Mano, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Sayaka; Haga, Nobuhiko
The dysfunction of individuals with upper limb deficiencies affects their daily lives and social participation. To clarify the adaptive behaviours and motor skills of children with upper limb deficiencies. Cross-sectional survey. The subjects were 10 children ranging from 1 to 6 years of age with unilateral upper limb deficiencies at the level distal to the elbow who were using only cosmetic or passive prostheses or none at all. To measure their adaptive behaviour and motor skills, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition was used. They were evaluated on the domains of communication, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills. We also examined the relationship of the scores with age. There were no statistically significant scores for domains or subdomains. The domain standard score of motor skills was significantly lower than the median scores of the domains and was negatively correlated with age. Children with upper limb deficiencies have individual weaknesses in motor skill behaviours, and these weaknesses increase with age. It may be helpful in considering approaches to rehabilitation and the prescription of prostheses to consider the characteristics and course of children's motor skill behaviours. Clinical relevance Even if children with unilateral upper limb deficiencies seem to compensate well for their affected limb function, they have or will experience individual weaknesses in motor skills. We should take this into consideration to develop better strategies for rehabilitation and prostheses prescriptions.
Crossland, Tom; Hewitt, Olivia; Walden, Sarah
Background: A growing body of evidence supports the use of Dialectic Behaviour Therapy with people with an intellectual disability. Various adaptation have been used in studies exploring the efficacy of this intervention. Method: A Dialectic Behaviour Therapy DBT skills training group was attended by people with an intellectual disability and…
Bracco, Fabrizio; Masini, Michele; De Tonetti, Gabriele; Brogioni, Francesca; Amidani, Arianna; Monichino, Sara; Maltoni, Alessandra; Dato, Andrea; Grattarola, Claudia; Cordone, Massimo; Torre, Giancarlo; Launo, Claudio; Chiorri, Carlo; Celleno, Danilo
Simulation in healthcare has proved to be a useful method in improving skills and increasing the safety of clinical operations. The debriefing session, after the simulated scenario, is the core of the simulation, since it allows participants to integrate the experience with the theoretical frameworks and the procedural guidelines. There is consistent evidence for the relevance of non-technical skills (NTS) for the safe and efficient accomplishment of operations. However, the observation, assessment and feedback on these skills is particularly complex, because the process needs expert observers and the feedback is often provided in judgmental and ineffective ways. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and test a set of observation and rating forms for the NTS behavioural markers of multi-professional teams involved in delivery room emergency simulations (MINTS-DR, Multi-professional Inventory for Non-Technical Skills in the Delivery Room). The MINTS-DR was developed by adapting the existing tools and, when needed, by designing new tools according to the literature. We followed a bottom-up process accompanied by interviews and co-design between practitioners and psychology experts. The forms were specific for anaesthetists, gynaecologists, nurses/midwives, assistants, plus a global team assessment tool. We administered the tools in five editions of a simulation training course that involved 48 practitioners. Ratings on usability and usefulness were collected. The mean ratings of the usability and usefulness of the tools were not statistically different to or higher than 4 on a 5-point rating scale. In either case no significant differences were found across professional categories. The MINTS-DR is quick and easy to administer. It is judged to be a useful asset in maximising the learning experience that is provided by the simulation.
Full Text Available The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology. Moreover, the paper concerns to some extent a multi-level approach in strategic management involving individual, team, and organizational level. The aim of the paper is to contribute to extend, on one hand, the ascertainment set in the field of behavioural strategy as behavioural strategy encompasses a mindboggling diversity of topics and methods and its conceptual unity has been hard to achieve (Powell, Lovallo, Fox 2011, p. 1371, and on the other hand, to order mixed approaches to adaptability especially to gain insights on micro-level adapting processes (individual adaptability and adaptive performance in terms of the multi-level approach. The method that has been used is literature studies and the interference is mostly deductive. The structure of the manuscript is four-fold. The first part involves the considerations in the field of adaptability and adaptive performance at the individual level. The issues of adaptability and adaptive performance at the team level have been presented in the second part. The third part encompasses the organizational adaptability assertions. Finally, the conclusion, limitations of the considerations highlighted as well as the future research directions have been emphasized. The overarching key finding is that the behavioural strategy concept may constitute the boundary spanner in exploring and explaining adaptability phenomenon at different levels of analysis.
.... As outlined in this Phase I report, Aptima and the Group for Organizational Effectiveness (gOE) have lain the groundwork for an innovative, computer-based, digital-skills training package designed to increase the adaptability of digital skills...
Rosman, Benjamin S
Full Text Available International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Haifa, Israel, 24-27 February 2014 On User Behaviour Adaptation Under Interface Change Benjamin Rosman_ Subramanian Ramamoorthy M. M. Hassan Mahmud School of Informatics University of Edinburgh...
The literature on climate change adaptation in developing countries focused on the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of adaptation decisions to climate change. Decision behavioural among others is thought to influence the path of innovation uptake related to climate change. We need to
Lowe, Robert; Sandamirskaya, Yulia
This special issue presents perspectives on learning and adaptation as they apply to a number of cognitive phenomena including pupil dilation in humans and attention in robots, natural language acquisition and production in embodied agents (robots), human-robot game play and social interaction, neural-dynamic modelling of active perception and neural-dynamic modelling of infant development in the Piagetian A-not-B task. The aim of the special issue, through its contributions, is to highlight some of the critical neural-dynamic and behavioural aspects of learning as it grounds adaptive responses in robotic- and neural-dynamic systems.
This paper discusses the application of an information, motivation and behavioural skills (IMB) model in a school-based programme for the reduction of HIV risk behaviour among 259 Grade 11 learners in two high schools in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. School 1 was the Experimental group, while School 2 was the ...
Full Text Available The technological advancement occurring in the world today has a potency to create positive and negative side effects especially on children. The positive side may entail increased empathy and acceptance of diversity through modelling the prosocial behaviours, while the negative can be manifest in aggressive behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, and substance abuse. These challenges pose a need to draw a particular attention to children’s rights of protection and care in relation to the use of technology. This paper sought to critically explore the way in which children adapt technology skills and the way they respond towards media influences. The findings revealed that the adaptive technology skills are needed in providing a considerable guidance for child protection and careful engagement towards digital information as part of their rights to natural growth and development.
Full Text Available The technological advancement occurring in the world today has a potency to create positive and negative side effects especially on children. The positive side may entail increased empathy and acceptance of diversity through modelling the prosocial behaviours, while the negative can be manifest in aggressive behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, and substance abuse. These challenges pose a need to draw a particular attention to children’s rights of protection and care in relation to the use of technology. This paper sought to critically explore the way in which children adapt technology skills and the way they respond towards media influences. The findings revealed that the adaptive technology skills are needed in providing a considerable guidance for child protection and careful engagement towards digital information as part of their rights to natural growth and development.
Mundt, Anna Sofie; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard; Østergaard, Doris
The aim of this study was to adapt the Scottish tool, Scrub Practitioners List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, to Danish organisation and culture. With an explorative and qualitative approach, four group interviews with scrub practitioners, surgeons and anaesthesia staff were conducted. The main differences found were related to communication and teamwork regarding scrub practitioners focus on the team and speaking up. Differences in the non-technical skills described in the behavioural markers are perhaps explained by cultural differences between Scotland and Denmark. A new tool for scrub practitioners in Denmark was adapted. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.
Lewis-Evans, Ben; Charlton, Samuel G
The finding that drivers may react to safety interventions in a way that is contrary to what was intended is the phenomenon of behavioural adaptation. This phenomenon has been demonstrated across various safety interventions and has serious implications for road safety programs the world over. The present research used a driving simulator to assess behavioural adaptation in drivers' speed and lateral displacement in response to manipulations of road width. Of interest was whether behavioural adaptation would occur and whether we could determine whether it was the result of explicit, conscious decisions or implicit perceptual processes. The results supported an implicit, zero perceived risk model of behavioural adaptation with reduced speeds on a narrowed road accompanied by increased ratings of risk and a marked inability of the participants to identify that any change in road width had occurred.
Adaptation of an HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction intervention for ... disinhibition risk reduction interventions for recently circumcised men for use in clinic ... medicine HIV prevention technologies into the male circumcision contexts.
Rachel K. Peterson
Full Text Available Adaptive skills are often defined as a set of behaviors or constellation of skills that allow for an individual to function independently and meet environmental demands. Adaptive skills have been linked with an array of social and academic outcomes. Executive functions (EF have been defined as a set of “capacities that enable a person to engage successfully in independent, purposive, self-serving behavior”. While the literature has demonstrated some overlap in the definitions of adaptive skills and the purpose of executive functions, little has been done to investigate the relationship between the two. The current study sought to investigate this relationship within Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD, a clinical grouping that has demonstrated a predisposition towards deficits within both of these functional domains. ASD are oftentimes associated with EF deficits, especially in the domains of cognitive flexibility, planning, and working memory. Deficits in adaptive skills have also been commonly reported in relation to ASD, with a wide range of abilities being noted across previous studies. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between adaptive skills and EF in individuals with ASD with the idea that an understanding of such relationships may offer insight into possible focus for intervention.
Murray, Peter A.; Millett, Bruce
Multiple contexts shape team activities and how they learn, and group learning is a dynamic construct that reflects a repertoire of potential behaviour. The purpose of this developmental paper is to examine how better learning behaviours in semi-autonomous teams improves the level of team adaptability and performance. The discussion suggests that…
Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio
We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap......We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application...... and adaptation logic through a clear identification of the set of data that is relevant for the latter. The framework provides an original perspective from which we survey a representative set of approaches to adaptation, ranging from programming languages and paradigms to computational models and architectural...
Killeen, Hazel; Shiel, Agnes; Law, Mary; O'Donovan, Donough J; Segurado, Ricardo; Anaby, Dana
To examine the extent to which personal factors (age, socioeconomic grouping, and preterm birth) and adaptive behaviour explain the participation patterns of young children. 65 Children 2-5 years old with and without a history of preterm birth and no physical or intellectual disability were selected by convenience sampling from Galway University Hospital, Ireland. Interviews with parents were conducted using the Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II) and the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP). Linear regression models were used to identify associations between the ABAS-II scores, personal factors, and APCP scores for intensity and diversity of participation. Adaptive behaviour explained 21% of variance in intensity of play, 18% in intensity of Skill Development, 7% in intensity of Active Physical Recreation, and 6% in intensity of Social Activities controlling for age, preterm birth, and socioeconomic grouping. Age explained between 1% and 11% of variance in intensity of participation scores. Adapted behaviour (13%), Age (17%), and socioeconomic grouping (5%) explained a significant percentage of variance in diversity of participation controlling for the other variables. Adaptive behaviour had a unique contribution to children's intensity and diversity of participation, suggesting its importance.
Whitehead, K; Langley-Evans, S C; Tischler, V; Swift, J A
Both the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have recommended increased training for health professionals in communication skills. There is evidence to suggest that communication skills are important in helping people to change health-related behaviour, which is a key role for dietitians. This study investigated the views of UK dietitians about their training needs and experience in relation to communication skills in dietetic practice. In October 2007, a cross-sectional survey was mailed to all British Dietetic Association members (n = 6013). The survey gathered quantitative data and free-text comments to ascertain the level, type and effect of communication skills training received by dietitians at both the pre- and post-registration level. There were 1158 respondents; a response rate of 19.3%. Ninety-eight percent (n = 1117) rated communication skills as either very or extremely important in client consultations. Post-registration training had been undertaken by 73% (n = 904). Of these, over 90% of respondents perceived that post-registration training had led to improvements in their relationships with patients, their confidence in client interviews and their ability to cope with challenging clients. However, 248 (21.4%) felt time keeping in interviews had worsened. Lack of time for client interviews was also the most commonly identified barrier (19%, n = 216) to implementing the skills. This study has explored an important and under-researched area. Respondents strongly endorsed the importance of good communication skills and the benefits of post-registration training in this area. Some felt that good communication was time consuming but others felt that time management had improved. Further research and training is required to support the implementation of these skills into dietetic practice.
du Plessis, Santie
The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…
Mundt, Anna Sofie; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard
The aim of this study was to adapt the Scottish tool, Scrub Practitioners List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, to Danish organisation and culture. With an explorative and qualitative approach, four group interviews with scrub practitioners, surgeons and anaesthesia staff were conducted....... The main differences found were related to communication and teamwork regarding scrub practitioners focus on the team and speaking up. Differences in the non-technical skills described in the behavioural markers are perhaps explained by cultural differences between Scotland and Denmark. A new tool...
Ferland, Adam; Chu, Yen Li; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul
Life skills development is a core area for action in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The role of life skills in influencing health behaviours among children has received little attention in research. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between self-leadership, as a model of life skills, and diet quality, physical activity, sleep duration and body weight. A provincially representative sample of 2328 grade 5 students (aged 10-11 years) was surveyed in Alberta, Canada. Self-leadership skills were assessed based on student responses indicating frequency of performing various leadership traits. Diet quality was based on responses to the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity on responses to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Sleep duration was assessed based on parent survey responses, and body mass index determined based on measured height and weight. Random effects regression models with children nested within schools were used to determine the associations. Higher self-leadership was associated with better diet quality (P leadership was suggestive of healthier body weight status (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.27). No association of self-leadership with sleep duration was found. The incorporation of leadership skill development may enhance the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs. This study reinforces the importance of leadership skill promotion in the promotion of healthy eating and active living, which may help curb the obesity epidemic in the short term, and prevention of chronic diseases and mounting healthcare costs in the long term. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Purpose: "Introduction to Clinical Medicine" in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services is an initiative in which general practitioners work as instructors and have the opportunity to experience teaching in addition to clinical practice. Since teaching, affects both teacher and students, this study aims to assess the influence of teaching clinical skills on the instructors' psychological, social and professional behaviour. Methods: This was performed as a qualitative study. The research population consisted of instructors of “Introduction to Clinical Medicine” who were all general practitioners and acted as facilitator in small groups working on physical examination and case discussion. The data collecting tool was a semi-structured interview which was recorded on the tape. Then, the interviews were transcribed and confirmed by interviewees at the end. 10 instructors were interviewed. The data were analysed according to Colaizzi model. Results: After coding the data to 38 main subjects, they were classified into three main categories including professional, psychological and social effects. The influence of teaching on professional performance included performing a thorough and correct physical examination, taking a detailed and correct history, increasing decision making ability and increasing professional knowledge. Some of the psychological effects were increasing selfconfidence, job satisfaction and morale. The social effects of teaching were increasing social contacts, having a relationship with an academic environment and having a respectful job. Conclusion: Considering the positive effects of teaching on instructors, teaching clinical skills by general practitioners can increase general practitioners knowledge and clinical skills and improve their morale. It is recommended to train general practitioners both for teaching skills and clinical skills and consider this, as an opportunity for physicians’ continuing
Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Lisinskiene, Ausra R.
The purpose of this study was to determine and compare social emotional skills and prosocial behaviour among 15-16-year-old adolescent athletes and non-athletes. The measures of social emotional skills and prosocial behaviour were evaluated using Schutte Self-Report Inventory, Self-control scale, Social Skills Rating System (Student form),…
Huberty, Thomas J.; And Others
Studied relationships of age at onset, seizure syndrome, seizure type, and seizure frequency to classroom performance and adaptive skills of 131 children with epilepsy. Epilepsy syndrome and frequency of seizures significantly related to some analyses. Results suggest that seizure disorder associated with diffuse or multifocal brain insult can…
Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia
The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.
van der Knaap, L.; Schulze, H.; Slot, N.W.; Feij, J.A.
Although in treating adolescents with problem behaviour emphasis is placed on teaching skills of immediate relevance to everyday prosocial functioning, instruments for assessing these skills have been lacking. This article describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument that
Kane, Harrison; Oakland, Thomas David
Background: Professionals who use measures of adaptive behaviour when working with special populations may assume that adaptive behaviour is a consistent and linear construct at various ability levels and thus believe the construct of adaptive behaviour is the same for high and low performers. That is, highly adaptive people simply are assumed to…
Fisher, Sycarah D.; Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Sheehan, Chelsea E.
Although students with externalizing behaviors inherently exhibit behaviors that contribute to poor teacher relationships, little research has examined the positive characteristics these students may possess that serve to facilitate positive teacher relationships. This study explores the moderating effects of adaptability, social skills, and study…
Porcerelli, John H; Brennan, Simone; Carty, Jennifer; Ziadni, Maisa; Markova, Tsveti
The Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist-Adapted (KEECC-A) is a well-regarded instrument for evaluating communication and interpersonal skills. To date, little research has been conducted that assesses the accuracy of resident self-ratings of their communication skills. To assess whether residents can accurately self-rate communication skills, using the KEECC-A, during an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). A group of 104 residents from 8 specialties completed a multistation OSCE as part of an institutional communication skills curriculum conducted at a single institution. Standardized patients (SPs) and observers were trained in rating communication skills using the KEECC-A. Standardized patient ratings and resident self-ratings were completed immediately following each OSCE encounter, and trained observers rated archived videotapes of the encounters. Resident self-ratings and SP ratings using the KEECC-A were significantly correlated (r104 = 0.238, P = .02), as were resident self-ratings and observer ratings (r104 = 0.284, P = .004). The correlation between the SP ratings and observer (r104 = 0.378, P = .001) ratings were larger in magnitude, but not significantly different (P > .05) from resident/SP or resident/observer correlations. The results suggest that residents, with a modicum of training using the KEECC-A, can accurately rate their own communication and interpersonal skills during an OSCE. Using trained observers to rate resident communication skills provides a unique opportunity for evaluating SP and resident self-ratings. Our findings also lend further support for the reliability and validity of the KEECC-A.
Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl
We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
van der Worp -van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.
Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to
van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, S.J.; Bijstra, Jan; van den Bosch, Els
Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to
Ford, Sarah; Hall, Angela
The Medical Interaction Process System (MIPS) was originally developed in order to create a reliable observation tool for analysing doctor-patient encounters in the oncology setting. This paper reports a series of analyses carried out to establish whether the behaviour categories of the MIPS can discriminate between skilled and less skilled communicators. This involved the use of MIPS coded cancer consultations to compare the MIPS indices of 10 clinicians evaluated by an independent professional as skilled communicators with 10 who were considered less skilled. Eleven out of the 15 MIPS variables tested were able to distinguish the skilled from the less skilled group. Although limitations to the study are discussed, the results indicate that the MIPS has satisfactory discriminatory power and the results provide validity data that meet key objectives for developing the system. There is an ever-increasing need for reliable methods of assessing doctors' communication skills and evaluating medical interview teaching programmes. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Silva, Fernando; Correia, Luís; Christensen, Anders Lyhne
Online evolution of behavioural control on real robots is an open-ended approach to autonomous learning and adaptation: robots have the potential to automatically learn new tasks and to adapt to changes in environmental conditions, or to failures in sensors and/or actuators. However, studies have so far almost exclusively been carried out in simulation because evolution in real hardware has required several days or weeks to produce capable robots. In this article, we successfully evolve neural network-based controllers in real robotic hardware to solve two single-robot tasks and one collective robotics task. Controllers are evolved either from random solutions or from solutions pre-evolved in simulation. In all cases, capable solutions are found in a timely manner (1 h or less). Results show that more accurate simulations may lead to higher-performing controllers, and that completing the optimization process in real robots is meaningful, even if solutions found in simulation differ from solutions in reality. We furthermore demonstrate for the first time the adaptive capabilities of online evolution in real robotic hardware, including robots able to overcome faults injected in the motors of multiple units simultaneously, and to modify their behaviour in response to changes in the task requirements. We conclude by assessing the contribution of each algorithmic component on the performance of the underlying evolutionary algorithm.
Michinov, Estelle; Jamet, Eric; Dodeler, Virginie; Haegelen, Claire; Jannin, Pierre
The management of non-technical skills is a major factor affecting teamwork quality and patient safety. This article presents a behavioural marker system for assessing neurosurgical non-technical skills (BMS-NNTS). We tested the BMS during deep brain stimulation surgery. We developed the BMS in three stages. First, we drew up a provisional assessment tool based on the literature and observation tools developed for other surgical specialties. We then analysed videos made in an operating room (OR) during deep brain stimulation operations in order to ensure there were no significant omissions from the skills list. Finally, we used five videos of operations to identify the behavioural markers of non-technical skills in verbal communications. Analyses of more than six hours of observations revealed 3515 behaviours from which we determined the neurosurgeon's non-technical skills behaviour pattern. The neurosurgeon frequently engaged in explicit coordination, situation awareness and leadership behaviours. In addition, the neurosurgeon's behaviours differed according to the stage of the operation and the OR staff members with whom she was communicating. Our behavioural marker system provides a structured approach to assessing non-technical skills in the field of neurosurgery. It can also be transferred to other surgical specialties and used in surgeon training curricula. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; D'Elia, Alessandra; Giagnotti, Francesca; Matera, Emilia; Quaranta, Nicola
The aim of this study is to examine cognitive skills, adaptive behavior, social and emotional skills in deaf children with cochlear implant (CI) compared to normal hearing children. The study included twenty children affected by profound hearing loss implanted with a CI compared to 20 healthy children matched to chronological age and gender. Results of this study indicated that 55% of children with CI showed a score in the normal range of nonverbal intelligence (IQ > 84), 40% in the borderline range (71 differences were found after comparison with normal hearing children.Children with CI reported more abnormalities in emotional symptoms (p = .018) and peer problems(p = .037) than children with normal hearing. Age of CI was negatively correlated with IQ (p = .002),positively correlated with emotional symptoms (p = .04) and with peer problems (p = .02). CI has a positive effect on the lives of deaf children, especially if it is implanted in much earlier ages.
The lack of association between wealth and fertility in contemporary industrialized populations has often been used to question the value of an evolutionary perspective on human behaviour. Here, we first present the history of this debate, and the evolutionary explanations for why wealth and fertility (the number of children) are decoupled in modern industrial settings. We suggest that the nature of the relationship between wealth and fertility remains an open question because of the multi-faceted nature of wealth, and because existing cross-sectional studies are ambiguous with respect to how material wealth and fertility are linked. A literature review of longitudinal studies on wealth and fertility shows that the majority of these report positive effects of wealth, although levels of fertility seem to fall below those that would maximize fitness. We emphasize that reproductive decision-making reflects a complex interplay between individual and societal factors that resists simple evolutionary interpretation, and highlight the role of economic insecurity in fertility decisions. We conclude by discussing whether the wealth–fertility relationship can inform us about the adaptiveness of modern fertility behaviour, and argue against simplistic claims regarding maladaptive behaviour in humans. PMID:27022080
Chang, Tian-Ying; Zhang, Yi-Lin; Shan, Yan; Liu, Sai-Sai; Song, Xiao-Yue; Li, Zheng-Yan; Du, Li-Ping; Li, Yan-Yan; Gao, Douqing
To examine whether the information-motivation-behavioural skills model could predict self-care behaviour among Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients. Peritoneal dialysis is a treatment performed by patients or their caregivers in their own home. It is important to implement theory-based projects to increase the self-care of patients with peritoneal dialysis. The information-motivation-behavioural model has been verified in diverse populations as a comprehensive, effective model to guide the design, implementation and evaluation of self-care programmes. A cross-sectional, observational study. A total of 201 adults with peritoneal dialysis were recruited at a 3A grade hospital in China. Participant data were collected on demographics, self-care information (knowledge), social support (social motivation), self-care attitude (personal motivation), self-efficacy (behaviour skills) and self-care behaviour. We also collected data on whether the recruited patients had peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis from electronic medical records. Measured variable path analysis was performed using mplus 7.4 to identify the information-motivation-behavioural model. Self-efficacy, information and social motivation predict peritoneal dialysis self-care behaviour directly. Information and personal support affect self-care behaviour through self-efficacy, whereas peritoneal dialysis self-care behaviour has a direct effect on the prevention of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. The information-motivation-behavioural model is an appropriate and applicable model to explain and predict the self-care behaviour of Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients. Poor self-care behaviour among peritoneal dialysis patients results in peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis. The findings suggest that self-care education programmes for peritoneal dialysis patients should include strategies based on the information-motivation-behavioural model to enhance knowledge, motivation and behaviour
van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J.J.; Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.; Oudejans, Raôul R.D.
In this study we examined in situ decision-making skills and gaze behaviour of skilled female basketball players. Players participated as ball carriers in a specific 3 vs 3 pick-and-roll basketball play. Playing both on the right and left side of the court and facing three types of defensive play,
Olinda Habib Perez
Full Text Available Infants explore their environments through repetitive movements that are constrained or facilitated by the environmental context. In this study, we evaluated how skilled bouncers adapted to bouncing in systems with four different spring conditions (natural frequencies of 0.9, 1.15, 1.27 and 1.56 Hz. Trunk kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs were recorded from three pre-walking infants (mean age 10.6 ±0.9 months. Bounce frequency, trunk displacement, peak VGRF, percent of time on the ground and time to peak force as a function of time on the ground were analyzed. In addition, infant bounce frequencies were compared to measured oscillations of an inert mass equivalent to each infant’s mass. All infants bounced above the natural frequency of the spring system in all conditions suggesting that they did not behave solely like mass-spring systems. Infants produced asymmetrical VGRF loading patterns suggesting that a timing component, such as bounce frequency, was regulated. Skilled infants consistently increased their bounce frequency as their vertical trunk displacement decreased; however, the mode for regulating bounce frequency differed from infant to infant.
Dessemontet, R Sermier; Bless, G; Morin, D
While an extensive body of research has examined the outcomes of inclusion for pupils with special needs, in particular learning disabilities, its effects on the development of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been less explored. As inclusive practices tend to be more common for this group of children, it is important to acquire more knowledge on this issue. A comparative study with an experimental group of 34 children with ID fully included in general education classrooms with support, and a control group of 34 comparable children in special schools has been conducted. The progress accomplished by these two groups in their academic achievement and adaptive behaviour has been compared over two school years. Included children made slightly more progress in literacy skills than children attending special schools. No differences were found between the progress of the two groups in mathematics and adaptive behaviour. Inclusive education is an appropriate educational option for primary pupils with ID who require extensive support in school. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Egbert, Matthew D.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan
Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism’s internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving “interoceptively,” i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms. PMID:26743579
Glynn, P. D.
Human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation over our evolutionary past to frequently experienced situations that affected our survival and that provided sharp distinguished feedbacks at the level of the individual. Human behavior, however, is not well adapted to the more diffusely experienced (i.e. less immediately/locally acute) problems and issues that scientists and society often seek to address today. Several human biases are identified that affect how science is conducted and used. These biases include an innate discounting of less visible phenomena/systems and of long-term perspectives; as well as a general lack of consideration of the coupling between the resources that we use and the waste that we consequently produce. Other biases include strong beliefs in human exceptionalism and separatedness from "nature". Francis Bacon (The New Organon, 1620) provided a classification of the factors, of the "idols of the mind", that bias pursuit of greater knowledge. How can we address these biases and the factors that affect behaviour and pursuit of knowledge; and ultimately impact the sustainability and resilience of human societies, resources and environments? A process for critical analysis is proposed that solicits explicit accounting and cognizance of these potential human biases and factors. Seeking a greater diversity of independant perspectives is essential: in both the conduct of science and in its application to the management of natural resources and environments. Accountability, traceability and structured processes are critical in this endeavor. The scientific methods designed during the industrial revolution are necessary, but insufficient, in addressing the issues of today. A new area of study in "the behavioral biogeosciences" is suggested that counters, or at least closely re-evaluates, our normal (i.e. adapted) human priorities of observation and study, as well as our judgements and decision-making.
