosion of complexity" in the backstepping design. Design difficulties from unknown time-delay functions are overcome using the function separation technique, the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, and the desirable property of hyperbolic tangent functions. RBF neural networks are employed to approximate desired virtual controls and desired practical control. Under the proposed adaptive neural DSC, the number of adaptive parameters required is reduced significantly, and semiglobal uniform ultimate boundedness of all of the signals in the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Simulation studies are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme.

  8. Adaptive filter design based on the LMS algorithm for delay elimination in TCR/FC compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Rahmat Allah; Torabian Esfahani, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Thyristor controlled reactor with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensators have the capability of compensating reactive power and improving power quality phenomena. Delay in the response of such compensators degrades their performance. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive filters (AF) is proposed in order to eliminate delay and increase the response of the TCR compensator. The algorithm designed for the adaptive filters is performed based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. In this design, instead of fixed capacitors, band-pass LC filters are used. To evaluate the filter, a TCR/FC compensator was used for nonlinear and time varying loads of electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These loads caused occurrence of power quality phenomena in the supplying system, such as voltage fluctuation and flicker, odd and even harmonics and unbalancing in voltage and current. The above design was implemented in a realistic system model of a steel complex. The simulation results show that applying the proposed control in the TCR/FC compensator efficiently eliminated delay in the response and improved the performance of the compensator in the power system. PMID:21193194

  9. Synchronization transitions induced by the fluctuation of adaptive coupling strength in delayed Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Gong, Yubing; Wu, Yanan

    2015-11-01

    Introducing adaptive coupling in delayed neuronal networks and regulating the dissipative parameter (DP) of adaptive coupling by noise, we study the effect of fluctuations of the changing rate of adaptive coupling on the synchronization of the neuronal networks. It is found that time delay can induce synchronization transitions for intermediate DP values, and the synchronization transitions become strongest when DP is optimal. As the intensity of DP noise is varied, the neurons can also exhibit synchronization transitions, and the phenomenon is delay-dependent and is enhanced for certain time delays. Moreover, the synchronization transitions change with the change of DP and become strongest when DP is optimal. These results show that randomly changing adaptive coupling can considerably change the synchronization of the neuronal networks, and hence could play a crucial role in the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  10. Adaptive ant-based routing in wireless sensor networks using Energy Delay metrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-feng WEN; Yu-quan CHEN; Min PAN

    2008-01-01

    To find the optimal routing is always an important topic in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Considering a WSN where the nodes have limited energy, we propose a novel Energy*Delay model based on ant algorithms ("E&D ANTS" for short)to minimize the time delay in transferring a fixed number of data packets in an energy-constrained manner in one round. Our goal is not only to maximize the lifetime of the network but also to provide real-time data transmission services. However, because of the tradeoff of energy and delay in wireless network systems, the reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm is introduced to train the model. In this survey, the paradigm of E&D ANTS is explicated and compared to other ant-based routing algorithms like AntNet and AntChain about the issues of routing information, routing overhead and adaptation. Simulation results show that our method performs about seven times better than AntNet and also outperforms AntChain by more than 150% in terms of energy cost and delay per round.

  11. Deletions in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.3, including ATXN1, are associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino-Soper Patrícia BS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are rare and have been associated with developmental delay, hypotonia, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features. We used array comparative genomic hybridization in a South Carolina Autism Project (SCAP cohort of 97 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and identified an ~ 5.4 Mb deletion on chromosome 6p22.3-p23 in a 15-year-old patient with intellectual disability and ASDs. Subsequent database queries revealed five additional individuals with overlapping submicroscopic deletions and presenting with developmental and speech delay, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, heart defects, and dysmorphic features. The deletion found in the SCAP patient harbors ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2, and NHLRC1 that we propose may be responsible for ASDs and developmental delay.

  12. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora evolved novel variability, exhibiting a high correlation between relative molar size and the shape of the first molar. Studies of Bmp7-hetero-deficient mice, which may exhibit lower Bmp7 expression, suggested that Bmp7 has pleiotropic effects on these two dental traits. Its effects are consistent with the pattern of dietary adaptation observed in Carnivora, but not that observed in other carnivorous mammals. A molecular evolutionary analysis revealed that Bmp7 sequence evolved by natural selection during ursid evolution, suggesting that it plays an evolutionary role in the variation of carnivoran dentition. Using mouse experiments and a molecular evolutionary analysis, we extrapolated the causal mechanism of the hitherto enigmatic ursid dentition (larger M2 than M1 and M3). Our results demonstrate how carnivorans acquired novel dental variability that benefits their dietary divergence.

  13. Decentralized adaptive fuzzy control of time-delayed interconnected systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The problem of decentralized adaptive fuzzy control for a class of time-delayed interconnected nonlinear systems with unknown backlash-like hystersis is discussed. On the basis of the principle of variable structure control (VSC) and by using the fuzzy systems with linear adjustable parameters that are used to approximate plant unknown functions, a novel decentralized adaptive fuzzy control strategy with a supervisory controller is developed. A general method, which is modeled the backlash-like hysteresis, is proposed and removes the assumption that the boundedness of disturbance, and the slope of the backlash-like hystersis are known constants. Furthermore, the interconnection term is supposed to be pth-order polynomial in time-delayed states. In addition, the plant dynamic uncertainty and modeling errors are adaptively compensated by adjusting the parameters and gains on-line for each subsystems. By theoretical analysis, it is shown that the closed-loop fuzzy control systems are globally stable, with tracking error converging to zero. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Comparison of in-situ delay monitors for use in Adaptive Voltage Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Aryan, N.; Heiß, L.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.; Georgakos, G.; Wirnshofer, M.

    2012-09-01

    In Adaptive Voltage Scaling (AVS) the supply voltage of digital circuits is tuned according to the circuit's actual operating condition, which enables dynamic compensation to PVTA variations. By exploiting the excessive safety margins added in state-of-the-art worst-case designs considerable power saving is achieved. In our approach, the operating condition of the circuit is monitored by in-situ delay monitors. This paper presents different designs to implement the in-situ delay monitors capable of detecting late but still non-erroneous transitions, called Pre-Errors. The developed Pre-Error monitors are integrated in a 16 bit multiplier test circuit and the resulting Pre-Error AVS system is modeled by a Markov chain in order to determine the power saving potential of each Pre-Error detection approach.

  15. Adaptive control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems preceded by unknown hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyu; Lin, Yan

    2013-08-01

    In this article, a robust adaptive neural dynamic surface control is proposed for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems preceded by saturated hystereses. Compared with the present schemes of dealing with time delay and hystereses input, the main advantages of the proposed scheme are that the prespecified transient and steady-state performance of tracking error can be guaranteed, the computational burden can be greatly reduced and the explosion of complexity problem inherent in backstepping control can be eliminated. Moreover, the utilisation of saturated-type Prandtl-Ishlinskii model makes our scheme more applicable. It is proved that the new scheme can guarantee all the closed-loop signals semiglobally uniformly ultimate bounded. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme.

  16. Observer-based Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Time-varying Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Sheng Chen; Rui-Hong Li; Jing Li

    2010-01-01

    An observer-based adaptive iterative learning control (AILC) scheme is developed for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-varying parameters and unknown time-varying delays. The linear matrix inequality (LMI) method is employed to design the nonlinear observer. The designed controller contains a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback term in time domain. The learning law of unknown constant parameter is differential-difference-type, and the learning law of unknown time-varying parameter is difference-type. It is assumed that the unknown delay-dependent uncertainty is nonlinearly parameterized. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii-like composite energy function (CEF), we prove the boundedness of all closed-loop signals and the convergence of tracking error. A simulation example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control algorithm proposed in this paper.

  17. ADAPTIVE PINNING SYNCHRONIZATION OF COUPLED NEURAL NETWORKS WITH MIXED DELAYS AND VECTOR-FORM STOCHASTIC PERTURBATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xinsong; Cao Jinde

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we consider the global chaotic synchronization of general coupled neural networks,in which subsystems have both discrete and distributed delays.Stochastic perturbations between subsystems are also considered.On the basis of two simple adaptive pinning feedback control schemes,Lyapunov functional method,and stochastic analysis approach,several sufficient conditions are developed to guarantee global synchronization of the coupled neural networks with two kinds of delay couplings,even if only partial states of the nodes are coupled.The outer-coupling matrices may be symmetric or asymmetric.Unlike existing results that an isolate node is introduced as the pinning target,we pin to help the network realizing synchronization without introducing any isolate node when the network is not synchronized.As a by product,sufficient conditions under which the network realizes synchronization without control are derived.Numerical simulations confirm the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  18. Robust Adaptive Control for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems with Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruliang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present adaptive neural control design for a class of perturbed nonlinear MIMO time-varying delay systems in a block-triangular form. Based on a neural controller, it is obtained by constructing a quadratic-type Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which efficiently avoids the controller singularity. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded, while the output tracking error dynamics converge to a neighborhood of the desired trajectories. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  19. Adaptive Synchronization between Two Different Complex Networks with Time-Varying Delay Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-Rui; JIAO Li-Cheng; WU Jian-She; WANG Xiao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    A new general network model for two complex networks with time-varying delay coupling is presented.Then we investigate its synchronization phenomena.The two complex networks of the model differ in dynamic nodes,the number of nodes and the coupling connections.By using adaptive controllers,a synchronization criterion is derived.Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained synchronization criterion.This study may widen the application range of synchronization,such as in chaotic secure communication.

  20. A de novo missense mutation in ZMYND11 is associated with global developmental delay, seizures, and hypotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Abby M.; Belnap, Newell; Siniard, Ashley L.; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Claasen, Ana M.; Richholt, Ryan F.; De Both, Matt; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Balak, Chris; Piras, Ignazio S.; Russell, Megan; Courtright, Amanda L.; Rangasamy, Sampath; Ramsey, Keri; Craig, David W.; Narayanan, Vinodh; Huentelman, Matt J.; Schrauwen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Recently, mutations in the zinc finger MYND-type containing 11 (ZMYND11) gene were identified in patients with autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, aggression, and complex neuropsychiatric features, supporting that this gene is implicated in 10p15.3 microdeletion syndrome. We report a novel de novo variant in the ZMYND11 gene (p.Ser421Asn) in a patient with a complex neurodevelopmental phenotype. The patient is a 24-yr-old Caucasian/Filipino female with seizures, global developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, dysmorphic features, and other features including a happy disposition and ataxic gait similar to Angelman syndrome. In addition, this patient had uncommon features including eosinophilic esophagitis and multiple, severe allergies not described in similar ZMYND11 cases. This new case further supports the association of ZMYND11 with autistic-like phenotypes and suggests that ZMYND11 should be included in the list of potentially causative candidate genes in cases with complex neurodevelopmental phenotypes.

  1. Tracking with asymptotic sliding mode and adaptive input delay effect compensation of nonlinearly perturbed delayed systems applied to traffic feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Boris; Haddad, Jack; Shtessel, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Asymptotical sliding mode-model reference adaptive control design for a class of systems with parametric uncertainty, unknown nonlinear perturbation and external disturbance, and with known input and state delays is proposed. To overcome the difficulty to directly predict the plant state under uncertainties, a control design is based on a developed decomposition procedure, where a 'generalised error' in conjunction with auxiliary linear dynamic blocks with adjustable gains is introduced and the sliding variable is formed on the basis of this error. The effect of such a decomposition is to pull the input delay out of first step of the design procedure. As a result, similarly to the classical Smith predictor, the adaptive control architecture based only on the lumped-delays, i.e. without conventional in such cases difficult-implemented distributed-delay blocks. Two new adaptive control schemes are proposed. A linearisation-based control design is constructed for feedback control of an urban traffic region model with uncertain dynamics. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed adaptive control method.

  2. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yaoqian [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Balazs, Louisa [Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Tigyi, Gabor [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Yue, Junming, E-mail: yue@uthsc.edu [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) leads to embryonic mortality. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to developmental delay. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to hemorrhage in various organs including brain, skin and liver. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to vascular wall remodeling. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs dysregulates the expression of miRNA and VSMC marker genes. -- Abstract: Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role of Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation.

  3. Cilostazol Improves Developmental Competence of Pig Oocytes by Increasing Intraoocyte Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Level and Delaying Meiotic Resumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, F; Lee, H; Lee, Y; Park, B; Lee, J; Hyun, S-H; Lee, E

    2016-04-01

    Cilostazol (CLZ) is a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulator that influences the steady state of the meiotic stage. This study was conducted to determine the effects of CLZ treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) on developmental competence of pig oocytes. Immature oocytes were exposed to 0 (control), 0.5, 2 and 4 μm CLZ during the first 22 h of IVM. Nuclear maturation, intraoocyte glutathione content and embryo cleavage after parthenogenesis (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were not influenced by CLZ at any concentrations. However, 4 μm CLZ significantly (p formation after PA (52.1% vs 38.7-46.0%) and SCNT relative to other concentrations (40.8% vs 25.0-30.7%). The mean cell numbers of SCNT blastocysts were significantly increased by 4 μm CLZ compared to the control (42.6 cells vs 35.3 cells/blastocyst). CLZ treatment significantly increased the intraoocyte cAMP level and effectively arrested oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and GV break down stages compared to the control (74.5% vs 45.4%). Our results demonstrated that improved developmental competence of PA and SCNT pig embryos occurred via better synchronization of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation induced by increased cAMP and delayed meiotic resumption after CLZ treatment. PMID:26834044

  4. Effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity on coherence resonance and synchronization transitions by time delay in adaptive neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huijuan; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we numerically study how time delay induces multiple coherence resonance (MCR) and synchronization transitions (ST) in adaptive Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). It is found that MCR induced by time delay STDP can be either enhanced or suppressed as the adjusting rate Ap of STDP changes, and ST by time delay varies with the increase of Ap, and there is optimal Ap by which the ST becomes strongest. It is also found that there are optimal network randomness and network size by which ST by time delay becomes strongest, and when Ap increases, the optimal network randomness and optimal network size increase and related ST is enhanced. These results show that STDP can either enhance or suppress MCR and optimal STDP can enhance ST induced by time delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into STDP's role for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  5. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  6. SHARP - III: First Use Of Adaptive Optics Imaging To Constrain Cosmology With Gravitational Lens Time Delays

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Geoff C F; Wong, Kenneth C; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I Shing; Auger, Matthew W; Koopmans, Leon V E; Lagattuta, David J; McKean, John P; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the Hubble constant with an uncertainty of $\\sim 7\\%$. Since HST will not last forever, we explore adaptive-optics (AO) imaging as an alternative that can provide higher angular resolution than HST imaging but has a less stable point spread function (PSF) due to atmospheric distortion. To make AO imaging useful for time-delay-lens cosmography, we develop a method to extract the unknown PSF directly from the imaging of strongly lensed quasars. In a blind test with two mock data sets created with different PSFs, we are able to recover the important cosmological parameters (time-delay distance, external shear, lens mass profile slope, and total Einstein radius). Our analysis of the Keck AO image of the strong lens system RXJ1...

  7. Delay Prediction for Real-Time Video Adaptive Transmisson over TCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Xiong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time multimedia streaming applications are increasingly using TCP instead of UCP as underlying transport protocol, however the great end-to-end delays are the major factor to influence the quality of streaming across the Internet using TCP. In this paper, we point the requirement for transmitting real-time video with acceptable playing performance via TCP and present a stochastic prediction model which can predict the sending-delays of video frames.  Based on the prediction model, we propose a real-time video adaptive transmission scheme which can dynamically adjust video frame rate and playout buffer size according to available network bandwidth. The scheme does not require any modifications to the network infrastructure or TCP protocol stack and only wants to measure some parameters including video frame size, loss ratio, congestion windows size, RTT and RTO time before video frames are sent. The performance of proposed prediction model and adaptive scheme are evaluated through extensive simulations using the NS-2 simulator.

  8. Adaptive Control for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots Considering Time Delay and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Stephen Kofi

    Autonomous control of mobile robots has attracted considerable attention of researchers in the areas of robotics and autonomous systems during the past decades. One of the goals in the field of mobile robotics is development of platforms that robustly operate in given, partially unknown, or unpredictable environments and offer desired services to humans. Autonomous mobile robots need to be equipped with effective, robust and/or adaptive, navigation control systems. In spite of enormous reported work on autonomous navigation control systems for mobile robots, achieving the goal above is still an open problem. Robustness and reliability of the controlled system can always be improved. The fundamental issues affecting the stability of the control systems include the undesired nonlinear effects introduced by actuator saturation, time delay in the controlled system, and uncertainty in the model. This research work develops robustly stabilizing control systems by investigating and addressing such nonlinear effects through analytical, simulations, and experiments. The control systems are designed to meet specified transient and steady-state specifications. The systems used for this research are ground (Dr Robot X80SV) and aerial (Parrot AR.Drone 2.0) mobile robots. Firstly, an effective autonomous navigation control system is developed for X80SV using logic control by combining 'go-to-goal', 'avoid-obstacle', and 'follow-wall' controllers. A MATLAB robot simulator is developed to implement this control algorithm and experiments are conducted in a typical office environment. The next stage of the research develops an autonomous position (x, y, and z) and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) controllers for a quadrotor, and PD-feedback control is used to achieve stabilization. The quadrotor's nonlinear dynamics and kinematics are implemented using MATLAB S-function to generate the state output. Secondly, the white-box and black-box approaches are used to obtain a linearized

  9. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  10. Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Walker, Cheryl; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed data from case groups of 538 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 163 with developmental delays (DD), and from 421 typically developing controls to assess associations with maternal influenza or fever during pregnancy. Exposure information was obtained by telephone interviews, and outcomes were clinically confirmed. Though…

  11. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  12. Assessing the Effects of the "McGraw Hill Phonemic Awareness" Program with Preschool Children with Developmental Delays: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakson, Lisa; Marchand-Martella, Nancy; Martella, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of "McGraw Hill Phonemic Awareness" on the phonemic awareness skills of 5 preschool children with developmental delays. The children received 60 of the 110 lessons included in this program over 5 months. They were pre- and posttested using the kindergarten level Initial Sound Fluency and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency…

  13. Mitigating the Effects of Poverty and Crime: The Long-Term Effects of an Early Intervention Programme for Children Who Were Developmentally Delayed and Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Mary Anne; Gonzalez, Antonio; Katz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the long-term impact on participation in the Linda Ray Intervention Program (LRIP) for children (n = 54) who were developmentally delayed and prenatally exposed to cocaine. By identifying a group of programme graduates from a high crime/high poverty neighbourhood in Miami-Dade County using ArcGIS 10.2 software, a…

  14. Modeling Skills, Signs and Lettering for Children with Down Syndrome, Autism and Other Severe Developmental Delays by Video Instruction in Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, G. B.; Freedman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses optimal strategies in teaching essential life and communication skills to children with Down syndrome, autism and other developmental delays. Evidence from the literature concerning the relative efficacy of hand-over-hand (self-modeling) in contrast to passive observational teaching techniques (e.g., video modeling) shows the…

  15. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  16. Delayed diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in Northern Ireland: can we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, K J; Chan, K W; Cosgrove, A P

    2015-11-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) should be diagnosed as early as possible to optimise treatment. The current United Kingdom recommendations for the selective screening of DDH include a clinical examination at birth and at six weeks. In Northern Ireland babies continue to have an assessment by a health visitor at four months of age. As we continue to see late presentations of DDH, beyond one year of age, we hypothesised that a proportion had missed an opportunity for earlier diagnosis. We expect those who presented to our service with Tonnis grade III or IV hips and decreased abduction would have had clinical signs at their earlier assessments. We performed a retrospective review of all patients born in Northern Ireland between 2008 and 2010 who were diagnosed with DDH after their first birthday. There were 75 856 live births during the study period of whom 645 children were treated for DDH (8.5 per 1000). The minimum follow-up of our cohort from birth, to detect late presentation, was four years and six months. Of these, 32 children (33 hips) were diagnosed after their first birthday (0.42 per 1000). With optimum application of our selective screening programme 21 (65.6%) of these children had the potential for an earlier diagnosis, which would have reduced the incidence of late diagnosis to 0.14 per 1000. As we saw a peak in diagnosis between three and five months our findings support the continuation of the four month health visitor check. Our study adds further information to the debate regarding selective versus universal screening.

  17. Adaptive Output Feedback Sliding Mode Control for Complex Interconnected Time-Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Van Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the decentralized output feedback sliding mode control (SMC scheme to stabilize a class of complex interconnected time-delay systems. First, sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived such that the equivalent reduced-order system in the sliding mode is asymptotically stable. Second, based on a new lemma, a decentralized adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to guarantee the finite time reachability of the system states by using output feedback only. The advantage of the proposed method is that two major assumptions, which are required in most existing SMC approaches, are both released. These assumptions are (1 disturbances are bounded by a known function of outputs and (2 the sliding matrix satisfies a matrix equation that guarantees the sliding mode. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

  18. Adaptive feedback synchronisation of complex dynamical network with discrete-time communications and delayed nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Kuangrong

    2016-08-01

    This paper considered the synchronisation of continuous complex dynamical networks with discrete-time communications and delayed nodes. The nodes in the dynamical networks act in the continuous manner, while the communications between nodes are discrete-time; that is, they communicate with others only at discrete time instants. The communication intervals in communication period can be uncertain and variable. By using a piecewise Lyapunov-Krasovskii function to govern the characteristics of the discrete communication instants, we investigate the adaptive feedback synchronisation and a criterion is derived to guarantee the existence of the desired controllers. The globally exponential synchronisation can be achieved by the controllers under the updating laws. Finally, two numerical examples including globally coupled network and nearest-neighbour coupled networks are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  19. Adaptive synchronization in delay-coupled networks of Stuart-Landau oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, Anton A; Lehnert, Judith; Dahms, Thomas; Hövel, Philipp; Fradkov, Alexander L; Schöll, Eckehard

    2012-01-01

    We consider networks of delay-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. In these systems, the coupling phase has been found to be a crucial control parameter. By proper choice of this parameter one can switch between different synchronous oscillatory states of the network. Applying the speed-gradient method, we derive an adaptive algorithm for an automatic adjustment of the coupling phase such that a desired state can be selected from an otherwise multistable regime. We propose goal functions based on both the difference of the oscillators and a generalized order parameter and demonstrate that the speed-gradient method allows one to find appropriate coupling phases with which different states of synchronization, e.g., in-phase oscillation, splay, or various cluster states, can be selected.

