WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive bolus chasing

  1. The application of DSA bolus chase technology in diagnosing the vascular disorders of lower extremities due to diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) bolus chase technology in diagnosing the vascular disorders of lower extremities due to diabetes mellitus. Methods: From January 2004 to March 2010, DSA was performed in forty-five diabetes patients with suspicious vascular diseases of lower extremities. Among them, 24 cases (31 lower limbs)were examined with DSA bolus chase technology and the remaining 21 cases (21 lower limbs)were examined with traditional segmentational technique. The contrast dosage used in angiography, the total exposure time, the examination time and the imaging value for making diagnosis were analyzed and compared between two techniques. Results: For DSA bolus chase technology group, the contrast dosage used in angiography, the total exposure time and the examination time were 25.26 ml, 13.23 s and 37.26 min, respectively,with an average exposure of 101.65 pictures. For traditional segmentational technique group, the contrast dosage used in angiography, the total exposure time and the examination time were 130.00 ml, 52.38 s and 50.48 min, respectively, with an average exposure of 118.33 pictures. The percentage of high quality images in bolus chase technology group and in traditional segmentational technique group were 90.3% and 90.5%, respectively. All the images could meet the requirements for making a reliable diagnosis. Conclusion: Digital subtraction angiography by using bolus-chase technology can well demonstrate the vascular pathology of lower extremities caused by diabetes mellitus, obtain sufficient imaging information necessary for making a reliable diagnosis. DSA bolus chase technology is superior to traditional segmentational technique in shortening procedure time, reducing contrast medium dosage and decreasing radiation dose. (authors)

  2. Bolus characteristics based on Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaoming

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed contrast bolus propagation model is essential for optimizing bolus-chasing Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA. Bolus characteristics were studied using bolus-timing datasets from Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA for adaptive controller design and validation. Methods MRA bolus-timing datasets of the aorta in thirty patients were analyzed by a program developed with MATLAB. Bolus characteristics, such as peak position, dispersion and bolus velocity, were studied. The bolus profile was fit to a convolution function, which would serve as a mathematical model of bolus propagation in future controller design. Results The maximum speed of the bolus in the aorta ranged from 5–13 cm/s and the dwell time ranged from 7–13 seconds. Bolus characteristics were well described by the proposed propagation model, which included the exact functional relationships between the parameters and aortic location. Conclusion The convolution function describes bolus dynamics reasonably well and could be used to implement the adaptive controller design.

  3. Chasing Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel, Brock; Shleifer, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple model in which rational but uninformed traders occasionally chase noise as if it were information, thereby amplifying sentiment shocks and moving prices away from fundamental values. We fill a theoretical gap in the literature by showing conditions under which noise traders can have an impact on market equilibrium disproportionate to their size in the market. The model offers a partial explanation for the surprisingly low market price of financial risk in the Spring of 2007.

  4. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.

  5. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake NWR, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  6. Evaluation of Pharyngeal Function between No Bolus and Bolus Propofol Induced Sedation for Advanced Upper Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsuke Kiriyama; Hiroshi Naitoh; Minoru Fukuchi; Takaharu Fukasawa; Kana Saito; Yuichi Tabe; Hayato Yamauchi; Tomonori Yoshida; Hiroyuki Kuwano

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess pharyngeal function between no bolus and bolus propofol induced sedation during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection. A retrospective study was conducted involving consecutive gastric cancer patients. Patients in the no bolus group received a 3 mg/kg/h maintenance dose of propofol after the initiation of sedation without bolus injection. All patients in the bolus group received the same maintenance dose of propofol with bolus 0.5 mg/kg propofol injection. Pharyn...

  7. A Theory of Ambulance Chasing

    CERN Document Server

    Backović, Mihailo

    2016-01-01

    Ambulance chasing is a common socio-scientific phenomenon in particle physics. I argue that despite the seeming complexity, it is possible to gain insight into both the qualitative and quantitative features of ambulance chasing dynamics. Compound-Poisson statistics suffices to accommodate the time evolution of the cumulative number of papers on a topic, where basic assumptions that the interest in the topic as well as the number of available ideas decrease with time appear to drive the time evolution. It follows that if the interest scales as an inverse power law in time, the cumulative number of papers on a topic is well described by a di-gamma function, with a distinct logarithmic behavior at large times. In cases where the interest decreases exponentially with time, the model predicts that the total number of papers on the topic will converge to a fixed value as time goes to infinity. I demonstrate that the two models are able to fit at least 9 specific instances of ambulance chasing in particle physics us...

  8. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The...

  9. Annual narrative report 1995: Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The...

  10. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report - 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The...

  11. Bolus propagation in pig ureter in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    van Mastrigt, Ron; Tauecchio, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    textabstractPig ureters were made to propagate injected fluid boluses by electrical stimulation in vitro. The propagation velocity was determined from EMG measurements made at several points along the ureter. It was found that this velocity varied both along the ureter and as a function of time, and that it was related to the contraction pressure but not to the bolus size.

  12. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  13. Chinese Learning Journeys: Chasing the Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Eight students from mainland China chart their learning journeys across national and continental boundaries and socio-cultural contexts. The five women and three men structure their experiences of studying in China and the West around the turning points and life changing choices they made in chasing their dreams. They embody its emergent…

  14. Oesophageal food bolus impaction in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Slobodan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The diagnosis of food bolus impaction in the esophagus is based on the data obtained from the patient, clinical examination, radiographic diagnosis, and endoscopy. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of possible factors causing oesophageal impaction of food boluses in elderly people. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included six male and eight female patients treated at the Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat Disease in Novi Sad. Results. Post-corrosive oesophageal stricture was diagnosed in 28.57% of patients and non-corrosive stricture was found in 21.43%. Total tooth loss was recorded in 64.29% of patients and 14.29% of patients had partial tooth loss. An impacted food bolus was located at a distance of 15-25 cm or 30-40 cm distance from the upper incisors in 42.86% of the study sample. Discussion and conclusion. The impaction of food boluses in the esophagus is significantly higher in women, usually after 76 years of age. There is a positive correlation between the presence of oesophageal stricture and recurrence of food bolus impaction. Partial and total tooth loss is present in a high percentage but there is no correlation with the food bolus impaction. Impaction of food bolus was equally found in the upper and lower third of the oesophagus and it was usually meat. Radiographic diagnosis should precede each esophagoscopy. Esophagoscopy with rigid oesophagoscope is a reliable method for the extraction of a bolus of food from the oesophagus in elderly patients.

  15. 21 CFR 520.420 - Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. 520.420... Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. (a)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.25 gram of chlorothiazide. (2...) Specifications. Each bolus contains 2 grams of chlorothiazide. (2) Sponsor. See No. 000006 in § 510.600(c)...

  16. Episodic chasing in pathological gamblers using the Iowa gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J.; Rojskjaer, S.; Nygaard, Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    "Chasing ones losses" is a key symptom among pathological gamblers (PGs). This study focuses on quantitative differences in episodic chasing (i.e., sequences of disadvantageous decisions within a single gambling session) between PGs and non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). We compared 61 PGs and 39 ...... advantageous and disadvantageous (i.e., chasing) players, but there was no interaction with group or gender. The results suggest that quantifiable within-session gambling behavior holds important implications for detecting underlying vulnerabilities to gambling pathology......."Chasing ones losses" is a key symptom among pathological gamblers (PGs). This study focuses on quantitative differences in episodic chasing (i.e., sequences of disadvantageous decisions within a single gambling session) between PGs and non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). We compared 61 PGs and 39...

  17. The comparison of imaging quality between bolus-triggering and test-bolus technique used in 64-slice spiral CT angiography of lower extremity arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .01). Conclusion: There was a wide interindividual variation in transit time for contrast medium to reach aorta and politeal artery. Adaptive method by using two low-dose test bolus injection determined interindividual variation in delay time and scan time and thus above parameters was able to produce better quality images than using bolus triggering technique in below knee and foot region arteries. (authors)

  18. Toxic leucoencephalopathy after 'chasing the dragon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Saini, Monica

    2015-06-01

    Toxic leucoencephalopathy (TLE) is a rare neurological complication of heroin abuse. 'Chasing the dragon' is an inhalational mode of heroin abuse that originated in Southeast Asia. Intriguingly, no cases of TLE have been reported from this region, although the inhalational mode of heroin abuse is common. We herein report the case of a middle-aged man with a history of polysubstance abuse who presented with progressive neurological symptoms and progressed to an uncommunicative state. While the initial impression was that of iatrogenic parkinsonism, diffuse leucoencephalopathy with sparing of the cerebellum was noted on magnetic resonance imaging. In view of his history of inhalational heroin abuse close to the onset of the neurological symptoms, a diagnosis of TLE was made. No clinical improvement was noted with administration of a dopaminergic agent. This is the first known case of delayed TLE following heroin inhalation from Southeast Asia with the unusual feature of cerebellar sparing.

  19. ERASED-CHASE DECODING FOR RS-CODED MPSK SIGNALING OVER A RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chaojun; Sun Yue; Wang Xinmei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a novel dual-metric,the maximum and minimum Squared Euclidean Distance Increment(SEDI)brought by changing the hard decision symbol,is introduced to measure the reliability of the received M-ary Phase Shift Keying(MPSK)symbols over a Rayleigh fading channel.Based on the dual-metric,a Chase-type soft decoding algorithm,which is called erased-Chase algorithm,is developed for Reed-Solomon(RS)coded MPSK schemes.The proposed algorithm treats the unreliable symbols with small maximum SEDI as erasures,and tests the non-erased unreliable symbols with small minimum SEDI as the Chase-2 algorithm does.By introducing optimality test into the decoding procedure,much more reduction in the decoding complexity can be achieved.Simulation results of the RS(63,42,22)-coded 8-PSK scheme over a Rayleigh fading channel show that the proposed algorithm provides a very efficient tradeoff between the decoding complexity and the error performance.Finally,an adaptive scheme for the number of erasures is introduced into the decoding algorithm.

  20. Chases and escapes the mathematics of pursuit and evasion

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We all played tag when we were kids. What most of us don't realize is that this simple chase game is in fact an application of pursuit theory, and that the same principles of games like tag, dodgeball, and hide-and-seek are also at play in military strategy, high-seas chases by the Coast Guard, and even romantic pursuits. In Chases and Escapes, Paul Nahin gives us the first complete history of this fascinating area of mathematics, from its classical analytical beginnings to the present day. Drawing on game theory, geometry, linear algebra, target-tracking algorithms, and much

  1. A study on developing customized bolus using 3D prints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sang Min; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jin Uk; Yeom, Du Seok [Dept. of Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%} and V{sub 95%} in treatment plan through Eclipse. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average 3.9 cm{sup 3} at the customized bolus. And it was average 29.6cm{sup 3} at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of branded 1 cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, D{sub 95%}, V{sub 95%} of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. The

  2. ECMO: Improving our Results by Chasing the Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Canêo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As Marcelo Giugale published in the Financial Times, Latin America, on the whole, has not excelled at innovation - doing the same things in a new and better way or at doing new things. It has been slow to acquire, adopt and adapt technologies by this time available in other places[1]. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is not a new technology, its use in Latin America is not widespread as needed. Furthermore, we still have a number centers doing ECMO, not reporting their cases, lacking a structured training program and not registered with the extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO. With this scenario, and accepting that ECMO is the first step in any circulatory support program, it is difficult to anticipate the incorporation of new and more complex devices as the technologically advanced world is currently doing. However, the good news is that with the support of experts from USA, Europe and Canada the results in Latin America ELSO'S centers are improving by following its guidelines for training, and using a standard educational process. There is no doubt that we can learn a great deal from the high velocity organizations - the rabbits - whom everyone chases but never catches, that manage to stay ahead because of their endurance, responsiveness, and their velocity in self-correction[2].

  3. Optical tracking of contrast medium bolus to optimize bolus shape and timing in dynamic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisa, Fabian; Brauweiler, Robert; Peetz, Alexander; Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is the optimal synchronization of scan start and duration with contrast medium administration in order to optimize image contrast and to reduce the amount of contrast medium. We present a new optically based approach, which was developed to investigate and optimize bolus timing and shape. The time-concentration curve of an intravenously injected test bolus of a dye is measured in peripheral vessels with an optical sensor prior to the diagnostic CT scan. The curves can be used to assess bolus shapes as a function of injection protocols and to determine contrast medium arrival times. Preliminary results for phantom and animal experiments showed the expected linear behavior between dye concentration and absorption. The kinetics of the dye was compared to iodinated contrast medium and was found to be in good agreement. The contrast enhancement curves were reliably detected in three mice with individual bolus shapes and delay times of 2.1, 3.5 and 6.1 s, respectively. The optical sensor appears to be a promising approach to optimize injection protocols and contrast enhancement timing and is applicable to all modalities without implying any additional radiation dose. Clinical tests are still necessary.

  4. A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161005.html A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go' At least 14 crashes ... it remains imperative for people to understand the dangers of driving with that level of distraction. "This ...

  5. Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  6. For College Freshmen, Four-Legged Friends Chase Away Homesickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chase Away Homesickness Dog therapy helps boost students' life satisfaction, researchers say To use the sharing features on ... were much less homesick and had significantly higher satisfaction with life. For students in the control group, levels of ...

  7. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Chase Encirclement Stress Studies (CHESS) 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CHase Encirclement Stress Studies (CHESS) are part of a comprehensive research program designed to investigate the status of dolphin stocks that are involved in...

  8. Knowing When to Stop: The Brain Mechanisms of Chasing Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Woolrich, Mark; Passingham, Dick;

    2008-01-01

    adult participants decided to chase losses or decided to quit gambling to prevent further losses.ResultsChasing losses was associated with increased activity in cortical areas linked to incentive-motivation and an expectation of reward. By contrast, quitting was associated with decreased activity...... in pathological gambling might involve a failure to appropriately balance activity within neural systems coding conflicting motivational states. Similar mechanisms might underlie the loss-of-control over appetitive behaviors in other impulse control disorders....

  9. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Juciléia Dalmazo; Lilian Rose Otoboni Aprile; Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteratio...

  10. On diagram-chasing in double complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, George M

    2011-01-01

    Diagram-chasing arguments frequently lead to "magical" relations between distant points of diagrams: exactness implications, connecting morphisms, etc.. These long connections are usually composites of short "unmagical" connections, but the latter, and the objects they join, are not visible in the proofs. I try to remedy this situation. Given a double complex in an abelian category, we consider, for each object A of the complex, the familiar horizontal and vertical homology objects at A, and two other objects, which we name the "donor" A_{\\box} and and the "receptor" ^{\\box}A at A. For each arrow of the double complex, we prove the exactness of a 6-term sequence of these objects (the "Salamander Lemma"). Standard results such as the 3x3-Lemma, the Snake Lemma, and the long exact sequence of homology associated with a short exact sequence of complexes, are obtained as easy applications of this lemma. We then obtain some generalizations of the last of the above examples, getting various exact diagrams from doub...

  11. Analysis of bolus formation in micropipette ejection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Meng, Diwen

    2015-06-01

    The ejection of drugs from micropipettes is practiced frequently in biomedical research and clinical studies however, little is known about the dynamics of this process. The fundamentals of disperse fluid injection via a capillary into an ambient immiscible fluid have been investigated extensively. Here, we experimentally investigate the bolus formation in micropipette ejection systems, where the injection and ambient fluid are the same. We experimentally measure the temporal evolution of the bolus formation in the same fluid. There are three different bolus formation mechanisms that arise from different Re t regimes: a) a nearly spherical bolus, b) a pear-like bolus, and c) a large distortion or axial jet. We examine the scaled dimensions of the bolus, R b/D t, L b/D t, H/D t, and α, as a function of the dimensionless parameters such as tip Reynolds number, Re t, dimensionless value of g/(D t (.) V t), the dimensionless time, tV t/D t, and the distance between the edge of the micropipette and the free surface, D/D t. The bolus radius for 0.2 < Re t < 30 grows according to t (1/2) in the entire time range, which allows us to estimate the time for complete bolus formation. PMID:26100535

  12. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, Susan G.; Strauss, Monica; Treole, Kathleen; Stuart, Andrew; Boutilier, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20-30 and 63-79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes…

  13. Chase Lake Prairie Project/WMD: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The...

  14. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The CHASE 2008 workshop is concerned with exploring the cooperative and human aspects of software engineering, and providing a forum for discussing high-quality research. Accepted papers reflect diversity of the field of software engineering – ranging from requirements to testing, and from...... ethnographic research to experiments. Moreover, the background of attendees reflects the diversity of researchers in this domain, ranging from sociology to psychology, from informatics to software engineering. CHASE 1008 met its goals in presenting high-quality research and building community through a mixture...

  15. A Performance Analysis of Chasing Intruders by Implementing Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahdi Ebadati E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An Intrusion Detection System in network fetches the intrusions information from systems by using Mobile Agents aid. Intrusion Detection System detects intrusions based on the collected information and routes the intrusion. The intelligent decisions on communications, permit agents to gain their goals more efficiently and provide more survivability and security of an agent system. The proposed model showed a formal representation of information assurance in agent messaging over a dynamic network by probability of redundant routes. The proposed Intrusion Detection System, chase intruders and collect information by the Mobile Agents. Our propose architecture is an information exchange method and chasing intrusion along with a method by implementing Mobile Agents.

  16. 75 FR 3251 - JP Morgan Chase and Company; JP Morgan Investment Banking, Global Corporate Financial Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration JP Morgan Chase and Company; JP Morgan Investment Banking, Global... workers and former workers of JP Morgan Chase and Company, JP Morgan Investment Banking, Global Corporate... petitioner alleged that workers worked for JP Morgan Chase and Company, Global Corporate Financial...

  17. CHASE assessment of the North Sea – a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, N.; Andersen, Jesper; Høgåsen, T.;

    In this pilot study, hazardous substances in the North Sea were assessed and classified using the HELCOM Chemical Substances Status Assessment Tool (CHASE). The study was based on monitoring by Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Together, 1350...

  18. Volatilisation of diacetylmorphine: In vitro simulation of 'chasing the dragon'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Klous; W.C. Lee; W. van den Brink; J.M. van Ree; J.H. Beijnen

    2006-01-01

    In preparation for a trial on co-prescription of heroin to chronic treatment-resistant addicts, a pharmaceutical dosage form for smokable heroin was developed. During development of this product (a mixture of diacetylmorphine and caffeine), in vitro experiments were performed simulating 'chasing the

  19. Optimal Set-point Chasing of Position Moored Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Shaoji; Blanke, Mogens; Bernt, Leira

    2010-01-01

    high, position mooring systems apply thruster forces to protect mooring lines and position accuracy may need be relaxed. This paper suggests an new position chasing algorithm that works entirely online, is optimal according to a criterion and can protect any number of mooring lines simultaneously...

  20. Methods of bolusing the tracheostomy stoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The tracheostomy stoma is a potential site of recurrence for patients who have subglottic cancer or subglottic spread of cancer. In these patients, it is important that the anterior supraclavicular field does not underdose the posterior wall of the tracheostomy stoma when using a 6-MV anterior photon field. Conventionally, this problem is surmounted with placement of a plastic tracheostomy tube, which is uncomfortable for the patient, potentially traumatic, and can interfere with vocalization via a tracheal esophageal puncture. Our study was designed to investigate the dosimetry of this region and see if alternate methods would be effective. Methods and Materials: A phantom was constructed using a No. 6 tracheostomy tube as the model for the tracheostomy curvature and size. Using the water-equivalent phantom, film dosimetry, and films oriented parallel to the en face field, we investigated the dose at the depth of the surface of the posterior wall of the phantom's tracheostomy stoma. Dose was measured both in space and at the tissue interface by scanning points of interest both horizontally and vertically. We measured doses with a No. 6 and No. 8 plastic tracheostomy tube, either 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm of bolus (1-cm airhole) with no tracheostomy tube, as well as 0.3 cm and 0.6 cm tissue-equivalent Aquaplast (Med-Tec Co., Orange City, Iowa) over the tracheostomy. Dosimetry at the posterior interface was confirmed using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Three mm and 6 mm of Aquaplast produced a posterior tracheal dose of 93% and 100%. Conclusion: There is no need for these patients to wear a temporary plastic tracheostomy tube during their external radiation therapy. Aquaplast should allow better position reproducibility, reduce trauma, not interfere with patient respiratory efforts, and be compatible with vocalization via a tracheal esophageal puncture

  1. A Novel Pulse-Chase Paradigm to Visualize the Trafficking of Transport Vesicles in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bassam, Sarmad

    In neurons transmembrane proteins are targeted to dendrites in vesicles that traffic solely within the somatodendritic compartment. How these vesicles are retained within the somatodendritic domain is unknown. Here we adapt a novel pulse chase system that allows synchronous release of exogenous transmembrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum using FKBP12 and Rapamycin. We demonstrate proof-of-concept and establish protein trafficking controls in incremental steps. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in studying protein trafficking and establish parameters for analysis of time-lapse images. We implement this novel pulse-chase strategy to track the movements of post-Golgi transport vesicles. Surprisingly, we found that post-Golgi vesicles carrying dendritic proteins were equally likely to enter axons and dendrites. However, once such vesicles entered the axon they very rarely moved beyond the axon initial segment, but instead either halted or reversed direction in an actin and Myosin Va-dependent manner. In contrast, vesicles carrying either an axonal or a nonspecifically localized protein only rarely halted or reversed and instead generally proceeded to the distal axon. Thus, our results are consistent with the axon initial segment behaving as a vesicle filter that mediates the differential trafficking of transport vesicles.

  2. JPMorgan Chase London Whale H: Cross-Border Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Arwin G. Zeissler; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    As a global financial service provider, JPMorgan Chase (JPM) is supervised by banking regulatory agencies in different countries. Bruno Iksil, the derivatives trader primarily responsible for the $6 billion trading loss in 2012, was based in JPM’s London office. This office was regulated both by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) of the United States and by the Financial Services Authority (FSA), which served as the sole regulator of all financial services in the United Kingd...

  3. Northern Lights Chase Tours : Experiences from Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bertella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the development of northern lights chase tourism, a particular type of northern lights tourism consisting in guided tours that have the goal to find good views of the northern lights. The theoretical approach is based on the understanding of the northern lights experience as a visual experience, and on the recognition of the tourism practitioners as the driving force to new product development. The empirical case concerns the recent development of northern lights chas...

  4. Chasing the negawatt: visualization for sustainable living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Lyn; Rodgers, Johnny; Muise, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Energy and resource management is an important and growing research area at the intersection of conservation, sustainable design, alternative energy production, and social behavior. Energy consumption can be significantly reduced by simply changing how occupants inhabit and use buildings, with little or no additional costs. Reflecting this fact, an emerging measure of grid energy capacity is the negawatt: a unit of power saved by increasing efficiency or reducing consumption.Visualization clearly has an important role in enabling residents to understand and manage their energy use. This role is tied to providing real-time feedback of energy use, which encourages people to conserve energy.The challenge is to understand not only what kinds of visualizations are most effective but also where and how they fit into a larger information system to help residents make informed decisions. In this article, we also examine the effective display of home energy-use data using a net-zero solar-powered home (North House) and the Adaptive Living Interface System (ALIS), North House's information backbone. PMID:20650713

  5. INFLUENCE OF AGE ON SWALLOWS OF A HIGHLY VISCOUS LIQUID BOLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslania Viviane NASCIMENTO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Swallow function has a decline with aging, mainly in those over 80 years old. In the population over 69 years, about 11% of subjects reported symptoms indicative of significant dysphagia. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the hypothesis that older asymptomatic subjects before 80 years old have compensations to sustain a safe and efficient swallow, at least with swallows of liquid bolus. Methods We performed videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallows in 55 normal volunteers, a younger group with 33 subjects (16 men and 17 women aged 19 to 55 years, mean 35.5±9.8 years, and an older group with 22 subjects (15 men and 7 women aged 56 to 77 years, mean 64.8±6.8 years. The subjects swallowed in duplicate 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid barium with a pH of 7.9, density of 1.82 g/cm3, and viscosity of 895 cp. Results The mean duration of pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were longer in the younger group compared with the older group. The relation between pharyngeal clearance duration and hyoid movement duration was similar in younger and older subjects, for 5 mL and 10 mL bolus volumes. Conclusions On average, a highly viscous liquid bolus crosses the pharynx faster in older subjects (56-77 years old than in younger subjects (19-55 years old, which suggested an adaptation to the aging process to maintain a safe swallow.

  6. Water bolus for electron irradiation of the ear canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate that water bolus in the external ear can decrease the dose inhomogeneity caused by auricular surface irregularities when the ear is in an electron-beam field. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions with and without water bolus in the external ear were calculated for a representative patient. The electron dose calculations were made using the Hogstrom pencil beam algorithm as implemented in 3D by Starkschall. To demonstrate the use of water bolus in the ear clinically, the case of a patient with squamous carcinoma of the concha who was treated with electrons is presented. Results: Water bolus markedly lessens the dose heterogeneity caused by the surface irregularities of the ear and the air in the external auditory canal. In the test case, the maximum dose was reduced by 25% using this technique. Conclusion: When the ear is in an electron beam field, warm water should be placed in the external auditory canal and concha. This maneuver may reduce the incidence of auricular complications that occur after electron-beam therapy

  7. 21 CFR 520.540b - Dexamethasone tablets and boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of dexamethasone. (2) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use. (i) Dexamethasone bolus is indicated in cases where cattle and horses require additional steroid... use in viral infections during the viremic stage. With bacterial infections, appropriate...

  8. Effects of Verbal Cue on Bolus Flow during Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults. Method: Videofluoroscopic examinations were completed in 12 healthy older adults (median age = 69 years) as they swallowed 5 ml of self-administered liquid barium in 2 conditions: verbally cued and noncued swallows. In the cued…

  9. SU-C-213-06: Dosimetric Verification of 3D Printed Electron Bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, K; Corbett, M; Pelletier, C; Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Jung, J [East Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effect of 3D printed bolus in an anthropomorphic phantom. Methods: Conformable bolus material was generated for an anthropomorphic phantom from a DICOM volume. The bolus generated was a uniform expansion of 5mm applied to the nose region of the phantom, as this is a difficult area to uniformly apply bolus clinically. A Printrbot metal 3D Printer using PLA plastic generated the bolus. A 9MeV anterior beam with a 5cm cone was used to deliver dose to the nose of the phantom. TLD measurements were compared to predicted values at the phantom surface. Film planes were analyzed for the printed bolus, a standard 5mm bolus sheet placed on the phantom, and the phantom with no bolus applied to determine depth and dose distributions. Results: TLDs measured within 2.5% of predicted value for the 3D bolus. Film demonstrated a more uniform dose distribution in the nostril region for the 3d printed bolus than the standard bolus. This difference is caused by the air gap created around the nostrils by the standard bolus, creating a secondary build-up region. Both demonstrated a 50% central axis dose shift of 5mm relative to the no bolus film. HU for the bolus calculated the PLA electron density to be ∼1.1g/cc. Physical density was measured to be 1.3g/cc overall. Conclusion: 3D printed PLA bolus demonstrates improved dosimetric performance to standard bolus for electron beams with complex phantom geometry.

  10. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B; Yang, M; Yan, Y; Rahimi, A; Chopra, R; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy.

  11. SU-C-213-03: Custom 3D Printed Boluses for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow and to commission the process of creating custom 3d printed boluses for radiation therapy. Methods: We designed a workflow to create custom boluses using a commercial 3D printer. Contours of several patients were deformably mapped to phantoms where the test bolus contours were designed. Treatment plans were created on the phantoms following our institutional planning guideline. The DICOM file of the bolus contours were then converted to stereoLithography (stl) file for the 3d printer. The boluses were printed on a commercial 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Custom printing parameters were optimized in order to meet the requirement of bolus composition. The workflow was tested on multiple anatomical sites such as skull, nose and chest wall. The size of boluses varies from 6×9cm2 to 12×25cm2. To commission the process, basic CT and dose properties of the printing materials were measured in photon and electron beams and compared against water and soft superflab bolus. Phantoms were then scanned to confirm the placement of custom boluses. Finally dose distributions with rescanned CTs were compared with those computer-generated boluses. Results: The relative electron density(1.08±0.006) of the printed boluses resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties resemble those of liquid tap water(1.04±0.004). The dosimetric properties were measured at dmax with an ion chamber in electron and photon open beams. Compared with solid water and soft bolus, the output difference was within 1% for the 3D printer material. The printed boluses fit well to the phantom surfaces on CT scans. The dose distribution and DVH based on the printed boluses match well with those based on TPS generated boluses. Conclusion: 3d printing provides a cost effective and convenient solution for patient-specific boluses in radiation therapy

  12. Bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling: theoretical and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. E.; Blau, C. W.; Kerskens, C. M.

    2009-03-01

    Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can be used to provide a quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion. Despite the development of a number of theoretical models to facilitate quantitative ASL, some key challenges still remain. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel quantitative ASL method based on a macroscopic model that reduces the number of variables required to describe the physiological processes involved. To this end, a novel Fokker-Planck equation consisting of stochastically varying macroscopic variables was derived from a general Langevin equation. ASL data from the rat brain was acquired using a bolus-tracking ASL protocol where a bolus of labelled spins flowing from an inversion plane in the neck into an imaging plane in the brain can be observed. Bolus durations of 1.5 s, 2.0 s and 3.0 s were used and the solution to the Fokker-Planck equation for the boundary conditions of bolus-tracking ASL was fitted to the experimental data using a least-squares fit. The mean transit time (MTT) and capillary transit time (CTT) were calculated from the first and second moments of the resultant curve respectively and the arterial transit time (ATT) was calculated by subtracting the CTT from the MTT. The average MTT, CTT and ATT values were 1.75 ± 0.22 s, 1.43 ± 0.12 s and 0.32 ± 0.04 s respectively. In conclusion, a new ASL protocol has been developed by combining the theoretical model with ASL experiments. The technique has the unique ability to provide solutions for varying bolus volumes and the generality of the new model is demonstrated by the derivation of additional solutions for the continuous and pulsed ASL (CASL and PASL) techniques.

  13. 21 CFR 520.1660c - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. 520....1660c Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet or bolus contains 250, 500, or 1,000 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsors. For sponsors in §...

  14. Reflections on the development of CHASE Children's Hospice Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, A

    2001-01-01

    The tasks along the way to developing a children's hospice service are examined. CHASE Children's Hospice Service aims to establish a network of care for life-limited and life-threatened children, young people and their families. The services will be provided for families living mainly in SW London, Surrey and parts of West Sussex. They will comprise a source of palliative and respite care for the children and their families in their own homes (community care), backed-up by a respite care service in the related hospice at Artington, near Guildford (Christopher's).

  15. Building 059: Phase 1 Pipe Chase Room Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Phase I activities and results of the Building 059 Remediation project. The project consisted of removing, packaging, and shipping approximately 30 linear feet of 5-ft-dia activated steel vacuum duct and supports, over 100 tons of activated sand, and miscellaneous other radioactive waste for burial at the DOE radioactive burial site in Hanford, Washington. A total of 4562 ft3 of low specific activity waste was disposed of during the project. Following removal of the activated materials, the region of water intrusion into the Pipe Chase Room was identified and sealed. All technical objectives of the Phase I portion of the project were achieved

  16. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  17. Environmental effects on compulsive tail chasing in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric disorder observed both in humans and animals. Examples of Canine Compulsive Disorder (CD include excessive tail chasing (TC, light/shadow chasing and flank sucking. We performed a questionnaire survey to investigate the characteristics of compulsive (TC and its possible associations with environmental correlates and personality in a pet population of 368 dogs from four dog breeds. We observed an early onset of TC at 3-6 months of age and a large variation in TC frequency in all breeds, with an overrepresentation of milder cases. Almost half of the TC dogs showed lowered responsiveness during bouts and displayed also other types of compulsions more often than the controls. Interestingly, dogs that received dietary supplements, especially vitamins and minerals, expressed less TC compared to dogs that did not receive any supplements. Neutered females had less TC, suggesting an influence of ovarian hormones on TC. Tail chasers were shyer and had separated earlier from their mothers than the controls. Finally, our genetic study did not find an association between TC and CDH2, a locus previously associated with the canine flank sucking compulsion. In conclusion, the early-onset and the variable nature of the repetitive behaviour, which is affected by environmental factors such as micronutrients, neutering and maternal care, share several similar components between canine and human compulsions and supports canine TC as a model for human OCD.

  18. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus.

  19. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. METHODS: We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. RESULTS: The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. CONCLUSIONS: A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  20. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10 at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48 mg (median, IQR within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.

  1. Analysis of bolus formation from the micropipette ejection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Diwen; Mirbod, Parisa

    2013-11-01

    Ejection of drugs from micropipettes has significant applications in biomedical research and clinical studies, however little is known about the dynamics of the process involved. The experimental results show that micropipette ejection systems operate in a tip Reynolds number (Ret). A series of experiments was performed from a micropipette to visualize the shape of the droplet. The observations led to the following conclusions: a) A nearly spherical bolus, closely corresponding to Sampson flow through a circular orifice, could be achieved provided at Ret 1 an axial jet develops. Consequently, the transition point between the flow domains represents an important operating point. In this research, laminar is demarcated from turbulent regime by studying the influence of the various material and process parameters on the transition point. Three-dimensional numerical simulations on bolus formation and growth with different tip diameter were investigated and the results were validated with the experimental observations. Effects of fluid physical properties, operation conditions and tip exit size on bolus behavior were also analyzed.

  2. Single dose testosterone administration reduces loss chasing in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Liu, Jinting; Qu, Lujing; Eisenegger, Christoph; Clark, Luke; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-09-01

    Testosterone has been linked to modulation of impulsivity and risky choice, potentially mediated by changes in reward or punishment sensitivity. This study investigated the effect of testosterone on risk-taking and the adjustment of risk-taking on trials following a gain or a loss. Loss chasing is operationalized herein as the propensity to recover losses by increasing risky choice. Healthy female participants (n=26) received a single-dose of 0.5mg sublingual testosterone in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. At 240min post-administration, participants performed a gambling task with a high and a low risk option. In the placebo condition, participants were more likely to choose the high risk option following losses compared to wins. This effect was abolished on the testosterone session. Ignoring prior outcomes, no overall changes in risk-taking were observed. Our data indicate that testosterone affects human decision-making via diminishing sensitivity to punishment. PMID:27236486

  3. A Single-Molecule Hershey-Chase Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Van Valen, David; Chen, Yi-Ju; Tuson, Hannah; Wiggins, Paul; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Hershey and Chase used phages to establish DNA as the carrier of genetic information in 1952, the precise mechanisms of phage DNA translocation have been a mystery. While bulk measurements have set a time scale for in vivo DNA translocation during bacteriophage infection, measurements of DNA ejection by single bacteriophages have only been made in vitro. Here, we present direct visualization of single bacteriophages infecting individual Escherichia coli cells. For bacteriophage lambda, we establish a mean ejection time of roughly 5 minutes with significant cell-to-cell variability, including pausing events. In contrast, corresponding in vitro single-molecule ejections take only 10 seconds to reach completion and do not exhibit significant variability. Our data reveal that the velocity of ejection for two different genome lengths collapses onto a single curve. This suggests that in vivo ejections are controlled by the amount of DNA ejected, in contrast with in vitro DNA ejections, which are governed...

  4. NO2 DOAS Measurements of Traffic Emissions by Chasing Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Lipkowitsch, Ivo; Chan, Ka Lok; Bräu, Melanie; Wenig, Mark

    2016-04-01

    On this poster we present NO2 measurements using a Cavity-Enhanced DOAS on a measurement bus which we used to chase other vehicles to measure their NO2 emissions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from on-road vehicles have received highly attention recently due to the increasing trend of ambient NOx level. It is particularly important to identify and quantify the direct emission and secondary formation of NO2 contributed by traffic emissions, in order to study the impact to the local air quality. We sampled on-road emissions in different environments and different driving conditions (e.g. urban, highway, different speeds). We analyse the data set in terms of spatial and temporal variability to search for temporal and spatial patterns. We present mean values sorted for different vehicle types, distance to the target car and travelling speeds to provide an emission data base from this measurement study.

  5. Internal wave bolus detection and analysis by a Lagrangian coherent structure method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, Michael R.; Salvador-Vieira, G.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2015-11-01

    The shoaling of vertical mode internal waves on a continental shelf produces boluses, which are trapped regions of fluid that travel up the shelf with the wave. Unlike a propagating solitary wave, these boluses can transport material with the wave. Boluses have been observed to transport oxygen depleted water and induce rapid changes in temperature both of which have potential ramifications for marine biology. We extend a number of two-layer studies by investigating bolus generation and material transport in continuously stratified fluids. Laboratory experiments are conducted in a 4 m long tank and are complemented by 2-dimensional numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The boundaries of a bolus are identified using a Lagrangian based coherent structure method relying on trajectory clustering. The time evolution of material transport by the bolus is investigated as a function of the stratification, wave properties, and the angle of the sloping topography. ONR MURI Grant No. N000141110701.

  6. The influence of a solid and liquid bolus on food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a radiological method to demonstrate food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux (GER), a comparative study was carried out employing a solid, already validated bolus versus a liquid one. One hundred and four consecutive patients received both a solid and a liquid bolus in randomized order. GER was observed in 37 (35.6%) patients receiving the solid bolus versus 28 (26.9%) with the liquid one. This means that the solid bolus provokes significantly more reflux (P<0.02). GER, grade II (reflux above the level of the carina), occurred equally often as a result of both types of bolus, however. The study suggests that significant, food-stimulated GER is independent of the consistency of the foodstuffs and may be detected employing a liquid bolus. This result might be used in the examination of infants for GER, using milk as a food stimulus. (orig.)

  7. Postprandial transduodenal bolus transport is regulated by complex peristaltic sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Nam Nguyen; Ron Winograd; Gerson Ricardo Souza Domingues; Frank Lammert

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between the patterns of postprandial peristalsis and transduodenal bolus transport in healthy subjects.METHODS: Synchronous recording of chyme transport and peristaltic activity was performed during the fasting state and after administration of a test meal using a special catheter device with cascade configuration of impedance electrodes and solid-state pressure transducers. The catheter was placed into the duodenum,where the first channel was located in the first part of the duodenum and the last channel at the duodenojejunal junction. After identification of previously defined chyme transport patterns the associated peristaltic patterns were analyzed.RESULTS: The interdigestive phase 3 complex was reliably recorded with both techniques. Of 497 analyzed impedance bolus transport events, 110 (22%) were short-spanned propulsive, 307 (62%) long-spanned propulsive, 70 (14%)complex propulsive, and 10 (2%) retrograde transport.Short-spanned chyme transports were predominantly associated with stationary or propagated contractions propagated over short distance. Long-spanned and complex chyme transports were predominantly associated with propulsive peristaltic patterns, which were frequently complex and comprised multiple contractions. Propagated double wave contraction, propagated contraction with a clustered contraction, and propagated cluster of contractions have been identified to be an integralted part of a peristaltic sequence in human duodenum.CONCLUSION: Combined impedancometry andmanometry improves the analysis of the peristaltic patterns that are associated with postprandial transduodenal chyme transport. Postprandial transduodenal bolus transport is regulated by propulsive peristaltic patterns, which are frequently complex but well organized. This finding should be taken into consideration in the analysis of intestinal motility studies.

  8. A tracer bolus method for investigating glutamine kinetics in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Mori

    Full Text Available Glutamine transport between tissues is important for the outcome of critically ill patients. Investigation of glutamine kinetics is, therefore, necessary to understand glutamine metabolism in these patients in order to improve future intervention studies. Endogenous glutamine production can be measured by continuous infusion of a glutamine tracer, which necessitates a minimum measurement time period. In order to reduce this problem, we used and validated a tracer bolus injection method. Furthermore, this method was used to measure the glutamine production in healthy volunteers in the post-absorptive state, with extra alanine and with glutamine supplementation and parenteral nutrition. Healthy volunteers received a bolus injection of [1-13C] glutamine, and blood was collected from the radial artery to measure tracer enrichment over 90 minutes. Endogenous rate of appearance (endoRa of glutamine was calculated from the enrichment decay curve and corrected for the extra glutamine supplementation. The glutamine endoRa of healthy volunteers was 6.1±0.9 µmol/kg/min in the post-absorptive state, 6.9±1.0 µmol/kg/min with extra alanyl-glutamine (p = 0.29 versus control, 6.1±0.4 µmol/kg/min with extra alanine only (p = 0.32 versus control, and 7.5±0.9 µmol/kg/min with extra alanyl-glutamine and parenteral nutrition (p = 0.049 versus control. In conclusion, a tracer bolus injection method to measure glutamine endoRa showed good reproducibility and small variation at baseline as well as during parenteral nutrition. Additionally, we showed that parenteral nutrition including alanyl-glutamine increased glutamine endoRa in healthy volunteers, which was not attributable to the alanine part of the dipeptide.

  9. Frequency of Mealtime Insulin Bolus Predicts Glycated Hemoglobin in Youths with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Susana R.; DeLurgio, Stephen A.; Fridlington, Amanda; Cohoon, Cyndy; Turpin, Angela L.; Clements, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Within pediatric diabetes management, two electronic measures of adherence exist: frequency of daily blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and the BOLUS score, a measure of frequency of mealtime insulin bolusing. Past research has demonstrated that the BOLUS score is superior to daily BGM in predicting youths' glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a cross-sectional study. We present data comparing the two adherence measures in predicting HbA1c using a prospective, longitudinal design.

  10. Impact of bolus volume on small intestinal intra-luminal impedance in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam; Q; Nguyen; Laura; K; Bryant; Carly; M; Burgstad; Robert; J; Fraser; Daniel; Sifrim; Richard; H; Holloway

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of bolus volume on the characteristics of small intestinal (SI) impedance signals.METHODS: Concurrent SI manometry-impedance measurements were performed on 12 healthy volunteers to assess the pattern of proximal jejunal fluid bolus movement over a 14 cm-segment.Each subject was given 34 boluses of normal saline (volume from 1 to 30 mL) via the feeding tube placed immediately above the proximal margin of the studied segment.A bolus-induced impedance event occurred if there was > 12%...