Barnicot, Kirsten; Gonzalez, Rafael; McCabe, Rosemarie; Priebe, Stefan
Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) trains participants to use behavioural skills for managing their emotions. The study aimed to evaluate whether skills use is associated with positive treatment outcomes independently of treatment processes that are common across different therapeutic models. Use of the DBT skills and three common treatment processes (therapeutic alliance, treatment credibility and self-efficacy) were assessed every 2 months for a year in 70 individuals with borderline personality disorder receiving DBT. Mixed-multilevel modelling was used to determine the association of these factors with frequency of self-harm and with treatment dropout. Participants who used the skills less often at any timepoint were more likely to drop out of DBT in the subsequent two months, independently of their self-efficacy, therapeutic alliance or perceived treatment credibility. More frequent use of the DBT skills and higher self-efficacy were each independently associated with less frequent concurrent self-harm. Treatment credibility and the alliance were not independently associated with self-harm or treatment dropout. The skills use measure could not be applied to a control group who did not receive DBT. The sample size was insufficient for structural equation modelling. Practising the DBT skills and building an increased sense of self-efficacy may be important and partially independent treatment processes in dialectical behaviour therapy. However, the direction of the association between these variables and self-harm requires further evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George
Adverse events still occur despite ongoing efforts to reduce harm to patients. Contributory factors to adverse events are often due to limitations in clinicians' non-technical skills (e.g. communication, situation awareness), rather than deficiencies in technical competence. We developed a behavioural rating system to provide a structured means for teaching and assessing scrub practitioners' (i.e. nurse, technician, operating department practitioner) non-technical skills. Psychologists facilitated focus groups (n = 4) with experienced scrub practitioners (n = 16; 4 in each group) to develop a preliminary taxonomy. Focus groups reviewed lists of non-technical-skill-related behaviours that were extracted from an interview study. The focus groups labelled skill categories and elements and also provided examples of good and poor behaviours for those skills. An expert panel (n = 2 psychologists; n = 1 expert nurse) then used an iterative process to individually and collaboratively review and refine those data to produce a prototype skills taxonomy. A preliminary taxonomy containing eight non-technical skill categories with 28 underlying elements was produced. The expert panel reduced this to three categories (situation awareness, communication and teamwork, task management), each with three underlying elements. The system was called the Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills system. A scoring system and a user handbook were also developed. A prototype behavioural rating system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills was developed, to aid in teaching and providing formative assessment. This important aspect of performance is not currently explicitly addressed in any educational route to qualify as a scrub practitioner. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios
We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…
Rolland, Joran; Simonnet, Eric
Adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms have been introduced rather recently for estimating tail distributions in a fast and efficient way. In particular, they can be used for computing the so-called reactive trajectories corresponding to direct transitions from one metastable state to another. The algorithm is based on successive selection–mutation steps performed on the system in a controlled way. It has two intrinsic parameters, the number of particles/trajectories and the reaction coordinate used for discriminating good or bad trajectories. We investigate first the convergence in law of the algorithm as a function of the timestep for several simple stochastic models. Second, we consider the average duration of reactive trajectories for which no theoretical predictions exist. The most important aspect of this work concerns some systems with two degrees of freedom. They are studied in detail as a function of the reaction coordinate in the asymptotic regime where the number of trajectories goes to infinity. We show that during phase transitions, the statistics of the algorithm deviate significatively from known theoretical results when using non-optimal reaction coordinates. In this case, the variance of the algorithm is peaking at the transition and the convergence of the algorithm can be much slower than the usual expected central limit behaviour. The duration of trajectories is affected as well. Moreover, reactive trajectories do not correspond to the most probable ones. Such behaviour disappears when using the optimal reaction coordinate called committor as predicted by the theory. We finally investigate a three-state Markov chain which reproduces this phenomenon and show logarithmic convergence of the trajectory durations
Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.
Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…
Dressler, Anastasia; Perelli, Valentina; Bozza, Margherita; Bargagna, Stefania
The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome (DS) is marked by a characteristic pattern of stereotypies, anxiety and social withdrawal. Our aim was to study adaptive behaviour in DS with and without autistic comorbidity using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS), the Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) and the DSM IV-TR criteria. We assessed 24 individuals and established three groups: Down syndrome (DS), DS and autistic disorder (DS-AD), and autistic disorder (AD). The DS and DS-AD groups showed statistically significantly similar strengths on the VABS (in receptive and domestic skills). The DS and DS-AD subjects also showed similar strengths on the CARS (in imitation and relating), differing significantly from the AD group. The profile of adaptive functioning and symptoms in DS-AD seemed to be more similar to that found in DS than to the profile emerging in AD. We suggest that the comorbidity of austistic symptoms in DS hampered the acquisition of adaptive skills more than did the presence of DS alone.
de Guzman, Allan B.; Choi, Kyoung Ok
This two pronged study reports the initial validation of the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in the context of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the investigation of the relationship between employability skills and career adaptability. Results of the study revealed that CAAS can be a valid and…
Amos Shaibu Ebenehi
Full Text Available This paper examined predictors of career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria. A sample of 603 higher education students randomly selected from six colleges of education in Nigeria participated in this study. A set of self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection, and multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that 33.3% of career adaptability skill was explained by the model. Four out of the five predictor variables significantly predicted career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria. Among the four predictors, career self-efficacy sources was the most statistically significant predictor of career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria, followed by personal goal orientation, career future concern, and perceived social support respectively. Vocational identity did not statistically predict career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria. The study suggested that similar study should be replicated in other parts of the world in view of the importance of career adaptability skill to the smooth transition of graduates from school to the labor market. The study concluded by requesting stakeholders of higher institutions in Nigeria to provide career exploration database for the students, and encourage career intervention program in order to enhance career adaptability skill among the students.
Behavioural approaches can be used effectively to teach new skills and to change behaviours that are challenging and not socially adaptive. The behaviour modification approach--now called applied behaviour analysis--is based on the assumption that all behaviours are learned, both the useful ones (new skills) and the ones that are not so useful…
Poulou, Maria S.
Trait emotional intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. The Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) movement emphasised the cultivation of social skills for positive relationships. In this paper we investigate the role of students' global…
Neece, C; Baker, B
Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.
Full Text Available What impresses in clinical practice when dealing with children with antisocial destructive behaviours are the difficulties they have to foresee the impact of their own actions; and with some children, to such an extent that it is even impossible to track their behaviour in the time to come. This is a significant aspect and a goal of the training of children with behavioural issues: developing skills for action planning; foreseeing the outcome in the future and making the right choices, especially in conflict situation. Training by using mind map techniques in this study is based on an objective assessment of the real needs of a child and the goal of the training is to translate the acquired social skills into real-life situations. This study provides the results of twelve months of monitoring of runaways from Correctional Boarding Schools (CBS and Social-Educational Boarding Schools (SEBS of 50 children trained by using the mind map technique.
González de Prado Salas, Pablo; Risi, Sebastian
Human-based computation (HBC) is an emerging research area in which humans and machines collaborate to solve tasks that neither one can solve in isolation. In evolutionary computation, HBC is often realized through interactive evolutionary computation (IEC), in which a user guides evolution by it...... in evolutionary computation and, as the results in this paper show, IEC-ESP is able to solve complex control problems that are challenging for a traditional fitness-based approach.......Human-based computation (HBC) is an emerging research area in which humans and machines collaborate to solve tasks that neither one can solve in isolation. In evolutionary computation, HBC is often realized through interactive evolutionary computation (IEC), in which a user guides evolution...... by iteratively selecting the parents for the next generation. IEC has shown promise in a variety of different domains, but evolving more complex or hierarchically composed behaviours remains challenging with the traditional IEC approach. To overcome this challenge, this paper combines the recently introduced ESP...
Victor Fernando PlÁcido da ConceiçÌo
Full Text Available Despite the adoption of crew resource management training for bridge teams over the last decades, the training is still heavily focussed on technical achievements. In an educational context, the situation is more problematical, since with requirement of developing the technical skills, there is a need to build and evaluate the non-technical skills of cadets with little experience in bridge team management. In parallel with the application of team leadership models, the Portuguese Naval Academy conducted a research to improve the development and assessment of non-technical skills in bridge simulators. This paper describes the method used to identify the key non-technical skills required for naval cadets and to develop a behavioural marker system for their measurement. A literature review of behavioural marker systems was supplemented with an analysis of interviews conducted with students and simulator instructors. Additionally, further analysis of Portuguese Navy accidents reports was made, applying the HFACS framework to identify the relevant non-technical skills involved in the accidents. The resulting rating system covers five skill categories (leadership, situational awareness, communication, team work and decision making, each one with three rating elements. The framework is currently under evaluation tests in bridge simulators sessions, within an educational context.
Raiyn, Jamal; Tilchin, Oleg
In this paper we propose a method for the adaptive complex assessment (ACA) of the higher-order thinking (HOT) skills needed by students for problem solving, and we examine the impact of the method on the development of HOT skills in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Complexity in the assessment is provided by initial, formative, and…
Full Text Available The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be. The realisation that domestic chickens, our most abundant production animal, are behaviourally and cognitively sophisticated should encourage an increase in general appraise and fascination towards them. In turn, this should inspire increased use of them as both research and hobby animals, as well as improvements in their unfortunately often poor welfare.
Nelson, Nicole C
In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.
Sauer, Juergen; Chavaillaz, Alain
This experiment aimed to examine how skill lay-off and system reliability would affect operator behaviour in a simulated work environment under wide-range and large-choice adaptable automation comprising six different levels. Twenty-four participants were tested twice during a 2-hr testing session, with the second session taking place 8 months after the first. In the middle of the second testing session, system reliability changed. The results showed that after the retention interval trust increased and self-confidence decreased. Complacency was unaffected by the lay-off period. Diagnostic speed slowed down after the retention interval but diagnostic accuracy was maintained. No difference between experimental conditions was found for automation management behaviour (i.e. level of automation chosen and frequency of switching between levels). There were few effects of system reliability. Overall, the findings showed that subjective measures were more sensitive to the impact of skill lay-off than objective behavioural measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Porretta, David L.
The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators' perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura's social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face…
MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale
To determine the relationship of motor skills and the core behaviors of young children with autism, social affective skills and repetitive behaviors, as indicated through the calibrated autism severity scores. The univariate GLM tested the relationship of gross and fine motor skills measured by the gross motor scale and the fine motor scale of the MSEL with autism symptomology as measured by calibrated autism severity scores. Majority of the data collected took place in an autism clinic. A cohort of 159 young children with ASD (n=110), PDD-NOS (n=26) and non-ASD (developmental delay, n=23) between the ages of 12-33 months were recruited from early intervention studies and clinical referrals. Children with non-ASD (developmental delay) were included in this study to provide a range of scores indicted through calibrated autism severity. Not applicable. The primary outcome measures in this study were calibrated autism severity scores. Fine motor skills and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p motor skills displayed higher levels of calibrated autism severity. The fine and gross motor skills are significantly related to autism symptomology. There is more to focus on and new avenues to explore in the realm of discovering how to implement early intervention and rehabilitation for young children with autism and motor skills need to be a part of the discussion.
Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat
We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…
Thijs, G A
The European definition of General Practice states that GPs should use their core competence, amongst others, in their communication with patients. Their communication skills are particularly challenged in the field of lifestyle improvements. Most GPs feel they lack efficacy in achieving lifestyle changes. In November 2002 the Prevention Department of the Scientific Society of Flemish GPs (now Domus Medica) decided to start a project "consulting & behaviour change". Under this project, every Flemish GP should by the year 2007, have (amongst others things) a basic knowledge of the principles of lifestyle improvements and should be able to give a short advice to high risk patients. A literature search was conducted to make an inventory of models that could be used to train GPs. Experts at specific methods and topics were consulted to get acquainted with their specific approaches. Experts in the field of CME were gathered to discuss barriers and solutions to these barriers. During steering group meetings, several possible solutions were discussed. The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM-as theoretical framework) and brief motivational interviews (MI-as communication skill) were evaluated as offering the best opportunities for adapting the work situation of the GP. We promoted this approach to the GPs as an ABC concept (Anamnesis/Ask; Be the guide/Decision tree ("Beslissingsboom" in Dutch); Continuity) applied on different topics (smoke stop, alcohol, healthy food, physical activity). In our guidelines we pay more attention to brief motivational interviews for health behaviour changes. Recently we started developing an e-learning website as part of a larger learning project, this in cooperaion with different Flemish partners and disciplines. The Trans Theoretical Model and the brief motivational interviewing approach seem to be accepted by health care, educational and scientific organisations. The process of integrating this approach in the GP's daily practice has to be
Davis, Melanie L; Thwaites, Richard; Freeston, Mark H; Bennett-Levy, James
The need for effective training methods for enhancing cognitive-behavioural therapist competency is not only relevant to new therapists but also to experienced therapists looking to retain and further enhance their skills. Self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) is a self-experiential cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) training programme, which combines the experience of practicing CBT methods on oneself with structured reflection on the implications of the experience for clinical practice. In order to build on previous qualitative studies of SP/SR, which have mainly focused on trainee CBT therapists, the aim of the current study was to quantify the impact of SP/SR on the therapeutic skills of an experienced cohort of CBT therapists. Fourteen CBT therapists were recruited to participate in an SP/SR programme specifically adapted for experienced therapists. In the context of a quasi-experimental design including multiple baselines within a single-case methodology, therapists provided self-ratings of technical cognitive therapy skill and interpersonal empathic skill at four critical time points: baseline, pre-SP/SR and post-SP/SR and follow-up. Analysis of programme completers (n = 7) indicated that SP/SR enhances both technical skill and interpersonal therapeutic skill. Further intention-to-treat group (n = 14) analyses including both those who left the programme early (n = 3) and those who partially completed the programme (n = 4) added to the robustness of findings with respect to technical cognitive therapy skills but not interpersonal empathic skills. It was concluded that SP/SR, as a training and development programme, could offer an avenue to further therapeutic skill enhancement in already experienced CBT therapists. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thomas J. Marlowe
Full Text Available Improvisational theater, creative role-playing and open-ended scenarios are increasingly being used as ways to emphasize the importance of combining planning with flexibility and evolution to respond to changes in context. These skills and capabilities are extremely valuable in teaching, especially for strengthening communication and interpersonal skills, as well as the capacity for critical thinking and problem solving. Further, this combination of planning with flexibility is also a major theme of agile software development and a number of other problem-solving domains, and in the collaborative development of intellectual property in technical areas. With improvisation, the plan becomes less of a fixed framework, and more of a guideline. In software engineering, it becomes a mutable structure on which to hang goals and objectives, progress, processes, artifacts, and properties. In this submission, we explore the ramifications of this approach.
Johnson, Jeffrey G; Liu, Lydia; Cohen, Patricia
To investigate the associations of beneficial parenting behaviours with adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits that persist into adulthood among individuals in the community. Families (n = 669) participating in the Children in the Community Study were interviewed during the childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood of the offspring at the mean ages of 6, 14, 16, 22, and 33 years. Twelve types of beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviour, reported by offspring at the mean age of 16 years, were associated with elevated offspring personality resiliency, at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years, and with low offspring personality disorder trait levels. These longitudinal associations remained significant when histories of childhood behaviour problems and parental psychiatric disorder were controlled statistically. Similar linear (that is, dose-dependent) associations were observed between the number of beneficial parenting behaviours during childhood and adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Maternal and paternal behaviours were independently associated with both adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits. Beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviours may promote the development of adaptive offspring personality traits that endure into adulthood, and they may be prospectively associated with reduced levels of maladaptive offspring traits. These associations may not be attributable to childhood behaviour problems or parental psychiatric disorders, and they may be equally evident during early and middle adulthood.
Rosser Limiñana, Ana; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Mateo Pérez, Miguel Ángel
To assess the behavioural problems of children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence situations, and the moderating effect of mother parenting. We analysed, using the Child Behavior CheckList, behavioural problems of 46 children between 6 and 16 years, and the relationship between the detected problems and parenting skills shown in the mother-child interaction in shelters. Increased behavioural problems were detected in children, compared with normative population. Difficulties in parenting skills in mother-child interaction especially connect with the manifestation of externalizing problems in children. Living in a gender violence environment affects children's psychosocial adjustment and it damages the victim's parental competence. Consequently, the intervention of socio-health professionals with Intimate partner violence victims should pay more attention to detect the difficulties of children and restore the parenting skills of the mothers in order to alleviate the repercussions of gender violence on their children. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Siu, Ka-Chun; Best, Bradley J; Kim, Jong Wook; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Ritter, Frank E
The Department of Defense has pursued the integration of virtual reality simulation into medical training and applications to fulfill the need to train 100,000 military health care personnel annually. Medical personnel transitions, both when entering an operational area and returning to the civilian theater, are characterized by the need to rapidly reacquire skills that are essential but have decayed through disuse or infrequent use. Improved efficiency in reacquiring such skills is critical to avoid the likelihood of mistakes that may result in mortality and morbidity. We focus here on a study testing a theory of how the skills required for minimally invasive surgery for military surgeons are learned and retained. Our adaptive virtual reality surgical training system will incorporate an intelligent mechanism for tracking performance that will recognize skill deficiencies and generate an optimal adaptive training schedule. Our design is modeling skill acquisition based on a skill retention theory. The complexity of appropriate training tasks is adjusted according to the level of retention and/or surgical experience. Based on preliminary work, our system will improve the capability to interactively assess the level of skills learning and decay, optimizes skill relearning across levels of surgical experience, and positively impact skill maintenance. Our system could eventually reduce mortality and morbidity by providing trainees with the reexperience they need to help make a transition between operating theaters. This article reports some data that will support adaptive tutoring of minimally invasive surgery and similar surgical skills. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki
In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.
Wolfgang H Sommer
Full Text Available The striatum plays a key role in motor learning. Striatal function depends strongly on dopaminergic neurotransmission, but little is known about neuroadaptions of the dopamine system during striatal learning. Using an established task that allows differentiation between acquisition and consolidation of motor learning, we here investigate D1 and D2-like receptor binding and transcriptional levels after initial and long-term training of mice. We found profound reduction in D1 binding within the dorsomedial striatum (DMS after the first training session on the accelerated rotarod and a progressive reduction in D2-like binding within the dorsolateral striatum (DLS after extended training. Given that similar phase- and region-specific striatal neuroadaptations have been found also during learning of complex procedural tasks including habit formation and automatic responding, the here observed neurochemical alterations are important for our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders that show a dysbalance in the function of striatal circuits, such as in addictive behaviours.
Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for deliberate self-harm (DSH) and emerging evidence suggests DBT skills training alone may be a useful adaptation of the treatment. DBT skills are presumed to reduce maladaptive efforts to regulate emotional distress, such as DSH, by teaching adaptive methods of emotion regulation. However, the impact of DBT skills training on DSH and emotion regulation remains unclear. This study examined the Living Through Distress (LTD) programme, a DBT-informed skills group provided in an inpatient setting. Eighty-two adults presenting with DSH or Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) were offered places in LTD, in addition to their usual care. A further 21 clients on the waiting list for LTD were recruited as a treatment-as-usual (TAU) group. DSH, anxiety, depression, and emotion regulation were assessed at baseline and either post-intervention or 6 week follow-up. Greater reductions in the frequency of DSH and improvements in some aspects of emotion regulation were associated with completion of LTD, as compared with TAU. Improvements in DSH were maintained at 3 month follow-up. This suggests providing a brief intensive DBT-informed skills group may be a useful intervention for DSH.
Genetic counselors are trained health care professionals who effectively integrate both psychosocial counseling and information-giving into their practice. Preparing genetic counseling students for clinical practice is a challenging task, particularly when helping them develop effective and active counseling skills. Resistance to incorporating these skills may stem from decreased confidence, fear of causing harm or a lack of clarity of psycho-social goals. The author reflects on the personal challenges experienced in teaching genetic counselling students to work with psychological and social complexity, and proposes a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum model and methodology to guide students in the use of advanced counseling skills.
Morelli, Federico; Mikula, Peter; Benedetti, Yanina; Bussière, Raphaël; Jerzak, Leszek; Tryjanowski, Piotr
Urban environments are very heterogeneous, and birds living in the proximity of humans have to adapt to local conditions, e.g. by changing their behavioural response to potential predators. In this study, we tested whether the escape distance of birds (measured as flight initiation distance; FID) differed between parks and cemeteries, areas characterized by different microhabitat conditions and human conduct, that are determinants of animal behaviour at large spatial scales. While escape behaviour of park populations of birds was often examined, cemetery populations have not been studied to the same extent and a large-scale comparison is still missing. Overall, we collected 2139 FID estimates for 44 bird species recorded in 79 parks and 90 cemeteries in four European countries: Czech Republic, France, Italy and Poland. Mixed model procedure was applied to study escape behaviour in relation to type of area (park or cemetery), environmental characteristics (area size, coverage by trees, shrubs, grass, chapels, tombstones, flowerbeds, number of street lamps) and human activity (human density, pedestrians speed and ratio of men/women). Birds allowed people closer in cemeteries than in parks in all countries. This pattern was persistent even when focusing on intraspecific differences in FID between populations of the most common bird species. Escape distance of birds was negatively correlated with the size of parks/cemeteries, while positively associated with tombstone coverage and human density in both types of habitat. Our findings highlight the ability of birds to adapt their behaviour to different types of urban areas, based on local environmental conditions, including the character of human-bird interactions. Our results also suggest that this behavioural pattern may be widespread across urban landscapes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl
The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…
Liu Jing; Yao Runming; Wang Juan; Li Baizhan
Occupants’ behaviour when improving the indoor environment plays a significant role in saving energy in buildings. Therefore the key step to reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions from buildings is to understand how occupants interact with the environment they are exposed to in terms of achieving thermal comfort and well-being; though such interaction is complex. This paper presents a dynamic process of occupant behaviours involving technological, personal and psychological adaptations in response to varied thermal conditions based on the data covering four seasons gathered from the field study in Chongqing, China. It demonstrates that occupants are active players in environmental control and their adaptive responses are driven strongly by ambient thermal stimuli and vary from season to season and from time to time, even on the same day. Positive, dynamic, behavioural adaptation will help save energy used in heating and cooling buildings. However, when environmental parameters cannot fully satisfy occupants’ requirements, negative behaviours could conflict with energy saving. The survey revealed that about 23% of windows are partly open for fresh air when air-conditioners are in operation in summer. This paper addresses the issues how the building and environmental systems should be designed, operated and managed in a way that meets the requirements of energy efficiency without compromising wellbeing and productivity. - Highlights: ► A year-long field study of observing user behaviour in workplace. ► Occupants’ behavioural adaptation plays an important role in reducing energy from buildings. ► Occupants actively and dynamically respond to outdoor climate change. ► Positive behavioural adaptations will eliminate the use of heating/cooling facilities. ► The poor use of heating/cooling facilities will cause a significant waste of energy.
Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.
Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang
Abstract Objective: To study behavioural skills at the age of seven in a Danish population of children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born from 1997 to 2003. Population: Data was obtained from a cohort of about 100,000 women...... and their children. All singletons born in gestational week 39-45 were identified, and then restricted to children whose mothers filled out a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (STQ) when they were seven years of age. The study population constituted 33842 singletons (21249 born at term and 12593 born post...
Sinclair, Alison J.
The ability to apply prior knowledge to new challenges is a skill that is highly valued by employers, but the confidence to achieve this does not come naturally to all students. An essential step to becoming an independent researcher requires a transition between simply following a fail-safe set of instructions to being able to adapt a known…
Roessger, Kevin M.
In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…
This paper examines the effect of adaptive skill acquisition on youth development in the Niger delta area of Nigeria with emphasis on Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from 99 respondents, which cut across four stakeholder institutions in the study area. Data analysis was by ...
Ebenehi, Amos Shaibu; Rashid, Abdullah Mat; Bakar, Ab Rahim
This paper examined predictors of career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria. A sample of 603 higher education students randomly selected from six colleges of education in Nigeria participated in this study. A set of self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection, and multiple linear regression analysis was used…
Scope, Alison; Empson, Janet; McHale, Sue
Cognitive performance was compared between two groups of typically developing children, who had been observed and rated as differing significantly in their attentional skills at school. The participants were 24 8- and 9-year-old children scoring poorly relative to peers, on a classroom observation scale and teacher rating scale for attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity [low-attentional skills (LAS) group] and 24 sex- and age-matched children scoring at a high level compared to peers [high-attentional skills (HAS) group]. The two groups were compared on a series of cognitive tasks to assess executive function (EF). The LAS group performed within the typical range yetat a significantly lower level than the HAS group on the majority of the EF tasks administered, namely working memory and inhibition measures, even though there were no significant differences between the groups on a measure of intellectual ability. Working memory measures followed by measures of inhibition emerged as the best predictors of group membership. These findings provide empirical evidence that there are individual differences in attentional skills. Specifically, that there is a relationship between behavioural inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and cognitive performance on working memory and inhibitory control tasks.
Notebaert, Lies; Chrystal, Jessica; Clarke, Patrick J F; Holmes, Emily A; MacLeod, Colin
A lack of behavioural engagement in health promotion or disease prevention is a problem across many health domains. In these cases where people face a genuine danger, a reduced focus on threat and low levels of anxiety or worry are maladaptive in terms of promoting protection or prevention behaviour. Therefore, it is possible that increasing the processing of threat will increase worry and thereby enhance engagement in adaptive behaviour. Laboratory studies have shown that cognitive bias modification (CBM) can increase or decrease anxiety and worry when increased versus decreased processing of threat is encouraged. In the current study, CBM for interpretation (CBM-I) is used to target engagement in sun protection behaviour. The goal was to investigate whether inducing a negative rather than a positive interpretation bias for physical threat information can enhance worry elicited when viewing a health campaign video (warning against melanoma skin cancer), and consequently lead to more adaptive behaviour (sun protection). Participants were successfully trained to either adopt a positive or negative interpretation bias using physical threat scenarios. However, contrary to expectations results showed that participants in the positive training condition reported higher levels of worry elicited by the melanoma video than participants in the negative training condition. Video elicited worry was, however, positively correlated with a measure of engagement in sun protection behaviour, suggesting that higher levels of worry do promote adaptive behaviour. These findings imply that more research is needed to determine under which conditions increased versus decreased processing of threat can drive adaptive worry. Various potential explanations for the current findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Serlachius, A; Northam, E; Frydenberg, E; Cameron, F
Few qualitative studies have examined the views of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) regarding psychosocial programme development and content. We conducted focus groups with 13 adolescents with T1DM to explore stressors and gain feedback on adapting a generic coping skills programme. The following prevalent stressors were identified: parental/adolescent conflict, balancing self-management and daily life, and health concerns. Prevalent views on programme adaptation included enhancing social support and adding diabetes-specific information and skills. Based on these data, the programme was adapted to address stressors and support self-management, thus better meeting the needs of, and appeal to, adolescents with T1DM.