  20. Adaptive control for a class of MIMO nonlinear time delay systems against time varying actuator failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahnaz; Ghaisari, Jafar; Askari, Javad

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive controller for a class of Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with unknown parameters, bounded time delays and in the presence of unknown time varying actuator failures. The type of considered actuator failure is one in which some inputs may be stuck at some time varying values where the values, times and patterns of the failures are unknown. The proposed approach is constructed based on a backstepping design method. The boundedness of all the closed-loop signals is guaranteed and the tracking errors are proved to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The proposed approach is employed for a double inverted pendulums benchmark and a chemical reactor system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Time Delay Estimation algorithms adapted to dispersive media - Application to the NDT&E of civil engineering materials

    OpenAIRE

    CHAHINE, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Time delays are generally estimated for NDT&E purposes, under the assumption of dispersion free media. As opposed to the latter, this work intends to adapt the subspace and MPM family algorithms to the dispersive nature of civil engineering materials (hydraulic concrete, soils) for which the dispersion obeys to the Q-constant model (Jonscher). Two solutions are proposed to jointly estimate the time delay, T, and the Q factor attached to each layer. The performance of algorithms is assessed ag...

  2. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan HL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsiang-Lin Chan,1,2,* Wen-Sheng Liu,3–6,* Yi-Hsuan Hsieh,1,2 Chiao-Fan Lin,1,2 Tiing-Soon Ling,2,7 Yu-Shu Huang1,2 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Zhong-Xing Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6College of Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 7Department of Family Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion: Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation

  3. Italy: Delayed adaptation of social institutions to changes in family behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Zanatta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.

  4. Decentralised adaptive output feedback stabilisation for stochastic time-delay systems via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ticao; Xu, Shengyuan; Lu, Junwei; Wei, Yunliang; Zou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the decentralised output feedback stabilisation problem for a class of large-scale stochastic time-delay nonlinear systems. A general theorem is firstly given to guarantee the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for stochastic time-delay systems. In addition, a stochastic version of the well-known LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem with time-varying delay is initially proposed for the controller design and stability analysis. Then, for a class of large-scale stochastic systems with time-varying delays, totally decentralised adaptive delay-dependent controllers are designed by using K-filter and backstepping approach. Via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem and constructing a general Lyapunov function, it is shown that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded almost surely and the solution is almost surely asymptotically stable. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results of this paper.

  5. L∞-gain adaptive fuzzy fault accommodation control design for nonlinear time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huai-Ning; Qiang, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Lei

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy fault accommodation (FA) control design with a guaranteed L(∞)-gain performance is developed for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with persistent bounded disturbances. Using the Lyapunov technique and the Razumikhin-type lemma, the existence condition of the L(∞) -gain adaptive fuzzy FA controllers is provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). In the proposed FA scheme, a fuzzy logic system is employed to approximate the unknown term in the derivative of the Lyapunov function due to the unknown fault function; a continuous-state feedback control strategy is adopted for the control design to avoid the undesirable chattering phenomenon. The resulting FA controllers can ensure that every response of the closed-loop system is uniformly ultimately bounded with a guaranteed L(∞)-gain performance in the presence of a fault. Moreover, by the existing LMI optimization technique, a suboptimal controller is obtained in the sense of minimizing an upper bound of the L(∞)-gain. Finally, the achieved simulation results on the FA control of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) show the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure.

  6. The developmental inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Thompson, Britta S; Freund, Nadja; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Increased locomotion, novelty-seeking, and impulsivity are risk factors associated with substance use. In this study, the inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, were examined across three stages: juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal Day [P] 15, 19, and 42 for activity, novelty, and impulsivity, respectively), adolescent/late adolescent (P28, 32, 73), and adult (P90, 94, 137) in male and female rats. Our estimates of impulsive choice, where animals were trained to criterion, revealed an age × sex interaction where early adolescent females had the lowest levels of impulsivity. The relationships of activity and novelty to impulsivity significantly changed across age within each sex. Early adolescent males with high activity, but low novelty preferences, were more impulsive; however, low activity and high novelty preferences were related to high impulsivity in adult males. Female activity gradually increased across age, but did not show a strong relationship with impulsivity. Novelty preferences are moderately related to impulsivity into adulthood in females. These data show that males and females have different developmental trajectories for these behaviors. Males show greater sensation-seeking (e.g., activity) and risky behavior (e.g., novelty preferences) earlier in life, whereas these behaviors emerge during adolescence in females. PMID:26419783

  7. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Tamar; Yesil, Gozde; Bayram, Yavuz; Coban-Akdemir, Zeynep; Charng, Wu-Lin; Karaca, Ender; Al Asmari, Ali; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Hunter, Jill V.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Pehlivan, Davut; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Saleh, Mohammed A.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Muzny, Donna; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Yang, Yaping; Belmont, John W.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of a single gene associated with one specific phenotype and mode of inheritance has been repeatedly challenged. Genotype-phenotype correlations can often be traced to different mutation types, localization of the variants in distinct protein domains, or the trigger of or escape from nonsense-mediated decay. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous variants in EMC1 that segregated with a phenotype of developmental delay, hypotonia, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy in three families. In addition, a de novo heterozygous EMC1 variant was seen in an individual with a similar clinical and MRI imaging phenotype. EMC1 encodes a member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane protein complex (EMC), an evolutionarily conserved complex that has been proposed to have multiple roles in ER-associated degradation, ER-mitochondria tethering, and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane proteins. Perturbations of protein folding and organelle crosstalk have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes including cerebellar atrophy. We propose EMC1 as a gene in which either biallelic or monoallelic variants might lead to a syndrome including intellectual disability and preferential degeneration of the cerebellum. PMID:26942288

  8. A de novo missense mutation in ZMYND11 is associated with global developmental delay, seizures, and hypotonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Abby M; Belnap, Newell; Siniard, Ashley L; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Claasen, Ana M; Richholt, Ryan F; De Both, Matt; Corneveaux, Jason J; Balak, Chris; Piras, Ignazio S; Russell, Megan; Courtright, Amanda L; Rangasamy, Sampath; Ramsey, Keri; Craig, David W; Narayanan, Vinodh; Huentelman, Matt J; Schrauwen, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Recently, mutations in the zinc finger MYND-type containing 11 (ZMYND11) gene were identified in patients with autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, aggression, and complex neuropsychiatric features, supporting that this gene is implicated in 10p15.3 microdeletion syndrome. We report a novel de novo variant in the ZMYND11 gene (p.Ser421Asn) in a patient with a complex neurodevelopmental phenotype. The patient is a 24-yr-old Caucasian/Filipino female with seizures, global developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, dysmorphic features, and other features including a happy disposition and ataxic gait similar to Angelman syndrome. In addition, this patient had uncommon features including eosinophilic esophagitis and multiple, severe allergies not described in similar ZMYND11 cases. This new case further supports the association of ZMYND11 with autistic-like phenotypes and suggests that ZMYND11 should be included in the list of potentially causative candidate genes in cases with complex neurodevelopmental phenotypes. PMID:27626064

  9. A boy with developmental delay, malformations, and evidence of a connective tissue disorder: possibly a new type of cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linlea; Jimenez, Carmencita; Hunter, Alasdair G W

    2003-05-15

    We report a 7.5-year-old boy with loose translucent skin, aortic dilatation, hyperextensible veins, recurrent respiratory problems, pectus excavatum, arthralgias, lax joints, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and umbilical and inguinal hernias. He also has developmental delay, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, an unusual facial appearance, terminal digit hypoplasia with unusual radiographic changes in some of the phalanges, glandular hypospadias, shawl scrotum, and undescended testes. Biochemical investigations, including electrophoresis of Types 1 and 3 procollagens and collagens, and quantification of serum copper and ceruloplasmin, are normal. Relative to age-matched control patients the electron micrographs of the boy's dermis show elastin fibers to be decreased in number, and abnormal in appearance, with a low matrix to microfibril ratio. The organ distribution of abnormalities and the nature of the findings suggest a connective tissue disorder. We contrast and compare this boy's phenotype to those of the classic connective tissue disorders. We conclude that he has cutis laxa with features that distinguish him from previously described types of cutis laxa.

  10. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome (EEC syndrome) with a developmental delay caused by R304W mutation in the tp63 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrych, Elzbieta; Bińczak-Kuleta, Agnieszka; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome (EEC) results from a simultaneous developmental abnor-caused by mutations of the tp63 gene. Five mutations: 204, 227, 279, 280, and 304 account for most cases of this syndrome. A case with R304W mutation, characterized by the presence of all major (ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip and palate) and two minor (lacrimal duct obstruction, developmental delay) clinical symptoms of the syndrome is presented. This severe case improves the existing knowledge concerning the genotype-phenotype correlations in EEC syndrome. PMID:24734328

  11. Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gutermann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects. Objective: Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT, for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after childhood abuse. Method: Two independent raters assessed 30 randomly selected sessions involving 12 D-CPT patients (age 13–20 years, M age=16.75, 91.67% female treated by 11 therapists within the pilot phase of a multicenter study. Results: Three experts confirmed the relevance and appropriateness of each item. All items and total scores for adherence (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]=0.76–1.00 and competence (ICC=0.78–0.98 yielded good to excellent inter-rater reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.59 for the adherence scale and 0.96 for the competence scale. Conclusions: The scales reliably assess adherence and competence in D-CPT for adolescent PTSD patients. The ratings can be helpful in the interpretation of treatment effects, the assessment of mediator variables, and the identification and training of therapeutic skills that are central to achieving good treatment outcomes. Both adherence and competence will be assessed as possible predictor variables for treatment success in future D-CPT trials.

  12. Parental Adaptation to Out-of-Home Placement of a Child with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey B.; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing grounded theory qualitative research methods, a model was developed for describing parental adaptation after voluntary placement of a child with severe or profound developmental disabilities in out-of-home care. Interviews of parents from 20 families were analyzed. Parents' cognitive appraisals of placement outcomes were classified…

  13. 儿童发育迟缓监测研究进展%Advance in Surveillance of Developmental Delay of Children(review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱民

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental delay is a subset of developmental disabilities defined as significant delay in 2 or more of the following developmental domains: gross/fine motor, speech/language, cognition, social/personal, and activities of daily living, it was estimated to affect 1% to 3% of children. It is an important public health and social problem. Developmental surveillance is an important approach to early identification of developmental delay, early intervention and prevention of disability. In order to improve the effective of surveillance, 3 aspects were implemented including: laying down policies, improving screening tool and increasing rate of referrals.%儿童发育迟缓是发育性残疾的一种,特指6岁以下儿童在粗大运动/精细运动、语言/言语、认知、社会/个人、日常活动能力等发育领域中存在2个或2个以上的明显落后,现患率约为1%~3%,是重要的公共卫生和社会问题.发育监测是早期发现儿童发育迟缓、早期干预与预防儿童发育残疾的重要途径,为提高监测有效性,目前主要从政策推动、筛查方法、转诊等方面开展相关工作.

  14. Interstitial deletion of 14q24.3-q32.2 in a male patient with plagiocephaly, BPES features, developmental delay, and congenital heart defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cingöz, Sultan; Bache, Iben; Bjerglund, Lise;

    2011-01-01

    with developmental delay, language impairment, plagiocephaly, BPES features (blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus), and congenital heart defect. The deletion breakpoints were fine mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the size of the deletion is estimated to be approximately 23¿Mb. Based...... on genotype-phenotype comparisons of the 10 previously published patients and the present case, we suggest that the shortest regions for deletion overlap may include candidate genes for speech impairment, mental retardation, and hypotonia....

  15. Programming generalization of in-class transition skills: teaching preschoolers with developmental delays to self-assess and recruit contingent teacher praise.

    OpenAIRE

    Connell, M. C.; Carta, J J; Baer, D M

    1993-01-01

    We investigated a self-management intervention package that taught preschoolers with developmental delays to self-assess performance of targeted skills and to recruit teacher praise. Self-assessment alone resulted in increases in active engagement across all participants during the training sessions, but generalization to classrooms was sporadic and short-lived. When recruitment of contingent praise was added to the training package, treatment effects generalized to the participants' classroo...

  16. Adaptive Control of Active Balancing System for a Fast Speed-varying Jeffcott Rotor with Actuator Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bing; FANG Zhi-chu

    2008-01-01

    Due to actuator time delay existing in an adaptive control of the active balancing system for a fastspeed-varying Jeffcott rotor, if an unsynchronized control force (correction imbalance) is applied to the system,it may lead to degradation in control efficiency and instability of the control system. In order to avoid theseshortcomings, a simple adaptive controller was designed for a strictly positive real rotor system with actuatortime delay, then a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional was constructed after an appropriate transform of this sys-tem model, the stability conditions of this adaptive control system with actuator time delay were derived. Afteradding a filter function, the active balancing system for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay can easily be converted to a strictly positive real system, and thus it can use the above adaptive controllersatisfying the stability conditions. Finally, numerical simulations show that the adaptive controller proposedworks very well to perform the active balancing for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay.

  17. Vision screening in children with developmental delay can be improved: analysis of a screening programme outside the ophthalmic clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Sandfeld; Skov, Liselotte; Jensen, Hanne

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new vision-screening programme in detecting ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay (DD; IQIQ. A group of 467 children with an IQIQ>80 (85 males, 38 females; age range 3-16y; mean age 10y 5mo [SD 3y 2mo]) had an examination that included new vision-screening items: distance and near visual acuity and stereopsis for near objects (Lang stereo test II). A full ophthalmological examination was also conducted to determine the effectiveness of the new screening items. The previous screening programme consisted of only monocular visual acuity at distance. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the tests were calculated with regard to the following ophthalmic disorders: hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, anistometropia, amblyopia, low vision, and strabismus. Overall, the prevalence of ophthalmic disorders was 33.4% in children with DD and 11.4% in typically developing children. With the use of the new programme, the effectiveness of vision screening in both groups of children was improved. In children with DD, sensitivity increased from 49.4 to 80.1%, specificity decreased from 98.1 to 83.3%, PPV decreased from 92.8 to 70.6%, and NPV increased from 79.4 to 89.3%. In typically developing children, sensitivity improved from 50.0 to 85.7%, specificity declined from 98.2 to 87.2%, PPV decreased from 77.8 to 46.2%, and NPV increased from 93.9 to 97.9%. We conclude that the currently used vision-screening programme can be significantly improved. The speed and simplicity of the proposed screening programme makes it suitable for use by school nurses. The improvements were most prominent in children with DD. PMID:17593122

  18. Reduced cortical complexity in children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and its association with cognitive impairment and developmental delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akvile Lukoshe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms involving not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system dysfunction. Previously, qualitative studies reported polymicrogyria in adults with PWS. However, there have been no quantitative neuroimaging studies of cortical morphology in PWS and no studies to date in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate and quantify cortical complexity in children with PWS compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated differences between genetic subtypes of PWS and the relationship between cortical complexity and intelligence within the PWS group. METHODS: High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 24 children with genetically confirmed PWS (12 carrying a deletion (DEL, 12 with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD and 11 age- and sex-matched typically developing siblings as healthy controls. Local gyrification index (lGI was obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. RESULTS: Four large clusters, two in each hemisphere, comprising frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, had lower lGI in children with PWS, compared to healthy controls. Clusters with lower lGI also had significantly lower cortical surface area in children with PWS. No differences in cortical thickness of the clusters were found between the PWS and healthy controls. lGI correlated significantly with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness. Within the PWS group, lGI in both hemispheres correlated with Total IQ and Verbal IQ, but not with Performance IQ. Children with mUPD, compared to children with DEL, had two small clusters with lower lGI in the right hemisphere. lGI of these clusters correlated with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness or IQ. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lower cortical complexity in children with PWS partially underlies cognitive impairment and developmental delay, probably due to

  19. Developmental delay in motor skill acquisition in Niemann-Pick C1 mice reveals abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, Paola; Bruno, Francesco; Palladino, Giampiero; Dragotto, Jessica; Petrosini, Laura; Mangia, Franco; Erickson, Robert P; Canterini, Sonia; Fiorenza, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by defective intracellular trafficking of exogenous cholesterol. Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration is the main sign of cerebellar dysfunction in both NPC1 patients and animal models. It has been recently shown that a significant decrease in Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression reduces the proliferative potential of granule neuron precursors in the developing cerebellum of Npc1 (-/-) mice. Pursuing the hypothesis that this developmental defect translates into functional impairments, we have assayed Npc1-deficient pups belonging to the milder mutant mouse strain Npc1 (nmf164) for sensorimotor development from postnatal day (PN) 3 to PN21. Npc1 (nmf164) / Npc1 (nmf164) pups displayed a 2.5-day delay in the acquisition of complex motor abilities compared to wild-type (wt) littermates, in agreement with the significant disorganization of cerebellar cortex cytoarchitecture observed between PN11 and PN15. Compared to wt, Npc1 (nmf164) homozygous mice exhibited a poorer morphological differentiation of Bergmann glia (BG), as indicated by thicker radial shafts and less elaborate reticular pattern of lateral processes. Also BG functional development was defective, as indicated by the significant reduction in GLAST and Glutamine synthetase expression. A reduced VGluT2 and GAD65 expression also indicated an overall derangement of the glutamatergic/GABAergic stimulation that PCs receive by climbing/parallel fibers and basket/stellate cells, respectively. Lastly, Npc1-deficiency also affected oligodendrocyte differentiation as indicated by the strong reduction of myelin basic protein. Two sequential 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin administrations at PN4 and PN7 counteract these defects, partially preventing functional impairment of BG and fully restoring the normal patterns of glutamatergic/GABAergic stimulation to PCs.These findings indicate that in Npc1 (nmf164) homozygous mice the derangement of synaptic

  20. Predictive wavefront control for Adaptive Optics with arbitrary control loop delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2007-10-30

    We present a modification of the closed-loop state space model for AO control which allows delays that are a non-integer multiple of the system frame rate. We derive the new forms of the Predictive Fourier Control Kalman filters for arbitrary delays and show that they are linear combinations of the whole-frame delay terms. This structure of the controller is independent of the delay. System stability margins and residual error variance both transition gracefully between integer-frame delays.

  1. Control of Halo-Chaos in Beam Transport Network via Neural Network Adaptation with Time-Delayed Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jin-Qing; LUO Xiao-Shu; HUANG Guo-Xian

    2006-01-01

    Subject of the halo-chaos control in beam transport networks (channels) has become a key concerned issue for many important applications of high-current proton beam since 1990'. In this paper, the magnetic field adaptive control based on the neuralnetwork with time-delayed feedback is proposed for suppressing beam halo-chaos in the beam transport network with periodic focusing channels. The envelope radius of high-current proton beam is controlled to reach the matched beam radius by suitably selecting the control structure and parameter of the neural network, adjusting the delayed-time and control coefficient of the neural network.

  2. Decentralized Adaptive Control of Large-Scale Non-Affine Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems Using Wavelet Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Saeedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a decentralized adaptive controller with using wavelet neural network is used for a class of large-scale nonlinear systems with time- delay unknown nonlinear non- affine subsystems. The entered interruptions in subsystems are considered nonlinear with time delay, this is closer the reality, compared with the case in which the delay is not considered for interruptions. In this paper, the output weights of wavelet neural network and the other parameters of wavelet are adjusted online. The stability of close loop system is guaranteed with using the Lyapanov- Krasovskii method. Moreover the stability of close loop systems, guaranteed tracking error is converging to neighborhood zero and also all of the signals in the close loop system are bounded. Finally, the proposed method, simulated and applied for the control of two inverted pendulums that connected by a spring and the computer results, show that the efficiency of suggested method in this paper.

  3. Research on Adaptive Neural Network Control System Based on Nonlinear U-Model with Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available U-model can approximate a large class of smooth nonlinear time-varying delay system to any accuracy by using time-varying delay parameters polynomial. This paper proposes a new approach, namely, U-model approach, to solving the problems of analysis and synthesis for nonlinear systems. Based on the idea of discrete-time U-model with time-varying delay, the identification algorithm of adaptive neural network is given for the nonlinear model. Then, the controller is designed by using the Newton-Raphson formula and the stability analysis is given for the closed-loop nonlinear systems. Finally, illustrative examples are given to show the validity and applicability of the obtained results.

  4. Adaptive neural tracking control of a class of MIMO pure-feedback time-delay nonlinear systems with input saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yue, Dong; Yuan, Deming

    2016-11-01

    Considering interconnections among subsystems, we propose an adaptive neural tracking control scheme for a class of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) non-affine pure-feedback time-delay nonlinear systems with input saturation. Neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate unknown functions in the design procedure, and the separation technology is introduced here to tackle the problem induced from unknown time-delay items. The adaptive neural tracking control scheme is constructed by combining Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, NNs, the auxiliary system, the implicit function theory and the mean value theorem along with the dynamic surface control technique. Also, it is proven that the strategy guarantees tracking errors converge to a small neighbourhood around the origin by appropriate choice of design parameters and all signals in the closed-loop system uniformly ultimately bounded. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  5. A new impedance and robust adaptive inverse control approach for a teleoperation system with varying time delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mokhtar SHA SADEGHI; Hamid Reza MOMENI

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust adaptive inverse control approach for a force-reflecting teleoperation system with varying time delay. First, an impedance control is designed for the master robot. Second, an adaptive inverse control is proposed for the slave robot. Finally, the slave side controller is modified such that the robust stability and performance are achieved. In addition, robust stability analysis has been performed and optimal behavior is ensured by using standard characteristic polynomials. It is shown that despite of presence of randomly-varying time delay, the proposed control algorithm com-pensates the position drifts efficiently. Demonstrable simulation studies confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system and its advantages over the existing sliding mode control strategies.