  11. Comparison of bolus remifentanil versus bolus fentanyl for blunting cardiovascular intubation responses in children: a randomized, double-blind study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Quan-yong; XUE Fu-shan; LIAO Xu; LIU He-ping; LUO Mao-ping; XU Ya-chao; LIU Yi; ZHANG Yan-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background The authors found no study to compare the efficacy of bolus dose fentanyl and remifentanil blunting the cardiovascular intubation response in children, so they designed this randomized, double-blind clinical study to assess the effects of remifentanil 2 ug/kg and fentanyl 2 ug/kg by bolus injection on the cardiovascular intubation response in healthy children.Methods One hundred and two children, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 1-2 and scheduled for elective plastic surgery under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into one of two groups to receive the following treatments in a double blind manner: remifentanil 2 ug/kg (Group R) and fentanyl 2 ug/kg (Group F) when anesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium. The orotracheal intubation was performed using a direct laryngoscope. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before anesthesia induction (baseline values), immediately before intubation, at intubation and every minute for 5 minutes after intubation. The percent changes of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR relative to baseline values and the rate pressure product (RPP) at every observing point were calculated. The incidences of SBP and HR percent changes >30% of baseline values and RPP >22 000 during the observation were recorded. Results There were no significant differences between groups in the demographic data, baseline values of BP and HR and the intubation time. As compared to baseline values, BP, HR and RPP at intubation and their maximum values during observation increased significantly in Group F, but they all decreased significantly in Group R. BP, HR and RPP at all observed points, and their maximum values during the observation, were significantly different between groups. There were also significant differences between groups in the percent change of SBP and HR relative to baseline values at all observed points and their maximum percent changes during the observation. The

  12. Intestinal propulsion of a solid non-deformable bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahof, R; Fedotov, E

    2005-07-01

    A mathematical model of a segment of the gut with an enclosed pellet is constructed. The gut is represented as a thin deformable soft biological shell with the pellet modeled as a non-deformable solid. Mechanical properties of the gut wall were represented as longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers embedded in stroma that satisfies the general type of nonlinear orthotropy. Deformations of the wall are finite. Bolus propulsion is numerically simulated by generation and propagation of an electromechanical wave along the syncytia. Pharmacological manipulation is applied to model 5-HT type 3 antagonist (Lotronex, GlaxoSmithKline) and 5-HT type 4 agonist (Zelnorm, Novartis, AB) drugs on the dynamics of bolus progression. The results lead to new quantitative insights into the complex spatio-temporal patterns of gastrointestinal transit. It is demonstrated that the reciprocal relationship in contraction of the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle syncytia is necessary to provide the "mixing" type of movements during the preparatory phase of propulsion. Strong simultaneous contractions of the both smooth muscle layers are required to expel the "mixed" pellet from the segment. The model is implemented as an interactive software system, Gut Discovery(www.aincompany.com), and accurately predicts the effects of drugs on gut motility.

  13. Bolus injection of acetylcholine terminates atrial fibrillation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleidervish, Ilya A; Goldberg, Yuri; Ovsyshcher, I Eli

    2008-01-28

    It is well established that a tonic increase in the availability of the atrial muscarinic K(+) channels, either by enhanced vagal tone or by steady infusion of a low-dose of cholinergic or adenosine receptor agonists, promotes the genesis of atrial fibrillation. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that bolus administration of a muscarinic receptor agonist would destabilize and terminate atrial arrhythmia by uniformly and transiently activating K(+) channels throughout the atria, and that if the agonist was rapidly hydrolysable, it would dissipate before the more tonic, pro-arrhythmic effects could take hold. The episodes of untreated atrial fibrillation, induced in anesthetized rats by programmed electrical stimulation via trans-esophageal bipolar catheter, lasted on average 8.6+/-2.2 min (n=32). Intravenous injection of a model hydrolysable muscarinic agonist, acetylcholine (0.2 mg/kg body weight), converted atrial fibrillation into sinus rhythm within 8.4+/-1.9 s (n=10, Ppre-atrial fibrillation values within 10-20 s of injection. In conclusion, our evidence indicates that bolus administration of rapidly hydrolysable muscarinic agonist could be an effective way to pharmacologically terminate atrial fibrillation and restore sinus rhythm. PMID:18078927

  14. Avidin chase reduces side effects of radioimmunotherapy in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ping Li; Yong-Xian Wang; Kai Huang; Hui Zhang; Chun-Fu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of avidin chase on the side effects of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma and therapeutic outcome.METHODS: Purified anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (McAb)was biotinylated with NHS-biotin, and then radiolabeled with 188Re by the direct method. 188Re-labeledbiotinylated anti-CEA McAb (188Re-CEA McAb-Bt) was intravenously injected followed by intravenous injection of avidin after 24 h. SPECT imaging and biodistribution study were performed at 28-48 h after the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt. Three groups of nude mice subcutaneously grafted with human colon carcinoma were treated 7 d after the graft. Mice in the avidin chase group received intravenous injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg) followed by intravenous injection of cold avidin (80 μg) after 24 h. Mice in the control group (treated group without avidin chase) only received the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg), another control group (non-treated group) only received 0.1 mL normal saline solution. Toxicity was evaluated on the basis of change of body weight and peripheral WBC counts, and therapy effects were determined by variation in tumor volume. Histological analysis of tumors was also performed.RESULTS: Avidin chase markedly accelerated the clearance of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt from the blood and normal tissues. The tumor uptakes of 188Re-CEA Mc Ab-Bt at 28 h were 5.90 and 6.42% ID/g, respectively, in chase group and in non-chase group, while the tumor-to-background (T/NT) ratios were 3.19 and 0.56, respectively. The tumor uptake was slightly decreased by avidin chase, but the T/NT ratios were increased. In treated groups the growth rate of body weight and the number of WBC decreased after injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt, and the WBC counts recovered earlier in the group with avidin chase than in the group without avidin chase. Compared to the nontreated group, treated groups with and without avidin chase showed significant anti

  15. Chelate chase of radiopharmaceuticals reversibly bound to monoclonal antibodies improves dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred micrograms of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CHA 255 with a binding constant Kb of 4 x 109 was complexed with indium-111 labeled BLEDTA II, GLEDTA IV, benzyl EDTA, and an EDTA conjugate of Fab. The 24-hour tumor and organ distribution in BALB/c mice bearing KHJJ tumors was studied for each compound alone, the antibody complex, and 3 hours following a chelate chase of the antibody complex. Whole-body biological half-life was measured for 7 days with and without a chelate chase for each antibody complex. The 24-hour whole-body counts dropped 20-60% within 3 hours of administering the chelate chase. Blood concentration fell over 89% within 3 hours of administering the chase and there was a decrease in concentration in all organs, except the kidneys, of 10 to 85%. Theoretical equivalent human doses were calculated from the 24-hour organ concentrations, effective half-life, and MIRD 11 S values (absorbed dose per cumulated activity). Liver and spleen were the target organs, with the dose ranging from 0.50 to 3.91 rads per millicurie. The reduction in organ radiation dose varied up to 95% following the chelate chase. Rapid selective renal clearance of chelate labeled radiopharmaceuticals by competitive inhibition (chelate chase) of their reversible binding to monoclonal antibodies, greatly improves the radiation dosimetry of tumor imaging agents. 28 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  16. 'Chasing the Dragon' - imaging of heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Chasing the dragon' refers to the inhalation of heroin pyrolysate vapors produced when the freebase form of heroin is heated. Inhalation of these vapors can result in a rare toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy. The patients may progress through 3 defined clinical stages, with one-quarter reaching the terminal stage, which invariably leads to death. Imaging and, in particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates white matter findings that are felt to be specific for this entity and essential in its early diagnosis. We present the typical imaging findings in a pictorial essay format, using images taken from 9 patients who presented within an 18-month period at UBC-affiliated hospitals. These findings include low computed tomography (CT) attenuation and high T2 MRI signal most commonly in the posterior cerebral and cerebellar white matter, cerebellar peduncles, splenium of the corpus callosum, and posterior limb of the internal capsules. In addition, there is often selective, symmetric involvement of the corticospinal tract, the medial lemniscus, and the tractus solitarius. We also present the variable diffusion-weighted imaging arid apparent diffusion coefficient findings from 4 of our patients, which to our knowledge, have not been described in the literature. (author)

  17. Patterns of Light Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Beeson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Light is all around us – even when we do not see it. Our eyes do not detect the higher energy and shorter-than-visible-wavelength ultraviolet radiation, yet we know it is there from the sunburn we receive in Arizona. We know that window glass can block ultraviolet rays so we do not get a burn while driving with the windows rolled up. Our eyes do not detect the low-energy, long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation but we know it exists from discussions of war applications and televised images of guided weapons targets. We also know about radio waves from the little boxes that talk to us and x-rays from the dentist's office. Patterns of Light, Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs, written by Steve Beeson and Jim Mayer starts with the visible – the straight path of light. It continues with chapters detailing reflection (mirrors, storefront windows) and refraction (eyeglasses, binoculars). Color is then introduced with the query "Why is the sky blue?" After answering that and other similar questions ("Wh...

  18. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, W; Swann, B; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; Zhang, M [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Fisher, T [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice.

  19. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice

  20. Efficacy of bolus intravenous iron treatment in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Normocytic, normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of chronic renal failure and it is common in patients on chronic dialysis treatment. It causes decrease in oxygen supply to tissues, increases cardiac minute volume, causes left ventricular hyperthrophy, cardiac insufficiency, disorders related to cognitive functions and immune response, and increases morbidity and mortality rates. The leading cause of anemia in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD is iron depletion and most patients on PD need oral or parenteral iron supplementation. The aim of this study was to evaluate our first experience with bolus intravenous ferrogluconate therapy in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis at the Nephrology Clinic of the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS. Material and Methods. We examined 11 patients, 7 males and 4 females, mean-age 49 years (range 31 to 68 years on chronic PD. All patients received blood transfusions, oral or intramuscular iron supplementation before 465 to 665 mg ferrogluconate therapy was given in 500 ml. saline intravenous infusion; 5 of them were on erythropoietin therapy and 2 of them started with EPO therapy after the ferrogluconate therapy. Results. The blood count improved during the first 3 months after application of bolus intravenous iron therapy (ferrogluconate; erythropoietin dose was not increased during the follow-up. Some patients suffered from side effects during infusion and 6 patients received the complete treatment. Discussion. Blood count improves in a number of patients affected by end-stage renal disease during the first months on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD treatment. But a large number of patients on chronic CAPD treatment are iron-depleted and they require oral or parenteral substitution. Side effects and complications of intravenous iron therapy were not severe and only one patient suffered from allergic manifestations. Ferremia and blood count improved in patients

  1. A Bolus Calculator Based on Continuous-Discrete Unscented Kalman Filtering for Type 1 Diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Aradóttir, Tinna Björk; Hagdrup, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    after or 30 minutes after the beginning of the meal). We implement a continuous-discrete unscented Kalman filter to estimate the states and insulin sensitivity. These estimates are used in a bolus calculator. The numerical results demonstrate that administering the meal bolus 15 minutes after mealtime...

  2. Bolus dose with continuous infusion of midazolam as sedation for outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyk, N H; Zacharias, M; Wanwimolaruk, S

    1992-06-01

    This double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial in 41 patients for 3rd molar surgery compared the safety, amnesic properties and psychomotor recovery between a bolus injection of midazolam and a bolus injection followed by continuous infusion of midazolam. The latter showed good safety and better amnesia to events during the procedure, but prolonged the recovery time. PMID:1640130

  3. Qualitative indices and enhancement rate of CT pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism: Comparison between test bolus and bolus-tracking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moradi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the qualitative indices and enhancement rate of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism using Test bolus and Bolus-tracking techniques. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two patients with suspected pulmonary embolism that passed informed consent were randomly divided in the two groups. In each group, demographic characteristics, qualitative indices, and enhancement rate of CTPA were recorded. Results: The diagnostic result obtained in majority of the participants in the two groups (88.5 % in Test bolus group vs. 73.1% in the Bolus tracking group. In the case of quantitative variables, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups (P > 0.05. The only statistically significant difference between the two groups is average of "X-ray dose". Conclusion: The results of our study show that there is no statistically significant difference between the Bolus Tracking and Test Bolus techniques for producing more homogeneous enhancement.

  4. Efficacy of intraruminal albendazole boluses against Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Krupicer, I

    1992-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of albendazole (ABZ) in intraruminal boluses (Proftril-Captec) was investigated in sheep harbouring naturally acquired Dicrocoelium infection. The anthelmintic efficacy was assessed by coprological testing during the autumn pasture and comparison of worm counts in 22 necropsied animals (11 treated and 11 untreated) at the end of the experiment. The mean faecal egg count (EPG) in treated animals dropped significantly during week 2, and between the 4th and the 12th week the faecal samples were almost negative. The health status of treated animals improved significantly during the first 2 weeks. Helminthological dissection of livers and small intestines revealed 91.8% efficacy, but a small number of live adult flukes were found in all treated animals.

  5. Correlation of esophageal pressure-flow analysis findings with bolus transit patterns on videofluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, T I; Szczesniak, M M; Maclean, J; Myers, J C; Rommel, N; Cock, C; Cook, I J

    2016-01-01

    Pressure-flow analysis quantifies the interactions between bolus transport and pressure generation. We undertook a pilot study to assess the interrelationships between pressure-flow metrics and fluoroscopically determined bolus clearance and bolus transport across the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). We hypothesized that findings of abnormal pressure-flow metrics would correlate with impaired bolus clearance and reduced flow across the EGJ. Videofluoroscopic images, impedance, and pressure were recorded simultaneously in nine patients with dysphagia (62-82 years, seven male) tested with liquid barium boluses. A 3.6 mm diameter solid-state catheter with 25 × 1 cm pressure/12 × 2 cm impedance was utilized. Swallowed bolus clearance was assessed using a validated 7-point radiological bolus transport scale. The cumulative period of bolus flow across the EGJ was also fluoroscopically measured (EGJ flow time). Pressure only parameters included the length of breaks in the 20 mmHg iso-contour and the 4 second integrated EGJ relaxation pressure (IRP4s). Pressure-flow metrics were calculated for the distal esophagus, these were: time from nadir impedance to peak pressure (TNadImp to PeakP) to quantify bolus flow timing; pressure flow index (PFI) to integrate bolus pressurization and flow timing; and impedance ratio (IR) to assess bolus clearance. When compared with controls, patients had longer peristaltic breaks, higher IRs, and higher residual EGJ relaxation pressures (break length of 8 [2, 13] vs. 2 [0, 2] cm, P = 0.027; IR 0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.0, P = 0.019; IRP4s 11 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 1 mmHg, P = 0.070). There was a significant positive correlation between higher bolus transport scores and longer peristaltic breaks (Spearman correlation r = 0.895, P times correlated with a shorter TNadImp to PeakP (r = -0.733, P metric TNadImp to PeakP appears to be a marker of the period of time over which the bolus flows across the EGJ. PMID:25515292

  6. The comparison of bolus tracking and test bolus techniques for computed tomography thoracic angiography in healthy beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Cassel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography thoracic angiography studies were performed on five adult beagles using the bolus tracking (BT technique and the test bolus (TB technique, which were performed at least two weeks apart. For the BT technique, 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent was injected intravenously. Scans were initiated when the contrast in the aorta reached 150 Hounsfield units (HU. For the TB technique, the dogs received a test dose of 15% of 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent, followed by a series of low dose sequential scans. The full dose of the contrast agent was then administered and the scans were conducted at optimal times as identified from time attenuation curves. Mean attenuation in HU was measured in the aorta (Ao and right caudal pulmonary artery (rCPA. Additional observations included the study duration, milliAmpere (mA, computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI[vol] and dose length product (DLP. The attenuation in the Ao (BT = 660 52 HU ± 138 49 HU, TB = 469 82 HU ± 199 52 HU, p = 0.13 and in the rCPA (BT = 606 34 HU ± 143 37 HU, TB = 413 72 HU ± 174.99 HU, p = 0.28 did not differ significantly between the two techniques. The BT technique was conducted in a significantly shorter time period than the TB technique (p = 0.03. The mean mA for the BT technique was significantly lower than the TB technique (p = 0.03, as was the mean CTDI(vol (p = 0.001. The mean DLP did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p = 0.17. No preference was given to either technique when evaluating the Ao or rCPA but the BT technique was shown to be shorter in duration and resulted in less DLP than the TB technique.

  7. The use of Coca-Cola in the management of bolus obstruction in benign oesophageal stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, N D; Rees, M

    1993-03-01

    Oesophageal stricture is a complication of oesophageal reflux and may itself be complicated by bolus obstruction. We reviewed the records of patients presenting with dysphagia and who were found to have benign oesophageal strictures. We studied the outcome of bolus obstruction in 13 episodes affecting eight patients. In six episodes Coca-Cola was administered on the day before endoscopy, and in all these patients the bolus had cleared. In seven episodes nothing was administered before endoscopy, and in all seven a bolus was evident at endoscopy. In five of these seven the bolus was removed piecemeal and in each of these instances the endoscope had to be passed between two and five times. In the remaining two instances the procedure was abandoned and the patients returned to the ward for the administration of Coca-Cola. At subsequent endoscopy these patients were found to be clear of any bolus. These results suggest that the administration of Coca-Cola (or other aerated drinks) may clear a bolus in the acutely obstructed oesophagus. PMID:8476194

  8. Efficacy study of Styplon Vet Bolus as supportive therapy in management of hemorrhagic conditions of ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Ravikumar

    Full Text Available On-field trial was conducted in dairy animals to evaluate efficacy of Styplon Vet Bolus (M/s Himalaya Drug Company, Banglore, India as supportive therapy in management of hemorrhagic conditions (Hematuria, hemoagalectia, bleeding wounds, uterine bleeding and epistaxis of ruminants. Styplon Vet 1-2 boli twice daily was administered to cows and buffaloes, and ½ bolus twice daily for sheep till they recover clinically. The results indicated that Styplon Vet Bolus is a safe and effective styptic in ruminants. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 470-471

  9. The rapid-chase theory does not extend to movement execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, Jenna C; Chua, Romeo; Cressman, Erin K

    2016-05-01

    It is assumed that the processing of a prime followed by a mask occurs sequentially in a feedforward manner when the three (initiation, takeover, and independence) criteria outlined by the rapid-chase theory are met. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the processing of the prime and mask fit the predictions of the rapid-chase theory when the prime and mask are presented during an ongoing movement. In two experiments, participants made rapid pointing movements to a target indicated by the mask. In Experiment 1, the prime was presented at movement onset and the prime-mask stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was manipulated. In Experiment 2, the prime-mask SOA was constant but the delay between movement and prime onset was manipulated. Although the results support the initiation and takeover criteria, the data did not support the independence criterion. Consequently, the rapid-chase theory does not appear to extend to movement execution. PMID:26998560

  10. Chasing the dragon-Toxic leukoencephalopathy(Heroin-Induced Spongiform Leukoencephalopathy)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初建平

    2012-01-01

    @@ "Chasing the dragon" is a toxic leukoencephalopathy caused by inhalation of heroin fumes.The term"chasing the dragon"appears to have originated in China in the 1920s and became a popular mechanism of heroin administration in the 1950s in Hong Kong because the drug was cheap but impure.A small quantity of powder is placed on aluminium foil,which is then heated underneath with a lighter or matches.The heroin liquefies into a reddish brown glob, which moves around on the foil and emits a white vapor.The glob or"dragon"is"chased"with the lighter underneath while the vapor is sucked through a straw or pipe.

  11. GammeV and GammeV-CHASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, W.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model might include Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) that address questions such as what is the nature of dark matter or even shed insight into the underlying nature of dark energy. WISPs are a general class of particles that include axions, axion-like particles, hidden sector photons, milli-charged particles, chameleons, etc. The GammeV (Gamma to milli-eV) experiment originated in 2007 in order to test a positive anomalous axion-like particle interpretation of the PVLAS experiment which was not evident in subsequent data. The experiment was also motivated as it was realized that the milli-eV scale appears naturally in a see-saw between the electroweak and Planck scales, neutrino mass differences, the dark energy density, and the possible mass for certain dark matter candidates. GammeV was first to exclude both a scalar and pseudoscalar axion-like particle interpretation of the anomalous PVLAS result setting a limit of around 3.1 x 10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1} on the coupling to photons for low mass axion-like particles. It has also been found that the parameter space of a variety of other WISP candidates is both largely unexplored and is accessible by modest experiments employing lasers and possibly accelerator magnets. GammeV data has also been used to set limits on possible hidden sector photons. Further work by the GammeV team has focused on a reconfiguration of the apparatus to be sensitive to possible chameleon particles. Chameleons are scalar (or pseudoscalar) particles that couple to the stress energy tensor in a potential such that their properties depend on their environment. In particular, a chameleon acquires an effective mass which increases with local matter density, {rho}. For a certain class of such potentials, the chameleon field has properties that might explain dark energy. GammeV set the first limits on the coupling of chameleons to photons. A dedicated follow-up experiment, GammeV-CHASE, (CHameleon Afterglow

  12. Three-dimensional customized bolus for intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a patient with Kimura's disease involving the auricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J W; Yea, J W

    2016-05-01

    In radiotherapy, a commercial bolus often does not provide a suitable fit over irregular surfaces. To address this issue, we fabricated a customized bolus using 3D printing technology. The aim of our study was to evaluate the application of this 3D-printed bolus in a clinical setting. The patient was a 45-year-old man with recurrent Kimura's disease involving the auricle, receiving radiotherapy in our oncology department. A customized bolus, 5mm in thickness, was fabricated based on reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images. The bolus was printed on a Dimension 1200 series SST 3D printer. Repeat CT-based simulation indicated an acceptable fit of the 3D-printed bolus to the target region, with a maximum air gap of less than 5mm at the tragus. Most of the surface area of the target region was covered by the 95% isodose line. The plan with the 3D-printed bolus improved target coverage compared to that without a bolus. And the plan with the 3D-printed bolus yielded comparable results to those with the paraffin wax bolus. In conclusion, a customized bolus using a 3D printer was successfully applied to an irregular surface. PMID:27020714

  13. INDUCED SPUTUM DERIVES FROM THE CENTRAL AIRWAYS: CONFIRMATION USING A RADIOLABELED AEROSOL BOLUS DELIVERY TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indirect evidence suggests that induced sputum derives from the surfaces of the bronchial airways. To confirm this experimentally, we employed a radiolabeled aerosol bolus delivery technique that preferentially deposits aerosol in the central airways in humans. We hypothesized th...

  14. Causes of death after fluid bolus resuscitation: new insights from FEAST

    OpenAIRE

    Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST study) was an extremely well conducted study that gave unexpected results. The investigators had reported that febrile children with impaired perfusion treated in low-income countries without access to intensive care are more likely to die if they receive bolus resuscitation with albumin or saline compared with no bolus resuscitation at all. In a secondary analysis of the trial, published in BMC Medicine, the authors found that increased mortal...

  15. The Effects of Bolus Consistency in Pharyngeal Transit Duration during Normal Swallowing

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Ikjae; Kim, Youngsun; Oommen, Elizabeth; Kim, Hyungi; Ko, Myoung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of age, gender and bolus consistency in normal populations using the temporal measurement of Pharyngeal Transit Duration (PTD), which reflects the duration of bolus flow from the ramus of the mandible to the upper esophageal sphincter. Method 40 normal and healthy subjects had Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Examinations (VFSEs) of 5 ml thin and nectar thick liquids, and puree consistencies. A slow motion and frame by frame analysis was performed. Three-way analy...

  16. Potential of 3D printing technologies for fabrication of electron bolus and proton compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Fisher, Ted; Zhang, Miao; Kim, Leonard; Chen, Ting; Narra, Venkat; Swann, Beth; Singh, Rachana; Siderit, Richard; Yin, Lingshu; Teo, Boon-Keng Kevin; McKenna, Michael; McDonough, James; Ning, Yue J

    2015-05-08

    In electron and proton radiotherapy, applications of patient-specific electron bolus or proton compensators during radiation treatments are often necessary to accommodate patient body surface irregularities, tissue inhomogeneity, and variations in PTV depths to achieve desired dose distributions. Emerging 3D printing technologies provide alternative fabrication methods for these bolus and compensators. This study investigated the potential of utilizing 3D printing technologies for the fabrication of the electron bolus and proton compensators. Two printing technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS), and two printing materials, PLA and polyamide, were investigated. Samples were printed and characterized with CT scan and under electron and proton beams. In addition, a software package was developed to convert electron bolus and proton compensator designs to printable Standard Tessellation Language file format. A phantom scalp electron bolus was printed with FDM technology with PLA material. The HU of the printed electron bolus was 106.5 ± 15.2. A prostate patient proton compensator was printed with SLS technology and polyamide material with -70.1 ± 8.1 HU. The profiles of the electron bolus and proton compensator were compared with the original designs. The average over all the CT slices of the largest Euclidean distance between the design and the fabricated bolus on each CT slice was found to be 0.84 ± 0.45 mm and for the compensator to be 0.40 ± 0.42 mm. It is recommended that the properties of specific 3D printed objects are understood before being applied to radiotherapy treatments.

  17. Double Bolus Application in TWIST-MR-Angiography of the Cervical Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Korn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present work was to test the feasibility of the time-resolved MR-angiography (TWIST-MRA of cervical arteries using double bolus injection. Material and Methods. TWIST-MRA with a temporal resolution of 8.4 seconds for each frame and a spatial resolution with a voxel size of   was performed in 24 patients. A biphasic bolus injection protocol was used with the second injection being started 21 seconds after the first contrast dye bolus. Diagnostic image quality was rated according to a 4-point scale. Results. In 12 patients (50% no clear separation between the cervical venous and arterial vessels was evident after the first bolus injection. Using TWIST-MRA data acquired after the second bolus a sufficient diagnostic image quality (rating , mean 3.5 could be obtained in 22 of 24 patients (92%. Discussion. The double bolus injection protocol using TWIST-MRA allows for very good separation of the cervical arteries.

  18. Pressure Flow Analysis in the Assessment of Preswallow Pharyngeal Bolus Presence in Dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence is evident in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Pressure flow analysis (PFA using high resolution manometry with impedance (HRMI with AIMplot software is a method for objective interpretation of pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter (UES pressures and bolus flow patterns during swallowing. This study aimed to observe alterations in PFA metrics in the event of preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence as seen on videofluoroscopy (VFSS. Methods. Swallows from 40 broad dysphagia patients and 8 controls were recorded with a HRMI catheter during simultaneous VFSS. Evidence of bolus presence and level reached prior to pharyngeal swallow onset was recorded. AIMPlot software derived automated PFA functional metrics. Results. Patients with bolus movement to the pyriform sinuses had a higher SRI, indicating greater swallow dysfunction. Amongst individual metrics, TNadImp to PeakP was shorter and flow interval longer in patient groups compared to controls. A higher pharyngeal mean impedance and UES mean impedance differentiated the two patient groups. Conclusions. This pilot study identifies specific altered PFA metrics in patients demonstrating preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence to the pyriform sinuses. PFA metrics may be used to guide diagnosis and treatment of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and track changes in swallow function over time.

  19. Search Characteristics and the Effects of Experience on End Users of PaperChase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Natalie Schoch

    1991-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined transaction logs of end users of PaperChase searching UM-MEDLINE at the University of Michigan to describe the use of various search features and to determine the effects of search experience on the use of search features. Boolean operators are discussed, and further studies are suggested. (23 references) (LRW)

  20. A Study on the Necessary Number of Bolus Treatments in Radiotherapy after Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Chae Seon; Kim, Jong Sik; Kim, Young Kon; Park, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMR) is known to decrease loco-regional recurrence. Adequate skin and dermal dose are achieved by adding bolus. The more difficult clinical issue is determining the necessary number of bolus treatment, given the limits of normal skin tolerance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the necessary number of bolus treatment after PMR in patients with breast cancer. Four female breast cancer patients were included in the study. The median age was 53 years(range, 38-74), tumor were left sided in 2 patients and right sided in 2 patients. All patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after MRM. Radiotherapy was delivered to the chest wall (C.W) and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCL) using 4 MV X-ray. The total dose was 50 Gy, in 2 Gy fractions (with 5 times a week). CT was performed for treatment planning, treatment planning was performed using A DAC-Pinnacles{sup 3} (Phillips, USA) for all patients without and with bolus. Bolus treatment plans were generated using image tool (0.5 cm of thickness and 6 cm of width). Dose distribution was analyzed and the increased skin dose rate in the build-up region was computed and the skin dose using TLD-100 chips (Harshaw, USA) was measured. No significant difference was found in dose distribution without and with bolus; C.W coverage was 95-100% of the prescribed dose in both. But, there was remarkable difference in the skin dose to the scar. The skin dose to the scar without and with bolus were 100-105% and 50-75%. The increased skin dose rates in the build-up region for Pt. 1, Pt. 2. Pt. 3 and Pt. 4 were 23.3%, 35.6%, 34.9%, and 41.7%. The results of measured skin dose using TLD-100 chips in the cases without and with bolus were 209.3 cGy and 161.1 cGy, 200 cGy and 150.2 cGy, 211.4 cGy and 160.5 cGy, 198.6 cGy and 155.5 cGy for Pt. 1, Pt. 2, Pt. 3, and Pt. 4. It was concludes through this analysis that the adequate number of bolus treatments is 50-60% of the treatment program. Further

  1. Cineradiography of the liquid bolus swallow. A study of the speed ot the bolus and peristaltic wave and of movement of the hyoid bone, larynx, and epiglottis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the evaluation of the dysphagic patient, radiology is crucial as a technique for monitoring morphology and function. In particular, high-speed cineradiography can reveal a variety of pharyngeal dysfunctions. However, in the literature and in practice the difference between normal and abnormal function is not always clear. This monography is based on high-speed cineradiographies of swallowing in 75 non-dysphagic volunteers and in 189 dysphagic patients. The purpose was to study whether differences in bolus volumes, patient position, age and gender had any effects on the following parameters: the speed of the peristaltic wave and apex of the liquid barium bolus, the length of movement and the movement pattern of the hyoid bone and larynx, and epiglottic function. The study disclosed that the speed of the bolus, the anterior-superior movement and net movement of the hyoid bone increased significantly with larger bolus volumes. The position of the individual in relation to gravity significantly influenced the speed of peristalsis. In most of the measured parameters there were no differences between non-dysphagic and dysphagic individuals expect for differences in the intrapersonal variations and in the anterior-superior movement of the hyoid bone. In patients with pharyngeal dysfunction the initial stage of the elevation of the larynx was significantly lower than in patients without dysfunction. The approximation of the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone was significantly greater in individuals with normal epiglottic function than in those with epiglottic dysmobility. It is suggested that abnormal speed of peristalsis may be a mild form of dysfunction. Measurements of the aforementioned speed and movements can be done if bolus volume, age and position of the patient, film speed and magnifications factors are known. Hypotheses concerning epiglottic function and central control of swallowing are proposed. (au)

  2. Virtual bolus for total body irradiation treated with helical tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Gilles; Izar, Françoise; Ferrand, Régis; Bardies, Manuel; Ken, Soléakhéna; Simon, Luc

    2015-11-08

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for total body irradiation (TBI) is practiced in several centers using the TomoTherapy System. In this context the planning target volume (PTV) is the entire body including the skin. A safety margin in the air surrounding the body should be added to take into account setup errors. But using inverse planning, over-fluence peak could be generated in the skin region to insure dose homogeneity. This work proposes to study the performance of the use of a virtual bolus (VB). A VB is a material placed on the skin surface during planning, but absent for the real treatment. The optimal VB that compensates large setup errors without introducing a high-dose increase or hot spots for small setup errors was determined. For two cylindrical phantoms, 20VBs with different densities, thicknesses or designs were tested. Dose coverage of the PTV (V95%) in the presence of simulated setup errors was computed to assess the VB performance. A measure of the dose increase in the phantom center due to the absence of the VB during treatment was also achieved. Finally, the fluence peak at the phantom edge was measured in complete buildup conditions using a large phantom and a detector matrix. Using these VBs, simulated setup errors were compensated to a minimum value of 2.6 and 2.1 cm for small and large phantom, respectively (and only 1.2 and 1.7 cm with no VB). An optimal double-layer VB was found with a density of 0.4 kg.m(-3) and a total thickness of 8mm; an inner layer of 5 mm was declared as the target for the treatment planning system and an additional layer of 3 mm was added to avoid the over-fluence peak. Using this VB, setup errors were compensated up to 2.9 cm. The dose increase was measured to be only +1.5% at the phantom center and over-fluence peak was strongly decreased.

  3. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 × 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.

  4. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein [Electrical Engineering Group, Department of Physics and Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Tromsoe, N-9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R [Radiation Oncology Department, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)], E-mail: Yngve.Birkelund@uit.no

    2009-07-07

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 x 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.

  5. An Adaptive Nonlinear Basal-Bolus Calculator for Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Aradóttir, Tinna Björk; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    to the accuracy of such calculators. METHOD: We propose a method based on a continuous-discrete unscented Kalman filter to continuously track the postprandial glucose dynamics and the insulin sensitivity. We augment the Medtronic Virtual Patient (MVP) model to simulate noise-corrupted data from a continuous...

  6. The Consideration of Bolus Effects of Games Attached on Lesion area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of skin dose and PDD by using wounds protecting gauzes or Vaselinespread gauzes. And it was studied that the possibility to substitute custom bolus into gauzes. 4 MV photon (CL600C, varian, US), Polystyrene Phantom (30(W) X 30(L) X 30(H)) with Markus chamber(PTW, US) were used for dose measurement. This study was distinguished natural gauzes and spread over Vaseline gauzes. We gave variety to the gauze thickness at 5, 10 and 15 sheets respectively. For comparison between using bolus and not that, we had used 1.0 cm thickness bolus so that analyzed surface dose and PDD at the same conditions above mentioned. When maximum point was defined as reference point, surface dose was measured as 35% in open beam. When the gauzes were attached to surface as 5, 10 and 15 sheets, surface dose were increased as 69, 80 and 91% respectively according to thickness of gauzes. When spread over Vaseline gauzes were attached to surface as 5, 10 and 15 sheets, surface dose were increased respectively as 98, 100 and 98% according to thickness of gauzes. Also when 0.5 cm bolus and 5 sheets gauzes were composed, surface dose was measured as 98%. The gauzes that were attached to skin surface in radiation therapy had been scattering material and contributed increasing surface dose without variation of percentage depth dose. However, if we want to delivery much dose to skin surface then we have to apply many sheets of gauzes to skin surface. Although we get easy that result by bolus or spread over Vaseline gauzes, we have to revise percentage depth dose at calculation. Therefore, if we find pertinent conditions based on measured data that are considered skin dose and patient setup efficiency, to replace custom bolus with gauzes will be helpful to efficient treatment.

  7. Oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiani RA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Aguiar Cassiani, Carla Manfredi Santos, José Baddini-Martinez, Roberto Oliveira Dantas Department of Medicine, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, may have swallowing dysfunction. Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing in patients with COPD. Methods: We studied 16 patients with clinical manifestations and pulmonary function tests diagnosis of COPD (mean age: 68 years and 15 nonsmoking healthy volunteers (mean age: 65 years with normal pulmonary function tests. All subjects were submitted to clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Each subject performed in duplicate swallows of 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid bolus, paste bolus, and a solid bolus. Results: In general, the duration of the events of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was longer in COPD patients than controls. The difference was significant in the laryngeal vestibular closure, hyoid movement, and pharyngeal transit with swallows of both volumes of liquid bolus; in oral–pharyngeal transit with 5 mL paste bolus; and in pharyngeal and oral–pharyngeal transit with solid bolus. The difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit was higher in control subjects than in patients with COPD. Conclusion: The results suggested that patients with COPD have a longer pharyngeal swallowing phase than normal subjects, which is associated with a decrease in the difference between the duration of maximal laryngeal elevation and the duration of pharyngeal transit. Keywords: COPD, videofluoroscopy, oral–pharyngeal transit, swallowing, deglutition

  8. Optimum bolus wizard settings in insulin pumps in children with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A J B; Ostenfeld, A; Pipper, C B;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate current insulin pump settings in an optimally regulated paediatric population using bolus wizard. METHODS: We used a retrospective study design to analyse data from 124 children on insulin pump therapy who had optimum HbA1c levels [... hypoglycaemic events. Bolus wizard settings were used to calculate the insulin to carbohydrate factors and insulin sensitivity factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the variables associated with the calculation factors. RESULTS: Insulin to carbohydrate factor varied from 276 in the youngest...

  9. Use of an automated bolus calculator in MDI-treated type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Meldgaard, Merete; Serifovski, Nermin;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of flexible intensive insulin therapy (FIIT) and an automated bolus calculator (ABC) in a Danish type 1 diabetes population treated with multiple daily injections. Furthermore, to test the feasibility of teaching FIIT in a 3-h structured course.......To investigate the effect of flexible intensive insulin therapy (FIIT) and an automated bolus calculator (ABC) in a Danish type 1 diabetes population treated with multiple daily injections. Furthermore, to test the feasibility of teaching FIIT in a 3-h structured course....

  10. Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani

    2014-07-30

    Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. PMID:24746392

  11. Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Peters, Gerrit; Mills, Margaret E J; Speakman, John R; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Marks, Nikki J; Scantlebury, Michael

    2013-10-23

    Predator-prey interactions are fundamental in the evolution and structure of ecological communities. Our understanding, however, of the strategies used in pursuit and evasion remains limited. Here, we report on the hunting dynamics of the world's fastest land animal, the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. Using miniaturized data loggers, we recorded fine-scale movement, speed and acceleration of free-ranging cheetahs to measure how hunting dynamics relate to chasing different sized prey. Cheetahs attained hunting speeds of up to 18.94 m s(-1) and accelerated up to 7.5 m s(-2) with greatest angular velocities achieved during the terminal phase of the hunt. The interplay between forward and lateral acceleration during chases showed that the total forces involved in speed changes and turning were approximately constant over time but varied with prey type. Thus, rather than a simple maximum speed chase, cheetahs first accelerate to decrease the distance to their prey, before reducing speed 5-8 s from the end of the hunt, so as to facilitate rapid turns to match prey escape tactics, varying the precise strategy according to prey species. Predator and prey thus pit a fine balance of speed against manoeuvring capability in a race for survival. PMID:24004493

  12. Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Peters, Gerrit; Mills, Margaret E J; Speakman, John R; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Marks, Nikki J; Scantlebury, Michael

    2013-10-23

    Predator-prey interactions are fundamental in the evolution and structure of ecological communities. Our understanding, however, of the strategies used in pursuit and evasion remains limited. Here, we report on the hunting dynamics of the world's fastest land animal, the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. Using miniaturized data loggers, we recorded fine-scale movement, speed and acceleration of free-ranging cheetahs to measure how hunting dynamics relate to chasing different sized prey. Cheetahs attained hunting speeds of up to 18.94 m s(-1) and accelerated up to 7.5 m s(-2) with greatest angular velocities achieved during the terminal phase of the hunt. The interplay between forward and lateral acceleration during chases showed that the total forces involved in speed changes and turning were approximately constant over time but varied with prey type. Thus, rather than a simple maximum speed chase, cheetahs first accelerate to decrease the distance to their prey, before reducing speed 5-8 s from the end of the hunt, so as to facilitate rapid turns to match prey escape tactics, varying the precise strategy according to prey species. Predator and prey thus pit a fine balance of speed against manoeuvring capability in a race for survival.