Rossano, Claudia; Gambineri, Simone; Fanini, Lucia; Durier, Virginie; Rivault, Colette; Scapini, Felicita
The aim of the present study was to test sun orientation and rhythmic activity of two sandhopper populations from two Atlantic macro-tidal beaches. A population from Le Verger beach (orientated to 346°, Ille et Vilaine, Brittany, France) and a population from Damgan (orientated to 195°, Morbihan, Brittany, France), were tested on the beach under clear sky discriminating for landscape vision. For both populations locomotor activity rhythm was recorded in the laboratory. The two beaches differed for climatic features, tidal range and for human use. Both talitrid populations resulted very well orientated toward the shoreline, and both used solar position and landscape vision to orient. However the multiple regression analysis of orientation with climatic features showed a different use of local cues by the two populations and a slight influence of tidal regime (ebbing and rising tide), in spite of the supralittoral zonation of sandhoppers. In the laboratory they showed a well defined rhythmic behaviour as well as a bimodal rhythmicity, explained as a tidal one. These results are a new brick in the complex picture of orientation and rhythm studies on sandy beach invertebrates.
building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.
Tükel, Şermin; Björelius, Helena; Henningsson, Gunilla; McAllister, Anita; Eliasson, Ann Christin
Undiagnosed motor and behavioural problems have been reported for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). This study aims to understand the extent of these problems by determining the profile of and relationships between speech/non-speech oral, manual and overall body motor functions and adaptive behaviours in CAS. Eighteen children (five girls and 13 boys) with CAS, 4 years 4 months to 10 years 6 months old, participated in this study. The assessments used were the Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children (VMPAC), Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) and Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System (ABAS-II). Median result of speech/non-speech oral motor function was between -1 and -2 SD of the mean VMPAC norms. For BOT-2 and ABAS-II, the median result was between the mean and -1 SD of test norms. However, on an individual level, many children had co-occurring difficulties (below -1 SD of the mean) in overall and manual motor functions and in adaptive behaviour, despite few correlations between sub-tests. In addition to the impaired speech motor output, children displayed heterogeneous motor problems suggesting the presence of a global motor deficit. The complex relationship between motor functions and behaviour may partly explain the undiagnosed developmental difficulties in CAS.
The study investigated the relationship between anxiety level and adaptive behaviour of one hundred and fifty randomly selected fresh students of Covenant University. There were a total of seventy-five (75) males with mean age of 17.59 and SD = 1.54 and seventy-five (75) females with mean age of 17.24 and SD = 1.51 ...
Burns, Emma; Martin, Andrew J.
Adaptability has been recently proposed as cognitive, behavioural, and emotional regulation assisting individuals to effectively respond to change, uncertainty and novelty. Given students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have known impairments with regulatory functions, they may be at particular disadvantage as they seek to…
Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio; Pigolotti, Simone
We examine the effect of adaptive foraging behaviour within a tri-trophic food web with intra-guild predation. The intra-guild prey is allowed to adjust its foraging effort so as to achieve an optimal per capita growth rate in the face of realized feeding, predation risk and foraging cost. Adapti...
Gorzelak, Monika A; Asay, Amanda K; Pickles, Brian J; Simard, Suzanne W
Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. We have found that the behavioural changes in ectomycorrhizal plants depend on environmental cues, the identity of the plant neighbour and the characteristics of the MN. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground 'tree talk' is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.
Sophia Van Hees
Full Text Available We investigated transfer of the skills developed by competitive Scrabble players. Previous studies reported superior performance for Scrabble experts on the lexical decision task (LDT, suggesting near transfer of Scrabble skills. Here we investigated the potential for far transfer to a symbol decision task (SDT; in particular, transfer of enhanced long-term working memory for vertically presented stimuli. Our behavioural results showed no evidence for far transfer. Despite years of intensive practice, Scrabble experts were no faster and no more accurate than controls in the SDT. However, our fMRI and EEG data from the SDT suggest that the neural repertoire that Scrabble experts develop supports task performance even outside of the practised domain, in a non-linguistic context. The regions engaged during the SDT were different across groups: controls engaged temporal-frontal regions, whereas Scrabble experts engaged posterior visual and temporal-parietal regions. In Scrabble experts, activity related to Scrabble skill (anagramming scores included regions associated with visual-spatial processing and long-term working memory, and overlapped with regions previously shown to be associated with Scrabble expertise in the near transfer task (LDT. Analysis of source waveforms within these regions showed that participants with higher anagramming scores had larger P300 amplitudes, potentially reflecting greater working memory capacity, or less variability in the participants who perform the task more efficiently. Thus, the neuroimaging results provide evidence of brain transfer in the absence of behavioural transfer, providing new clues about the consequences of long-term training associated with competitive Scrabble expertise.
Crespin, Oscar M; Okrainec, Allan; Kwong, Andrea V; Habaz, Ilay; Jimenez, Maria Carolina; Szasz, Peter; Weiss, Ethan; Gonzalez, Cecilia G; Mosko, Jeffrey D; Liu, Louis W C; Swanstrom, Lee L; Perretta, Silvana; Shlomovitz, Eran
The fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) training box is a validated tool, already accessible to surgical trainees to hone their laparoscopic skills. We aim to investigate the feasibility of adapting the FLS box for the practice and assessment of endoscopic skills. This would allow for a highly available, reusable, low-cost, mechanical trainer. The design and development process was based on a user-centered design, which is a combination of the design thinking method and cognitive task analysis. The process comprises four phases: empathy, cognitive, prototyping/adaptation, and end user testing. The underlying idea was to utilize as many of the existing components of FLS training to maintain simplicity and cost effectiveness while allowing for the practice of clinically relevant endoscopic skills. A sample size of 18 participants was calculated to be sufficient to detect performance differences between experts and trainees using a two tailed t test with alpha set at 0.05, standard deviation of 5.5, and a power of 80%. Adaptation to the FLS box included two fundamental attachments: a front panel with an insertion point for an endoscope and a shaft which provides additional support and limits movement of the scope. The panel also allows for mounting of retroflexion tasks. Six endoscopic tasks inspired by FLS were designed (two of which utilize existing FLS components). Pilot testing with 38 participants showed high user's satisfaction and demonstrated that the trainer was robust and reliable. Task performance times was able to discriminate between trainees and experts for all six tasks. A mechanical, reusable, low-cost adaptation of the FLS training box for endoscopic skills is feasible and has high user satisfaction. Preliminary testing shows that the simulator is able to discriminate between trainees and experts. Following further validation, this adaptation may act as a supplement to the FES program.
Toupin, Jean; Le Corff, Yann; Pauzé, Robert
To describe symptomatology and specific psychological, social, and academic adaptation in adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder, as well as their family situation. Using binomial logistic regressions, this study compares adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (n=25) with adolescents with the same behaviour problems but no comorbid depressive disorder (n=99). Sex-specific interaction impacts are examined. While both groups have several similar characteristics, youth with a dual diagnosis have more oppositional symptoms and poorer self-esteem. Analyses show no interaction impact from sex variable. Adolescents in both groups would benefit from similar interventions regarding disruptive behaviour disorders and some related problems, such as using psychoactive drugs, socializing with delinquent peers, and difficulty functioning in school. Adolescents with a comorbid depressive disorder need special attention, given the more significant oppositional symptomatology and the poorer self-esteem.
Çiğdem Özcan, Zeynep
Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and the three dimensions of self-regulated learning (motivation, metacognition, and behaviour), and whether this relationship is of a predictive nature. The sample of this study consists of 323 students from two public secondary schools in Istanbul. In this study, the mathematics homework behaviour scale was administered to measure students' homework behaviours. For metacognition measurements, the mathematics metacognition skills test for students was administered to measure offline mathematical metacognitive skills, and the metacognitive experience scale was used to measure the online mathematical metacognitive experience. The internal and external motivational scales used in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test were administered to measure motivation. A hierarchic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the study. Based on the findings, a model was formed in which 24% of the total variance in students' mathematical problem-solving skills is explained by the three sub-dimensions of the self-regulated learning model: internal motivation (13%), willingness to do homework (7%), and post-problem retrospective metacognitive experience (4%).
Erkelens, Ian M; Thompson, Benjamin; Bobier, William R
Adaptation to changing environmental demands is central to maintaining optimal motor system function. Current theories suggest that adaptation in both the skeletal-motor and oculomotor systems involves a combination of fast (reflexive) and slow (recalibration) mechanisms. Here we used the oculomotor vergence system as a model to investigate the mechanisms underlying slow motor adaptation. Unlike reaching with the upper limbs, vergence is less susceptible to changes in cognitive strategy that can affect the behaviour of motor adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that mechanisms of slow motor adaptation reflect early neural processing by assessing the linearity of adaptive responses over a large range of stimuli. Using varied disparity stimuli in conflict with accommodation, the slow adaptation of tonic vergence was found to exhibit a linear response whereby the rate (R(2) = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and amplitude (R(2) = 0.65, P < 0.0001) of the adaptive effects increased proportionally with stimulus amplitude. These results suggest that this slow adaptive mechanism is an early neural process, implying a fundamental physiological nature that is potentially dominated by subcortical and cerebellar substrates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Husted, Margaret; Banks, Adrian P; Seiss, Ellen
The goal conflict model of eating (Stroebe, Mensink, Aarts, Schut, & Kruglanski, 2008) proposes differences in eating behaviour result from peoples' experience of holding conflicting goals of eating enjoyment and weight maintenance. However, little is understood about the relationship between eating behaviour and the cognitive processes involved in conflict. This study aims to investigate associations between eating behaviour traits and cognitive conflict processes, specifically the application of cognitive control when processing distracting food pictures. A flanker task using food and non-food pictures was used to examine individual differences in conflict adaptation. Participants responded to target pictures whilst ignoring distracting flanking pictures. Individual differences in eating behaviour traits, attention towards target pictures, and ability to apply cognitive control through adaptation to conflicting picture trials were analysed. Increased levels of external and emotional eating were related to slower responses to food pictures indicating food target avoidance. All participants showed greater distraction by food compared to non-food pictures. Of particular significance, increased levels of emotional eating were associated with greater conflict adaptation for conflicting food pictures only. Emotional eaters demonstrate greater application of cognitive control for conflicting food pictures as part of a food avoidance strategy. This could represent an attempt to inhibit their eating enjoyment goal in order for their weight maintenance goal to dominate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abu-Dakka, Fares J.; Nemec, Bojan; Jørgensen, Jimmy A.
We propose a new methodology for learning and adaption of manipulation skills that involve physical contact with the environment. Pure position control is unsuitable for such tasks because even small errors in the desired trajectory can cause significant deviations from the desired forces...... and torques. The proposed algorithm takes a reference Cartesian trajectory and force/torque profile as input and adapts the movement so that the resulting forces and torques match the reference profiles. The learning algorithm is based on dynamic movement primitives and quaternion representation...
Wichmann, Matthias C.; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Jeltsch, Florian; Grimm, Volker
The predicted climate change causes deep concerns on the effects of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns on species viability and, in turn, on biodiversity. Models of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) provide a powerful tool to assess the risk of species extinction. However, most PVA models do not take into account the potential effects of behavioural adaptations. Organisms might adapt to new environmental situations and thereby mitigate negative effects of climate change. To demonstrate such mitigation effects, we use an existing PVA model describing a population of the tawny eagle ( Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari. This model does not include behavioural adaptations. We develop a new model by assuming that the birds enlarge their average territory size to compensate for lower amounts of precipitation. Here, we found the predicted increase in risk of extinction due to climate change to be much lower than in the original model. However, this "buffering" of climate change by behavioural adaptation is not very effective in coping with increasing interannual variances. We refer to further examples of ecological "buffering mechanisms" from the literature and argue that possible buffering mechanisms should be given due consideration when the effects of climate change on biodiversity are to be predicted.
The study was designed to examine the value behaviour and interpersonal problem solving skills of the preschool children according to variables like their age, sex and the type of the schools they attend and to determine the relation between their value behaviour and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study consists of 321 children who were selected by random sampling method among the children of 48-72 months who attend to public and private kindergartens in the districts of Keçi...
Kesler, Shelli R; Sheau, Kristen; Koovakkattu, Della; Reiss, Allan L
Number sense is believed to be critical for math development. It is putatively an implicitly learned skill and may therefore have limitations in terms of being explicitly trained, particularly in individuals with altered neurodevelopment. A case series study was conducted using an adaptive, computerised programme that focused on number sense and general problem-solving skills. The study was designed to investigate training effects on performance as well as brain function in a group of children with Turner syndrome who are at risk for math difficulties and altered development of math-related brain networks. Standardised measurements of math and math-related cognitive skills as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to assess behavioural and neurobiological outcomes following training. Participants demonstrated significantly increased basic math skills, including number sense, and calculation as well as processing speed, cognitive flexibility and visual-spatial processing skills. With the exception of calculation, increased scores also were clinically significant (i.e., recovered) based on reliable change analysis. Participants additionally demonstrated significantly increased bilateral parietal lobe activation and decreased frontal-striatal and mesial temporal activation following the training programme. These findings show proof of concept for an accessible training approach that may be potentially associated with improved number sense, math and related skills, as well as functional changes in math-related neural systems, even among individuals at risk for altered brain development.
Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K
This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael
In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.
Carvajal, Bielka; Stuardo, Valeria; Manríquez, José Manuel; Belmar, Julieta; Folch, Cinta
To adapt a behavioural questionnaire for second-generation HIV/AIDS surveillance in female sex workers (FSWs) in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Qualitative study of instruments validation. A Spanish instrument adapted in Catalonia was validated through a translation and back-translation of the original version. The content validity was determined through a modified Delphi method, via FSW and HIV experts representing community, political and institutional levels. Applicability aspects were determined by the application of the questionnaire to FSW in the Metropolitan Region. The questionnaire, drafted in Spain, was successfully adapted to Chilean Spanish. The content validity process enabled sections to be created that address HIV in FSWs. The adapted questionnaire takes less than 15minutes to complete, which makes it usable in fieldwork. The 61 women surveyed came from different countries (all were Latin Americans) and had different educational levels; all this enabled potential applicability problems to be detected. The adapted questionnaire for Chile contains all the UNAIDS indicators for FSWs, as well as the recommended indicators of Family Health International for bio-behavioural surveillance. Said questionnaire serves as a tool for second-generation HIV/other STD surveillance and further contributes to preventive policies in Chilean FSWs. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan
In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion. PMID:26881743
Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan
In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.
Full Text Available In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Wu, Hing-Man; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin
To (1) develop a computerized adaptive test for gross motor skills (GM-CAT) as a diagnostic test and an outcome measure, using the gross motor skills subscale of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT-GM) as the candidate item bank; and (2) examine the psychometric properties and the efficiency of the GM-CAT. Retrospective study. A developmental center of a medical center. Children with and without developmental delay (N=1738). Not applicable. The CDIIT-GM contains 56 universal items on gross motor skills assessing children's antigravity control, locomotion, and body movement coordination. The item bank of the GM-CAT had 44 items that met the dichotomous Rasch model's assumptions. High Rasch person reliabilities were found for each estimated gross motor skill for the GM-CAT (Rasch person reliabilities =.940-.995, SE=.68-2.43). For children aged 6 to 71 months, the GM-CAT had good concurrent validity (r values =.97-.98), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristics curve =.80-.98), and moderate to large responsiveness (effect size =.65-5.82). The averages of items administered for the GM-CAT were 7 to 11, depending on the age group. The results of this study support the use of the GM-CAT as a diagnostic and outcome measure to estimate children's gross motor skills in both research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome, Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1 verbal and nonverbal communication, (2 reciprocal social interaction and (3 repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions: * What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? * What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? * What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? * Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods: Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results: In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT, Applied behavioural analysis (ABA. Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and
Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N; Greiner, Wolfgang
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome), Asperger's disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) reciprocal social interaction and (3) repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual?What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness?What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism?Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT), Applied behavioural analysis (ABA)). Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and picture exchange communication system. Behaviour analytic interventions
Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang
Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome), Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) reciprocal social interaction and (3) repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT), Applied behavioural analysis (ABA)). Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and picture exchange
Kilner, Rebecca M; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Henshaw, Jonathan M; Jarrett, Benjamin J M; De Gasperin, Ornela; Attisano, Alfredo; Kokko, Hanna
The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet, virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care. We manipulated the early-life environment and measured the fitness payoffs associated with the supply of parental care when larvae reached maturity. We found that (1) adults that received low levels of care as larvae were less successful at raising larger broods and suffered greater mortality as a result: they were low-quality parents. Furthermore, (2) high-quality males that raised offspring with low-quality females subsequently suffered greater mortality than brothers of equivalent quality, which reared larvae with higher quality females. Our analyses identify three general ways in which parental effects can change the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait: by influencing the associated fitness benefits and costs; by consequently changing the evolutionary outcome of social interactions; and by modifying the evolutionarily stable expression of behavioural traits that are themselves parental effects.
Full Text Available Objective: This research has been carried out with the aim of adaptation, standardization and finding the validity and reliability of Visual-Motor Skills-revised Test for children. Materials & Methods: A multi-stage sampling from the children of the city of Tehran resulted in a sample of 1281 subjects, ages 2,11 through 13,11.the test consisted of 23 geometric designs and each of the designs was assessed through a definite criteria and was scored as errors(weakness and accuracies(strength.For adaptation and standardization of this test, at first step the examiner`s manual and the test items were translated into Farsi. The final form of the test was obtained after performing the pre-tryout and tryout stages, and doing the data analysis by classic model of reliability. Internal consistency coefficients of the subtests were obtained by Cronbach`s Alpha time consistency of the subtests and compound scores were obtained by test-retest. Alpha coefficients for the compound scores were obtained by Guilford formula, which is designed for estimating the compound scores. To obtain the content validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity of the subtests and compound scores, appropriate methods were used. Results: The results obtained ensure the applicability of this test for the evaluation of visual-motor skills of children of Tehran. Conclusion: According to the findings, this test can be used for the disorders in eye-hand coordination, the identification of children with disorders in visual – motor skills. It can also be used for the documentation of the development of fine – motor skills specially in visual – motor skills in 3-14 years – old children.
Miles, B S; Anderson, P; Agostino, A; Golomb, M R; Achonu, C; Blanchette, V; Feldman, B M; McLimont, M; Revel-Vilk, S; Stain, A; Barnes, M A
Brain insults are a risk factor for neuropsychological and academic deficits across several paediatric conditions. However, little is known about the specific effects of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in boys with haemophilia. The study compared neurocognitive, academic and socio-emotional/behavioural outcomes of boys with haemophilia with and without a history of ICH. Of 172 consecutive patients seen at a Pediatric Comprehensive Care Hemophila Centre, 18 had a history of ICH. Sixteen boys between the ages of 3 and 17 years were available for study and were matched to controls with haemophilia of the same age and disease severity and on the basis of maternal education. Groups were compared on neuropsychological and academic outcomes. Attention, socio-emotional function and executive skills were compared using data from parent questionnaires. Differences were found in intellectual function, visual-spatial skill, fine motor dexterity and particularly language-related skills, including vocabulary, word reading and applied math problem solving. Despite these group differences, outcomes were within the average range for most boys with ICH. No group differences were found in behavioural and socio-emotional functioning. Although ICH in haemophilia is not benign, it was not associated with significant cognitive and academic consequences for most boys. Early neuropsychological assessment may be indicated when there is a history of ICH. Investigation of age at ICH and quantitative measures of brain in relation to neurocognitive outcomes in larger groups of boys with ICH would be useful. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Broom, Donald M
The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and
Hayes, Ben; Richardson, Sally; Hindle, Sarah; Grayson, Katy
This paper reports an action research project in a school in the UK designed to investigate the impact of a brief Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) intervention in promoting skills of non-teaching staff in positive behaviour management. A summary of the literature in relation to VIG is provided before describing the project and data collected. Ten…
A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues' (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write 'what they would say next.' In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flynn, Fiona M; Sandaker, Kjersti; Ballangrud, Randi
There is increasing focus on building safety into anaesthesia practice, with excellence in anaesthesia as an aspirational goal. Non-technical skills are an important factor in excellence and improved patient safety, though there have been few systematic attempts at integrating them into anaesthesia nursing education. This study aimed to test the reliability of NANTS-no, a specially adapted behavioural marker system for nurse anaesthetists in Norway, and explore the development of non-technical skills in student nurse anaesthetists. The pre-test post-test design incorporated a 10-week simulation-based programme, where non-technical skills in 14 student nurse anaesthetists were rated on three different occasions during high-fidelity simulation, before and after taking part in a training course. NANTS-no demonstrated high overall inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.91), high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85-0.92). A significant improvement was demonstrated across all categories of non-technical skills, with greatest improvements between the first and third and second and third sessions. There was also a significant improvement in two categories between the first and second sessions. NANTS-no is therefore suitable for assessing non-technical skills during simulation training in anaesthesia nursing education. More research is needed to validate its use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.
This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…
Hess, Markus; Scheithauer, Herbert; Kleiber, Dieter; Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990) is a multirater, norm-referenced instrument measuring social skills and adaptive behavior in preschool children. The aims of the present study were (a) to test the factorial structure of the Parent Form of the SSRS for the first time with a German preschool sample (391…
Kramer, Ueli; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Berthoud, Laurent; de Roten, Yves; Marquet, Pierre; Kolly, Stéphane; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Page, Dominique
Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)-informed skills training for borderline personality disorder (BPD) aims at the development of specific emotion regulation skills in patients, particularly with regard to the regulation of problematic anger. While the effects of dialectical behaviour skills training have been shown, their processes of change are rarely examined. Neacsiu, Rizvi and Linehan (2010) found that patient's self-reported use of emotion regulation skills was a mediator of therapeutic change in these treatments; however, they found no effect for problematic anger. From an integrative perspective on anger (Pascual-Leone & Greenberg, 2007; Pascual-Leone & Paivio, 2013), there are several forms of anger, varying in their degree of therapeutic productivity. The present add-on randomized controlled trial included n = 41 patients with BPD (n = 21 DBT-informed skills training versus n = 20 treatment as usual). The first study examined the outcome of the DBT-informed skills training encompassing basic components of training in mindfulness, distress tolerance, interpersonal effectiveness and emotion regulation. Results showed that symptom reduction was significantly greater in the DBT-informed skills training, compared with the treatment as usual. The second study used process assessment, for which all patient completers underwent a 50-min-long psychological interview both early and late in treatment, which was rated using the Classification of Affective Meaning States. DBT-informed skills training produced increased levels of primary 'assertive' anger, as compared with the treatment as usual, whereas no effect was found for 'rejecting' secondary anger. Most importantly, we showed that changes in assertive anger mediated the reported symptom reduction, in particular in patient's social roles. We discuss these results in the context of underlying mechanisms of change in DBT skills group treatments, in particular towards developing more productive forms of
Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen
Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.
Laurence, Brian; Bertera, Elizabeth M; Feimster, Tawana; Hollander, Roberta; Stroman, Carolyn
The purpose of this study was to adapt the twenty-six-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) developed for medical students for use among dental students and to test the psychometric properties of the modified instrument. The sample consisted of 250 students (an 80.1 percent response rate) in years D1 to D4 at a dental school in Washington, DC. The mean age of participants was 26.6 years with a range from twenty-one to forty-two years. Slightly more than half of the participants were female (52.4 percent) and were African American or of African descent (51.7 percent). Principal components analysis was used to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. The index that resulted measured both positive and negative attitudes toward learning communications skills. The final twenty-four-item scale had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.87), and the study obtained four important factors-Learning, Importance, Quality, and Success-that explained a significant portion of the variance (49.1 percent). Stratified analysis by demographic variables suggested that there may be gender and ethnic differences in the students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. The authors conclude that the CSAS modified for dental students, or DCSAS, is a useful tool to assess attitudes towards learning communication skills among dental students.
Adams, Judith A; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A; Thygeson, Marcus
Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, we describe behaviours that providers used while interacting with family members facing the challenges of recognising that their loved one was dying in the ICU. In this prospective pilot case study, we selected one ICU patient with end-stage illness who lacked decision-making capacity. Participants included four family members, one nurse and two physicians. The principle investigator observed and recorded three family conferences and conducted one in-depth interview with the family. Three members of the research team independently coded the transcripts using a priori codes to describe the Adaptive Leadership behaviours that providers used to facilitate the family's adaptive work, met to compare and discuss the codes and resolved all discrepancies. We identified behaviours used by nurses and physicians that facilitated the family's ability to adapt to the impending death of a loved one. Examples of these behaviours include defining the adaptive challenges for families and foreshadowing a poor prognosis. Nurse and physician Adaptive Leadership behaviours can facilitate the transition from curative to palliative care by helping family members do the adaptive work of letting go. Further research is warranted to create knowledge for providers to help family members adapt. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Furzer, Bonnie J; Bebich-Philip, Marc D; Wright, Kemi E; Reid, Siobhan L; Thornton, Ashleigh L
Resistance training (RT) is emerging as a training modality to improve motor function and facilitate physical activity participation in children across the motor proficiency spectrum. Although RT competency assessments have been established and validated among adolescent cohorts, the extent to which these methods are suitable for assessing children's RT skills is unknown. This project aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the adapted Resistance Training Skills Battery for Children (RTSBc), in children with varying motor proficiency. Repeated measures design with 40 participants (M age=8.2±1.7years) displaying varying levels of motor proficiency. Participants performed the adapted RTSBc on two occasions, receiving a score for their execution of each component, in addition to an overall RT skill quotient child (RTSQc). Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation (ICC), Bland-Altman analysis, and typical error were used to assess test-retest reliability. To examine construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was performed alongside computing correlations between participants' muscle strength, motor proficiency, age, lean muscle mass, and RTSQc. The RTSBc displayed an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha=0.86) and test-retest reliability (ICC range=0.86-0.99). Exploratory factor analysis supported internal test structure, with all six RT skills loading strongly on a single factor (range 0.56-0.89). Analyses of structural validity revealed positive correlations for RTSQc in relation to motor proficiency (r=0.52, preliability of the RTSBc, providing preliminary evidence that the RTSBc is appropriate for use in the assessment of children's RT competency. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population.
Yao, Yao; Storme, Veronique; Marchal, Kathleen; Van de Peer, Yves
We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN) that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population.
Yao, Yao; Storme, Veronique; Marchal, Kathleen
We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN) that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population. PMID:28028477
Wells, Tanya G.
"Utilization of Skills in the Care of Patients with Deviations in Psychosocial Adaptation" (NS 207) is an associate degree nursing course offered at Chattanooga State Technical Community College. The course stresses the individual as a system in his/her psychosocial adaptation to internal and external stressors, and highlights the…
Amaral, Anna Beatriz C N; Rider, Elizabeth A; Lajolo, Paula P; Tone, Luiz G; Pinto, Rogerio M C; Lajolo, Marisa P; Calhoun, Aaron W
The goal of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the items of the Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form for use in the Brazilian cultural setting. The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was translated into Portuguese by two independent bilingual Brazilian translators and was reconciled by a third bilingual healthcare professional. The translated text was then assessed for content using a modified Delphi technique and adjusted as needed to assure content validity. A total of nine phrases in the completed tool were adjusted. The final tool was then used to assess videotaped simulations as a means of validation. Response process was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and internal structure was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha (internal consistency) and Intraclass Correlation (test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability). One hundred and four (104) videotaped communication skills simulations were assessed by 38 subjects (6 staff physicians, 4 faculty physicians, 8 resident physicians, 4 professional actors with experience in simulation, and 16 other allied healthcare professionals). Measures of Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.818) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.942) were high. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the uni-dimensionality of the instrument. Our results support the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form when used among Brazilian medical residents. The Brazilian version of Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was found to be adequate both in the linguistic and technical aspects. The use of this instrument in Brazilian medical education can enhance the assessment of physician-patient-team relationships on an ongoing basis.