  6. A new impedance and robust adaptive inverse control approach for a teleoperation system with varying time delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mokhtar; SHA; SADEGHI; Hamid; Reza; MOMENI

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust adaptive inverse control approach for a force-reflecting teleoperation system with varying time delay. First,an impedance control is designed for the master robot. Second,an adaptive inverse control is proposed for the slave robot. Finally,the slave side controller is modified such that the robust stability and performance are achieved. In addition,robust stability analysis has been performed and optimal behavior is ensured by using standard characteristic polynomials. It is shown that despite of presence of randomly-varying time delay,the proposed control algorithm compensates the position drifts efficiently. Demonstrable simulation studies confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system and its advantages over the existing sliding mode control strategies.

  7. Disruption of the acyl-coa binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Bloksgaard, Maria; Sørensen, Signe Bek;

    2011-01-01

    , little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice go through a crisis with overall weakness, and a slightly decreased growth...... rate. Using microarray analysis we show that the liver of ACBP-/- mice display a significantly delayed adaptation to weaning with late induction of target genes of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) family. As a result, hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is decreased at weaning....... The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning and leads...

  8. Wavelet Neural Network Observer Based Adaptive Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Delayed Systems Using Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sharma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the observer designing problem for a class of uncertain delayed nonlinear systems using reinforcement learning. Reinforcement learning is used via two Wavelet Neural networks (WNN, critic WNN and action WNN, which are combined to form an adaptive WNN controller. The “strategic” utility function is approximated by the critic WNN and is minimized by the action WNN. Adaptation laws are developed for the online tuning of wavelets parameters. By Lyapunov approach, the uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop tracking error is verified. Finally, a simulation example is shown to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed method.

  9. Memory State-Feedback Stabilization for a Class of Time-Delay Systems with a Type of Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilization of a class of systems with time delay is studied using adaptive control. With the help of the “error to error” technique and the separated “descriptor form” technique, the memory state-feedback controller is designed. The adaptive controller designed can guarantee asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system via a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Some sufficient conditions are derived for the stabilization together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI design approach. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control design methodology is demonstrated in numerical simulations.

  10. Output Feedback Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Uncertain Time Delays via RBFNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an adaptive dynamic surface control based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network for a fourth-order permanent magnet synchronous motor system wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, chaos, and uncertain time delays are presented. Neural Network systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate accurate parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller has been obtained by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been illustrated through simulation results.

  11. General solution to diagonal model matching control of multiple-output-delay systems and its applications in adaptive scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingmin Jia

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the model matching problem of multiple-output-delay systems in which the reference model is assigned to a diagonal transfer function matrix.A new model matching controller structure is first developed,and then,it is shown that the controller is feasible if and only if the sets of Diophantine equations have common solutions.The obtained controller allows a parametric representation,which shows that an adaptive scheme can be used to tolerate parameter variations in the plants.The resulting adaptive law can guarantee the global stability of the closed-loop systems and the convergence of the output error.

  12. Adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in local system on prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of possibility specific adaptability and resilience predict with „youth homeless” group in Local System of Prevention in context of Urie Bronfenbrenner developmental ecological model.

  13. Adaptive variable structure control for large-scale time-delayed systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Qikun; Zhang Tianping

    2007-01-01

    The problem of adaptive fuzzy control for a class of large-scale, time-delayed systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone is discussed here. Based on the principle of variable structure control, a design scheme of adaptive, decentralized, variable structure control is proposed. The approach removes the conditions that the dead-zone slopes and boundaries are equal and symmetric, respectively. In addition, it does not require that the assumptions that all parameters of the nonlinear dead-zone model and the lumped uncertainty are known constants. The adaptive compensation terms of the approximation errors are adopted to minimize the influence of modeling errors and parameter estimation errors. By theoretical analysis, the closed-loop control system is proved to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded, with tracking errors converging to zero. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Adaptive Synchronization Control of Multiple Vessels with Switching Communication Topologies and Time Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Fuguang Ding; Yanqin Ma; Yuanwei Zhou; Jiangjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Recently, synchronization movement control of multiple vessels has been studied broadly. In most of the studies, the communication network among vessels is considered to be fixed and the time delay is often ignored. However, the communication network among vessels maybe vary because of switching of different tasks, and the time delay is necessary to be considered when the communication network is unreliable. In this paper, the synchronization movement of multiple vessels with switching connec...

  15. From parent-child mutuality to security to socialization outcomes: developmental cascade toward positive adaptation in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age eight. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS. The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident.

  16. Deletion of SNURF / SNRPN U1B and U1B* upstream exons in a child with developmental delay and excessive weight

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    COSTAS KOUFARIS; ANGELOS ALEXANDROU; IOANNIS PAPAEVRIPIDOU; IOANNA ALEXANDROU; VIOLETTA CHRISTOPHIDOU- ANASTASIADOU; CAROLINA SISMANI

    2016-09-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay and excessive appetite. This syndrome is caused by the loss of function of paternally-expressed genes located in an imprinting centre in 15q11-q13. Here, we report the case of a patient who was referred to us with Prader–Willi syndrome-like symptoms including obesity and developmental delay. Examination of this patient revealed that he was a carrier of a paternally inherited deletion that affected the U1B and U1B* upstream exons of the SNURF–SNRNP gene within the 15q11-q13 imprinted region. Mutations localized within this genomic region have not been previously reported in Prader–Willi syndrome patients. It is possible that disruption of upstream exons of SNURF–SNRNP could contribute to Prader–Willi phenotype by disrupting brain-specific alternative transcripts, although, case reports from further patients with a comparable phenotype are required

  17. Disruption of the Acyl-CoA binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Bloksgaard, Maria;

    -CoA esters between different enzymatic systems. However, little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice show decreased growth......) family, around the weaning period. As a result, the hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is significantly decreased at weaning. The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP...... to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP causes elevated levels of plasma and hepatic lipids during weaning, which interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning by delaying induction of the lipogenic gene programs in the liver....

  18. The Fate of Early Experience Following Developmental Change: Longitudinal Approaches to Individual Adaptation in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined Bowlby's proposition that early experiences and the adaptations to which they give rise influence later development, even beyond the influence of current circumstances or very recent adaptation. Groups whose adaptation were similar during preschool years but consistently different earlier were defined and compared. Results supported…

  19. Delay Depending Decentralized Adaptive Attitude Synchronization Tracking Control of Spacecraft Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jiakang; MA Guangfu; HU Qinglei

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of cooperative attitude tracking with time-varying communication delays as well as the delays between inter-synchronization control parts and self-tracking control parts in the spacecraft formation flying.First,we present the attitude synchronization tracking control algorithms and analyze the sufficient delay-dependent stability condition with the choice of a Lyapunov function when the angular velocity can be measured.More specifically,a class of linear filters is developed to derive an output feedback control law without having direct information of the angular velocity,which is significant for practical applications with low-cost configurations of spacecraft.Using a well-chosen Lyapunov-Krasovskii function,it is proven that the presented control law can make the spacecraft formation attitude tracking system synchronous and achieve exponential stability,in the face of model uncertainties,as well as non-uniform time-varying delays in communication links and different control parts.Finally,simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.

  20. Postural Adaptations to a Suprapostural Memory Task among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chang, Chihu-Hui; Wade, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the effects of varying the cognitive demands of a memory task (a suprapostural task) while recording postural motion on two groups of children, one diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and an age-matched group of typically developing children. Method: Two groups, each comprising 38 child…

  1. Adaptive Delayed Acknowledgement Algorithm for MPEG-4 Traffic in UWB Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; DAI Qionghai; WU Qiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Although ultra-wideband transmission rates are very high in the physical layer, the bandwidth utili-zation efficiency is very low in the medium access control (MAC) layer. The bandwidth utilization efficiencycan be improved and the quality of service for delay-sensitive variable bit rate traffic such as high rate mo-tion picture experts group (MPEG)-4 traffic can be guaranteed by a simple and efficient algorithm that dy-namically sets the burst size of the delayed-acknowledgement (Dly-ACK) based on the IEEE 802.15.3 stan-dard. The burst size was adjusted in response to the wireless channel quality. Furthermore, the burst sizewas bounded by a maximum acknowledgement burst size setting and the remaining number of un-receivedblocks of a current supra-block. Simulation results show that the method achieves significant performanceenhancement in the job failure rate and throughput compared to immediate-acknowledgement (Imm-ACK)and other fixed burst size Dly-ACK schemes. This algorithm can also be applied in generalized time divisionmultiple access (TDMA) systems by using the block acknowledgement mechanism for delay sensitive traffic.

  2. Adaptive Generalized Projective Synchronization of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Drive-response Dynamical Networks with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yong-Ai

    2012-01-01

    Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle, a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor. A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived. Moreover, numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.%Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks.Based on the LaSalle invariant principle,a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor.A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived.Moreover,numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.

  3. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-03-01

    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance.

  4. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-03-01

    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance. PMID:25385548

  5. Tcf4 transgenic female mice display delayed adaptation in an auditory latent inhibition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Rossner, M J; de Hoz, L

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1 % of the human population. Patients show severe deficits in cognitive processing often characterized by an improper filtering of environmental stimuli. Independent genome-wide association studies confirmed a number of risk variants for SZ including several associated with the gene encoding the transcription factor 4 (TCF4). TCF4 is widely expressed in the central nervous system of mice and humans and seems to be important for brain development. Transgenic mice overexpressing murine Tcf4 (Tcf4tg) in the adult brain display cognitive impairments and sensorimotor gating disturbances. To address the question of whether increased Tcf4 gene dosage may affect cognitive flexibility in an auditory associative task, we tested latent inhibition (LI) in female Tcf4tg mice. LI is a widely accepted translational endophenotype of SZ and results from a maladaptive delay in switching a response to a previously unconditioned stimulus when this becomes conditioned. Using an Audiobox, we pre-exposed Tcf4tg mice and their wild-type littermates to either a 3- or a 12-kHz tone before conditioning them to a 12-kHz tone. Tcf4tg animals pre-exposed to a 12-kHz tone showed significantly delayed conditioning when the previously unconditioned tone became associated with an air puff. These results support findings that associate TCF4 dysfunction with cognitive inflexibility and improper filtering of sensory stimuli observed in SZ patients. PMID:26404636

  6. Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems with Unknown Dead-Zone Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang-Cheng Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tracking control problem of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown dead-zone input is tackled by a robust adaptive fuzzy control scheme. Because the nonlinear gain function and the uncertainties of the controlled system including matched and unmatched uncertainties are supposed to be unknown, fuzzy logic systems are employed to approximate the nonlinear gain function and the upper bounded functions of these uncertainties. Moreover, the upper bound of the uncertainty caused by the fuzzy modeling error is also estimated. According to these learning fuzzy models and some feasible adaptive laws, a robust adaptive fuzzy tracking controller is developed in this paper without constructing the dead-zone inverse. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, the proposed controller not only guarantees that the robust stability of the whole closed-loop system in the presence of uncertainties and unknown dead-zone input can be achieved, but it also obtains that the output tracking error can converge to a neighborhood of zero exponentially. Some simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach.

  7. Adaptable System Increasing the Transmission Speed and Reliability in Packet Network by Optimizing Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Kocur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great diversity in the transmission technologies in current data networks. Individual technologies are in most cases incompatible at physical and partially also at the link layer of the reference ISO/OSI model. Network compatibility, as the ability to transmit data, is realizable through the third layer, which is able to guarantee the operation of the different devices across their technological differences. The proposed inverse packet multiplexer addresses increase of the speed and reliability of packet transmission to the third layer, and at the same time it increases the stability of the data communication by the regulation of the delay value during the transmission. This article presents implementation of a communication system and its verification in real conditions. The conclusion compares the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed control system.

  8. Adaptive fuzzy output-feedback controller design for nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown control direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Chang-Chun; Wang, Qing-Guo; Guan, Xin-Ping

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the robust-control problem is investigated for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems via dynamic output-feedback approach. The considered system is in the strict-feedback form with unknown control direction. A full-order observer is constructed with the gains computed via linear matrix inequality at first. Then, with the bounds of uncertain functions known, we design the dynamic output-feedback controller such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable. Furthermore, when the bound functions of uncertainties are not available, the adaptive fuzzy-logic system is employed to approximate the uncertain function, and the corresponding output-feedback controller is designed. It is shown that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in the sense of semiglobal uniform ultimate boundedness. Finally, simulations are done to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  9. Observer-Based Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for a Class of Nonlinear Time Delay Systems with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ming Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive iterative learning control scheme for the output tracking of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-varying delays and input saturation nonlinearity. An observer is presented to estimate the states and linear matrix inequality (LMI method is employed for observer design. The assumption of identical initial condition for ILC is relaxed by introducing boundary layer function. The possible singularity problem is avoided by introducing hyperbolic tangent function. The uncertainties with time-varying delays are compensated for by the combination of appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and Young’s inequality. Both time-varying and time-invariant radial basis function neural networks are employed to deal with system uncertainties. On the basis of a property of hyperbolic tangent function, the system output is proved to converge to a small neighborhood of the desired trajectory by constructing Lyapunov-like composite energy function in two cases, while keeping all the closed-loop signals bounded. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Recurrent-Neural-Network-Based Multivariable Adaptive Control for a Class of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems With Time-Varying Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Lyang; Jan, Chau

    2016-02-01

    At the beginning, an approximate nonlinear autoregressive moving average (NARMA) model is employed to represent a class of multivariable nonlinear dynamic systems with time-varying delay. It is known that the disadvantages of robust control for the NARMA model are as follows: 1) suitable control parameters for larger time delay are more sensitive to achieving desirable performance; 2) it only deals with bounded uncertainty; and 3) the nominal NARMA model must be learned in advance. Due to the dynamic feature of the NARMA model, a recurrent neural network (RNN) is online applied to learn it. However, the system performance becomes deteriorated due to the poor learning of the larger variation of system vector functions. In this situation, a simple network is employed to compensate the upper bound of the residue caused by the linear parameterization of the approximation error of RNN. An e -modification learning law with a projection for weight matrix is applied to guarantee its boundedness without persistent excitation. Under suitable conditions, the semiglobally ultimately bounded tracking with the boundedness of estimated weight matrix is obtained by the proposed RNN-based multivariable adaptive control. Finally, simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control.

  11. Children's Conscience during Toddler and Preschool Years, Moral Self, and a Competent, Adaptive Developmental Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Koenig, Jamie L.; Barry, Robin A.; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether children's robust conscience, formed during early family socialization, promotes their future adaptive and competent functioning in expanded ecologies. We assessed two dimensions of conscience in young children (N = 100) at 25, 38, and 52 months in scripted laboratory contexts: internalization of their mothers' and fathers'…

  12. Molecular identification of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors and their developmental dependence on ret signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenqin; Enomoto, Hideki; Rice, Frank L; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Ginty, David D

    2009-12-24

    In mammals, the first step in the perception of form and texture is the activation of trigeminal or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mechanosensory neurons, which are classified as either rapidly (RA) or slowly adapting (SA) according to their rates of adaptation to sustained stimuli. The molecular identities and mechanisms of development of RA and SA mechanoreceptors are largely unknown. We found that the "early Ret(+)" DRG neurons are RA mechanoreceptors, which form Meissner corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, and longitudinal lanceolate endings. The central projections of these RA mechanoreceptors innervate layers III through V of the spinal cord and terminate within discrete subdomains of the dorsal column nuclei. Moreover, mice lacking Ret signaling components are devoid of Pacinian corpuscles and exhibit a dramatic disruption of RA mechanoreceptor projections to both the spinal cord and medulla. Thus, the early Ret(+) neurons are RA mechanoreceptors and Ret signaling is required for the assembly of neural circuits underlying touch perception.

  13. Developmental cascade effects of the New Beginnings Program on adolescent adaptation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Darya Bonds; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Millsap, Roger E

    2010-11-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9-12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid- to late adolescence (15-19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality that was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results were also consistent with a model in which the program increased maternal effective discipline that was related to decreased child externalizing problems, which was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use, and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development.

  14. Riboflavin transporter-2 (rft-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans: Adaptive and developmental regulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishnan Gandhimathi; Sellamuthu Karthi; Paramasivam Manimaran; Perumal Varalakshmi; Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar

    2015-06-01

    Riboflavin transporter (rft-1 and rft-2), orthologous to human riboflavin transporter-3 (hR VFT-3), are identified and characterized in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, studies pertaining to functional contribution of rft-2 in maintaining body homeostatic riboflavin levels and its regulation are very limited. In this study, the expression pattern of rft-2 at different life stages of C. elegans was studied through real-time PCR, and found to be consistent from larval to adult stages that demonstrate its involvement in maintaining the body homeostatic riboflavin levels at whole animal level all through its life. A possible regulation of rft-2 expression at mRNA levels at whole animal was studied after adaptation to low and high concentrations of riboflavin. Abundance of rft-2 transcript was upregulated in riboflavin-deficient conditions (10 nM), while it was downregulated with riboflavin-supplemented conditions (2 mM) as compared with control (10 M). Further, the 5′-regulatory region of the rft-2 gene was cloned, and transgenic nematodes expressing transcriptional rft-2 promoter::GFP fusion constructs were generated. The expression of rft-2 was found to be adaptively regulated in vivo when transgenic worms were maintained under different extracellular riboflavin levels, which was also mediated partly via changes in the rft-2 levels that directs towards the possible involvement of transcriptional regulatory events.

  15. Ring Chromosome 9 and Chromosome 9p Deletion Syndrome in a Patient Associated with Developmental Delay: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, Aswini; Kanakavalli, Murthy K; Anuradha, Deenadayalu; Samuel, Chandra R; Kandukuri, Lakshmi R

    2016-01-01

    Ring chromosomes have been described for all human chromosomes and are typically associated with physical and/or mental abnormalities resulting from a deletion of the terminal ends of both chromosome arms. This report describes the presence of a ring chromosome 9 in a 2-year-old male child associated with developmental delay. The proband manifested a severe phenotype comprising facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects, and seizures. The child also exhibited multiple cell lines with mosaic patterns of double rings, a dicentric ring and loss of the ring associated with mitotic instability and dynamic tissue-specific mosaicism. His karyotype was 46,XY,r(9)(p22q34)[89]/46,XY,dic r(9; 9)(p22q34;p22q34)[6]/45, XY,-9[4]/47,XY,r(9),+r(9)[1]. However, the karyotypes of his parents and elder brother were normal. FISH using mBAND probe and subtelomeric probes specific for p and q arms for chromosome 9 showed no deletion in any of the regions. Chromosomal microarray analysis led to the identification of a heterozygous deletion of 15.7 Mb from 9p22.3 to 9p24.3. The probable role of the deleted genes in the manifestation of the phenotype of the proband is discussed.

  16. A Case of 17q21.31 Microduplication and 7q31.33 Microdeletion, Associated with Developmental Delay, Microcephaly, and Mild Dysmorphic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mc Cormack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent cryptic microdeletion and microduplication syndromes have recently started to reveal themselves with the advent of microarray technology. Analysis has shown that low-copy repeats (LCRs have allowed chromosome regions throughout the genome to become hotspots for nonallelic homologous recombination to take place. Here, we report a case of a 7.5-year-old girl who manifests microcephaly, developmental delay, and mild dysmorphic features. Microarray analysis identified a microduplication in chromosome 17q21.31, which encompasses the CRHR1, MAPT, and KANSL1 genes, as well as a microdeletion in chromosome 7q31.33 that is localised within the GRM8 gene. To our knowledge this is one of only a few cases of 17q21.31 microduplication. The clinical phenotype of patients with this microduplication is milder than of those carrying the reciprocal microdeletions, and suggests that the lower incidence of the former compared to the latter may be due to underascertainment.