  13. Unknown Safety and Efficacy of Smartphone Bolus Calculator Apps Puts Patients at Risk for Severe Adverse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Irl B; Parkin, Christopher G

    2016-07-01

    Manual calculation of bolus insulin dosages can be challenging for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) therapy. Automated bolus calculator capability has recently been made available via enhanced blood glucose meters and smartphone apps. Use of this technology has been shown to improve glycemic control and reduce glycemic variability without changing hypoglycemia; however, the clinical utility of app-based bolus calculators has not been demonstrated. Moreover, recent evidence challenges the safety and efficacy of these smartphone apps. Although the ability to automatically calculate bolus insulin dosages addresses a critical need of MDI-treated individuals, this technology raises concerns about efficacy of treatment and the protection of patient safety. This article discusses key issues and considerations associated with automated bolus calculator use. PMID:26798082

  14. Cardiorespiratory effects of intravenous bolus administration and infusion of ketamine-midazolam in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J D; Hartsfield, S M

    1993-10-01

    Twelve healthy dogs were used to determine the cardiorespiratory effects of i.v. administered ketamine (10 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg). Half the dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (K-M) as a bolus over 30 seconds and the other half received the K-M as an infusion over 15 minutes. Induction of anesthesia by use of K-M was good in all dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a bolus or infusion induced minimal cardiorespiratory effects, except for significant (P dogs of the infusion group. Mild and transient respiratory depression was observed in dogs of both groups immediately after administration of K-M, but was greater in dogs of the bolus group than in dogs of the infusion group. Duration of action of K-M for chemical restraint was short. Salivation and defecation were observed in a few dogs. Extreme muscular tone developed in 1 dog after K-M bolus administration. PMID:8250397

  15. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  16. The effect of food bolus location on jaw movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N.B. Molenaar; P.J. Gezelle Meerburg; J. Luraschi; T. Whittle; M. Schimmel; F. Lobbezoo; C.C. Peck; G.M. Murray; I. Minami

    2012-01-01

    Masticatory efficiency in individuals with extensive tooth loss has been widely discussed. However, little is known about jaw movement smoothness during chewing and the effect of differences in food bolus location on movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency. The aim of this study was to determ

  17. Tolerance to continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion can be reversed by pulsatile bolus infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetla, H. W.; Staal, M. J.; van Laar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Study design: Pilot study. Objective: To study the effect of pulsatile bolus infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) on daily ITB dose, in patients showing dose increases, probably due to tolerance. Setting: Department of neurology and neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherland

  18. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam administered concurrently with ketamine after intravenous bolus or infusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Jacobson, J D; Hartsfield, S M

    1993-12-01

    Midazolam, a water-soluble benzodiazepine tranquilizer, has been considered by some veterinary anaesthesiologists to be suitable as a combination anaesthetic agent when administered concurrently with ketamine because of its water solubility and miscibility with ketamine. However, the pharmacokinetics of midazolam have not been extensively described in the dog. Twelve clinically healthy mixed breed dogs (22.2-33.4 kg) were divided into two groups at random and were administered ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) either as an intravenous bolus over 30 s (group 1) or as an i.v. infusion in 0.9% NaCl (2 ml/kg) over 15 min. Blood samples were obtained immediately before the drugs were injected and periodically for 6 h afterwards. Serum concentrations were determined using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Serum concentrations were best described using a two-compartment open model and indicated a t1/2-alpha of 1.8 min and t1/2-beta of 27.8 min after i.v. bolus, and t1/2-alpha of 1.35 min and t1/2-beta of 31.6 min after i.v. infusion. The calculated pharmacokinetic coefficient B was significantly smaller after i.v. infusion (429 +/- 244 ng/ml) than after i.v. bolus (888 +/- 130 ng/ml, P = 0.004). Furthermore, AUC was significantly smaller after i.v. infusion (29,800 +/- 6120 ng/h/ml) than after i.v. bolus (42,500 +/- 8460 ng/h/ml, P infusion (17.4 +/- 4.00 ml/min/kg than after i.v. bolus (12.1 +/- 2.24 ml/min/kg, P < 0.05). No other pharmacokinetic value was significantly affected by rate of intravenous administration. PMID:8126758

  19. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C

    2006-06-01

    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient ( 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for control cows, with H having less blood Se (P < 0.04) than B or C cows. Calves from bolused cows had greater blood Se than calves from control cows (P = 0.01). Supplementation via a long-acting trace mineral bolus was successful in

  20. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  1. EFFECT OF A BITTER BOLUS ON ORAL, PHARYNGEAL AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Tavares ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context During swallowing, boluses stimulate sensory receptors of the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions. Sweet and tasteless foods are more acceptable for swallowing than bitter foods. A bitter bolus is unpleasant for most subjects. Our hypothesis was that the ingestion of a bitter bolus might alter the oral behavior, pharyngeal and esophageal transit when compared to a sweet bolus. Objective To evaluate whether the bitter taste of a liquid bolus causes alteration on oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal transit in normal subjects in comparison with sweet bolus.' Method Scintigraphic evaluation of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal transit was performed in 43 asymptomatic subjects, 22 women and 21 men, ages 23-71 years, without problems with the ingestion of liquid and solid foods, and without digestive, cardiac or neurologic diseases. Each subject swallowed in random sequence and at room temperature 5 mL of a liquid bolus with bitter taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 2 g of leaves of Peumus boldus, heated until boiling (boldus tea, and 5 mL of a liquid bolus with sweet taste, prepared with 50 mL of water with 3 g of sucrose, both labeled with 37 MBq of technetium phytate (Tc99m. Results There was no difference between the bitter bolus and the sweet bolus in mouth, pharynx and esophageal transit and clearance duration and in the amount of residues. Conclusion A bitter bolus, considered an unpleasant bolus, does not alter the duration of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, when compared with a sweet bolus, considered a pleasant bolus. Contexto Durante a deglutição o bolo estimula os receptores sensoriais da boca, faringe, laringe e esôfago. Os alimentos doces e sem gosto são mais aceitáveis para a deglutição do que os alimentos amargos, que tem gosto desagradável para a maioria dos indivíduos. A hipótese destes autores era que a ingestão de um bolo amargo pode alterar o trânsito oral

  2. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Shiqin [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Moran, Kathryn [Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Robar, James L. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues.

  3. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  4. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology

  5. OPTIMAL REGIMENS OF THE BASAL-BOLUS INSULIN THERAPY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Galkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine peculiarities in regimens of the pump insulin therapy and to reveal the optimal basal-to-bolus insulin ratio that are necessary for achieving optimal glycemic control in adoles-cents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.  82 adolescents at the age of 14–18 with T1DM, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII from 5 months to 7.5 years were monitored with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system «Guar-dian Real Time» or CGM system, built in MiniMed Paradigm Revel System 722 (Medtronic Minimed, USA. Assessing the quality of glycaemic control was based on the level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. The results of CGM were reviewed and average for 3 days performances: total daily dose of insulin, dose of basal and bolus insulin, basal-to-bolus insulin ratio, carbohydrate content of the meal, expressed in BE, carbohydrate ratio, insulin sensitivity factor were determined. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups: group 1 – adolescents with the optimal/suboptimal glycemic control (n = 55, 2 – adolescents with long-standing poorly controlled T1DM (n = 27. Average total daily dose of basal insulin (U in a day, U per kg in a day in adolescents group 1 was significantly higher, com-pared with patients in group 2 (р = 0.043; р = 0.038 respectively. Patients in group 2 received more car-bohydrates with a meal intake and had higher doses of average total daily bolus insulin. The average ba-sal-to-bolus ratio from group 1 patients was 51/49%, compared with group 2 patients – 45/55% (р = 0.026.  An important condition for achieving optimal glycemic control is a high level of compliance and skills of adolescents. Optimal well-balanced basal-to-bolus insulin ratio in adolescents with T1DM on CSII, which can provide improvements in blood glucose management and reducing the risk of complications of the disease, is 51/49%. 

  6. Combined left and right ventricular volume determination by radionuclide angiocardiography using double bolus and equilibrium technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Stubgaard, M; Møgelvang, J;

    1990-01-01

    by indicator dilution. The radionuclide technique comprised four steps: (1) a first-pass study of right ventricle; (2) a bolus study of left ventricle; (3) an equilibrium study of left ventricle; (4) determination of the distribution volume of red blood cells. Absolute volumes of left ventricle were determined......Eighteen patients with ischaemic heart disease were studied. Left and right ventricular volumes including cardiac output (forward flow) were determined by radionuclide angiocardiography using a double bolus and equilibrium technique. As reference, cardiac output was simultaneously measured...... from steps 2 + 3 + 4. Absolute volumes of right ventricle were calculated from stroke volume and right ventricular ejection fraction (EF) which in turn was determined from step 1 by creating composite systolic and composite diastolic images. There was an acceptable agreement between stroke volume...

  7. Surfactant bolus instillation: effects of different doses on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, M.; Segerer, Hugo; Kiessling, C.; Obladen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen preterm infants suffering from respiratory distress syndrome were randomly allocated to receive either high-dose (200 mg/kg) or low-dose (100 mg/kg) surfactant treatment. Retreatments were done with the low dose. Blood pressure, blood gases and cerebral blood flow velocities were determined before and after 24 bolus instillations. With the high dose mean blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity dropped significantly. With the low dose only mean cerebral blood flow velocity...

  8. Continuous-infusion cisplatin and bolus 5-fluorouracil in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, M R; Belliveau, J F; Weitberg, A B; Sabbath, K; Wiemann, M C; Cummings, F J; Calabresi, P

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-one evaluable patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma were treated with a combination of continuous-infusion cisplatin (25 mg/m2/day X 3 days) and bolus 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m2/day X 3 days). Toxicity was minimal. Seven patients (33%) responded. All responses were observed among the 16 previously untreated patients (44%) and lasted a median of 30 weeks. The results indicate the need for phase III trials of this treatment.

  9. Comparison of continuous epidural infusion and programmed intermittent epidural bolus in labor analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Y; Li Q; Yang R; Liu J

    2016-01-01

    Yunan Lin, Qiang Li, Jinlu Liu, Ruimin Yang, Jingchen Liu Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China Background: This study aims to investigate differences between continuous epidural infusion (CEI) and programmed intermittent epidural bolus (IEB) analgesia for the Chinese parturients undergoing spontaneous delivery and to approach their safety to parturients and neonates.Methods: Two hundred ...

  10. Dynamic properties of chasers in a moving queue based on a delayed chasing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guo; Jian-Xun, Ding; Xiang, Ling; Qin, Shi; Reinhart, Kühne

    2016-05-01

    A delayed chasing model is proposed to simulate the chase behavior in the queue, where each member regards the closest one ahead as the target, and the leader is attracted to a target point with slight fluctuation. When the initial distances between neighbors possess an identical low value, the fluctuating target of the leader can cause an amplified disturbance in the queue. After a long period of time, the queue recovers the stable state from the disturbance, forming a straight-line-like pattern again, but distances between neighbors grow. Whether the queue can keep stable or not depends on initial distance, desired velocity, and relaxation time. Furthermore, we carry out convergence analysis to explain the divergence transformation behavior and confirm the convergence conditions, which is in approximate agreement with simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71071044, 71001001, 71201041, and 11247291), the Doctoral Program of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110111120023 and 20120111120022), the Postdoctoral Fund Project of China (Grant No. 2013M530295), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB725404), and 1000 Plan for Foreign Talent, China (Grant No. WQ20123400070).

  11. Accuracy of pencil-beam redefinition algorithm dose calculations in patient-like cylindrical phantoms for bolus electron conformal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the improved accuracy of the pencil beam redefinition algorithm (PBRA) compared to the pencil beam algorithm (PBA) for bolus electron conformal therapy using cylindrical patient phantoms based on patient computed tomography (CT) scans of retromolar trigone and nose cancer.Methods: PBRA and PBA electron dose calculations were compared with measured dose in retromolar trigone and nose phantoms both with and without bolus. For the bolus treatment plans, a radiation oncologist outlined a planning target volume (PTV) on the central axis slice of the CT scan for each phantom. A bolus was designed using the planning.decimal® (p.d) software (.decimal, Inc., Sanford, FL) to conform the 90% dose line to the distal surface of the PTV. Dose measurements were taken with thermoluminescent dosimeters placed into predrilled holes. The Pinnacle3 (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MD) treatment planning system was used to calculate PBA dose distributions. The PBRA dose distributions were calculated with an in-house C++ program. In order to accurately account for the phantom materials a table correlating CT number to relative electron stopping and scattering powers was compiled and used for both PBA and PBRA dose calculations. Accuracy was determined by comparing differences in measured and calculated dose, as well as distance to agreement for each measurement point.Results: The measured doses had an average precision of 0.9%. For the retromolar trigone phantom, the PBRA dose calculations had an average ±1σ dose difference (calculated − measured) of −0.65%± 1.62% without the bolus and −0.20%± 1.54% with the bolus. The PBA dose calculation had an average dose difference of 0.19%± 3.27% without the bolus and −0.05%± 3.14% with the bolus. For the nose phantom, the PBRA dose calculations had an average dose difference of 0.50%± 3.06% without bolus and −0.18%± 1.22% with the bolus. The PBA dose calculations had an average

  12. Electrical characterization of bolus material as phantom for use in electrical impedance and computed tomography fusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvind Kaur Grewal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are widely used in medical imaging to predict image quality prior to clinical imaging. This paper discusses the possible use of bolus material, as a conductivity phantom, for validation and interpretation of electrical impedance tomography (EIT images. Bolus is commonly used in radiation therapy to mimic tissue. When irradiated, it has radiological characteristics similar to tissue. With increased research interest in CT/EIT fusion imaging there is a need to find a material which has both the absorption coefficient and electrical conductivity similar to biological tissues. In the present study the electrical properties, specifically resistivity, of various commercially available bolus materials were characterized by comparing their frequency response with that of in-vivo connective adipose tissue. It was determined that the resistivity of Gelatin Bolus is similar to in-vivo tissue in the frequency range 10 kHz to 1MHz and therefore has potential to be used in EIT/CT fusion imaging studies.

  13. Dopamine D(2) receptor quantification in extrastriatal brain regions using [(123)I]epidepride with bolus/infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, L H; Videbaek, C; Knudsen, G M;

    2000-01-01

    The iodinated benzamide epidepride, which shows a picomolar affinity binding to dopamine D(2) receptors, has been designed for in vivo studies using SPECT. The aim of the present study was to apply a steady-state condition by the bolus/infusion approach with [(123)I]epidepride for the...... bolus/infusion (B/I) experiment was applied. It was predicted that a B/I protocol with infusion of one-third of the initial bolus per hour would be appropriate. Steady-state conditions were attained in extrastriatal regions within 3-4 h but the infusion continued up to 7 h in order to minimize the...... has a unique signal-to-noise ratio compared to [(123)I]IBZM but present difficulties for steady-state measurements of striatal regions. The bolus/infusion approach is particularly feasible for quantification of the binding potential in extrastriatal regions....

  14. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin, after one bolus oral administration in buffaloes calves: Preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo breeding system has a great economic importance in South-America, principally in marginal or sub-tropical lands. The therapeutic recommendations applied to a single ruminant species are extrapolated to others but important differences among those were recognized. Marbofloxacin bolus is indicated in the treatment of neonatal gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli, in calves (25-50kg. The aim of this study was determined the pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin after oral administration, as bolus, following the label approved recommendations to cattle. One bolus (50 mg was administered in two clinically healthy buffaloes (two days-old, 48-50kg. Plasma concentrations of the marbofloxacin were determined by a HPLC/u.v. method. After oral administration, the values obtained were: tmax=0.5-6h, Cmax= 1.19-0.04μg/mL, AUCt=1.57-0.38μg·h/mL and MRTt= 3.34-6.92h, for calves 1 and 2 respectively. Fluoroquinolones act by concentration dependant killing mechanism, so high plasma concentration initially is important. For this reason, the recommended dose of 1mg/kg is inadequate in buffaloes.

  15. Optimising the scan delay for arterial phase imaging of the liver using the bolus tracking technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, RS; Kumar, G; Abdullah, BJJ; Ng, KH; Vijayananthan, A; Mohd. Nor, H; Liew, YW

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the delay time before the initiation of arterial phase scan in the detection of focal liver lesions in contrast enhanced 5 phase liver CT using the bolus tracking technique. Patients and Methods: Delay - the interval between threshold enhancement of 100 hounsfield unit (HU) in the abdominal aorta and commencement of the first arterial phase scan. Using a 16 slice CT scanner, a plain CT of the liver was done followed by an intravenous bolus of 120 ml nonionic iodinated contrast media (370 mg I/ml) at the rate of 4 mL/s. The second phase scan started immediately after the first phase scan. The portal venous and delay phases were obtained at a fixed delay of 60 s and 90 s from the beginning of contrast injection. Contrast enhancement index (CEI) and subjective visual conspicuity scores for each lesion were compared among the three groups. Results: 84 lesions (11 hepatocellular carcinomas, 17 hemangiomas, 39 other hypervascular lesions and 45 cysts) were evaluated. CEI for hepatocellular carcinomas appears to be higher during the first arterial phase in the 6 seconds delay group. No significant difference in CEI and mean conspicuity scores among the three groups for hemangioma, other hypervascular lesions and cysts. Conclusion: The conspicuity of hepatocellular carcinomas appeared better during the early arterial phase using a bolus tracking technique with a scan delay of 6 seconds from the 100 HU threshold in the abdominal aorta. PMID:22287986

  16. Bolus electron conformal therapy for the treatment of recurrent inflammatory breast cancer: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Michelle M., E-mail: mmkim@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Kanke, James E.; Zhang, Sean; Perkins, George H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of locoregionally recurrent breast cancer in patients who have previously undergone radiation therapy is challenging. Special techniques are often required that both eradicate the disease and minimize the risks of retreatment. We report the case of a patient with an early-stage left breast cancer who developed inflammatory-type recurrence requiring re-irradiation of the chest wall using bolus electron conformal therapy with image-guided treatment delivery. The patient was a 51-year-old woman who had undergone lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and adjuvant whole-breast radiation therapy for a stage I left breast cancer in June 1998. In March 2009, she presented at our institution with biopsy-proven recurrent inflammatory carcinoma and was aggressively treated with multi-agent chemotherapy followed by mastectomy that left a positive surgical margin. Given the patient's prior irradiation and irregular chest wall anatomy, bolus electron conformal therapy was used to treat her chest wall and draining lymphatics while sparing the underlying soft tissue. The patient still had no evidence of disease 21 months after treatment. Our results indicate that bolus electron conformal therapy is an accessible, effective radiation treatment approach for recurrent breast cancer in patients with irregular chest wall anatomy as a result of surgery. This approach may complement standard techniques used to reduce locoregional recurrence in the postmastectomy setting.

  17. A mathematical model for the movement of food bolus of varying viscosities through the esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Dharmendra

    2011-09-01

    This mathematical model is designed to study the influence of viscosity on swallowing of food bolus through the esophagus. Food bolus is considered as viscous fluid with variable viscosity. Geometry of esophagus is assumed as finite length channel and flow is induced by peristaltic wave along the length of channel walls. The expressions for axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, volume flow rate and stream function are obtained under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The impacts of viscosity parameter on pressure distribution, local wall shear stress, mechanical efficiency and trapping are numerically discussed with the help of computational results. On the basis of presented study, it is revealed that swallowing of low viscous fluids through esophagus requires less effort in comparison to fluids of higher viscosity. This result is similar to the experimental result obtained by Raut et al. [1], Dodds [2] and Ren et al. [3]. It is further concluded that the pumping efficiency increases while size of trapped bolus reduces when viscosity of fluid is high.

  18. Chasing Patents

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Flavio Marques; Pitchford, Rohan

    2002-01-01

    We examine the problem faced by a company that wishes to purchase patents in the hands of two di¤erent patent owners. Complementarity of these patents in the production process of the company is a prime e¢ciency reason for them being owned (or licenced) by the company. We show that this very same complementarity can lead to patent owners behaving strategically in bargaining, and delaying their sale to the company. When the company is highly leveraged, such ine¢cient delay is limited. Comparat...

  19. CHASE '10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Software is created by people---software engineers---working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspect of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improving the creation and maintenance...... research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over the field....

  20. "Chasing Spots"

    OpenAIRE

    Höltgen, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Das Berliner Computerspiele-Museum stellt zusammen mit einem Special Guest pünktlich zur Games Convention 2009 eine "History of Videogames"-Timeline vor. Die Geschichte der Videospiele ist am Maßstab der Mediengeschichte gemessen noch recht jung. Als Kapitel des Computerzeitalters ist sie jedoch längst Gegenstand archäologischen Interesses. Das Berliner Computerspiele-Museum hat jetzt eine interaktive "History of Videogames" auf seinen Webseiten veröffentlicht, die nach und nach die wesentlic...

  1. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  2. Development of a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for the quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfakih Khaled

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual-bolus protocol enables accurate quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF by first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. However, despite the advantages and increasing demand for the dual-bolus method for accurate quantification of MBF, thus far, it has not been widely used in the field of quantitative perfusion CMR. The main reasons for this are that the setup for the dual-bolus method is complex and requires a state-of-the-art injector and there is also a lack of post processing software. As a solution to one of these problems, we have devised a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for use in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to show the setup and feasibility of the universal dual-bolus injection scheme. Methods The universal dual-bolus injection scheme was tested using multiple combinations of different contrast agents, contrast agent dose, power injectors, perfusion sequences, and CMR scanners. This included 3 different contrast agents (Gd-DO3A-butrol, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, 4 different doses (0.025 mmol/kg, 0.05 mmol/kg, 0.075 mmol/kg and 0.1 mmol/kg, 2 different types of injectors (with and without "pause" function, 5 different sequences (turbo field echo (TFE, balanced TFE, k-space and time (k-t accelerated TFE, k-t accelerated balanced TFE, turbo fast low-angle shot and 3 different CMR scanners from 2 different manufacturers. The relation between the time width of dilute contrast agent bolus curve and cardiac output was obtained to determine the optimal predefined pause duration between dilute and neat contrast agent injection. Results 161 dual-bolus perfusion scans were performed. Three non-injector-related technical errors were observed (1.9%. No injector-related errors were observed. The dual-bolus scheme worked well in all the combinations of parameters if the optimal predefined pause was used. Linear regression analysis showed that the optimal duration for the predefined

  3. A pulse-chase strategy for EdU labelling assay is able to rapidly quantify cell division orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaofeng; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of the direction of cell division is an important, yet difficult, task to analyse how a plant organ acquires its final shape from an initially small group of cells. We introduce a method that rapidly and easily quantifies cell division direction and is applicable to all plant species. A pulse-chase strategy for 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labelling assay was established and was shown to be successful for leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Juncus prismatocarpus. By optimization of the pulse and chase periods, most of the signals obtained were sets of daughter nuclei. For Arabidopsis, the optimal time was a 45-min pulse and a 7-h chase. For J. prismatocarpus, the optimal time was a 2-h pulse and a 13.5-h chase. The positions of the daughter nuclei were used to quantify cell division direction in the Arabidopsis leaf primordia. Overall, cell division along the proximal-distal axis was more frequent than along the medial-lateral axis. In petiole, major vein, minor vein and margin areas, the major cell division direction seemed to be coincident with the direction of auxin flow. The advantages of our method over the few methods used previously are discussed. We anticipate that it will provide opportunities to study plant development in the near future. PMID:27121010

  4. A pulse-chase strategy for EdU labelling assay is able to rapidly quantify cell division orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaofeng; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of the direction of cell division is an important, yet difficult, task to analyse how a plant organ acquires its final shape from an initially small group of cells. We introduce a method that rapidly and easily quantifies cell division direction and is applicable to all plant species. A pulse-chase strategy for 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labelling assay was established and was shown to be successful for leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Juncus prismatocarpus. By optimization of the pulse and chase periods, most of the signals obtained were sets of daughter nuclei. For Arabidopsis, the optimal time was a 45-min pulse and a 7-h chase. For J. prismatocarpus, the optimal time was a 2-h pulse and a 13.5-h chase. The positions of the daughter nuclei were used to quantify cell division direction in the Arabidopsis leaf primordia. Overall, cell division along the proximal-distal axis was more frequent than along the medial-lateral axis. In petiole, major vein, minor vein and margin areas, the major cell division direction seemed to be coincident with the direction of auxin flow. The advantages of our method over the few methods used previously are discussed. We anticipate that it will provide opportunities to study plant development in the near future.

  5. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Pulse-chase labelling studies on maltase-glucoamylase, aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Sjöström, H; Norén, Ove

    1983-01-01

    The biogenesis of three intestinal microvillar enzymes, maltase-glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.20), aminopeptidase A (aspartate aminopeptidase, EC 3.4.11.7) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small-intestinal explants kept in organ culture. The earliest...

  6. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Pulse-chase labelling studies on aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael

    1982-01-01

    The biogenesis of two microvillar enzymes, aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) and sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48)-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.10), was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small-intestinal explants kept in organ culture. Both enzymes became inserted into the membrane during or immediately after...

  7. Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Norrild, B; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    chase times the Mr of both molecules increased to 187,000-201,000 (A) and 137,000-158,000 (B). These were similar to the sizes of D2-CAM labeled with [14C]glucosamine, [3H]fucose and [14C]mannosamine, indicating that the higher Mr species are glycoproteins. In the presence of tunicamycin, which...

  8. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects Contrações esofágicas, trânsito do bolo e percepção do trânsito após deglutições de bolos líquido e sólido em voluntários normais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.CONTEXTO: Disfagia esofágica é a sensação de que o alimento ingerido tem trânsito lento ou é bloqueado em sua passagem para o estômago. Nem sempre o sintoma é associado com alterações em trânsito ou motilidade. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar, em voluntários normais, a

  9. Chasing Science at Sea: Racing Hurricanes, Stalking Sharks, and Living Undersea With Ocean Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cindy

    2008-12-01

    Ellen Prager's new book, Chasing Science at Sea, is a personal account of why fieldwork is so important in many areas of ocean science, and how exciting that fieldwork can be. Prager has interwoven her own story of studying carbonates at the interface between biology and geology with stories from friends and colleagues. Storm stories and up-close-and-personal encounters with ocean creatures such as reef squid, marine iguanas, and whales abound. Throughout the book, she emphasizes the idea that the combination of observations and serendipity plays a critical role in science, and she gives examples of where this combination has led to especially important discoveries (e.g., that of hydrothermal vent organisms).

  10. Time course of expiratory propofol after bolus injection as measured by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornuss, Cyrill; Wiepcke, Dirk; Praun, Siegfried; Dolch, Michael E; Apfel, Christian C; Schelling, Gustav

    2012-04-01

    Propofol in exhaled breath can be detected and monitored in real time by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry (IMR-MS). In addition, propofol concentration in exhaled breath is tightly correlated with propofol concentration in plasma. Therefore, real-time monitoring of expiratory propofol could be useful for titrating intravenous anesthesia, but only if concentration changes in plasma can be determined in exhaled breath without significant delay. To evaluate the utility of IMR-MS during non-steady-state conditions, we measured the time course of both expiratory propofol concentration and the processed electroencephalography (EEG) as a surrogate outcome for propofol effect after an IV bolus induction of propofol. Twenty-one patients scheduled for routine surgery were observed after a bolus of 2.5 mg kg(-1) propofol for induction of anesthesia. Expiratory propofol was measured using IMR-MS and the cerebral propofol effect was estimated using the bispectral index (BIS). Primary endpoints were time to detection of expiratory propofol and time to onset of propofol's effect on BIS, and the secondary endpoint was time to peak effect (highest expiratory propofol or lowest BIS). Expiratory propofol and changes in BIS were first detected at 43 ± 21 and 49 ± 11 s after bolus injection, respectively (P = 0.29). Peak propofol concentrations (9.2 ± 2.4 parts-per-billion) and lowest BIS values (23 ± 4) were reached after 208 ± 57 and 219 ± 62 s, respectively (P = 0.57). Expiratory propofol concentrations measured by IMR-MS have similar times to detection and peak concentrations compared with propofol effect as measured by the processed EEG (BIS). This suggests that expiratory propofol concentrations may be useful for titrating intravenous anesthesia.

  11. Intermittent boluses versus pump continuous infusion for endoscopist-directed propofol administration in colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. González-Santiago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: non-anesthesiologist administration of propofol (NAAP using continuous infusion systems may achieve a more sustained sedative action. Aim: to compare intermittent boluses (IB with pump continuous infusion (PCI for NAAP, targeted to moderate sedation, for colonoscopy. Methods: 192 consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive IB (20 mg propofol boluses on demand or PCI (3 mg/kg/h plus 20 mg boluses on demand. Sedation could be stopped at cecal intubation at the discretion of the endoscopist. Satisfaction rates of the patient, nurses and endoscopist, propofol doses, depth of sedation (at the beginning, at cecal intubation and at the end, recovery times, complications and were collected. Results: there were no differences between groups regarding patient, nurse or endoscopist satisfaction rates with procedural sedation. Propofol doses (mg were significantly higher during the induction phase (86 [30-172] vs. 78 [30-160], p 0.03 and overall (185 [72-400] vs. 157 [60-460], p = 0.003 for PCI group. 81 % of assessments of the depth of sedation were moderate. The level of sedation (O/AAS scale was borderline significantly deeper at cecal intubation (2.38 vs. 2.72; p = 0.056 and at the end of the procedure (4.13 vs. 4.45; p = 0.05 for PCI group, prolonging thus early recovery time (6.3 vs. 5.1 minutes, p = 0.008, but not discharge time. Complications, all of them in minors, were non-significantly more frequent in the PCI group (9 vs. 7 %, p = 0.07. Conclusions: NAAP for colonoscopy was safely administered with comparable satisfaction and complication rates with either IB or PCI.

  12. Prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults presenting with oesophageal food bolus obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neel; Heerasing; Shok; Yin; Lee; Sina; Alexander; Damian; Dowling

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To look at the relationship between eosinophilic oesophagitis(EO) and food bolus impaction in adults. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed medical records of 100 consecutive patients who presented to our hospital with oesophageal food bolus obstruction(FBO) between 2012 and 2014. In this cohort, 96 were adults(64% male), and 4 paediatric patients were excluded from the analysis as our centre did not have paediatric gastroenterologists. Eighty-five adult patients underwent emergency gastroscopy. The food bolus was either advanced into the stomach using the push technique or retrieved using a standard retrieval net. Biopsies were obtained in 51 patients from the proximal and distal parts of the oesophagus at initial gastroscopy. All biopsy specimens were assessed and reviewed by dedicated gastrointestinal pathologists at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital Geelong. The diagnosis of EO was defined and established by the presence of the following histological features:(1) peak eosinophil counts > 20/hpf;(2) eosinophil microabscess;(3) superficial layering of eosinophils;(4) extracellular eosinophil granules;(5) basal cell hyperplasia;(6) dilated intercellular spaces; and(7) subepithelial or lamina propria fibrosis. The histology results of the biopsy specimens were accessed from the pathology database of the hospital and recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Our cohort had a median age of 60. Seventeen/51(33%) patients had evidence of EO on biopsy findings. The majority of patients with EO were male(71%). Classical endoscopic features of oesophageal rings, furrows or white plaques and exudates werefound in 59% of patients with EO. Previous episodes of FBO were present in 12/17 patients and 41% had a history of eczema, hay fever or asthma. Reflux oesophagitis and benign strictures were found in 20/34 patients who did not have biopsies. CONCLUSION: EO is present in approximately one third of patients who are admitted with FBO. Biopsies should be performed

  13. Recombinant human interleukin-3: pharmacokinetics after intravenous and subcutaneous bolus injection and effects on granulocyte kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, D J; Folke, M; Mortensen, B T; Nissen, N I

    1994-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of E. coli derived recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) was studied following intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) bolus injection of rhIL-3. After i.v. bolus injection in eight patients, serum peak levels of 34.5-135.0 ng/ml were reached, followed by a rapid decline with a t1/2 alpha of 17 +/- 2 min and a t1/2 beta of 59 +/- 7 min. After s.c. bolus injection in five patients, the absorption was more prolonged with peak serum levels reached at 2.8 +/- 0.4 h. Elimination was also more protracted, and serum base-line levels were reached at 14-24 h. The immediate effect of rhIL-3 on peripheral white blood cells was less pronounced and more variable than previously found for G- or GM-CSF. Following i.v. administration, neutrophils showed a moderate drop to median 64% of initial values (range 42-85%) at median 30 min after injection (range 15-60 min) followed by an increase at 24 h to 69-288% of initial values. Eosinophils dropped to a median nadir of 34% and then gradually increased to maximum values in the range 135-720% at 18-24 h. The effect of rhIL-3 was further examined following i.v. injection of autologous 111Indium-labelled granulocytes in six patients. In steady state, i.v. injection of rhIL-3 caused a moderate drop in 111Indium activity of peripheral blood within 20 min without tendency to subsequent recovery. No change occurred in the activity recorded over the lungs and liver. The activity over the spleen decreased moderately in two patients. These results are strikingly different from those previously obtained after i.v. injection of rhGM-CSF.

  14. Intraoperative imaging of cortical perfusion by time-resolved thermography using cold bolus approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmach, Julia; Schnabel, Christian; Hoffmann, Nico; Radev, Yordan; Sobottka, Stephan; Kirsch, Matthias; Schackert, Gabriele; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    During the past decade, thermographic cameras with high thermal and temporal resolution of up to 30 mK and 50 Hz, respectively, have been developed. These camera systems can be used to reveal thermal variations and heterogeneities of tissue and blood. Thus, they provide a fast, sensitive, noninvasive, and label-free application to investigate blood perfusion and to detect perfusion disorders. Therefore, time-resolved thermography is evaluated and tested for intraoperative imaging of the cerebral cortex during neurosurgeries. The motivation of this study is the intraoperative evaluation of the cortical perfusion by observing the temporal temperature curve of the cortex during and after the intravenous application of a cold bolus. The temperature curve caused by a cold bolus is influenced by thermodilution, depending on the temperature difference to the patient's circulation, and the pattern of mixing with the patient's blood. In this initial study, a flow phantom was used in order to determine the temperature variations of cold boli under stable conditions in a vascular system. The typical temperature profile of cold water passing by can be approximated by a bi- Gaussian function involving a set of four parameters. These parameters can be used to assess the cold bolus, since they provide information about its intensity, duration and arrival time. The findings of the flow phantom can be applied to thermographic measurements of the human cortex. The results demonstrate that time-resolved thermographic imaging is a suitable method to detect cold boli not only at a flow phantom but also at the human cortex.

  15. OPTIMAL REGIMENS OF THE BASAL-BOLUS INSULIN THERAPY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    G A Galkina; A. A. Voropay; M. A. Levkovich; S. V. Vorobiov; M V Komkova; N. V. Morozova

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine peculiarities in regimens of the pump insulin therapy and to reveal the optimal basal-to-bolus insulin ratio that are necessary for achieving optimal glycemic control in adoles-cents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).  82 adolescents at the age of 14–18 with T1DM, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) from 5 months to 7.5 years were monitored with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system «Guar-dian Real Time» or CGM system, built in MiniM...

  16. Continuous infusion or bolus injection of loop diuretics for congestive heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Patricio; Rain, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Paola

    2016-04-22

    Loop diuretics are widely used in acute heart failure. However, there is controversy about the superiority of continuous infusion over bolus administration. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews including 11 pertinent randomized controlled trials overall. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded continuous administration of loop diuretics probably reduces mortality and length of stay compared to intermittent administration in patients with acute heart failure.

  17. The benefit of individualized custom bolus in the postmastectomy radiation therapy: numerical analysis with 3-D treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Ho; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Keum, Ki Chang; Han, Yong Yih; Kim, Yong Bae; Chu, Sung Sil; Suh, Chang Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To reduce the irradiation dose to the lungs and heart in the case of chest wall irradiation using an oppositional electron beam, we used an individualized custom bolus, which was precisely designed to compensate for the differences in chest wall thickness. The benefits were evaluated by comparing the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) and dose statistics both with and without boluses Boluses were made, and their effects evaluated in ten patients treated using the reverse hockey-stick technique. The electron beam energy was determined so as to administer 80% of the irradiation prescription dose to the deepest lung-chest wall border, which was usually located at the internal mammary lymph node chain. An individualized custom bolus was prepared to compensate for a chest wall thinner than the prescription depth by meticulously measuring the chest wall thickness at 1 cm{sup 2} intervals on the planning CT images. A second planning CT was obtained overlying the individualized custom bolus for each patient's chest wall. 3-D treatment planning was performed using ADAC-Pinnacle{sup 3} for all patients with and without bolus, NTCPs based on 'the Lyman-Kutcher' model were analyzed and the mean, maximum, minimum doses, V{sub 50} and V{sub 95} for the heart and lungs were computed. The average NTCPs in the ipsilateral lung showed a statistically significant reduction (p<0.01), from 80.2{+-}3.43% to 47.7{+-}4.61%, with the use of the individualized custom boluses. The mean lung irradiation dose to the ipsilateral lung was also significantly reduced by about 430 cGy from 2757 cGy to 2,327 cGy (p<0.01). The V{sub 50} and V{sub 95} in the ipsilateral lung markedly decreased from the averages of 54.5 and 17.4% to 45.3 and 11.0%, respectively. The V{sub 50} and V{sub 95} in the heart also decreased from the averages of 16.8 and 6.1% to 9.8% and 2.2%, respectively. The NTCP in the contralateral lung and the heart were 0%, even for the cases with no bolus

  18. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous bolus administration and infusion of ketamine-midazolam in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J D; Hartsfield, S M

    1993-10-01

    Cardiovascular effects of IV administered ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) were determined in 12 healthy isoflurane-anesthetized (1.7% end-tidal concentration) dogs. Six dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (K-M) as a bolus over 30 seconds and 6 dogs received K-M as an infusion over 15 minutes. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a bolus and an infusion caused early significant (P dogs of the infusion group and returned to the baseline value near the end of the study. One dog died after K-M bolus administration. Mean maximal decreases from baseline for systemic blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke index were significantly (P dogs of the bolus group than in dogs of the infusion group; therefore, cardiovascular effects of K-M after infusion were less severe than those after bolus. Base excess and pHa decreased significantly (P infusion group, although similar changes occurred in both groups. Four dogs were maintained with 1.7% end-tidal isoflurane to determine temporal effects of isoflurane; these dogs did not receive K-M. Increases in heart rate, cardiac index, stroke index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indexes were significant (P < 0.05) at various sample collection intervals, particularly during the later stages of the study. Isoflurane anesthesia effectively blocked the cardiostimulatory properties of K-M.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8250398

  19. Note: Utilization of polymer gel as a bolus compensator and a dosimeter in the near-surface buildup region for breast-conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Hiraku, E-mail: fuseh@ipu.ac.jp; Inohira, Masaya; Kawamura, Hiraku; Fujisaki, Tatsuya [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0331 (Japan); Shinoda, Kazuya [Graduate School of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyamoto, Katsumi [Department of Radiological Technology, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakae, Takeji [Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Tangential beam radiotherapy is routinely used for radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. A tissue-equivalent bolus placed on the irradiated area shifts the depth of the dose distribution; this bolus provides uniform dose distribution to the breast. The gel bolus made by the BANG-Pro{sup ®} polymer gel and in an oxygen non-transmission pack was applicable as a dosimeter to measure dose distribution in near-surface buildup region. We validated the use of the gel bolus to improve in the whole-breast/chest wall, including the near-surface buildup region.

  20. Bolus timing in high-pitch CT angiography of the aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeres, Martin, E-mail: beeres@gmx.net [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Loch, Matthias, E-mail: MatthiasLoch@gmx.net [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Schulz, Boris, E-mail: boris.schell@googlemail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Kerl, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.kerl@gmail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Al-Butmeh, Firas, E-mail: Firas.Albutmeh@gmail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bodelle, Boris, E-mail: bbodelle@googlemail.com [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Herrmann, Eva, E-mail: Herrmann@Med.Uni-Frankfurt.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana, E-mail: tatjanagruber2004@yahoo.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Lee, Clara, E-mail: Clara.Lee@kgu.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Jacobi, Volkmar, E-mail: Volkmar.Jacobi@kgu.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Clinic of the Goethe University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); and others

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To investigate the bolus geometry in high-pitch CT angiography (CTA) of the aorta without ECG synchronisation in comparison to single-source CT. Methods: Overall 160 consecutive patients underwent CTA either in conventional single-source mode with a pitch of 1.2 (group 1), or in dual-source mode with a pitch of 3.0 (groups 2, 3 and 4) using different contrast media timings with bolus triggering at 140 HU (5 s, group 1; 10 s, group 2; 12 s, group 3; 14 s, group 4). Contrast material, saline flush, flow rate and kV/mAs settings were kept equal for optimum comparability. Aortic attenuation was measured along the z-axis of the patient at different anatomic landmarks and subjective image quality was compared. Results: The most homogeneous enhancement of the aorta was reached with a delay of 10 s after reaching the trigger threshold. The imaging length was not significantly different, but the examination time was significantly (p < 0.001) shorter in the high-pitch group (7.7 s vs. 1.7 s for group 1 vs. 2, 3 and 4). Conclusion: In high-pitch CT angiography using a start delay of 10 s after a trigger threshold of 140 HU in the descending aorta is reached, a homogenous contrast along the z-axis is accomplished.

  1. Oscillation and collective conveyor of water-in-oil droplets by microfluidic bolus flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmura, Takuya; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Maeda, Yusuke T

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic techniques have been extensively developed to realize micro-total analysis systems in a small chip. For microanalysis, the trapping or arranging of objects in a line is a critical step. Physical effects such as inertial lift force have been utilized so far, however, hydrodynamic interaction in a many body system is yet to be explored despite its relevance to pattern formation. Here, we report water-in-oil (W/O) droplets can be transported with sequential order in the grid of one-dimensional array of another large W/O droplets. As each droplet comes close to an interspace of the large droplet array, while exhibiting persistent back-and-forth motion, it is conveyed at a velocity equal to the droplet array. The droplet also makes asymmetric orbit to and from the large droplet behind, suggesting vortex like stream was involved. We confirm the appearance of closed streamlines, which called bolus flow, in numerical simulation based on lattice Boltzmann method. The existence region of bolus flow account...

  2. The Effect of Bolus Volume on Hyoid Kinematics in Healthy Swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyoid movement in swallowing is biomechanically linked to closure of the laryngeal vestibule for airway protection and to opening of the upper esophageal sphincter. Studies suggest that the range of hyoid movement is highly variable in the healthy population. However, other aspects of hyoid movement such as velocity remain relatively unexplored. In this study, we analyze data from a sample of 20 healthy young participants (10 male to determine whether hyoid movement distance, duration, velocity, and peak velocity vary systematically with increases in thin liquid bolus volume from 5 to 20 mL. The temporal correspondence between peak hyoid velocity and laryngeal vestibule closure was also examined. The results show that maximum hyoid position and peak velocity increase significantly for 20 mL bolus volumes compared to smaller volumes, and that the timing of peak velocity is closely linked to achieving laryngeal vestibule closure. This suggests that generating hyoid movements with increased power is a strategy for handling larger volumes.

  3. Peristaltic Transport of a Rheological Fluid: Model for Movement of Food Bolus Through Esophagus

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, J C

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanical peristaltic transport through esophagus has been of concern in the paper. A mathematical model has been developed with an aim to study the peristaltic transport of a rheological fluid for arbitrary wave shapes and tube lengths. The Ostwald-de Waele power law of viscous fluid is considered here to depict the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid. The model is formulated and analyzed with the specific aim of exploring some important information concerning the movement of food bolus through the esophagus. The analysis has been carried out by using lubrication theory. The study is particularly suitable for cases where the Reynolds number is small. The esophagus is treated as a circular tube through which the transport of food bolus takes places by periodic contraction of the esophageal wall. Variation of different variables concerned with the transport phenomena such as pressure, flow velocity, particle trajectory and reflux are investigated for a single wave as well as for a train of periodic per...

  4. Ocular dynamics of Garcinia cola (Heckel on healthy volunteers following bolus ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Igwe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia cola Heckel, an angiospermae belonging to the  family Guttiferae, is known in commerce as bitter cola. It is a plant found in the West African subregion, mostly in moist conditions, and often in association with Cola acuminata. The seeds are highly valued ingredients in African ethonomedicine. The seeds have several social uses and applications in folk medicine. These seeds are ordinarily chewed by the local people without prescription or restriction. In an in vivo case control study, the effects of Garcinia cola on some visual functions: pupil diameter, near point of convergence (NPC, amplitude of accommodation (AA, intraocular pressure (IOP, visual acuity (VA and habitual phoria; following bolus ingestion of 20 g was undertaken using healthy visually active volunteers. Results showed that bolus ingestion of Garcinia cola constricted the pupil by 68%, reduced the NPC by 28%, increased the AA by 17.8% at peak effect and decreased the intraocular pressure by 31% without affecting the distance and near VA. The lateral phoria at far and near tended towards esophoria. Possibly the miotic effect and reduction in IOP could be of benefit to patients with raised IOP where conventional drugs may not be effective. Also it is possible that the effects on phoria could be exploited in oculomotor function in combination with visual training.