Huey, Raymond B.; Kearney, Michael R.; Krockenberger, Andrew; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Jess, Mellissa; Williams, Stephen E.
A recently developed integrative framework proposes that the vulnerability of a species to environmental change depends on the species' exposure and sensitivity to environmental change, its resilience to perturbations and its potential to adapt to change. These vulnerability criteria require behavioural, physiological and genetic data. With this information in hand, biologists can predict organisms most at risk from environmental change. Biologists and managers can then target organisms and habitats most at risk. Unfortunately, the required data (e.g. optimal physiological temperatures) are rarely available. Here, we evaluate the reliability of potential proxies (e.g. critical temperatures) that are often available for some groups. Several proxies for ectotherms are promising, but analogous ones for endotherms are lacking. We also develop a simple graphical model of how behavioural thermoregulation, acclimation and adaptation may interact to influence vulnerability over time. After considering this model together with the proxies available for physiological sensitivity to climate change, we conclude that ectotherms sharing vulnerability traits seem concentrated in lowland tropical forests. Their vulnerability may be exacerbated by negative biotic interactions. Whether tropical forest (or other) species can adapt to warming environments is unclear, as genetic and selective data are scant. Nevertheless, the prospects for tropical forest ectotherms appear grim. PMID:22566674
Pimenov, Alexander; Kelly, Thomas C; Korobeinikov, Andrei; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Rachinskii, Dmitrii
There is evidence that multiple stable equilibrium states are possible in real-life ecological systems. Phenomenological mathematical models which exhibit such properties can be constructed rather straightforwardly. For instance, for a predator-prey system this result can be achieved through the use of non-monotonic functional response for the predator. However, while formal formulation of such a model is not a problem, the biological justification for such functional responses and models is usually inconclusive. In this note, we explore a conjecture that a multitude of equilibrium states can be caused by an adaptation of animal behaviour to changes of environmental conditions. In order to verify this hypothesis, we consider a simple predator-prey model, which is a straightforward extension of the classic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. In this model, we made an intuitively transparent assumption that the prey can change a mode of behaviour in response to the pressure of predation, choosing either "safe" of "risky" (or "business as usual") behaviour. In order to avoid a situation where one of the modes gives an absolute advantage, we introduce the concept of the "cost of a policy" into the model. A simple conceptual two-dimensional predator-prey model, which is minimal with this property, and is not relying on odd functional responses, higher dimensionality or behaviour change for the predator, exhibits two stable co-existing equilibrium states with basins of attraction separated by a separatrix of a saddle point. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J
Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.
Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita
Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.
Full Text Available Objective: To adapt and validate an evaluation tool on psychosocial skills for life and healthy habits in Schoolchildren from a locality in Bogota, Colombia. Materials and methods: This quantitative transversal with empirical analytical non-experimental approach study evaluated responses of schoolchildren in third and fourth grade of primary school with the instrument adapted and reconstructed to establish technical quality of items, reliability and validity of it. The instrument (18 psychosocial skills and 19 healthy habits, plus 4 identification items was self-diligence with Yes, No dichotomous answer option. It had evidence of apparent validity with schoolchildren from other peer institutions and was tested at 32 Public schools and analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: 1,066 schoolchildren participated in total. The items of the two constructs showed a good fit to the Rasch model as well as unidimensionality, reliability and separation measures above the recommended values. There was no differential functioning of the item by sex. Conclusion: The instrument of 37 items presented good properties of validity, reliability and adjustment to Rasch; although it does not have enough items of high difficulty level, which can be corrected in future applications.
Stasolla, Fabrizio; Caffò, Alessandro O; Perilli, Viviana; Boccasini, Adele; Damiani, Rita; D'Amico, Fiora
To extend the use of assistive technology for promoting adaptive skills of children with cerebral palsy. To assess its effects on positive participation of ten participants involved. To carry out a social validation recruiting parents, physiotherapists and support teachers as external raters. A multiple probe design was implemented for Studies I and II. Study I involved five participants exposed to a combined program aimed at enhancing choice process of preferred items and locomotion fluency. Study II involved five further children for a combined intervention finalized at ensuring them with literacy access and ambulation responses. Study III recruited 60 external raters for a social validation assessment. All participants improved their performance, although differences among children occurred. Indices of positive participation increased as well. Social raters favorably scored the use of both technology and programs. Assistive technology-based programs were effective for promoting independence of children with cerebral palsy. Implications for Rehabilitation A basic form of assistive technology such as a microswitch-based program may be useful and helpful for supporting adaptive skills of children with cerebral palsy and different levels of functioning. The same program may improve the participants' indices of positive participation and constructive engagement with beneficial effects on their quality of life. The positive social rating provided by external experts sensitive to the matter may recommend a favorable acceptance and implementation of the program in daily settings.
The following long paper will report on a user-centered case study of e-book usage at the University of Sussex and the wider implications for IL practitioners. It will be based upon last year’s article by Groves (2014) and build upon the ‘work in progress’ poster presented at LILAC 2014.\\ud \\ud To deliver effective skills teaching and support, an accurate understanding of user behaviour is vital. If user behaviour is not understood, appropriate content cannot be included in the sessions being...
Hollywood, Lynsey; Surgenor, Dawn; Reicks, Marla; McGowan, Laura; Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira
Cooking and food skills interventions have grown in popularity; however, there is a lack of transparency as to how these interventions were designed, highlighting a need to identify and understand the mechanisms of behavior change so that effective components may be introduced in future work. This study critiques cooking and food skills interventions in relation to their design, behavior change techniques (BCTs), theoretical underpinnings, and outcomes. A 40-item CALO-RE taxonomy was used to examine the components of 59 cooking and food skills interventions identified by two systematic reviews. Studies were coded by three independent coders. The three most frequently occurring BCTs identified were #1 Provide information on consequences of behavior in general; #21 Provide instruction on how to perform the behavior; and #26 Prompt Practice. Fifty-six interventions reported positive short-term outcomes. Only 14 interventions reported long-term outcomes containing BCTs relating to information provision. This study reviewed cooking and food skills interventions highlighting the most commonly used BCTs, and those associated with long-term positive outcomes for cooking skills and diet. This study indicates the potential for using the BCT CALO-RE taxonomy to inform the design, planning, delivery and evaluation of future interventions.
This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…
Le Révérend, Benjamin; Saucy, Françoise; Moser, Mireille; Loret, Chrystel
Eating behaviour is significantly modified with the consumption of soft or hard textures. However, it is of interest to describe how adaptive is mastication to a narrow range of texture. ElectroMyoGraphy (EMG) and Kinematics of Jaw Movements (KJM) techniques were used simultaneously to follow mastication muscle activity and jaw motion during mastication of seven cereal products. We show that parameters such as the time of chewing activity, the number of chewing cycles, the chewing muscle EMG activity and the volume occupied for each chewing cycle are amongst others significantly different depending on products tested, even though the textural product space investigated is quite narrow (cereal finger foods). In addition, through a time/chewing cycle dependent analysis of the chewing patterns, we demonstrate that different foods follow different breakdown pathways during oral processing, depending on their initial structural properties, as dictated by their formulation and manufacturing process. In particular, we show that mastication behaviour of cereal foods can be partly classified based on the process that is used to generate product internal structure (e.g. baking vs extrusion). To the best of our knowledge, such time dependent analyses have not yet been reported. Those results suggest that it is possible to influence the chewing behaviour by modifying food textures within the same "food family". This opens new possibilities to design foods for specific populations that cannot accomplish specific oral processing tasks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna
Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Sco...
Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.
Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5
Olaz, Fabián Orlando; Medrano, Leonardo; Greco, María Eugenia; Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira
We present the results of the adaptation of the IHS-Del-Prette (Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, in English, Social Skills Inventory) to a sample of Argentinean college students. Firstly, we addressed the backward translation and carried out an equivalence study of the Portuguese and Spanish versions of the scale. The results showed the two versions were equivalent, as we obtained correlations lower than .50 in only 5 items. Secondly, we performed item analysis by calculating discrimination indexes and item-total correlations. Results indicated that the items are sensitive to differentiate between high and low social-skill groups. Exploratory factor analysis carried out with a sample of 602 college students yielded five factors that explained 26.5% of the total variance, although our data did not completely match the original factor structure. We also obtained moderate alpha values for the subscales, but high reliability for the total scale. Lastly, group differences between males and females are presented to provide evidence of validity. We discuss the implications of the results and present future lines of inquiry.
Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)
Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.
Full Text Available Abstract: We assessed behaviour of reindeer affected by nutritional deprivation and how they adapted to various feeding strategies. The activity pattern of 61 penned eight month old female reindeer calves was observed during 20 of a total of 42 experimental days in winter 1997. The dominant activities were lying, ruminating, intake of feed and water, and standing. Few recordings of agonistic behaviour or snow intake occured. Restricted feed intake, half the ad lib. ration of a lichen-based diet, affected the eating behaviour of the reindeer, and more animals were standing and fewer lying compared to reindeer fed ad lib. Lack of energy in the diet correlated with animals lying curled up (lying with the muzzle close to the hind legs. This behaviour could be a useful complement to other measurements and registrations when studying adaptations to various feeding regimens.Abstract in Swedish/Sammanfattning:Syftet med studien var att undersöka om, och i så fall hur renars beteende påverkades av otillräckligt näringsintag och vid anpassning till olika utfodringsstrategier. Aktivitetsmönstret hos 61 inhägnade åtta månader gamla honrenkalvar studerades under 20 av totalt 42 försöksdagar. De vanligaste beteendekategorierna genom hela försöket var ligga, idissla, intag av foder och vatten samt stå passivt. Endast ett fåtal observationer av aggressivt beteende och snöätande registrerades. En begränsad giva dvs. halva mängden av fodergivan vid fri tillgång av en lavbaserad diet påverkade djuren ätbeteende. Dessutom observerades fler djur stå passivt medan färre låg jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Under första fasen av utfodring efter restriktionsperioden låg fler djur låg ihoprullade (med mulen tätt intill bakbenet jämfört med kontrollgruppen, vilket tolkades som ett tecken på energibrist. Beteendestudierna visade sig vara ett värdefullt komplement till övriga mätningar och provtagningar vid studier av renars anpassning till
Full Text Available Many motor skills, once acquired, are stored over a long time period, probably sustained by permanent neuronal changes. Thus, in this paper we have investigated with quantitative stereology the generation and persistence of neuronal density changes in primary motor cortex (MI following motor skill learning (skilled reaching task. Rats were trained a lateralised reaching task during an "early" (22-31 days oíd or "late" (362-371 days oíd postnatal period. The trained and corresponding control rats were sacrificed at day 372, immediately after the behavioural testing. The "early" trained group preserved the learned skilled reaching task when tested at day 372, without requiring any additional training. The "late" trained group showed a similar capacity to that of the "early" trained group for learning the skilled reaching task. All trained animáis ("early" and "late" trained groups showed a significant Ínter hemispheric decrease of neuronal density in the corresponding motor forelimb representation área of MI (cortical layers II-III
Palermo, Tonya M.; Law, Emily F.; Essner, Bonnie; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Eccleston, Christopher
Research on the experience of parents caring for a child with chronic pain indicates that high levels of parental role stress, feelings of frustration over an inability to help, and psychological distress are common. Moreover, parental distress adversely influences child adjustment to chronic pain. Therefore, intervening with parents of youth with chronic pain may, in turn, result in positive outcomes for children in their ability to engage in positive coping strategies, reduce their own distress, and to function competently in their normal daily lives. Our aim was to adapt an intervention, Problem-Solving Skills Training, previously proven effective in reducing parental distress in other pediatric illness conditions to the population of caregivers of youth with chronic pain. In the first phase, the intervention was adapted based on expert review of the literature and review of parent responses on a measure of pain-related family impact. In the second phase, the intervention was tested in a small group of parents to evaluate feasibility, determined by response to treatment content, ratings of acceptability, and ability to enroll and deliver the treatment visits. This phase included piloting the PSST intervention and all outcome measures at pre-treatment and immediately post-treatment. In an exploratory manner we examined change in parent distress and child physical function and depression from pre- to post-treatment. Findings from this feasibility study suggest that PSST can be implemented with parents of youth with chronic pain, and they find the treatment acceptable. PMID:25422795
Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Essner, Bonnie; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Eccleston, Christopher
Research on the experience of parents caring for a child with chronic pain indicates that high levels of parental role stress, feelings of frustration over an inability to help, and psychological distress are common. Moreover, parental distress adversely influences child adjustment to chronic pain. Therefore, intervening with parents of youth with chronic pain may, in turn, result in positive outcomes for children in their ability to engage in positive coping strategies, reduce their own distress, and to function competently in their normal daily lives. Our aim was to adapt an intervention, Problem-Solving Skills Training, previously proven effective in reducing parental distress in other pediatric illness conditions to the population of caregivers of youth with chronic pain. In the first phase, the intervention was adapted based on expert review of the literature and review of parent responses on a measure of pain-related family impact. In the second phase, the intervention was tested in a small group of parents to evaluate feasibility, determined by response to treatment content, ratings of acceptability, and ability to enroll and deliver the treatment visits. This phase included piloting the PSST intervention and all outcome measures at pre-treatment and immediately post-treatment. In an exploratory manner we examined change in parent distress and child physical function and depression from pre- to post-treatment. Findings from this feasibility study suggest that PSST can be implemented with parents of youth with chronic pain, and they find the treatment acceptable.
Terides, Matthew D; Dear, Blake F; Fogliati, Vincent J; Gandy, Milena; Karin, Eyal; Jones, Michael P; Titov, Nickolai
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for clinical and subclinical symptoms of depression and general anxiety, and increases life satisfaction. Patients' usage of CBT skills is a core aspect of treatment but there is insufficient empirical evidence suggesting that skills usage behaviours are a mechanism of clinical change. This study investigated if an internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) intervention increased the frequency of CBT skills usage behaviours and if this statistically mediated reductions in symptoms and increased life satisfaction. A two-group randomised controlled trial was conducted comparing internet-delivered CBT (n = 65) with a waitlist control group (n = 75). Participants were individuals experiencing clinically significant symptoms of depression or general anxiety. Mixed-linear models analyses revealed that the treatment group reported a significantly higher frequency of skills usage, lower symptoms, and higher life satisfaction by the end of treatment compared with the control group. Results from bootstrapping mediation analyses revealed that the increased skills usage behaviours statistically mediated symptom reductions and increased life satisfaction. Although skills usage and symptom outcomes were assessed concurrently, these findings support the notion that iCBT increases the frequency of skills usage behaviours and suggest that this may be an important mechanism of change.
Harris, J; Felix, L; Miners, A; Murray, E; Michie, S; Ferguson, E; Free, C; Lock, K; Landon, J; Edwards, P
UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is 'e-learning', the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues including health. The high level of accessibility, combined with emerging advances in computer processing power, data transmission and data storage, makes interactive e-learning a potentially powerful and cost-effective medium for improving dietary behaviour. This review aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-learning interventions for dietary behaviour change, and also to explore potential psychological mechanisms of action and components of effective interventions. Electronic bibliographic databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Dissertation Abstracts, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Center, Global Health, Health Economic Evaluations Database, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science) were searched for the period January 1990 to November 2009. Reference lists of included studies and previous reviews were also screened; authors were contacted and trial registers were searched. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged ≥ 13 years, which evaluated the effectiveness of interactive software programs for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcomes were measures of dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes or changes in intake of energy, nutrients, dietary fibre, foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures were clinical outcomes such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Psychological mediators of dietary behaviour change were also investigated. Two review authors independently screened results and extracted data from
Full Text Available This paper presents a general and fully dynamic embodied neural system, which incrementallyexplores and learns motor behaviours through an integrated combination of chaotic search andreflex learning. The former uses adaptive bifurcation to exploit the intrinsic chaotic dynamicsarising from neuro-body-environment interactions, while the latter is based around proprioceptoradaptation. The architecture developed here allows realtime goal-directed exploration andlearning of the possible motor patterns (e.g. for locomotion of embodied systems of arbitrarymorphology. Examples of its successful application to a simple biomechanical model and asimulated 3D swimming robot are given. The tractability of the biomechanical systems allowsdetailed analysis of the overall dynamics of the search process. This analysis points out strongparallels with evolutionary search.
Terlitsky, Amy Bowlin; Wilkins, Julia
Children who struggle with reading, a critical component of literacy, may exhibit behavioural problems. Having difficulties in both literacy and behaviour increases children's risk of poor educational outcomes. We reviewed 82 studies of family literacy programmes and identified 15 empirical studies that reported positive child outcomes related to…
Roessger, Kevin M.
In work-related, instrumental learning contexts the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's (1985) experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (2000) predict skill-adaptation as a possible outcome. This prediction was experimentally explored by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants'…
Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel
In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…
Matson, Johnny L.; Terlonge, Cindy; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa
The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship of social and adaptive skills in adults with bipolar disorder and severe or profound intellectual disability. A bipolar group (N=14), a severe psychopathology group without bipolar disorder (N=14), and a control group with no DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (N=14) were compared on the…
Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna
Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…
Jashar, Dasal Tenzin; Brennan, Laura A.; Barton, Marianne L.; Fein, Deborah
The current study compared adaptive and cognitive skills, and autism severity of toddlers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis under DSM-IV but not DSM-5 criteria (DSM-IV only group) to those who met autism criteria under both diagnostic systems (DSM-5 group) and to those without ASD (non-ASD group). The toddlers in the DSM-IV only…
Full Text Available Background. The study of both Russian and international publications issued in the last twenty years revealed a significant gap in the number of studies examining adaptation (general living, psychological, socio-cultural, etc. in general, i.e., without regard to specific characteristics of the audience, and those describing adaptation of a particular group of people (specific age, ethnic, professional groups, etc.. Objective. The current paper aims to overcome this gap by offering a closer look at the adaptation processes of international journalism students at Russian universities, in particular, their psychological and socio-cultural types of adaptation. The question that interests us the most is how psychological and socio-cultural adaptation of international journalists to-be can be made easier and whether communication-oriented techniques can somehow facilitate this process. Design. In this paper, we provide an overview of current research analyzing adaptation from different angles, which is essential for creating a context for further narrower studies. Results. We discuss adaptation of journalism students in Russia, suggesting ways to make their adaptation in a host country easier and arguing that the development of communication skills can be important for successful adaptation to new living and learning conditions. Conclusion. We argue that there is a need for more detailed, narrow-focused research discussing the specifics of adaptation of different groups of people to a new environment (since we believe different people tend to adapt to new conditions in different ways as well as research outlining the role of communication competences in their adaptation processes.
Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Elia, Maurizio
Executive functions (EF) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been often investigated, although results seem to be rather inconsistent. The first aim of this study was to detect which EF components are common to the ASD continuum (from high- to low-functioning ASD) and identify a possible EF profile for ASD people. Planning, mental flexibility, inhibition of response, generativity, and ecologic EF were investigated. This study was extended not only to high-functioning ASD, but also to ASD with intellectual disability (ID). The second aim was to find EF aspects correlating with adaptive skills in ASD. A total of 61 children participated in the study (27 ASD with and without ID and 34 controls). Results highlight an executive profile characterised by impaired flexibility and deficient planning; these deficits are associated with decreased adaptive ability, particularly socialization, and a deficient shifting in ecologic conditions. These features are present in all ASD subgroups with and without ID; for this reason, they might be assumed as being specific features in ASD. PMID:24829905
Rizki, H. T. N.; Frentika, D.; Wijaya, A.
This study aims to explore junior high school students’ adaptive reasoning and the Van Hiele level of geometric thinking. The present study was a quasi-experiment with the non-equivalent control group design. The participants of the study were 34 seventh graders and 35 eighth graders in the experiment classes and 34 seventh graders and 34 eighth graders in the control classes. The students in the experiment classes learned geometry under the circumstances of a Knisley mathematical learning. The data were analyzed quantitatively by using inferential statistics. The results of data analysis show an improvement of adaptive reasoning skills both in the grade seven and grade eight. An improvement was also found for the Van Hiele level of geometric thinking. These results indicate the positive impact of Knisley learning model on students’ adaptive reasoning skills and Van Hiele level of geometric thinking.
Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet
This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…
Mainwaring, Mark C; Barber, Iain; Deeming, Denis C; Pike, David A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Hartley, Ian R
Nest building is a taxonomically widespread and diverse trait that allows animals to alter local environments to create optimal conditions for offspring development. However, there is growing evidence that climate change is adversely affecting nest-building in animals directly, for example via sea-level rises that flood nests, reduced availability of building materials, and suboptimal sex allocation in species exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination. Climate change is also affecting nesting species indirectly, via range shifts into suboptimal nesting areas, reduced quality of nest-building environments, and changes in interactions with nest predators and parasites. The ability of animals to adapt to sustained and rapid environmental change is crucial for the long-term persistence of many species. Many animals are known to be capable of adjusting nesting behaviour adaptively across environmental gradients and in line with seasonal changes, and this existing plasticity potentially facilitates adaptation to anthropogenic climate change. However, whilst alterations in nesting phenology, site selection and design may facilitate short-term adaptations, the ability of nest-building animals to adapt over longer timescales is likely to be influenced by the heritable basis of such behaviour. We urgently need to understand how the behaviour and ecology of nest-building in animals is affected by climate change, and particularly how altered patterns of nesting behaviour affect individual fitness and population persistence. We begin our review by summarising how predictable variation in environmental conditions influences nest-building animals, before highlighting the ecological threats facing nest-building animals experiencing anthropogenic climate change and examining the potential for changes in nest location and/or design to provide adaptive short- and long-term responses to changing environmental conditions. We end by identifying areas that we believe warrant the
Huda, Miftachul; Jasmi, Kamarul Azmi; Mustari, Mohd Ismail; Basiron, Bushrah; Hehsan, Aminudin; Shahrill, Masitah; Gassama, Saikou Kawsu
The technological advancement occurring in the world today has a potency to create positive and negative side effects especially on children. The positive side may entail increased empathy and acceptance of diversity through modelling the prosocial behaviours, while the negative can be manifest in aggressive behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, and…
Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W
Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.
Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve
Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and task-persistent behaviour in Grade 1 and Grade 3, and the effect of non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning on math skills and task persistence. Participants were 864 students (52.3% boys) from 33 different schools in Estonia. Students were tested twice - at the end of Grade1 and at the end of Grade 3. Calculation and problem-solving skills, and teacher-rated task-persistent behaviour were measured at both time points. Non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning were measured in Grade 1. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling indicated that calculation skills depend on previous math skills and linguistic abilities, while problem-solving skills require also non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, and task persistence. Task-persistent behaviour in Grade 3 was predicted by previous problem-solving skills, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning. Gender and mother's educational level were added as covariates. The findings indicate that math skills and self-regulation are strongly related in primary grades and that solving complex tasks requires executive functioning and task persistence from children. Findings support the idea that instructional practices might benefit from supporting self-regulation in order to gain domain-specific, complex skill achievement. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Anna Laura Zanatta
Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.
Curenton, Stephanie M.; Craig, Michelle Jones
Dyadic shared-reading and oral storytelling practices and their association to American preschoolers' (N = 33) prosocial and problem behaviour was examined. The frequency (how often dyads read) and history (the child's age at first reading) were examined within shared-reading; emotion state talk and evaluative judgments were examined in both…
Sep 21, 2017 ... To cite this article: B.J. Mohapi & E.M. Pitsoane (2017) Life skills as a ... aSenior Lecturer, Department of Social Work, University of South Africa, ... The above is also emphasized by Michielsen et al. .... HIV and AIDS prevention programmes that have balanced ... These regions are Western Cape, Eastern.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Chou, Willy; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin
This study aimed at improving the utility of the fine motor subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) by developing a computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills. We built an item bank for the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills using the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT items fitting the Rasch model. We also examined the psychometric properties and efficiency of the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills with simulated computerized adaptive tests. Data from 1742 children with suspected developmental delays were retrieved. The mean scores of the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT increased along with age groups (mean scores = 1.36-36.97). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills contains 31 items meeting the Rasch model's assumptions (infit mean square = 0.57-1.21, outfit mean square = 0.11-1.17). For children of 6-71 months, the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills had high Rasch person reliability (average reliability >0.90), high concurrent validity (rs = 0.67-0.99), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic = 0.71-1.00), and large responsiveness (effect size = 1.05-3.93). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used 48-84% fewer items than the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used fewer items for assessment but was as reliable and valid as the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. Implications for Rehabilitation We developed a computerized adaptive test based on the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) for assessing fine motor skills. The computerized adaptive test has been shown to be efficient because it uses fewer items than the original measure and automatically presents the results right after the test is completed. The computerized adaptive test is as reliable and valid as the CDIIT.
Husted, M; Banks, Adrian; Seiss, Ellen
Objective: The goal conflict model of eating (Stroebe, Mensink, Aarts, Schut, & Kruglanski, ( 2008) proposes differences in eating behaviour result from peoples’ experience of holding conflicting goals of eating enjoyment and weight maintenance. However, little is understood about the relationship between eating behaviour and the cognitive processes involved in conflict. This study aims to investigate associations between eating behaviour traits and cognitive conflict processes, specifically ...
Ariffin, Muhammad Shahimi; Rambely, Azmin Sham
The purpose of this study was to investigate muscles activity during archery by carrying out an electromyography (EMG) experiment towards 12 muscles and six joints involving two types of subject (skilled and recreational). EMG is used to detect muscle signals during any particular activity. There were two types of data recorded which were maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and archery activity. The skilled archer was found to produce 280 N of biceps brachii, 213.9 N of the deltoid, 123.4 N of trapezius forces compare to that of the recreational archer with 371.1 N, 164.9 N and 163.8 N, respectively for the draw arm during drawing phase. It is concluded that the recreational archer tends to a muscle fatigue phenomenon thus may contribute to possible serious injuries.
Essers, Geurt; Van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Bolhuis, Sanneke
Medical students learn professional communication through formal training and in clinical practice. Physicians working in clinical practice have a powerful influence on student learning. However, they may demonstrate communication behaviours not aligning with recommendations in training programs. This study aims to identify more precisely what differences students perceive between role model communication behaviour during clerkships and formal training. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected about physicians' communication performance as perceived by students. Students filled out a questionnaire in four different clerkships in their fourth and fifth year. Just over half of the students reported communication similar to formal training. This was especially true for students in the later clerkships (paediatrics and primary care). Good examples were seen in providing information corresponding to patients' needs and in shared decision making, although students often noted that in fact the doctor made the decision. Bad examples were observed in exploring cognitions and emotions, and in providing information meeting patient's pace. Further study is needed on actual physician behaviour in clinical practice. From our results, we conclude that students need help in reflecting on and learning from the gap in communication patterns they observe in training versus clinical practice.