  17. A de novo microtriplication at 4q21.21-q21.22 in a patient with a vascular malignant hemangioma, elongated sigmoid colon, developmental delay, and absence of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Igor N; Nazarenko, Lyudmila P; Skryabin, Nikolay A; Babushkina, Nadezhda P; Kashevarova, Anna A

    2016-08-01

    The widespread application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has provided new insights into the clinical significance of copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome. Many microdeletion syndromes have recently been linked to corresponding reciprocal microduplication syndromes related to CNVs in the same chromosomal regions. However, the extent of CNVs may not be restricted to only microduplications but may also include microtriplications or even quadruplications. 4q21 microdeletion syndrome is one of these recently described syndromes. The phenotype includes growth restriction, neonatal hypotonia, severe developmental delay, absent or delayed speech, and distinct facial features. The minimal critical deleted region, which is 1.3 Mb in size, contains the PRKG2, RASGEF1B, HNRNPD, HNRPDL, and ENOPH1 genes. Here, we report a 5.4-year-old girl with developmental delay, absence of speech, muscular hypertension, macrocephaly, a broad forehead, frontal bossing, relatively elongated extremities, a vascular malignant hemangioma in anamnesis, and elongated sigmoid colon. aCGH revealed a microtriplication at 4q21.21-q21.22 that was 1.61 Mb in size. This de novo microtriplication included nine genes (BMP3, PRKG2, RASGEF1B, HNRNPD, HNRPDL, ENOPH1, TMEM150C, LINC00575, and SCD5) and overlapped with the minimal critical region for 4q21 microdeletion syndrome. Some clinical features of the patient were similar to those of 4q21 microdeletion (macrocephaly, frontal bossing, developmental delay, absence of speech, and anxiety), whereas others were mirrored (elongated extremities and muscular hypertension). The first identified case of a de novo microtriplication at 4q21.21-q21.22 emphasizes the clinical significance of CNVs at 4q21 for patients with developmental delay and absence of speech. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27288323

  18. Adaptation to alkalosis induces cell cycle delay and apoptosis in cortical collecting duct cells: role of Aquaporin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Valeria; Flamenco, Pilar; Melamud, Luciana; Galizia, Luciano; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2010-08-01

    Collecting ducts (CD) not only constitute the final site for regulating urine concentration by increasing apical membrane Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression, but are also essential for the control of acid-base status. The aim of this work was to examine, in renal cells, the effects of chronic alkalosis on cell growth/death as well as to define whether AQP2 expression plays any role during this adaptation. Two CD cell lines were used: WT- (not expressing AQPs) and AQP2-RCCD(1) (expressing apical AQP2). Our results showed that AQP2 expression per se accelerates cell proliferation by an increase in cell cycle progression. Chronic alkalosis induced, in both cells lines, a time-dependent reduction in cell growth. Even more, cell cycle movement, assessed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase and propidium iodide analyses, revealed a G2/M phase cell accumulation associated with longer S- and G2/M-transit times. This G2/M arrest is paralleled with changes consistent with apoptosis. All these effects appeared 24 h before and were always more pronounced in cells expressing AQP2. Moreover, in AQP2-expressing cells, part of the observed alkalosis cell growth decrease is explained by AQP2 protein down-regulation. We conclude that in CD cells alkalosis causes a reduction in cell growth by cell cycle delay that triggers apoptosis as an adaptive reaction to this environment stress. Since cell volume changes are prerequisite for the initiation of cell proliferation or apoptosis, we propose that AQP2 expression facilitates cell swelling or shrinkage leading to the activation of channels necessary to the control of these processes. PMID:20432437

  19. Forskolin suppresses delayed-rectifier K+ currents and enhances spike frequency-dependent adaptation of sympathetic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I Angel-Chavez

    Full Text Available In signal transduction research natural or synthetic molecules are commonly used to target a great variety of signaling proteins. For instance, forskolin, a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, has been widely used in cellular preparations to increase the intracellular cAMP level. However, it has been shown that forskolin directly inhibits some cloned K+ channels, which in excitable cells set up the resting membrane potential, the shape of action potential and regulate repetitive firing. Despite the growing evidence indicating that K+ channels are blocked by forskolin, there are no studies yet assessing the impact of this mechanism of action on neuron excitability and firing patterns. In sympathetic neurons, we find that forskolin and its derivative 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin, reversibly suppress the delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. Besides, forskolin reduced the spike afterhyperpolarization and enhanced the spike frequency-dependent adaptation. Given that IKV is mostly generated by Kv2.1 channels, HEK-293 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding for the Kv2.1 α subunit, to characterize the mechanism of forskolin action. Both drugs reversible suppressed the Kv2.1-mediated K+ currents. Forskolin inhibited Kv2.1 currents and IKV with an IC50 of ~32 μM and ~24 µM, respectively. Besides, the drug induced an apparent current inactivation and slowed-down current deactivation. We suggest that forskolin reduces the excitability of sympathetic neurons by enhancing the spike frequency-dependent adaptation, partially through a direct block of their native Kv2.1 channels.

  20. The anuran Bauplan: a review of the adaptive, developmental, and genetic underpinnings of frog and tadpole morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Anurans (frogs, toads, and their larvae) are among the most morphologically derived of vertebrates. While tightly conserved across the order, the anuran Bauplan (body plan) diverges widely from that of other vertebrates, particularly with respect to the skeleton. Here we address the adaptive, ontogenetic, and genetic bases of three such hallmark anuran features: (1) the absence of discrete caudal vertebrae, (2) a truncated axial skeleton, and (3) elongate hind limbs. We review the functional significance of each as it relates to the anuran lifestyle, which includes locomotor adaptations to both aquatic and terrestrial environments. We then shift our focus to the proximal origins of each feature, namely, ontogeny and its molecular regulation. Drawing on relatively limited data, we detail the development of each character and then, by extrapolating from comparative vertebrate data, propose molecular bases for these processes. Cast in this light, the divergent morphology of anurans emerges as a product of evolutionary modulation of the generalised vertebrate developmental machinery. Specifically, we hypothesise that: (1) the formation of caudal vertebrae is precluded due to a failure of sclerotomes to form cartilaginous condensations, perhaps resulting from altered expression of a suite of genes, including Pax1, Pax9, Msx1, Uncx-4.1, Sonic hedgehog, and noggin; (2) anteriorised Hox gene expression in the paraxial mesoderm has led to a rostral shift of morphological boundaries of the vertebral column; and, (3) spatial and temporal shifts in Hox expression may underlie the expanded tarsal elements of the anuran hind limb. Technology is currently in place to investigate each of these scenarios in the African clawed frog Xenopus. Experimental corroboration will further our understanding of the molecular regulation of the anuran Bauplan and provide insight into the origin of vertebrate morphological diversity as well as the role of development in evolution.

  1. Developmental modes and developmental mechanisms can channel brain evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Charvet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anseriform birds (ducks and geese as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own, parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents. We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  2. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2011-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  3. Mutations in the Na(+)/citrate cotransporter NaCT (SLC13A5) in pediatric patients with epilepsy and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Jenna; Porter, Brenda E; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Pajor, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC13A5 gene that codes for the Na(+)/citrate cotransporter, NaCT, are associated with early onset epilepsy, developmental delay and tooth dysplasia in children. In the present study we identify additional SLC13A5 mutations in nine epilepsy patients from six families. To better characterize the syndrome, families with affected children answered questions about the scope of illness and treatment strategies. There are currently no effective treatments, but some anti-epileptic drugs targeting the GABA system reduce seizure frequency. Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and atypical anti-seizure medication decreases seizures in 4 patients. In contrast to previous reports, the ketogenic diet and fasting produce worsening of symptoms. The effects of the mutations on NaCT transport function and protein expression were examined by transient transfections of COS-7 cells. There was no transport activity from any of the mutant transporters, although some of the mutant transporter proteins were present on the plasma membrane. The structural model of NaCT suggests that these mutations can affect helix packing or substrate binding. We tested various treatments, including chemical chaperones and low temperatures, but none improve transport function in the NaCT mutants. Interestingly, coexpression of NaCT and the mutants results in decreased protein expression and activity of the wild-type transporter, indicating functional interaction. In conclusion, our study has identified additional SLC13A5 mutations in patients with chronic epilepsy starting in the neonatal period, with the mutations producing inactive Na(+)/citrate transporters. PMID:27261973

  4. Dextrocardia, atrial septal defect, severe developmental delay, facial anomalies, and supernumerary ribs in a child with a complex unbalanced 8;22 translocation including partial 8p duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kathleen; Samanich, Joy; Ramesh, K H; Cannizzaro, Linda; Pan, Qiulu; Babcock, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    We report on a child with dextrocardia, atrial septal defect (ASD), severe developmental delay, hypotonia, 13 pairs of ribs, left preauricular choristoma, hirsutism, and craniofacial abnormalities. Prenatal cytogenetic evaluation showed karyotype 46,XY,?dup(8p)ish del(8)pter. Postnatal array CGH demonstrated a 6.8 Mb terminal deletion at 8p23.3-p23, an interstitial 31.1 Mb duplication within 8p23.1-p11, and a terminal duplication of 0.24 Mb at 22q13.33, refining the karyotype to 46,XY,der(8)dup(8)(p23.1p11.1)t(8;22)(p23.1;q13.1).ish der(8)dup(8)(p23.1p11.1)t(8;22)(p23.1;q13.1) (D8S504-,MS607 + ,ARSA + ,D8Z1 + , RP115713 + +). Previous reports of distal 8p deletion, 8p duplication, and distal 22q duplication have shown similar manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual impairment, and multiple minor anomalies. We correlate the patient's clinical findings with these particular areas of copy number. This case study supports the use of aCGH to identify subtle chromosomal rearrangement in infants with cardiac malformation as their most significant or only apparent birth defect. Additionally, it illustrates why aCGH is essential in the description of chromosome rearrangements, even those seemingly visible via routine karyotype. This method shows that there is often greater complexity submicroscopically, essential to an adequate understanding of a patient's genotype and phenotype.

  5. Deletion of exon 20 of the Familial Dysautonomia gene Ikbkap in mice causes developmental delay, cardiovascular defects, and early embryonic lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dietrich

    Full Text Available Familial Dysautonomia (FD is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects 1/3,600 live births in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and leads to death before the age of 40. The disease is characterized by abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. A single base pair substitution in intron 20 of the Ikbkap gene accounts for 98% of FD cases, and results in the expression of low levels of the full-length mRNA with simultaneous expression of an aberrantly spliced mRNA in which exon 20 is missing. To date, there is no animal model for the disease, and the essential cellular functions of IKAP--the protein encoded by Ikbkap--remain unknown. To better understand the normal function of IKAP and in an effort to generate a mouse model for FD, we have targeted the mouse Ikbkap gene by homologous recombination. We created two distinct alleles that result in either loss of Ikbkap expression, or expression of an mRNA lacking only exon 20. Homozygosity for either mutation leads to developmental delay, cardiovascular and brain malformations, accompanied with early embryonic lethality. Our analyses indicate that IKAP is essential for expression of specific genes involved in cardiac morphogenesis, and that cardiac failure is the likely cause of abnormal vascular development and embryonic lethality. Our results also indicate that deletion of exon 20 abolishes gene function. This implies that the truncated IKAP protein expressed in FD patients does not retain any significant biological function.

  6. Application of chromosomal microarrays in the evaluation of intellectual disability/global developmental delay patients - A study from a tertiary care genetic centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Neerja; Chowdhury, Madhumita Roy; Sapra, Savita; Ghosh, Manju; Gulati, Sheffali; Kabra, Madhulika

    2016-09-15

    Intellectual disability (ID)/Global developmental delay (GDD) is a diverse group of disorders in terms of cognitive and non-cognitive functions and can occur with or without associated co-morbidities. It affects 1-3% of individuals globally and in at least 30-50% of cases the etiology remains unexplained. The widespread use of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in a clinical setting has allowed the identification of submicroscopic copy number variations (CNVs), throughout the genome, associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes including ID/GDD. In this study we investigated the utility of CMA in the detection of CNVs in 106 patients with unexplained ID/DD, dysmorphism with or without multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). CMA study was carried out using Agilent 8×60K chips and Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 chips. Pathogenic CNVs were found in 15 (14.2%) patients. In these patients, CNVs on single chromosome were detected in 10 patients while 5 patients showed co-occurrence CNVs on two chromosomes. The size of these CNVs ranged between 322kb to 13Mb. The yield of pathogenic CNVs was similar for both mild and severe ID/GDD cases. One patient described in this paper is considered to harbour a likely pathogenic CNV with deletion in 17q22 region. Only few cases have been described in literature for 17q22 deletion and patient reported here was found to have an atypical deletion in 17q22 region (Case 90). This study re-affirms the view point that CMA is a powerful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of idiopathic ID/GDD patients irrespective of the degree of severity. Identifying pathogenic CNVs helps in counseling and prenatal diagnosis if desired. PMID:27291820

  7. WPSS输入反馈时延的自适应分段补偿设计%An Adaptive Sectional Compensation Design for WPSS Input Feedback Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 程林; 张放; 孙元章; Anjan BOSE

    2013-01-01

    Wide-area power system stabilizer (WPSS) is one of the most effective methods to damp inter-area low frequency oscillation in power system.Remote synchro-phasor data of phasor measurement unit (PMU) as feed back input of WPSS must be considered time delay of remote signal when applying it to real projects.In the long term,time delay in power network usually presents certain random distribution characteristics in certain range.However,as the remote signals usually take time to be transmit PMU data via the internet through a series of routers to a control center,a key step in wide-area damping controller design is time delay compensation.Especially when WPSS is implemented in a real project,a time delay compensator to deal with time-varying delay should be designed,as in a long term,the delay in power network is time-varying randomly.An adaptive sectional time delay compensator is designed.The time delay is divided into several intervals and time delay compensators are designed for each interval.Then the time delay compensator will adaptively select the appropriate interval compensator to use according to the time delay measured online,so that optimal compensation can be reached.The method for dividing the time delay and the rule of adaptively adjust of time delay compensator are also discussed.And the compensator is illustrated with a 2-area 4-machine power system.The numerical simulation results on different operation modes show the feasibility,effectiveness and robustness of the compensator.The real time digital system (RTDS) test results also show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.This method considers the variation of time delay in a long time,and is applicable in practical engineering.%广域电力系统稳定器(WPSS)是抑制电力系统区间模式振荡最有效的方法之一.WPSS以相量测量单元(PMU)量测的远方同步信号为反馈输入,在将其应用到工程实际时需要着重考虑远方信号的时延问题.从长期来

  8. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania;

    2015-01-01

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-...... in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies....

  9. 时滞TCP网络的自适应滑模控制%Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for TCP Networks with Time-delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶成荫

    2011-01-01

    For the problem of congestion control in TCP networks with input-delay and state-delay, an active queue management algorithm is presented based on an adaptive sliding mode control. A particular linear transformation is used to turn the original time-delay system into a delay-free system and to eliminate the impact of time-delay.Considering the upper bound of the network system uncertainties may not be easily obtained, a simply adaptive law for the upper bound of system uncertainties is presented and a sliding mode controller is designed according to that adaptive law. The controller not only enables the queue length to converge to set value quickly but also keeps the queue oscillation small. Simulation results demonstrate that this algorithm can obtain good transient and steady state responses, and the algorithm is superior to the traditional PI control and sliding mode control.%针对具有输入时滞和状态时滞的TCP网络的拥塞控制问题,提出了一种基于自适应滑模控制的主动队列管理算法.通过引入一个特殊变换将原时滞系统转化为无时滞系统,从而消除时滞带来的影响.考虑到网络系统不确定性上界很难获得,提出了一种自适应律以适应系统的不确定的上界,并根据此自适应律设计了一个滑模控制器,所设计的控制器不仅可以使队列长度快速收敛到设定值,而且维持较小的队列振荡.仿真结果表明,该算法可以获得良好的暂态和稳态响应,该方法优于传统的PI控制和滑模控制.

  10. An Evaluation of the EQUIP Treatment Programme with Men who have Intellectual or Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E.; Murphy, Glynis H.; Clare, Isabel C.H.; Palmer, Emma J.; Rees, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Equipping Youth to Help One Another Programme (EQUIP) was designed for young offenders to address a developmental delay in moral reasoning, distorted cognitions and social skills. Methods: The present authors undertook a single case series study and piloted an adapted version of the EQUIP programme with three men with intellectual…

  11. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 t...

  12. Adopting and Adapting Compression Strategies: A Practitioner Brief. Right from the Start: An Institutional Perspective on Developmental Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Leslie; Powell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    This brief summarizes efforts to reform developmental education at Zane State College and the Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC). Focused on accelerating student success and progress, the two schools pursued distinctive approaches to reform that aligned with their institutional missions and student populations. Recognizing that the…

  13. Adopting and Adapting Contextualization Strategies: A Practitioner Brief. Right from the Start: An Institutional Perspective on Developmental Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Leslie; Zandt, Alyson

    2014-01-01

    As described in this brief, Tacoma Community College and South Texas College each focused on contextualization as a cornerstone of developmental education reform, albeit with different approaches. With a comprehensive look at the experience at Tacoma Community College and a supplementary example from South Texas College, we begin to understand how…

  14. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Feedback Method Applied to Fin Control for Time-Delay Ship Roll Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ship roll stabilization by fin control system is considered in this paper. Assuming that angular velocity in roll cannot be measured, an adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control is investigated. The fuzzy logic system is used to approximate the uncertain term of the controlled system, and a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By utilizing the fuzzy state observer and combining the adaptive backstepping technique with adaptive fuzzy control design, an observer-based adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control approach is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB, and the control strategy is effective to decrease the roll motion. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Decentralized Output Feedback Adaptive NN Tracking Control for Time-Delay Stochastic Nonlinear Systems With Prescribed Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the dynamic output feedback tracking control problem for stochastic interconnected time-delay systems with the prescribed performance. The subsystems are in the form of triangular structure. First, we design a reduced-order observer independent of time delay to estimate the unmeasured state variables online instead of the traditional full-order observer. Then, a new state transformation is proposed in consideration of the prescribed performance requirement. Using neural network to approximate the composite unknown nonlinear function, the corresponding decentralized output tracking controller is designed. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of uniformly ultimately boundedness and that both transient-state and steady-state performances are preserved. Finally, a simulation example is given, and the result shows the effectiveness of the proposed control design method. PMID:25794398

  16. Decentralized Output Feedback Adaptive NN Tracking Control for Time-Delay Stochastic Nonlinear Systems With Prescribed Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the dynamic output feedback tracking control problem for stochastic interconnected time-delay systems with the prescribed performance. The subsystems are in the form of triangular structure. First, we design a reduced-order observer independent of time delay to estimate the unmeasured state variables online instead of the traditional full-order observer. Then, a new state transformation is proposed in consideration of the prescribed performance requirement. Using neural network to approximate the composite unknown nonlinear function, the corresponding decentralized output tracking controller is designed. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of uniformly ultimately boundedness and that both transient-state and steady-state performances are preserved. Finally, a simulation example is given, and the result shows the effectiveness of the proposed control design method.

  17. Developmental trajectories and reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity : A three-wave longitudinal study with adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was two-fold. First, we investigated patterns of stability and change in career adaptability and vocational identity in adolescents. Second, we examined reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity. In addressing both research aim

  18. Adaptive Neural Network Dynamic Surface Control for a Class of Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems With Hysteresis Inputs and Dynamic Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyu; Su, Chun-Yi; Lin, Yan; Ma, Lianwei; Wang, Jianguo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural network (NN) dynamic surface control is proposed for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems with dynamic uncertainties and unknown hysteresis. The main advantages of the developed scheme are: 1) NNs are utilized to approximately describe nonlinearities and unknown dynamics of the nonlinear time-delay systems, making it possible to deal with unknown nonlinear uncertain systems and pursue the L∞ performance of the tracking error; 2) using the finite covering lemma together with the NNs approximators, the Krasovskii function is abandoned, which paves the way for obtaining the L∞ performance of the tracking error; 3) by introducing an initializing technique, the L∞ performance of the tracking error can be achieved; 4) using a generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model, the limitation of the traditional PI hysteresis model is overcome; and 5) by applying the Young's inequalities to deal with the weight vector of the NNs, the updated laws are needed only at the last controller design step with only two parameters being estimated, which reduces the computational burden. It is proved that the proposed scheme can guarantee semiglobal stability of the closed-loop system and achieves the L∞ performance of the tracking error. Simulation results for general second-order time-delay nonlinear systems and the tuning metal cutting system are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in

  20. Computerized adaptive testing for measuring development of young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobusse, G.; Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    Developmental indicators that are used for routine measurement in The Netherlands are usually chosen to optimally identify delayed children. Measurements on the majority of children without problems are therefore quite imprecise. This study explores the use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to

  1. The Effectiveness of the Constant Time Delay Procedure in Teaching Pre-School Academic Skills to Children with Developmental Disabilities in a Small Group Teaching Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Ozgul; Gursel, Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are trained using different teaching arrangements. One of these arrangements is called small-group teaching. It has been ascertained that a small-group teaching arrangement is more effective than a one-to-one teaching arrangement. In that sense, teaching academic skills to pre-school children in small-group…

  2. Patient-dependent count-rate adaptive normalization for PET detector efficiency with delayed-window coincidence events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative PET imaging is widely used in clinical diagnosis in oncology and neuroimaging. Accurate normalization correction for the efficiency of each line-of- response is essential for accurate quantitative PET image reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a normalization calibration method by using the delayed-window coincidence events from the scanning phantom or patient. The proposed method could dramatically reduce the ‘ring’ artifacts caused by mismatched system count-rates between the calibration and phantom/patient datasets. Moreover, a modified algorithm for mean detector efficiency estimation is proposed, which could generate crystal efficiency maps with more uniform variance. Both phantom and real patient datasets are used for evaluation. The results show that the proposed method could lead to better uniformity in reconstructed images by removing ring artifacts, and more uniform axial variance profiles, especially around the axial edge slices of the scanner. The proposed method also has the potential benefit to simplify the normalization calibration procedure, since the calibration can be performed using the on-the-fly acquired delayed-window dataset. (paper)

  3. Wavelet Adaptive Reduced Order Observer Based Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain Time Delay Nonlinear Systems Subjected to Actuator Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Verma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This Paper investigates the mean to design the reduced order observer and observer based controllers for a class of delayed uncertain nonlinear system subjected to actuator saturation. A new design approach of wavelet based adaptive reduced order observer is proposed. The proposed wavelet adaptive reduced order observer performs the task of identification of unknown system dynamics in addition to the reconstruction of states of the system. Wavelet neural network (WNN is used to approximate the uncertainties present in the system as well as to identify and compensate the nonlinearities introduced in the system due to actuator saturation. Using the feedback control, based on reconstructed states, the behavior of closed loop system is investigated. In addition robust control terms are also designed to attenuate the approximation error due to WNN. Adaptation laws are developed for the online tuning of the wavelet parameters and the stability of the overall systems is assured by using the Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional. A numerical example is provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical development.

  4. A mitochondrial tRNA(Met) mutation causing developmental delay, exercise intolerance and limb girdle phenotype with onset in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten; Rafiq, Jabin;

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with exercise intolerance, learning difficulty, and muscle weakness in a limb girdle distribution. She had delayed achievement of motor milestones and difficulties with social interaction at pre-school age. Muscle biopsy showed no myopathic or dystrophic features...

  5. The Effects of Model, Lead, and Test with Reward To Teach a Preschool Student with a Developmental and Language Delays to Demonstrate an Understanding of Number Quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Mortensen; McLaughlin, T F; Jennifer Neyman; Barb Girshick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach a 4-year-old preschooler with developmental disabilities number quantity. Demonstrating an understanding in number quantity is a component part in the hierarchy of math in the public schools. A student must obtain this skill before moving on to a general education classroom kindergarten. This study was also carried out to support the math skills and the student’s transition to kindergarten in the following year. The model, lead, and tes...