  5. A retrospective comparison of smart prep and test bolus multi-detector CT pulmonary angiography protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal arterial opacification is crucial in imaging the pulmonary arteries using computed tomography (CT). This poses the challenge of precisely timing data acquisition to coincide with the transit of the contrast bolus through the pulmonary vasculature. The aim of this quality assurance exercise was to investigate if a change in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scanning protocol resulted in improved opacification of the pulmonary arteries. Comparison was made between the smart prep protocol (SPP) and the test bolus protocol (TBP) for opacification in the pulmonary trunk. A total of 160 CTPA examinations (80 using each protocol) performed between January 2010 and February 2011 were assessed retrospectively. CT attenuation coefficients were measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) using regions of interest at the level of the pulmonary trunk. The average pixel value, standard deviation (SD), maximum, and minimum were recorded. For each of these variables a mean value was then calculated and compared for these two CTPA protocols. Minimum opacification of 200 HU was achieved in 98% of the TBP sample but only 90% of the SPP sample. The average CT attenuation over the pulmonary trunk for the SPP was 329 (SD = ±21) HU, whereas for the TBP it was 396 (SD = ±22) HU (P = 0.0017). The TBP also recorded higher maximum (P = 0.0024) and minimum (P = 0.0039) levels of opacification. This study has found that a TBP resulted in significantly better opacification of the pulmonary trunk than the SPP

  6. A retrospective comparison of smart prep and test bolus multi-detector CT pulmonary angiography protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckling, Tara [Medical Imaging Department, Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital, Tamworth, New South Wales (Australia); Smith, Tony [University Department of Rural Health, The University of Newcastle, Tamworth, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe (Australia); Medical Imaging Department, Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital, Tamworth, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    Optimal arterial opacification is crucial in imaging the pulmonary arteries using computed tomography (CT). This poses the challenge of precisely timing data acquisition to coincide with the transit of the contrast bolus through the pulmonary vasculature. The aim of this quality assurance exercise was to investigate if a change in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scanning protocol resulted in improved opacification of the pulmonary arteries. Comparison was made between the smart prep protocol (SPP) and the test bolus protocol (TBP) for opacification in the pulmonary trunk. A total of 160 CTPA examinations (80 using each protocol) performed between January 2010 and February 2011 were assessed retrospectively. CT attenuation coefficients were measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) using regions of interest at the level of the pulmonary trunk. The average pixel value, standard deviation (SD), maximum, and minimum were recorded. For each of these variables a mean value was then calculated and compared for these two CTPA protocols. Minimum opacification of 200 HU was achieved in 98% of the TBP sample but only 90% of the SPP sample. The average CT attenuation over the pulmonary trunk for the SPP was 329 (SD = ±21) HU, whereas for the TBP it was 396 (SD = ±22) HU (P = 0.0017). The TBP also recorded higher maximum (P = 0.0024) and minimum (P = 0.0039) levels of opacification. This study has found that a TBP resulted in significantly better opacification of the pulmonary trunk than the SPP.

  7. A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release

    CERN Document Server

    De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

  8. Electronic identification of cattle: interference in the reading of ceramic bolus transponders in the presence of ruminal magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ferri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors assess the reading performances of electronic transponders encased in ceramic boluses, utilised as identification (ID instruments for production ruminants, and the possible influence of the magnet, which is located in the fore-stomach of ruminants. Research has been conducted in free-range Friesian dairy herds in the Teramo Province. The use of the electronic bolus to identify cattle appears to provide better guarantees than the traditional methods used and meets the requirements of identifying individual animals at the farm level. Results demonstrate how the presence of both the magnet and the ceramic bolus, equipped with a transponder, makes it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to read the code. However, the electronic ID system is the best instrument currently available. The authors confirm the validity of this method and highlight some problems that still need to be solved.

  9. High bolus tirofiban vs abciximab in acute STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI - The tamip study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Balghith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI has been shown to be an effective therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI. Glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockers reduce thrombotic complications in patients undergoing PCI. Most available data relate to Reopro, which has been registered for this indication. GP IIb/IIIa reduce unfavorable outcome in U/A and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI patients. Only few studies focused on high dose Aggrastat for STEMI patients in the emergency department (ED before PCI. The aim is to increase the patency during the time awaiting coronary angioplasty in patients with acute MI. Objectives: To study the effect of upfront high bolus dose (HDR of tirofiban on the extent of residual ST segment deviation 1 hour after primary PCI and the incidence of TIMI 3 flow of the infarct-related artery (IRA. Materials and Methods: A randomized, open label, single center study in the ED. A total of 90 patients with acute ST-elevation MI, diagnosed clinically by ECG criteria (ST segment elevation of >2 mm in two adjacent ECG leads, and with an expectation that a patient will undergo primary PCI. Patients were aged 21-85 years and all received heparin 5000 u, aspirin 160 mg, and Plavix 600 mg. Patients were divided in two groups (group I: triofiban high bolus vs group II: Reopro with 45 patients in each group. In group I, high bolus triofiban 25 mcg/kg over 3 min was started in the ED with maintenance infusion of 0.15 mcg/ kg/min continued for 12 hours and transferred to cath lab for PCI. Patients in group II were transferred to cath lab, where a standard dose of Reopro was given with a bolus of 0.25 mcg/kg and maintenance infusion of 0.125 mcg/kg/min over 12 hours. Results: ST segment resolution and TIMI flow were evaluated in both groups before and after PCI. Thirty-five patients (78% enrolled in group I and 29 patients (64% in group II had resolution of ST segment (P-value 0

  10. A CHASE domain containing protein kinase OsCRL4, represents a new AtCRE1-like gene family in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秋敏; 姜华武; 齐晓朋; 丁洁; 吴平

    2004-01-01

    AtCRE1 is known to be a cytokinin receptor inArabidopsis. The AtCRE1 protein contains CHASE domain at the N-terminal part, followed by a transmitter (histidine kinase) domain and two receiver domains. The N-terminal CHASE domain of AtCRE1 contains putative recognition sites for cytokinin. Five CHASE domains containing proteins were found in rice, OsCRLla, OsCRLlb, OsCRL2, OsCRL3, and OsCRL4. OsCRL1a, OsCRL1b, OsCRL2 and OsCRL3 contain the four domains existing in CRE1, whereas OsCRL4 only contains the CHASE domain and a putative Ser/Thr protein kinase domain The authors cloned the encoding gene OsCRL4 and found that it represents a new member of the cytokinin receptor protein in rice.

  11. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Johnson Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year....

  12. "The relationship between pharmacokinetic variables and pharmacodynamic profiles of bolus versus continuous infusion of furosemide in critically ill patients"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the pharmacokinetic variables of continuous infusion and intermittent bolus injection of furosemide and the possible relationship between its pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacodynamic profile among intensive care unit (ICU patients were studied. In this prospective, randomized, clinical trial, twelve patients received IV bolus of 20 mg of the drug during 3 hours period and, the drug dose was doubled, when the urine output was less than 1 ml/kg/h (group 1. The other nine patients received a continuous intravenous furosemide infusion at the rate of 0.1 mg/kg/h (group 2. The amount of furosemide in serum was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results showed a positive correlation between plasma clearance of furosemide and its diuretic activity (P=0.01. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Vd (l, CL (ml/min, Ke (min-1 and t½ (min in continuous infusion patients were not significantly differed from the bolus patients (P-values 0.5, 0.9, 0.9,0.9, respectively. Nevertheless the observed plasma clearance of drug in the continuous infusion group was clinically higher than bolus injection group and as a result the cumulative urine output per hour per mg of furosemide in a continuous infusion was observed to be higher than bolus(P=0.2. Changes in serum sodium and potassium were similar for both groups, but bolus injection patients were associated with higher potassium depletion (P=0.001. Therefore, continuous infusion seems to be better means of diuretic therapy in critically ill patients.

  13. Myocardial extravascular extracellular volume fraction measurement by gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance in humans: slow infusion versus bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Bobby L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial extravascular extracellular volume fraction (Ve measures quantify diffuse fibrosis not readily detectable by conventional late gadolinium (Gd enhancement (LGE. Ve measurement requires steady state equilibrium between plasma and interstitial Gd contrast. While a constant infusion produces steady state, it is unclear whether a simple bolus can do the same. Given the relatively slow clearance of Gd, we hypothesized that a bolus technique accurately measures Ve, thus facilitating integration of myocardial fibrosis quantification into cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR workflow routines. Assuming equivalence between techniques, we further hypothesized that Ve measures would be reproducible across scans. Methods In 10 volunteers (ages 20-81, median 33 yr, 3 females, we compared serial Ve measures from a single short axis slice from two scans: first, during a constant infusion, and second, 12-50 min after a bolus (0.2 mmol/kg gadoteridol on another day. Steady state during infusion was defined when serial blood and myocardial T1 data varied Results No subject exhibited LGE near the short axis slices where Ve was measured. The Ve range was 19.3-29.2% and 18.4-29.1% by constant infusion and bolus, respectively. In GEE models, serial Ve measures by constant infusion and bolus did not differ significantly (difference = 0.1%, p = 0.38. For both techniques, Ve was strongly related to age (p Conclusion Myocardial Ve can be measured reliably and accurately 12-50 minutes after a simple bolus. Ve measures are also reproducible across CMR scans. Ve estimation can be integrated into CMR workflow easily, which may simplify research applications involving the quantification of myocardial fibrosis.

  14. Allocation and residence time of photosynthetic products in a boreal forest using a low-level 14C pulse-chase labeling technique

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, MS; Czimczik, CI; McDuffee, KE; Trumbore, SE

    2007-01-01

    Much of our understanding about how carbon (C) is allocated in plants comes from radiocarbon (14C) pulse-chase labeling experiments. However, the large amounts of 14C required for decay-counting mean that these studies have been restricted for the most part to mesocosm or controlled laboratory experiments. Using the enhanced sensitivity for 14C detection available with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we tested the utility of a low-level 14C pulse-chase labeling technique for quantifying ...

  15. Management of hypertensive emergencies of pregnancy by hydralazine bolus injection vs continuous drip--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Mosammat Rashida; Quadir, Ehsan; Begum, Anowara; Akhter, Sayeba; Rahman, Khalilur

    2002-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted at Dhaka Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh. The objective was to identify the time required to control high blood pressure levels in obstetric patients by injection of hydralazine in a bolus intravenous dose vs continuous drip. Seventy-seven patients with eclampsia and hypertensive emergencies comprised the target population. Patients were managed either by hydralazine drip in normal saline (existing official protocol, n = 33) or hydralazine bolus injection (as experiment, n = 44) until diastolic blood pressure fell to 90-95 mmHg. Results were compared. Student's t-test was done for statistical significance, and a P value of hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. PMID:12466730

  16. A bolus/infusion paradigm for the novel NMDA receptor SPET tracer [{sup 123}i]CNS 1261

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressan, Rodrigo A; Erlandsson, Kjell E-mail: k.erlandsson@nucmed.ucl.ac.uk; Mulligan, Rachel S; Gunn, Roger N.; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Owens, Jonathan; Cullum, Ian D.; Ell, Peter J.; Pilowsky, Lyn S

    2004-02-01

    We have previously performed quantitative kinetic modeling of [{sup 123}I]CNS 1261, a new SPET ligand for the MK801 intrachannel site of the NMDA receptor. We now report a bolus-infusion protocol, which eliminates the need for arterial blood sampling. Dynamic SPET scanning and venous blood sampling were performed in 7 healthy volunteers. Good agreement was obtained between kinetic and equilibrium analysis. SPET scanning with a bolus-infusion protocol is a valid method to estimate the total volume of distribution for [{sup 123}I]CNS 1261 in clinical populations.

  17. Estimation of contrast agent bolus arrival delays for improved reproducibility of liver DCE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Manil D.; Bainbridge, Alan; Atkinson, David; Punwani, Shonit; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Taylor, Stuart A.

    2016-10-01

    Delays between contrast agent (CA) arrival at the site of vascular input function (VIF) sampling and the tissue of interest affect dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI pharmacokinetic modelling. We investigate effects of altering VIF CA bolus arrival delays on liver DCE MRI perfusion parameters, propose an alternative approach to estimating delays and evaluate reproducibility. Thirteen healthy volunteers (28.7  ±  1.9 years, seven males) underwent liver DCE MRI using dual-input single compartment modelling, with reproducibility (n  =  9) measured at 7 days. Effects of VIF CA bolus arrival delays were assessed for arterial and portal venous input functions. Delays were pre-estimated using linear regression, with restricted free modelling around the pre-estimated delay. Perfusion parameters and 7 days reproducibility were compared using this method, freely modelled delays and no delays using one-way ANOVA. Reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis of agreement. Maximum percent change relative to parameters obtained using zero delays, were  -31% for portal venous (PV) perfusion, +43% for total liver blood flow (TLBF), +3247% for hepatic arterial (HA) fraction, +150% for mean transit time and  -10% for distribution volume. Differences were demonstrated between the 3 methods for PV perfusion (p  =  0.0085) and HA fraction (p  <  0.0001), but not other parameters. Improved mean differences and Bland-Altman 95% Limits-of-Agreement for reproducibility of PV perfusion (9.3 ml/min/100 g, ±506.1 ml/min/100 g) and TLBF (43.8 ml/min/100 g, ±586.7 ml/min/100 g) were demonstrated using pre-estimated delays with constrained free modelling. CA bolus arrival delays cause profound differences in liver DCE MRI quantification. Pre-estimation of delays with constrained free modelling improved 7 days reproducibility of perfusion parameters in volunteers.

  18. Changes in thymidylate synthase mRNA in blood leukocytes from patients with colorectal cancer after bolus administration of 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnrooth, E; Sørensen, B; Poulsen, J H;

    2000-01-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is considered the standard antineoplastic drug of choice for metastatic colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that 5-FU administered as bolus infusion is cytotoxic mainly through an RNA damaging effect. We investigated the effect of i.v. bolus 5-FU 500-600 mg/m2 on the 5-FU...

  19. The reliability and validity of passive leg raise and fluid bolus to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing emergency department patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Nicolaj; Shogilev, Daniel J; Skibsted, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the reproducibility of passive leg raise (PLR) and fluid bolus (BOLUS) using the Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM; Cheetah Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) for assessment of fluid responsiveness (FR) in spontaneously breathing emergency department (ED) patients. METHO...

  20. Degradation dynamics of microRNAs revealed by a novel pulse-chase approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Matteo J; Ghini, Francesco; Cerruti, Benedetta; de Pretis, Stefano; Bonetti, Paola; Giacomelli, Chiara; Gorski, Marcin M; Kress, Theresia; Pelizzola, Mattia; Muller, Heiko; Amati, Bruno; Nicassio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of miRNAs is critical to the definition of cell identity and behavior in normal physiology and disease. To date, the dynamics of miRNA degradation and the mechanisms involved in remain largely obscure, in particular, in higher organisms. Here, we developed a pulse-chase approach based on metabolic RNA labeling to calculate miRNA decay rates at genome-wide scale in mammalian cells. Our analysis revealed heterogeneous miRNA half-lives, with many species behaving as stable molecules (T1/2> 24 h), while others, including passenger miRNAs and a number (25/129) of guide miRNAs, are quickly turned over (T1/2= 4-14 h). Decay rates were coupled with other features, including genomic organization, transcription rates, structural heterogeneity (isomiRs), and target abundance, measured through quantitative experimental approaches. This comprehensive analysis highlighted functional mechanisms that mediate miRNA degradation, as well as the importance of decay dynamics in the regulation of the miRNA pool under both steady-state conditions and during cell transitions. PMID:26821571

  1. Sperm whale predator-prey interactions involve chasing and buzzing, but no acoustic stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, A; Johnson, M; Wilson, M; Aguilar Soto, N; Madsen, P T

    2016-01-01

    The sperm whale carries a hypertrophied nose that generates powerful clicks for long-range echolocation. However, it remains a conundrum how this bizarrely shaped apex predator catches its prey. Several hypotheses have been advanced to propose both active and passive means to acquire prey, including acoustic debilitation of prey with very powerful clicks. Here we test these hypotheses by using sound and movement recording tags in a fine-scale study of buzz sequences to relate the acoustic behaviour of sperm whales with changes in acceleration in their head region during prey capture attempts. We show that in the terminal buzz phase, sperm whales reduce inter-click intervals and estimated source levels by 1-2 orders of magnitude. As a result, received levels at the prey are more than an order of magnitude below levels required for debilitation, precluding acoustic stunning to facilitate prey capture. Rather, buzzing involves high-frequency, low amplitude clicks well suited to provide high-resolution biosonar updates during the last stages of capture. The high temporal resolution helps to guide motor patterns during occasionally prolonged chases in which prey are eventually subdued with the aid of fast jaw movements and/or buccal suction as indicated by acceleration transients (jerks) near the end of buzzes. PMID:27340122

  2. Research on efficient edge-chasing deadlock detection/resolution for distributed systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xin; Jin Feng; Yang Xiaozong

    2006-01-01

    Numerous edge-chasing deadlock detection algorithms were developed for the cycle detection in distributed systems, but their detections had the n steps speed limitation and n(n-1) overhead limitation to detect a cycle of size n under the one-resource request model. Since fast deadlock detection is critical, this paper proposed a new algorithm to speed up the detection process. In our algorithm, when the running of a transaction node is blocked, the being requested resource nodes reply it with the waiting or being waited message simultaneously, so the blocked node knows both its predecessors and successors, which helps it detecting a cycle of size 2 directly and locally. For the cycle of size n (n>2), a special probe is produced which has the predecessors information of its originator, so the being detected nodes know their indirect predecessors and direct successors, and can detect the cycle within n-2 steps. The proposed algorithm is formally proved to be correct by the invariant verification method. Performance evaluation shows that the message overhead of our detection is (n2-n-2)/2, hence both the detection speed and message cost of the proposed algorithm are better than that of the existing algorithms.

  3. 'Chasing the Dragon' - imaging of heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, J. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: jeff_hagel@hotmail.com; Andrews, G. [UBC Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vertinsky, T. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Heran, M.K.S. [Vancouver General Hospital, Div. of Neuroradiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keogh, C. [BC Cancer Agency, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    'Chasing the dragon' refers to the inhalation of heroin pyrolysate vapors produced when the freebase form of heroin is heated. Inhalation of these vapors can result in a rare toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy. The patients may progress through 3 defined clinical stages, with one-quarter reaching the terminal stage, which invariably leads to death. Imaging and, in particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates white matter findings that are felt to be specific for this entity and essential in its early diagnosis. We present the typical imaging findings in a pictorial essay format, using images taken from 9 patients who presented within an 18-month period at UBC-affiliated hospitals. These findings include low computed tomography (CT) attenuation and high T2 MRI signal most commonly in the posterior cerebral and cerebellar white matter, cerebellar peduncles, splenium of the corpus callosum, and posterior limb of the internal capsules. In addition, there is often selective, symmetric involvement of the corticospinal tract, the medial lemniscus, and the tractus solitarius. We also present the variable diffusion-weighted imaging arid apparent diffusion coefficient findings from 4 of our patients, which to our knowledge, have not been described in the literature. (author)

  4. Bolus tracking with nanofilter-based multispectral videography for capturing microvasculature hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Kaminska, Bozena; St. Lawrence, Keith; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2014-04-01

    Multispectral imaging is a highly desirable modality for material-based analysis in diverse areas such as food production and processing, satellite-based reconnaissance, and biomedical imaging. Here, we present nanofilter-based multispectral videography (nMSV) in the 700 to 950 nm range made possible by the tunable extraordinary-optical-transmission properties of 3D metallic nanostructures. Measurements made with nMSV during a bolus injection of an intravascular tracer in the ear of a piglet resulted in spectral videos of the microvasculature. Analysis of the multispectral videos generated contrast measurements representative of arterial pulsation, the distribution of microvascular transit times, as well as a separation of the venous and arterial signals arising from within the tissue. Therefore, nMSV is capable of acquiring serial multispectral images relevant to tissue hemodynamics, which may have application to the detection and identification of skin cancer.

  5. Evaluation of T2* change in hollow fiber dialyzer after bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated in a simulation that diffusion is an important component in determining T2* contrast. When a high-susceptibility agent permeates from intravascular to extracellular space, the changes in its spatial distribution affect the signal intensity of T2*-weighted images so as to potentially represent a diffusion process. To experimentally demonstrate the effects of permeation on T2*-weighted images, we assessed the dynamic changes in T2* signal after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA (Magnevist: Schering) solution into a hollow fiber dialyzer as a phantom of intravascular and extracellular space. The signal intensity of the hollow fiber dialyzer in gradient-echo images was compared with that in spin-echo images. (author)

  6. Individualized chest wall compensating bolus for electron irradiation following mastectomy: an ultrasound approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-mode ultrasound is used in a procedure to construct individualized tissue compensating bolus for electron beam irradiation of the chest wall, where the thickness of tissues over the lung may vary by as much as 3 cm. Electron energies corresponding to the thickest tissues in the field would normally cause lung tissues beneath the thinner regions to receive the full tumor dose. The problem is made more serious by the fact that electron ranges in lung are 2-3 times greater than in muscle. We feel that some form of individualized compensation is necessary for patients with large variations in chest wall thickness within a given electron treatment field. The A-Scan procedure is particularly suited to deliniation of the pleura-lung interface because of the strong identifiable reflection from this discontinuity. In the first approach, a moldable gelatanous bolus material, mixed to transmit ultrasound at 5 MHz with a velocity equal to the speed of sound in muscle, is placed on the chest wall covering the entire field. The thickness of the compensating material is then reduced at each point in the field so that the total thickness (muscle plus compensator) indicated by the A-scan is everywhere the same as the chosen maximum treatment depth. Because the compensator has nearly the same electron stopping power as muscle, the compensated chest wall is now uniform in thickness over the entire field. In the second approach, we sacrifice the one-step advantages of using sonically transparent compensator material in order to obtain a more rugged and rapid setting compensator. Four patients have been treated with no evidence of pneumonitis. The more elegant combination of these two approaches awaits the development of rugged materials which are both quick setting and sonically transparent

  7. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. PMID:26103485

  8. Low-dose esmolol bolus reduces seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. van den Broek (Walter); A.F. Leentjens; A. Kusuma (Ari); J.A. Bruijn (Jan); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe have measured the effect of a bolus dose of esmolol 80 mg i.v. on heart rate, and systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressures during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We also assessed seizure duration using both the cuff method and tw

  9. Implementation of a split-bolus single-pass CT protocol at a UK major trauma centre to reduce excess radiation dose in trauma pan-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To quantify the dose reduction and ensure that the use of a split-bolus protocol provided sufficient vascular enhancement. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2014, both split bolus and traditional two-phase scans were performed on a single CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare) using a two-pump injector (Medrad Stellant). Both protocols used Siemens' proprietary tube current and tube voltage modulation techniques (CARE dose and CARE kV). The protocols were compared retrospectively to assess the dose–length product (DLP), aortic radiodensity at the level of the coeliac axis and radiodensity of the portal vein. Results: There were 151 trauma CT examinations during this period. Seventy-eight used the split-bolus protocol. Seventy-one had traditional two-phase imaging. One patient was excluded as they were under the age of 18 years. The radiodensity measurements for the portal vein were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the split-bolus protocol. The mean aortic enhancement in both protocols exceeded 250 HU, although the traditional two-phase protocol gave greater arterial enhancement (p<0.001) than the split-bolus protocol. The split-bolus protocol had a significantly lower (p<0.001) DLP with 43.5% reduction in the mean DLP compared to the traditional protocol. Conclusion: Split-bolus CT imaging offers significant dose reduction for this relatively young population while retaining both arterial and venous enhancement. -- Highlights: •We implemented a split bolus pan-CT protocol for trauma CT. •We compared the radiation dose and vascular enhancement of the split bolus protocol to a traditional two phase protocol. •The split bolus protocol had a 43.5% reduction in mean DLP

  10. Dopamine D(2) receptor quantification in extrastriatal brain regions using [(123)I]epidepride with bolus/infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, L H; Videbaek, C; Knudsen, G M; Swahn, C G; Halldin, C; Friberg, L; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    2000-06-15

    The iodinated benzamide epidepride, which shows a picomolar affinity binding to dopamine D(2) receptors, has been designed for in vivo studies using SPECT. The aim of the present study was to apply a steady-state condition by the bolus/infusion approach with [(123)I]epidepride for the quantification of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors in humans. In this way the distribution volume of the tracer can be determined from a single SPECT image and one blood sample. Based on bolus experiments, an algorithm using conventional convolution arguments for prediction of the outcome of a bolus/infusion (B/I) experiment was applied. It was predicted that a B/I protocol with infusion of one-third of the initial bolus per hour would be appropriate. Steady-state conditions were attained in extrastriatal regions within 3-4 h but the infusion continued up to 7 h in order to minimize the significance of individual differences in plasma clearance and binding parameters. A steady-state condition, however, could not be attained in striatal brain regions using a B/I protocol of 20 h, even after 11 h. Under near steady-state conditions a striatal:cerebellar ratio of 23 was demonstrated. Epidepride has a unique signal-to-noise ratio compared to [(123)I]IBZM but present difficulties for steady-state measurements of striatal regions. The bolus/infusion approach is particularly feasible for quantification of the binding potential in extrastriatal regions. PMID:10819910

  11. A model of emotion game for chasing between virtual humans%一种虚拟人追逐过程中的情绪博弈模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞玉龙; 刘箴

    2012-01-01

    追逐行为在人类社会生活中十分常见,模拟追逐过程中的情绪变化,有助于揭示情绪和运动的关系.在借鉴博弈论的基础上,研究了虚拟人围绕障碍物追逐的情绪博弈模型,依据追逐的剧情,拟定了虚拟人的情绪强度公式,定量描述了虚拟人的速度和体力的变化,提出了追逐过程中虚拟人情绪博弈策略.采用OpenSceneGraph图形库实现了虚拟人追逐动画,实验结果表明,该模型能很好地模拟追逐中虚拟人情绪的变化规律.%Chasing behavior is very common in human social life, and simulation of the emotion variation in a cha-sing process is helpful to reveal the relationship between emotion and motion. An emotion game model for chasing between virtual human around obstacles was studied on the basis of game theory. The formulas of the emotion inten-sities were constructed by a chasing story, and the variation of a virtual human' s speed and energy were quantita-tively described. The emotion game strategy for a chasing process was presented. The chasing behavior animation of a virtual human was realized in an OpenSceneGraph graphic library. The experimental results show that the model can closely simulate the variation of emotion in a chasing process.

  12. Visual processing in rapid-chase systems: Image processing, attention, and awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchmidt

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be classified so rapidly that their analysis may be based on a single sweep of feedforward processing through the visuomotor system. Behavioral criteria for feedforward processing can be evaluated in response priming tasks where speeded pointing or keypress responses are performed towards target stimuli which are preceded by prime stimuli. We apply this method to several classes of complex stimuli. 1 When participants classify natural images into animals or non-animals, the time course of their pointing responses indicates that prime and target signals remain strictly sequential throughout all processing stages, meeting stringent behavioral criteria for feedforward processing (rapid-chase criteria. 2 Such priming effects are boosted by selective visual attention for positions, shapes, and colors, in a way consistent with bottom-up enhancement of visuomotor processing, even when primes cannot be consciously identified. 3 Speeded processing of phobic images is observed in participants specifically fearful of spiders or snakes, suggesting enhancement of feedforward processing by long-term perceptual learning. 4 When the perceived brightness of primes in complex displays is altered by means of illumination or transparency illusions, priming effects in speeded keypress responses can systematically contradict subjective brightness judgments, such that one prime appears brighter than the other but activates motor responses as if it was darker. We propose that response priming captures the output of the first feedforward pass of visual signals through the visuomotor system, and that this output lacks some characteristic features of more elaborate, recurrent processing. This way, visuomotor measures may become dissociated from several aspects of conscious vision. We argue that "fast" visuomotor measures predominantly driven by feedforward processing should supplement "slow" psychophysical measures predominantly based on visual

  13. ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION: ROLE OF I.V. BOLUS DOSE OF ESMOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND LIGNOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE : A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of intravenous Bolus dose of Esmolol Hydrochloride and Lignocaine Hydrochloride to attenuate the Haemodynamic responses to Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal intubation. MATERIALS & METHODS : A study of Esmolol hydrochloride and Lignocaine hydrochloride in attenuation of the cardiovascular respons e during Laryngoscopy and intubation was compared in 50 adult patient, undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia. This study was taken in 2 groups. Group - I consists of 25 patients, where Lignocaine hydrochloride 2 mg per kg IV was used for attenuation of cardiovascular response to Laryngoscopy and intubation. Group - II consists of 25 patients where Esmolol hydrochloride 200 mg IV bolus was used as study drug. RESULTS : Results of the present study are consistent with the studies in attenuating haemodyna mic responses to Laryngoscopy and intubation by the use of intravenous bolus dose of 200 mg of Esmolol is superior to Lignocaine hydrochloride. 2mg per kg body weight IV bolus. CONCLUSION : It establishes the usefulness of intravenous bolus dose of Esmolol to attenuate the haemodynamic responses to Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. This study shows the 200 mg of bolus dose of Esmolol hydrochloride is superior to intravenous Lignocaine hydrochloride 2 mg per kg body weight IV bolus to attenuate the ha emodynamic responses to Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. No side effects were noted with Esmolol and Lignocaine hydrochloride

  14. WE-F-16A-05: Use of 3D-Printers to Create a Tissue Equivalent 3D-Bolus for External Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleson, S; Baker, J; Hsia, A; Xu, Z [Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a non-expensive 3D-printer can be used to manufacture a 3D-bolus for external beam therapy. The printed bolus then can be modeled in our treatment planning system to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient. Methods: We developed a simple method to manufacture a patient-specific custom 3Dbolus. The bolus is designed using Eclipse Treatment Planning System, contoured onto the patients CT images. The bolus file is exported from Eclipse to 3D-printer software, and then printed using a 3D printer. Various tests were completed to determine the properties of the printing material. Percent depth dose curves in this material were measured with electron and photon beams for comparison to other materials. In order to test the validity of the 3D printed bolus for treatment planning, a custom bolus was printed and tested on the Rando phantom using film for a dose plane comparison. We compared the dose plane measured on the film to the same dose plane exported from our treatment planning system using Film QA software. The gamma-dose distribution tool was used in our film analysis. Results: We compared point measurements throughout the dose plane and were able to achieve greater than 95% passing rate at 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement, which is our departments acceptable gamma pixel parameters. Conclusion: The printed 3D bolus has proven to be accurately modeled in our treatment planning system, it is more conformal to the patient surface and more durable than other bolus currently used (wax, superflab etc.). It is also more convenient and less costly than comparable bolus from milling machine companies.

  15. WE-F-16A-05: Use of 3D-Printers to Create a Tissue Equivalent 3D-Bolus for External Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a non-expensive 3D-printer can be used to manufacture a 3D-bolus for external beam therapy. The printed bolus then can be modeled in our treatment planning system to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient. Methods: We developed a simple method to manufacture a patient-specific custom 3Dbolus. The bolus is designed using Eclipse Treatment Planning System, contoured onto the patients CT images. The bolus file is exported from Eclipse to 3D-printer software, and then printed using a 3D printer. Various tests were completed to determine the properties of the printing material. Percent depth dose curves in this material were measured with electron and photon beams for comparison to other materials. In order to test the validity of the 3D printed bolus for treatment planning, a custom bolus was printed and tested on the Rando phantom using film for a dose plane comparison. We compared the dose plane measured on the film to the same dose plane exported from our treatment planning system using Film QA software. The gamma-dose distribution tool was used in our film analysis. Results: We compared point measurements throughout the dose plane and were able to achieve greater than 95% passing rate at 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement, which is our departments acceptable gamma pixel parameters. Conclusion: The printed 3D bolus has proven to be accurately modeled in our treatment planning system, it is more conformal to the patient surface and more durable than other bolus currently used (wax, superflab etc.). It is also more convenient and less costly than comparable bolus from milling machine companies

  16. Continuous versus bolus cardiac output monitoring during or thotopic liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Ping Bao; Jian Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac output monitoring is important for critical patients. This study aimed to determine the delayed response of continuous cardiac output (CCO) thermodilution measurement, whether CCO and bolus cardiac output (BCO) thermodilution agree sufifciently to be used interchangeably, and whether CCO monitoring is reliable for patients undergoing liver transplantation. METHODS:Thirteen patients undergoing liver transplan-tation without veno-venous bypass were studied (37-66 years old, weight 46-75 kg). Continuous and bolus thermodilution measurements were performed at predeifned time points using an "Opti-Q" SvO2/CCO monitor (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL, USA). Bias and 95% limits of agreement were calculated according to Bland and Altman analysis. The limits of agreement by which two methods are judged to be interchangeable were deifned in advance as ±(13%× BCOmean) L/min. The repeatability and relative error of CCO, and the differences between CCO and the mean of the two measurements were calculated. RESULTS:Cardiac output measurements yielded 196 data pairs with ranges of 1.9 to 17.9 L/min for CCO and 2.1 to 18.3 L/min for BCO. The response time of CCO was delayed in the early phases after caval clamping and after reperfusion. At most of the measurement points, bias and 95%limits of agreement were-0.18±1.91 L/min. 95%limits of agreement did not fall within the predetermined limits of agreement of ±1.14 L/min. The repeatability coefifcient of CCO was 0.36 L/min and the relative error was 4.6±4.7%. The mean difference between CCO and the average of the two methods was-0.09 L/min (0.49 L/min). CONCLUSIONS:In patients undergoing liver transplan-tation, the delayed response of CCO limits its application during the early phases after caval clamping and after reperfusion of the graft. The two methods are not interchangeable even in hemodynamic stability. Continuous thermodilution monitoring, however, is reliable or acceptable for clinical purposes.

  17. Radiation dermatitis caused by a bolus effect from an abdominal compression device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael; Wei, Randy L; Yu, Suhong; Sehgal, Varun; Klempner, Samuel J; Daroui, Parima

    2016-01-01

    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 176 evaluated the dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices. The report analyzed the extensive physics-based literature on couch tops, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) frames, and body immobilization bags, while noting the scarcity of clinical reports of skin toxicity because of external devices. Here, we present a clinical case report of grade 1 abdominal skin toxicity owing to an abdominal compression device. We discuss the dosimetric implications of the utilized treatment plan as well as post hoc alternative plans and quantify differences in attenuation and skin dose/build-up between the device, a lower-density alternative device, and an open field. The description of the case includes a 66-year-old male with HER2 amplified poorly differentiated distal esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiation and the use of an abdominal compression device. Radiation was delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 2 arcs using abdominal compression and image guidance. The total dose was 50.4Gy delivered over 40 elapsed days. With 2 fractions remaining, the patient developed dermatitis in the area of the compression device. The original treatment plan did not include a contour of the device. Alternative post hoc treatment plans were generated, one to contour the device and a second with anterior avoidance. In conclusion, replanning with the device contoured revealed the bolus effect. The skin dose increased from 27 to 36Gy. planned target volume (PTV) coverage at 45Gy was reduced to 76.5% from 95.8%. The second VMAT treatment plan with an anterior avoidance sector and more oblique beam angles maintained PTV coverage and spared the anterior wall, however at the expense of substantially increased dose to lung. This case report provides an important reminder of the bolus effect from external devices such as abdominal compression. Special

  18. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy.

  19. A randomized phase III multicenter trial comparing irinotecan in combination with the Nordic bolus 5-FU and folinic acid schedule or the bolus/infused de Gramont schedule (Lv5FU2) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimelius, B; Sørbye, H; Balteskard, L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare irinotecan with the Nordic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid (FA) bolus schedule [irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) on day 1, 5-FU 500 mg/m(2) and FA 60 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 2 (FLIRI)] or the Lv5FU2 schedule [irinotecan 180 mg/m(2) on day 1, FA 200 mg/m(2), 5-FU bolus 400 mg/m(2......). RESULTS: Patient characteristics were well balanced. PFS did not differ between groups (median 9 months, P = 0.22). Overall survival (OS) was also similar (median 19 months, P = 0.9). Fewer objective responses were seen in the FLIRI group (35% versus 49%, P = 0.001) but the metastatic resection rate did...

  20. Cross comparison and modelling of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Franklin Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We have studied statistical characteristics of five share price time series. For each stock price, we estimated a best fit quantitative model for the monthly closing price as based on the decomposition into two defining consumer price indices selected from a large set of CPIs. It was found that there are two pairs of similar models (Bank of America/Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs/JPMorgan Chase) with a standalone model for Franklin Resources. From each pair, one can choose the company with t...

  1. Dosimetry characterization and clinical application of Exa skin: Bolus of high of high density for use with photons; Caracterizacion dosimetrica y aplicacion clinica de Exaskin: bolus de alta densidad para uso con fotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Seidel, M.; Velazquez Miranda, S.

    2013-07-01

    Bolus of high density eXaSkin of density 1.6 g/cm{sub 3} is calculated correctly in the planning systems, is easy to use and generates optimum coupling with the radiation area, at the same time which is easily reproducible in their placement, avoiding the use of electron beams. On the other hand its behavior varies very slightly with the presence of air gaps. (Author)

  2. Effects of advanced carbohydrate counting guided by an automated bolus calculator in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (StenoABC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Schmidt, S; Vistisen, D;

    2016-01-01

    -centre, investigator-initiated clinical study. We enrolled advanced carbohydrate counting-naïve adults with Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c levels 64-100 mmol/mol (8.0-11.3%), who were receiving multiple daily insulin injection therapy. In a 1:1-ratio, participants were randomized to receive training in either advanced......AIMS: To test whether concomitant use of an automated bolus calculator for people with Type 1 diabetes carrying out advanced carbohydrate counting would induce further improvements in metabolic control. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, single...... carbohydrate counting using mental calculations (MC group) or advanced carbohydrate counting using an automated bolus calculator (ABC group) during a 3.5-h group training course. For 12 months after training, participants attended a specialized diabetes centre quarterly. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c...

  3. Changes in basal rates and bolus calculator settings in insulin pumps during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jonathan M; Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    and HbA1c were recorded. Results were compared with 96 women with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injection therapy. RESULTS: Throughout pregnancy, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio decreased at all three main meals. The most pronounced decrease was observed at breakfast, where the carbohydrate......c levels during pregnancy, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio declined 4-fold from early to late pregnancy, whereas......OBJECTIVE: To explore insulin pump settings in a cohort of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator. METHODS: Twenty-seven women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy were included in this study. At 8, 12, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, insulin pump settings...

  4. Optimizing computed tomography pulmonary angiography using right atrium bolus monitoring combined with spontaneous respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Wang; Jian, Li; Rui, Zhai [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, Department of Computed Tomography, Jining City, ShanDong Province (China); Wen, Li [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Jining, ShanDong (China); Dai, Lun-Hou [Shandong Chest Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jinan, ShanDong (China)

    2015-09-15

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) aims to provide pulmonary arterial opacification in the absence of significant pulmonary venous filling. This requires accurate timing of the imaging acquisition to ensure synchronization with the peak pulmonary artery contrast concentration. This study was designed to test the utility of right atrium (RA) monitoring in ensuring optimal timing of CTPA acquisition. Sixty patients referred for CTPA were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 30): CTPA was performed using bolus triggering from the pulmonary trunk, suspended respiration and 70 ml of contrast agent (CA). Group B (n = 30): CTPA image acquisition was triggered using RA monitoring with spontaneous respiration and 40 ml of CA. Image quality was compared. Subjective image quality, average CT values of pulmonary arteries and density difference between artery and vein pairs were significantly higher whereas CT values of pulmonary veins were significantly lower in group B (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the proportion of subjects where sixth grade pulmonary arteries were opacified (P > 0.05). RA monitoring combined with spontaneous respiration to trigger image acquisition in CTPA produces optimal contrast enhancement in pulmonary arterial structures with minimal venous filling even with reduced doses of CA. (orig.)

  5. Thoracic pathologies on scout views and bolus tracking slices for computed tomographic cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M.; Fiehler, J.; Buhk, J.H. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Henes, F.O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence of additional thoracic pathologic findings (TPF) detected on scout views and corresponding bolus tracking slices (SVBT) for computed tomographic cerebral angiography (CTCA) and to test the reliability and accuracy of these findings. The study collective included 505 consecutive patients who underwent multidetector CTCA. Appendant SVBT of all patients were reviewed for any pathologic findings and patient medical reports were analyzed, if any medical treatment was initiated for the detected pathologic findings. In 18 patients thoracic CT scans were performed in the same session. These were additionally reviewed by two blinded observers to test for intra- and interobserver reliability as well as for accuracy of detecting thoracic pathologies on SVBT. TPF were detected in 165 (33 %) SVBT. The five most common pathologic findings were: pleural effusion, 12 %; pneumonia, 8 %; atelectasis/dystelecatsis, 6 %; pericardial effusion, 2 % and elevated diaphragm, 1 %. For 48 % of these findings medical treatment was initiated. SVBT showed a sensitivity of 53 %, a specificity of 99 %, a positive predictive value of 89 %, a negative predictive value of 94 % and accuracy of 94 % for the detection of TPF. The intraobserver reliability was very good and the interobserver reliability showed moderate agreement. SVBT for CTCA should be reviewed with care by radiologists, since additional TPF can affect patient management. Nevertheless, despite a high specificity of SVBT for detecting TPF, an only moderate sensitivity has to be taken into account.