John Chandy C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with severe malaria in African children is associated with not only a high mortality but also a high risk of cognitive deficits. There is evidence that interventions done a few years after the illness are effective but nothing is known about those done immediately after the illness. We designed a study in which children who had suffered from severe malaria three months earlier were enrolled into a cognitive intervention program and assessed for the immediate benefit in cognitive, academic and behavioral outcomes. Methods This parallel group randomised study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-one Ugandan children aged 5 to 12 years with severe malaria were assessed for cognition (using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition and the Test of Variables of Attention, academic skills (Wide Range Achievement Test, third edition and psychopathologic behaviour (Child Behaviour Checklist three months after an episode of severe malaria. Twenty-eight were randomised to sixteen sessions of computerised cognitive rehabilitation training lasting eight weeks and 33 to a non-treatment group. Post-intervention assessments were done a month after conclusion of the intervention. Analysis of covariance was used to detect any differences between the two groups after post-intervention assessment, adjusting for age, sex, weight for age z score, quality of the home environment, time between admission and post-intervention testing and pre-intervention score. The primary outcome was improvement in attention scores for the intervention group. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN53183087. Results Significant intervention effects were observed in the intervention group for learning mean score (SE, [93.89 (4.00 vs 106.38 (4.32, P = 0.04] but for working memory the intervention group performed poorly [27.42 (0.66 vs 25.34 (0.73, P = 0.04]. No
Reiss, Katharina; Sauzet, Odile; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Spallek, Jacob; Razum, Oliver
Smoking behaviour among immigrants is assumed to converge to that of the host country's majority population with increasing duration of stay. We compared smoking prevalence among Turkish immigrants residing in two different countries (Germany (DE)/the Netherlands (NL)) between and within countries by time spent in Turkey and DE/NL. The German 2009 micro-census and the Dutch POLS database (national survey, 1997-2004) were analysed. An interaction variable with dichotomised length of stay (LOS) in Turkey (age: 0-17; 18+) and categorised LOS in the host country (immigration year: 1979 and earlier, 1980-1999, 2000-2009; the latter only for Germany) was generated. Age standardised smoking prevalences and sex-specific logistic regression models were calculated. 6,517 Turkish participants were identified in Germany, 2,106 in the Netherlands. Age-standardised smoking prevalences were higher among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands compared to those in Germany: 62.3% vs. 53.1% (men/lower education); 30.6% vs. 23.0% (women/lower education). A similar trend was observed for the majority population of both countries. The chance of being a smoker was lower among Turkish men with short LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with short LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 0.57[95% CI = 0.36-0.89]; DE: OR = 0.73[95% CI = 0.56-0.95]). Contrary to that, the chance of being a smoker was higher among Turkish men with long LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with long LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 1.35[95% CI = 0.79-2.33]; DE: OR = 1.44[95% CI = 1.03-2.02]). The effects for Turkish women were similar, but smaller and often non-significant. Turkish immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour towards that of the Dutch/German majority population with increasing duration of stay. This was particularly obvious among those who left Turkey before the age of 18
Background: A key driver for early years strategies is the reduction of oppositional and defiant behaviour in childhood to prevent a negative life course of poor educational attainment and criminality. Despite a robust evidence base, manualised parent skills training programmes (PT) for externalising behaviour problems are only effective for approximately two-thirds of families. A limited number of variables that account for variance in outcome have been discovered. Finding fur...
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Lu?s; Davids, Keith; Ara?jo, Duarte; Garganta, J?lio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data ...
Wilkinson, Simon R
The major challenge for a clinician is integration of the wisdom available in the wide range of therapeutic paradigms available. I have found the principles guiding dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT; see Miller, Rathus, & Linehan, 2007, for applying DBT to adolescents) extremely useful in my practice running a general adolescent unit; similarly, the understanding of the different information processing and learning principles associated with each of the Type A and C attachment strategies, as understood in dynamic maturational model (DMM), has guided me through the dark corners of treatment. Specifically, how does DMM inform practice of DBT? As a 'DBTer' might say, 'Where is the wisdom in both points of view?' Nevertheless, DMM is not primarily about treatment. It concerns how different ways of adapting to developmental contingencies bias perceptual propensities, and hence the information available for reflective brain function. Recognition of these twists to knowing what is going on can then be used to inform a variety of therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this article is to look for the signposts in DBT and DMM which together help navigate the comprehensive approach necessary in complicated therapy. In the process, hopefully some more general principles for addressing discomfited adolescents arise for informing future practice. Although many steer shy of using personality disorder diagnoses for adolescents, clinicians are nevertheless addressing, directly or indirectly, the personality development of all adolescents in treatment, regardless of their classical axis I diagnoses, including both those with developing emotional instability and a group of avoidant over-controlled adolescents, which in Norway is growing in prominence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hayashi, Morito; Bakkali, Mohammed; Hyde, Alexander; Goodacre, Sara L
Long-distance dispersal events have the potential to shape species distributions and ecosystem diversity over large spatial scales, and to influence processes such as population persistence and the pace and scale of invasion. How such dispersal strategies have evolved and are maintained within species is, however, often unclear. We have studied long-distance dispersal in a range of pest-controlling terrestrial spiders that are important predators within agricultural ecosystems. These species persist in heterogeneous environments through their ability to re-colonise vacant habitat by repeated long-distance aerial dispersal ("ballooning") using spun silk lines. Individuals are strictly terrestrial, are not thought to tolerate landing on water, and have no control over where they land once airborne. Their tendency to spread via aerial dispersal has thus been thought to be limited by the costs of encountering water, which is a frequent hazard in the landscape. In our study we find that ballooning in a subset of individuals from two groups of widely-distributed and phylogenetically distinct terrestrial spiders (linyphiids and one tetragnathid) is associated with a hitherto undescribed ability of those same individuals to survive encounters with both fresh and marine water. Individuals that showed a high tendency to adopt 'ballooning' behaviour adopted elaborate postures to seemingly take advantage of the wind current whilst on the water surface. The ability of individuals capable of long-distance aerial dispersal to survive encounters with water allows them to disperse repeatedly, thereby increasing the pace and spatial scale over which they can spread and subsequently exert an influence on the ecosystems into which they migrate. The potential for genetic connectivity between populations, which can influence the rate of localized adaptation, thus exists over much larger geographic scales than previously thought. Newly available habitat may be particularly influenced
Full Text Available Web-based delivery of support materials for students has proved to be a popular way of helping small teams to implement key skills policies within universities. The development of 'key' or 'transferable' skills is now encouraged throughout education, but resources (both in terms of staffing and budget tend to be limited. It is difficult for key skills teams to see learners face to face, and not feasible to print or distribute large amounts of paper-based material. Web-based delivery presents a means of overcoming these problems but it can result in generic study skills material simply being published online without due consideration of the needs of different groups of learners within different subject disciplines. Therefore, although a centralized Website for skills provision can overcome logistical problems, it may be perceived as irrelevant or unusable by the student population. This paper presents a model for Web-based delivery of support for key skills which incorporates two separate approaches to the design of these resources. The model was implemented as part of a wider key skills pilot project at University College London, over a period of one year. It includes a 'core' Website, containing information and resources for staff and students. These can also be accessed via customized, departmental key skills homepages. This paper presents the basis for the design choices made in preparing these materials, and the evaluation of some of the pilot departments using them. It then draws some wider conclusions about the effectiveness of this design for supporting skills development.
Maria S. Poulou
Full Text Available The emergence of the Trait Emotional Intelligence construct shifted the interest in personality research to the investigation of the effect of global personality characteristics on behaviour. A second body of research in applied settings, the Social and Emotional Learning movement, emphasized the cultivation of emotional and social skills for positive relationships in a school environment. In this paper we investigate the role of both personality traits and social and emotional skills, in the occurrence of emotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties, according to adolescent students’ self-perceptions. Five hundred and fifty-nine students from state secondary schools in Greece, aged 12-14 years old, completed The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescent Short Form, The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters, and The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. It was found that students with higher Trait Emotional Intelligence and stronger social and emotional skills were less likely to present emotional, conduct, hyperactivity and peer difficulties and more likely to present prosocial behaviour. Gender was a significant factor for emotional difficulties and grade for peer difficulties. The paper describes the underlying mechanisms of students’ emotional and behavioural strengths and difficulties, and provides practical implications for educators to improve the quality of students’ lives in schools.
Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna; Dobbins, Maureen
Health professionals require a unique set of knowledge and skills in order to meet increasing expectations to use research evidence to inform practice and policy decisions. They need to be able to find, access, interpret, and apply the best available research evidence, along with information about patient preferences, clinical expertise, and the clinical context and resources, to such decisions. This study determined preferences for continuing education following an intensive educational workshop and evaluated the impact of the workshop on evidence informed decision making (EIDM) knowledge, skills, and behaviours. An explanatory mixed methods, longitudinal study design was implemented among a convenience sample of various health care professionals attending the workshop. EIDM knowledge, skills, and behaviours were quantitatively measured at baseline and six month follow-up, with EIDM knowledge and skills measured additionally immediately following the educational workshop (post-test measurement). To determine participants preferences for continuing education, data were collected using quantitative survey (post-test measurement) and qualitative (individual telephone interviews after six-month follow-up) methods. EIDM knowledge and skills increased significantly from baseline to immediately following the intervention [5.6, 95% CI (3.7, 7.4), P skills and EIDM behaviours (r = 0.29, P 0.069 and r = 0.24, P 0.136, respectively). Over time there was a shift in preferences for timing and frequency of online continuing education strategies. Willingness to participate in continuing education, however, remained evident. An intensive educational workshop shows promise for increasing EIDM knowledge and skills. Increasing EIDM knowledge and skills may promote the capacity of health professionals to use research evidence when making practice and policy decisions and, in turn, lead to positive patient outcomes.
This thesis focuses on the following research questions: What are the effects of driver support systems on driving behaviour? To what extent will driver support systems be accepted by individual drivers? To what extent will driving behaviour and acceptance be determined by individual differences?
Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio
Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included
Edwards, Phil; Felix, Lambert; Harris, Jody; Ferguson, Elaine; Free, Caroline; Landon, Jane; Lock, Karen; Michie, Susan; Miners, Alec; Murray, Elizabeth
The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used.A descriptive analysis of included studies will describe study design, participants, the
Cubaka, Vincent Kalumire; Schriver, Michael; Vedsted, Peter; Makoul, Gregory; Kallestrup, Per
To identify, adapt and validate a measure for providers' communication and interpersonal skills in Rwanda. After selection, translation and piloting of the measure, structural validity, test-retest reliability, and differential item functioning were assessed. Identification and adaptation: The 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) was selected and adapted. Content validation found all items highly relevant in the local context except two, which were retained upon understanding the reasoning applied by patients. Eleven providers and 291 patients were involved in the field-testing. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit for the original one factor model. Test-retest reliability assessment revealed a mean quadratic weighted Kappa = 0.81 (range: 0.69-0.89, N = 57). The average proportion of excellent scores was 15.7% (SD: 24.7, range: 9.9-21.8%, N = 180). Differential item functioning was not observed except for item 1, which focuses on greetings, for age groups (p = 0.02, N = 180). The Kinyarwanda version of CAT (K-CAT) is a reliable and valid patient-reported measure of providers' communication and interpersonal skills. K-CAT was validated on nurses and its use on other types of providers may require further validation. K-CAT is expected to be a valuable feedback tool for providers in practice and in training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.
Molenaar, I.; Knoop-van Campen, C.A.N.
Even though the recent influx of tablets in primary education goes together with the vision that educational technology empowered with learning analytics will revolutionize education, empirical results supporting this claim are scares. Adaptive educational technology Snappet combines extracted and
Greciano, Miguel Cristian
This work focuses on the combination of two key concepts: Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment/Adaptation (video games adapting their difficulty according to the in-game performance of players, making themselves easier if the player performs poorly or more difficult if the player performs well) and Collaborative Multiplayer Games (video games where two or more human players work together to achieve a common goal). It considers and analyzes the challenges, potential and possibilities of Dynamic Diffi...
van den Bergh, J.M.; Schmittmann, V.D.; Hofman, Abe D.; van der Maas, Han L. J.
Typewriting studies which compare novice and expert typists have suggested that highly trained typing skills involve cognitive process with an inner and outer loop, which regulate keystrokes and words, respectively. The present study investigates these loops longitudinally, using multi-level
Bowles, Terry; Scull, Janet; Hattie, John; Clinton, Janet; Larkins, Geraldine; Cicconi, Vincent; Kumar, Doreen; Arnup, Jessica L.
In this paper we argue for a revision of the knowledge, skills and competencies of school psychologists and specialist teachers. Evidence-based practice of psychologists and teachers, the accountability movement, and calls for improved service delivery have led to changes in the practice of both professions. The changes in technology and the…
Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian
Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…
Siu, Joey; Maran, Nikki; Paterson-Brown, Simon
The importance of non-technical skills in improving surgical safety and performance is now well recognised. Better understanding is needed of the impact that non-technical skills of the multi-disciplinary theatre team have on intra-operative incidents in the operating room (OR) using structured theatre-based assessment. The interaction of non-technical skills that influence surgical safety of the OR team will be explored and made more transparent. Between May-August 2013, a range of procedures in general and vascular surgery in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh were performed. Non-technical skills behavioural markers and associated intra-operative incidents were recorded using established behavioural marking systems (NOTSS, ANTS and SPLINTS). Adherence to the surgical safety checklist was also observed. A total of 51 procedures were observed, with 90 recorded incidents - 57 of which were considered avoidable. Poor situational awareness was a common area for surgeons and anaesthetists leading to most intra-operative incidents. Poor communication and teamwork across the whole OR team had a generally large impact on intra-operative incidents. Leadership was shown to be an essential set of skills for the surgeons as demonstrated by the high correlation of poor leadership with intra-operative incidents. Team-working and management skills appeared to be especially important for anaesthetists in the recovery from an intra-operative incident. A significant number of avoidable incidents occur during operative procedures. These can all be linked to failures in non-technical skills. Better training of both individual and team in non-technical skills is needed in order to improve patient safety in the operating room. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Amidi Mazaheri, Maryam; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Abbasi, Mohamad Hadi; Noroozi, Ensieh
Assessment of social skills is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioral interventions. This paper reports the cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the social skills rating system-secondary students form (SSRS-SS) questionnaire (Gresham and Elliot, 1990), in a normative sample of secondary school students. A two-phase design was used that phase 1 consisted of the linguistic adaptation and in phase 2, using cross-sectional sample survey data, the construct validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the SSRS-SS were examined in a sample of 724 adolescents aged from 13 to 19 years. Content validity index was excellent, and the floor/ceiling effects were low. After deleting five of the original SSRS-SS items, the findings gave support for the item convergent and divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed four subscales. RESULTS showed good internal consistency (0.89) and temporal stability (0.91) for the total scale score. Findings demonstrated support for the use of the 27-item Farsi version in the school setting. Directions for future research regarding the applicability of the scale in other settings and populations of adolescents are discussed.
The discovery of adaptation processes in cells (i.e., increased resistance to effects of a challenge dose administered after a lower adapting dose) has fuelled the debate on possible cellular processes relevant for low dose exposures. However, numerous experiments on radioadaptive response do not provide a clear picture of the nature of adaptive response and the conditions under which it occurs. This work proposes a model that succeeds in modelling data obtained from various experiments on radioadaptation. The model assumes impaired DNA integrity as triggering signal for induction of adaptation. Induction of adaptive response is seen as two-phase process. First, ionizing radiation induces radicals by water radiolysis which give rise to specific DNA lesions. On the other hand, these lesions must be perceived and, in a way, processed by the cell, thereby creating the final signal necessary for the comprehensive adaptive response. This processing occurs through some event in S-phase and can be halted by local conformational changes of chromatin induced by ionizing radiation. Thus, the model assumes two counteracting processes that have to be balanced for the triggering signal of adaptation to occur, each of them related to different target volumes. This work comprises mathematical treatment of radical formation, DNA lesion induction and inhibition of local initiation of replication which finally provides functions that quantify the reduction of double strand breaks introduced by challenge doses in adapted cells as compared to non-adapted cells. Non-linear regression analyses based upon data from experiments on radioadaptation yield regression curves which describe existing data satisfactorily. Thus, it corroborates the existence of adaptive response as, in principle, universal feature of cells and specifies conditions which favor development of radioadaptation. (author)
Al-Hilawani, Y A
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of using the Cognitive Behaviour Modification (CBM) technique on the subtraction skills of third grade hearing and deaf/hard-of-hearing students. The results indicated that the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students and the CBM and non-CBM hearing students made more progress in solving the subtraction problems than the non-CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students. The results also showed that there were no significant differences between the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing and the non-CBM hearing students; and there were no significant differences between the CBM and non-CBM hearing students. The results revealed that the CBM hearing students achieved significantly higher post-test scores than the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students. However, the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students obtained a significantly higher gain score compared to the CBM and non-CBM hearing students. Implications for teachers and suggestions for future research are discussed in this paper.
Chapman, G J; Hollands, M A
There is increasing evidence that gaze stabilization with respect to footfall targets plays a crucial role in the control of visually guided stepping and that there are significant changes to gaze behaviour as we age. However, past research has not measured if age-related changes in gaze behaviour are associated with changes to stepping performance. This paper aims to identify differences in gaze behaviour between young (n=8) adults, older adults determined to be at a low-risk of falling (low-risk, n=4) and older adults prone to falling (high-risk, n=4) performing an adaptive locomotor task and attempts to relate observed differences in gaze behaviour to decline in stepping performance. Participants walked at a self-selected pace along a 9m pathway stepping into two footfall target locations en route. Gaze behaviour and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an ASL 500 gaze tracker interfaced with a Vicon motion analysis system. Results showed that older adults looked significantly sooner to targets, and fixated the targets for longer, than younger adults. There were also significant differences in these measures between high and low-risk older adults. On average, high-risk older adults looked away from targets significantly sooner and demonstrated less accurate and more variable foot placements than younger adults and low-risk older adults. These findings suggest that, as we age, we need more time to plan precise stepping movements and clearly demonstrate that there are differences between low-risk and high-risk older adults in both where and when they look at future stepping targets and the precision with which they subsequently step. We propose that high-risk older adults may prioritize the planning of future actions over the accurate execution of ongoing movements and that adoption of this strategy may contribute to an increased likelihood of falls. Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V.
Cooney, Patricia; Tunney, Conall; O'Reilly, Gary
Background: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is being increasingly adapted for use with people who have an intellectual disability. However, it remains unclear whether inherent cognitive deficits that are present in adults who have an intellectual disability preclude the use of cognitive-based therapies. This review aims to systematically…
Gasca, C. Brun; Obiols, J. E.; Bonillo, A.; Artigas, J.; Lorente, I.; Gabau, E.; Guitart, M.; Turk, J.
Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by an anomaly in the maternally inherited chromosome 15. The main features are severe intellectual disability, speech impairment, ataxia, epilepsy, sleep disorder and a behavioural phenotype that reportedly includes happy disposition, attraction to/fascination with…
Pekár, S.; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Y.
Roč. 98, č. 7 (2011), s. 593-603 ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prey specificity * stenophagy * predatory behaviour * trophic niche * spider Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011
Schipper, Tijmen; Goei, Sui Lin; de Vries, Siebrich; van Veen, Klaas
Teachers are expected to address a broad range of diverse pupil needs but do not always feel capable or lack the skills to meet these high expectations. The professional development approach Lesson Study may address this. Therefore, this study examines whether participating in Lesson Study
Jerez-Molina, Carmen; Lázaro-Alcay, Juan J; Ullán-de la Fuente, Ana M
Cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish of the Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC) for assessing children's behaviour during induction of anaesthesia. A descriptive cross-sectional observational study was conducted on a sample of 81 children aged 2 to 12 years operated in an ambulatory surgery unit of a paediatric hospital in Barcelona. Adaptation by translation-back translation of the tool and analysis of the scale's validity and reliability. Face validity of the tool was guaranteed through a discussion group and inter-observer reliability was evaluated, obtaining an intraclass correlation index of r = 0.956. The ICC scale validated for the Spanish population can be an effective tool for the presurgical evaluation of activities carried out to minimise children's anxiety. The ICC is an easy-to-use scale completed by operating room staff in one minute and would provide important information about children's behaviour, specifically during induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study.
Nina Rydland Olsen
Full Text Available Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs, are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students.We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1 The Adapted Fresno test (AFT, 2 the EBP Belief Scale and 3 the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations.In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1, p < 0.001 and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2, p = 0.002, but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1, p = 0.574. Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only.A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs' abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students.
Williams, Margiad Elen; Hutchings, Judy
The Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme is a home-based, health visitor-delivered parenting support programme for parents of children with identified behaviour problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaS 2014 programme compared to a waiting-list treatment as usual control group. This is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Sixty health visitors will each be asked to identify two families that have a child scoring above the clinical cut-off for behaviour problems using the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory (ECBI). Families recruited to the trial will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio into an intervention or waiting-list control group. Randomisation will occur within health visitor to ensure that each health visitor has one intervention family and one control family. The primary outcome is change in child behaviour problems as measured by the parent-reported ECBI. Secondary outcomes include other measures of child behaviour, parent behaviour, and parental depression as measured by parent-reports and an independent observation of parent and child behaviour. Follow-up measures will be collected 6-months after the collection of baseline measures. This is the first rigorous evaluation of the EPaS 2014 programme. The trial will provide important information on the effectiveness of a one-to-one home-based intervention, delivered by health visitors, for pre-school children with behaviour problems. It will also examine potential mediating (improved parent behaviour and/or improved parental depression) and moderating (single parent, teenage parent, poverty, low education level) factors. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN06867279 (18 June 2014).
Williams, Margiad Elen; Hutchings, Judy
Background The Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme is a home-based, health visitor-delivered parenting support programme for parents of children with identified behaviour problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaS 2014 programme compared to a waiting-list treatment as usual control group. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Sixty health visitors will each be asked to identify two families that have a child scoring ...
Full Text Available The concept of «system approach» to learning, which considers all the components in close relationship with each other is considered. One of the urgent problems of modern pedagogy — developing communicative abilities on the basis of system approach is studied. The role of motivation in the formation of communicative skills of the future specialist is defined. The purpose of this article is to investigate ways to motivate to success. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation of the motivational component is closely linked to the socialization of the individual and manifests itself as a desire to improve the level of their capabilities.
Mohapi, B J; Pitsoane, E M
The prevention of HIV and AIDS, especially amongst young people, is very important, as they are the future leaders. South Africa carries a high burden of the HIV and AIDS disease, and efforts at the prevention of the disease need to be intensified. University students are also at risk, and prevention efforts need to be intensified to ensure that students graduate and enter the world of work to become productive citizens. Failure to pay attention to preventative behaviour amongst university students may have negative socio-economic consequences for the country. The paper presents a quantitative study undertaken amongst students at the University of South Africa, an Open and Distance Learning Institution in South Africa. The aim of the study was to explore the perceptions of students regarding life skills as a behaviour change strategy at Unisa. The study was conducted in the three regions of the University: Midlands region, Gautengregion and Limpopo region. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and were analysed by using the Statistical Programme for Social Sciences. The findings revealed that students have a need to attend life skills workshops, which are facilitated by trained student counsellors since they believe that the life skills training will assist them to be assertive and practise behaviours which will not make them vulnerable to the HIV and AIDS infection.
Allen, Emily-Charlotte Frances; Arroll, Bruce
There is a debate in medicine about the use and value of self-disclosure by the physician as a communication tool. There is little empirical evidence about GPs and self-disclosure. To explore what GPs' attitudes, skills, and behaviour are with regard to self-disclosure during a clinical consultation and whether there is a need for the development of training resources. Mixed methods using open-ended and semi-structured interviews in Auckland, New Zealand, and the surrounding districts. Sixteen GPs were interviewed on the issue of self-disclosure in clinical practice. A general inductive approach was used for data analysis. Self-disclosure was common in this group of GPs, contrary to training in some of the groups, and was seen as a potentially positive activity. Family and physical topics were most common, yet psychological and relationship issues were also discussed. Knowing patients made self-disclosure more likely, but a GP's intuition played the main role in determining when to self-disclose, and to whom. GPs have developed their own guidelines, shaped by years of experience; however, there was a consensus that training would be helpful. Self-disclosure is common and, in general, seen as positive. Major personal issues were acceptable for some GPs to self-disclose, especially to known patients. Although participants had developed their own guidelines, exposure of trainees to the issue of self-disclosure would be of value to prevent future mistakes and to protect both doctor and patient from any unintended harm, for example, developing a dependent relationship. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.
Allen, Emily-Charlotte Frances; Arroll, Bruce
Background There is a debate in medicine about the use and value of self-disclosure by the physician as a communication tool. There is little empirical evidence about GPs and self-disclosure. Aim To explore what GPs’ attitudes, skills, and behaviour are with regard to self-disclosure during a clinical consultation and whether there is a need for the development of training resources. Design and setting Mixed methods using open-ended and semi-structured interviews in Auckland, New Zealand, and the surrounding districts. Method Sixteen GPs were interviewed on the issue of self-disclosure in clinical practice. A general inductive approach was used for data analysis. Results Self-disclosure was common in this group of GPs, contrary to training in some of the groups, and was seen as a potentially positive activity. Family and physical topics were most common, yet psychological and relationship issues were also discussed. Knowing patients made self-disclosure more likely, but a GP’s intuition played the main role in determining when to self-disclose, and to whom. GPs have developed their own guidelines, shaped by years of experience; however, there was a consensus that training would be helpful. Conclusion Self-disclosure is common and, in general, seen as positive. Major personal issues were acceptable for some GPs to self-disclose, especially to known patients. Although participants had developed their own guidelines, exposure of trainees to the issue of self-disclosure would be of value to prevent future mistakes and to protect both doctor and patient from any unintended harm, for example, developing a dependent relationship. PMID:26324497
Yule, S; Gupta, A; Gazarian, D; Geraghty, A; Smink, D S; Beard, J; Sundt, T; Youngson, G; McIlhenny, C; Paterson-Brown, S
Surgeons' non-technical skills are an important part of surgical performance and surgical education. The most widely adopted assessment tool is the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) behaviour rating system. Psychometric analysis of this tool to date has focused on inter-rater reliability and feasibility rather than validation. NOTSS assessments were collected from two groups of consultant/attending surgeons in the UK and USA, who rated behaviours of the lead surgeon during a video-based simulated crisis scenario after either online or classroom instruction. The process of validation consisted of assessing construct validity, scale reliability and concurrent criterion validity, and undertaking a sensitivity analysis. Central to this was confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the structure of the NOTSS taxonomy. Some 255 consultant surgeons participated in the study. The four-category NOTSS model was found to have robust construct validity evidence, and a superior fit compared with alternative models. Logistic regression and sensitivity analysis revealed that, after adjusting for technical skills, for every 1-point increase in NOTSS score of the lead surgeon, the odds of having a higher versus lower patient safety score was 2·29 times. The same pattern of results was obtained for a broad mix of surgical specialties (UK) as well as a single discipline (cardiothoracic, USA). The NOTSS tool can be applied in research and education settings to measure non-technical skills in a valid and efficient manner. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van den Bergh, Mattis; Hofman, Abe D; Schmittmann, Verena D; van der Maas, Han L J
Typewriting studies which compare novice and expert typists have suggested that highly trained typing skills involve cognitive process with an inner and outer loop, which regulate keystrokes and words, respectively. The present study investigates these loops longitudinally, using multi-level modeling of 1,091,707 keystroke latencies from 62 children (M age=12.6 yr.) following an online typing course. Using finger movement repetition as indicator of the inner loop and words typed as indicator of the outer loop, practicing keystroke latencies resulted in different developmental curves for each loop. Moreover, based on plateaus in the developmental curves, the inner loop seemed to require less practice to develop than the outer loop.
Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A
Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Sousa, Tiago M.
decision support to MASCEM's negotiating agents so that they can properly achieve their goals. ALBidS uses artificial intelligence methodologies and data analysis algorithms to provide effective adaptive learning capabilities to such negotiating entities. The main contribution is provided by a methodology...... that combines several distinct strategies to build actions proposals, so that the best can be chosen at each time, depending on the context and simulation circumstances. The choosing process includes reinforcement learning algorithms, a mechanism for negotiating contexts analysis, a mechanism for the management...... allows integrating different strategic approaches for electricity market negotiations, and choosing the most appropriate one at each time, for each different negotiation context. This methodology is integrated in ALBidS (Adaptive Learning strategic Bidding System) – a multiagent system that provides...
Full Text Available This paper presents a passive dynamic walking model based on knee-bend behaviour, which is inspired by the way human beings walk. The length and mass parameters of human beings are used in the walking model. The knee-bend mechanism of the stance leg is designed in the phase between knee-strike and heel-strike. q* which is the angular difference of the stance leg between the two events, knee-strike and knee-bend, is adjusted in order to find a stable walking motion. The results show that the stable periodic walking motion on a slope of r <0.4 can be found by adjusting q*. Furthermore, with a particular q* in the range of 0.12
adaptable than the conventional walking motion, especially for steep slopes.
Full Text Available Risk-sensitive adaptive spatial organisation during group movement has been shown to efficiently minimise the risks associated with external ecological threats. Whether animals can draw on such behaviours when confronted with man-made threats is generally less clear. We studied road-crossing in a wild, but habituated, population of meerkats living in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa. We found that dominant females, the core member in meerkat social systems, led groups to the road significantly more often than subordinates, yet were consistently less likely to cross first. Our results suggest that a reshuffling occurs in progression order when meerkat groups reach the road. By employing a simple model of collective movement, we have shown that risk aversion alone may be sufficient to explain this reshuffling, but that the risk aversion of dominant females toward road crossing is significantly higher than that of subordinates. It seems that by not crossing first, dominant females avoid occupying the most risky, exposed locations, such as at the front of the group--a potential selfish strategy that also promotes the long-term stability and hence reproductive output of their family groups. We argue that our findings support the idea that animals can flexibly apply phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to deal with emerging modern-day problems.
Zhang, Qiang; Hong, Yongmi; Zou, Fasheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Tien Ming; Song, Xiangjin; Rao, Jiteng
The extent to which species' traits, behavior and habitat synergistically determine their response to extreme weather events (EWE) remains poorly understood. By quantifying bird and vegetation assemblages before and after the 2008 ice storm in China, combined with interspecific interactions and foraging behaviours, we disentangled whether storm influences avian reassembly directly via functional traits (i.e. behavioral adaptations), or indirectly via habitat variations. We found that overall species richness decreased, with 20 species detected exclusively before the storm, and eight species detected exclusively after. These shifts in bird relative abundance were linked to habitat preferences, dietary guild and flocking behaviours. For instance, forest specialists at higher trophic levels (e.g. understory-insectivores, woodpeckers and kingfishers) were especially vulnerable, whereas open-habitat generalists (e.g. bulbuls) were set to benefit from potential habitat homogenization. Alongside population fluctuations, we found that community reassembly can be rapidly adjusted via foraging plasticity (i.e. increased flocking propensity and reduced perching height). And changes in preferred habitat corresponded to a variation in bird assemblages and traits, as represented by intact canopy cover and high density of large trees. Accurate predictions of community responses to EWE are crucial to understanding ecosystem disturbances, thus linking species-oriented traits to a coherent analytical framework.
Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...
Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio
Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme. © The Author(s) 2014.
Didden, H.C.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Toorn, M. van der; Laarhoven, N.
Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between
Vallis, M; Lee-Baggley, D; Sampalli, T; Ryer, A; Ryan-Carson, S; Kumanan, K; Edwards, L
There is an urgent need for healthcare providers and healthcare systems to support productive interactions with patients that promote sustained health behaviour change in order to improve patient and population health outcomes. Behaviour change theories and interventions have been developed and evaluated in experimental contexts; however, most healthcare providers have little training, and therefore low confidence in, behaviour change counselling. Particularly important is how to integrate theory and method to support healthcare providers to engage in behaviour change counselling competently. In this article, we describe a general training model developed from theory, evidence, experience and stakeholder engagement. This model will set the stage for future evaluation research on training needed to achieve competency, sustainability of competency, as well as effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of training in supporting behaviour change. A framework to support competency based training in behaviour change counselling is described in this article. This framework is designed to be integrative, sustainable, scalable and capable of being evaluated in follow-up studies. Effective training in behaviour change counselling is critical to meet the current and future healthcare needs of patients living with, or at risk of, chronic diseases. Increasing competency in establishing change-based relationships, assessing and promoting readiness to change, implementing behaviour modification and addressing psychosocial issues will be value added to the healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neece, C.; Baker, B.
Background: Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The…
Anliak, Sakire; Sahin, Derya
The present observational study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) programme on behavioural change from aggression to pro-social behaviours by using the DECB rating scale. Non-participant observation method was used to collect data in pretest-training-posttest design. It was hypothesised that the ICPS…
Özcan, Zeynep Çigdem
Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving…
OECD Publishing, 2017
This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances, based on five country-specific policy notes for France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom. It provides a comparative assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment…
Blake, Jasmine M.; Rubenstein, Eric; Tsai, Peng-Chou; Rahman, Hafizur; Rieth, Sarah R.; Ali, Hasmot; Lee, Li-Ching
Low- and middle-income countries often have limited resources, underdeveloped health systems and scarce knowledge of autism spectrum disorder. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop and adapt intervention materials and to train a native clinician to implement a community-based parent-mediated behavioural intervention in rural…
Kulis, Stephen S.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Harthun, Mary L.; Jager, Justin
Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10–17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t-tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen’s d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476
Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR excitability was evaluated during gait initiation in 10 healthy subjects to investigate how load- and movement-related joint inputs activate lower spinal centres in the transition from quiet stance to walking. A motion analysis system integrated with a surface EMG device was used to acquire kinematic, kinetic and EMG variables. Starting from a quiet stance, subjects were asked to walk forward, at their natural speed. The sural nerve was stimulated and EMG responses were recorded from major hip, knee and ankle muscles. Gait initiation was divided into four subphases based on centre of pressure and centre of mass behaviours, while joint displacements were used to categorise joint motion as flexion or extension. The reflex parameters were measured and compared between subphases and in relation to the joint kinematics. Results The NWR was found to be subphase-dependent. NWR excitability was increased in the hip and knee flexor muscles of the starting leg, just prior to the occurrence of any movement, and in the knee flexor muscles of the same leg as soon as it was unloaded. The NWR was hip joint kinematics-dependent in a crossed manner. The excitability of the reflex was enhanced in the extensor muscles of the standing leg during the hip flexion of the starting leg, and in the hip flexors of the standing leg during the hip extension of the starting leg. No notable reflex modulation was observed in the ankle muscles. Conclusions Our findings show that the NWR is modulated during the gait initiation phase. Leg unloading and hip joint motion are the main sources of the observed modulation and work in concert to prepare and assist the starting leg in the first step while supporting the contralateral leg, thereby possibly predisposing the lower limbs to the cyclical pattern of walking.
Fasten saliva samples of 22 test persons were aerobically incubed with radio-labeled xylit and sorbit for 24 hours at 37 0 C. It was determined by thin-layer chromatography and by the autoradiographic detection of the sugar alcohols, after what incubation time the sugar substitutes were completely metabolised. In order to provide intensive contact between the organisms of the oral cavity and the xylit the test persons rinsed their mouth three times per day with a xylit solution over a period of one month. Then a second saliva sample was examined. By adding the bacteriostaticum chloramphenicol to the cultures, it was proved that in the majority of the test persons the decompensation of xylit and sorbit is enzymatically induced when the organisms living in the oral cavity get into contact with sugar alcohol. Between the decompensation time before and after 30 days of xylit contact no significant difference could be found. These results permit the conclusion that after the contact over one month the organisms of the oral cavity do not adapt to xylit. (orig./MG) [de
Geethu Elizabath Thomas
Full Text Available AbstractMode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet. However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behaviour on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behaviour, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale. Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behaviour. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and
Bargatze, L. F.
Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted
O'Carrigan, Andrew; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Thomas, Richard; Bellotti, Bill; Chen, Zhong-Hua
Light spectrum affects the yield and quality of greenhouse tomato, especially over a prolonged period of monochromatic light treatments. Physiological and chemical analysis was employed to investigate the influence of light spectral (blue, green and red) changes on growth, photosynthesis, stomatal behaviour, leaf pigment, and micronutrient levels. We found that plants are less affected under blue light treatment, which was evident by the maintenance of higher A, gs, Tr, and stomatal parameters and significantly lower VPD and Tleaf as compared to those plants grown in green and red light treatments. Green and red light treatments led to significantly larger increase in the accumulation of Fe, B, Zn, and Cu than blue light. Moreover, guard cell length, width, and volume all showed highly significant positive correlations to gs, Tr and negative links to VPD. There was negative impact of monochromatic lights-induced accumulation of Mn, Cu, and Zn on photosynthesis, leaf pigments and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the light-induced significant changes of the physiological traits were partially recovered at the end of experiment. A high degree of morphological and physiological plasticity to blue, green and red light treatments suggested that tomato plants may have developed mechanisms to adapt to the light treatments. Thus, understanding the optimization of light spectrum for photosynthesis and growth is one of the key components for greenhouse tomato production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof
This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis of caregiver completion of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The children were classified into three cognitive groups: (a) Normal intelligence; (b) Developmental delay; and (c) Intellectual disability. Autism symptom severity was measured by the Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC), and adaptive functioning by the Daily Living Skills (DLS) and Socialization (Soc) subscales from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. For each of five CDI variables (Phrases understood, Words understood, Words produced, Gestures and actions, and Language use), the contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability was examined. Cognition and age explained about half or more of the variance in the four verbal language CDI variables, but only about one fourth of the variance in the non-verbal communication variable Gestures and actions. Severity of autism symptoms and the two adaptive measures (DLS and Soc) each only accounted for a few percent more of the variance in the four CDI language variables; however, for Gestures and actions, an additional 11-21% of the variance was accounted for. In conclusion, for children with ASD, receptive and expressive language is mainly related to cognitive level, whereas non-verbal communication skills seem to also be related to severity of autism symptoms and adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Myers, Julia A; Powell, David M C; Psirides, Alex; Hathaway, Karyn; Aldington, Sarah; Haney, Michael F
In the isolated and dynamic health-care setting of critical care air ambulance transport, the quality of clinical care is strongly influenced by non-technical skills such as anticipating, recognising and understanding, decision making, and teamwork. However there are no published reports identifying or applying a non-technical skills framework specific to an intensive care air ambulance setting. The objective of this study was to adapt and evaluate a non-technical skills rating framework for the air ambulance clinical environment. In the first phase of the project the anaesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS) framework was adapted to the air ambulance setting, using data collected directly from clinician groups, published literature, and field observation. In the second phase experienced and inexperienced inter-hospital transport clinicians completed a simulated critical care air transport scenario, and their non-technical skills performance was independently rated by two blinded assessors. Observed and self-rated general clinical performance ratings were also collected. Rank-based statistical tests were used to examine differences in the performance of experienced and inexperienced clinicians, and relationships between different assessment approaches and assessors. The framework developed during phase one was referred to as an aeromedical non-technical skills framework, or AeroNOTS. During phase two 16 physicians from speciality training programmes in intensive care, emergency medicine and anaesthesia took part in the clinical simulation study. Clinicians with inter-hospital transport experience performed more highly than those without experience, according to both AeroNOTS non-technical skills ratings (p = 0.001) and general performance ratings (p = 0.003). Self-ratings did not distinguish experienced from inexperienced transport clinicians (p = 0.32) and were not strongly associated with either observed general performance (r(s) = 0.4, p = 0
Magill, Nicholas; Graves, Helen; de Zoysa, Nicole; Winkley, Kirsty; Amiel, Stephanie; Shuttlewood, Emma; Landau, Sabine; Ismail, Khalida
Competencies in psychological techniques delivered by primary care nurses to support diabetes self-management were compared between the intervention and control arms of a cluster randomised controlled trial as part of a process evaluation. The trial was pragmatic and designed to assess effectiveness. This article addresses the question of whether the care that was delivered in the intervention and control trial arms represented high fidelity treatment and attention control, respectively. Twenty-three primary care nurses were either trained in motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) skills or delivered attention control. Nurses' skills in these treatments were evaluated soon after training (treatment arm) and treatment fidelity was assessed after treatment delivery for sessions midway through regimen (both arms) using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) domains and Behaviour Change Counselling Index (BECCI) based on consultations with 151 participants (45% of those who entered the study). The MITI Global Spirit subscale measured demonstration of MI principles: evocation, collaboration, autonomy/support. After training, median MITI MI-Adherence was 86.2% (IQR 76.9-100%) and mean MITI Empathy was 4.09 (SD 1.04). During delivery of treatment, in the intervention arm mean MITI Spirit was 4.03 (SD 1.05), mean Empathy was 4.23 (SD 0.89), and median Percentage Complex Reflections was 53.8% (IQR 40.0-71.4%). In the attention control arm mean Empathy was 3.40 (SD 0.98) and median Percentage Complex Reflections was 55.6% (IQR 41.9-71.4%). After MI and CBT skills training, detailed assessment showed that nurses had basic competencies in some psychological techniques. There appeared to be some delivery of elements of psychological treatment by nurses in the control arm. This model of training and delivery of MI and CBT skills integrated into routine nursing care to support diabetes self-management in primary care was not
Hamad, Ana Paula; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Centeno, Ricardo; Costa, Livia Vianez; Ladeia-Frota, Carol; Junior, Henrique Carrete; Gomez, Nicolas Garofalo; Marinho, Murilo; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki
The aim of the study was to report the seizure outcome, motor skills and adaptive motor functions in a series of children and adolescents who underwent hemispheric surgery, analysing the risk-benefits of surgery. The clinical course, seizure and motor function outcomes of 15 patients who underwent hemispheric surgery were reviewed. The mean age at surgery was 9.5, with 1-9 years follow-up. The underlying pathologies were Rasmussen encephalitis, vascular disorders, and hemimegalencephaly. All the patients presented with severe epilepsy and different degrees of hemiparesis, although motor functionality was preserved in 80% of the patients. At last follow-up, 67% were seizure free, and 20% rarely experienced seizures. Antiepileptic drugs were reduced in 60%, and complete withdrawal from such drugs was successful in 20% of the patients. The motor outcome following the surgery varied between the patients. Despite the motor deficit after surgery, the post-operative motor function showed unchanged for gross motor function in most (60%), while 27% improved. Similar results were obtained for the ability to handle objects in daily life activities. Sixty percent of the children were capable of handling objects, with somewhat reduced coordination and/or motor speed. Pre-surgical motor function continues to play a role in the pre-surgical evaluation process in order to provide a baseline for outcome. Hemispheric surgery, once regarded as a radical intervention and last treatment resource, may become routinely indicated for refractory hemispheric epilepsy in children and adolescents, with oftentime favourable motor outcomes. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joyce, Barbara L; Steenbergh, Timothy; Scher, Eric
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist (Adapted) (KEECC-A), which addresses 7 key elements of physician communication identified in the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement, in a sample of 135 residents in multiple specialties at a large urban medical center in 2008-2009. The KEECC-A was used by residents, standardized patients, and faculty as the assessment tool in a broader institutional curriculum initiative. Three separate KEECC-A scores (self-ratings, faculty ratings, and standardized patient ratings) were calculated for each resident to assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the checklist. In addition, we analyzed KEECC-A ratings by gender and US versus international medical graduates, and collected American Board of Internal Medicine Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) scores for a subsample of internal medicine residents (n = 28) to examine the relationship between this measure and the KEECC-A ratings to provide evidence of convergent validity. The KEECC-A ratings generated by faculty, standardized patients, and the residents themselves demonstrated a high degree of internal consistency. Factor analyses of the 3 different sets of KEECC-A ratings produced a consistent single-factor structure. We could not examine the relationship between KEECC-A and the PSQ because of substantial range restriction in PSQ scores. No differences were seen in the communication scores of men versus women. Faculty rated US graduates significantly higher than international medical graduates. Our study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of the KEECC-A as a measure of physician communication skills. The KEECC-A appears to be a psychometrically sound, user-friendly communication tool, linked to an expert consensus statement, that can be quickly and accurately completed by multiple raters across diverse specialties.
Hippolyte, L.; Iglesias, K.; Van der Linden, M.; Barisnikov, K.
Background: Although the prevalence of mental illness and behaviour problems is lower in adults with Down syndrome (DS) than in other populations with intellectual disabilities, they do present emotional and relational problems, as well as social integration difficulties. However, studies reporting on specific competences known to be central in…
Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter
Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive…
Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.
Children who are able to recognize others' emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents' own emotion-related beliefs,…
Blake, Jasmine M; Rubenstein, Eric; Tsai, Peng-Chou; Rahman, Hafizur; Rieth, Sarah R; Ali, Hasmot; Lee, Li-Ching
Low- and middle-income countries often have limited resources, underdeveloped health systems and scarce knowledge of autism spectrum disorder. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop and adapt intervention materials and to train a native clinician to implement a community-based parent-mediated behavioural intervention in rural Gaibandha, Bangladesh. Intervention materials to support parents' use of behavioural strategies were developed and refined by US behavioural intervention experts and Bangladesh field experts. Study investigators trained a native child psychologist in developmental milestones and behavioural intervention techniques. The native clinician delivered a 1-day group education session attended by 10 families of children aged 7-9 years with autism spectrum disorder, followed by two one-on-one training sessions with each family to train and practice individualized strategies for targeted challenging behaviours. Preliminary qualitative results indicate the importance of materials that are culturally appropriate and at an adequate literacy level. All families expressed strong desires to have learned the behavioural strategies when their child was younger and vocalized their need for further support and tools to help their children. This study is a preliminary step to creating sustainable and low-cost autism spectrum disorder interventions in rural Bangladesh, and possibly for families in regions with similar cultural and socioeconomic status backgrounds.
Zamasiya, Byron; Nyikahadzoi, Kefasi; Mukamuri, Billy Billiard
This paper examines factors influencing behavioural change among smallholder farmers towards adaptation to climate change in transitional climatic zones of Africa, specifically, Hwedza District in Zimbabwe. Data for this study were collected from 400 randomly-selected smallholder farmers, using a structured questionnaire, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The study used an ordered logit model to examine the factors that influence smallholder farmers' behavioural intention towards adaptation to climate change. Results from the study show that the gender of the household head, access to extension services on crop and livestock production, access to climate information, membership to social groups and experiencing a drought have a positive influence on farmers' attitude towards adaptation to climate change and variability. The study concluded that although the majority of smallholder farmers perceive that the climate is changing, they continue to habour negative attitudes towards prescribed climate change adaptation techniques. This study recommends more education on climate change, as well as adaptation strategies for both agricultural extension workers and farmers. This can be complemented by disseminating timely climate information through extension officers and farmers' groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.
Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt
Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.
In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen- er...
Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study.
Olsen, Nina Rydland; Bradley, Peter; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Lygren, Hildegunn; Frisk, Bente; Bjordal, Jan Magnus
Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs), are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP) they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students. We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1) The Adapted Fresno test (AFT), 2) the EBP Belief Scale and 3) the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations. In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1), p students.
Patel, Sonal; Dowse, Ros
Although much health information-seeking behaviour (HISB) research has been reported in patients with good literacy skills, little is known about HISB in patients with limited literacy skills served by under-resourced health-care systems. To investigate medicine information-seeking behaviour and information needs in patients with limited literacy. Using a question guide, four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to explore themes related to information needs, information-seeking practices and awareness of and ability to utilize information sources. Twenty-two isiXhosa-speaking long-term patients with limited formal education were recruited from a primary health-care clinic in South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. NVivo(®) was used for initial coding of transcripts. Codes were analysed, and potential themes and subthemes in the entire data set were identified and refined. The results of this study reflect a passive, disempowered patient. Poor awareness of information sources, lack of health-related knowledge and stigma contributed to a lack of information-seeking practice, thus potentially adversely influencing patient-provider interactions. Patients neither asked questions nor were encouraged to ask questions. All expressed an unmet need for information and a desire for receiving the illustrated written medicines-related information displayed in the FGDs. The main sources of information were health-care professionals, followed by family and friends. The significant level of patient disempowerment and passivity reported amongst patients underpinned their inability to actively seek information. Neither sources of information nor types of appropriate medicines information could be identified. Unmet information needs and a desire for information were reported. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Natalia Sanchez Narvaez
Full Text Available The increasing use of technology in educational settings (Murray, 2014; Zandi, Thang, & Krish, 2014 encourages teachers to refocus their professional development by centering their efforts on becoming proficient in the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs in language lessons (Chen, Chen, & Tsai, 2009. As such, this qualitative action research project intended to describe content-subject teachers’ EFL oral behavior when blended learning was implemented in a professional development course and to determine the influence of blended learning in EFL oral skill behavior. The participants were seven content-subject teachers from a private school in Huila, Colombia. Data were gathered via in-depth interviews, class observations, video recording analysis, teachers’ reflection, students’ artifacts, and a survey. Data were collected during the implementation of an English blended course in which 12 lessons were divided into six face-to-face sessions and six online meetings. The findings suggest that EFL oral skill behavior is connected with use of vocabulary, use of body language, pronunciation and intonation patterns, production of chunks of language, monitoring oral production and, motivation and engagement. In addition, blended learning influenced participants’ oral production.
Full Text Available The PACE trial compared the effectiveness of adding adaptive pacing therapy (APT, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT, or graded exercise therapy (GET, to specialist medical care (SMC for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. This paper reports the relative cost-effectiveness of these treatments in terms of quality adjusted life years (QALYs and improvements in fatigue and physical function.Resource use was measured and costs calculated. Healthcare and societal costs (healthcare plus lost production and unpaid informal care were combined with QALYs gained, and changes in fatigue and disability; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were computed.SMC patients had significantly lower healthcare costs than those receiving APT, CBT and GET. If society is willing to value a QALY at £30,000 there is a 62.7% likelihood that CBT is the most cost-effective therapy, a 26.8% likelihood that GET is most cost effective, 2.6% that APT is most cost-effective and 7.9% that SMC alone is most cost-effective. Compared to SMC alone, the incremental healthcare cost per QALY was £18,374 for CBT, £23,615 for GET and £55,235 for APT. From a societal perspective CBT has a 59.5% likelihood of being the most cost-effective, GET 34.8%, APT 0.2% and SMC alone 5.5%. CBT and GET dominated SMC, while APT had a cost per QALY of £127,047. ICERs using reductions in fatigue and disability as outcomes largely mirrored these findings.Comparing the four treatments using a health care perspective, CBT had the greatest probability of being the most cost-effective followed by GET. APT had a lower probability of being the most cost-effective option than SMC alone. The relative cost-effectiveness was even greater from a societal perspective as additional cost savings due to reduced need for informal care were likely.
Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian
An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.
Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Thomas, Aurélien; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Chtioui, Haithem; Appenzeller, Monique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian
Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underlying safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli ("self") and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol
Full Text Available Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underlying safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of Δ(9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low Δ(9-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli ("self" and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of Δ(9
Thomas, Aurélien; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Chtioui, Haithem; Appenzeller, Monique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Favrat, Bernard
Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underling safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli (“self”) and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
The Relationship between Children's Executive Functioning, Theory of Mind, and Verbal Skills with Their Own and Others' Behaviour in a Cooperative Context: Changes in Relations from Early to Middle School-Age
Huyder, Vanessa; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Bacso, Sarah A.
Learning to behave in socially competent ways is an essential component of children's development. This study examined the relations between children's social, communicative, and cognitive skills and their behaviours during a cooperative task, as well as how these relationships change at different ages. Early school-age (5-8 years old) and middle…
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using heart rate (HR as a metric parameter that can be used for the characterisation of behaviour of primitive horses and their relatives, related to reactions to the stress resulting from the contact with humans and adaptation to living in various conditions, including natural environment. This characterisation served the authors to expand the knowledge of such behaviour of primitive horses, and to assess the impact of the environmental and genetic factors. Studies were conducted in three populations of horses: two herds of Polish Konik and one herd of Biłgoraj horses. The studies were performed between 1993 and 2010. They concerned the behaviour of horses during grooming - breeding procedures (hooves clearing, body measurements performed cyclically and the daily observations when HR was monitored continuously. HR results for the respective age categories, during particular grooming - breeding procedures and reserve observations indicate that Polish Konik horses, closely related to the primitive Tarpan breed, are genetically better adapted to living in conditions similar to the natural (reserve than the Biłgoraj horses. They show less stress symptoms, which are evidenced by HR values noted during inhabiting the natural environment.
Padelford, Harold E.
The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)
Rosello-Miranda, B; Berenguer-Forner, C; Miranda-Casas, A
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present difficulties in adaptive functioning and learning, possibly associated with failures in executive functioning characteristic of both disorders. To analyze the impact of executive functioning in the adaptive behaviors of socialization and daily life and in learning behaviors in children with ASD and children with ADHD. The participants were 124 children matched in age and intellectual quotient: 37 children with typical development, 52 children with ASD and 35 children with ADHD. Parents reported on their children's adaptive behaviors, while teachers provided information on learning behaviors and executive functioning in daily life. There are significant differences between the groups with ASD and ADHD with the typical development group in all domains evaluated. In addition, the group with ASD had worse socialization skills while persistence in learning was more affected in children with ADHD. Finally, the metacognitive index of executive functioning predicted the socialization and persistence of children with ASD. On the other hand, the index of behavioral regulation and the educational level of the parents predicted the socialization skills in children with ADHD. The results highlight the need to include differentiated executive strategies in the intervention of children with ASD and children with ADHD.
Vellei, Marika; Natarajan, Sukumar; Biri, Benjamin; Padget, Julian; Walker, Ian
Studies have shown that building energy demand in identical dwellings could vary by a factor of three. Differences in occupant behaviour – i.e. purchase, operation and maintenance – have been implicated as a strong source of these differences. The literature suggests that feedback on energy use to building occupants – particularly real-time feedback – can be used to prompt lower operation-related energy behaviours. This is particularly true for thermal demand which, in cold countries, account...
Ana Betina Lacunza
Full Text Available A strong relationship between social competence during childhood and the subsequent psychological functioning has been found. Therefore, learning and practising social skills contribute to the development of psychological strengths in children. The aims of this paper were a to describe a series of social skills in pre-school children from San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina who live under poverty conditions, and b to identify if the presence of social skills reduces the frequency of occurrence of disruptive behaviour. We worked with a sample of 120 5- year olds from outskirts of San Miguel de Tucumán who attend public schools kindergartens. In the research their parents were administered the Scale of Social Skills (Lacunza, 2005, the Guide for Behaviour Observation (Ison & Fachinelli, 1993 and a sociodemographic survey. The results showed significant statistical differences in the social skills according to the gender and in the dimensions of physical and/or verbal aggression and transgression in the behavioural scale. Children with disruptive behaviour showed fewer social skills, according to their parents’ perception. These results show that social skills in children prevent the occurrence of dysfunctional behaviour, particularly aggressiveness and negativism. These data show that the practice of social behaviour contributes to adaptation, acceptance of others, positive reinforcement, well-being, among other salugenic resources.