  6. Developmental plasticity and acclimation both contribute to adaptive responses to alternating seasons of plenty and of stress in Bicyclus butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul M Brakefield; Jeroen Pijpe; Bas J Zwaan

    2007-04-01

    Plasticity is a crucial component of the life cycle of invertebrates that live as active adults throughout wet and dry seasons in the tropics. Such plasticity is seen in the numerous species of Bicyclus butterflies in Africa which exhibit seasonal polyphenism with sequential generations of adults with one or other of two alternative phenotypes. These differ not only in wing pattern but in many other traits. This divergence across a broad complex of traits is associated with survival and reproduction either in a wet season that is favourable in terms of resources, or mainly in a dry season that is more stressful. This phenomenon has led us to examine the bases of the developmental plasticity in a model species, B. anynana, and also the evolution of key adult life history traits, including starvation resistance and longevity. We now understand something about the processes that generate variation in the phenotype, and also about the ecological context of responses to environmental stress. The responses clearly involve a mix of developmental plasticity as cued by different environments in pre-adult development, and the acclimation of life history traits in adults to their prevailing environment.

  7. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Unknown Output Feedback Nonlinear Time-delay Systems%未知输出反馈非线性时滞系统自适应神经网络跟踪控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为胜; 李俊民

    2005-01-01

    An adaptive output feedback neural network tracking controller is designed for a class of unknown output feedback nonlinear time-delay systems by using backstepping technique. Neural networks are used to approximate unknown time-delay functions. Delay-dependent filters are introduced for state estimation. The domination method is used to deal with the smooth time-delay basis functions. The adaptive bounding technique is employed to estimate the upper bound of the neural network reconstruction error. Based on Lyapunov-Krasoviskii functional, the semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness (SGUUB) of all the signals in the closed-loop system is proved. The arbitrary output tracking accuracy is achieved by tuning the design parameters and the neural node number.The feasibility is investigated by an illustrative simulationexample.

  8. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  9. The Effects of Model, Lead, and Test with Reward To Teach a Preschool Student with a Developmental and Language Delays to Demonstrate an Understanding of Number Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mortensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to teach a 4-year-old preschooler with developmental disabilities number quantity. Demonstrating an understanding in number quantity is a component part in the hierarchy of math in the public schools. A student must obtain this skill before moving on to a general education classroom kindergarten. This study was also carried out to support the math skills and the student’s transition to kindergarten in the following year. The model, lead, and test error correction strategy from direct instruction was paired with a reward to teach our participant number quality. A multiple baseline design across three groups of number was employed to evaluate our intervention. The overall results indicated increases in student performance during model, lead, and test with a reward.

  10. Adaptation of ovarian cancer cells to the peritoneal environment: Multiple mechanisms of the developmental patterning gene HOXA9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Song Yi; Naora, Honami

    2015-01-01

    The lethality of ovarian cancer stems from its propensity to involve the peritoneal cavity. However, the mechanisms that enable ovarian cancer cells to readily adapt to the peritoneal environment are not well understood. Here, we describe our recent studies in which we identified the mechanisms by which the transcription factor encoded by the patterning gene HOXA9 promotes the aggressive behavior of ovarian cancer. Firstly, we identified that HOXA9 promotes ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis by activating the gene encoding transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), which in turn stimulates peritoneal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells to acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. Secondly, by inducing TGF-β2 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, HOXA9 stimulates peritoneal macrophages to acquire an immunosuppressive phenotype. Thirdly, HOXA9 stimulates attachment of ovarian cancer cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells by inducing expression of P-cadherin. By inducing P-cadherin, HOXA9 also enables floating cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity to form aggregates and escape anoikis. Together, our studies demonstrate that HOXA9 enables ovarian cancer cells to adapt to the peritoneal environment and ‘educates’ different types of stromal cells to become permissive for tumor growth. Our studies provide new insights into the regulation of tumor-stroma interactions in ovarian cancer and implicate several key effector molecules as candidate therapeutic targets. PMID:26000332

  11. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  12. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed. PMID:25422975

  13. Study of 30 patients with unexplained developmental delay and dysmorphic features or congenital abnormalities using conventional cytogenetics and multiplex FISH telomere (M-TEL) integrity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Susanne; Schulze, Birgit; Granzow, Martin; Keller, Monika; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Schoell, Brigitte; Brough, Michaela; Hager, Hans-Dieter; Tariverdian, Gholamali; Brown, Jill; Kearney, Lyndal; Jauch, Anna

    2002-07-01

    Cryptic subtelomeric chromosome rearrangements are a major cause of mild to severe mental retardation pointing out the necessity of sensitive screening techniques to detect such aberrations among affected patients. In this prospective study a group of 30 patients with unexplained developmental retardation and dysmorphic features or congenital abnormalities were analysed using the recently published multiplex FISH telomere (M-TEL) integrity assay in combination with conventional G-banding analysis. The patients were selected by one or more of the following criteria defined by de Vries et al.: (a) family history with two or more affected individuals, (b) prenatal onset growth retardation, (c) postnatal growth abnormalities, (d) facial dysmorphic features, (e) non-facial dysmorphism and congenital abnormalities. In addition, we included two patients who met these criteria and revealed questionable chromosome regions requiring further clarification. In four patients (13.3%) cryptic chromosome aberrations were successfully determined by the M-TEL integrity assay and in two patients with abnormal chromosome regions intrachromosomal aberrations were characterized by targetted FISH experiments. Our results accentuate the requirement of strict selection criteria prior to patient testing with the M-TEL integrity assay. Another essential precondition is high-quality banding analysis to identify structural abnormal chromosomes. The detection of familial balanced translocation carriers in 50% of the cases emphasizes the significance of such an integrated approach for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:12136233

  14. Developmental Dyspraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Developmental Dyspraxia Information Page Synonym(s): Dyspraxia Table of Contents (click ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Developmental Dyspraxia? Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an ...

  15. Does adaptive strategy for delayed seed dispersion affect extinction probability of a desert species? an assessment using the population viability analysis and glass house experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Mathur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Canopy seed bank is an important adaptive evolutionary trait that provides various types of protection to the seeds. However, costing of such evolutionary trait on plant survival is largely unknown. Present investigation provided a new insight on the serotonious habit of Blepharis sindica associated with its endangerment status. Extinction probabilities of two available population of B. sindica were quantified using two types of census data, i.e., fruiting body number and actual population size. Population Viability Analysis (PVA revealed that delayed seed release tendency (higher fruiting body number was not synchronized with actual ground conditions (lower population size. PVA analysis based on actual population size indicated that both the available populations would vanish within 20 years. The mean time of extinction calculated from both type census data indicated its extinction within 48 years. For assessing the conservation criteria, a glass house experiment was carried out with different soil types and compositions. Pure sand and higher proportions of sand -silt were more suitable compared to clay; further, gravelly surface was the most unsuitable habitat for this species. Collection of the seeds from mature fruits/capsule and their sowing with moderate moisture availability with sandy soil could be recommended.

  16. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth...

  17. Elevational differences in developmental plasticity determine phenological responses of grasshoppers to recent climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lauren B; Nufio, César R; Kirk, Evan M; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2015-06-22

    Annual species may increase reproduction by increasing adult body size through extended development, but risk being unable to complete development in seasonally limited environments. Synthetic reviews indicate that most, but not all, species have responded to recent climate warming by advancing the seasonal timing of adult emergence or reproduction. Here, we show that 50 years of climate change have delayed development in high-elevation, season-limited grasshopper populations, but advanced development in populations at lower elevations. Developmental delays are most pronounced for early-season species, which might benefit most from delaying development when released from seasonal time constraints. Rearing experiments confirm that population, elevation and temperature interact to determine development time. Population differences in developmental plasticity may account for variability in phenological shifts among adults. An integrated consideration of the full life cycle that considers local adaptation and plasticity may be essential for understanding and predicting responses to climate change.

  18. Elevational differences in developmental plasticity determine phenological responses of grasshoppers to recent climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lauren B.; Nufio, César R.; Kirk, Evan M.; Kingsolver, Joel G.

    2015-01-01

    Annual species may increase reproduction by increasing adult body size through extended development, but risk being unable to complete development in seasonally limited environments. Synthetic reviews indicate that most, but not all, species have responded to recent climate warming by advancing the seasonal timing of adult emergence or reproduction. Here, we show that 50 years of climate change have delayed development in high-elevation, season-limited grasshopper populations, but advanced development in populations at lower elevations. Developmental delays are most pronounced for early-season species, which might benefit most from delaying development when released from seasonal time constraints. Rearing experiments confirm that population, elevation and temperature interact to determine development time. Population differences in developmental plasticity may account for variability in phenological shifts among adults. An integrated consideration of the full life cycle that considers local adaptation and plasticity may be essential for understanding and predicting responses to climate change. PMID:26041342

  19. Effect of Early Cognitive and Speech Intervention on Developmental Delay%早期认知语言康复训练对发育迟缓患儿各发育能区的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继红; 周平秋; 郭春光; 刘丽君; 陈建树; 张惠佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨早期认知语言康复训练对发育迟缓患儿各项发育能区的影响。方法2014年6月~2015年6月住院和门诊治疗的发育迟缓患儿58例,根据诊疗情况分为观察组(n=32)和对照组(n=26)。观察组接受早期认知语言康复训练和常规康复,对照组仅接受常规康复。两组患儿在治疗前和治疗3个月后,分别采用Gesell发育量表进行评定。结果两组治疗后,大运动、精细动作、语言、个人-社交能区发育商均有显著改善(t>2.90, P2.84, P36.52, P2.90, P2.84, P36.52, P<0.01). Conclusion Early cognitive and speech intervention may improve development of many dimensions in children with developmental delay. The earlier the intervention, the better the outcome.

  20. Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in drosophila, XV: Examination of genotype-by-environment interactions on the viability, developmental time and stability of drosophila subobscura homozygous for Amy during exposure to nutritional changes

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Tatjana; Patenković Aleksandra; Stamenković-Radak Marina; Anđelković M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the direct interaction between enzyme and substrate, the amylase system can provide valuable information on the relationship between homozygosity and developmental homeostasis under a changing environment in several Drosophila species, The adaptive significance of the relationship between genetic variability and environmental change manifests through the well-known polymorphism of the amylase locus (Amy). We examined the effect of gradual and abrupt changes in starch concentratio...

  1. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  2. 磁共振扩散张量成像在婴幼儿脑瘫诊断中的应用价值%Signiifcance of Applying DTI in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy in Infants with Developmental Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朋; 刘鹏; 刘杰; 王颖; 高修成; 张见

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of applying DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy in infants with developmental delays. Methods Thirty-three cases of cerebral palsy infants were selected as the cerebral palsy group, while 33 cases of healthy children as the control group. Then, DTI was performed on both the groups so as to observe the changes of the ifber tracts and research DTI features and its relevance with cerebral palsy. Additionally, the statistical method was applied to compare each FA (Fractional Anisotropy) value in the ROIs (Region-of-Interest) between the cerebral palsy group and the control group. Results Of 33 cerebral palsy infants, sparse and interrupted ifber tracts with abnormal orientation were revealed in different extent in 23 cases on different regions;no obvious changes of ifber tracts were revealed in 10 cases. The FA value in the ROIs of the cerebral palsy group was lower than that of the control group. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the two groups. Conclusion Abnormalities revealed by DTI were correlated with cerebral palsy. As an useful method for diagnosis of cerebral palsy in infants and young children with developmental delays, DTI can provide the basis for clinicians to make reasonable treatment plan.%目的:探讨磁共振张量成像(DTI)在婴幼儿脑瘫诊断中的应用价值。方法选取33例脑瘫婴幼儿作为脑瘫组,33例正常婴幼儿作为对照组,分别对其行DTI检查。观察神经纤维束的改变,研究DTI成像特点及其与脑瘫的相关性,并采用统计学方法比较脑瘫组和对照组感兴趣区的各向异性(FA)值。结果33例脑瘫患儿中,23例伴有不同部位和不同程度的神经纤维束稀疏、中断及走行异常,10例患儿神经纤维束改变不明显;脑瘫组患儿感兴趣区的FA值较低,与对照组相比有显著差异(P<0.05)。结论DTI异常表现与脑性瘫痪具有相关性,DTI

  3. A New Criterion of Fault Estimation for Neutral Delay Systems Using Adaptive Observer%一种新的基于自适应观测器中立时滞系统故障估计的设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柯; 姜斌; SHUMSKY Alexey

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of fault estimation of neutral delay systems using adaptive observer. A novel fast adaptive fault estimation (FAFE) algorithm based on adaptive observer is first proposed to enhance the performance of fault estimation including rapidity and accuracy. Meanwhile, a delay-dependent criterion is established to reduce the conservatism of design procedures especially for small delay systems. Then, comprehensive analysis is presented to discuss the calculating steps using linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  4. 一种基于MAC层时延上限的VANET自适应分簇算法%MAC upperb and delay based adaptive clustering algorithm for VANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼; 邢松; 夏玮玮; 沈连丰

    2016-01-01

    To improve the performance of media access control ( MAC) protocols in vehicular ad hoc netw ork ( VANET) in the case of large vehicle density, a MAC upper band deal y based adap-tive ( MDBA) clusterign alg orithm si proposed.The MDBA clustering algorithm includes the cluster head election algorithm and the cluster maintenance algorithm.Under the restriction of MAC upper bound delay, the speed, acceleration, position, and destination are comprehensively considered to select the clustre eh ad in the cluster head election algorithm.In the cluster maintenance algorithm, clusters are adaptively adjusted according to the hc anges of network topology.Then, the traffic sim-ulation software VISSIM is used to create simulation scenario to evaluate the performance of the MD-BA clustering algorithm.The simulation results show that compared with the classic clustering algo-rithm in wireless sensor network and that in mobile ad hoc network, cluster head and cluster mem-bers in the MDBA clustering algorithm have longer life cycle, indicating that the MDBA clustering algorithm has better performance, thus it is more suitable for VANET.%为提高车辆自组织网络( VANET )中媒体接入控制( MAC )协议在车辆密集情况下的性能,提出了一种基于MAC层时延上限的自适应( MDBA)分簇算法,该算法包括簇头选举算法和簇维护算法。在MAC层消息传输的时延上限制约下,簇头选举算法通过综合考虑车辆节点的速度、加速度、位置和目的地4种因素来选取簇头;针对网络拓扑的变化,簇维护算法对分簇进行自适应调整。利用交通流仿真软件VISSIM创建仿真场景,以考察MDBA分簇算法的性能。仿真结果表明,与传统无线传感器网络和移动自组织网络中的典型分簇算法相比,M DBA分簇算法中簇头和簇成员的生存时间较长,算法性能更优,更加适用于车辆自组织网络。

  5. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica ERCEG-DJURACIC

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders represent obviously a heterogeneous group of disorders, whose clinical expressions, courses and prospects differ significantly. Common to all these disorders, expect essential diagnostic characteristics, is the fact that they are life-long problems, thus, these are disorders without possibility of complete relief. Although measures of secondary prevention in these disorders do exert a limited effect, it is possible to achieve indubitable improvements in three fields:· well-timed application of adequate treatment may influence the essential characteristics of a disorder in the direction of adaptation to requirements of social environment, improvement of communication and enrichment of poor activity repertoire;· slowing down and delaying of unfavorable disorder evolution and· helping in understanding, accepting and adapting of child’s family to a pervasive developmental disorder.Value of early established diagnosis is not reflected only in foundation of organized adequate treatment. Early established diagnosis enables a well-timed giving of genetic advice to the family which is, as a rule, young, and without genetic load. On the other hand, well-timed diagnosis enables planning of life-long complete care for the patient with the disorder.

  6. Twins and virtual twins: Do genetic (as well as experiential) factors affect developmental risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; Tan, Tony Xing; Graham, Jamie L

    2015-08-01

    Factors underlying developmental delays and psychosocial risks are of interest to international adoption communities. The current study administered a Pre-Adoption Adversity (PAA) Questionnaire to mostly American parents raising (a) adopted Chinese twins or (b) same-age unrelated adopted siblings. A goal was to replicate earlier analyses of pre-adoption adversity/adjustment among adopted preschool-age Chinese girls. A second goal was to conduct genetic analyses of four content areas (Developmental Delays at Adoption, Initial Adaptation to Adoption, Crying/Clinging, and Refusal/Avoidance) derived from the PAA Questionnaire. A key finding was that age at adoption added less than other predictors to adoptees' externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Family factors (e.g., parental education) contributed significantly to behavioral outcomes among the adopted Chinese twins. Genetic effects were indicated for all four content areas, with shared environmental effects evident for Developmental Delays at Adoption and Crying/Clinging. Future investigators should consider incorporating genetically sensitive designs into developmental research programs.

  7. Sensory symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder, other developmental disorders and typical development: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hepburn, Susan; Young, Gregory S; Rogers, Sally J

    2016-07-01

    Sensory symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder but little is known about the early developmental patterns of these symptoms. This study examined the development of sensory symptoms and the relationship between sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning during early childhood. Three groups of children were followed across three time points from 2 to 8 years of age: autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development. At each time point, parents filled out questionnaires regarding their child's sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning. At the initial time point, parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported more sensory symptoms in their children than parents in the typical development group. Parents in the autism spectrum disorder group reported more sensory symptoms than parents in the developmental delay group within smell, taste, and auditory domains. While the typical development group decreased in reported sensory symptoms across the study period, the clinical groups demonstrated no significant change across assessment points. Sensory symptoms for all groups were not independently predictive of adaptive functioning when verbal mental age was also included in the model. The young age range at the initial assessment and pattern of results suggest that sensory symptoms are present early in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders and remain stable over time. PMID:26395236

  8. Adaptive NN State-Feedback Control for Stochastic High-Order Nonlinear Systems with Time-Varying Control Direction and Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Min

    2015-01-01

    and dynamic surface control technique, an adaptive NN controller is constructed to render the closed-loop system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB. Finally, a simulation example is shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  9. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development.

  10. 基于自相似业务流的 AOS 延时累积调度算法%Scheduling algorithm of delay accumulated adaptive polling based on AOS self-similar traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵运; 冯永新; 刘恒驰; 刘猛

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve performance degradation for advanced orbiting system (AOS)space data system scheduling caused by high burst and heavy tailed nature of self-similar traffic,the existing problems of the AOS virtual channel access (VCA)layer scheduling strategy and the short correlation model of the scheduling algo-rithm are analyzed.A novel scheduling algorithm based on AOS delay accumulated adaptive polling (SDAAP)is proposed.Based on Hurst parameters,urgency,flow rate deviation,and framing time factor,the novel schedu-ling algorithm adaptively change the delay threshold factor to realize multi-service by different operation meth-ods.The SDAAP algorithm optimizes the AOS virtual channel service quality and scheduling performance. With heavy tailed distribution of the ON/OFF traffic model,the experimental results show that,for the AOS self-similar traffic,the SDAAP algorithm executes more well in terms of the overflow rate and average delay than the AOS fixed threshold and the equal time scheduling algorithm.%针对自相似业务流量下的高突发性及重尾性所引起的空间数据系统调度性能下降问题,分析了高级在轨系统(advanced orbiting system,AOS)虚拟信道存取(virtual channel access,VCA)子层调度策略以及现有基于短相关模型调度算法的不足,引入 Hurst 参数、紧迫度、流量离差、成帧时间因子等权值参量,提出一种基于延时累积的自适应轮询调度(scheduling of delay accumulated adaptive polling,SDAAP)算法,通过自适应改变延时阀值因子实现多业务的差异化调度,从而优化 AOS 虚拟信道服务质量及调度性能。采用多信源重尾分布的 ON/OFF 流量分布模型进行仿真验证,实验结果表明,针对自相似业务流,SDAAP 算法在溢出率、平均延迟等方面优于 AOS 固定阀值和等时调度算法。

  11. The Effectiveness of an Adapted SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education) Curriculum for Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Panting, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rates of overweight and obese adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities in the United States are high and associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. Many of these adults are trying to become more independent in the community and live in group homes where care is managed by a paid employee. Group home managers assist clients with daily living such as shopping and meal preparation and play an important role in their care. Nutrition and healthy behavior choices are importan...