  6. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of bolus-administered mannitol in patients undergoing elective craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Kotaro; Baker, Max T; Han, Tae-Hyung; Weeks, Julie B; Todd, Michael M

    2010-05-01

    To better understand mannitol pharmacokinetics, the authors constructed and compared population models for high-versus low-dose bolus infusions in humans. Patients (aged 18-75, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1-3) scheduled for elective craniotomy with an anticipated need for intraoperative mannitol were randomly assigned to receive either 0.5 (n = 10) or 1.0 (n = 12) g/kg of 20% mannitol over 15 minutes. Serial blood samples were collected at the predetermined intervals over 12 hours. Plasma mannitol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography and subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis; a 3-compartment model best described mannitol disposition characteristics. Weight and dose were the important covariates for rapid peripheral volume of distribution (V2) and central clearance (CL1), respectively. Estimated population means were 2.80, 8.86, and 12.0 L for central (V1), rapid (V2), and slow (V3) volumes of distribution, respectively. Clearances of the central compartments (CL1) were 0.07 versus 0.04 L/min in the high-versus low-dose group, respectively. Thus, mannitol kinetics can be considered as nonlinear. Clearances of the rapid peripheral (CL2) and slow peripheral compartments (CL3) were identical (2.07 and 0.16 L/min) in both. The current weight-based dosing guidelines yielded greater than expected plasma drug concentrations in obese patients. PMID:20051588

  7. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskaite, Kotryna; Dlugosz, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17-96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  8. Basal or bolus dose, which is the key factor in CSII?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Nai-long; XUE Bing; LIN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the value of HbA1c level evaluating the total daily basal insulin dose by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in 268 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 5-point capillary blood glucose was monitored in pre- and post-CSII and the insulin dose which could stabilize blood glucose was defmed as the total daily dose of insulin,including basal and bolus total dose. Correlation between HbA1c level and total daily dose of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was analyzed. Correlation between HbA1c level and 5-point capillary blood glucose was also analyzed. Results:Obvious correlation was observed between HbA1c level and the basal total daily dose of insulin if HbA1c was more than 9.3%(r=0.635, P<0.05). The average of 5-point capillary blood glucose was best correlated with HbA1c and fasting blood glucose next best. Conclusion: HbA1c level can forecast basal total daily dose of insulin in CSII.

  9. Diclofenac Sodium Bolus Injection (Dyloject(TM)): A Review in Acute Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2016-08-01

    An intravenous bolus formulation of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium has been developed using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) as a solubility enhancer. HPβCD diclofenac (Dyloject(TM)) is available for use in adults in the USA for the management of mild to moderate pain, and as monotherapy or in combination with opioid analgesics for the management of moderate to severe pain. In two multicentre, phase III studies in adults with acute moderate to severe postoperative pain, HPβCD diclofenac significantly reduced pain intensity and the need for rescue medication compared with placebo. In these studies, the tolerability profile of HPβCD diclofenac was generally similar to that of placebo and adverse events were mostly mild to moderate in severity. Constipation, infusion-site pain and dizziness were the most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring numerically more frequently with HPβCD diclofenac than placebo. Therapy with HPβCD diclofenac does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, renal or bleeding-related adverse events versus placebo. Thus, HPβCD diclofenac extends the treatment options currently available for the management of moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. PMID:27447189

  10. Longitudinal dispersion of Xenon-133 bolus in the oropharynx and the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at confirming that the upper airways (oropharynx) cannot be considered as a simple dead space playing no specific role in the mixing and to establish the transfer function of these airways during inspiration and expiration. The experiments are performed on five healthy subjects. A 133Xe bolus is injected in front of the lips while the subject breathes air at a constant flow rate. The radioactivity is measured during inspiration and expiration by two counter probes in front of the lips and at the level of the upper opening of the trachea. The experimental outputs, under the glottis for inspiration and in front of the lips for expiration, are compared with the responses of a mathematical model which takes into account the longitudinal mixing of gas in the oropharynx and the larynx. This method mades it possible to determine the parameters which the transfer function depends on. Our results suggest that the relationships between the longitudinal dispersion coefficient and the product of the mean axial velocity u by the diameter d or the length L of the upper airways, is linear. The transfer function is the same for the five subjects but the inspiratory and expiratory transfer functions are different

  11. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; SATO, JUICHI; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10–90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrati...

  12. Low-dose esmolol bolus reduces seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, Walter; Leentjens, A.F.; Kusuma, Ari; Bruijn, Jan; Mulder, Paul

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe have measured the effect of a bolus dose of esmolol 80 mg i.v. on heart rate, and systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean (MAP) arterial pressures during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We also assessed seizure duration using both the cuff method and two-lead EEG. We studied 20 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-patient blocked randomized study. No patient was receiving psychotherapeutic drugs or had cardiovascular disease. Esmolol significantly reduced he...

  13. Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Masahiko [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Yamagata Prefecture Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Education Center, Yamagata (Japan)], E-mail: mkonno@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihito; Abe, Mitsuya; Tateishi, Toshiki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Masashi; Ota, Hideki; Takase, Kei [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA.

  14. Locoregional Outcomes of Inflammatory Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Standard Fractionation Radiation and Daily Skin Bolus in the Taxane Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess locoregional outcomes of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients who received standard fractionation radiation with daily skin bolus and taxanes as part of combined-modality therapy (CMT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 107 patients diagnosed with IBC between January 1995 and March 2006 who presented to our department for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). Results: All patients received chemotherapy (95% anthracycline and 95% taxane), modified radical mastectomy, and RT to the chest wall and regional lymphatics using standard fractionation to 50 Gy and daily skin bolus. The RT to the chest wall was delivered via electrons (55%) or photons (45%) in daily fractions of 180 cGy (73%) or 200 cGy (27%). Scar boost was performed in 11%. A majority (84%) of patients completed the prescribed treatment. Median follow-up was 47 months (range, 10-134 months). Locoregional control (LRC) at 3 years and 5 years was 90% and 87%, respectively. Distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) at 3 years and 5 years was 61% and 47%, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent locoregional control was observed in this population of IBC patients who received standard fractionation radiation with daily skin bolus and taxanes as part of combined-modality therapy. Distant metastases-free survival remains a significant therapeutic challenge.

  15. Decoding Biosynthetic Pathways in Plants by Pulse-Chase Strategies Using 13CO2 as a Universal Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelbert Bacher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 13CO2 pulse-chase experiments monitored by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry can provide 13C-isotopologue compositions in biosynthetic products. Experiments with a variety of plant species have documented that the isotopologue profiles generated with 13CO2 pulse-chase labeling are directly comparable to those that can be generated by the application of [U-13C6]glucose to aseptically growing plants. However, the application of the 13CO2 labeling technology is not subject to the experimental limitations that one has to take into account for experiments with [U-13C6]glucose and can be applied to plants growing under physiological conditions, even in the field. In practical terms, the results of biosynthetic studies with 13CO2 consist of the detection of pairs, triples and occasionally quadruples of 13C atoms that have been jointly contributed to the target metabolite, at an abundance that is well above the stochastic occurrence of such multiples. Notably, the connectivities of jointly transferred 13C multiples can have undergone modification by skeletal rearrangements that can be diagnosed from the isotopologue data. As shown by the examples presented in this review article, the approach turns out to be powerful in decoding the carbon topology of even complex biosynthetic pathways.

  16. The effects of exhaustive chasing training on the growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in Spinibarbus sinensis and Procypris rabaudi%力竭追赶训练对两种鲤科鱼类生长和摄食代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀明; 于丽娟; 曹振东; 付世建; 张耀光

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of exhaustive chasing training on the growth performance and postprandial metabolic response of Spinibarbus sinensis and Procypris rabaudi, several growth parameters and postprandial metabolic rates were measured on the non-trained and trained groups of two fish species at (25±0. 5 ) ℃. Fish in the trained groups were performed exhaustive chasing training once daily for 21 days. Exhaustive chasing training resulted in significant decrease in feed intake, feed conversion rate, weight specific growth rate, length specific growth rate, the peak metabolic rates, the energy expended on specific dynamic action (SDA) and SDA coefficients compared with those of non-trained group in S. sinensis ( P < 0. 05 ). Resting metabolic rates, times of peak metabolic rate and durations of SDA were not significantly different between non-trained and trained groups in S. sinensis. Exhaustive chasing training elicited significant decrease in feed conversion rate, weight specific growth rate, length specific growth rate, resting metabolic rates and peak metabolic rates compared to those of the non-trained group in P. rabaudi ( P < 0. 05 ) . However, feed intake, times of peak metabolic rate, durations of SDA, factorial metabolic scopes, the energy expended on SDA and SDA coefficients were not significantly different between the non-trained group and trained group in P. rabaudi. The results suggested that; ( 1 )The growth rates decreased significantly in S. sinensis and P. rabaudi by exhaustive chasing training. (2) S. sinensis and P. rabaudi a-dopt different feeding metabolic adaptation strategies under the condition of exhaustive chasing training.%为了考查力竭训练对养殖鱼类生长能力和摄食代谢影响,在25℃条件下,测定了中华倒刺鲃(Spinibarbus sinensis)和岩原鲤(Procypris rabaudi)幼鱼各自非训练组和训练组(力竭追赶训练1次/d,历时21 d)的生长参数和摄食代谢反应.结果显示:训练组中华倒刺鲃幼

  17. Automated bolus advisor control and usability study (ABACUS: does use of an insulin bolus advisor improve glycaemic control in patients failing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI therapy? [NCT01460446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavan David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM often do not follow and/or adjust their insulin regimens as needed. Key contributors to treatment non-adherence are fear of hypoglycaemia, difficulty and lack of self-efficacy associated with insulin dose determination. Because manual calculation of insulin boluses is both complex and time consuming, people may rely on empirical estimates, which can result in persistent hypoglycaemia and/or hyperglycaemia. Use of automated bolus advisors (BA has been shown to help insulin pump users to more accurately meet prandial insulin dosage requirements, improve postprandial glycaemic excursions, and achieve optimal glycaemic control with an increased time within optimal range. Use of a BA containing an early algorithm based on sliding scales for insulin dosing has also been shown to improve HbA1c levels in people treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI. We designed a study to determine if use of an automated BA can improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in people treated with MDI. Methods/design The Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS is a 6-month, prospective, randomised, multi-centre, multi-national trial to determine if automated BA use improves glycaemic control as measured by a change in HbA1c in people using MDI with elevated HbA1c levels (#62;7.5%. A total of 226 T1DM and T2DM participants will be recruited. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of 90 participants, which will provide #62;80% power to detect a mean difference of 0.5%, with SD of 0.9%, using a one-sided 5% t-test, with 5% significance level. Other measures of glycaemic control, self-care behaviours and psychosocial issues will also be assessed. Discussion It is critical that healthcare providers utilise available technologies that both facilitate effective glucose management and address concerns about safety and lifestyle. Automated BAs may help people using MDI to

  18. Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique – feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique – the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed. Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1–2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: −0.263, −0.298 and −0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease. Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus

  19. Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique – feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxa, Jan, E-mail: baxaj@fnplzen.cz [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Vendiš, Tomáš [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Moláček, Jiří [Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Lucie [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Flohr, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Korporaal, Johannes G. [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography Division, Forchheim (Germany); Ferda, Jiří [Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique – the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed. Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1–2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: −0.263, −0.298 and −0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease. Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus.

  20. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  1. Quantification of myocardial perfusion using CMR with a radial data acquisition: comparison with a dual-bolus method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liyong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative estimates of myocardial perfusion generally require accurate measurement of the arterial input function (AIF. The saturation of signal intensity in the blood that occurs with most doses of contrast agent makes obtaining an accurate AIF challenging. This work seeks to evaluate the performance of a method that uses a radial k-space perfusion sequence and multiple saturation recovery times (SRT to quantify myocardial perfusion with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods Perfusion CMR was performed at 3 Tesla with a saturation recovery radial turboFLASH sequence with 72 rays. Fourteen subjects were given a low dose (0.004 mmol/kg of dilute (1/5 concentration contrast agent (Gd-BOPTA and then a higher non-dilute dose of the same volume (0.02 mmol/kg. AIFs were calculated from the blood signal in three sub-images with differing effective saturation recovery times. The full and sub-images were reconstructed iteratively with a total variation constraint. The images from the full 72 ray data were processed to obtain six tissue enhancement curves in two slices of the left ventricle in each subject. A 2-compartment model was used to determine absolute flows Results The proposed multi-SRT method resulted in AIFs that were similar to those obtained with the dual-bolus method. Myocardial blood flow (MBF estimates from the dual-bolus and the multi-SRT methods were related by MBFmulti-SRT = 0.85MBFdual-bolus + 0.18 (r = 0.91. Conclusions The multi-SRT method, which uses a radial k-space perfusion sequence, can be used to obtain an accurate AIF and thus quantify myocardial perfusion for doses of contrast agent that result in a relatively saturated AIF.

  2. Computer simulations suggest that acute correction of hyperglycaemia with an insulin bolus protocol might be useful in brain FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, R.; Brenner, W.; Apostolova, I.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Santer, R. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Center for Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Paediatrics; Silverman, D.H.S. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology

    2009-07-01

    FDG PET in hyperglycaemic subjects often suffers from limited statistical image quality, which may hamper visual and quantitative evaluation. In our study the following insulin bolus protocol is proposed for acute correction of hyperglycaemia (> 7.0 mmol/l) in brain FDG PET. (i) Intravenous bolus injection of short-acting insulin, one I.E. for each 0.6 mmol/l blood glucose above 7.0. (ii) If 20 min after insulin administration plasma glucose is {<=} 7.0 mmol/l, proceed to (iii). If insulin has not taken sufficient effect step back to (i). Compute insulin dose with the updated blood glucose level. (iii) Wait further 20 min before injection of FDG. (iv) Continuous supervision of the patient during the whole scanning procedure. The potential of this protocol for improvement of image quality in brain FDG PET in hyperglycaemic subjects was evaluated by computer simulations within the Sokoloff model. A plausibility check of the prediction of the computer simulations on the magnitude of the effect that might be achieved by correction of hyperglycaemia was performed by retrospective evaluation of the relation between blood glucose level and brain FDG uptake in 89 subjects in whom FDG PET had been performed for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The computer simulations suggested that acute correction of hyperglycaemia according to the proposed bolus insulin protocol might increase the FDG uptake of the brain by up to 80%. The magnitude of this effect was confirmed by the patient data. The proposed management protocol for acute correction of hyperglycaemia with insulin has the potential to significantly improve the statistical quality of brain FDG PET images. This should be confirmed in a prospective study in patients. (orig.)

  3. Contrast agent bolus tracking with a fixed threshold or a manual fast start for coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Fabian; Rief, Matthias; Zimmermann, Elke; Greupner, Johannes; Richter, Felicitas; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Comparison of bolus tracking with a fixed threshold versus a manual fast start for coronary CT angiography. We retrospectively analysed 320-row coronary CT angiography of 50 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. Twenty-five examinations were initiated by a bolus tracking method (group 1), 25 examinations with a manual fast surestart (group 2). Mean attenuation values in the ascending aorta were 519 ± 111 Hounsfield units (HU) in group 1 and 476 ± 65 HU in group 2 (p = 0.10). Assessable vessel lengths were 171 ± 44 mm vs 172 ± 29 mm for the right coronary artery (p = 0.91), 11 ± 4 mm vs 12 ± 4 mm for the left main (p = 0.9), 163 ± 28 mm vs 151 ± 26 mm for the left anterior descending coronary artery (p = 0.11) and 125 ± 41 mm vs 110 ± 37 mm for the left circumflex coronary artery (p = 0.18). Image quality for all coronary arteries was not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.41). The attenuation ratio between the left and right ventricle was 2.8 ± 0.7 vs 3.6 ± 1.0 (p = 0.003). Significantly less contrast agent was used in group 2 (64 ± 6 ml vs 80 ± 0 ml; p < 0.001). Bolus tracking with a fixed threshold and with a manual fast start are both suitable methods; the fast start allowed a reduction of contrast agent volumes. (orig.)

  4. Capillary permeability of 99mTc-DTPA in canine myocardium determined by intracoronary bolus injection and residue detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Efsen, F; Haunsø, S

    1989-01-01

    Capillary permeability of 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA; MW 485.0) and 51chromium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (51Cr-EDTA; MW 340.2) was studied in an in vivo canine heart preparation by the single injection, residue detection (SIRD) method. In experiments on open...... chest dogs (group A) these indicators were administered separately as bolus injections into a cannulated diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the curve of the response function was recorded by external activity registration. In further experiments on closed and open...

  5. Identificação de Paspalum notatum fluegge e Axonopus affinis chase através da análise de fragmentos foliares Identification of Paspalum notatum fluegge and Axonopus affinis chase through leaf fragments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Lopes Nogueira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização e identificação de fragmentos foliares de Paspalum notatum Fluegge e Axonopus affinis Chase, como forma de subsidiar projetos de avaliação da dieta de animais fistulados. Para a caracterização das espécies, foram feitas várias coletas de folhas em áreas de pastagem natural do Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (RS, de maio de 1992 a junho de 1993. A diferenciação das espécies foi baseada no padrão de nervação, presença de pêlos e características do ápice e bordo foliar, observadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A habilidade de um observador em identificar fragmentos das duas espécies numa mistura e a eficácia dos descritores foliares mencionados foram testadas através de análise estatística. Desta forma, foi constatado que o padrão de nervação é o melhor critério de diferenciação e que A. affinis difere de P. notatum, basicamente, pelo ápice foliar obtuso e pela presença de nervuras quaternárias. A análise estatística confirmou a capacidade do observador em reconhecer fragmentos das duas espécies.This research aimed at the characterization and identification of leaves, fragments of Paspalum notatum Fluegge and Axonopus affinis Chase, for future studies of diet evaluation of fistuleted animals. For the species characterization, several collections of leaves were made in native pasture areas at the UFSM Campus (Santa Maria, RS from May, 1992 to June, 1993. The differentiation of the species was based on the leave’s venation pattern, hair presence, leaf border and apex features, observed with a stereomicroscope. The obverver’s ability to identify the two species of leaves in a misture were tested with statistical analysis. It was observed that the venation pattern is the best characterization criteria and that A. affinis differs from P. notatum mainly by the obtuse leaf apex and by the quaternary vein presence. The statistical analysis

  6. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Hobart Lake Easement Refuge, Stoney Slough Easement Refuge, Tomahawk Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year....

  7. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Hobart Lake Easement Refuge, Stoney Slough Easement Refuge, Tomahawk Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year....

  8. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Half-Way Lake Easement Refuge, Hobart Lake Easement Refuge, Stoney Slough Easement Refuge, Tomahawk Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and the easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year....

  9. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the CHASE from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 27 December 1973 to 07 January 1974 (NODC Accession 7400475)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the CHASE within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 5100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  10. Oceanographic station data from CTD and bottle casts from the CHASE from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 24 March 1972 to 18 April 1972 (NODC Accession 7300020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the CHASE within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 4100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  11. Oceanographic station data from CTD casts from the CHASE AND ESCANABA from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) and E (OWS-E) in the North Atlantic Ocean 11 April 1969 to 12 May 1969 (NODC Accession 6900885)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the CHASE and ESCANABA within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W), E (3500N 04800W), and in...

  12. Evaluation of bolus electron conformal therapy compared with conventional techniques for the treatment of left chest wall postmastectomy in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opp, Dan, E-mail: Daniel.Opp@moffitt.org; Forster, Kenneth; Li, Weiqi; Zhang, Geoffrey; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2013-01-01

    Postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) lowers local-regional recurrence risk and improves survival in selected patients with breast cancer. The chest wall and lower axilla are technically challenging areas to treat with homogenous doses and normal tissue sparing. This study compares several techniques for PMRT to provide data to guide selection of optimal treatment techniques. Twenty-five consecutive left-sided patients treated postmastectomy were contoured using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas guidelines then planned using 4 different PMRT techniques: opposed tangents with wedges (3-dimensional [3D] wedges), opposed tangents with field-in-field (FiF) modulation, 8-field intensity modulation radiotherapy (IMRT), and custom bolus electron conformal therapy (BolusECT, .decimal, Inc., Sanford, FL). Required planning target volume (PTV) coverage was held constant, and then dose homogeneity and normal tissue dose parameters were compared among the 4 techniques. BolusECT achieved clincally acceptable PTV coverage for 22 out of 25 cases. Compared with either tangential technique, IMRT and BolusECT provided the lowest heart V{sub 25} doses (3.3% ± 0.9% and 6.6% ± 3.2%, respectively with p < 0.0001). FiF had the lowest mean total lung dose (7.3 ± 1.1 Gy, with p = 0.0013), IMRT had the lowest total lung V{sub 20} (10.3% ± 1.6%, p < 0.0001), and BolusECT had the lowest mean heart dose (7.3 ± 2.0 Gy, p = 0.0002). IMRT provided the optimal dose homogeneity and normal tissue sparing compared with all other techniques for the cases in which BolusECT could not achieve acceptable PTV coverage. IMRT generally exposes contralateral breast and lung to slightly higher doses. Optimal PMRT technique depends upon patient anatomy. Patients whose maximal target volume depth is about 5.7 cm or less can be treated with BolusECT-assisted 12 or 15 MeV electron beams. At these energies, BolusECT has comparable dose-volume statistics as IMRT and lower heart V{sub 25} than opposed

  13. Adaptive Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  14. Acute Effect of Whole-Body Periodic Acceleration on Brachial Flow-Mediated Vasodilatation Assessed by a Novel Semi-Automatic Vessel Chasing UNEXEF18G System

    OpenAIRE

    Takase, Bonpei; Hattori, Hidemi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Uehata, Akimi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Fujita, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated application of whole-body periodic acceleration (WBPA) upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and improves brachial artery endothelial function (BAEF) as assessed by measurement of flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD). However, the acute effect of a single application of WBPA on BAEF has not been fully characterized. In addition, although a novel semi-automatic vessel chasing system (UNEXEF18G) has now been developed in Japan, the direct comparison of UNEXEF18G with a...

  15. 虚拟人追逐行为的一种决策模型%Decision-making Model of Virtual Human's Chasing Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞玉龙; 刘箴

    2012-01-01

    Behavior simulation is an important issue in the field of virtual reality, chasing is a common behavior of animal and human, and modeling chasing behavior is an interesting topic. A chasing behavior between chaser and escaper was analyzed, the parameters of human physiology and emotion were introduced, and the formulas among emotion, energy and velocity were set up. The behavior decision model was proposed based on non-cooperative dynamic game. A simulation test on a computer was designed. The result shows that the method can well simulate some physiological features and psychological characteristics of human’s chasing behavior.%行为仿真是虚拟现实领域中的一个重要课题,追逐是动物和人类最常见的行为,建立追逐行为模型是一个有趣的话题。分析了一种包含追逐者和逃跑者的追逐行为,引入人的生理参数和情绪参数,建立了情绪、体力和速度之间的计算公式。根据非合作动态博弈原理建立了行为决策模型,我们在计算上进行了仿真实验,结果表明,我们的模型能较好模拟生命体追逐行为的一些生理特征和心理特性。

  16. A two-year revision: cross comparison and modeling of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Franklin Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Approximately two years ago we presented results of price modeling and extensive statistical analysis for share prices of five banks: Bank of America (BAC), Franklin Resources (BEN), Goldman Sachs (GS), JPMorgan Chase (JPM), and Morgan Stanley (MS). Using monthly closing prices (adjusted for splits and dividends) as a proxy to stock prices, we estimated the best fit (LSQ) quantitative price models based on the decomposition into two defining consumer price indices selected from a large set of...

  17. Costs of locomotion in polar bears: when do the costs outweigh the benefits of chasing down terrestrial prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J.; McWilliams, Scott R.; Iles, David T.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs between locomotory costs and foraging gains are key elements in determining constraints on predator–prey interactions. One intriguing example involves polar bears pursuing snow geese on land. As climate change forces polar bears to spend more time ashore, they may need to expend more energy to obtain land-based food. Given that polar bears are inefficient at terrestrial locomotion, any extra energy expended to pursue prey could negatively impact survival. However, polar bears have been regularly observed engaging in long pursuits of geese and other land animals, and the energetic worth of such behaviour has been repeatedly questioned. We use data-driven energetic models to examine how energy expenditures vary across polar bear mass and speed. For the first time, we show that polar bears in the 125–235 kg size range can profitably pursue geese, especially at slower speeds. We caution, however, that heat build-up may be the ultimate limiting factor in terrestrial chases, especially for larger bears, and this limit would be reached more quickly with warmer environmental temperatures. PMID:27757238

  18. Plasma level monitoring of the major metabolites of diacetylmorphine (heroin) by the "chasing the dragon" route in severe heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, N; Demaret, I; Ansseau, M; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Charlier, C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify if severe physical health problems frequently encountered in heroin addicts and the concomitant use of alcohol and legal or illegal drugs other than heroin influenced the pharmacokinetics of the major metabolites of heroin. We conducted a 90 minutes follow-up of the plasma concentrations of the pharmaceutical heroin, named diacetylmorphine (DAM), in patients recruited in a DAM assisted treatment centre. TADAM (Traitement Assisté par DiAcétylMorphine) aimed to compare the efficacy of heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for heroin users considered as treatment resistant patients and who have severe physical and mental health problems. Eleven patients were recruited. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 45 and 90 minutes after DAM administration. All patients received DAM by the "chasing the dragon" route. Plasma samples were analyzed by a previously described ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) method. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and 8 metabolite concentrations ratios were calculated to evaluate the influence of various factors (DAM dose, patient pathologies, concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin, alcohol and cocaine) on heroin metabolite pharmacokinetics. It seemed to be not affected by the DAM dose, patient pathologies and the concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin and alcohol. Cocaine use was the only parameter which showed differences in heroin pharmacokinetics.

  19. Chase Sound Boys Out of Earth”: The Aura of Dubplate Specials in Finnish Reggae Sound System Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ramstedt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to expand our understanding of how dubplate specials are produced, circulated, and culturally valued in the international reggae sound system culture of the dub diaspora by analysing the production and performance of “Chase the Devil” (2005, a dubplate special commissioned by the Finnish MPV sound system from Jamaican reggae singer Max Romeo. A dubplate special is a unique recording where, typically, a reggae artist re-records the vocals to one of his or her popular songs with new lyrics that praise the sound system that commissioned the recording. Scholars have previously theorized dubplates using Walter Benjamin’s concept of aura, thereby drawing attention to the exclusivity and uniqueness of these traditionally analog recordings. However, since the advent of digital technologies in both recording and sound system performance, what Benjamin calls the “cult value” of producing and performing dubplates has become increasingly complex and multi-layered, as digital dubplates now remediate prior aesthetic forms of the analog. By turning to ethnographic accounts from the sound system’s DJ selectors, I investigate how digital dubplates are still culturally valued for their aura, even as the very concept of aura falls into question when applied to the recording and performance of digital dubplates.

  20. GH receptor signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in human subjects following exposure to an intravenous GH bolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Jessen, Niels; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke;

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates muscle and fat metabolism, which impacts on body composition and insulin sensitivity, but the underlying GH signaling pathways have not been studied in vivo in humans. We investigated GH signaling in biopsies from muscle and abdominal fat obtained 30 (n = 3) or 60 (n...... was detected in muscle and fat of all subjects after GH. Activation of MAPK was observed in several lysates but without GH dependency. Neither PKB/Akt nor PI 3-kinase activity was affected by GH. GH-induced STAT5 DNA binding and expression of IGF-I mRNA were detected in fat, whereas expression of SOCS-1 and -3...... tended to increase after GH in muscle and fat, respectively. We conclude that 1) STAT5 is acutely activated in human muscle and fat after a GH bolus, but additional downstream GH signaling was significant only in fat; 2) the direct GH effects in muscle need further characterization; and 3) this human...

  1. Absolute cerebral blood flow and blood volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging bolus tracking: comparison with positron emission tomography values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Smith, D F; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter;

    1998-01-01

    The authors determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contrast agent bolus passage and compared the results with those obtained by O-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Six pigs were examined by MRI and PET under normo......- and hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of an empirical constant phi Gd, absolute regional CBF was calculated from MRI. The spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of CBF measurements by MRI were better than by the H215O-PET protocol. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral...... blood volume (CBV) estimates obtained using this normalization constant correlated well with values obtained by O-15 labeled carbonmonooxide (C15O) PET. However, PET CBV values were approximately 2.5 times larger than absolute MRI CBV values, supporting the hypothesized sensitivity of MRI to small...

  2. Model of the Glucose-Insulin-Glucagon Dynamics after Subcutaneous Administration of a Glucagon Rescue Bolus in Healthy Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Haidar, Ahmad;

    In healthy individuals, insulin and glucagon work in a complex fashion to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range. This regulation is distorted in patients with diabetes. The hepatic glucose response due to an elevated glucagon level depends on the current insulin concentration and thus...... endogenous glucose production (EGP) can not be modelled without knowledge of the concentration of both hormones in plasma. Furthermore, literature suggests an upper limit to EGP irrespective of glucagon levels. We build a simulation model of the glucose-insulin-glucagon dynamics in man including saturation...... effect of EGP. Ten healthy subjects received a 1 mg subcutaneous (SC) glucagon bolus (GlucaGen®). Plasma samples were collected until 300 minutes post dose and analyzed for glucagon, insulin, and glucose concentrations. All observations were used to fit a physiological model of the glucose...

  3. Comparação do tempo de recuperação do mivacúrio em bolus e em infusão contínua Comparación del tiempo de recuperación del mivacúrio en bolus y en infusión continuada Comparison of recovery time of bolus and continuous infusion mivacurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O mivacúrio é um bloqueador neuromuscular (BNM de ação curta, que apresenta uma duração total não ultrapassando 24 minutos. As primeiras comunicações científicas relataram não haver diferenças significativas no tempo de recuperação, independentemente da forma de administração. No entanto, a experiência clínica aponta para recuperações mais prolongadas quando se administra o fármaco em infusão contínua. Este trabalho tem por objetivo comparar o tempo de recuperação do mivacúrio quando administrado em bolus e em forma contínua, em um grupo de pacientes jovens e adultos. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 40 pacientes jovens sem doenças neuromusculares. Após receberem midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica, foram monitorizados na sala de operação com ECG na derivação D II e realizada a aferição da pressão arterial indireta por método automático. Todos receberam propofol e fentanil, e a anestesia foi mantida com isoflurano, óxido nitroso e oxigênio. Após a indução, foram instalados o monitor da transmissão neuromuscular por acelerometria e, após a intubação, o capnógrafo e o analisador de gases. Foram divididos em 2 grupos iguais de acordo com o regime de administração de mivacúrio: os do grupo 1 receberam somente dose inicial em bolus e os do grupo 2, após a dose inicial e terem recuperado 10% de T1, receberam infusão contínua para manter uma T1 nesse valor. Foram anotados em ambos os grupos os valores de T1 e T4/T1 na fase de recuperação, a partir de T1 em 10% da resposta inicial, de minuto a minuto, até 30 minutos. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram homogêneos em relação às variáveis antropométricas. O grupo 2 apresentou tempo de recuperação mais lenta do que os pacientes que receberam somente a dose inicial em bolus. Houve grande variação de doses de infusão entre pacientes e no próprio paciente no decorrer da infusão. CONCLUSÕES: Em pacientes jovens e adultos

  4. Predicting erythroid response to recombinant erythropoietin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy following a single subcutaneous bolus in patients with myelodysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    BOWEN, D; Hyslop, A.; Keenan, N.; Groves, M.; Culligan, D.; Johnson, P; Shaw, A.; Geddes, F.; Evans, P.; Porter, J.; Cavill, I.

    2006-01-01

    We randomized 21 patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to receive a single subcutaneous bolus of recombinant erythropoietin (epoietin) +/- granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), or placebo and monitored erythropoietic response over 7 days. In this small study, the reticulocyte response at day 7 was highly predictive of subsequent response to a therapeutic trial of epoietin + G-CSF.

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Contrast Agent Bolus Dispersion in a Coronary Bifurcation: Impact on MRI-Based Quantification of Myocardial Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced first-pass magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in combination with a tracer kinetic model, for example, MMID4, can be used to determine myocardial blood flow (MBF and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR. Typically, the arterial input function (AIF required for this methodology is estimated from the left ventricle (LV. Dispersion of the contrast agent bolus might occur between the LV and the myocardial tissue. Negligence of bolus dispersion could cause an error in MBF determination. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bolus dispersion in a simplified coronary bifurcation geometry including one healthy and one stenotic branch on the quantification of MBF and MPR. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were combined with MMID4. Different inlet boundary conditions describing pulsatile and constant flows for rest and hyperemia and differing outflow conditions have been investigated. In the bifurcation region, the increase of the dispersion was smaller than inside the straight vessels. A systematic underestimation of MBF values up to −16.1% for pulsatile flow and an overestimation of MPR up to 7.5% were found. It was shown that, under the conditions considered in this study, bolus dispersion can significantly influence the results of quantitative myocardial MR-perfusion measurements.

  6. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, W.; Zwaka, P.A.; Sohns, J.M.; Schwarz, A.; Lotz, J. [University Medical Center Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sohns, C.; Vollmann, D.; Zabel, M.; Hasenfuss, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumology; Schneider, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics

    2014-11-15

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  7. Automatic measurement of contrast bolus distribution in carotid arteries using a C-arm angiography system to support interventional perfusion imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieselmann, Andreas; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Yu, Deuerling-Zheng; Boese, Jan; Hornegger, Joachim; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Brain perfusion CT using a C-arm angiography system capable of CT-like imaging could optimize patient treatment during stroke therapy procedures. For this application, an intra-arterial contrast bolus injection at the aortic arch could be used provided that the location of the injection catheter enables uniform distribution of the bolus into the two common carotid arteries (CCA). In this work, we present a novel method to support optimal injection catheter placement by providing additional quantitative information about the distribution of the contrast bolus into the CCAs. Our fully automatic method uses 2-D digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images following a test bolus injection. It segments both CCAs and computes the relative contrast distribution. We have tested the method in DSA data sets from 5 healthy pigs and our method achieved successful segmentation of both CCAs in all data sets. The results showed that the contrast is uniformly distributed (mean relative difference less or equal than 10%) if the injection location is properly chosen.

  8. ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION: ROLE OF I.V. BOLUS DOSE OF ESMOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND LIGNOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE : A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Padma; Mydhili

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of intravenous Bolus dose of Esmolol Hydrochloride and Lignocaine Hydrochloride to attenuate the Haemodynamic responses to Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal intubation. MATERIALS & METHODS : A study of Esmolol hydrochloride and Lignocaine hydrochloride in attenuation of the cardiovascular respons e during Laryngoscopy and intubation was compared in 50 adult patient, undergoing s...

  9. SU-E-T-356: Accuracy of Eclipse Electron Macro Monte Carlo Dose Algorithm for Use in Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of electron dose distribution calculated by the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with recent commercially available bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to those previously measured for cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV CT anatomy for each site. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The bolus ECT treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and calculated using the maximum allowable histories (2×109), resulting in a statistical error of <0.2%. Smoothing was not used for these calculations. Differences between eMC-calculated and measured dose distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Results: Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom showed 89% (41/46) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of −0.12% with a standard deviation of 2.56%. Results for the nose phantom showed 95% (54/57) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of 1.12% with a standard deviation of 3.03%. Dose calculation times for the retromolar trigone and nose treatment plans were 15 min and 22 min, respectively, using 16 processors (Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.9 GHz) on a Varian Eclipse framework agent server (FAS). Results of this study were consistent with those previously reported for accuracy of the eMC electron dose algorithm and for the .decimal, Inc. pencil beam redefinition algorithm used to plan the bolus. Conclusion: These results show that the accuracy of the Eclipse eMC algorithm is suitable for clinical implementation of bolus ECT

  10. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  11. CHASE domain-containing receptors play an essential role in the cytokinin response of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Lindner, Ann-Cathrin; Gruhn, Njuscha; Šimura, Jan; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Gonneau, Martine; Nogué, Fabien; Heyl, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    While the molecular basis for cytokinin action is quite well understood in flowering plants, little is known about the cytokinin signal transduction in early diverging land plants. The genome of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S. encodes three classical cytokinin receptors, the CHASE domain-containing histidine kinases, CHK1, CHK2, and CHK3. In a complementation assay with protoplasts of receptor-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in cytokinin binding assays, we found evidence that CHK1 and CHK2 receptors can function in cytokinin perception. Using gene targeting, we generated a collection of CHK knockout mutants comprising single (Δchk1, Δchk2, Δchk3), double (Δchk1,2, Δchk1,3, Δchk2,3), and triple (Δchk1,2,3) mutants. Mutants were characterized for their cytokinin response and differentiation capacities. While the wild type did not grow on high doses of cytokinin (1 µM benzyladenine), the Δchk1,2,3 mutant exhibited normal protonema growth. Bud induction assays showed that all three cytokinin receptors contribute to the triggering of budding, albeit to different extents. Furthermore, while the triple mutant showed no response in this bioassay, the remaining mutants displayed budding responses in a diverse manner to different types and concentrations of cytokinins. Determination of cytokinin levels in mutants showed no drastic changes for any of the cytokinins; thus, in contrast to Arabidopsis, revealing only small impacts of cytokinin signaling on homeostasis. In summary, our study provides a first insight into the molecular action of cytokinin in an early diverging land plant and demonstrates that CHK receptors play an essential role in bud induction and gametophore development.

  12. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  13. Adaptive Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  14. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  15. SU-E-T-541: Bolus Effect of Thermoplastic Masks in IMRT and VMAT Head and Neck Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, H; Nedzi, L; Chen, S; Jiang, S; Zhao, B [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the bolus effect of thermoplalstic mask on patient skin dose during multi-field IMRT and VMAT treatment. Methods: The clinically approved target contours for five head and neck patients were deformably registered to an anthropomorphic Rando phantom. Two plans: Multifield IMRT plan with 7-9 beams and VMAT plan with 2-4 arcs were created for each patient following same dose constraints. 3mm skin was excluded from PTVs but not constrained during optimization. The prescription dose was 200-220 cGy/fraction. A thermoplastic head and shoulder mask was customized for the Rando phantom. Each plan was delivered to the phantom twice with and without mask. During each delivery, two rectangular strips of EBT3 films (1cm x 6.8cm) were placed across the anterior upper and lower neck near PTVs to measure the surface dose. For consistency films were positioned at same locations for same patient. A total of 8 film strips were obtained for each patient. Film dose was calibrated in the range of 0-400cGy on the day of plan delivery. For dose comparison 3 regions of interests (ROIs) of 1×1 cm{sup 2} were selected at left, right and middle part of each film, resulting in 6 point doses at each plan delivery. Results: The films without mask show relatively uniform dose distribution while those with mask clearly show mesh pattern of mask, usually indicating an increase in skin dose. On average the increase in skin dose over all ROIs with mask was 31.9%(±14.8%) with a range of 11.4%- 58.4%. There is no statistically significant difference (p=0.44) between skin dose increase in VMAT (30.8%±15.3%) and IMRT delivery (33.0%±14.9%). Conclusion: Thermoplastic immobilization masks increase surface dose for HN patient by around 30%. The magnitude is comparable between multi-field IMRT and VMAT. Radiochromic EBT3 film serves as an effective tool to quantify bolus effect.

  16. Finns det nån här? – Förmedling av paranormala fenomen i TV-serien Chasing the Dead

    OpenAIRE

    Heinänen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Genom denna kvalitativa innehållsanalys av TV-serien Chasing the Dead, undersöks på vilket sätt dokumenterade "bevis" på paranormala audiovisuella fenomen har presenterats av seriemakarna. Materialet analyseras med hjälp av forskningsresultat från, för denna TV-genre relevanta, studier av fenomen som Electronic Voice Phenomenon, Electro Magnetic Field, Orber. Biologiska fenomen som Apophenia och Pareidolia har tagits i beaktande då materialet har analyserats. Syftet med denna underso...

  17. [The Difference of CT Value Related to Monitor Position in the Head CT-angiography Bolus Tracking Method for Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizui, Masato; Mizoguchi, Yuji; Tashiro, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The head computed tomography-angiography (head CT-A) examination is excellent for the detection and diagnosis of cerebral artery aneurysm. If we use bolus tracking method when implementing this examination, we must choose a monitoring point. We investigated the influence which the monitoring point (MCA or carotid-A) exerts on the CT value. As for the result, MCA monitoring point method was more excellent than the carotid artery monitoring point method. The CT value was higher about 50 HU in the MCA monitoring point than in the carotid artery monitoring point (average;carotid artery: 349.6±57.8 HU, MCA: 413.2±67.9 HU). So, we conclude that in the bolus tracking method of monitoring point of head CTA, MCA monitoring point should be used.

  18. Assessment of the arteriovenous cerebrovascular system by multi-slice CT. A single-bolus, monophasic protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingebiel, R.; Zimmer, C. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section; Rogalla, P.; Kivelitz, D. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Bohner, G. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section; Goetze, R. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Lehmann, R. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: We present a protocol for the non-invasive angiographic assessment of the arterial and venous cerebrovascular (CV) system by multi-slice CT. Material and Methods: Data acquisition was performed in a multi-slice CT scanner with a scan range from the carotid bifurcation to the vertex and manual scan start following i.v. administration of 120 ml iodinated contrast medium with a flow rate of 4 ml/s. This protocol was applied in 12 patients with symptoms of acute CV insufficiency. Results: In all patients, comprehensive imaging of the arteriovenous CV system was achieved including the common carotid bifurcation, the third segment of the major cerebral arteries, the dural sinus and the internal cerebral veins. Various CV pathologies, such as a territorial artery occlusion, a thrombotic obstruction of the internal carotid artery, an intracranial arteriovenous malformation and a sinus vein thrombosis, were successfully evaluated. Conclusion: Comprehensive assessment of the arteriovenous CV system is possible by the use of a single-bolus, monophasic multi-slice scan technique.