Marshall, Matthew M.; Carrano, Andres L.; Dannels, Wendy A.
Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and…
A Pilot, Multicentre Pragmatic Randomised Trial to Explore the Impact of Carer Skills Training on Carer and Patient Behaviours: Testing the Cognitive Interpersonal Model in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.
Hodsoll, John; Rhind, Charlotte; Micali, Nadia; Hibbs, Rebecca; Goddard, Elizabeth; Nazar, Bruno Palazzo; Schmidt, Ulrike; Gowers, Simon; Macdonald, Pamela; Todd, Gillian; Landau, Sabine; Treasure, Janet
The aim of the study is to establish the acceptability, feasibility and approximate size of the effect of adding a carer intervention [Experienced Caregivers Helping Others (ECHO)] to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. The study is a pilot randomised trial comparing TAU (n = 50) alone or TAU plus ECHO with (n = 50) or without (n = 49) telephone guidance. Effect sizes (ESs) were regression coefficients standardised by baseline standard deviations of measure. Although engagement with ECHO was poor (only 36% of carers in the ECHO group read over 50% of the book), there were markers of intervention fidelity, in that caregivers in the ECHO group showed a moderate increase in carer skills (ES = 0.4) at 12 months and a reduction in accommodating and enabling behaviour at 6 months (ES = 0.17). In terms of efficacy, in the ECHO group, carers spent less time care giving (ES = 0.40, p = 0.04) at 1 year, and patients had a minor advantage in body mass index (ES = 0.17), fewer admissions, decreased peer problems (ES = -0.36) and more pro-social behaviours (ES = 0.53). The addition of telephone guidance to ECHO produced little additional benefit. The provision of self-management materials for carers to standard treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa shows benefits for both carers and patients. This could be integrated as a form of early intervention in primary care. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.
Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…
Clary, Lauren E; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Titus, Jeffrey B
The purpose of this study was to characterize 132 children and adolescents (mean age = 10 years, 11 months) with epilepsy in terms of psychosocial functioning and to determine the extent to which adaptive skills and psychological functioning predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL), above and beyond demographic and epilepsy-specific characteristics. A chart review was conducted to obtain demographic and epilepsy-specific information as well as caregiver responses on the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) Parent Report and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). In addition to Full Scale IQ and age at seizure onset, the BASC-2 Clinical and Adaptive Skills subscales also predicted HRQOL, indicating that this measure may be particularly helpful in predicting HRQOL above and beyond information routinely collected in a medical setting. It is imperative to evaluate children with epilepsy for psychosocial difficulties and diminished HRQOL to ensure the provision of comprehensive quality care and intervention services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bere, Tarisai; Nyamayaro, Primrose; Magidson, Jessica F; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Alfred; Munjoma, Ronald; Macpherson, Kirsty; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo Ellen; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Kidia, Khameer; Safren, Steven A; Abas, Melanie
Few evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy have been adapted for use in Africa. We selected, culturally adapted and tested the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adherence and for delivery in a clinic setting in Harare, Zimbabwe. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated using a mixed-methods assessment, including ratings of provider fidelity of intervention delivery, and qualitative assessments of feasibility using individual semi-structured interviews with counsellors (n=4) and patients (n=15). The intervention was feasible and acceptable when administered to 42 patients and resulted in improved self-reported adherence in a subset of 15 patients who were followed up after 6months.
Machado, Inês Maria de Jesus; Bandeira, Marina Bittencourt; Pinheiro, Hélady Sanders; Dutra, Nathália Dos Santos
Treatment adherence in hemodialysis is important for guaranteeing better results for patients, but Brazil still lacks validated assessment tools for this purpose. The current study aimed to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Renal Adherence Behaviour Questionnaire (RABQ) and the Renal Adherence Attitudes Questionnaire (RAAQ). The two questionnaires were submitted to the following cross-cultural adaptation procedures: translation, back-translation, expert panel review, and pilot study. Changes were made in the items' wording and application, which requires a face-to-face interview. It was not necessary to change the choices of answers. The Brazilian versions of the RABQ and RAAQ showed semantic and cultural equivalence to the original versions and are easy for the target population to understand. The two scales still require validity and reliability studies before use in the field.
The sterile insect technique involves mass rearing of male insects for sterility purpose. This heavily relies on male fitness and genetic compatibility of laboratory-adapted male insects and the wild to ensure successful competition with their male counterpart in the wild. Uniform environment in the laboratory as compared to the wild conditions might lead to genetic drift which might lead to reduced sexual competitiveness, fitness, morphological changes or changes in the sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. This work investigated the sexual compatibility, morphometry and sexual behaviour of laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory conditions. These measurements were done by observing swarm formation, genitalia rotation, percentage insemination, fecundity, fertility, wing length, wing width, thoracic width, body length, body size index and wing size index. Morphometric studies of laboratory-adapted and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae were carried out by observing the wing length, body length and thoracic length under Lecia 4D stereoscope in order to find out variations in the body size between the two strains. The results showed significant difference between thoracic width and wing length between the laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain. Indices such as body size index and wing length index also showed significant difference between the two strains; laboratory-adapted REDCO strain (BSI 4.45 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.92 ± 0.07, p = 0.026) and wild REDCO strain ( 4.08 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.73 ± 0.04, p = 0.026 ). Body length of laboratory-adapted male mosquitoes (4.24 ± 0.05, p = 0.462) was not significantly different from its thoracic width, wing length, and wing width. The wild strain on the other hand had significant difference between its body length (4.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.462), thoracic width (0.096 ± 0.02, p = 0.002 ) and wing length (2.99 ± 0.03, p = 0.050 ). In the mating experiment, egg production in each of
Lyk-Jensen, H T; Jepsen, R M H G; Spanager, L; Dieckmann, P; Østergaard, D
Incident reporting and fieldwork in operating rooms have shown that some of the errors that arise in anaesthesia relate to inadequate use of non-technical skills. To provide a tool for training and feedback on nurse anaesthetists' non-technical skills, this study aimed to adapt the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) as a behavioural marker system for the formative assessment of nurse anaesthetists' non-technical skills in the operating room. A qualitative approach with focus group interviews was used to identify the non-technical skills of nurse anaesthetists in the operating room. The interview data were transcribed verbatim. Directed content analysis was used to code and sort data deductively into the ANTS categories: task management, team working, situation awareness and decision making. The prototype named Nurse Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (N-ANTS) was presented and discussed in a group of subject matter experts to ensure face validity. The N-ANTS system consists of the same four categories as ANTS and 15 underlying elements. Three to five good and poor behavioural markers for each element were identified. The headings and definitions of the categories and elements were adjusted to encompass the behavioural markers in N-ANTS. The differences that emerged mainly reflected statements regarding the establishment of role, competence, and task delegation. A behavioural marker system, N-ANTS, for nurse anaesthetists was adapted from a behavioural marker system, ANTS, for anaesthesiologists. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yousefpour, Rasoul; Didion, Markus; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl
We apply Bayesian updating theory to model how decision-makers may gradually learn about climate change and make use of this information in making adaptive forest management decisions. We develop modelling steps to i) simulate observation of a multi-dimensional climate system, ii) apply updating...... production as a measure of management performance. The results illustrate the benefits of updating beliefs to eventually utilize the positive effects and limit negative impacts of climate change on forest biomass production. We find that adaptive decision-making results in switching decisions over time...... rules for beliefs about climate trends, iii) evaluate the performance of adaptive strategies, and iv) apply (i)–(iii) at the local and forest landscape scale to find and compare individual versus joint adaptive decisions. We search for optimal forest management decisions maximizing total biomass...
Wenner, J. M.; Burn, H.; Baer, E. M.
Requiring introductory geoscience students to apply mathematical concepts and solve quantitative problems can be an arduous task because these courses tend to attract students with diverse levels of mathematical preparedness. Perhaps more significantly, geoscience instructors grapple with quantitative content because of the difficulties students have transferring their prior mathematical learning to common geological problems. As a result, instructors can choose to eliminate the mathematics, spend valuable class time teaching basic mathematical skills or let students flounder in the hope that they will learn on their own. None of these choices are ideal. Instead, research suggests that introductory geoscience courses are opportune places to increase students’ quantitative abilities but that students need effective support at their own skill level. To provide such support, we developed The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN): a set of online geoscience context-rich tutorials that students complete just before they encounter a mathematical or numerical skill in their introductory course. The tutorials are modular; each mathematical topic has a set of pages that students work through toward a final assessment. The 11 modules currently available, including unit conversions, graphing, calculating density, and rearranging equations, touch on quantitative topics that cross a number of geologic contexts. TMYN modules are designed to be stand-alone and flexible - faculty members can choose modules appropriate for their courses and implement them at any time throughout the term. The flexible and adaptable nature of TMYN enables faculty to provide a supportive learning environment that remediates math for those who need it without taking significant classroom time. Since spring 2008, seven instructors at Highline Community College and University of Wisconsin Oshkosh successfully implemented TMYN in six geoscience courses with diverse student audiences. Evaluation of
Full Text Available The neotropical flat bug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle, as their appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems that some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when also wetted by water. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures which facilitate the liquid spreading. Here we show morphological and chemical characterisations of the surface, especially the cuticular waxes of D. magnus. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the animal is covered with pillar-like microstructures which, in combination with a surprising chemical hydrophilicity of the cuticle waxes, render the bug almost superhydrophilic: water spreads immediately across the surface. We could theoretically model this behaviour assuming the effect of hemi-wicking (a state in which a droplet sits on a rough surface, partwise imbibing the structure around. Additionally the principle was abstracted and a laser-patterned polymer surface, mimicking the structure and contact angle of Dysodius wax, shows exactly the behaviour of the natural role model – immediate spreading of water and the formation of a thin continuous water film changing optical properties of the surface.
Hischen, Florian; Reiswich, Vladislav; Kupsch, Desirée; De Mecquenem, Ninon; Riedel, Michael; Himmelsbach, Markus; Weth, Agnes; Heiss, Ernst; Armbruster, Oskar; Heitz, Johannes; Baumgartner, Werner
The neotropical flat bug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle, as their appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems that some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when also wetted by water. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures which facilitate the liquid spreading. Here we show morphological and chemical characterisations of the surface, especially the cuticular waxes of D. magnus Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the animal is covered with pillar-like microstructures which, in combination with a surprising chemical hydrophilicity of the cuticle waxes, render the bug almost superhydrophilic: water spreads immediately across the surface. We could theoretically model this behaviour assuming the effect of hemi-wicking (a state in which a droplet sits on a rough surface, partwise imbibing the structure around). Additionally the principle was abstracted and a laser-patterned polymer surface, mimicking the structure and contact angle of Dysodius wax, shows exactly the behaviour of the natural role model - immediate spreading of water and the formation of a thin continuous water film changing optical properties of the surface. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena; Lemos, Marina Serra
The present study aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the student form (Grades 7 to 12) of the Social Skills Questionnaire authored by Gresham and Elliott (1990), on a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants included 573 students, both female and male, aged 14 to 19. Reliability was assessed through Cronbach's alpha and was .87 for the total scale, ranging from.58 to .72 for the subscales. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the main adjustment indices presented unexpected values. A principal components analysis indicated that several items of the cooperation subscale correlated with other factors. Adequate adjustment indices were found when cooperation was removed from the model. Semantic dualities due to cultural factors and difficulties assuming the cooperation dimension as an independent dimension might explain the results observed. The reorganization of the SSQ offers a reliable and valid instrument for research within the Portuguese population.
Glidewell, Liz; Willis, Thomas A; Petty, Duncan; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Ingleson, Emma; Heudtlass, Peter; Davies, Andrew; Jamieson, Tony; Hunter, Cheryl; Hartley, Suzanne; Gray-Burrows, Kara; Clamp, Susan; Carder, Paul; Alderson, Sarah; Farrin, Amanda J; Foy, Robbie
Interpreting evaluations of complex interventions can be difficult without sufficient description of key intervention content. We aimed to develop an implementation package for primary care which could be delivered using typically available resources and could be adapted to target determinants of behaviour for each of four quality indicators: diabetes control, blood pressure control, anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation and risky prescribing. We describe the development and prospective verification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) embedded within the adaptable implementation packages. We used an over-lapping multi-staged process. We identified evidence-based, candidate delivery mechanisms-mainly audit and feedback, educational outreach and computerised prompts and reminders. We drew upon interviews with primary care professionals using the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore likely determinants of adherence to quality indicators. We linked determinants to candidate BCTs. With input from stakeholder panels, we prioritised likely determinants and intervention content prior to piloting the implementation packages. Our content analysis assessed the extent to which embedded BCTs could be identified within the packages and compared them across the delivery mechanisms and four quality indicators. Each implementation package included at least 27 out of 30 potentially applicable BCTs representing 15 of 16 BCT categories. Whilst 23 BCTs were shared across all four implementation packages (e.g. BCTs relating to feedback and comparing behaviour), some BCTs were unique to certain delivery mechanisms (e.g. 'graded tasks' and 'problem solving' for educational outreach). BCTs addressing the determinants 'environmental context' and 'social and professional roles' (e.g. 'restructuring the social and 'physical environment' and 'adding objects to the environment') were indicator specific. We found it challenging to operationalise BCTs targeting 'environmental context
Full Text Available The skill of reading is regarded as the cornerstone of literacy learning in the foundation phase. Although it is the most complex skill to master, it forms part of literacy teaching. Most learners begin schooling without having any kind of exposure to reading. This lack of exposure introduces a number of challenges, which are consequently exacerbated if teachers have to teach in multi-grade classes. This case study was conducted in two primary schools in the Ndwedwe Circuit in KwaZulu-Natal. It is framed within the interpretive epistemology embedded in a qualitative research methodology. Empirical data were generated from two rural schools where multi-grade teaching was undertaken. To produce data, two teachers teaching multi-grade classes (incorporating both grade R and grade 1 were observed during an isiZulu Home Language reading period. Subsequently, semi-structured interviews were used to elicit more data for corroboration of findings. The findings show that teacher agency is crucial in making adaptive decisions. These decisions are based on the intersection of formal knowledge, situational knowledge and experiential knowledge that the teachers have acquired over time.
One avenue substantially researched and supported in early childhood research is the importance and the cultivation of self-regulation skills in the classroom. Most educational research on self-regulation skills has illustrated the importance between the enhancement of these skills and long-term academic success. Notwithstanding, there is little…
Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve
Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…
Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J
To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent skills training and a control sample. Two rural and two metropolitan regions were randomly allocated to intervention groups (n = 70) or control (n = 35). Parents from autism assessment services in the intervention regions were randomly allocated to parent education and behaviour management (n = 35) or parent education and counselling (n = 35). Parent education and behaviour management resulted in significant improvement in adaptive behaviour and autism symptoms at 6 months follow-up for children with greater delays in adaptive behaviour. Parent education and behaviour management was superior to parent education and counselling. We conclude that a 20-week parent education programme including skills training for parents of young children with autistic disorder provides significant improvements in child adaptive behaviour and symptoms of autism for low-functioning children.
Marina Sergeevna Igonina
Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research on the interrelation of coping strategies and ethnic tolerance of the elder teenagers. Particular attention is paid to consideration of interrelations of intolerant behavior of teenagers with not adaptive coping strategies. The question is actual for modern society taking into account constantly arising conflict situations of international character. Used in the article methodology of empirical research extend the learning experience of teenagers, allow teachers to differentiate educational process in development of cognitive independence. As a result of the correlation analysis were obtained direct interrelations of ethnic tolerance and coping strategies: the higher the indicators of the choice of not adaptive coping strategies, the higher the performance of the selection strategies of intolerant behavior. The obtained data can be of interest to experts of school level, graduate students, research associates.
Lam, Matthew Chak Leung; Adams, Jean
'Ultra-processed foods' (UPF) have been industrially processed and tend to be higher in saturated fat, sodium and sugar than other foods. There is some evidence that consumption of UPF is associated with overweight, obesity and related diseases. In developed countries more than half of dietary energy is attributed to UPF. One reason for reliance on UPF may be poor home food preparation skills or infrequent use of these. This relationship has been previously proposed but not tested. We examined the relationship between home food preparation skills and behaviour and consumption of UPF. We used data from adults in the UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey 2008-09. Home food preparation skills and behaviours of adults (n = 509) were assessed using questions on confidence using eight cooking techniques, confidence cooking 10 foods, ability to prepare a cake or biscuits without help, and whether or not participants prepared a main meal five or more days per week. Individuals' UPF consumption was determined from four-day estimated diet diaries. Associations were adjusted for age, gender, occupational social class and household composition. In fully adjusted models, individuals who were confident with all 10 foods (adjusted beta (95% CI) = -3.76 (-6.02 to -1.50)), able to bake cakes or biscuits without help (-3.87 (-6.62 to -1.12)), and cooked a main meal at least five days a week (-2.84 (-5.43 to -0.24)) consumed a lower percentage of dietary energy from UPF. In UK adults better home food preparation skills and more frequent use of these skills tended to be cross-sectionally associated with lower UPF consumption. Greater encouragement of these skills may help reduce reliance on UPF.
Engr E. Egbochukwu
skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. ..... communication problems (Akinade, 1988, Aremu, 1998, Ojekunle, 1999, .... Restructuring on the Enhancement of Self Esteem of Visually Impaired.
Han, Joan C; Thurm, Audrey; Golden Williams, Christine; Joseph, Lisa A; Zein, Wadih M; Brooks, Brian P; Butman, John A; Brady, Sheila M; Fuhr, Shannon R; Hicks, Melanie D; Huey, Amanda E; Hanish, Alyson E; Danley, Kristen M; Raygada, Margarita J; Rennert, Owen M; Martinowich, Keri; Sharp, Stephen J; Tsao, Jack W; Swedo, Susan E
In animal studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity. WAGR (Wilms tumour, Aniridia, Genitourinary anomalies, and mental Retardation) syndrome is caused by 11p13 deletions of variable size near the BDNF locus and can serve as a model for studying human BDNF haploinsufficiency (+/-). We hypothesized that BDNF+/- would be associated with more severe cognitive impairment in subjects with WAGR syndrome. Twenty-eight subjects with WAGR syndrome (6-28 years), 12 subjects with isolated aniridia due to PAX6 mutations/microdeletions (7-54 years), and 20 healthy controls (4-32 years) received neurocognitive assessments. Deletion boundaries for the subjects in the WAGR group were determined by high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Within the WAGR group, BDNF+/- subjects (n = 15), compared with BDNF intact (+/+) subjects (n = 13), had lower adaptive behaviour (p = .02), reduced cognitive functioning (p = .04), higher levels of reported historical (p = .02) and current (p = .02) social impairment, and higher percentage meeting cut-off score for autism (p = .047) on Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. These differences remained nominally significant after adjusting for visual acuity. Using diagnostic measures and clinical judgement, 3 subjects (2 BDNF+/- and 1 BDNF+/+) in the WAGR group (10.7%) were classified with autism spectrum disorder. A comparison group of visually impaired subjects with isolated aniridia had cognitive functioning comparable to that of healthy controls. In summary, among subjects with WAGR syndrome, BDNF+/- subjects had a mean Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Compose score that was 14-points lower and a mean intelligence quotient (IQ) that was 20-points lower than BDNF+/+ subjects. Our findings support the hypothesis that BDNF plays an important role in human neurocognitive development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The ability to learn and form memory has been demonstrated in various animal species, ranging from relatively simple invertebrates, such as snails and insects, to more complex vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. The opportunity to acquire new skills or to adapt behaviour
Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fluet, Gerard G; Patel, Jigna; Qiu, Qinyin; Yarossi, Matthew; Massood, Supriya; Adamovich, Sergei V; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S
The complexity of upper extremity (UE) behavior requires recovery of near normal neuromuscular function to minimize residual disability following a stroke. This requirement places a premium on spontaneous recovery and neuroplastic adaptation to rehabilitation by the lesioned hemisphere. Motor skill learning is frequently cited as a requirement for neuroplasticity. Studies examining the links between training, motor learning, neuroplasticity, and improvements in hand motor function are indicated. This case study describes a patient with slow recovering hand and finger movement (Total Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer examination score = 25/66, Wrist and Hand items = 2/24 on poststroke day 37) following a stroke. The patient received an intensive eight-session intervention utilizing simulated activities that focused on the recovery of finger extension, finger individuation, and pinch-grasp force modulation. Over the eight sessions, the patient demonstrated improvements on untrained transfer tasks, which suggest that motor learning had occurred, as well a dramatic increase in hand function and corresponding expansion of the cortical motor map area representing several key muscles of the paretic hand. Recovery of hand function and motor map expansion continued after discharge through the three-month retention testing. This case study describes a neuroplasticity based intervention for UE hemiparesis and a model for examining the relationship between training, motor skill acquisition, neuroplasticity, and motor function changes. Implications for rehabilitation Intensive hand and finger rehabilitation activities can be added to an in-patient rehabilitation program for persons with subacute stroke. Targeted training of the thumb may have an impact on activity level function in persons with upper extremity hemiparesis. Untrained transfer tasks can be utilized to confirm that training tasks have elicited motor learning. Changes in cortical motor maps can be used to document
Early notions of life skills in Africa did not take into account the importance of a flexible and portable set of skills that would enable youth to adapt to changes in the world of work and lay the foundations for productive well-being and behaviour. Rather, life skills education in many secondary education curricula in Africa started with an emphasis on developing specific technical vocational skills considered essential for employability or self-employment. Using Ghana as an example, this paper shows how secondary education curriculum reformers recommended shifts that embraced a new interpretation of life skills focused on 21st-century skills. This gradual move also reflected the difficulty that secondary education in general has had in networking with the world of work to provide work experience that would lead to the development of work-related skills and enhance employability. The author's main argument is that although the reconceptualisation of life skills in secondary education to reflect 21st-century skills is a welcome shift in the African context, this needs to be accompanied by reforms in teacher education. Classroom teaching and learning need to be adapted in a fundamental way in order to ensure that youth fully benefit from the inclusion of 21st-century life skills in secondary education curricula. Such reforms must include pedagogical practices which nurture communication, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking skills.
Sakdalan, J. A.; Shaw, J.; Collier, V.
Background: Dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT) has been widely used with individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who exhibit severe emotional and behavioural dysregulation. There is a paucity of research in assessing the effectiveness of DBT with forensic clients with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: This pilot study aims…
Tromp, E. J. Yvonne; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Lyons, Jim; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
Rating a player's skill level is an essential task for coaches to select the players with greatest potential to reach the top and to further be able to adjust the training program to the skill level of the player in order to most optimally facilitate the player's learning and performance. However,
A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities : the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP)
Lindsay, Geoff; Strand, Steve; Davis, Hilton
Abstract Background There is growing evidence that parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and thereby the behaviour of children exhibiting or at risk of developing antisocial behaviour. Given the high prevalence of childhood behaviour problems the task is to develop large scale application of effective programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the UK government funded implementation of the Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder (PEIP). This involved the large scale rolling...
Nazla Maharani Umaya
Full Text Available One of the obstacles on the fairy tale of learning in secondary schools is there is not enough learning tool as an innovation. The example is found only one or two kind of teaching materials that use for learning, and only about 25% of the fairy tale text has from the local stories in each material. Student need more material than that to help them finish the study easily. The methods of research is exploratory mixed design. It's because the first sequent of this research is gathering qualitative data exploration for development, and collecting qualitative data to explain relationship found in the quantitative data (experimental result. An epic story is an object of the local stories chosen. All developed a tools consisting of a teacher guide, student books, and audiovisual. The result of this research is an increased literacy in students and the effectiveness of learning tools of the fairy tale for secondary school students. The conclusions is the study that the local story adapted as a learning tools innovation is effective to facilitate student learning and improve literacy skills better than regular tools. It can be a part of technical innovation competency development training of teachers in teaching. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Alla, Arben; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Kijowska, Violetta; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc
Our aim was to validate an international instrument measuring self-perceived competency level of family physicians in Albania. A representative sample of 57 family physicians operating in primary health care services was interviewed twice in March-April 2012 in Tirana (26 men and 31 women; median age: 46 years, inter-quartile range: 38-56 years). A structured questionnaire was administered [and subsequently re-administered after two weeks (test-retest)] to all family physicians aiming to self-assess physicians' level of abilities, skills and competencies regarding different domains of quality of health care. The questionnaire included 37 items organized into 6 subscales/domains. Answers for each item of the tool ranged from 1 ("novice" physicians) to 5 ("expert" physicians). An overall summary score (range: 37-185) and a subscale summary score for each domain were calculated for the test and retest procedures. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency for both the test and the retest procedures, whereas Spearman's rho was employed to assess the stability over time (test-retest reliability) of the instrument. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 for the test and 0.86 for the retest procedure. Overall, Spearman's rho was 0.84 (Pcross-cultural adaptation of an international instrument taping self-perceived level of competencies of family physicians in Albania. The questionnaire displayed a satisfactory internal consistency for both test and retest procedures in this sample of family physicians in Albania. Furthermore, the high test-retest reliability (stability over time) of the instrument suggests a good potential for wide scale application to nationally representative samples of family physicians in Albanian populations.
Murphy, Suzanne M; Faulkner, Dorothy M; Farley, Laura R
Children with social communication disorders are known to experience more problematic peer relations than typically-developing children. However, detailed observation of their behaviour and communication during interaction with peers has not previously been undertaken. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-taped interaction of children (N = 112) selected from mainstream schools (ages 5-6 years-old) on a computerised dyadic collaborative task. Comparisons were made between children with average-to-high- and low-pragmatic language skill as measured by the Test of Pragmatic Skills. Dyads were composed of an average-to-high-skilled child plus a low-skilled child (32 dyads), or of two average-to-high-skilled children (24 dyads). Consistently with their pragmatic language scores, low-skilled children were more likely to ignore other children's questions and requests than were average-to-high-skilled children. When average-to-high-skilled children worked with low-skilled children, as opposed to with other average-to-high-skilled children, they showed some sensitivity and adaptation to these children's difficulties; they used significantly more directives, clarification and provided more information. However, there was a cost in terms of the emotional tone of these interactions; when working with low-skilled children, the average-to-high-skilled children expressed considerably more negative feelings towards their partners than with another average-to-high-skilled child. In conclusion, observation of the interaction of average-to-high- and low-skilled children suggests promise for peer-assisted interventions and specifies which communicative behaviours could be targeted. However, care should be taken to manage the affective climate of these interactions for the benefit of all children involved.