  12. Delayed discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Essential facts Delays in discharging older peo ple from hospital cost the NHS £820 million a year, according to a report from the National Audit Office (NAO). Last year in acute hospitals, 1.15 million bed days were lost to delayed transfers of care, an increase of 31% since 2013. The NAO says rising demand for NHS services is compounded by reduced local authority spending on adult social care - down by 10% since 2009-10. PMID:27380673

  13. 遗传学新技术在发育迟缓患儿病因诊断中的应用价值%The application of new genetic technology in the children with developmental delay and mental retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎芳; 宇亚芬; 麻宏伟

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨遗传学新技术在儿童发育迟缓(DD)病因诊断中的应用价值。方法应用常规染色体核型分析、染色体微缺失检测、致病基因突变分析、串联质谱、气相色谱-质谱技术,对儿童保健门诊2013年9月至2014年9月就诊的180例DD患儿进行外周血或尿液分析。结果异常检出率为27.2%(49/180),其中49.0%(24/49)是应用常规染色体核型分析技术确诊:15例为21-三体综合征,9例为其他染色体异常;51.0%(25/49)是应用新近开展的遗传学新技术确诊:14例为染色体微缺失综合征,6例为遗传代谢病,5例为致病基因突变所致。14例染色体微缺失综合征中3例为Prader-Willi综合征,天使综合征、22q13缺失综合征、Williams综合征及Smith-Magenis综合征各2例,猫叫综合征、22q11微缺失综合征及1p36缺失综合征各1例;6例遗传代谢病中3例为甲基丙二酸血症;枫糖尿症、酪氨酸血症和戊二酸尿症各1例;5例基因突变中3例为脆性X综合征,2例为德朗热综合征。结论遗传学新技术提高了对DD患儿的病因学诊断;常规染色体检查正常的儿童不能排除染色体微缺失综合征和遗传代谢病。常规染色体核型分析、染色体微缺失检测、基因突变检测、串联质谱及气相色谱-质谱分析在临床应用中具有互补作用,彼此不能完全替代,临床上应根据不同的特殊面容和临床特征,选择相应的遗传学检测技术。%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of new genetic technology inthe child with developmental delay and mental retardation.MethodThe peripheral blood and urine of 180 children with developmental retardation which were collected from the patients in the child care department from September 2013 to September 2014 were analyzed using chromosomal karyotype analysis, MLPA ,genetic mutation analysis, MS-MS and GC-MS.ResultsThe anomaly detection rate was 27.2% (49

  14. Performance analysis of low-complexity adaptive frequency-domain equalization and MIMO signal processing for compensation of differential mode group delay in mode-division multiplexing communication systems using few-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission systems utilizing few-mode fibers (FMF) have been intensively explored to sustain continuous traffic growth. The key challenges of MDM systems are inter-modal crosstalk due to random mode coupling (RMC), and largely-accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), whilst hinders mode-demultiplexer implementation. The adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) can dynamically compensate DMGD using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The frequency-domain least-mean squares (FD-LMS) algorithm has been universally adopted for high-speed MDM communications, mainly for its relatively low computational complexity. However, longer training sequence is appended for FD-LMS to achieve faster convergence, which incurs prohibitively higher system overhead and reduces overall throughput. In this paper, we propose a fast-convergent single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive least-squares (FD-RLS) algorithm with reduced complexity for DMGD compensation at MDM coherent receivers. The performance and complexity comparison of FD-RLS, with signal-PSD-dependent FD-LMS method and conventional FD-LMS approach, are performed in a 3000 km six-mode transmission system with 65 ps/km DMGD. We explore the convergence speed of three adaptive algorithms, including the normalized mean-square-error (NMSE) per fast Fourier transform (FFT) block at 14-30 dB OSNR. The fast convergence of FD-RLS is exploited at the expense of slightly-increased necessary tap numbers for MIMO equalizers, and it can partially save the overhead of training sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate adaptive FD-RLS can also be used for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation without increasing the filter tap length, thus prominently reducing the DSP implementation complexity for MDM systems.

  15. Simulation Based Verification of the Applicability of a Novel Branch of Computational Cybernetics in the Adaptive Control of Imperfectly Modeled Physical Systems of Asymmetric Delay Time and Strong Non-linearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József K. Tar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the applicability of an adaptive control based on a novel branch ofComputational Cybernetics is illustrated for two different, imperfectly andinaccurately modeled particular physical sytems. One of them is a water tankstirring cold and hot water as input and releasing the mixture through a long pipe.The mass flow rate and the temperature are prescribed at the free end of the exitpipe while the taps at the input side can diretly be controlled. Due to theincompressibility of the fluid the variation of the mass flow rate of the output isimmediately observableat the pipe’s end and is related to the control action at theinput taps, while its effect on the temperature becomes measurable at the free endof the pipe only after a delay time needed for the fluid to flow through the pipe.This results in asymmetric and non-constant delay time. The other paradigm is thethermal decay of the molecular nitrogen during a throttling down process. As iswell known chemical reactions hav very drastic non-linearities and it is not easyto construct their “exact” or satisfacorily avccurate model. The fundamentalprinciples of this new branch of Computational Cybernetics are briefly presentedin the paper. To some extent it is similar to the traditional Soft Computing, but byusing a priori known, uniform, lucid structure of reduced size, it can evade theenormous structures so characteristic to the usual approach. Clumsydeterministic, semi-stochastic or stochastic machine learning is replaced bysimple, short, explicit algebraic procedures especially fit to real time applications.The costs of these advantages may manifest themselves in the expected limitationof the applicabilityof this new approach. However, the simulation resultsexemplify the applicability of the new method in the control of systems of strongnon-linearities and asymmetric delay time.

  16. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard;

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  17. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  18. Delayed privatization

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Bortolotti; Paolo Pinotti

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the timing of privatization in 21 major developed economies in the 1977-2002 period. Duration analysis shows that political fragmentation plays a significant role in explaining government's decision to privatize: privatization is delayed longer in democracies characterized by a larger number of parties and operating under proportional electoral rules, as predicted by war of attrition models of economic reform. Results are robust to various assumptions on the underlying stat...

  19. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Rebecca M; Martens, Marilee A; Andridge, Rebecca R

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  20. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  1. Identification of a rare de novo three-way complex t(5;20;8(q31;p11.2;p21 with microdeletions on 5q31.2, 5q31.3, and 8p23.2 in a patient with hearing loss and global developmental delay: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejjani Bassem A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which involve more than two breakpoints on two or more chromosomes, are uncommon occurrences. Although most CCRs appear balanced at the level of the light microscope, many demonstrate cryptic, submicroscopic imbalances at the translocation breakpoints. Results We report a female with hearing loss and global developmental delay with a complex three-way unbalanced translocation (5;20;8(q31;p11.2;p21 resulting in microdeletions on 5q31.2, 5q31.3, and 8p23.2 identified by karyotyping, microarray analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Discussion The microdeletion of bands 8p23.2 may be associated with the hearing impairment. Furthermore, the characterization of this patient's chromosomal abnormalities demonstrates the importance of integrated technologies within contemporary cytogenetics laboratories.

  2. Vagal Tone and Children's Delay of Gratification: Differential Sensitivity in Resource-Poor and Resource-Rich Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante; Skibo, Michael A; Rogosch, Fred A

    2016-06-01

    Children from different socioeconomic backgrounds have differing abilities to delay gratification, and impoverished children have the greatest difficulties in doing so. In the present study, we examined the role of vagal tone in predicting the ability to delay gratification in both resource-rich and resource-poor environments. We derived hypotheses from evolutionary models of children's conditional adaptation to proximal rearing contexts. In Study 1, we tested whether elevated vagal tone was associated with shorter delay of gratification in impoverished children. In Study 2, we compared the relative role of vagal tone across two groups of children, one that had experienced greater impoverishment and one that was relatively middle-class. Results indicated that in resource-rich environments, higher vagal tone was associated with longer delay of gratification. In contrast, high vagal tone in children living in resource-poor environments was associated with reduced delay of gratification. We interpret the results with an eye to evolutionary-developmental models of the function of children's stress-response system and adaptive behavior across varying contexts of economic risk. PMID:27117276

  3. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding has wide resonance in several scientific fields. Here we attempt to adopt it for the study of development. In this perspective, the embryo is conceived as an integral whole, comprised of several hierarchical modules as in a recurrent circularity of emerging patterns...... molecular signalling to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships...

  4. Prisms Throw Light on Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Nicolson, Roderick I.; Fawcett, Angela J.

    2007-01-01

    Prism adaptation, in which the participant adapts to prismatic glasses that deflect vision laterally, is a specific test of cerebellar function. Fourteen dyslexic children (mean age 13.5 years); 14 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): 6 of whom had comorbid dyslexia; and 12 control children matched for age and IQ underwent…

  5. The Daily Dozen: Strategies for Enhancing Social Communication of Infants with Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay R.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 228,000 children from birth to age 3 are affected by a disability. Developmental challenges may include severe, chronic disabilities that can begin at birth and last a lifetime. Delayed speech and language are the most common types of developmental delays among infants and toddlers. Many of these children are at risk for later…

  6. The Effect of Cognitive Restructuring on Delay of Gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisan, Mordecai; Koriat, Asher

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated predictions derived from a cognitive-developmental approach to delay of gratification. In the first, kindergarten children were asked to make a choice between a small immediate and a large delayed reward. In the second, children were presented with either an objective-rational or a subjective-emotional argument…

  7. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation.

  8. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

  9. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  10. Examining the Criterion-Related Validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Carly A.; Perry, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory is a questionnaire designed to aid in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders or autism spectrum disorders. The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory assesses adaptive and maladaptive behaviors associated with pervasive developmental disorders and provides an…

  11. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation. PMID:8866511

  12. Internet end-to-end delay dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Changhua; Pei Changxing; Li Jiandong; Chen Nan; Yi Yunhui

    2006-01-01

    End-to-end delay is one of the most important characteristics of Internet end-to-end packet dynamics, which can be applied to quality of services (QoS) management, service level agreement (SLA) management, congestion control algorithm development, etc. Nonstationarity and nonlinearity are found by the analysis of various delay series measured from different links. The fact that different types of links have different degree of Self-Similarity is also obtained. By constructing appropriate network architecture and neural functions, functional networks can be used to model the Internet end-to-end nonlinear delay time series. Furthermore, by using adaptive parameter studying algorithm, the nonstationarity can also be well modeled. The numerical results show that the provided functional network architecture and adaptive algorithm can precisely characterize the Internet end-to-end delay dynamics.

  13. The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Harold P.

    The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…

  14. 一类具有时滞的模糊反应扩散神经网络的自适应同步研究%Adaptive Synchronization for a Class of Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Time Delays and Reaction Diffusion Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丽华; 刘艳; 樊小琳

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive synchronization of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks with reaction diffusion terms has been considered. Under two different kinds of boundary conditions, based on the LaSalle invariant principle of functional differential equations and the adaptive feedback control technique, some sufficient conditions for adaptive synchronization of a system are obtained.%研究了一类具有时滞的模糊反应扩散神经网络的自适应同步,在两种不同的边界条件下,利用泛函微分方稃的LaSalle不峦原王单以及反馈榨制的方法.得到了系缔同步的充分条件.

  15. Taking action on developmental toxicity: Scientists’ duties to protect children

    OpenAIRE

    Shrader-Frechette Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although adaptation and proper biological functioning require developmental programming, pollutant interference can cause developmental toxicity or DT. Objectives This commentary assesses whether it is ethical for citizens/physicians/scientists to allow avoidable DT. Methods Using conceptual, economic, ethical, and logical analysis, the commentary assesses what major ethical theories and objectors would say regarding the defensibility of allowing avoidable DT. Results The ...

  16. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001406.htm Developmental reading disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental reading disorder is a reading disability that occurs when ...

  17. 66例精神发育迟滞/发育迟缓患儿基因组拷贝数变异的染色体芯片分析%Analysis of copy number variations in 66 children with unexplained mental retardation/ developmental delay using chromosomal microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一帆; 邱文娟; 叶军; 韩连书; 张惠文; 顾学范

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinically relevant copy number variations (CNV) in patients with unexplained mental retardation/developmental delay (MR/DD) through chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA).Methods Sixty-six patients with unexplained MR/DD were analyzed with CMA.All identified CNVs were verified with database of genomic variations (DGV),DECIPHER,ISCA and the literature.Results Nineteen clinically relevant CNVs were detected among the 16 individuals.The diagnostic yield for the MR/DD patients was 24.2%.The most common abnormality was Phelan-McDermid syndrome (3/16,18.8%),which was followed by Prader-Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome (2/16,12.5%) and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (2/16,12.5%).Conclusion CNVs are one of the most common causes for unexplained MR/DD.CMA can improve the detection rate of CNVs and confer genetic testing with greater sensitivity in elucidating the diagnosis for unexplained MR/DD.%目的 应用染色体芯片分析技术(chromosomal microarray analysis,CMA)对不明原因的精神发育迟滞/发育迟缓(mental retardation/developmental delay,MR/DD)患儿进行全基因组拷贝数变异(copy number variation,CNV)分析,明确致病性CNV所致的染色体失衡,实现病因学诊断.方法 根据特定条件筛选MR/DD患儿66例,用染色体芯片分析技术筛检有无CNV.针对发现的CNV,通过比对国际基因组CNV多态性数据库排除良性CNV,结合基因组异常拷贝数变异数据库与相关文献,判断CNV的临床意义.结果 在66例不明原因MR/DD患儿中,16例检出19个临床致病性CNV,检出率为24.2%,Phelan-McDermid综合征比例最高(3/16,18.8%),其次为Prader-Willi综合征/Angelman综合征(2/16,12.5%)及Wolf-Hirschhorn综合征(2/16,12.5%).结论 拷贝数变异是MR/DD患儿的重要病因之一,CMA可提高MR/DD患儿致病性CNV的检出率.

  18. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  19. Dysgraphia in Children: Lasting Psychomotor Deficiency or Transient Developmental Delay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Van Galen, Gerard P.

    1997-01-01

    Used writing tasks recorded on a computer-monitored XY tablet to differentiate between normal variations in psychomotor development and dysgraphia in 16 young children. Found that control of spatial accuracy, not allograph retrieval or size control, discriminated dysgraphic children from others. Poor writers were less accurate than proficient…

  20. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27002960

  1. Refractory seizures with global developmental delay: A rare cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Vinoth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aicardi syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by the triad of infantile spasm in flexion, callosal agenesis and ocular abnormalities (chorioretinal lacunae, coloboma of optic disc. We report a typical case of Aicardi syndrome with all the classical features.

  2. What is developmental dyspraxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, D

    1995-12-01

    The idea of developmental dyspraxia has been discussed in the research literature for almost 100 years. However, there continues to be a lack of consensus regarding both the definition and description of this disorder. This paper presents a neuropsychologically based operational definition of developmental dyspraxia that emphasizes that developmental dyspraxia is a disorder of gesture. Research that has investigated the development of praxis is discussed. Further, different types of gestural disorders displayed by children and different mechanisms that underlie developmental dyspraxia are compared to and contrasted with adult acquired apraxia. The impact of perceptual-motor, language, and cognitive impairments on children's gestural development and the possible associations between these developmental disorders and developmental dyspraxia are also examined. Also, the relationship among limb, orofacial, and verbal dyspraxia is discussed. Finally, problems that exist in the neuropsychological assessment of developmental dyspraxia are discussed and recommendations concerning what should be included in such an assessment are presented. PMID:8838385

  3. Psychosocial developmental milestones in men with classic galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, C.S.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Berry, G T; Bosch, A. M.; Waisbren, S.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with classic galactosemia suffer from several long term effects of their disease. Research in a group of mainly female patients has shown that these patients may also have a developmental delay with regard to their social aptitude. To study if male galactosemia patients achieve psychosocial developmental milestones more slowly than male peers from the general Dutch population, we assessed their development with the Course of Life Questionnaire (CoLQ). A total of 18 male galactosemia ...

  4. Quadratic-Correlation Time Delay Estimation Algorithm Based on Hilbert Interpolation and LMS Adaptive Filtering Method%基于LMS自适应滤波和希尔伯特差值的二次相关时延估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霄; 徐慨; 杨海亮

    2015-01-01

    Aimming at the problem of time delay estimation in satellite interference location system, based on the research of generalized cross⁃correlation and the quadratic⁃correlation time delay estimation algorithm, proposing the quadratic⁃correlation time delay estimation algorithm based on the Hilbert interpolation and the LMS adaptive filtering method, to avoid the serious effects on the generalized cross⁃correlation delay estimation accuracy, caused by the selecting of different weigh⁃ting coefficients. The algorithm uses the adaptive filter is less need for a priori knowledge of the signal and noise, with the a⁃bility to automatically adjust its own parameters. First, the signal is processed with the front⁃end filtering, and then the pro⁃cessed signals are deal with the quadratic⁃correlation time delay estimation algorithm. Finally, using the Hilbert interpolation to sharpen the correlation peak,to obtain accurate time delay estimation.%针对卫星干扰源定位系统中时延估计的问题,在研究经典的广义互相关和二次相关时延估计算法的基础上,为避免不同加权系数的选取对广义互相关时延估计精度影响差异很大这一缺点,提出了一种基于LMS自适应滤波和希尔伯特差值的二次相关时延估计算法,该算法利用自适应滤波器对信号和噪声的先验知识需求较少、具有自动调节自身参数的能力,首先对信号进行前端滤波处理,再将处理后的信号进行二次相关,最后利用希尔伯特差值法对相关峰值进行锐化,以获得较为精确的时延估计结果。

  5. An Analytical Delay Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Yinghua; LI Zhongcheng

    1999-01-01

    Delay consideration has been a majorissue in design and test of high performance digital circuits. Theassumption of input signal change occurring only when all internal nodesare stable restricts the increase of clock frequency. It is no longertrue for wave pipelining circuits. However, previous logical delaymodels are based on the assumption. In addition, the stable time of arobust delay test generally depends on the longest sensitizable pathdelay. Thus, a new delay model is desirable. This paper explores thenecessity first. Then, Boolean process to analytically describe thelogical and timing behavior of a digital circuit is reviewed. Theconcept of sensitization is redefined precisely in this paper. Based onthe new concept of sensitization, an analytical delay model isintroduced. As a result, many untestable delay faults under thelogical delay model can be tested if the output waveforms can be sampledat more time points. The longest sensitizable path length is computedfor circuit design and delay test.

  6. Developmental Outcomes of School-Age Children with Duarte Galactosemia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Potter, Nancy L; Coles, Claire D; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    Duarte galactosemia (DG) is a mild allelic variant of classic galactosemia that results from partial impairment of galactose-1P uridylyltransferase (GALT). Although infants with DG are detected by newborn screening in some US states at close to 1/4,000 live births, most are discharged from follow-up very early in life and there is no consensus on whether these children are at increased risk for any of the long-term developmental delays seen in classic galactosemia. There is also no consensus on whether infants with DG benefit from dietary restriction of galactose. Reflecting the current uncertainty, some states choose to identify infants with DG by newborn screening and others do not. As a first step toward characterizing the developmental outcomes of school-age children with DG, we conducted a pilot study, testing 10 children with DG and 5 unaffected siblings from the same group of families. All children tested were between 6 and 11 years old. We used standardized direct assessments and parent-response surveys to collect information regarding cognition, communication, socio-emotional, adaptive behavior, and physical development for each child. Despite the small sample size, our data demonstrated some notable differences between cases and controls in socio-emotional development, in delayed recall, and in auditory processing speed. These results confirm that direct assessment of school-age children with DG can detect subtle but potentially problematic developmental deficits, and underscore the need for a larger study which has sufficient power to evaluate these outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding factors. PMID:25681083

  7. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Azizuddin eKhan

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5-10 % of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic’s children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexic...

  8. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5–10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics...

  9. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  10. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  11. Using Signs to Facilitate Vocabulary in Children with Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan Hendler; Battaglia, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recommended practices in choosing and using key word signs (i.e., simple single-word gestures for communication) to facilitate first spoken words in hearing children with language delays. Developmental, theoretical, and empirical supports for this practice are discussed. Practical recommendations for…

  12. The Child with Delayed Language: Assessment and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Raymond C.; Kinney, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    Speech and language disorders are the most common developmental problems among preschool children. Early detection and remediation of delayed language development are important in helping the child establish appropriate social behavior and acquire additional information about the world through the use of language.

  13. Delayed Gambler's Ruin

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We present here a new extended model of the gambler's ruin problem by incorporating delays in receiving of rewards and paying of penalties. When there is a difference between two delays, an exact analysis of the ruin probability is difficult. We derive an approximate scheme to find an effective shift in the initial assets of the gambler. Through comparison against computer simulations, this approximation is shown to work for small differences between the two delays.

  14. 孤独症谱系障碍和发育性语言延迟儿童的听觉处理特征研究%Study on central auditory processing characteristics in autism spectrum disorder and developmental language delayed children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁纯; 洪琦; 罗小杏; 蒋滔滔; 高延; 姚小芳; 卓秀慧; 卢光进

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨孤独症谱系障碍和发育性语言延迟儿童的听觉诱发电位特征,为观察两者听觉诱发电位的差异和制定个体语言干预方案提供依据. [方法]对20例孤独症谱系障碍和20例发育性语言延迟儿童进行听觉诱发电位测试,分析各波潜伏期及波间期,并与正常组比较. [结果]孤独症谱系障碍组和发育性语言延迟组分别与正常组比较,Ⅲ、Ⅴ波潜伏期和Ⅰ-Ⅲ波、Ⅰ-Ⅴ波潜伏期均显著延长(P<0.01),而两病例组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论]孤独症谱系障碍和发育性语言延迟儿童可能具有共同的听觉处理缺陷.%[Objective] To investigate and characterize the relationship of brainstem auditory evoked potential changes between the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the developmental language delayed (DLD) disorder in young children.[Methods] Absolute latencies of waves Ⅰ,Ⅲ,Ⅴ,and interpeak latencies(IPLs)of Ⅰ to Ⅲ,Ⅰ to Ⅴ,and Ⅲ to Ⅴ in Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials(BAEP)in the ASD group and the DLD group were compared.Either group enrolled 20 children.[Results] In comparison with normal children,IPLs of Ⅰ to Ⅲ and Ⅰ to Ⅴ in both ASD group and DLD group were significantly prolonged.However,there were no significant differences between two groups.[Conclusion] These two disorders might share the same pathological mechanism in the auditory disorder.

  15. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  16. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  17. Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group…

  18. Developmental Changes in Cognitive and Behavioural Functioning of Adolescents with Fragile-X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolli, A.; Piscopo, S.; Conson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural…

  19. Flood adaptive traits and processes : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissue

  20. Autism in Early Childhood: An Unusual Developmental Course—Three Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Cohen-Ophir; Tsophia Castel-Deutsh; Emanuel Tirosh

    2012-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is typically characterized by either an emerging and gradual course or developmental regression in early childhood. The versatile clinical course is progressively acknowledged in recent years. Children with developmental disorders in general are referred to the Child Development Center for a multidisciplinary assessment, investigation, treatment and followup. We report three infants with an initial diagnosis of developmental delays, recovery of normal developm...