  19. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  20. Comparative study of intravenous urographic bolus (I.U.B.) and intravenous urographic infusion (I.U.I.) in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two urographic methods were compared: the intravenous urographic bolus (i.u.b.) and the intravenous urographic infusion (i.u.i.). In both methods, two groups of seven healthy adult dogs of both sexes, weighing7.0 to 16.5 kg were used and were anaesthesized with 2% thiopentone sodium in doses of 20 mg/kg via cephalica. In the i.u.b., meglumine diatrizoate (Hypaque-M, 60%) was injected via saphena with a concentration of 282 mg of iodine per mi in doses of 564 mg of iodine per kg. In the i.u.i., meglumine diatrizoate was injected via saphena by drip infusion with a concentration of 200 mg of iodine per mi in doses of 500 mg of iodine per kg. Three series of two X-rays each were taken in ventrodorsal projection 1, 4 and 8 min and left lateral recumbency 30 sec after administering the contrast medium. The X-ray plates obtained were analyzed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outline, and kidney size. The advance speed of the contrast medium was higher in the i.u.i., reaching the kidney, ureter and bladder 1 min after administration in both projections; in ventrodorsal projections in the i.u.b. only the kidneys were reached while in the left lateral recumbency, the kidney and ureters were reached

  1. Analysis of factors influencing the integrated bolus peak timing in contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Young [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jung Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing integrated bolus peak timing in contrast- enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and to determine a method of calculating personal peak time. The optimal time was calculated by performing multiple linear regression analysis, after finding the influence factors through correlation analysis between integrated peak time of contrast medium and personal measured value by monitoring CTA scans. The radiation exposure dose in CTA was 716.53 mGy·cm and the radiation exposure dose in monitoring scan was 15.52 mGy (2 - 34 mGy). The results were statistically significant (p < .01). Regression analysis revealed, a -0.160 times decrease with a one-step increase in heart rate in male, and -0.004, -0.174, and 0.006 times decrease with one-step in DBP, heart rate, and blood sugar, respectively, in female. In a consistency test of peak time by calculating measured peak time and peak time by using the regression equation, the consistency was determined to be very high for male and female. This study could prevent unnecessary dose exposure by encouraging in clinic calculation of personal integrated peak time of contrast medium prior to examination.

  2. Effect of Admission Oral Diuretic Dose on Response to Continuous versus Bolus Intravenous Diuretics in Acute Heart Failure: An Analysis from DOSE-AHF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ravi V.; McNulty, Steven; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Felker, G. Michael; Braunwald, Eugene; Givertz, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from the Diuretic Optimization Strategies in Acute Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) study suggest that an initial continuous infusion of loop diuretics is not superior to bolus dosing with regard to clinical endpoints in AHF. We hypothesized that outpatient furosemide dose was associated with congestion and poorer renal function, and explored the hypothesis that a continuous infusion may be more effective in patients on higher outpatient diuretic doses. Methods DOSE-AHF randomized 308 patients within 24 hours of admission to high vs. low initial intravenous diuretic dose given as either a continuous infusion or bolus. We compared baseline characteristics and assessed associations between mode of administration (bolus vs. continuous) and outcomes in patients receiving high-dose (≥120 mg furosemide equivalent, n=177) versus low-dose (<120 mg furosemide equivalent, n=131) outpatient diuretics. Results Patients on higher doses of furosemide were less frequently on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (P=.01), and had worse renal function and more advanced symptoms. There was a significant interaction between outpatient dose and mode of therapy (P=0.01) with respect to net fluid loss at 72 hours after adjusting for creatinine and intensification strategy. Admission diuretic dose was associated with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization at 60 days (adjusted HR=1.08 per 20-mg increment in dose, 95% CI 1.01–1.16, P=.03). Conclusions In acute HF, patients on higher diuretic doses have greater disease severity, and may benefit from an initial bolus strategy. PMID:23194486

  3. The effect of faecally excreted ivermectin and fenbendazole on the insect colonisation of cattle dung following the oral administration of sustained-release boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, L; Wall, R; Woolford, A; Djeddour, D

    1996-04-01

    The effects of faecal drug residues following the administration of anthelmintics in the form of sustained-release boluses, on dung-colonising Coleoptera and Diptera are reported. In blind field trials, pats of standard weight and size were prepared from the dung of cattle treated with an ivermectin (Ivomec SR Bolus, MSD Agvet) or a fenbendazole (Panacur Bolus, Hoechst) sustained-release bolus, and from a third control group of cattle that received no treatment. Pats were recovered after 7, 14, 21 and 42 days in the field and searched for invertebrates. There were no differences in the numbers of adult beetles found in the pats from the three treatment groups. Pats made from the dung of ivermectin-treated animals contained no larval Diptera Cyclorrhapha and significantly fewer larval Scarabaeidae than pats made from the dung of the other two groups. Furthermore, larval Scarabaeidae in the ivermectin pats were inhibited in their development. The pats from fenbendazole-treated animals contained similar numbers of larval Scarabaeidae and Diptera to the pats from untreated animals throughout the trial. At 42 days, the solid matter of the control and fenbendazole-containing cow pats were reduced to a crumbling, granular texture, while the pats from the ivermectin-treated animals were solid and compacted. Pitfall trapping, using traps baited with dung from the three groups, showed no significant difference between the numbers of adult Scarabaeidae attracted, though a trend towards higher numbers attracted to the dung of both anthelmintic-treated groups was evident. The results provide evidence of the toxic effects of excreted ivermectin on key dung-colonising families of insects, and show that fenbendazole lacks such toxic effects.

  4. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; MacDonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent naso...

  5. Chase the direct impact of rainfall into groundwater in Mt. Fuji from multiple analyses including microbial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kenji; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki

    2016-04-01

    A huge amount of groundwater is stored in subsurface environment of Mt. Fuji, the largest volcanic mountain in Japan. Based on the concept of piston flow transport of groundwater an apparent residence time was estimated to ca. 30 years by 36Cl/Cl ratio (Tosaki et al., 2011). However, this number represents an averaged value of the residence time of groundwater which had been mixed before it flushes out. We chased signatures of direct impact of rainfall into groundwater to elucidate the routes of groundwater, employing three different tracers; stable isotopic analysis (delta 18O), chemical analysis (concentration of silica) and microbial DNA analysis. Though chemical analysis of groundwater shows an averaged value of the examined water which was blended by various water with different sources and routes in subsurface environment, microbial DNA analysis may suggest the place where they originated, which may give information of the source and transport routes of the water examined. Throughout the in situ observation of four rainfall events showed that stable oxygen isotopic ratio of spring water and shallow groundwater obtained from 726m a.s.l. where the average recharge height of rainfall was between 1500 and 1800 m became higher than the values before a torrential rainfall, and the concentration of silica decreased after this event when rainfall exceeded 300 mm in precipitation of an event. In addition, the density of Prokaryotes in spring water apparently increased. Those changes did not appear when rainfall did not exceed 100 mm per event. Thus, findings shown above indicated a direct impact of rainfall into shallow groundwater, which appeared within a few weeks of torrential rainfall in the studied geological setting. In addition, increase in the density of Archaea observed at deep groundwater after the torrential rainfall suggested an enlargement of the strength of piston flow transport through the penetration of rainfall into deep groundwater. This finding was

  6. EVALUATION OF PHYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DELETERIOUS RHIZOBACTERIA ON THE ROOT GROWTH OF AXONOPUS AFFINIS (CHASE AND LENS ESCULENTA (MOENCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.J Pacheco-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las malezas ocasionan una gran pérdida en las tierras agrícolas y comúnmente, las medidas de manejo y contención de estas especies se dan con la aplicación de herbicidas, sin embargo; en años recientes se ha presentado un interés en establecer mecanismos de biocontrol seguros, con el empleo de bacterias inhibidoras del crecimiento conocidas como rizobacterias deletéreas (Deleterious rhizobacteria: DRBque se consideran generalmente como no parasíticas, y causan, de manera sutil, efectos deletéreos a través de la producción de metabolitos dañinos a las plantas. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la producción de ácido cianhídrico de pseudomonas rizobacterianas de malezas de un cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. y evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de éstas sobre el crecimiento radical de plántulas de Axonopus affinis (Chase y Lens esculenta (Moench. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos con relación a la evidencia de que los aislados de pseudomonadas son rizobacterias cianogénicas y de su efecto fitotóxico medido sobre las especies vegetales bajo estudio; se sugieren a éstas como posibles agentes de biocontrol con pastos que sean considerados malezas; ya que en general se observó que inhiben su crecimiento radical; sin embargo, un enfoque particular lo tiene la rizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. A52, la cual presentó no solamente actividad como una DRB sino también como una rizobacteria promotora del crecimiento vegetal; lo que la hace más importante de analizar en cuanto a su potencial y espectro de acción; tanto para malezas monocotiledóneas como para dicotiledóneas, recomendable como un posible agente de biocontrol con actividad múltiple.

  7. Intracoronary Compared to Intravenous Bolus Abciximab during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients Reduces 30-day Mortality and Target Vessel Revascularization: A Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Allan; Abildgaard, Ulrik; Galloe, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Abciximab is beneficial in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). However, the optimal administration route of the initial bolus of abciximab, that is, intravenous (IV) versus intracoronary (IC), has...... been questioned. Preliminary studies suggest that IC-bolus is superior, probably due to high local concentration. In this study, we assess the short-term efficacy and safety of IC compared to IV bolus of abciximab in patients with STEMI during pPCI. Methods: In 2006-2008, we randomized 355 STEMI...... patients who underwent pPCI and had indication for abciximab to either IV or IC bolus followed by a 12-hour IV infusion. Primary end-points at 30 days were target vessel revascularization (TVR), recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or death, and the composite of the three. Secondary end-points were...

  8. Treatment of Advanced Gastric Carcinoma Patients with Calcium Folinate, a 5-Fluorouracil Bolus and Continous Infusion with 5-Infusion with 5-Fluorouracil Combined with Oxaliplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilian Liang; Saihong Chen; Dachao Pan; Jierong Xie; Liangzhen Cai; Shujun Li

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the therapeutic effects and toxicity of high-dose-folinic acid plus a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) bolus and continuous infusion with 5-FU combined with locally produced oxaliplatin (L-HOP)in treating advanced gastric carcinoma patients.METHODS Sixty-five patients with advanced gastric carcinoma were treated with high-dose-folinic acid plus a 5-FU bolus and a 48-h continuous infusion of 5-FU combined with oxaliplatin. The effects of treatment and toxicity were observed.RESULTS There were 4 complete responses, 26 partial responses,30 with no change and 5 with progressive disease. The overall effective response rate was 46.2% (30/65). The median duration was 7 months, with the main side effects including nausea and vomiting, peripheral phlebitis, alopecia, leukopenia, dental ulcers,peripheral neuritis and diarrhea. All the side effects were tolerated and minimal.CONCLUSION The results showed that high-dose folinic acid plus a 5-FU bolus and continuous infusion of 5-FU combined with oxaliplatin appears to be a safe and effective therapy for patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. This therapeutic regimen is of value for these patients.

  9. Laser Stimulation of the Chloroplast/Endoplasmic Reticulum Nexus in Tobacco Transiently Produces Protein Aggregates (Boluses) within the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Stimulates Local ER Remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence R. Griffing

    2011-01-01

    Does the ER subdomain that associates with the chloroplast in vivo,hereafter referred to as the chloroplast/ER nexus,play a role in protein flow within the ER? In studies of tobacco cells either constitutively or transiently expressing ER-retained luminal,GFP-HDEL,or trans-membrane,YFP-RHD3,fluorescent fusion proteins,brief 405-nm (3-6-mW) laser stimulation of the nexus causes a qualitative difference in the movement and behavior of proteins in the ER.Photostimulating the nexus produces fluorescent protein punctate aggregates (boluses) within the lumen and membrane of the ER.The aggregation propagates through the membrane network throughout the cell,but within minutes can revert to normal,with disaggregation propagating back toward the originally photostimulated nexus.In the meantime,the ER grows and anastomoses around the chloroplast,forming a dense cisternal and tubular network.If this network is again photostimulated,bolus formation does not recur and,if the photostimulation results in photobleaching,fluorescence recovery after photobleaching occurs as it would typically in areas away from the nexus.Bolus propagation is not mediated by the actin cytoskeleton,but can be reversed by pre-conditioning the cells for 30 min with high,40-45℃,temperature (heat stress).Because it is not reversed with heat stress,the reorganization of the ER at the nexus following photostimulation is a separate event.

  10. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol. Eight dogs, assigned to two groups (n=4, were used in this study. All dogs were pre-medicated with atropine (at 0.03 mg/kg bwt and xylazine (at 2 mg/kg bwt. Anesthesia was induced by a concurrent administration of propofol (at 4 mg/kg bwt and ketamine (at 2.5 mg/kg bwt. Maintenance of anesthesia in Group 1 was done with a repeat bolus of propofol (at 2 mg/kg bwt, while in Group 2 it was done with a constant infusion of propofol (at 0.2 mg/kg bwt/min. Gastrotomy was performed in both groups, and anesthesia was maintained for 60 min. Physiological, analgesic, anesthetic parameters and plasma glucose concentration were measured. There was no significant (P>0.05 difference found in the analgesia and pedal reflex scores, durations of analgesia and recumbency, recovery time and standing time between the groups. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature reduced significantly (P0.05 between the groups. In conclusion, both maintenance protocols are suitable for dogs, although the repeat bolus technique produces marked cardiopulmonary depression.

  11. Biphasic Insulin Aspart 30/70: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Compared With Once-Daily Biphasic Human Insulin and Basal-Bolus Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Tim; Heinemann, Lutz; Hövelmann, Ulrike; Brauns, Bianca; Nosek, Leszek; Haahr, Hanne L.; Olsen, Klaus J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pharmacological profiles of biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIAsp 30) once daily (OD), twice daily (b.i.d.), and three times daily (t.i.d.) were compared with other insulin regimens in two crossover glucose clamp studies of insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS Study 1 consisted of BIAsp 30 OD, b.i.d., and t.i.d. versus biphasic human insulin 30/70 (BHI 30), OD (n = 24). Study 2 examined BIAsp 30 t.i.d. versus basal-bolus therapy (insulin glargine OD plus insulin glulisine t.i.d.) (n = 24). Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) were investigated over 24 h. RESULTS Study 1: PK and PD were markedly different between BIAsp 30 OD and BHI 30 OD: the maximum insulin concentration and glucose infusion rate (GIR) were higher for BIAsp 30; time to maximum metabolism was 1.7 h sooner for BIAsp 30. Study 2: both regimens showed three distinct prandial-related GIR peaks. GIR 24-h area under the curve for BIAsp t.i.d. was higher than for basal-bolus therapy: 2,585.2 vs. 2,289.2 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS BIAsp had pharmacological advantages over BHI. BIAsp t.i.d. had a similar PD profile to basal-bolus therapy. PMID:19487640

  12. Similar insulin secretory response to a gastric inhibitory polypeptide bolus injection at euglycemia in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Siepmann, Nina;

    2003-01-01

    Insulin secretion following the intravenous infusion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished in patients with type 2 diabetes and at least a subgroup of their first-degree relatives at hyperglycemic clamp conditions. Therefore, we studied the effects of an intravenous bolus administ......Insulin secretion following the intravenous infusion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished in patients with type 2 diabetes and at least a subgroup of their first-degree relatives at hyperglycemic clamp conditions. Therefore, we studied the effects of an intravenous bolus...... administration of GIP at normoglycemic conditions in the fasting state. Ten healthy control subjects were studied with an intravenous bolus administration of placebo, and of 7, 20, and 60 pmol GIP/kg body weight (BW), respectively. Forty-five first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched...... of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc tests. Insulin secretion was stimulated after the administration of 20 and of 60 pmol GIP/kg BW in the dose-response experiments (P rise of insulin and C-peptide concentrations in the first...

  13. Chasing the radium rainbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after the discovery of radium, its potential for curing cancer was realized. This important use, along with industrial applications, generated a demand which was met by the establishment of a radium mining and extraction industry. The first large supplier was the United States, later completely supplanted by Belgium. The Canadian radium industry arose with Eldorado Gold Mines Ltd. mining pitchblende ore near Great Bear Lake and extracting radium at Port Hope. The venture foundered financially, but Eldorado's technical and marketing expertise provided the foundation for later successes in fields in which Canada is now a world leader

  14. Chasing Graduate Jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Irene; Wright, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the relationship between under-employment and migration amongst five cohorts of graduates of Scottish higher education institutions with micro-data collected by the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The data indicate that there is a strong positive relationship between migration and graduate employment - those graduates who move after graduation from Scotland to the rest of the UK or abroad have a much higher rate of graduate employment. Versions of probit r...

  15. Chasing the holy grail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenvey, N.

    2001-05-01

    Sufficient port capacity for South Africa's coal exporters remains a dream, despite the promises of recent years. The only firm plans for Richards Bay Terminal seem to be an expansion of capacity by 10 mt to 82 mtpa. An environmental impact assessment is currently being made. Mozambique's port of Maputo however does seem to be progressing well. Phase two of a construction development which will double production capacity starts later this year. 4 photos.

  16. Chasing the Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    People’s pursuit of better lives pushes the nation forward The belief that anyone can live a better life in the United States through hard workis called the American Dream. Many European settlers were drawn to the new continent by the American Dream.

  17. Chasing the Silver Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Occurring on only a few dozen rivers around the world, tidal bores are as rare as they are intriguing. Michael Berry outlines the science behind this natural phenomenon and describes his sighting in China of one of the most spectacular bores of them all.

  18. Chasing Unachievable Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Today, teachers complain about the lack of physical education time and the lack of physical education programming. In addition, a great deal of time is spent advocating the relationship between "healthy mind-healthy body." Today's drive to show a relationship between physical fitness/activity and academic achievement is really not different than…

  19. Infants' perception of chasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankenhuis, W.E.; House, B.; Barrett, H.C.; Johnson, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Two significant questions in cognitive and developmental science are first, whether objects and events are selected for attention based on their features (featural processing) or the configuration of their features (configural processing), and second, how these modes of processing develop. These que

  20. Chasing the Hofstadter Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indu

    2014-03-01

    The experimental observation of the Hofstadter butterfly, the fascinating quantum fractal that also encodes the Chern numbers associated with quantum Hall state, continues to remain a challenging task. It may be possible to observe the fine structure of the butterfly, consisting of small gaps of the spectrum characterized by topological invariants greater than unity, with a resolution matching that of the Chern-1 gaps that form the skeleton of the butterfly. The tiny gaps of the butterfly emanating from a rational flux p / q are found to be associated with infinity of possible solutions (of Diophantine equation)for the rational flux. Not supported by the simple square lattice nearest-neighbor hopping model of the Hofstadter system, these solutions are found to be hiding in neighborhood of these fluxes. By perturbing this simple system, it is possible to ``amplify'' these small gaps corresponding to higher Chern states where they replace the Chern 1 gap of the Hofstadter butterfly. In other words, by tuning a parameter, it is possible to induce topological quantum phase transitions where the finer gaps become the new major gaps that dominate the spectrum. This may provide a possible pathway to see the topological landscape of the Hofstadter butterfly fractal in its entirety.

  1. Chasing Captain Hook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Somalia has come into the international media spotlight because of the high-profile pirate attacks off its coast. But piracy is only part of the Horn of Africa country’s ordeal. Somalia has been embroiled in armed conflicts between feuding warlords since 1991, without a central government that can put the country under effective control. In an interview with Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei, Somalia’s Ambassador to China Mohammed Awil called on the international community to help his war-torn country fight piracy, stop illegal fishing and waste dumping in Somali waters and achieve peace and reconciliation. The ambassador also gave positive evaluation to China’s naval presence on Somali waters. Excerpts of the interview follow

  2. Chasing Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species—naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities. PMID:27631692

  3. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  4. MPI as high temporal resolution imaging technique for in vivo bolus tracking of Ferucarbotran in mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Salamon, J.; Hofmann, M.; Kaul, M. G.; Adam, G.; Ittrich, H.; Knopp, T.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to achieve a real time 3D visualisation of the murine cardiovascular system by intravenously injected superparamagnetic nanoparticles using Magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Material and Methods: MPI scans of FVB mice were performed using a 3D imaging sequence (1T/m gradient strength, 10mT drive-field strength). A dynamic scan with a temporal resolution of 21.5ms per 3D volume acquisition was performed. 50μl ferucarbotran (Resovist®, Bayer Healthcare AG) were injected into the tail vein after baseline MPI measurements. As MPI delivers no anatomic information, MRI scans at a 7T ClinScan (Bruker) were performed using a T2-weighted 2D TSE sequence. The reconstruction of the MPI data was performed on the MPI console (ParaVision 6.0/MPI, Bruker). Image fusion was done using additional image processing software (Imalytics, Philips). The dynamic information was extracted using custom software developed in the Julia programming environment. Results: The combined MRI-MPI measurements were carried out successfully. MPI data clearly demonstrated the passage of the SPIO tracer through the inferior vena cava, the heart and finally the liver. By co-registration with MRI the anatomical regions were identified. Due to the volume frame rate of about 46 volumes per second a signal modulation with the frequency of the heart beat was detectable and a heart beat of 520 beats per minute (bpm) has been assumed. Moreover, the blood flow velocity of approximately 5cm/s in the vena cava has been estimated. Conclusions: The high temporal resolution of MPI allows real-time imaging and bolus tracking of intravenous injected nanoparticles and offers a real time tool to assess blood flow velocity.

  5. Relative contributions of rhizosphere and microbial respiration to belowground and total ecosystem respiration in arctic tussock tundra: results of a 13C pulse-chase experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, A. D.; Sullivan, P.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Steltzer, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many arctic ecosystems that have historically been strong carbon (C) sinks are becoming sources of C to the atmosphere. Although ecosystem respiration is the largest C flux out of ecosystems, our ability to model respiration lags considerably behind our ability to model photosynthesis in the Arctic. Understanding the controls on respiration is especially important for an ecosystem which appears to be experiencing the greatest climate warming and also contains large stores of soil C. Partitioning respiration into its component fluxes and identifying factors controlling respiration of each component is a critical first step towards improving our ability to model changes in respiration. However, partitioning belowground constituents has proven to be challenging in most ecosystems. Therefore, to accurately estimate rhizosphere respiration and bulk soil microbial respiration in moist acidic tussock tundra, we selected an isotopic method that results in minimal disturbance of belowground processes. In mid July of 2011, we introduced a 13CO2 label into a clear ecosystem CO2 flux chamber, allowed the vegetation to incorporate the label through photosynthesis and returned 2 days and 4 days after labeling to follow the movement of the 13C signal. A smaller CO2 flux chamber was used to chase the label separately in tussock and inter-tussock areas. All above ground plant tissue was clipped immediately before the chase measurements and soil cores were taken immediately after chasing the label. Syringe samples (n=5 or 6) were collected from the small flux chamber at regular intervals as CO2 concentrations were allowed to build, and Keeling plots were used to estimate δ13C of belowground respiration. After completing the field measurements, the soil cores were sorted into live roots and root free soil. Samples of each were incubated in mason jars placed in a 10°C water bath. The jars were scrubbed free of CO2 and syringe samples were collected from each jar after CO2

  6. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  7. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  8. Adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  9. Optimal scan techniques for dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the liver. Usefulness of test injection method and automated bolus tracking technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine optimal scan techniques and important factors in dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the liver. Comparing the influence of test bolus injection to that of the automatic trigger was done in the same cases. One hundred patients were enrolled in the whole liver dynamic study using a 1.5 T MR system. MR imaging using a power injector was performed in 85 cases, while manual injection was performed in the other 15 cases. Fast spoiled GRASS (FSPGR) or enhanced 3D fast gradient echo (efgre3d) pulse sequence was used for the study. MR SmartPrep, which is a computer assisted bolus tracking technique, was performed in 37 of the 57 cases with efgre3d. Both test bolus and MR SmartPrep were used in 10 of the 57 cases. Hepatic arterial phase images were designated to 3 grades of scan timing. Optimal timing was determined when a faint depiction of portal vein in addition to a description of second branches of the hepatic artery were present. The best timing was found in efgre3d 3 ml/s with a SmartPrep in which the acquisition delay time was 10 s. The mean delay time from the initiation of contrast agent administration to the beginning of arterial phase scanning was 17.0±4.71 s (mean±SD, range 10-29 s). Although similar effects might be achieved when the test injection method is used, it requires complicated steps. These results indicate that we can perform optimal timing for the hepatic arterial phase of dynamic MR imaging. We can also set the delay time for individual cases with the power injector. (author)

  10. Comparison of bolus and continuous infusion of esmolol on hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation and sternotomy in coronary artery bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Mercanooglu Efe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized, prospective and double blinded study is to investigate effects of different esmolol use on hemodynamic response of laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation and sternotomy in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: After approval of local ethics committee and patients' written informed consent, 45 patients were randomized into three groups equally. In Infusion Group; from 10 min before intubation up to 5th minute after sternotomy, 0.5 mg/kg/min esmolol infusion, in Bolus Group; 2 min before intubation and sternotomy 1.5 mg/kg esmolol IV bolus and in Control Group; %0.9 NaCl was administered. All demographic parameters were recorded. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before infusion up to anesthesia induction in every minute, during endotracheal intubation, every minute for 10 minutes after endotracheal intubation and before, during and after sternotomy at first and fifth minutes. RESULTS: While area under curve (AUC (SAP × time was being found more in Group B and C than Group I, AUC (SAP × T int and T st and AUC (SAP × T2 was found more in Group B and C than Group I (p < 0.05. Moreover AUC (HR × T st was found less in Group B than Group C but no significant difference was found between Group B and Group I. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that esmolol infusion is more effective than esmolol bolus administration on controlling systolic arterial pressure during endotracheal intubation and sternotomy in CABG surgery.

  11. Meta-analysis of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin used in a basal–bolus regimen for the treatment of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Simon; Bode, Bruce; Kozlovski, Plamen; Svendsen, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of two different insulin formulations, insulin aspart (IAsp) and regular human insulin (RHI), for prandial insulin coverage with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin as basal insulin using a meta-analysis approach. The primary endpoint was change in A1c over time. Secondary endpoints included incidence of hypoglycemia and postprandial glycemic control. Methods Clinical trials (Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes) complying with Good Clinical Practice, and with individual patient data, were included in the meta-analysis. Trials were randomized, consisting of (at least) two treatment arms and had a minimum duration of 12 weeks. Estimates were calculated using fixed-effects and random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed for each analysis. The effect of baseline parameters on A1c was analyzed in extended simultaneous models. Results The mean difference in A1c was 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] [−0.15; −0.04], P < 0.001) in favor of IAsp. Higher accumulated dose of IAsp, higher age and increased rates of hypoglycemia were associated with improved A1c outcome. Fasting plasma glucose was not significantly different between regimens. Postprandial glucose was significantly lower after treatment with IAsp compared with RHI, but the analysis did present a significant level of heterogeneity (P < 0.001). The overall rate of hypoglycemia was the same with both regimens, but nocturnal hypoglycemia was significantly lower with IAsp. Conclusions A basal–bolus regimen with IAsp as bolus insulin provided minimal, but statistically significant, improvement in overall glycemic control with a lower rate of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes, compared with a corresponding regimen with bolus RHI. PMID:23586846

  12. Black carbon, particle number concentration and nitrogen oxide emission factors of random in-use vehicles measured with the on-road chasing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ježek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chasing method was used in an on-road measurement campaign, and emission factors (EF of black carbon (BC, particle number (PN and nitrogen oxides (NOx were determined for 139 individual vehicles of different types encountered on the roads. The aggregated results provide EFs for BC, NOx and PN for three vehicle categories: goods vehicles, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. This is the first on-road measurement study where BC EFs of numerous individual diesel cars were determined in real-world driving conditions. We found good agreement between EFs of goods vehicles determined in this campaign and the results of previous studies that used either chasing or remote sensing measurement techniques. The composition of the sampled car fleet determined from the national vehicle registry information is reflective of Eurostat statistical data on the Slovenian and European vehicle fleet. The median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars that were in use for less than 5 years, decreased by 60 and 47% from those in use for 5–10 years, respectively, the median NOx and PN EFs, of goods vehicles that were in use for less than five years, decreased from those in use for 5–10 years by 52 and 67%, respectively. The influence of engine maximum power of the measured EFs showed an increase in NOx EF from least to more powerful vehicles with diesel engines. Finally a disproportionate contribution of high emitters to the total emissions of the measured fleet was found; the top 25% of emitting diesel cars contributed 63, 47 and 61% of BC, NOx and PN emissions respectively. With the combination of relatively simple on-road measurements with sophisticated post processing individual vehicles EF can be determined and useful information about the fleet emissions can be obtained by exactly representing vehicles which contribute disproportionally to vehicle fleet emissions; and monitor how the numerous emission reduction approaches are reflected in on-road driving

  13. Quantitative Determination of Ursolic Acid in Dashanzha Bolus by Spectrophotometry%分光光度法测定大山楂丸中熊果酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 陈新梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立可见分光光度法测定自制大山楂丸中熊果酸含量的方法.方法 采用可见分光光度法,用5%香草醛-冰醋酸、高氯酸显色,以熊果酸标准品为对照,波长545 nm处测定自制大山楂丸中熊果酸的含量.结果 熊果酸在12~60 μg/mL浓度范围内具有良好的吸光度与浓度的线性关系(r=0.9995);样品平均回收率为98.47%,RSD=1.57%.精密度、重现性好;对照品和样品溶液在1h内稳定.结论 此法操作方便、简练、高效,可用于大山楂丸中熊果酸含量的测定.%Objective To establish a method for the determination of ursolic acid in Dashanzha bolus by spectrophotometry.Methods With spectrophotometry,5 % vanillin-acetic acid,perchloric acid for color,the ursolic acid standard control,ursolic acid content of homemade Dashanzha bolus was determined at the wavelength of 545 nm.Results The method can accurately determined the content of malol in Dashanzha bolus.ursolic acid at the concentration of 12~60 μg/mL had a good linear relationship between the absorbance and the concentration (r=0.9995).Sample average recovery rate was 98.47 %,RSD=1.57 %.Standard and sample solution were stable within 1 h.Conclusion The method has the advantages of convenient operation,simplicity,high efficiency,and can be used for determination of ursolic acid content in Dashanzha bolus.

  14. Effects of maintenance of propofol-ketamine anesthesia with repeat bolus and constant rate infusion of propofol on physiological, biochemical, anesthetic and analgesic indices in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku Uchechukwu Njoku

    2015-01-01

    The research work was aimed at investigating physiological, biochemical, analgesic and anesthetic indices of dogs anesthetized with propofol-ketamine and maintained with repeat bolus and constant infusions of propofol. Eight dogs, assigned to two groups (n=4), were used in this study. All dogs were pre-medicated with atropine (at 0.03 mg/kg bwt) and xylazine (at 2 mg/kg bwt). Anesthesia was induced by a concurrent administration of propofol (at 4 mg/kg bwt) and ketamine (at 2.5 mg/kg bwt). Ma...

  15. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the value of a single bolus intravenous alfentanil in CT colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boellaard Thierry N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although CT colonography is a less invasive alternative for colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer, procedural pain is common. In several studies, CT colonography pain and burden is higher than in colonoscopy. Apart from discomfort, anxiety and its related stress-induced peri- procedural side effects, this may influence the adherence for CT colonography as a possible screening tool for colorectal cancer. We hypothesize that a single bolus intravenous alfentanil will give a clinically relevant reduction in maximum pain defined as at least 1.3 point reduction on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS. Methods/Design A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which patients scheduled for elective CT colonography in a single tertiary centre are eligible for inclusion. The first 90 consenting patient will be block-randomized to either the alfentanil group or the placebo group. Before bowel insufflation, the alfentanil group receives a single bolus intravenous alfentanil 7.5 μg/kg dissolved in 0.9% NaCl, while the placebo group receives an intravenous bolus injection of pure 0.9% NaCl. For both groups an equal amount of fluid per kilogram (75 μL/kg is injected. The primary outcome is the difference in maximum pain on an 11-point NRS. Secondary outcomes include: pain and burden of different CT colonography aspects, side effects, procedural time and recovery time. For the primary outcome an independent samples t-test is performed and a P value Discussion This study will provide evidence whether a single bolus intravenous alfentanil gives a clinically relevant reduction in maximum pain during CT colonography. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2902 This trial will be conducted in accordance with the protocol and in compliance with the moral, ethical, and scientific principles governing clinical research as set out in the Declaration of Helsinki (1989 and Good Clinical Practice

  16. Reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination: the potential beneficial effect of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Computed Tomography (CT) is the leading contributor to medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Although the use of CT brain scans for patients with head injuries and convulsions has shown a tremendous growth, it has raised substantial concerns in the general public because of the risk of radiation-induced cataracts: the current available strategies to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens region are limited. Therefore, the present research project was initiated with the aim of evaluating the potential benefit of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield on reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination. Materials and methods: We conducted a series of phantom studies to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD) that is delivered to the eye lens region during CT brain examination under the effect of different scanning and shielding setups. Results: Our results indicated, during CT brain examination: (1) a drastic reduction of 92.5% in the ESD to the eye lens region was found when the CT gantry was tilted from 0 deg. (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy) to 30 deg. cranially (overall ESD = 2.4 mGy), and (2) when the CT gantry was positioned at 0 deg. (the common practice in the clinical setting), the setups with the application of a) a bismuth shield, b) a bismuth shield with a face shield (air gap), c) a bismuth shield with bolus, and d) a bismuth shield with bolus and an air gap can result in an acceptable level of image quality with a smaller overall ESD delivered to the eye lens region (overall ESD = 23.2 mGy, 24 mGy, 21 mGy and 19.9 mGy, respectively) than the setup without the bismuth shield applied (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy). Conclusion: When the primary beam scanning through the eye lens region is unavoidable during CT brain examination, the combined use of a bismuth shield with bolus and a face shield is an easy-to-use and inexpensive shielding setup to reduce the radiation dose delivered to the eye lens region while

  17. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  18. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...

  19. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  20. Adaptive noise

    OpenAIRE

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  1. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  2. Numerical simulations of internal solitary waves interacting with uniform slopes using an adaptive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Graham; O'Callaghan, Joanne; Popinet, Stéphane

    Two-dimensional, non-linear, Boussinesq, non-hydrostatic simulations of internal solitary waves breaking and running up uniform slopes have been performed using an adaptive, finite volume fluid code "Gerris". It is demonstrated that the Gerris dynamical core performs well in this specific but important geophysical context. The "semi-structured" nature of Gerris is exploited to enhance model resolution along the slope where wave breaking and run-up occur. Comparison with laboratory experiments reveals that the generation of single and multiple turbulent surges ("boluses") as a function of slope angle is consistently reproduced by the model, comparable with observations and previous numerical simulations, suggesting aspects of the dynamical energy transfers are being represented by the model in two dimensions. Adaptivity is used to explore model convergence of the wave breaking dynamics, and it is shown that significant cpu memory and time savings are possible with adaptivity.

  3. Usefulness of the Bolus-Tracking Baseline Scan for the Diagnosis of Hepatic Steatosis in Abdominal Computed Tomography: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common pathology in western societies. Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the liver is a valuable tool in determining the presence of steatosis hepatis, but in most departments standard CT protocols of abdomen often do not include unenhanced scans anymore. In a small series of 22 patients the liver density was measured in the acquired low-dose baseline scan for bolus tracking and was compared to the measurement in a regular unenhanced CT scan of the upper abdomen. The mean difference between the unenhanced CT scan and the low-dose baseline scan was 3.4 HU (range 0.2–8.6 HU); the difference between these two scans was 5 HU or smaller in 82% of the patients. There was a significant difference between the two used CT scanners; this has to be kept in mind before implementing this approach into daily practice. All but one patient with fatty liver disease on unenhanced CT were diagnosed using the baseline scan. The baseline scan for bolus tracking may be useful for the diagnosis or in the followup of fatty liver disease

  4. Development and Clinical Implementation of a Universal Bolus to Maintain Spot Size During Delivery of Base of Skull Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Both@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shen, Jiajian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Kirk, Maura; Lin, Liyong; Tang, Shikui; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lustig, Robert; Lin, Haibo; Deville, Curtiland; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Tochner, Zelig; McDonough, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To report on a universal bolus (UB) designed to replace the range shifter (RS); the UB allows the treatment of shallow tumors while keeping the pencil beam scanning (PBS) spot size small. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with brain cancers treated from 2010 to 2011 were planned using the PBS technique with bolus and the RS. In-air spot sizes of the pencil beam were measured and compared for 4 conditions (open field, with RS, and with UB at 2- and 8-cm air gap) in isocentric geometry. The UB was applied in our clinic to treat brain tumors, and the plans with UB were compared with the plans with RS. Results: A UB of 5.5 cm water equivalent thickness was found to meet the needs of the majority of patients. By using the UB, the PBS spot sizes are similar with the open beam (P>.1). The heterogeneity index was found to be approximately 10% lower for the UB plans than for the RS plans. The coverage for plans with UB is more conformal than for plans with RS; the largest increase in sparing is usually for peripheral organs at risk. Conclusions: The integrity of the physical properties of the PBS beam can be maintained using a UB that allows for highly conformal PBS treatment design, even in a simple geometry of the fixed beam line when noncoplanar beams are used.

  5. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... a management framework, as well as of identified challenges and pathologies, are needed. Further discussion and systematic assessment of the approach is required, together with greater attention to its definition and description, enabling the assessment of new approaches to managing uncertainty, and AM itself.......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...

  6. Black carbon, particle number concentration and nitrogen oxide emission factors of random in-use vehicles measured with the on-road chasing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, I.; Katrašnik, T.; Westerdahl, D.; Močnik, G.

    2015-10-01

    The chasing method was used in an on-road measurement campaign, and emission factors (EF) of black carbon (BC), particle number (PN) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were determined for 139 individual vehicles of different types encountered on the roads. The aggregated results provide EFs for BC, NOx and PN for three vehicle categories: goods vehicles, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. This is the first on-road measurement study where BC EFs of numerous individual diesel cars were determined in real-world driving conditions. We found good agreement between EFs of goods vehicles determined in this campaign and the results of previous studies that used either chasing or remote-sensing measurement techniques. The composition of the sampled car fleet determined from the national vehicle registry information is reflective of Eurostat statistical data on the Slovenian and European vehicle fleet. The median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars that were in use for less than 5 years decreased by 60 and 47 % from those in use for 5-10 years, respectively; the median NOx and PN EFs of goods vehicles that were in use for less than 5 years decreased from those in use for 5-10 years by 52 and 67 %, respectively. Surprisingly, we found an increase of BC EFs in the newer goods vehicle fleet compared to the 5-10-year old one. The influence of engine maximum power of the measured EFs showed an increase in NOx EF from least to more powerful vehicles with diesel engines. Finally, a disproportionate contribution of high emitters to the total emissions of the measured fleet was found; the top 25 % of emitting diesel cars contributed 63, 47 and 61 % of BC, NOx and PN emissions respectively. With the combination of relatively simple on-road measurements and sophisticated post processing, individual vehicle EF can be determined and useful information about the fleet emissions can be obtained by exactly representing vehicles which contribute disproportionally to vehicle fleet emissions; and

  7. Effects of orally applied butyrate bolus on histone acetylation and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in the liver of chicken – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mátis Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butyrate is known as histone deacetylase inhibitor, inducing histone hyperacetylation in vitro and playing a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. We hypothesized that butyrate, endogenously produced by intestinal microbial fermentation or applied as a nutritional supplement, might cause similar in vivo modifications in the chromatin structure of the hepatocytes, influencing the expression of certain genes and therefore modifying the activity of hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes. Methods An animal study was carried out in chicken as a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of butyrate’s epigenetic actions in the liver. Broiler chicks in the early post-hatch period were treated once daily with orally administered bolus of butyrate following overnight starvation with two different doses (0.25 or 1.25 g/kg body weight per day for five days. After slaughtering, cell nucleus and microsomal fractions were separated by differential centrifugation from the livers. Histones were isolated from cell nuclei and acetylation of hepatic core histones was screened by western blotting. The activity of CYP2H and CYP3A37, enzymes involved in biotransformation in chicken, was detected by aminopyrine N-demethylation and aniline-hydroxylation assays from the microsomal suspensions. Results Orally added butyrate, applied in bolus, had a remarkable impact on nucleosome structure of hepatocytes: independently of the dose, butyrate caused hyperacetylation of histone H2A, but no changes were monitored in the acetylation state of H2B. Intensive hyperacetylation of H3 was induced by the higher administered dose, while the lower dose tended to increase acetylation ratio of H4. In spite of the observed modification in histone acetylation, no significant changes were observed in the hepatic microsomal CYP2H and CYP3A37 activity. Conclusion Orally added butyrate in bolus

  8. ESTUDIO DEL EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE BIOFERTILIZANTES SOBRE ALGUNAS VARIABLES DE CRECIMIENTO Y RENDIMIENTO EN Gerbera jamesonii cv. Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Soroa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo experimental se desarrolló con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de la aplicación de biofertilizantes a partir de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA y rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (RPCV, sobre algunas variables de crecimiento y rendimiento en Gerbera jamesonii cv. Bolus, especie que se emplea como flor cortada y planta florecida en macetas. La experiencia mostró que se produjeron importantes incrementos al emplear estos microorganismos en el cultivo en estudio, siendo el tratamiento inoculado con Glomus fasciculatum el que mejor se comportó de manera integral y destacándose al analizar las variables: diámetro de las flores (27.9 % de incremento, rendimiento e inicio de la floración (50 días antes con respecto al tratamiento control.

  9. 捕凰捉影化境八章(七)%Chasing the Charm of the Landscape The Seventh of Eight Chapters of Perfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董豫赣

    2009-01-01

    Comparing with the chapter "Managing Place" that puts focus on the principle of "exquisite and appropriate", this chapter does not mean to put forward a new topic, but attempts to elaborates on the "ingenuity" in "Managing Place" from the perspective of the female in Lao-tzu's theory. In addition, this chapter tries to borrow the idea from the female perspective in Su Shi's theory of "chasing the ingenuity", so as to supplement the rough understanding from the male perspective on "Managing Place".%与"经营位置"一章将重点集中在"精而合宜"的"原理性"综述相比,这一章"捕凰捉影"并非另起主题,它只是试图基于老子的雌性视角,详细讨论"经营位置"里相关"巧而得体"的"巧妙"部分,并期望着能假借苏轼的"求物之妙"的女性视角,来弥补男性"形势"对"经营位置"的粗犷理解,并深入山水经营的动态过程中,以进行更为精妙的讨论.

  10. An isotope approach based on C-13 pulse-chase labelling vs. the root trenching method to separate heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration in cultivated peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, C.; Pitkamaki, A. S.; Tavi, N. M.; Koponen, H. T.; Martikainen, P. J. [Univ.of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science], e-mail: christina.biasi@uef.fi

    2012-11-01

    We tested an isotope method based on C-13 pulse-chase labelling for determining the fractional contribution of soil microbial respiration to overall soil respiration in an organic soil (cutaway peatland, eastern Finland), cultivated with the bioenergy crop, reed canary grass. The plants were exposed to CO{sub 2}-13 for five hours and the label was thereafter determined in CO{sub 2} derived from the soil-root system. A two-pool isotope mixing model was used to separate sources of respiration. The isotopic approach showed that a minimum of 50% of the total CO{sub 2} originated from soil-microbial respiration. Even though the method uses undisturbed soil-plant systems, it has limitations concerning the experimental determination of the true isotopic signal of all components contributing to autotrophic respiration. A trenching experiment which was comparatively conducted resulted in a 71% fractional contribution of soil-microbial respiration. This value was likely overestimated. Further studies are needed to evaluate critically the output from these two partitioning approaches. (orig.)

  11. Radiation treatment for the right naris in a pediatric anesthesia patient using an adaptive oral airway technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponseller, Patricia, E-mail: sponselp@uw.edu; Pelly, Nicole; Trister, Andrew; Ford, Eric; Ermoian, Ralph

    2015-10-01

    Radiation therapy for pediatric patients often includes the use of intravenous anesthesia with supplemental oxygen delivered via the nasal cannula. Here, we describe the use of an adaptive anesthesia technique for electron irradiation of the right naris in a preschool-aged patient treated under anesthesia. The need for an intranasal bolus plug precluded the use of standard oxygen supplementation. This novel technique required the multidisciplinary expertise of anesthesiologists, radiation therapists, medical dosimetrists, medical physicists, and radiation oncologists to ensure a safe and reproducible treatment course.

  12. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT-Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24), spleen (3/24), kidney (4/24), liver (5/24), and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively). Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals) showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes). Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4), lung (3/6) or lumbar spine (0/2), as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s) to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented

  13. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT‑Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Woias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24, spleen (3/24, kidney (4/24, liver (5/24, and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively. Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes. Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4, lung (3/6 or lumbar spine (0/2, as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented.

  14. Metastasizing, Luciferase Transduced MAT-Lu Rat Prostate Cancer Models: Follow up of Bolus and Metronomic Therapy with Doxorubicin as Model Drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantscheff, Peter, E-mail: jantscheff@tumorbio.uni-freiburg.de [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Esser, Norbert [ProQinase GmbH, Breisacher Str. 117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Geipel, Andreas; Woias, Peter [Laboratory for Design of Microsystems, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ziroli, Vittorio [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Goldschmidtboing, Frank [Laboratory for Design of Microsystems, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Massing, Ulrich [Tumour Biology Center, Clinical Research, Department Lipids & Liposomes, Breisacher Str.117, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-06-17

    The most fatal outcomes of prostate carcinoma (PCa) result from hormone-refractory variants of the tumor, especially from metastatic spread rather than from primary tumor burden. The goal of the study was to establish and apply rat MAT-Lu prostate cancer tumor models for improved non-invasive live follow up of tumor growth and metastasis by in vivo bioluminescence. We established luciferase transduced MAT-Lu rat PCa cells and studied tumor growth and metastatic processes in an ectopic as well as orthotopic setting. An intravenous bolus treatment with doxorubicin was used to demonstrate the basic applicability of in vivo imaging to follow up therapeutic intervention in these models. In vitro analysis of tissue homogenates confirmed major metastatic spread of subcutaneous tumors into the lung. Our sensitive method, however, for the first time detects metastasis also in lymph node (11/24), spleen (3/24), kidney (4/24), liver (5/24), and bone tissue (femur or spinal cord - 5/20 and 12/20, respectively). Preliminary data of orthotopic implantation (three animals) showed metastatic invasion to investigated organs in all animals but with varying preference (e.g., to lymph nodes). Intravenous bolus treatment of MAT-Lu PCa with doxorubicin reduced subcutaneous tumor growth by about 50% and the number of animals affected by metastatic lesions in lymph nodes (0/4), lung (3/6) or lumbar spine (0/2), as determined by in vivo imaging and in vitro analysis. Additionally, the possible applicability of the luciferase transduced MAT-Lu model(s) to study basic principles of metronomic therapies via jugular vein catheter, using newly established active microport pumping systems, is presented.

  15. Monte-Carlo-Model for the aerosol bolus dispersion in the human lung. Part 2. Model predictions for the diseased lung; Monte-Carlo-Modell der Aerosolbolusdispersion in der menschlichen Lunge. Teil 2. Modellvorhersagen fuer die kranke Lunge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, R.; Pawlak, E.; Hofmann, W. [Salzburg Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Physik und Biophysik

    2007-07-01

    After a mathematical extension of the existing model for the theoretical description of the aerosol bolus dispersion, the behavior of particle pulses in diseased lung structures was simulated. The geometry used for healthy lungs was modified in two aspects: First, a modelling of possible airway obstructions, which usually occur in patients with chronic bronchitis, chronic asthma or cystic fibrosis, was carried out and, second, a theoretical approximation of the emphysema, being observed in lungs of smokers, but also as an accompanying phenomenon in obstructive diseases, was established. According to the modified model, in lungs with airway obstructions the exhaled bolus exhibited a decreased dispersion with respect to healthy subjects, whereas in emphysematous lungs the respective half-width of the peak was increased. Standard deviation and skewness of the bolus were similarly influenced by the modified lung architecture. A combination of airway obstruction and emphysema caused an extensive compensation of individual dispersion effects, complicating a secure distinction from the healthy lung. According to the model, a special diagnostic value may be assigned to the bolus deposition, showing significant deviations from the normal case for all simulated diseases. (orig.)

  16. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi

    2006-01-01

    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  17. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  18. Efficacy and safety of single-bolus tenecteplase compared with front-loaded alteplase in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective Previous study showed tenecteplase and alteplaxe were equovalent for 30-day mortality in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this open-label, randomized, multi-center, angiographic trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of tenecteplase compared with alteplase in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods We recruited patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction presenting within 6 hours of symptom onset from October, 2002 to March,2004, in 5 hospitals in Beijing. After giving informed consent, patients were randomly assigned a single-bolus injection of tenecteplase (30-50 mg according to body weight) or front loaded alteplase (100 mg), and underwent coronary angiography at 90 min after starting the study drug. All patients received aspirin and heparin (target activated partial thromboplastin time 50-70 s). The primary efficacy end point was the rate of TIMI grade 3 flow at 90 minutes. Other efficacy end points included TIMI grade 2/3 flow at 90 minutes. Safety end points included all stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), moderate/severe hemorrhage (except for ICH), all-cause mortality at 30-days, and major non-fatal cardiac events at 30 days. Results Overall 110 patients were eligible for statistical analysis, with 58 patients assigned to receive tenecteplase and 52 patients to alteplase. Tenecteplase produced a rate of TIMI grade 3 flow at 90 minutes after the start of thrombolysis(68.4%) similar to that of alteplase (66.7%, P=1.0); the rates of TIMI grade 2 or 3 were similar for patients treated with tenecteplase versus alteplase (89.5% versus 80.4%, respectively, P=0.278). At 30 days, rates for all strokes were similar for the two groups (5.17% for tenecteplase and 1.92% for alteplase, P=0.62); rates of ICH were 3.45% and 1.92% (tenecteplase and rt-PA,P=1.00) respectively. The rate of moderate/severe hemorrhage was 8.62% with tenecteplase and 5.77% with alteplase (P=0.72); total

  19. Evapotranspiration modelling of horticultural crops grown with soilless culture [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Adlam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at validating the evapotranspiration model developed by Baille (1994) on tomato and gerbera grown with different concentration of NaCl. Relevant to tomato, the original Baille model was adapted on daily scale and a Boltzman equation for estimating the LAI as a function of thermal day degrees was used. The model was calibrated on data collected in Spring 2004 from a soilless closed-loop tomato culture and validated on datasets collected in 2001 and 2002. Hourly data collected in Spring and Autumn 2005 from a soilless closed-loop gerbera culture grown with different irrigation water quality (0 and 10 meq lE-1 NaCl) were used. Evapotranspiration in gerbera was influenced by different water quality and by radiation levels, while in tomato those factors were negligible. In both crops a good correspondence between estimated and measured data was observed. The developed models will be implemented in a Decision Support System in order to help growers to manage the soilless closed-loop cultivation

  20. Comparison of thrice daily biphasic human insulin (30/70) versus basal detemir & bolus aspart in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundar, G.; Bhansali, Anil; Walia, Rama; Dutta, Pinaki; Upreti, Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Conventionally, biphasic human insulin (30/70, BHI) is used twice daily for the management of patients with diabetes. However, this regimen is suboptimal to control post-lunch and/or pre-dinner hyperglycaemia in some patients. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of thrice-daily biphasic human insulin (30/70, BHI) versus basal detemir and bolus aspart (BB) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: In this open labelled randomized pilot study, 50 patients with uncontrolled T2DM on twice-daily BHI and insulin sensitizers were randomized either to BHI thrice-daily or BB regimen. HbA1c, six point plasma glucose profile, increment in insulin dose, weight gain, hypoglycaemic episodes and cost were compared between the two treatment groups at the end of 12 wk. Results: Mean HbAlc (±SD) decreased from 9.0±0.9 per cent at randomization to 7.9±0.8 per cent in BHI (P<0.001) and from 9.4±1.3 to 8.2±1.0 per cent in BB regimen (P<0.001) after 12 wk of treatment. The mean (±SEM) weight gain in patients in the BHI regimen was 1.5±0.33 kg compared to 1.4±0.34 kg in the BB regimen. Insulin dose increment at 12 wk was significantly more in the BB regimen 0.46±0.32 U/kg/day compared to 0.15±0.21 U/kg/day in the BHI regimen (P<0.001). The incidence of major as well as minor hypoglycaemic episodes was not different in both the regimen. The BB regimen was more expensive than the BHI regimen (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: The thrice daily biphasic human insulin regimen is non-inferior to the basal bolus insulin analogue regimen in terms efficacy and safety in patients with poorly controlled T2DM. However, these data require further substantiation in large long term prospective studies. PMID:22382187

  1. Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at

  2. Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at

  3. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s...

  4. Comparison of first pass bolus AIFs extracted from sequential {sup 18}F-FDG PET and DSC-MRI of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Eleanor, E-mail: ee244@cam.ac.uk [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EB (United Kingdom); Ward, Alexander O.; Buonincontri, Guido; Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-11

    Accurate kinetic modelling of in vivo physiological function using positron emission tomography (PET) requires determination of the tracer time–activity curve in plasma, known as the arterial input function (AIF). The AIF is usually determined by invasive blood sampling methods, which are prohibitive in murine studies due to low total blood volumes. Extracting AIFs from PET images is also challenging due to large partial volume effects (PVE). We hypothesise that in combined PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR), a co-injected bolus of MR contrast agent and PET ligand can be tracked using fast MR acquisitions. This protocol would allow extraction of a MR AIF from MR contrast agent concentration–time curves, at higher spatial and temporal resolution than an image-derived PET AIF. A conversion factor could then be applied to the MR AIF for use in PET kinetic analysis. This work has compared AIFs obtained from sequential DSC-MRI and PET with separate injections of gadolinium contrast agent and {sup 18}F-FDG respectively to ascertain the technique′s validity. An automated voxel selection algorithm was employed to improve MR AIF reproducibility. We found that MR and PET AIFs displayed similar character in the first pass, confirmed by gamma variate fits (p<0.02). MR AIFs displayed reduced PVE compared to PET AIFs, indicating their potential use in PET/MR studies.

  5. Effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus supplement on growth performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Abdelrahman, Mutassim M; Harron, Raafat M

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus (TMB) supplement on the productive performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels under natural grazing conditions. Fifteen 6-month-old growing male camels (average bodyweight 139.51 ± 26.49 kg) were used in a 150-day trial. Animals were individually housed in a shaded pen and randomly assigned to receive zero (control group, CON), one (TMB1), or two (TMB2) long-acting TMBs. Feed intake was measured weekly, and camels were weighed monthly. Blood samples were collected from all camels on days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 to obtain metabolic profiles. Zinc, selenium, copper, cobalt, and manganese concentrations were determined in the diet, serum, and liver. In comparison with controls, giving camels one TMB increased the average daily gain (14.38%; P copper, selenium, cobalt, and manganese were greater (P mineral profiles of camels. Different levels, sources, and synergistic combinations of trace minerals can be used in further studies to elucidate their abilities to increase productive variables as well as their availability and cost to the camel industry. PMID:26894497

  6. Blood Glucose Control Using a Novel Continuous Blood Glucose Monitor and Repetitive Intravenous Insulin Boluses: Exploiting Natural Insulin Pulsatility as a Principle for a Future Artificial Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils K. Skjaervold

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a glucose regulatory algorithm by employing the natural pulsatile pattern of insulin secretion and the oscillatory pattern of resting blood glucose levels and further to regulate the blood glucose level in diabetic pigs by this method. We developed a control algorithm based on repetitive intravenous bolus injections of insulin and combined this with an intravascular blood glucose monitor. Four anesthetized pigs were used in the study. The animals developed a mildly diabetic state from streptozotocin pretreatment. They were steadily brought within the blood glucose target range of 4.5–6.0 mmol/L in 21 to 121 min and kept within that range for 128 to 238 min (hypoglycemic values varied from 2.9 to 51.1 min. The study confirmed our hypotheses regarding the feasibility of this new principle for blood glucose control, and the algorithm was constantly improved during the study to produce the best results in the last animals. The main obstacles were the drift of the IvS-1 sensor and problems with the calibration procedure, which calls for an improvement in the sensor stability before this method can be applied fully in new studies in animals and humans.

  7. Plasma free amino acid kinetics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a bolus injection of 15N-labeled amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jacob William; Yanke, Dan; Mirza, Jeff; Ballantyne, James Stuart

    2011-02-01

    To gain insight into the metabolic design of the amino acid carrier systems in fish, we injected a bolus of (15)N amino acids into the dorsal aorta in mature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The plasma kinetic parameters including concentration, pool size, rate of disappearance (R(d)), half-life and turnover rate were determined for 15 amino acids. When corrected for metabolic rate, the R(d) values obtained for trout for most amino acids were largely comparable to human values, with the exception of glutamine (which was lower) and threonine (which was higher). R(d) values ranged from 0.9 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (lysine) to 22.1 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (threonine) with most values falling between 2 and 6 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1). There was a significant correlation between R(d) and the molar proportion of amino acids in rainbow trout whole body protein hydrolysate. Other kinetic parameters did not correlate significantly with whole body amino acid composition. This indicates that an important design feature of the plasma-free amino acids system involves proportional delivery of amino acids to tissues for protein synthesis.

  8. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered “excellent”, 33% “good”, and 900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a “fair/poor” cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with “fair/poor” physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported “excellent”, “good”, and “fair/poor” cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with “fair/poor” outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose ≥16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy. Conclusions: Whole-breast IMRT is associated with very low rates of local recurrence at 5 years, 83%-98% “good/excellent” cosmetic outcomes, and minimal

  9. Does the time of the sampling matter in 13C pulse labeling and chasing experiments? A case study on beech seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Karlowsky, Stefan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Calfapietra, Carlo; Gessler, Arthur; Brugnoli, Enrico; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    13C pulse labeling and chasing is a valuable and very popular tool for determination of the fate and turnover rates of C in plant-soil systems. Continuous isoflux measurements became an accessible reality allowing to cover completely the diurnal variation in label assimilation and respiration fluxes. Label turnover in multiple pools, especially of those located belowground, is more often assessed instead by isolated day-time samplings. By increasing the sampling frequency of belowground compartments we aimed to catch the short-term diurnal variations in label allocation and to link these processes with label dynamics in the aboveground biomass. For these purposes we labeled 3-m height soil-grown European beech seedlings with 13C enriched CO2 and traced the flow of 13C within belowground plant-soil continuum. Continuous soil isoflux measurements were accompanied by a 3-h-frequency sampling of root and soil material during the first 48 h, followed by a daily sampling in the successive 5 days. The amount of label found in microbial biomass depended partially on the amount of roots in the sample. Microbial biomass C (MBC) and microbial respiration showed very strong correlation, suggesting the possibility to use one as a proxy of the other. MBC enrichment showed a clear diurnal pattern with night-time and early morning peaks. These peaks were similar in shape and shifted by one sampling when compared to root sugars enrichment. Soil respiration showed instead a single bell-shape peak in 13C, likely due to a sequence of peaks of root and microbial origin. 13C flow into soil microbial functional groups was assessed less frequently through phospholipid fatty acid analyses (PLFA). The microorganisms were separated into two distinct groups by the time of the appearance of the label in the single PLFAs. The first group was characterized by a fast appearance of the label and higher enrichment and was composed of Gram negative bacteria and saprotrophic fungi likely living in

  10. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Lanea M.M., E-mail: Lanea.Keller@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sopka, Dennis M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Klayton, Tracy; Li Jinsheng; Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bleicher, Richard J.; Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered 'excellent', 33% 'good', and <1.5% 'fair/poor'. For physician-reported cosmesis, boost doses {>=}16 Gy, breast size >900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a 'fair/poor' cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with 'fair/poor' physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported 'excellent', 'good', and 'fair/poor' cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with 'fair/poor' outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose {>=}16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy

  11. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  12. Chasing extreme blazars with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Bassani, Loredana; Landi, R; Malizia, A; Bird, A J; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P

    2013-01-01

    Within the blazar population, hard X-ray selected objects are of particular interest as they tend to lie at each end of the blazar sequence. In particular, flat spectrum radio quasars located at high redshifts display the most powerful jets, the largest black hole masses and the most luminous accretion disks: their spectral energy distribution has a Compton peak in the sub-MeV region which favours their detection by instruments like INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT. These sources are even more extreme than blazars selected in other wavebands, like, for example, the gamma-ray range explored by Fermi. Here we report on a sample of 12 high redshift blazars detected so far by INTEGRAL, including 3 newly identified objects. Some properties of the combined IBIS/BAT sample of high redshift blazars (z>2) are also compared to those of a similar similar sample obtained by Fermi.

  13. Einstein Chases a Light Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This is a prelude to a book which I intend to publish. This paper describes my temporary thoughts on Einstein's pathway to the special theory of relativity. See my papers on my thoughts on Einstein's pathway to his general theory of relativity. Never say that you know how Einstein had arrived at his special theory of relativity, even if you read his letters to his wife and friends, and some other primary documents. Einstein gave many talks and wrote pieces, but at the end of the day, he told very little geographical, historical and biographical details pertaining to the years he had spent in the patent office. I thus bring here my jigsaw puzzle and warn the reader again, this is my creation and not Einstein's...

  14. Chasing White-Light Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    In this memoir I describe my life in research, mostly in the area of solar physics. The recurring theme is "white-light flares," and several sections of this paper deal with this and related phenomena; I wind up describing how I see the state of the art in this still-interesting and crucially important (as it has been since 1859) area of flare research. I also describe my participation in two long-lived satellite programs dedicated to solar observations ( Yohkoh and RHESSI) and elaborate on their discoveries. These have both helped with white-light flares both directly and also with closely related X-ray and γ-ray emissions), with the result that this article leans heavily in that direction.

  15. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  16. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  17. Metabolism of the A{sub 1} adenosine receptor PET ligand [{sup 18}F]CPFPX by CYP1A2: implications for bolus/infusion PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusch, Andreas [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Aachen, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Bier, Dirk [Institute for Neuroscience and Biophysics (INB4)-Nuclear Chemistry, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Holschbach, Marcus H. [Institute for Neuroscience and Biophysics (INB4)-Nuclear Chemistry, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Woitalla, Dirk [Neurological Department, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44791 Bochum (Germany); Elmenhorst, David [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Winz, Oliver H. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Zilles, Karl [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Bauer, Andreas [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: an.bauer@fz-juelich.de

    2006-10-15

    The A{sub 1} adenosine receptor positron emission tomography (PET) ligand 8-cyclopentyl-3-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-1-propylxanthine ([{sup 18}F]CPFPX, ) undergoes a fast hepatic metabolism. An optimal design of PET quantitation approaches (e.g., bolus/infusion studies) necessitates the knowledge of factors that influence this metabolism. Metabolites of were separated by radio thin-layer chromatography. Metabolism in vivo, in pooled human liver microsomes and in recombinant human cytochrome isoenzyme preparations was studied. Dynamic PET studies using were performed on three controls and two patients, one treated with the antidepressant and inhibitor of cytochrome CYP1A2 fluvoxamine, the other suffering from liver cirrhosis. CPFPX is metabolized by cytochrome CYP1A2 with high selectivity [K {sub M}=1.1 {mu}M (95% confidence interval, or CI, 0.6-2.0 {mu}M) and V {sub max}=243 pmol min{sup -1} mg{sup -1} (95% CI, 112-373 pmol min{sup -1} mg{sup -1}) corresponding to 2.4 pmol min{sup -1} pmol{sup -1} cytochrome P-450]. This metabolism can competitively be inhibited by fluvoxamine with K {sub I}=68 nM (95% CI, 34-138 nM). At least eight compounds found in human plasma and in the CYP1A2 in vitro preparations have an identical migration pattern and account together for >90% and >80% of the respective metabolite yield. Metabolism was considerably delayed in the two patients. In conclusion, is metabolized by cytochrome CYP1A2. Its metabolism is therefore subdued to disease-related or xenobiotic-induced changes of CYP1A2 activity. The identification of the metabolic pathway of 1 allows to optimize image quantification in A{sub 1} adenosine receptor PET studies.

  18. Adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Carmin; K. Tierney; E. Chu; L.M. Hunter; J.T. Roberts; L. Shi

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the financ

  19. Assessment of Model Predictive and Adaptive Glucose Control Strategies for People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses overnight blood glucose stabilization in people with type 1 diabetes using a Model Predictive Controller (MPC). We use a control strategy based on an adaptive ARMAX model in which we use a Recursive Extended Least Squares (RELS) method to estimate parameters of the stochastic...... part. We compare this model structure with an autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous input (ARIMAX) structure, and with an autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) model, i.e. without an integrator. Additionally, safety layers improve the controller robustness and...... reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. We test our control strategies on a virtual clinic of 100 randomly generated patients with a representative inter-subject variability. This virtual clinic is based on the Hovorka model. We consider the case where only half of the meal bolus is administered at mealtime...

  20. Perceptual effects of bolus size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2007-01-01

    A trained panel of 19 subjects were asked to rate a number of sensory attributes of commercially available vanilla custard desserts. Stimuli were placed in plastic cups and were sampled using 11-mm-diameter straws. In total, 304 samples were weighed before and after sampling and the volume ingested

  1. Feasibility of power contrast injections and bolus triggering during CT scans in oncologic patients with totally implantable venous access ports of the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Conventional totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are not approved for power contrast injections but often remain the only venous access site in oncologic patients. Therefore, these devices can play an important role if patients with a TIVAP are scheduled for a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) as vascular access may become more difficult during the course of chemotherapy. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of power injections in conventional TIVAPs in the forearm and to analyze the feasibility of bolus triggering during CT scans. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed 177 power injections in 141 patients with TIVAPs in the forearm. Between October 2008 and March 2010 all patients underwent power injections (1.5 mL/s, 150 psi) via the TIVAP for ceCT because conventional vascular access via a peripheral vein had failed. Adequate functioning and catheter's tip location after injection were evaluated. Peak injection pressure and attenuation levels of aorta, liver and spleen were analyzed and compared with results of 50 patients who were injected via classical peripheral cannulas (3 mL/s, 300 psi). Feasibility of automatic scan initiation was evaluated. In vitro the port was stressed with 5 mL/s (300 psi). Results: One TIVAP showed tip dislocation with catheter rupture. Three (2.1%) devices were explanted owing to assumed infection within 4 weeks after the injection. Mean injection pressure was 121.9 ±24.1 psi. Triggering with automatic scan initiation succeeded in 13/44 (29.6%) scans. Injection via classical cannulas resulted in significantly higher enhancement (p < 0.05). In vitro the port system tolerated flow rates of up to 5 mL/s, injection pressures of up to 338 psi. Conclusion: Power injection is a safe alternative for patients with TIVAPs in the forearm if classic vascular access ultimately fails. Triggering was successful in one-third of the attempts. Image quality in the arterial phase

  2. Test-retest reproducibility of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 ligand [{sup 18}F]FPEB with bolus plus constant infusion in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyung; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Planeta, Beata; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Lim, Keunpoong; Lin, Shu-Fei; Ropchan, Jim; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E. [Yale School of Medicine, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 801 Howard Avenue, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); McCarthy, Timothy J. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ding, Yu-Shin [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Morris, Evan D.; Williams, Wendol A. [Yale School of Medicine, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 801 Howard Avenue, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-09-15

    [{sup 18}F]FPEB is a promising PET radioligand for the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), a potential target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of [{sup 18}F]FPEB in the human brain. Seven healthy male subjects were scanned twice, 3 - 11 weeks apart. Dynamic data were acquired using bolus plus infusion of 162 ± 32 MBq [{sup 18}F]FPEB. Four methods were used to estimate volume of distribution (V{sub T}): equilibrium analysis (EQ) using arterial (EQ{sub A}) or venous input data (EQ{sub V}), MA1, and a two-tissue compartment model (2 T). Binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was also estimated using cerebellar white matter (CWM) or gray matter (CGM) as the reference region using EQ, 2 T and MA1. Absolute test-retest variability (aTRV) of V{sub T} and BP{sub ND} were calculated for each method. Venous blood measurements (C{sub V}) were compared with arterial input (C{sub A}) to examine their usability in EQ analysis. Regional V{sub T} estimated by the four methods displayed a high degree of agreement (r{sup 2} ranging from 0.83 to 0.99 among the methods), although EQ{sub A} and EQ{sub V} overestimated V{sub T} by a mean of 9 % and 7 %, respectively, compared to 2 T. Mean values of aTRV of V{sub T} were 11 % by EQ{sub A}, 12 % by EQ{sub V}, 14 % by MA1 and 14 % by 2 T. Regional BP{sub ND} also agreed well among the methods and mean aTRV of BP{sub ND} was 8 - 12 % (CWM) and 7 - 9 % (CGM). Venous and arterial blood concentrations of [{sup 18}F]FPEB were well matched during equilibrium (C{sub V} = 1.01 . C{sub A}, r{sup 2} = 0.95). [{sup 18}F]FPEB binding shows good TRV with minor differences among analysis methods. Venous blood can be used as an alternative for input function measurement instead of arterial blood in EQ analysis. Thus, [{sup 18}F]FPEB is an excellent PET imaging tracer for mGluR5 in humans. (orig.)

  3. Feasibility of power contrast injections and bolus triggering during CT scans in oncologic patients with totally implantable venous access ports of the forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goltz, Jan Peter; Machann, Wolfram; Noack, Claudia; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph (Julius-Maximilians-Univ. of Wuerzburg, Inst. of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)), e-mail: Goltz@roentgen.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2011-02-15

    Background: Conventional totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are not approved for power contrast injections but often remain the only venous access site in oncologic patients. Therefore, these devices can play an important role if patients with a TIVAP are scheduled for a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) as vascular access may become more difficult during the course of chemotherapy. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of power injections in conventional TIVAPs in the forearm and to analyze the feasibility of bolus triggering during CT scans. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed 177 power injections in 141 patients with TIVAPs in the forearm. Between October 2008 and March 2010 all patients underwent power injections (1.5 mL/s, 150 psi) via the TIVAP for ceCT because conventional vascular access via a peripheral vein had failed. Adequate functioning and catheter's tip location after injection were evaluated. Peak injection pressure and attenuation levels of aorta, liver and spleen were analyzed and compared with results of 50 patients who were injected via classical peripheral cannulas (3 mL/s, 300 psi). Feasibility of automatic scan initiation was evaluated. In vitro the port was stressed with 5 mL/s (300 psi). Results: One TIVAP showed tip dislocation with catheter rupture. Three (2.1%) devices were explanted owing to assumed infection within 4 weeks after the injection. Mean injection pressure was 121.9 +-24.1 psi. Triggering with automatic scan initiation succeeded in 13/44 (29.6%) scans. Injection via classical cannulas resulted in significantly higher enhancement (p < 0.05). In vitro the port system tolerated flow rates of up to 5 mL/s, injection pressures of up to 338 psi. Conclusion: Power injection is a safe alternative for patients with TIVAPs in the forearm if classic vascular access ultimately fails. Triggering was successful in one-third of the attempts. Image quality in the arterial

  4. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  5. Diffusion Adaptation over Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive networks are well-suited to perform decentralized information processing and optimization tasks and to model various types of self organized and complex behavior encountered in nature. Adaptive networks consist of a collection of agents with processing and learning abilities. The agents are linked together through a connection topology, and they cooperate with each other through local interactions to solve distributed inference problems in real-time. The continuous diffusion of information across the network enables agents to adapt their performance in relation to changing data and network conditions; it also results in improved adaptation and learning performance relative to non-cooperative networks. This article provides an overview of diffusion strategies for adaptation and learning over networks. The article is divided into several sections: 1. Motivation; 2. Mean-Square-Error Estimation; 3. Distributed Optimization via Diffusion Strategies; 4. Adaptive Diffusion Strategies; 5. Performance of Ste...

  6. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  7. The Adaptive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging organizatio......Contemporary organizations operate under turbulent business conditions and must adapt their strategies to ongoing changes. This article argues that sustainable organizational performance is achieved when top management directs and coordinates interactive processes anchored in emerging...... the adaptive organization....

  8. Human Adaptations: Free divers

    OpenAIRE

    Tournat, Troy Z.

    2014-01-01

    Freediving has been around for thousands of years and was only way to dive until the inventionof oxygen tanks in the 19th century. Around the world, people dove for goods such as pearls, andtoday people freedive for sport. Divers stretch the limit of their body and mind’s capabilitiesthrough psychological adaptations from thermal, respiratory, and cardiovascular responses.Findings conclude that thermal adaptations are a similar process to cold adaptive response. Withthe implementation of wets...

  9. Consciousness And Adaptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sieb, Richard/A.

    2005-01-01

    Consciousness has resisted scientific explanation for centuries. The main problem in explaining consciousness is its subjectivity. Subjective systems may be adaptive. Humans can produce voluntary new or novel intentional (adaptive) action and such action is always accompanied by consciousness. Action normally arises from perception. Perception must be rerepresented in order to produce new or novel adaptive action. The internal explicit states produced by a widespread nonlinear emergen...

  10. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  11. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  12. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi...

  13. [Postvagotomy adaptation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V A

    1998-01-01

    It was established in experiment, that the changes of the natural resistance of organism indexes and of the peritoneal cavity cytology has compensatory-adaptational character while the denervation-adaptational syndrome occurrence and progress, which may be assessed as eustress. Vagotomy and operative trauma cause qualitatively different reactions of an organism.

  14. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  15. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  16. Behavioural adaptation and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  17. Adaptive noise cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Akram, N

    1999-01-01

    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique.

  18. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai N. Lee

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  19. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  20. Adapt or Become Extinct!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goumas, Georgios; McKee, Sally A.; Själander, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    boundaries (walls) for applications which limit software development (parallel programming wall), performance (memory wall, communication wall) and viability (power wall). The only way to survive in such a demanding environment is by adaptation. In this paper we discuss how dynamic information collected...... static analysis (either during ahead-of-time or just-in-time) compilation. We extend the notion of information-driven adaptation and outline the architecture of an infrastructure designed to enable information ow and adaptation throughout the life-cycle of an application....

  1. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  2. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy.

  3. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  4. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  5. The process of organisational adaptation through innovations, and organisational adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Tikka, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...

  6. Adapt or Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost...... several different notions of non-adaptivity and identify key properties that must be dealt with if we are to prove polynomial lower bounds without restrictions on the data structures. Finally, our results also unveil an interesting connection between data structures and depth-2 circuits. This allows us...

  7. Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M; Haselton, M G; Shackelford, T K; Bleske, A L; Wakefield, J C

    1998-05-01

    Adaptation and natural selection are central concepts in the emerging science of evolutionary psychology. Natural selection is the only known causal process capable of producing complex functional organic mechanisms. These adaptations, along with their incidental by-products and a residue of noise, comprise all forms of life. Recently, S. J. Gould (1991) proposed that exaptations and spandrels may be more important than adaptations for evolutionary psychology. These refer to features that did not originally arise for their current use but rather were co-opted for new purposes. He suggested that many important phenomena--such as art, language, commerce, and war--although evolutionary in origin, are incidental spandrels of the large human brain. The authors outline the conceptual and evidentiary standards that apply to adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels and discuss the relative utility of these concepts for psychological science. PMID:9612136

  8. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up concept...

  9. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  10. The genomics of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-12-22

    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of adaptation genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of adaptation.

  11. Statistical Physics of Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Perunov, Nikolai; England, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    All living things exhibit adaptations that enable them to survive and reproduce in the natural environment that they inhabit. From a biological standpoint, it has long been understood that adaptation comes from natural selection, whereby maladapted individuals do not pass their traits effectively to future generations. However, we may also consider the phenomenon of adaptation from the standpoint of physics, and ask whether it is possible to delineate what the difference is in terms of physical properties between something that is well-adapted to its surrounding environment, and something that is not. In this work, we undertake to address this question from a theoretical standpoint. Building on past fundamental results in far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics, we demonstrate a generalization of the Helmholtz free energy for the finite-time stochastic evolution of driven Newtonian matter. By analyzing this expression term by term, we are able to argue for a general tendency in driven many-particle systems...

  12. Islands, resettlement and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jon; O'Neill, Saffron J.

    2012-01-01

    Resettlement of people living on islands in anticipation of climate impacts risks maladaptation, but some forms of population movement carry fewer risks and larger rewards in terms of adapting to climate change.

  13. Adaptive Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Babajanyan, S. G.; Martirosyan, N. H.; Melkikh, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where—due to feedback from the functional part—the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.

  14. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  15. Limits to adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Kirstin; Berkhout, Frans; Preston, Benjamin L.; Klein, Richard J. T.; Midgley, Guy; Shaw, M. Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.

  16. The genomics of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-12-22

    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of adaptation genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of adaptation. PMID:23097510

  17. Adaptive quantum teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Modlawska, Joanna; Grudka, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    We consider multiple teleportation in the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) scheme. We introduce adaptive teleportation, i.e., such that the choice of entangled state used in the next teleportation depends on the results of the measurements performed during the previous teleportations. We show that adaptive teleportation enables an increase in the probability of faithful multiple teleportation in the KLM scheme. In particular if a qubit is to be teleported more than once then it is better to use n...

  18. From equivalence to adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  19. Opportunistic Adaptation Knowledge Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Badra, Fadi; Cordier, Amélie; Lieber, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com International audience Adaptation has long been considered as the Achilles' heel of case-based reasoning since it requires some domain-specific knowledge that is difficult to acquire. In this paper, two strategies are combined in order to reduce the knowledge engineering cost induced by the adaptation knowledge (CA) acquisition task: CA is learned from the case base by the means of knowledge discovery techniques, and the CA a...

  20. Frustratingly Easy Domain Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    We describe an approach to domain adaptation that is appropriate exactly in the case when one has enough ``target'' data to do slightly better than just using only ``source'' data. Our approach is incredibly simple, easy to implement as a preprocessing step (10 lines of Perl!) and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on a range of datasets. Moreover, it is trivially extended to a multi-domain adaptation problem, where one has data from a variety of different domains.

  1. Robust Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  2. Network and adaptive sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Combining the two statistical techniques of network sampling and adaptive sampling, this book illustrates the advantages of using them in tandem to effectively capture sparsely located elements in unknown pockets. It shows how network sampling is a reliable guide in capturing inaccessible entities through linked auxiliaries. The text also explores how adaptive sampling is strengthened in information content through subsidiary sampling with devices to mitigate unmanageable expanding sample sizes. Empirical data illustrates the applicability of both methods.

  3. The genomics of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far ...

  4. Leak test adapter for containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Brian H.; Hartley, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    An adapter is provided for facilitating the charging of containers and leak testing penetration areas. The adapter comprises an adapter body and stem which are secured to the container's penetration areas. The container is then pressurized with a tracer gas. Manipulating the adapter stem installs a penetration plug allowing the adapter to be removed and the penetration to be leak tested with a mass spectrometer. Additionally, a method is provided for using the adapter.

  5. Adaptation through proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features.

  6. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  7. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  8. [Cellular adaptation and cancerogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, F; Silpigni, A; Tomasello, R; Picone, G S; La Torre, I; Aragona, M

    1998-06-01

    The paper describes the main adaptive mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic process. As a result of the action of carcinogenic agents (physical, chemical, biological), and in relation to the functional status of the affected cells, a number of systems are triggered off: detoxification and conjugation systems, the metabolisation of the said agents, DNA repairing enzymes, increased shock proteins (HSP), the induction of clonal proliferation. All these systems are valuable to the survival of the body and the species and culminate in the apoptosis of damaged cells as the last attempt at adaptation of a social kind for the good of the body. When these compensation mechanisms prove ineffective, imprecise or are exceeded by cell adaptive capacity, the resulting structural and functional alterations trigger off (induction) a very long process which often lasts between one and two thirds of the body's life, in various stages, multistep and multifactorial: this neoplastic transformation leads to a purposeless, egoistic, anarchic proliferation of cells which wish to survive at all costs, even to the detriment of the body of which they form part. Following the exhaustion of cell adaptive defences, there is an accumulation of additional genetic alterations (promotion and progression), the cells become manifestly neoplastic and continue their egoistic adaptation, according to the laws of natural selection: the cells which survive are those which adapt best to the hostile environment of the host's body, which are unaffected by proliferation control mechanisms (contact inhibition, differentiation factors, apoptosis, etc.), which make the best of the growth factors present in their microenvironment, which accomplish the so-called decathlon of the metastatization process, namely acquiring new capacities which can overcome the basal membrane, invade tissues to which they are attracted and continue to proliferate. Manifestly neoplastic cells become not self at a later stage

  9. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  10. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  11. Evolution of adaptation mechanisms: Adaptation energy, stress, and oscillating death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorban, Alexander N; Tyukina, Tatiana A; Smirnova, Elena V; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I

    2016-09-21

    In 1938, Selye proposed the notion of adaptation energy and published 'Experimental evidence supporting the conception of adaptation energy.' Adaptation of an animal to different factors appears as the spending of one resource. Adaptation energy is a hypothetical extensive quantity spent for adaptation. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. The controversial points of view impede the systematic use of the notion of adaptation energy despite experimental evidence. Nevertheless, the response to many harmful factors often has general non-specific form and we suggest that the mechanisms of physiological adaptation admit a very general and nonspecific description. We aim to demonstrate that Selye׳s adaptation energy is the cornerstone of the top-down approach to modelling of non-specific adaptation processes. We analyze Selye׳s axioms of adaptation energy together with Goldstone׳s modifications and propose a series of models for interpretation of these axioms. Adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the 'dominant path' in the model of adaptation. The phenomena of 'oscillating death' and 'oscillating remission' are predicted on the base of the dynamical models of adaptation. Natural selection plays a key role in the evolution of mechanisms of physiological adaptation. We use the fitness optimization approach to study of the distribution of resources for neutralization of harmful factors, during adaptation to a multifactor environment, and analyze the optimal strategies for different systems of factors. PMID:26801872

  12. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    automatically with computer techniques. The method has a wide range of applicability, and can be used to solve difficult eigenvalue problems in a number of fields. The book is of special interest to quantum theorists, computer scientists, computational chemists and applied mathematicians....... eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonian of a many-particle system is usually so difficult that it requires approximate methods, the most common of which is expansion of the eigenfunctions in terms of basis functions that obey the boundary conditions of the problem. The computational effort needed...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  13. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  14. Adaptable Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbôa, Carlos; Carro, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    As embedded systems become more complex, designers face a number of challenges at different levels: they need to boost performance, while keeping energy consumption as low as possible, they need to reuse existent software code, and at the same time they need to take advantage of the extra logic available in the chip, represented by multiple processors working together.  This book describes several strategies to achieve such different and interrelated goals, by the use of adaptability. Coverage includes reconfigurable systems, dynamic optimization techniques such as binary translation and trace reuse, new memory architectures including homogeneous and heterogeneous multiprocessor systems, communication issues and NOCs, fault tolerance against fabrication defects and soft errors, and finally, how one can combine several of these techniques together to achieve higher levels of performance and adaptability.  The discussion also includes how to employ specialized software to improve this new adaptive system, and...

  15. The Adaptability of Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, data from a longitudinal case study in an organization attempting to adapt its internal work processes to changes in its external context are presented, analyzed and discussed. Specifically, functionally structured work teams in one department of a Danish production facility were...... on the proper alignment between the structuring of the work processes and characteristics of the external context (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967) – it provides a unique opportunity to explore the adaptation process in practice. The paper contributes to the development of contingency theory by lending support...

  16. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves the efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only...... by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...

  17. Adaptive management: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  18. STUDYING COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Holland

    2006-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems (cas) - systems that involve many components that adapt or learn as they interact - are at the heart of important contemporary problems. The study of cas poses unique challenges: Some of our most powerful mathematical tools, particularly methods involving fixed points, attractors, and the like, are of limited help in understanding the development of cas. This paper suggests ways to modify research methods and tools, with an emphasis on the role of computer-based models, to increase our understanding of cas.

  19. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  20. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  1. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    . With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...... suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used...

  2. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression by...... minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  3. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the...