  1. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  2. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L Alan

    2009-12-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline-"developmental psychopathology"-which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic). PMID:20161376

  3. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L A; Carlson, E A; Levy, A K; Egeland, B

    1999-01-01

    Bowlby's attachment theory is a theory of psychopathology as well as a theory of normal development. It contains clear and specific propositions regarding the role of early experience in developmental psychopathology, the importance of ongoing context, and the nature of the developmental process underlying pathology. In particular, Bowlby argued that adaptation is always the joint product of developmental history and current circumstances (never either alone). Early experience does not cause later pathology in a linear way; yet, it has special significance due to the complex, systemic, transactional nature of development. Prior history is part of current context, playing a role in selection, engagement, and interpretation of subsequent experience and in the use of available environmental supports. Finally, except in very extreme cases, early anxious attachment is not viewed as psychopathology itself or as a direct cause of psychopathology but as an initiator of pathways probabilistically associated with later pathology. PMID:10208353

  4. Dynamic Network Delay Cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Rajawat, Ketan; Giannakis, Georgios B

    2012-01-01

    Path delays in IP networks are important metrics, required by network operators for assessment, planning, and fault diagnosis. Monitoring delays of all source-destination pairs in a large network is however challenging and wasteful of resources. The present paper advocates a spatio-temporal Kalman filtering approach to construct network-wide delay maps using measurements on only a few paths. The proposed network cartography framework allows efficient tracking and prediction of delays by relying on both topological as well as historical data. Optimal paths for delay measurement are selected in an online fashion by leveraging the notion of submodularity. The resulting predictor is optimal in the class of linear predictors, and outperforms competing alternatives on real-world datasets.

  5. Psychosocial developmental milestones in men with classic galactosemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Gubbels; H. Maurice-Stam; G.T. Berry; A.M. Bosch; S. Waisbren; M.E. Rubio-Gozalbo; M.A. Grootenhuis

    2011-01-01

    Patients with classic galactosemia suffer from several long term effects of their disease. Research in a group of mainly female patients has shown that these patients may also have a developmental delay with regard to their social aptitude. To study if male galactosemia patients achieve psychosocial

  6. A plea for developmental motor screening in Canadian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Susan R

    2016-04-01

    Motor delays during infancy may be the first observable sign of a specific neurodevelopmental disability or of more global developmental delays. The earlier such disorders are identified, the sooner these infants can be referred for early intervention services. Although developmental motor screening is strongly recommended in other Western countries, Canada has yet to provide a developmental surveillance and screening program. Ideally, screening for motor disabilities should occur as part of the 12-month well-baby visit. In advance of that visit, parents can be provided with a parent-screening questionnaire that they can complete and bring with them to their 12-month office visit. Interpretation of the parent-completed questionnaire takes only 2 min to 3 min of the health care professional's time and, based on the results, can either reassure parents that their infant is developing typically, or lead to a referral for standardized motor screening or assessment by a paediatric physical or occupational therapist. PMID:27396842

  7. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  8. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  9. Mastering developmental transitions in immigrant adolescents: the longitudinal interplay of family functioning, developmental and acculturative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anne K; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B

    2014-03-01

    Immigrant youth differ in their adaptation, which is judged on the basis of how well they deal with developmental and acculturative tasks. While immigrant adolescents are faced with the realities of 2 different cultures, they also have to master age-salient tasks, such as self-efficacy and identity development. To get a better insight into the interplay of developmental and acculturative tasks and their relationship with family functioning, we used 3-wave longitudinal data over a 2-year period from 13-year-old immigrant students (N = 609) in Athens, Greece. Cross-lagged models revealed that family functioning and acculturation were resources for the mastery of developmental tasks. Involvement in the host culture prospectively predicted self-efficacy beliefs, and involvement in the ethnic culture prospectively predicted ethnic identity. These effects increased over time. Family functioning prospectively predicted self-efficacy and ethnic identity. These effects decreased over time. The findings suggest that a well-functioning family, for early adolescents, and being involved in the host culture and in ethnic cultures, for middle adolescents, are particularly important resources to master the tasks of their developmental period. Our findings underscore the importance of developmentally sensitive approaches and the need to account for acculturative challenges in order to understand individual differences in immigrant youth adaptation.

  10. Delay in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Konrad, Kai A.

    2003-01-01

    "Why is there delay in contests? In this paper we follow and extend the line of reasoning of Carl von Clausewitz to explain delay. For a given contest technology, delay may occur if there is an asymmetry between defense and attack, if the expected change in relative strengths is moderate, and if the additional cost of investment in future strength is low." (author's abstract) "In Konfliktsituationen findet der 'showdown' häufig mit einer Verzögerung statt. Das ist überraschend, weil sich m...

  11. commensurate point delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2005-01-01

    nominal controller is maintained. In the current approach, the finite spectrum assignment is only considered as a particular case of the designer's choice of a (delay-dependent arbitrary spectrum assignment objective.

  12. Comparing Active Delay and Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkin, Danya M.; Yu, Shirley L.; Lindt, Suzanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that the act of postponing academic work may be divided into a traditional definition of procrastination, viewed as maladaptive, and adaptive forms of delay. Adaptive forms of delay may be more consistent with certain facets of self-regulated learning. The current study investigated this issue by examining whether the…

  13. 重庆地区1743例智力低下/发育迟缓儿童细胞遗传学分析及意义探讨%Cytogenetic analysis and its significance of 1 743 mental retardation /developmental delay children in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程; 程茜; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of the abnormal karyotype in mental retardation /developmental delay (MR/DD) children of Chongqing to provide the information for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Methods The samples of the peripheral blood lymphocytes from 1743 children were prepared with routine cytogenetic methods,G-banding was employed for karyotype analysis. Results A total of 742 patients(42. 57%) were identified to have abnormalities with 20 kinds of karyotypes. Down s syndrome was the most common in euchromosome malformation, and Klinefelter syndrome in sex chromosome malformation. 80. 69% were found abnormalities in Down s syndrome group, which were coincided with clinical diagnosis and the most of 870 cases were infants;2. 08% were detected in Fragile X syndrome group and major subjects were preschool children;57. 12% in Cri-du-chat syndrome group;4. 95% in MR/DD with non-dysmorphic group,major of 626 cases were 3-5 years old,respectively. Conclusion The most abnormal karyotypes of MR/DD children are Down's,Klinefelter and Fragile X syndrome in Chongqing. It is suggested that more chromosomal information of MR/DD should be acquired,it benefits for early management and intervention of genetic diseases.%目的 了解重庆地区智力低下/发育迟缓儿童染色体异常的主要分布情况,为疾病的病因诊断、遗传咨询提供理论依据.方法 对1743例儿童无菌外周血进行常规接种、培养、制片及G带分析.结果 1743例中检出基因异常共742例,异常检出率42.57%,异常核型共20种,常染色体异常以21-三体综合征为主,性染色体异常以Klinefelter综合征为主.按送检病因分类染色体检出异常相符情况为21-三体综合征80.69%,送检年龄集中在小于1岁组;脆性X综合征2.08%,送检年龄主要是3~5岁儿童;猫叫综合征57.12%(4/7);表型不易识别智力低下/发育迟缓4.95%,送检儿童年龄大部分为3~5岁.结论 重庆地区智力低下/发育迟缓儿童

  14. 不明原因智力障碍/脑发育迟缓患儿染色体亚端粒重组突变的检测%Detection of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with idiopathic mental retardation/developmental delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晔; 姜玉武; 王小竹; 王慧芳; 王静敏; 杨艳玲; 秦炯; 钟南; 吴希如

    2007-01-01

    目的 联合应用多重连接依赖的探针扩增法和荧光原位杂交法检测染色体亚端粒重组,进行不明原因智力障碍/脑发育迟缓(mental retardation/developmental delay,MR/DD)的病因学研究.方法 入选病例必须满足:①中~重度MR/DD;②无明确围产期异常病史;③无明确生后中毒、缺氧、中枢神经系统感染及头颅外伤等病史;④常规核型分析显示正常;⑤头颅影像及尿有机酸、氨基酸分析未提示典型遗传代谢性疾病或神经变性病;⑥男性患儿FMR1基因检测未提示脆性X综合征.并至少符合以下条件之一:①MR家族史阳性;②反复流产或围产期死亡家族史阳性;③体格发育异常;④面部畸形;⑤非面部畸形或发育异常.联合应用多重连接依赖的探针扩增法过筛和荧光原位杂交技术验证对患儿及父母标本进行染色体亚端粒重组检测.结果 入组39例中发现4例阳性病例,重组分别为:①新发der(2)t(2;4)(pter;pter),文献未见报道;②新发8pter缺失,国外曾有报道,但临床表型不同;③新发15q11.2缺失,属中间重组,结合患儿临床表型,Angelman综合征可能性大;④新发11qter缺失,文献未见报道.结论 首次报道2种新重组,其新发出现提示致病性可能性大;染色体亚端粒重组是遗传性MR/DD的重要病因,临床表型差异大,对原因不明的常规染色体检查无异常的MR/DD患者均应进行检测,联合应用多重连接依赖的探针扩增法和荧光原位杂交法是相对经济的确诊手段.

  15. Evolutionary reduction of developmental plasticity in desert spadefoot toads

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, S.R.; Gómez-Mestre, Iván; Moskalik, C.L.; Storz, B.L.; Buchholz, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Organisms vary their rates of growth and development in response to environmental inputs. Such developmental plasticity may be adaptive and positively correlate with environmental heterogeneity. However, the evolution of developmental plasticity among closely related taxa is not well understood. To determine the evolutionary pattern of plasticity, we compared plasticity in time to and size at metamorphosis in response to water desiccation in tadpoles among spadefoot species that differ in bre...

  16. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  17. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  18. An investigation of the factors affecting flatfoot in children with delayed motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Chung; Tung, Li-Chen; Tung, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Yang, Jeng-Feng; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of flatfoot in children with delayed motor development and the relevant factors affecting it. In total, 121 preschool-aged children aged 3-6 with delayed motor development (male: 81; female: 40) were enrolled in the motor-developmentally delayed children group, and 4 times that number, a total of 484 children (male: 324; female: 160), of gender- and age-matched normal developmental children were used as a control group for further analyses. The age was from 3.0 to 6.9 years old for the participants. The judgment criterion of flatfoot was the Chippaux-Smirak index >62.70%, in footprint measurement. The results showed that the prevalence of flatfoot in children with motor developmental delay was higher than that in normal developmental children, approximately 58.7%, and that it decreased with age from 62.8% of 3-year-olds to 50.0% of 6-year-olds. The results also showed that motor-developmentally delayed children with flatfoot are at about 1.5 times the risk of normal developmental children (odds ratio=1.511, p=0.005). In addition, the prevalence of flatfoot is relatively higher in overweight children with delayed motor development, and that in obese children is even as high as 95.8% (23/24). Children with both excessive joint laxity and delayed development are more likely to suffer from flatfoot. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for clinical workers to deal with foot issues in children with delayed motor development.

  19. Developmental trajectories for children with dyslexia and low IQ poor readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah E A; Goswami, Usha

    2016-05-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27110928

  20. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultimately cure this and similar disorders. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Clinical Trials At NIH ... 1055 (TTY) National Institute of Child Health and Human Information Resource Center P.O. Box 3006 Rockville, MD 20847 ...

  1. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if you’re concerned » Developmental Monitoring and Screening A child’s growth and development are followed through ... to prevent illness. Some health conditions, such as asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, eczema and skin allergies, and migraine ...

  2. Towards Deep Developmental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sigaud, Olivier; Droniou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    International audience Deep learning techniques are having an undeniable impact on general pattern recognition issues. In this paper, from a developmental robotics perspective, we scrutinize deep learning techniques under the light of their capability to construct a hierarchy of meaningful multimodal representations from the raw sensors of robots. These investigations reveal the differences between the methodological constraints of pattern recognition and those of developmental robotics. I...

  3. Simulation Based Verification of the Applicability of a Novel Branch of Computational Cybernetics in the Adaptive Control of Imperfectly Modeled Physical Systems of Asymmetric Delay Time and Strong Non-linearities

    OpenAIRE

    Tar, József K.; Rudas, Imre J.; Bitó, János F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of an adaptive control based on a novel branch ofComputational Cybernetics is illustrated for two different, imperfectly andinaccurately modeled particular physical sytems. One of them is a water tankstirring cold and hot water as input and releasing the mixture through a long pipe.The mass flow rate and the temperature are prescribed at the free end of the exitpipe while the taps at the input side can diretly be controlled. Due to theincompressibility of the f...

  4. Adaptive calibration of children's physiological responses to family stress: the utility of evolutionary developmental theory: comment on Del Giudice et al. (2012) and Sturge-Apple et al. (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2012-05-01

    Children's physiological reactions to stress are presented from the broader theoretical perspective of adaptive calibration to the environment, as rooted in life history theory. Del Giudice, Hinnant, Ellis, and El-Sheikh (2012) focus on children's physiological responses to a stressful task as a consequence of their history of family stress. Sturge-Apple, Davies, Martin, Cicchetti, and Hentges (2012) focus on the ways that children respond to a novel laboratory manipulation as a combined function of their temperament patterns and the harshness of their parental environment. The theoretical perspective employed provides an overarching framework that not only accounts for the findings presented here but also has heuristic value for future research on responses to early environmental risk. Future work in this area will benefit by inclusion of additional sympathetic nervous system (SNS) markers and neurotransmitters, inclusion of the role of gene expression in adaptive calibration, broader consideration of protective factors in the child's environment, and longitudinal work demonstrating the effects of adaptive calibration on children's future life history strategies and outcomes.

  5. Delayed stochastic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Tadaaki; Ohira, Toru; Lucian, Christian; Milton, John

    2005-03-01

    Time-delayed feedback control becomes problematic in situations in which the time constant of the system is fast compared to the feedback reaction time. In particular, when perturbations are unpredictable, traditional feedback or feed-forward control schemes can be insufficient. Nonethless a human can balance a stick at their fingertip in the presence of fluctuations that occur on time scales shorter than their neural reaction times. Here we study a simple model of a repulsive delayed random walk and demonstrate that the interplay between noise and delay can transiently stabilize an unstable fixed-point. This observation leads to the concept of ``delayed stochastic control,'' i.e. stabilization of tasks, such as stick balancing at the fingertip, by optimally tuning the noise level with respect to the feedback delay time. References:(1)J.L.Cabrera and J.G.Milton, PRL 89 158702 (2002);(2) T. Ohira and J.G.Milton, PRE 52 3277 (1995);(3)T.Hosaka, T.Ohira, C.Lucian, J.L.Cabrera, and J.G.Milton, Prog. Theor. Phys. (to appear).

  6. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two......-stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during...... of reoperation was significantly higher following the one-stage procedure. For both procedures, the majority of reoperations were due to asymmetry or displacement of the implant. In conclusion, non-radiated one- and two-stage delayed breast implant reconstructions are associated with substantial risks...

  7. Time Delay Cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  8. Adaptive lag synchronization and parameters adaptive lag identification of chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Mathematics, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei, Shiyan 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Key Laboratory of Wireless Sensor Network and Communication, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Fang Jian' an, E-mail: jafang@dhu.edu.c [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen, E-mail: sunwen_2201@163.co [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei, Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-07-26

    This Letter investigates the problem of adaptive lag synchronization and parameters adaptive lag identification of chaotic systems. In comparison with those of existing parameters identification schemes, the unknown parameters are identified by adaptive lag laws, and the delay time is also identified in this Letter. Numerical simulations are also given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Improving health and education outcomes for children in remote communities: A cross-sector and developmental evaluation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Maria Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is one of the most influential developmental life stages. Attainments at this stage will have implications for the quality of life children experience as they transition to adulthood. Children residing in remote Australia are exposed to socioeconomic disadvantage that can contribute to developmental delays and resultant poorer education and health outcomes. Complex contributing factors in far west New South Wales have resulted in children with speech and fine motor skill delays experiencing no to limited access to allied health services for a number of decades. More recently, growing awareness that no single policy, government agency, or program could effectively respond to these complexities or ensure appropriate allied health service access for children in these communities has led to the development of the Allied Health in Outback Schools Program, which has been operational since 2009. The program is underpinned by cross-sector partnerships and a shared aspirational aim to improve the developmental outcomes of children to enhance their later life opportunities. It was identified early that the initiative had the potential to deliver mutually beneficial outcomes for communities and participating partner organisations. Over the last five years the program has been the catalyst for partnership consolidation, expansion and diversification. The developmental evaluation approach to continuous program adaptation and refinement has provided valuable insights that have informed health and education policy and enabled the program to be responsive to changing community needs, emerging policy and funding reforms. This article explores the evolution of the program partnerships, their contribution to program success and longevity, and their capacity to respond to an emergent and dynamic environment. The authors propose that a community-centred and developmental approach to program innovation and implementation in remote locations is

  10. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  11. Delayed Random Relays

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Toru

    2016-01-01

    We present here a system with collection of random walks relaying a signal in one dimension with a presence of a delay. We are interested in the time for a signal to travel from one end (start) to the other end (finish) of the lined group of random walkers. It is found that there is an optimal number of walkers for the signal to travel fastest if the delay is present. We discuss implications of this model and associated behaviors to physical and biological systems.

  12. Stochastic parameter estimation in nonlinear time-delayed vibratory systems with distributed delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Shahab; Butcher, Eric A.

    2013-07-01

    The stochastic estimation of parameters and states in linear and nonlinear time-delayed vibratory systems with distributed delay is explored. The approach consists of first employing a continuous time approximation to approximate the delayed integro-differential system with a large set of ordinary differential equations having stochastic excitations. Then the problem of state and parameter estimation in the resulting stochastic ordinary differential system is represented as an optimal filtering problem using a state augmentation technique. By adapting the extended Kalman-Bucy filter to the augmented filtering problem, the unknown parameters of the time-delayed system are estimated from noise-corrupted, possibly incomplete measurements of the states. Similarly, the upper bound of the distributed delay can also be estimated by the proposed technique. As an illustrative example to a practical problem in vibrations, the parameter, delay upper bound, and state estimation from noise-corrupted measurements in a distributed force model widely used for modeling machine tool vibrations in the turning operation is investigated.

  13. Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.

  14. Isolating the delay component of impulsive choice in adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eMcClure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive choice — the preference for small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards — has been linked to various psychological conditions ranging from behavioral disorders to addiction. These links highlight the critical need to dissect the various components of this multifaceted behavioral trait. Delay discounting tasks allow researchers to study an important factor of this behavior: how the subjective value of a rewards changes over a delay period. However, existing methods of delay discounting include a confound of modifying reward sizes during the procedure. Here we present a new approach of using a single constant reward size to assess delay discounting. A complementary approach could hold delay constant and assess the utility of changing quantities of a reward. Isolating these behavioral components can advance our ability to explore the behavioral complexity of impulsive choice. We present the methods for isolating delay in detail, and further capitalize on this method by pairing it with a standard peak interval task to test whether individual variation in delay discounting can be explained by differences in perception of time in male and female adolescent rats. We find that rats that were more precise in discriminating time intervals were also less impulsive in their choice. Our data suggest that differences in timing and delay discounting are not causally related, but instead are more likely influenced by a common factor. Further, the mean-level change in our measure between postnatal day 28 and 42 suggests this test may be capturing a developmental change in this factor. In summary, this new method of isolating individual components of impulsive choice (delay or quantity can be efficiently applied in either adolescent or adult animal models and may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying impulsivity and its links to psychological disorders.

  15. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  16. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  17. Regional and Foreign Accent Processing in English: Can Listeners Adapt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Goslin, Jeremy; Ellis, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the first presentation of a foreign accent triggers a delay in word identification, followed by a subsequent adaptation. This study examines under what conditions the delay resumes to baseline level. The delay will be experimentally induced by the presentation of sentences spoken to listeners in a foreign or a regional…

  18. An Evaluation of Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures in Skill Acquisition for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Julie A. Ackerlund; Weinkauf, Sara; Zeug, Nicole; Klatt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that various prompting procedures are effective in teaching skills to children and adults with developmental disabilities. Simultaneous prompting includes proving a prompt immediately following an instruction; whereas constant time-delay procedures include a set time delay (i.e., 5 s or 10 s) prior to delivering a…

  19. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...

  20. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.' PMID:27242648

  1. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  2. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  3. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  4. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  5. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  6. Adaptive Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  7. Home Intervention: Validating the Item Order of a Developmental Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, A. T.; Jansen, G. G.; van der Meulen, B. F.; Oenema-Mostert, C. E.; Ruijssenaars, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    To adapt home intervention processes to the needs of a child, a correct overview of skills that the child masters is necessary. The Portage Program, a home intervention program for families with children from 0 to 6 years of age with special educational needs, uses a checklist to assess the developmental skills that the child masters (S. M. Bluma,…

  8. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Contributions from Comparative Research with Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…

  9. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marco Antonio Pereira; Bardagi, Marucia Patta; Lassance, Maria Celia Pacheco; Magalhaes, Mauro de Oliveira; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The…

  10. Optimum Delayed Retirement Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Sheshinski, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A central question for pension design is how benefits should vary with the age of retirement beyond early eligibility age. It is often argued that in order to be neutral with respect to individual retirement decisions benefits should be actuarially fair, that is, the present value of additional contributions and benefits (’Delayed Retirement Credit’ - DRC) due to postponed retirement should be equal. We show that in a self-selection, asymmetric information model, because individual decisions ...

  11. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.; Tinto, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  12. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  13. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  14. Developmental differences in childhood motor coordination predict adult alcohol dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim;

    2005-01-01

    hypothesized that developmental deficits in the cerebellar vermis may also play a role in the initiation of adult alcohol dependence. The present study evaluated whether measures of motor development in the first year of life predict alcohol dependence three decades later. METHODS: A total of 241 subjects...... and early delays in motor development offer support for the theory that cerebellar deficits may play a causal role in the addiction process....

  15. Motor Developmental Status of Moderately Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    TAVASOLI, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Health...

  16. Infant overweight is associated with delayed motor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan; Adair, Linda S.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine how infant overweight and high subcutaneous fat relate to infant motor development. Study design Participants are from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Project, a prospective, longitudinal study of low-income African American mother-infant dyads assessed from 3 -18 months of age (836 observations on 217 infants). Exposures were overweight (weight-for-length z-score ≥90th percentile of 2000 CDC/NCHS growth reference) and high subcutaneous fat (sum of three skinfold measurements >90th percentile of our sample). Motor development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Developmental delay was characterized as a standardized Psychomotor Development Index score <85. Longitudinal models estimated developmental outcomes as functions of time-varying overweight and subcutaneous fat, controlling for age and sex. Alternate models tested concurrent and lagged relationships (prior weight or subcutaneous fat predicting current motor development). Results Motor delay was 1.80 times as likely in overweight compared with non-overweight infants (95% CI:1.09, 2.97), and 2.32 times as likely in infants with high subcutaneous fat compared with lower subcutaneous fat (95% CI:1.26, 4.29). High subcutaneous fat was also associated with delay in subsequent motor development (OR=2.27, 95% CI:1.08, 4.76). Conclusions Pediatric overweight and high subcutaneous fat are associated with delayed infant motor development. PMID:20227724

  17. Exosomes in developmental signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ian John; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-15

    In order to achieve coordinated growth and patterning during development, cells must communicate with one another, sending and receiving signals that regulate their activities. Such developmental signals can be soluble, bound to the extracellular matrix, or tethered to the surface of adjacent cells. Cells can also signal by releasing exosomes - extracellular vesicles containing bioactive molecules such as RNA, DNA and enzymes. Recent work has suggested that exosomes can also carry signalling proteins, including ligands of the Notch receptor and secreted proteins of the Hedgehog and WNT families. Here, we describe the various types of exosomes and their biogenesis. We then survey the experimental strategies used so far to interfere with exosome formation and critically assess the role of exosomes in developmental signalling. PMID:27436038

  18. Developmental amnesia and its relationship to degree of hippocampal atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, E. B.; Vargha-Khadem, F.; Watkins, K. E.; Lucas, A.; Mishkin, M.; Gadian, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents, one born preterm and one with a diagnosis of developmental amnesia, were compared with age-matched normal controls on measures of hippocampal volume and memory function. Relative to control values, the preterm group values showed a mean bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of 8–9% (ranging to 23%), whereas the developmental amnesic group values showed a reduction of 40% (ranging from 27% to 56%). Despite equivalent IQ and immediate memory scores in the two study groups, there were marked differences between them on a wide variety of verbal and visual delayed memory tasks. Consistent with their diagnosis, the developmental amnesic group was impaired relative to both other groups on nearly all delayed memory measures. The preterm group, by contrast, was significantly impaired relative to the controls on only a few memory measures, i.e., route following and prospective memory. We suggest that early hippocampal pathology leads to the disabling memory impairments associated with developmental amnesia when the volume of this structure is reduced below normal by ≈20–30% on each side. Whether this is a sufficient condition for the disorder or whether abnormality in other brain regions is also necessary remains to be determined. PMID:14555756

  19. The Arabidopsis Floral Repressor BFT DelaysFlowering by Competing with FT for FD Bindingunder High Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most serious agricultural problems that significantly reduce crop yields in the aridand semi-arid regions. It influences various phases of plant growth and developmental processes, such as seed germina-tion, leaf and stem growth, and reproductive propagation. Salt stress delays the onset of flowering in many plant spe-cies. We have previously reported that the Arabidopsis BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) acts as a floral repressor undersalt stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the BFT function in the salt regulation of flowering inductionis unknown. In this work, we found that BFT delays flowering under high salinity by competing with FLOWERING LOCUST (FT) for binding to the FD transcription factor. The flowering time of FD-deficient fd-2 mutant was insensitive to highsalinity. BFT interacts with FD in the nucleus via the C-terminal domain of FD, which is also required for the interactionof FD with FT, and interferes with the FT-FD interaction. These observations indicate that BFT constitutes a distinct saltstress signaling pathway that modulates the function of the FT-FD module and possibly provides an adaptation strategythat fine-tunes photoperiodic flowering under high salinity.

  20. Juvenile antioxidant treatment prevents adult deficits in a developmental model of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cabungcal, Jan Harry; Counotte, Danielle S.; Lewis, Eastman; Tejeda, Hugo A.; Piantadosi, Patrick; Pollock, Cameron; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G.; Sullivan, Elyse; Presgraves, Echo; Kil, Jonathan; Hong, L. Elliot; Cuenod, Michel; Kim Q Do; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal development can lead to deficits in adult brain function, a trajectory likely underlying adolescent-onset psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia. Developmental manipulations yielding adult deficits in rodents provide an opportunity to explore mechanisms involved in a delayed emergence of anomalies driven by developmental alterations. Here we assessed whether oxidative stress during presymptomatic stages causes adult anomalies in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion, ...

  1. Parent Training for Young Children With Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group (n = 23) received usual care, including early childhood education and related services. Results suggest that this parent training intervention was su...

  2. An Unusual Developmental Profile of Salla Disease in a Patient with the SallaFIN Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Paavola, Liisa E.; Remes, Anne M.; Sonninen, Pirkko H.; Vesa V. Kiviniemi; Korhonen, Tapio T.; Kari Majamaa

    2012-01-01

    Salla disease (SD) is a disorder caused by defective storage of free sialic acid and results from mutations in the SLC17A5 gene. Early developmental delay of motor functions, and later cognitive skills, is typical. We describe a developmental profile of an unusual homozygous patient, who harboured the SallaFIN (p.R39C) mutation gene. The study involved neurological examination, neuropsychological investigation, and brain imaging. The neurocognitive findings were atypical in comparison with ot...

  3. Both Maternal and Pup Genotype Influence Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Early Developmental Milestones in Tsc2+/− Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Greene-Colozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by tumor growth and neuropsychological symptoms such as autistic behavior, developmental delay, and epilepsy. While research has shed light on the biochemical and genetic etiology of TSC, the pathogenesis of the neurologic and behavioral manifestations remains poorly understood. TSC patients have a greatly increased risk of developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder, rendering the relationship between the two sets of symptoms an extremely pertinent issue for clinicians. We have expanded on previous observations of aberrant vocalizations in Tsc2+/− mice by testing vocalization output and developmental milestones systematically during the early postnatal period. In this study, we have demonstrated that Tsc2 haploinsufficiency in either dams or their pups results in a pattern of developmental delay in sensorimotor milestones and ultrasonic vocalizations.

  4. Delayed Macular Hole Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Distelmaier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The presented case raises questions regarding the favorable scheduling of planned postoperative care and the ideal observation interval to decide for reoperations in macular hole surgery. Furthermore a discussion about the use of short- and long-acting gas tamponades in macular hole surgery is encouraged. Methods: We present an interventional case report and a short review of the pertinent literature. Results: We report a case of spontaneous delayed macular hole closure after vitreoretinal surgery had been performed initially without the expected success. A 73-year-old male Caucasian patient presented at our clinic with a stage 2 macular hole in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with a 20% C2F6-gas tamponade. Sixteen days after the procedure, an OCT scan revealed a persistent stage 2 macular hole, and the patient was scheduled for reoperation. Surprisingly, at the date of planned surgery, which was another 11 days later, the macular hole had resolved spontaneously without any further intervention. Conclusions: So far no common opinion exists regarding the use of short- or long-acting gas in macular hole surgery. Our case of delayed macular hole closure after complete resorption of the gas tamponade raises questions about the need and duration of strict prone positioning after surgery. Furthermore short-acting gas might be as efficient as long-acting gas. We suggest to wait with a second intervention at least 4 weeks after the initial surgery, since a delayed macular hole closure is possible.

  5. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  6. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...

  7. Four patients with speech delay, seizures and variable corpus callosum thickness sharing a 0.440 Mb deletion in region 1q44 containing the HNRPU gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caliebe, Almuth; Kroes, Hester Y.; van der Smagt, Jasper J.; Martin-Subero, Jose I.; Toennies, Holger; van 't Slot, Ruben; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Stephani, Ulrich; Alfke, Karsten; Stefanova, Irina; Hellenbroich, Yorck; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Hochstenbach, Ron; Siebert, Reiner; Poot, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Structural genome aberrations are frequently associated with highly variable congenital phenotypes involving mental retardation and developmental delay. Although some of these aberrations may result in recognizable phenotypes, a high degree of phenotypic variability often complicates a comprehensive

  8. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  9. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Developmental programming of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions?

  10. Light and dark adaptation in Phycomyces phototropism

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Light and dark adaptation of the phototropism of Phycomyces sporangiophores were analyzed in the intensity range of 10(-7)-6 W X m- 2. The experiments were designed to test the validity of the Delbruck- Reichardt model of adaptation (Delbruck, M., and W. Reichardt, 1956, Cellular Mechanisms in Differentiation and Growth, 3-44), and the kinetics were measured by the phototropic delay method. We found that their model describes adequately only changes of the adaptation level after small, relati...

  11. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  12. Coping with persistent environmental problems: systemic delays in reducing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Varjopuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1 decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy; (2 implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3 ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also at the implementation of policies to ensure that the societies are investing in the right measures.

  13. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity. PMID:27586618

  14. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  15. Phenotypic Dichotomy Following Developmental Exposure to Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA) Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low Doses Induce Elevated Serum, Leptin, Insulin, and Overweight in Mid-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The synthetic surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a proven developmental toxicant in mice, causing prenatal pregnancy loss, increased neonatal mortality, delayed eye opening, and abnormal mammary gland growth in animals exposed during fetal life. PFOA is found in the ser...

  16. Congestion control algorithm in large-delay uncertain networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjie YIN; Yuanwei JING; Yuanjiu GONG

    2007-01-01

    Based on Smith-fuzzy controller,a new active queue management(AQM)algorithm adaptable to the large-delay uncertain networks is presented.It can compensate the negative impact on the queue stability caused by the large delay,and it also maintains strong robustness under the condition of dynamic network fluid.Its stability is proven through Lyapunov method.Simulation results demonstrated that this method enables the queue length to converge at a preset value quickly and keeps the queue oscillation small.the simulation results also show that the scheme is very robust to disturbance under various network conditions and large delay and,in particular,the algorithm proposed outperforms the conventional PI control and fuzzy control when the network parameters and network delay change.

  17. Synchronizing time delay systems using variable delay in coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411 021 (India); Amritkar, R.E., E-mail: amritkar@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Delay and anticipation in coupling function varies with system dynamics. > Delay or anticipation of the synchronized state is independent of system delay. > Stability analysis developed is quite general. > We demonstrate enhanced security in communication. > Generalized synchronization possible over a wide range of parameter mismatch. - Abstract: We present a mechanism for synchronizing time delay systems using one way coupling with a variable delay in coupling that is reset at finite intervals. We present the analysis of the error dynamics that helps to isolate regions of stability of the synchronized state in the parameter space of interest for single and multiple delays. We supplement this by numerical simulations in a standard time delay system like Mackey Glass system. This method has the advantage that it can be adjusted to be delay or anticipatory in synchronization with a time which is independent of the system delay. We demonstrate the use of this method in communication using the bi channel scheme. We show that since the synchronizing channel carries information from transmitter only at intervals of reset time, it is not susceptible to an easy reconstruction.

  18. Schizotypy From a Developmental Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Debbané, Martin; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2014-01-01

    The schizotypy construct focuses attention on the liability to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, yet traditionally, the schizotypy models have put more emphasis on stress-vulnerability interactions rather than developmental dynamics of emerging risk for psychopathology. Indeed, developmental accounts of this emerging personality trait have rarely been explicitly formulated. In this position article, we wish to convey some of the basic developmental tenets of schizotypy, and how they c...

  19. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  20. pth moment exponential stochastic synchronization of coupled memristor-based neural networks with mixed delays via delayed impulsive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinsong; Cao, Jinde; Qiu, Jianlong

    2015-05-01

    This paper concerns the pth moment synchronization in an array of generally coupled memristor-based neural networks with time-varying discrete delays, unbounded distributed delays, as well as stochastic perturbations. Hybrid controllers are designed to cope with the uncertainties caused by the state-dependent parameters: (a) state feedback controllers combined with delayed impulsive controller; (b) adaptive controller combined with delayed impulsive controller. Based on an impulsive differential inequality, the properties of random variables, the framework of Filippov solution, and Lyapunov functional method, sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the considered coupled memristor-based neural networks can be pth moment globally exponentially synchronized onto an isolated node under both of the two classes of hybrid impulsive controllers. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:25703512

  1. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, S.G.; Grant-Webster, K.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world`s environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with non human primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MEHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg {mu}g/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. 107 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Adaptation and creativity in cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora M. Cohen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is the fit between the individual and the environment. The dynamic interplay between person, culture, and environment is one of the most important issues in analyzing creativity. Adaptation is defined as the fit or adjustment of the individual to external conditions, but adaptation can also mean moving from one environment to another more suitable, or even forcing the environment to adapt in response to creative efforts. Culture impacts creativity in limiting acceptable boundaries, yet providing the artifacts used in creating. Culture is impacted and changed by creative efforts. Tight conformity to confining environments or cultures can stifle. The creator must be aware of cultural values and not overstep these boundaries for work to be accepted. A developmental continuum of adaptive, creative behaviors suggests a shift from individual adaptation to the environment to adaptation by the world to the individual.

  3. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  4. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  5. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus;

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  6. Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small.

  7. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  8. Adaptive Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  9. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  10. Experience in Cambodia with the Use of a Culturally Relevant Developmental Milestone Chart for Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The awareness and knowledge of developmental milestones among health practitioners need to be enhanced to better enable early identification and intervention with children who have delays in development, intellectual deficit, and developmental disabilities and are residents in low-and middle-income countries. To meet this end, a simple one-page…

  11. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians.

  12. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  13. Developmental Math: What's the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarella, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…

  14. A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. PMID:25961312

  15. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  16. Delayed unlatching mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2015-05-19

    In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.

  17. The Developmental Outcome of Children Born to Heroin-Dependent Mothers, Raised at Home or Adopted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children born to heroin-dependent mothers (n=83) were compared to 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to 3 control groups with and without environmental deprivation and health problems. Results found that developmental delays and behavioral disorders found among heroin-exposed children resulted primarily from severe environmental…

  18. Simple Steps for Teaching Prepositions to Students with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S. Christy; Rivera, Christopher J.; Patterson, Dawn R.

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of receptive and expressive language skills by students with autism and developmental disabilities (DD) is often delayed, thus making the process of communicating with others challenging. Some students develop language skills incidentally through conversations with their families and peers, but others require instruction in…

  19. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  20. First Steps for Early Success: State Strategies to Support Developmental Screening in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Staub, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Young children's development occurs along a continuum, with milestones reached at ages that vary within an accepted timeframe. Milestones not met within the expected timeframe can raise concerns about developmental delays, health conditions, or other factors contributing negatively to the child's growth and learning. Monitoring children's…

  1. Biomedical Risk, Psychosocial Influences, and Developmental Outcomes: Lessons from the Pediatric HIV Population in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and…

  2. Chronic Overeating without Obesity in Children with Developmental Disabilities: Description of a New Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoob, Keith-Thomas; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen children (ages 3.1 to 5.2 years) referred for developmental delay and excessive eating (without obesity) were evaluated. Commonalities included being in foster care, prenatal drug exposure, and abnormally withdrawn and/or aggressive behavior. (Author/DB)

  3. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  4. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  5. Consumer Procrastination and Purchase Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Darpy, Denis

    2000-01-01

    Recent research on purchase delay have developed numerous situational and individual causes. This paper proposes Consumer Procrastination to conceptualize the individual factor which influence people to chronically delay their purchases. Consumer Procrastination is measured with a new scale. An experiment is designed to show the importance of its impact on the decision to not choose along with context effects.

  6. Magnetic bearing optical delay line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in close cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has developed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in PRIMA, GENIE and other ground based interferometers. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task.

  7. A Formal Framework for Modelling the Developmental Course of Competence and Performance in the Distance, Speed, and Time Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dietrich; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2008-01-01

    The developmental course in the distance-speed-time domain is still a matter of debate. Traditional stage models are contested by theories of continuous development and adaptive thinking. In the present work, we introduce a formal framework for modelling the developmental course in this domain, grounding on Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory.…

  8. Time-delay damping theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪峰

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, existing damping theories are briefly reviewed. On the basis of the existing damping theories, a new kind of damping theory, i.e., the time-delay damping theory, is developed. In the time-delay damping theory, the damping force is considered to be directly proportional to the increment of displacement. The response analysis of an SDOF time-delay damping system is carried out, and the methods for obtaining the solution for a time-delay damping system in the time domain as well as the frequency domain are given. The comparison between results from different damping theories shows that the time-delay damping theory is both reasonable and convenient.

  9. Energy-efficient scheduling under delay constraints for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Randal; Zafer, Murtaza

    2012-01-01

    Packet delay and energy consumption are important considerations in wireless and sensor networks as these metrics directly affect the quality of service of the application and the resource consumption of the network; especially, for a rapidly growing class of real-time applications that impose strict restrictions on packet delays. Dynamic rate control is a novel technique for adapting the transmission rate of wireless devices, almost in real-time, to opportunistically exploit time-varying channel conditions as well as changing traffic patterns. Since power consumption is not a linear function

  10. Cellular and molecular aspects of plant adaptation to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    between them. Diversity and modification of the membrane lipid content stipulate its participation in the regulation of many important cell processes. Metabolism intensification, including energetic, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, an increase in the organelle functional load, and changes in enzyme activity promote the long-term (secondary) adaptation. The dynamics of these processes demonstrated that the adaptation occurs on the principle of self-regulating systems. We consider these available data as manifestations of phenotypic plasticity that provides plant adaptation to the unfavorable influence of microgravity. The concept that system's stability is provided by the ability of its components to lability in certain limits is a paradigm of modern science. In biology, it is phenotypic plasticity, i.e. a genome competence to change its expression and form different phenotypes in response to environmental fluctuations. Phenotypic plasticity is supposed to be performed within the limits of physiological reaction norm on the basis of metabolic and hormonal regulation of gene expression. We also discuss a possible role of epigenetic heredity, different forms of which are widely spread among plants due to their ability to vegetative propagation and peculiarities of developmental biology, in phenotypic plasticity, as its manifestations begin to reveal at the transcription level. Attraction of the ideas about the epigenetic control of gene expression will open the new level in understanding of plant adaptation to microgravity. In consideration of the adaptive responses to microgravity, plants reach the generative phase of ontogenesis in space flight, i.e. they are flowering and fruiting. However, a delay in synthesis of storage nutrients and the lower level of its accumulation in seeds in microgravity, as well as the formation of seeds with anomalous embryos in some cases have been described. These data made it impossible to say about full adaptation of plants to

  11. Developmental retardation in infants as a concomitant of physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, A S

    1977-12-01

    The impact of child abuse on the developmental functioning of infants was investigated. Thirty verified cases of physically abused children were compared to a reference group of 30 nonabused children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Abused children scored significantly lower in terms of cognitive and motor development as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Development delays on three of the four sectors of the Denver Developmental Screening Test, personal-social, language, and gross motor, were also found in the abused children. There were, however, relatively few item differences between the two groups on the 30 more general behavioral variables constituting the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. Results appear to confirm clinical observation of abused children as developmentally retarded with specific delays in the language and gross motor areas. Although methodologically complex, longitudinal studies are clearly indicated to assess the stability and/or reversibility of the present findings. PMID:75219

  12. Psychomotor Delay, a Possible Rare Presentation of Moyamoya Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Ashrafi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a rare, chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by progressive stenosis of the arteries of the circle of Willis leading to ischemicstrokes in young people and cerebral hemorrhage, which is more frequent in adults. Secondarily,an abnormal network of fine collateral vessels arises at the base of the brain. The term moyamoyarefers to the angiographic appearance of the cerebral vasculature. We present such a disease in an 18-month-old Iranian girl with global developmental delay, which is a very rare presentationof moyamoya disease. She was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA.

  13. Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

  14. Learning monopolies with delayed feedback on price expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-11-01

    We call the intercept of the price function with the vertical axis the maximum price and the slope of the price function the marginal price. In this paper it is assumed that a monopolistic firm has full information about the marginal price and its own cost function but is uncertain on the maximum price. However, by repeated interaction with the market, the obtained price observations give a basis for an adaptive learning process of the maximum price. It is also assumed that the price observations have fixed delays, so the learning process can be described by a delayed differential equation. In the cases of one or two delays, the asymptotic behavior of the resulting dynamic process is examined, stability conditions are derived. Three main results are demonstrated in the two delay learning processes. First, it is possible to stabilize the equilibrium which is unstable in the one delay model. Second, complex dynamics involving chaos, which is impossible in the one delay model, can emerge. Third, alternations of stability and instability (i.e., stability switches) occur repeatedly.

  15. Standard bone healing stages occur during delayed bone healing, albeit with a different temporal onset and spatial distribution of callus tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Anja; Schell, Hanna; Bail, Hermann J.; Hannemann, Marion; Schumann, Tanja; Duda, Georg N; Lienau, Jasmin

    2010-01-01

    Bone healing is considered as a recapitulation of a developmental program initiated at the time of injury. This study tested the hypothesis that in delayed bone healing the regular cascade of healing events, including remodeling of woven to lamellar bone, would be similar compared to standard healing, although the temporal onset would be delayed. A tibial osteotomy was performed in sheep and stabilized with a rotationally unstable fixator leading to delayed healing....

  16. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  17. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-01

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N2O and H2O . The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N2O , whereas the delays in H2O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N2O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ˜110 as. The unstructured continua of H2O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  18. Attosecond delays in molecular photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Huppert, Martin; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of energy-dependent attosecond photoionization delays between the two outer-most valence shells of N$_2$O and H$_2$O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N$_2$O, whereas the delays in H$_2$O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N$_2$O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to $\\sim$110 as. The unstructured continua of H$_2$O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  19. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Developmental programming of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions? PMID:27482657

  20. Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, M; Sroufe, L A

    2000-01-01

    The defining features of developmental psychopathology concepts include attention to the understanding of causal processes, appreciation of the role of developmental mechanisms, and consideration of continuities and discontinuities between normality and psychopathology. Accomplishments with respect to these issues are reviewed in relation to attachment disorders, antisocial behavior, autism, depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and intellectual development. Major research challenges remain in relation to measurement issues, comorbidity, gender differences, cognitive processing, nature-nurture interplay, heterotypic continuity, continuities between normal variations and disorders, developmental programming, and therapeutic mechanisms in effective treatments. PMID:11014739