  4. Essential Function of Children Chase Slapstick Game and its Influencing Factors%幼儿追逐打闹游戏的本质功能及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞

    2014-01-01

    幼儿追逐打闹游戏是一种很常见的游戏,其对幼儿的身体、情感和社会性交往都非常有利,但由于其很容易发展成攻击性行为,很多幼儿园教师和家长都反对这种游戏,本文力图分析幼儿打闹游戏的影响因素,为幼儿打闹游戏提供一定的指导建议。%Children chase slapstick game is a very common game, their children's physical, emotional and social interactions are very favorable, but because of its very likely to develop into aggressive behavior, a lot of kindergarten teachers and parents are opposed to this kind of game, This paper tries to analyze the factors affecting children slapstick game provides some guid-ance is recommended for young children slapstick game.

  5. Cytokinin concentrations and CHASE-DOMAIN CONTAINING HIS KINASE 2 (NaCHK2)- and NaCHK3-mediated perception modulate herbivory-induced defense signaling and defenses in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Martin; Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Brütting, Christoph; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Herbivore attack elicits changes in cytokinins (CKs), but how these changes influence defense signaling remains poorly described. We investigated the influence of the CK pathway on the well-described inducible defense pathways of Nicotiana attenuata in response to wounding with and without elicitors from the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. CK pathway manipulation often suffers from substantial side effects on plant growth and development. We therefore used multiple manipulation tools including spray application of CKs, chemically-inducible expression of the CK biosynthesis enzyme isopentenyltransferase, and transient and constitutive RNAi-mediated gene silencing of CK receptors to resolve the function of CKs in plant defense. The results demonstrated that CK concentrations in leaves and perception through CHASE-DOMAIN CONTAINING HIS KINASE 2 (NaCHK2) and NaCHK3 were important for the accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and phenolamides and proteinase inhibitor activity. By contrast, the CK pathway did not promote the accumulation of the active JA-isoleucine conjugate and negatively regulated the release of specific green leaf volatile esters. Interestingly, CK signaling also promotes the systemic phenolamide accumulation. We conclude that the CK pathway is an important regulator of herbivory-inducible defense signaling and chemistry, which expands its reported participation in adjusting a plant's physiology to abiotic and biotic stress responses. PMID:25919325

  6. Chasing the Identification of ASCA Galactic Objects (ChIcAGO) - An X-ray Survey of Unidentified Sources in the Galactic Plane I: Source Sample and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, G E; Kaplan, D L; Slane, P O; Muno, M P; Posselt, B; Hong, J; Murray, S S; Steeghs, D T H; Brogan, C L; Drake, J J; Farrell, S A; Benjamin, R A; Chakrabarty, D; Drew, J E; Finley, J P; Grindlay, J E; Lazio, T J W; Lee, J C; Mauerhan, J C; van Kerkwijk, M H

    2014-01-01

    We present the Chasing the Identification of ASCA Galactic Objects (ChIcAGO) survey, which is designed to identify the unknown X-ray sources discovered during the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey (AGPS). Little is known about most of the AGPS sources, especially those that emit primarily in hard X-rays (2-10 keV) within the F_x ~ 10^-13 to 10^-11 erg cm^-2 s^-1 X-ray flux range. In ChIcAGO, the subarcsecond localization capabilities of Chandra have been combined with a detailed multi-wavelength follow-up program, with the ultimate goal of classifying the >100 unidentified sources in the AGPS. Overall to date, 93 unidentified AGPS sources have been observed with Chandra as part of the ChIcAGO survey. A total of 253 X-ray point sources have been detected in these Chandra observations within 3' of the original ASCA positions. We have identified infrared and optical counterparts to the majority of these sources, using both new observations and catalogs from existing Galactic plane surveys. X-ray and infrared population...

  7. How harmful are adaptation restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, B.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  8. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  9. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André W.P.; Vervoort, Wiek A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is n

  10. Adaptive kernel density estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Van Kerm

    2003-01-01

    This insert describes the module akdensity. akdensity extends the official kdensity that estimates density functions by the kernel method. The extensions are of two types: akdensity allows the use of an "adaptive kernel" approach with varying, rather than fixed, bandwidths; and akdensity estimates pointwise variability bands around the estimated density functions. Copyright 2003 by Stata Corporation.

  11. Exploring Adaptive Program Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    . Both solutions come at a cost; adaptivity issues a runtime overhead and requires more design effort, while dynamic recompilation takes time to perform. In this project, we plan to investigate the possibilities, limitations, and benefits of these techniques. This abstract covers our thoughts on how...

  12. Compiler Assisted Runtime Adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sima, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address the problem of runtime adaptation of the application to its execution environment. A typical example is changing theprocessing element on which a computation is executed, considering the available processing elements in the system. This is done based on the informati

  13. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...

  14. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  15. Robust Adaptive Structural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chi-Ming; Beck, James L.

    1995-01-01

    A new robust adaptive structural control design methodology is developed and presented which treats modeling uncertainties and limitations of control devices. Furthermore, no restriction is imposed on the structural models and the nature of the control devices so that the proposed method is very general. A simple linear single degree-of-freedom numerical example is presented to illustrate this approach.

  16. Prism Adaptation in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Nirav O.; Turner, Beth M.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Paulsen, Jane S.; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Ho, Beng-Choon

    2006-01-01

    The prism adaptation test examines procedural learning (PL) in which performance facilitation occurs with practice on tasks without the need for conscious awareness. Dynamic interactions between frontostriatal cortices, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum have been shown to play key roles in PL. Disruptions within these neural networks have also…

  17. Generalization of Prism Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Gordon M.; Wallace, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Prism exposure produces 2 kinds of adaptive response. Recalibration is ordinary strategic remapping of spatially coded movement commands to rapidly reduce performance error. Realignment is the extraordinary process of transforming spatial maps to bring the origins of coordinate systems into correspondence. Realignment occurs when spatial…

  18. Adapting Bulls to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation of bulls used for natural breeding purposes to the Gulf Coast region of the United States including all of Florida is an important topic. Nearly 40% of the U.S. cow/calf population resides in the Gulf Coast and Southeast. Thus, as A.I. is relatively rare, the number of bulls used for ...

  19. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  20. A hacker's guide to catching a debris flow: Lessons learned from four years of chasing mud in Colorado and southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, J. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Staley, D. M.; Coe, J.; Leeper, R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Direct measurements of natural debris flows provide valuable insights into debris-flow processes and hazards. Yet debris flows are difficult to "catch" because they live in rugged terrain, appear infrequently, and have an appetite for destroying monitoring equipment. We present an overview of some successful (and failed) techniques we have used over the past four years to obtain direct measurements of 40+ debris flows in Colorado and southern California. Following the "MacGyver" theme of the session, we focus on the improvised equipment and methods we use in our hunt for quality data. These include an inexpensive erosion sensor to measure rates of debris-flow entrainment, a custom load cell enclosure for measuring debris-flow normal force, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders, basic pressure transducers to measure debris-flow timing, and standard digital cameras adapted to obtain high-resolution (1936 x 1288 pixels) video footage of debris flows. These techniques are also suitable for catching data on elusive flash floods. In addition, we also share some practical solutions to the logistical problems associated with installing monitoring equipment in rugged debris-flow terrain, such as suspension of non-contact stage gages high above channels.

  1. Adaptation: Needs, Financing and Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Richard J.T.; Kartha, Sivan; Persson, Aasa; Watkiss, Paul; Ackerman, Frank; Downing, Thomas E.; Kjellen, Bo; Schipper, Lisa (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm (SE))

    2008-07-01

    Regardless of the efforts put into mitigation, some impacts of climate change are already unavoidable. Adaptation to climate change has therefore become a key component of domestic climate policy, along with mitigation. Adaptation has also become key to the success of global climate policy. Without an agreement on supporting adaptation in developing countries, there will be no agreement on mitigation. Strong mitigation efforts make it more likely that adaptation will be effective and affordable. The world cannot rely on adaptation alone: it would eventually lead to a level of climate change to which adaptation is no longer feasible. Government action is needed to create an enabling environment for adaptation. This includes removing existing financial, legal, institutional and knowledge barriers to adaptation, and strengthening the capacity of people and organisations to adapt. The success of adaptation relies on the success of development, and vice versa. Poverty reduction, good governance, education, environmental protection, health and gender equality all contribute to adaptive capacity. Substantially more money is needed to support adaptation in developing countries. Current levels of funding will soon have to be scaled up by two orders of magnitude (from US$ hundreds of million to US$ tens of billion per year). An agreement on adaptation in Copenhagen in 2009 will need to include concrete steps towards a strengthened knowledge base for adaptation, substantially more funding for developing countries, and enhanced adaptation planning and implementation at the national level. Recommendations: Developed countries should accept a transparent, principle-based allocation of responsibility for adaptation funding, resulting in adequate, new and additional money to support adaptation programmes in developing countries. Levies on carbon market transactions and auctioning emission permits are two existing mechanisms of generating new and additional funds consistent with

  2. AdaptME toolkit : adaptation monitoring and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Organisations that have undertaken adaptation activities now face the challenge of evaluating what worked, what didn’t, how and why. This toolkit responds to a growing demand for practical support in evaluating adaptation progress and performance. AdaptME will help you to think through some of the factors that can make an evaluation of adaptation activities inherently challenging, and equip you to design a robust evaluation. You will be able to ‘tweak’ a single part of your evaluation des...

  3. Adaptive Inflow Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Volkov, Vasily Y; Zhuravlev, Oleg N; Nukhaev, Marat T; Shchelushkin, Roman V

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the idea and realization for the unique Adaptive Inflow Control System being a part of well completion, able to adjust to the changing in time production conditions. This system allows to limit the flow rate from each interval at a certain level, which solves the problem of water and gas breakthroughs. We present the results of laboratory tests and numerical calculations obtaining the characteristics of the experimental setup with dual-in-position valves as parts of adaptive inflow control system, depending on the operating conditions. The flow distribution in the system was also studied with the help of three-dimensional computer model. The control ranges dependences are determined, an influence of the individual elements on the entire system is revealed.

  4. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  5. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    firms’ ability to absorb and leverage new knowledge. The third paper is an empirical study which conceptualizes top managers’ resource cognition as a managerial capability underlying firms’ resource adaptation; it empirically examines the performance implications of this capability and organizational......This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabilities...... empirical studies through the dynamic capabilities lens and develops propositions for future research. The second paper is an empirical study on the origins of firm-level absorptive capacity; it explores how organization-level antecedents, through their impact on individual-level antecedents, influence...

  6. Designing Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the e......Learning system to study a discipline. In business to business interaction, different requirements and parameters of exchanged business requests might be served by different services from third parties. Such applications require certain intelligence and a slightly different approach to design. Adpative web...... adaptation to the changed parameters of environments, user or context. Adaptation can be seen as an orthogonal concern or viewpoint in a design process. In this paper I will discuss design abstractions which are employed in current design methods for web applications. I will exemplify the use...

  7. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  8. Adaptive sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan

    1995-07-01

    A perceptual reasoning system adaptively extracting, associating, and fusing information from multiple sources, at various levels of abstraction, is considered as the building block for the next generation of surveillance systems. A system architecture is presented which makes use of both centralized and distributed predetection fusion combined with intelligent monitor and control coupling both on-platform and off-board track and decision level fusion results. The goal of this system is to create a `gestalt fused sensor system' whose information product is greater than the sum of the information products from the individual sensors and has performance superior to either individual or a sub-group of combined sensors. The application of this architectural concept to the law enforcement arena (e.g. drug interdiction) utilizing multiple spatially and temporally diverse surveillance platforms and/or information sources, is used to illustrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system concept.

  9. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  10. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  11. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  12. Semantische Adaption von Komponenten

    OpenAIRE

    Söldner, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Im Bereich der Informationstechnik ist die Adaption von Software an veränderte Gegebenheiten und Umgebungen ein wichtiges Thema. Dabei bestimmen vor allem die konkret verwendete Software-Programmiersprache, die benutzten Entwurfsmuster und die der Applikation zugrundeliegende Software-Architektur, mit welchem Aufwand eine Anwendung auf neue Anforderungen eingehen kann. Darüber hinaus war und ist es interessant, Mechanismen zu entwickeln, mit denen Applikationen selbst auf spontane Änderungen ...

  13. Traffic-Adaptive Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Kammenhuber, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Despite the bursty and highly volatile traffic, routing in the Internet today is optimised only on coarse time scales, as load-adaptive routing is known to induce performance deterioration by causing massive oscillations. We describe ReplEx, an universally applicable distributed algorithm for dynamic routing/traffic engineering, which is based on game theory. We show through extensive realistic simulations that ReplEx does not oscillate, and that it achieves performance gains comparable to tr...

  14. Reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Robin L. (Inventor); Galica, Gary E. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Described are methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing technology. An environmental signal representative of an external environmental condition is received. A processing configuration is automatically selected, based on the environmental signal, from a plurality of processing configurations. A reconfigurable processing element is reconfigured to operate according to the selected processing configuration. In some examples, the environmental condition is detected and the environmental signal is generated based on the detected condition.

  15. Adaptive positioner; Posicionador adaptativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs.

  16. Homeowiscous adaptation in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Flipiak, Anna; Gondko, Roman; Gabryelak, Teresa

    1997-01-01

    Homeowiscous adaptation is a common phenomenon observed in poikilotherms which remain active at different temperatures. It is usually caused by changes in fatty acids pool in cellular membranes, what enable to maintain the physical structure of their membranes within tolerable limits. The increased unsaturaition of membrane lipids has as its basis some changes in activity of the appropriate enzymes. Fluctuations in fluidity of membrame lipids activate transcription of the genes...

  17. Invited article: Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Parr Rud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades, organizations have dealt with economic shifts using change management. Based on the new science, there are two major flaws with this approach. First, the word change implies an event with an ending. Second, it implies that change can be managed. In a world of economic volatility, this approach is no longer viable. The continuous climate of uncertainty and volatility demands another view, one that supports adaptability and resilience.

  18. Improved Adaptive Fingerprint Binarization

    OpenAIRE

    Bartunek, Josef Ström; Nilsson, Mikael; Nordberg, Jörgen; Claesson, Ingvar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper improvements to a previous work are presented. Removing the redundant artifacts in the fingerprint mask is introduced enhancing the final result. The proposed method is entirely adaptive process adjusting to each fingerprint without any further supervision of the user. Hence, the algorithm is insensitive to the characteristics of the fingerprint sensor and the various physical appearances of the fingerprints. Further, a detailed description of fingerprint mask generation not ful...

  19. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  20. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  1. Adaptive Brain Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, José del R.

    2003-01-01

    Severely disabled people are largely excluded from the benefits information and communication technologies have brought to our industries, economies, appliances, and general quality of life. But what if that technology would allow them to communicate their wishes or control electronic devices directly through their thoughts alone? This is the goal and promise of the Adaptive Brain Interfaces (ABI) project, which aims to augment natural human capabilities by enabling people to interact with co...

  2. Adaptive Consumption Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Howitt; Ömer Özak

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and studies a theory of adaptive consumption behavior under income uncertainty and liquidity constraints. We assume that consumption is governed by a linear function of wealth, whose coefficients are revised each period by a procedure, which, although sophisticated, places few informational or computational demands on the consumer. We show that under a variety of settings, our procedure converges quickly to a set of coefficients with low welfare cost relative to a fully op...

  3. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to im...... to the behavior of the interacting person. This paper presents a simple ball game between a single player and a mobile robot platform. The algorithm has been validated using simulation and real world experiments.......The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...

  4. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians.

  5. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  6. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found as a suppressed induction of chromosomal damage including micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiations. The mechanism underlying this novel chromosomal response, called 'radio-adaptive response (RAR)' has been studied progressively. The following results were obtained in recent experiments. 1. Low doses of β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritium-thymidine can cause RAR. 2. Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium β-rays or γ-rays. 3. The RAR expression is suppressed not only by the treatment with an inhibitor of protein synthesis but also by RNA synthesis inhibition. 4. Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after the adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggests that the RAR might be a cellular stress response to a signal produced preferentially by very low doses of low LET radiation under restricted conditions, accompany the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  7. Vestibulospinal adaptation to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Human balance control is known to be transiently disrupted after spaceflight; however, the mechanisms responsible for postflight postural ataxia are still under investigation. In this report, we propose a conceptual model of vestibulospinal adaptation based on theoretical adaptive control concepts and supported by the results from a comprehensive study of balance control recovery after spaceflight. The conceptual model predicts that immediately after spaceflight the balance control system of a returning astronaut does not expect to receive gravity-induced afferent inputs and that descending vestibulospinal control of balance is disrupted until the central nervous system is able to cope with the newly available vestibular otolith information. Predictions of the model are tested using data from a study of the neurosensory control of balance in astronauts immediately after landing. In that study, the mechanisms of sensorimotor balance control were assessed under normal, reduced, and/or altered (sway-referenced) visual and somatosensory input conditions. We conclude that the adaptive control model accurately describes the neurobehavioral responses to spaceflight and that similar models of altered sensory, motor, or environmental constraints are needed clinically to predict responses that patients with sensorimotor pathologies may have to various visual-vestibular or changing stimulus environments.

  8. Adaptive Leadership in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Leaders’ ability to quickly adapt IT practices is especially critical in today’s increasingly turbulent environment with frequent changes in the competitive and technological landscape. However, developing such adaptive leadership is a difficult and complex process. Often, underlying assumptions...

  9. Adaptive Structural Mode Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes the development of an adaptive structural mode control system. The adaptive control system will begin from a "baseline" dynamic model of the...

  10. AdapterRemoval v2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Lindgreen, Stinus; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As high-throughput sequencing platforms produce longer and longer reads, sequences generated from short inserts, such as those obtained from fossil and degraded material, are increasingly expected to contain adapter sequences. Efficient adapter trimming algorithms are also needed to...... process the growing amount of data generated per sequencing run. FINDINGS: We introduce AdapterRemoval v2, a major revision of AdapterRemoval v1, which introduces (i) striking improvements in throughput, through the use of single instruction, multiple data (SIMD; SSE1 and SSE2) instructions and multi......-threading support, (ii) the ability to handle datasets containing reads or read-pairs with different adapters or adapter pairs, (iii) simultaneous demultiplexing and adapter trimming, (iv) the ability to reconstruct adapter sequences from paired-end reads for poorly documented data sets, and (v) native gzip and...

  11. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  12. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  13. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, G R; R. Weidner

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance ...

  14. Adaptation: A Partially Automated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact design is developed around import procedures of M-company. An overview of the artefact is discussed in detail to fully describes the adaptation mechanism with automatic adjustment for compliance re...

  15. Chapter 17 - Economics of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Chambwera, M.; Heal, G.; Dubeux, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Leclerc, L.; Markandya, A.; McCarl, B.A.; Mechler, R; Neumann, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter assesses the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation, building on the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) and the increasing role that economic considerations are playing in adaptation decisionmaking and policy. AR4 provided a limited assessment of the costs and benefits of adaptation, based on narrow and fragmented sectoral and regional literature (Adger et al, 2007). Substantial advances have been made in the economics of climate change adaptation after AR4.

  16. 追逐驱赶所引起的胁迫对鱼类先天性防御能力的影响%Effect of Chased and Rammed Stress on Innate Defense Activity of Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进; 李小玲

    2004-01-01

    A Study was conducted to evaluate the effect of stress, which is caused by chase and ram on the innate defense activity of spot-tail bass. Because spot-tail bass(Sciaenops ocellatus)are aggressive, within a few hours of post-transferring two fish of different size into an aquarium, large fish always became dominant, and challenged, chased and rammed subordinate small fish. The cortisol concentration in the plasma of the subordinate was significantly increased over that of the dominate, indicating that the subordinate was stressed. The number of neutrophils that migrated to the swim bladder,where formalin-killed bacterial cells were injected, was significantly decreased in the subordinate, and their phagocytic and respiratory burst activities were both reduced. A stress hormone, cortisol, also suppressed in vitro degranulation of spot-tail bass eosinophilic granular cells, which are thought to contain neutrophil-migrating factors in their granules. Artificial challenge with Edwardsiella tarda revealed the elevated susceptibility of the cortisol-implanted fish to edwardsiellosis. The results obtained from the present study suggest that secreted cortisol under stressful conditions directly impairs the innate cellular defence in spot-tail bass(Sciaenops ocellatus), and therefore the stressed fish fail to defeat invading microorganisms.%研究了由追著驱赶引起的胁迫对斑尾鲈先天性防御能力的影响.斑尾鲈具有好斗相残性,实验中观察到,将不同个体大小的斑尾鲈放入同一水体中几小时后,个体稍大的追逐驱赶个体稍小的,处于生态主导地位,而小鱼则处于从属地位.对小鱼血浆内的皮质醇含量进行测定,其值显著高于大鱼血浆内皮质醇的含量,处于胁迫当中.注射灭活细菌到鱼鳔内,游向鱼鳔的嗜中性粒细胞,受胁迫鱼明显少于非受胁迫鱼.且其吞噬活力和呼吸爆发活力也相应下降.同时,体外研究也表明,胁迫抑制了斑尾鲈嗜酸性粒

  17. 流变学流体的蠕动传输:食道中食物块的运动模型%Peristaltic Transport of a Rheological Fluid:Model for Movement of Food Bolus Through Esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J·C·密斯拉; S·麦蒂; 海治

    2012-01-01

    研究食道中蠕动传输的流体力学.对任意的波形和任意的管道长度,建立起流变学流体蠕动传输的数学模型.用粘性流体的Ostwald-de Waele幂定律,描述非Newton流体的流动特性.解析公式化模型,详细且精确地给出食物块在食道中蠕动传输相关的一些重要性质.分析中应用了润滑理论,本研究特别适合于Reynolds数不大的情况.将食道看作环形的管道,通过食道壁周期性的收缩来传输食物块.就单个波和周期性收缩一组波的传播,研究与传输过程有关变量的变化,如压力、流速、食物颗粒轨迹以及流量等.局部压力的变化,对流变指数n有着高度的敏感性.研究结果清晰地表明,食物块在食道中蠕动传输时,Newton流体或流变学流体构成的连续流体,以组合波传播比大间隔单波传播,传输效率要高得多.%Fluid mechanical peristaltic transport through esophagus had been of concern. A mathematical model had been developed with an aim to study the peristaltic transport of a rheo-logical fluid for arbitrary wave shapes and tube lengths. The Ostwald-de Waele power law of viscous fluid was considered here to depict the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid. The model was formulated and analyzed with the specific aim of exploring some important information concerning the movement of food bolus through the esophagus. The analysis had been carried out by using lubrication theory. The study was particularly suitable for cases where the Reynolds number was small. The esophagus was treated as a circular tube through which the transport of food bolus takes places by periodic contraction of the esophageal wall. Variation of different variables concerned with the transport phenomena such as pressure, flow velocity, particle trajectory and reflux were investigated for a single wave as well as for a train of periodic peristaltic waves. Locally variable pressure was seen to be highly sensitive to the flow index n

  18. Adaptation in Tourist Publicity Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭娟

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.

  19. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de K.C.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adap

  20. Evolving concepts of sensory adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems constantly adapt their responses to match the current environment. These adjustments occur at many levels of the system and increasingly appear to calibrate even for highly abstract perceptual representations of the stimulus. The similar effects of adaptation across very different stimulus domains point to common design principles but also continue to raise questions about the purpose of adaptation.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of metabolic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we study how organisms adapt their metabolism to a changing environment. Metabolic adaptation occurs at different timescales. Organisms adapt their metabolism via metabolic regulation, which happens in the order of minutes to hours and via evolution, which takes many generations. Here

  2. Adaptation : A Partially Automated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact

  3. TD-SCDMA基于HSUPA技术的追踪合并HARQ应用研究%Research on the Application of Chase Combining HARQ Based on HSUPA Technology in TD-SCDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 张军

    2011-01-01

    High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is used to improve uplink packet data transfer rate, and to reduce latency in TD-SCDMA. Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) used in HSUPA can enlarge the success rate of the decoder and increase the reliability during the transfer service. The theory of HARQ in TDSCDMA system are elaborated, a proposal which applied chase combining to HARQ is raised in HSUPA. Under the condition of proper channel model , the uplink performance with different control parameters has been simulated. It is found out that the proposal can increase the system throughput and decrease the BIER effectively and feasibly.%TD-SCDMA采用高速上行分组接入技术是为了显著提高上行分组数据的传输速率,同时减少传输延迟.其中采用的混合自动重传技术可以提高译码的成功率,使数据传输更加可靠.阐述了混合自动重传技术的原理,提出了一种在高速上行分组接入中将追踪合并算法应用于混合自动重传技术的方案,并在专有信道模型条件下对不同参数的上行链路性能进行了仿真,结果表明,该方案对于提高上行链路的吞吐量和降低误块率具有较好的作用.

  4. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  5. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  6. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  7. Artificial food lump from porous neoprene and the method of its use for the evaluation of adaptation patients to the dental constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, A.; Urakov, A.; Kasatkin, A.; Soiher, M. G.; Kopylov, M.

    2016-04-01

    New dental product called artificial food lump is offered for dental practices. In its size and shape it is similar to the natural food bolus, which is formed in adult's mouth when chewing white bread. This innovative product resembles an inedible and non-swallowable chewing gum. Artificial lump is made of porous neoprene; it is elastic and has food flavor. It is not destroyed by chewing and has stable elasticity during chewing. Besides, artificial lump is manufactured in a way that it can be attached to the patient's clothes with a braid line. New medical device is intended to create the masticatory loading in patients' mouth in order to evaluate the quality of mounted dental restorations as well as patient's adaptation to it during the chewing process.

  8. On Adaptive vs. Non-adaptive Security of Multiparty Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan;

    2001-01-01

    Security analysis of multiparty cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarialsettings: In the non-adaptive setting, the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting, the adversary chooses who to corrupt during...... the course of the computation. We study the relations between adaptive security (i.e., security in the adaptive setting) and non-adaptive security, according to two definitions and in several models of computation. While affirming some prevailing beliefs, we also obtain some unexpected results. Some...... highlights of our results are: – - According to the definition of Dodis-Micali-Rogaway (which is set in the information-theoretic model), adaptive and non-adaptive security are equivalent. This holds for both honest-but-curious and Byzantine adversaries, and for any number of parties. – - According...

  9. Effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy on glycemic control and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Ito, Mariko Abe, Shinichi Antoku, Takashi Omoto, Masahiro Shinozaki, Shinya Nishio, Mizuo Mifune, Michiko ToganeDepartment of Diabetes, Metabolism and Kidney Disease, Edogawa Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effects of switching from prandial premixed insulin therapy (PPT injected three times a day to basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy (B2B on glycemic control and quality of life were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: The clinical course was prospectively observed during the first 16 weeks after switching to B2B (insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine before breakfast and dinner in 27 subjects previously treated with PPT using 50/50 premixed insulin. The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ was administered at the start and end of the study.Results: The glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level (8.3%±1.8% to 8.2%±1.1% and the DTSQ score did not change between the start and end of the study. An improvement in HbA1c level was found in nine (33% subjects. The change in HbA1c showed a significant negative correlation with baseline HbA1c, and was significantly better in patients with a baseline HbA1c >8.0% than in those with an HbA1c ≤8.0% (−0.9±2.0 versus 0.3±0.6, respectively, P=0.02. The change in DTSQ score representing treatment satisfaction was significantly greater in patients whose HbA1c level was improved than in those in whom it was not (2.7±3.6 versus −0.8±3.5, P=0.04.Conclusion: B2B was noninferior to PPT with regard to HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. B2B should be considered particularly for subjects whose glycemic control is poor despite PPT.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin therapy, basal plus two times bolus insulin therapy, prandial premixed insulin therapy, Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire

  10. Adaptability Responding Effectively to Change

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Calarco, Allan

    2011-01-01

    In today's business world, the complexity and pace of change can be daunting. Adaptability has become recognized as a necessary skill for leaders to develop to be effective in this environment. Even so, leaders rarely know what they can do to become more adaptable and foster adaptability in others. This guidebook contributes to a greater understanding of adaptability and the cognitive, emotional, and dispositional flexibility it requires. Leaders will learn how to develop their adaptability and to become more effective for themselves, the people they lead, and their organizations.

  11. Adaptive filtering prediction and control

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Graham C

    2009-01-01

    Preface1. Introduction to Adaptive TechniquesPart 1. Deterministic Systems2. Models for Deterministic Dynamical Systems3. Parameter Estimation for Deterministic Systems4. Deterministic Adaptive Prediction5. Control of Linear Deterministic Systems6. Adaptive Control of Linear Deterministic SystemsPart 2. Stochastic Systems7. Optimal Filtering and Prediction8. Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Dynamic Systems9. Adaptive Filtering and Prediction10. Control of Stochastic Systems11. Adaptive Control of Stochastic SystemsAppendicesA. A Brief Review of Some Results from Systems TheoryB. A Summary o

  12. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  13. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    of matched filters (one for each veloc- ity component of interest) and filtering the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the PSD. The methods are tested using various experiments and simulations. First, controlled flow-rig experiments with steady laminar flow are carried out....... Simulations in Field II for pul- sating flow resembling the femoral artery are also analyzed. The simulations are followed by in vivo measurement on the common carotid artery. In all simulations and experiments it was concluded that the adaptive methods display superior per- formance for short observation...

  14. Reentry vehicle adaptive telemetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidner, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    In RF telemetry (TM) the allowable RF bandwidth limits the amount of data in the telemetered data set. Typically the data set is less than ideal to accommodate all aspects of a test. In the case of diagnostic data, the compromise often leaves insufficient diagnostic data when problems occur. As a solution, intelligence was designed into a TM, allowing it to adapt to changing data requirements. To minimize the computational requirements for an intelligent TM, a fuzzy logic inference engine was developed. This reference engine was simulated on a PC and then loaded into a TM hardware package for final testing.

  15. An Adaptive TVD Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yih Nen; Payne, Uon Jan

    1995-05-01

    An adaptive TVD limiter, based on a limiter approximating the upper boundary of the TVD range and that of the third-order upwind TVD scheme, is developed in this work. The limiter switches to the comprressive limiter near a discontinuity, to the third-order TVD scheme's limiter in the smooth region, and to a weighted averaged scheme in the transition region between smooth and high gradient solutions. Numerical experiments show that the proposed scheme works very well for one-dimensional scalar equation problems but becomes less effective in one- and two-dimensional Euler equation problems. Further study is required for the two-dimensional scalar equation problems.

  16. Adopting an Adaptive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This thesis grounds itself upon two implicitly time-based assumptions: 1. Change is inevitable 2. Design is an iterative process Herbert Simon posits design as an engine of change. He states that design activity is the devising of ‘courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into pref...... particular time-based attributes can be exhibited – most notably, adaptation. The implementation of this framework necessitates a re-examination of the process and concerns of architectural design. The sub-text of the thesis is to remember that the activity of design is itself designed....

  17. Adaptive antennas and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Melvin M

    2005-01-01

    In our modern age of remote sensing, wireless communication, and the nearly endless list of other antenna-based applications, complex problems require increasingly sophisticated solutions. Conventional antenna systems are no longer suited to high-noise or low-signal applications such as intrusion detection. Detailing highly effective approaches to non-Gaussian weak signal detection, Adaptive Antennas and Receivers provides an authoritative introduction to state-of-the-art research on the modeling, testing, and application of these technologies.Edited by innovative researcher and eminent expert

  18. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  19. AdapterRemoval v2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Lindgreen, Stinus; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    process the growing amount of data generated per sequencing run. FINDINGS: We introduce AdapterRemoval v2, a major revision of AdapterRemoval v1, which introduces (i) striking improvements in throughput, through the use of single instruction, multiple data (SIMD; SSE1 and SSE2) instructions and multi......-threading support, (ii) the ability to handle datasets containing reads or read-pairs with different adapters or adapter pairs, (iii) simultaneous demultiplexing and adapter trimming, (iv) the ability to reconstruct adapter sequences from paired-end reads for poorly documented data sets, and (v) native gzip and...... bzip2 support. CONCLUSIONS: We show that AdapterRemoval v2 compares favorably with existing tools, while offering superior throughput to most alternatives examined here, both for single and multi-threaded operations....

  20. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money......UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  1. Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

  2. Adaptive Robust Variable Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Jianqing; Barut, Emre

    2012-01-01

    Heavy-tailed high-dimensional data are commonly encountered in various scientific fields and pose great challenges to modern statistical analysis. A natural procedure to address this problem is to use penalized least absolute deviation (LAD) method with weighted $L_1$-penalty, called weighted robust Lasso (WR-Lasso), in which weights are introduced to ameliorate the bias problem induced by the $L_1$-penalty. In the ultra-high dimensional setting, where the dimensionality can grow exponentially with the sample size, we investigate the model selection oracle property and establish the asymptotic normality of the WR-Lasso. We show that only mild conditions on the model error distribution are needed. Our theoretical results also reveal that adaptive choice of the weight vector is essential for the WR-Lasso to enjoy these nice asymptotic properties. To make the WR-Lasso practically feasible, we propose a two-step procedure, called adaptive robust Lasso (AR-Lasso), in which the weight vector in the second step is c...

  3. Bayesian Adaptive Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Thomas J.

    2004-04-01

    I describe a framework for adaptive scientific exploration based on iterating an Observation-Inference-Design cycle that allows adjustment of hypotheses and observing protocols in response to the results of observation on-the-fly, as data are gathered. The framework uses a unified Bayesian methodology for the inference and design stages: Bayesian inference to quantify what we have learned from the available data and predict future data, and Bayesian decision theory to identify which new observations would teach us the most. When the goal of the experiment is simply to make inferences, the framework identifies a computationally efficient iterative ``maximum entropy sampling'' strategy as the optimal strategy in settings where the noise statistics are independent of signal properties. Results of applying the method to two ``toy'' problems with simulated data-measuring the orbit of an extrasolar planet, and locating a hidden one-dimensional object-show the approach can significantly improve observational efficiency in settings that have well-defined nonlinear models. I conclude with a list of open issues that must be addressed to make Bayesian adaptive exploration a practical and reliable tool for optimizing scientific exploration.

  4. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity correlates with cortical perfusion parameters determined by bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Shane; Rouine, Jennifer; McIntosh, Allison; Kerskens, Christian; Harkin, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in astrocyte number and function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric disorders. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in the animal laboratory has enabled an investigation of the relationship between pathological and neuroimaging markers in animal models. However the physiological processes which underlie these markers and their role in mediating behavioural deficits is still poorly understood. Rodent models have provided us with important insights into physiological and cellular mechanisms which may mediate anxiety and depression-related behaviours. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a strain which endogenously expresses highly anxious and depressive-like behaviours and has previously been reported to exhibit alterations in immunoreactivity for the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in brain sub-regions relative to more stress resilient out-bred strains. Here we report that the depressive and anxiety-like behaviours exhibited by the WKY rat strain are associated with alterations in brain morphology including a decrease in hippocampal volume, coupled with reduced resting state frontal cortical perfusion as assessed by MR bolus tracking arterial spin labelling (bt-ASL) relative to the out-bred Wistar strain. Pre-limbic cortical GFAP immunoreactivity and astrocyte cell number were positively correlated with cortical blood perfusion in the WKY strain. These experiments provide a link between pathological and neuroimaging markers of aberrant astrocytic function and add validity to the WKY rat as a model for co-morbid anxiety and depression. PMID:27068181

  5. An adaptive algorithm for pass adaptation in plate rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for pass adaptation in plate rolling is developed to improve thickness accuracy of plate products. The feature of the algorithm is that it uses the measured data rather than the schedule calculated data in adaptation, which leads to notable improvementin prediction accuracy of the rolling parameters and thickness accuracy of products can be improved accordingly. Results show that this adaptive algorithm is effective in practice.

  6. Adaptive immunity to fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce

    2014-11-06

    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases.

  7. Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudecz, Adriána

    -operation and research into the common problems of the Northern Periphery. This report is an output of the ROADEX “Implementing Accessibility” project (2009-2012). It gives a summary of the results of research into adaptation measures to combat climate change effects on low volume roads in the Northern Periphery....... The research was carried out between January 2000 and March 2012. One of the biggest challenges that mankind has to face is the prospect of climate change resulting from emissions of greenhouse gases. These gases trap energy in the atmosphere and cause global surface temperatures to rise. This warming in turn...... causes changes in other climatic variables such as rainfall, humidity and wind speed that impact on the functioning of infrastructure such road networks. This paper discusses the climate changes predicted by the world’s meteorological organisations and considers how these may impact on the public...

  8. Adapting to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Strzepek, Kenneth; Tarp, Finn;

    2011-01-01

    Mozambique, like many African countries, is already highly susceptible to climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change threatens to heighten this vulnerability. In order to evaluate potential impacts and adaptation options for Mozambique, we develop an integrated modeling...... framework that translates atmospheric changes from general circulation model projections into biophysical outcomes via detailed hydrologic, crop, hydropower and infrastructure models. These sector models simulate a historical baseline and four extreme climate change scenarios. Sector results are then passed...... down to a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, which is used to estimate economy-wide impacts on national welfare, as well as the total cost of damages caused by climate change. Potential damages without changes in policy are significant; our discounted estimates range from US2.3 to US2.3toUS7...

  9. Bayesian Adaptive Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Loredo, T J

    2004-01-01

    I describe a framework for adaptive scientific exploration based on iterating an Observation--Inference--Design cycle that allows adjustment of hypotheses and observing protocols in response to the results of observation on-the-fly, as data are gathered. The framework uses a unified Bayesian methodology for the inference and design stages: Bayesian inference to quantify what we have learned from the available data and predict future data, and Bayesian decision theory to identify which new observations would teach us the most. When the goal of the experiment is simply to make inferences, the framework identifies a computationally efficient iterative ``maximum entropy sampling'' strategy as the optimal strategy in settings where the noise statistics are independent of signal properties. Results of applying the method to two ``toy'' problems with simulated data--measuring the orbit of an extrasolar planet, and locating a hidden one-dimensional object--show the approach can significantly improve observational eff...

  10. Adaptive Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, D D; Palmer, David D.; Hearst, Marti A.

    1994-01-01

    Labeling of sentence boundaries is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks, including part-of-speech tagging and sentence alignment. End-of-sentence punctuation marks are ambiguous; to disambiguate them most systems use brittle, special-purpose regular expression grammars and exception rules. As an alternative, we have developed an efficient, trainable algorithm that uses a lexicon with part-of-speech probabilities and a feed-forward neural network. After training for less than one minute, the method correctly labels over 98.5\\% of sentence boundaries in a corpus of over 27,000 sentence-boundary marks. We show the method to be efficient and easily adaptable to different text genres, including single-case texts.

  11. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  12. Quantitative analysis of portal flow in patients with active chronic hepatitis. Magnetic Resonance Angiography with bolus tracking versus color Doppler US; Determinazione quantitativa del flusso nella vena porta nei soggetti con epatopatia cronica attiva. Confronto tra angiografia con Risonanza Magnetica con bolo di protoni marcati ed eco color-Doppler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, R.; Barbaro, B.; Prudenzano, R.; Cina, A.; Marano, P. [Policlinico A. Gemelli, Rome (Italy). Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Ist. di Radiologia

    1999-03-01

    To assess the accuracy of time-of-flight MR Angiography (MRA) with bolus tracking in evaluation mean blood velocity and flowrate in the portal vein in patients with chronic hepatitis versus healthy volunteers. Bolus tracking MRA is superior to color Doppler US in quantitating blood flow in the portal vein is evaluating changes after a meal. Decreased mean velocity and flowrate may indicate impaired function, as it happens in early chronic hepatitis. [Italian] Il lavoro si prefine lo scopo di determinare al'accuratezza dell'angio-RM nel tempo di transito ('time of flight') con tecnica del bolo di protoni marcati ('bolus tracking') nella quantizzazione del flusso nella vena porta nei pazienti con epatopatia cronica, a confronto di una popolazione di volontari sani. Lo studio evidanzia la capacita' dell'angio-RM, nel quantizzare il flusso nella vena porta e nel rilevare le modifiche dopo pasto, a confronto con l'eco color Doppler, la cui riduzione puo' essere indice della ridotta riserva funzionale, come avviene nei soggetti affetti da epatopatia cronica attiva.

  13. Adaptive compressive sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [Φ] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [Φ]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).

  14. Adaptive Playware in Physical Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    that the activity automatically will match the capability of the individual user. With small test groups, we investigate how different age groups and gender groups physically interact with some playware games, and find indications of differences between the groups. Despite the small test set, the results......We describe how playware and games may adapt to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that in physical games there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s capabilities, so...... are a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation, and therefore we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the physical game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...

  15. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darcy Shaw; Kartik Gohil; Marc D Basson

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis.The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation,short-gut syndrome,obesity,and bariatric surgery.Broadly,these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation.These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal,immune,dietary,nervous,and mechanical stimuli.It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation.This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation,delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention,and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan.Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  16. Information diffusion on adaptive network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ke; Tang Yi

    2008-01-01

    Based on the adaptive network,the feedback mechanism and interplay between the network topology and the diffusive process of information are studied.The results reveal that the adaptation of network topology can drive systems into the scale-free one with the assortative or disassortative degree correlations,and the hierarchical clustering.Meanwhile,the processes of the information diffusion are extremely speeded up by the adaptive changes of network topology.

  17. Adaptive designs for sequential experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林正炎; 张立新

    2003-01-01

    Various adaptive designs have been proposed and applied to clinical trials, bioassay, psychophysics, etc.Adaptive designs are also useful in high cost engineering trials.More and more people have been paying attention to these design methods. This paper introduces several broad families of designs, such as the play-the-winner rule, randomized play-the-winner rule and its generalization to the multi-arm case, doubly biased coin adaptive design, Markov chain model.

  18. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  19. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  20. Staff Adaptation in Selected Company

    OpenAIRE

    Štolcová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The work focuses on personnel actions of employee adaptation as, nowadays, it is very important to maintain a good and skilled staff. The main aim of this work is to analyze and evaluate the process of adaptation of new employees at the headquarters of the BILLA, Ltd., which operates more than 200 supermarkets around the Czech Republic,. Another task is to propose partial measures which would improve the process of adaptation in the society. The literature review discusses the importance of ...