Al-Tamimi, Eman Mohammad Reda Ali; Al-Khawaldeh, Naseer Ahmad
The study has examined the correlation between emotional intelligence, social skills, and religious behavior among university female students, since it had been noticed that there was escalation in the frequency of some behavioral and emotional problems such as vandalism, aggression, social withdrawal, weakness of social relations, patterns of…
Kumpfer, Karol L.; Xie, Jing; O'Driscoll, Robert
Background: Evidence-based programs (EBPs) targeting effective family skills are the most cost effective for improving adolescent behavioural health. Cochrane Reviews have found the "Strengthening Families Program" (SFP) to be the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Standardized cultural adaptation processes resulted…
Individuals who pass through low-skilled work in their careers can represent this phase as showing strength of character as obstacles are overcome. However, continuing to work in low-skilled employment has so many negative consequences that finding ways to assist those individuals' career development is an important challenge for guidance policy…
Herbrecht, Evelyn; Poustka, Fritz; Birnkammer, Sabine; Duketis, Eftichia; Schlitt, Sabine; Schmötzer, Gabriele; Bölte, Sven
The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based intervention aiming at improving social and communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Over a period of 11 months, N = 17 children and adolescents received treatment according to the manualised Frankfurt Social Skills Training (KONTAKT). Parent, teacher, expert and blind expert ratings were assessed to judge outcome regarding peer interaction, autistic behaviours, adaptive functioning and family burden. The participants exhibited improvements pre to follow-up treatment, particularly in the area of autistic symptomatology. Effect sizes (partial eta squared) ranged from 0.02 to 0.69. Among other things, regression models showed a positive influence of IQ and language skills on gains in social skills. Findings indicate that KONTAKT might be useful for enhancing social skills and reducing autism-related psychopathology over time in different contexts. Nevertheless, controlled trials are needed to reassure its effectiveness.
Anson, Katie; Ponsford, Jennie
To examine the impact of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) based intervention programme, termed the Coping Skills Group (CSG), on coping strategy use and emotional adjustment. Thirty-one individuals with TBI participated and a wait-list control design was used. The CSG ran twice a week, for 5 weeks and focused on developing adaptive coping skills for the management of emotional and adjustment issues. Following the CSG, the majority of participants subjectively reported that they had a better understanding of emotional issues and an improved ability to implement strategies to manage these issues. Adaptive coping, as measured on the Coping Scale for Adults, increased significantly immediately following intervention. However, no significant changes in anxiety, depression, self-esteem and psychosocial function were observed on the measures used. The results suggest that it may be possible to modify coping strategy use following brain injury, through CBT.
Berkhout, F.; Hertin, J.; Gann, D.M.
Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour
Griffiths Frances E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is a major public health problem. Risk factors for the development and persistence of LBP include physical and psychological factors. However, most research activity has focused on physical solutions including manipulation, exercise training and activity promotion. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a group programme, based on cognitive behavioural principles, for the management of sub-acute and chronic LBP in primary care. Our primary outcomes are disease specific measures of pain and function. Secondary outcomes include back beliefs, generic health related quality of life and resource use. All outcomes are measured over 12 months. Participants randomised to the intervention arm are invited to attend up to six weekly sessions each of 90 minutes; each group has 6–8 participants. A parallel qualitative study will aid the evaluation of the intervention. Discussion In this paper we describe the rationale and design of a randomised evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural intervention for low back pain.
Evaluation of Self-Ratings for Health Information Behaviour Skills Requires More Heterogeneous Sample, but Finds that Public Library Print Collections and Health Information Literacy of Librarians Needs Improvement
Full Text Available Objective – To understand public library users’ perceptions of ability to locate, evaluate, and use health information; to identify barriers experienced in finding and using health information; and to compare self-ratings of skills to an administered instrument. Design – Mixed methods. Setting – Main library and two branches of one public library system in Florida. Subjects – 20 adult library users purposively selected from 131 voluntary respondents to a previously conducted survey (Yi, 2014 based on age range, ethnicity, gender, and educational level. Of the 20, 13 were female; 11 White, 8 Black, 1 Native American; most had attained college or graduate school education levels (9 each, with 2 having graduated from high school. 15 respondents were aged 45 or older. Methods – Intensive interviews conducted between April and May 2011 used critical incident technique to inquire about a recalled health situation. Participants responded to questions about skill self-appraisal, health situation severity, information seeking and assessment behaviour, use of information, barriers, and outcome. Responses were compared to results of the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA test, administered to participants. Main Results – On a scale of 100, participants’ S-TOFHLA scores measured at high levels of proficiency, with 90% rating 90 points or above. Self-ratings of ability to find health information related to recalled need were ”excellent” (12 participants or “good” (8 participants. Fourteen participants did not seek library assistance; 12 began their search on the Internet, 5 searched the library catalogue, and 3 reported going directly to the collection. Resource preferences were discussed, although no frequency descriptions were provided. 90% of participants self-rated their ability to evaluate the quality of health information as “good” or “excellent.” Participants selected authority
Full Text Available This paper gives an analysis of personal and environmental variables related to aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in a sample of Spanish sports competitors. We aim to: 1 ascertain how personality and expression variables relate to trait anger control and unsportsmanlike behaviors, in relation to men and women, age groups and type of sport, 2 identify and analyze the most maladjusted and the most adjusted profiles in a sample of sportsmen and women; 3 identify personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Differences in gender, age and type of sport were appreciated in personality variables and in aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Men have better emotional adjustment (more behaviours of emotional stability, better self-esteem, self-confidence and leadership, and have worse social adjustment (fewer behaviours of tolerance, social skills and responsibility; more aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Women have better social adjustment (more behaviours of tolerance, understanding, adaptation, responsibility, discipline and sociability, and have worse emotional adjustment (greater anxiety. More aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours and greater emotional maladjustment were found in the youngest sportsmen and women. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours were more frequent in team sports. This study highlights personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours.
Daneshvar, Sabrina D; Charlop, Marjorie H; Berry Malmberg, Debra
To compare the efficacy of two procedures, a photo activity schedule intervention and Social Stories, to teach social skills to four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). An adapted alternating treatments design with an additional multiple baseline control was used, and two social skills were targeted for each of the four participants, one under each intervention condition. Results indicated that all four participants learned the target social behaviours with the photo activity schedule intervention, but did not learn target social behaviours with Social Stories. Findings support the use of a photo activity intervention for teaching social skillsto children with ASD; we discuss the implications of inconsistent findings of effectiveness of Social Stories.
Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is ...
Alozie, Nonye M.; Grueber, David J.; Dereski, Mary O.
How can science instruction engage students in 21st-century skills and inquiry-based learning, even when doing simple labs in the classroom? We collaborated with teachers in professional development workshops to transform "cookbook" activities into engaging laboratory experiences. We show how to change the common classroom activity of DNA…
Stabler, Brian; And Others
This study tested the effects of two group-oriented supportive and educational approaches on the parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirteen families were randomly assigned either to a group which received information on medical and technical aspects of CF or to a group which received instruction in communication skills in addition to…
C.M. Jonker (Catholijn); J. Treur
textabstract In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for
This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...
Hutchison, Cathleen; And Others
Lists skills identified by the Leadership Development Task Force as being critical skills for a leader. Discussion focuses on information managing skills, including problem solving, decision making, setting goals and objectives; project management; and people managing skills, including interpersonal communications, conflict management, motivation,…
Accurso, Erin C; Astrachan-Fletcher, Ellen; O'Brien, Setareh; McClanahan, Susan F; Le Grange, Daniel
Although family-based therapy (FBT) is a well-established treatment for anorexia nervosa, its implementation and effectiveness in clinical settings has been neglected. A group of seven therapists at a community-based eating disorders clinic were trained in skills-enhanced FBT and provided treatment to 11 youth with anorexia nervosa. Family-based skills training, which borrowed heavily from dialectical behavior therapy, was introduced in four additional sessions and then integrated throughout the remainder of FBT. FBT was perceived as appropriate and acceptable by all participants. Therapists reported high treatment fidelity. There was a large improvement in weight and moderate improvement in caregiver-reported eating disorder psychopathology but no clinically significant change by youth report. This study provides preliminary data on the implementation and effectiveness of FBT in the community.
JEL: M31 Marketing JEL: L81 Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce Companies in the fashion industry are increasingly establishing their presence online, in the form of online platforms, such as websites. However, some brands are more successful than others in selling fashion clothing online. In this perspective, the two main objectives of the dissertation are: (i) to adapt and extend the UTAUT model in the context of online shopping for fashion clothing; (ii) to compare the adapted mod...
87 ix CONTENTS (Continued) Page APPENDIX D. COGNITIVE SKILLS TEST ....... ................... .. 98 E. CLASSROOM OBSERVATION FORM...You arrzive ac tine, but nobody is at the c2ub. Vhy? (Give a possible explanaztion.) APPENDIX E Classroom Observation Form 106 B.&SIC ERLLS ED-:UCA1O...gains to be expected, researchers observed classroom instruction in each IE BSEP cycle at Fort Knox. (See Appendix E for a copy of the Classroom
Harro, J; Tõnissaar, M; Eller, M
Intracerebrally administered CRF has been demonstrated to elicit several behavioural deficits in novel and potentially stressful experimental paradigms, and to promote activity in familiar situations. This study examined the effect of CRA 1000, a novel non-peptide antagonist of CRF(1)receptors, on rat behaviour in tests of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity and novelty-oriented behaviour. CRA 1000 (1.25-10 mg/kg) had no major effect in elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests. However, CRA 1000 (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility in the forced swimming test, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. In the exploration box test, CRA 1000 (1.25 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic effect on rat exploratory behaviour both in intact rats and after lesioning of the projections of locus coeruleus by DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) treatment. A higher dose of CRA 1000 (5 mg/kg) tended to have anxiolytic-like effects in DSP-4 pretreated rats, but in intact animals this dose prevented the increase in exploration which develops with repeated exposure to initially anxiety-provoking situations. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that CRF1 receptor blockade by CRA 1000 has antidepressant-like effects, does not have a robust anti-anxiety effect in non-stressed animals, but does have anxiolytic-like effects in more complex tasks, which can be observed also after denervation of the locus coeruleus projections. However, large doses of CRF1 receptor antagonists may reduce motivation of exploratory behaviour in familiar environments. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Cross, E M; Hare, D J
The mucopolysaccharide disorders (MPS) are a group of recessively inherited metabolic disorders resulting in progressive physical and cognitive decline. MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase databases were searched, alongside manual screening, to identify relevant literature. Papers were included in the review if they were published in a peer reviewed journal and conducted empirical research into cognitive, motor, social or linguistic development or behaviour in one or more MPS disorders. Twenty-five papers were reviewed. Two papers used methodology of a sufficiently high standard to demonstrate a behavioural phenotype; both found sleep disturbance to be part of the phenotype of MPS III. Fearfulness and sleep disturbance were frequently observed in people with MPS I and II. Cognitive and motor impairment and decline, and challenging behaviour were highly prevalent in the severe form of MPS II. Cognitive decline and severe behavioural problems relating to aggression, hyperactivity, orality, unusual affect and temper tantrums were seen in MPS III. Sleep disturbance is part of the behavioural phenotype of MPS III, and challenging behaviour is highly prevalent in MPS II and MPS III, therefore the efficacy of behavioural interventions for these populations should be investigated. Further research into the behaviour and adaptive skills of children with MPS III and MPS IV is required.
Keiyu, A. Y.; Yamazaki, H.; Strickler, J. R.
We have developed a new simulation technique to model zooplankton behaviour. The approach utilizes neither the conventional artificial intelligence nor neural network methods. We have designed an adaptive behaviour network, which is similar to BEER [(1990) Intelligence as an adaptive behaviour: an experiment in computational neuroethology, Academic Press], based on observational studies of zooplankton behaviour. The proposed method is compared with non- "intelligent" models—random walk and correlated walk models—as well as observed behaviour in a laboratory tank. Although the network is simple, the model exhibits rich behavioural patterns similar to live copepods.
Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György
We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of 'natural pedagogy' in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species.
Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György
We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of ‘natural pedagogy’ in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species. PMID:21357237
Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the adaptive behaviour is one of the defining parameters of intellectual disability, determining of the influence of inhibitory control on adaptive functioning in children with mild intellectual disability was defined as a basic aim of this research. The sample covered 95 children with mild intellectual disability (MID, of both genders, from 10 to 14 years of age. By analysis of the data of schools' pedagogical-psychological departments, data on age and intellectual abilities of participants were collected. Inhibitory control was estimated by Go no Go task, consisted of Conflict Response and Response Delay sets. Adaptive skills data were gained on the basis of a standardized interview with special education teachers, by applying of AAMR Scale of adaptive functioning. On the basis of factor analysis, Scale scores were grouped in five factors: Personal independence, Social Independence, Personal and Social Responsibility, Social Adaptability and Personal Adaptability. Significance of relations among the observed variables was established by Pearson's correlation coefficient, by partial correlation coefficient and multifactorial variance analysis. Based on the analysis of results a statistically significant relationship between errors in the execution of tasks that belong to the set of conflict motor responses and adaptive functioning (p≤0.000 was established. The relationship between errors that belong to the set of the response delay, and adaptive functioning is not statistically significant (p=0.324. Inhibition of the interference response is a significant factor of practical (partial η2=0.227, conceptual (partial η2=0.341 and social (partial η2=0.131 adaptive skills, while the response delay is significantly associated with the conceptual skills (p=0.029 only. Inhibitory control did not prove itself a significant factor in behaviour problems of externalizing and internalized type.
Ludolph, Nicolas; Giese, Martin A; Ilg, Winfried
There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end. In the second group, subjects had to acquire the skill on the maximum, most difficult gravity level. We hypothesized that the gradual increase in gravity during skill acquisition supports learning despite the necessary adjustments to changes in cart-pole dynamics. We found that the gradual group benefits from the slow increment, although overall improvement was interrupted by the changes in gravity and resulting system dynamics, which caused short-term degradations in performance and timing of actions. In conclusion, our results deliver evidence for an interaction of reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation processes, which indicates the importance of both processes for the development of optimized skill acquisition schedules.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.
Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild
Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...
Berkhout, F.G.H.; Hertin, J.; Gann, D.M.
Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new
Flouris, Andreas D
The human thermoregulatory system relies primarily on behavioural adaptation and secondarily on autonomic and endocrine responses for thermal homeostasis. This is because autonomic and endocrine responses have a limited capacity in preventing hyper/hypothermia in extreme environments. Until recently, the neuroanatomy of behavioural thermoregulation as well as the neuroanatomic substrate of the various thermoregulatory behaviours remained largely unknown. However, this situation has changed in recent years as behavioural thermoregulation has become a topic of considerable attention. The present review evaluates the current knowledge on behavioural thermoregulation in order to summarize the present state-of-the-art and to point towards future research directions. Findings on the fundamental distinction between thermal (dis)comfort and sensation are reviewed showing that the former drives behaviour while the latter initiates autonomic thermoregulation. Moreover, the thermosensitive neurons and thermoeffector functions of behavioural thermoregulation are presented and analysed in a detailed discussion.
Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel
Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Background. This paper details the role of different dimensions of health literacy in the relationship between health literacy and cancer-related health behaviours. In particular, Cancer Literacy is studied as an exemplar of a dimension of health literacy beyond basic reading and writing skills. The link between functional health literacy, Cancer Literacy and cancer-related health behaviours is investigated in a sample of Ticino (Switzerland residents (n=639. Design and methods. Detailed data is collected about respondents’ functional health literacy, Cancer Literacy, cancer information seeking behaviour, engagement in cancer preventive behaviours, participation to cancer screenings, and intention to adhere to current screening recommendations. Results. Results confirm the added value of Cancer Literacy – compared to functional health literacy – in explaining people’s cancer information seeking behaviour, their participation to several cancer screenings and their screening intention, underscoring the need to take into account dimensions of health literacy beyond basic functional skills. Conclusions. From a public health perspective, findings provide further evidence on the importance of adapting informational and educational communication intervention designed to improve cancer prevention and screening to different audiences.
Chaudhuri, S.; Das, D.; Goswami, S.; Das, S. K.
All India summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) characteristics play a vital role for the policy planning and national economy of the country. In view of the significant impact of monsoon system on regional as well as global climate systems, accurate prediction of summer monsoon rainfall has become a challenge. The objective of this study is to develop an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for long range forecast of AISMR. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of temperature, zonal and meridional wind at different pressure levels have been taken to construct the input matrix of ANFIS. The membership of the input parameters for AISMR as high, medium or low is estimated with trapezoidal membership function. The fuzzified standardized input parameters and the de-fuzzified target output are trained with artificial neural network models. The forecast of AISMR with ANFIS is compared with non-hybrid multi-layer perceptron model (MLP), radial basis functions network (RBFN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models. The forecast error analyses of the models reveal that ANFIS provides the best forecast of AISMR with minimum prediction error of 0.076, whereas the errors with MLP, RBFN and MLR models are 0.22, 0.18 and 0.73 respectively. During validation with observations, ANFIS shows its potency over the said comparative models. Performance of the ANFIS model is verified through different statistical skill scores, which also confirms the aptitude of ANFIS in forecasting AISMR. The forecast skill of ANFIS is also observed to be better than Climate Forecast System version 2. The real-time forecast with ANFIS shows possibility of deficit (65-75 cm) AISMR in the year 2015.
Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S.; Ishikawa, Masaya
Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (−1 to −4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor. PMID:25082142
This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles.......This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...
Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan
This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…
O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann
Background: Literature suggests that physical education programmes ought to provide intense instruction towards basic movement skills needed to enjoy a variety of physical activities. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are basic observable patterns of behaviour present from childhood to adulthood (e.g. run, skip and kick). Recent evidence indicates…
Diferencias en habilidades y conducta entre grupos de preescolares de alto y bajo rendimiento escolar. [Differences in skills and behaviour between preschool groups of high and low educational performance ].
Calero, M. Dolores
Full Text Available The aim of this study has been to analyze the relationship between psychological variables and school performance in preschool children. A collection of cognitive and behavioural variables were selected, that according to the most current bibliography are related to student learning, with the goal of identifying the factors that appear to influence educational performance in childhood. The final goal would be to try to prevent future performance problems by means of identifying early these variables in the children that present low performance. The sample is composed of 47 children: 23 children with high performance and 24 with low performance. The instruments used were the Kauffman Brief Intelligence Test, the EHPAP (Spanish version of ACFS de Lidz y Jepsen, 2003 and a questionnaire about metacognition. The results showed significant differences between both groups in the profile of skills, in behavioral variables, and in the use of metacognitive strategies. However, both groups present a similar learning potential. El objetivo ha sido analizar la relación entre variables psicológicas y rendimiento escolar en niños preescolares. Se ha seleccionado un conjunto de variables cognitivas y conductuales, que según la bibliografía más actualizada se relacionan con el aprendizaje escolar, con el fin de identificar los factores que parecen influir en el rendimiento educativo en la etapa infantil. La meta final sería intentar prevenir problemas de rendimiento futuros mediante la identificación temprana de estas variables en los niños que parecen presentar bajo rendimiento. La muestra ha estado compuesta por 47 niños: 23 con alto rendimiento y 24 con bajo rendimiento. Se han utilizado medidas de inteligencia (K-BIT, potencial de aprendizaje (EHPAP y metacognición. Los resultados muestran que los grupos difieren en el perfil de habilidades, en variables conductuales y en la utilización de estrategias metacognitivas. Sin embargo, todos presentan
The non-technical skills of situational awareness and the formation of effective interpersonal relationships are essential to enhance surgical outcomes. However, most scrub practitioners demonstrate only tacit awareness of these skills and develop such qualities on an informal basis. Application of non-technical skills may be assessed formally, using a structured framework, to transform normative behaviour and to strengthen barriers against the latent threats that may result from fallible humans working in inadequate organisational systems.
Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E
We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.
Full Text Available Life skills are the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior which enable the individuals to deal effectively with the challenges and stress of everyday life. Cognitive skills are used for analyzing information, personal skills help in self-management and inter-personal skills are needed for good communication and effective social interaction. These skills can be developed through scientific professional training. Life skills empower the adolescents to choose the best values and behaviors which are essential for positive health. Students who acquire life skills become better adjusted to the school environment and their academic performance will definitely improve. Their self esteem increases and they become capable of coping with the demands and challenges of daily life. Through repeated practicing, individuals can develop mastery over these skills. They learn to apply life skills in all problematic situations in real life and gain control over stressful situations easily.
Sudhir, Paulomi M
Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles. Interventions for preventing relapse include, behavioural strategies to decrease the valence of addictive behaviours, coping skills to deal with craving, arousal, negative mood states, assertiveness skills to manage social pressures, family psychoeducation and environmental manipulation and cognitive strategies to enhance self-efficacy beliefs and modification of outcome expectancies related to addictive behaviours. More recent developments in the area of managing addictions include third wave behaviour therapies. Third wave behaviour therapies are focused on improving building awareness, and distress tolerance skills using mindfulness practices. These approaches have shown promise, and more recently the neurobiological underpinnings of mindfulness strategies have been studied. The article provides an overview of cognitive behavioural approaches to managing addictions.
Goodyer, I M; Dubicka, B; Wilkinson, P; Kelvin, R; Roberts, C; Byford, S; Breen, S; Ford, C; Barrett, B; Leech, A; Rothwell, J; White, L; Harrington, R
To determine if, in the short term, depressed adolescents attending routine NHS Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), and receiving ongoing active clinical care, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) plus cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) compared with SSRI alone, results in better healthcare outcomes. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on depressed adolescents attending CAMHS who had not responded to a psychosocial brief initial intervention (BII) prior to randomisation. Six English CAMHS participated in the study. A total of 208 patients aged between 11 and 17 years were recruited and randomised. All participants received active routine clinical care in a CAMHS outpatient setting and an SSRI and half were offered CBT. The duration of the trial was a 12-week treatment phase, followed by a 16-week maintenance phase. Follow-up assessments were at 6, 12 and 28 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA). Secondary outcome measures were self-report depressive symptoms, interviewer-rated depressive signs and symptoms, interviewer-rated psychosocial impairment and clinical global impression of response to treatment. Information on resource use was collected in interview at baseline and at the 12- and 28-week follow-up assessments using the Child and Adolescent Service Use Schedule (CA-SUS). Of the 208 patients randomised, 200 (96%) completed the trial to the primary end-point at 12 weeks. By the 28-week follow-up, 174 (84%) participants were re-evaluated. Overall, 193 (93%) participants had been assessed at one or more time points. Clinical characteristics indicated that the trial was conducted on a severely depressed group. There was significant recovery at all time points in both arms. The findings demonstrated no difference in treatment effectiveness for SSRI + CBT over SSRI only for the primary or secondary outcome measures at
Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Perry, Juliana; Guggenheim, Merlin; Manser, Tanja
Effective teamwork has been recognised as a major contributor to safe patient care in surgery. Previous research has highlighted the importance of adaptive coordination for effective performance in acute care settings. Expanding this line of research this study explores the coordination behaviours and adaptive coordination strategies employed by surgical teams and identifies relevant situational characteristics influencing those coordination processes. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 33 surgical team members (nurses and physicians) from different specialties and hospitals. We identified coordination behaviours (i.e. task management, information management, teaching and leadership) and adaptive coordination strategies triggered by varying requirements due to non-routine events, intraoperative complications and differing level of experience among operating room staff. Interviewees highlighted the importance of effectively managing challenging moments and the supporting effect of positive climate on teamwork. This study complements previous research on the non-technical skills underpinning safe performance in surgical teams. It highlights the central role of coordination and points out the ways in which situational variability requires the team to behave adaptively.
Brian, Leung; Jessica A, Brian; Tom, Chau
The present descriptive case study documents the behaviours of a child single-switch user in the community setting and draws attention to learning and mastery behaviours as risk factors to single-switch abandonment. Our observations were interpreted in the context of a longer term school-based evaluation of an advanced single-switch access technology with a nine year-old user with severe spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. The child completed 25 experiment sessions averaging a rate of three sessions every two weeks. During each session he worked on several blocks of single-switch computer activity using his vocal cord vibration switch. Despite high levels of single-switch sensitivity and specificity that suggested a good fit between the participant and the technology, the participant perceived a lower proficiency level of his own abilities, demonstrated impatience and intolerance to interaction errors, and was apprehensive of making mistakes when using his switch in public. The benefit of gaining some degree of independent physical access might not necessarily enhance resilience to interaction errors or bouts of poor task performance. On the other hand, the participant's behaviours were consistent with those of a typically developing child learning or mastering any new skill or task. Implications for Rehabilitation The attitude and behaviour of a paediatric switch user towards skill development can be risk factors to abandonment of an access technology, despite successful clinical trial with the device. Children with severe disabilities can be associated with the same types of skill development behaviour patterns and achievement motivation as their typically developing peers. Empirical observations of the case participant's switch use behaviours suggest that user training could be adaptive in order to account for individual differences in skill development and achievement motivation.
The study investigated the effect of enhanced thinking skills (ETS) and social skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design with a 3x2 factorial matrix was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable ...
Krage, R.; Zwaan, L.; Tjon Soei Len, L.; Kolenbrander, M.; Groeningen, D. van; Loer, S.A.; Wagner, C.; Schober, P.
Background: Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary
Constantly changing technology and increasing competition mean that private companies are aggressively seeking new employees with high levels of technological literacy, good judgment, and communication and team-building skills. Industry also needs workers educated in science, math, engineering, and technology. But which of these skills are most important? Researchers at Indian River Community College at Fort Pierce, Fla., will attempt to answer that question with an NSF grant of nearly $1 million.
Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein
how did the 'switch' occur; b) were there changes in the human brain at that time that accelerated behavioural variability and how can these be measured now? Secondary linked tasks address the social organization of these early humans: was social cohesion enhanced by symbolic material culture or vice-versa and did it lead to innovation; what cognitive skills had to be in place in order for other skills to develop; how adaptable were humans to environmental change and did climate act as a driver for technological innovation, social change and subsistence adaptations? This presentation will introduce the recently awarded center, its key objectives and ambitions, and serve as an open invitation to collaboration and intellectual engagement on this exciting topic.
-Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be
Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D
In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions
Lacasse, Miriam; Ratnapalan, Savithiri
To review the literature on teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents and to identify formats and content of these programs and their effects. Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to mid-July 2008) and the Education Resources Information Center database (pre-1966 to mid-July 2008) were searched using and combining the MeSH terms teaching, internship and residency, and family practice; and teaching, graduate medical education, and family practice. The initial MEDLINE and Education Resources Information Center database searches identified 362 and 33 references, respectively. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and studies were included if they described the format or content of a teaching-skills program or if they were primary studies of the effects of a teaching-skills program for family medicine residents or family medicine and other specialty trainees. The bibliographies of those articles were reviewed for unidentified studies. A total of 8 articles were identified for systematic review. Selection was limited to articles published in English. Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents vary from half-day curricula to a few months of training. Their content includes leadership skills, effective clinical teaching skills, technical teaching skills, as well as feedback and evaluation skills. Evaluations mainly assessed the programs' effects on teaching behaviour, which was generally found to improve following participation in the programs. Evaluations of learner reactions and learning outcomes also suggested that the programs have positive effects. Family medicine residency training programs differ from all other residency training programs in their shorter duration, usually 2 years, and the broader scope of learning within those 2 years. Few studies on teaching-skills training, however, were designed specifically for family medicine residents. Further studies assessing the effects of teaching-skills training in family medicine residents are
Oldland, Elizabeth; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie; Allen, Josh
Team-Based Learning (TBL) is a teaching strategy designed to promote problem solving, critical thinking and effective teamwork and communication skills; attributes essential for safe healthcare. The aim was to explore postgraduate student perceptions of the role of TBL in shaping learning style, team skills, and professional and clinical behaviours. An exploratory descriptive approach was selected. Critical care students were invited to provide consent for the use for research purposes of written reflections submitted for course work requirements. Reflections of whether and how TBL influenced their learning style, teamwork skills and professional behaviours during classroom learning and clinical practice were analysed for content and themes. Of 174 students, 159 participated. Analysis revealed three themes: Deep Learning, the adaptations students made to their learning that resulted in mastery of specialist knowledge; Confidence, in knowledge, problem solving and rationales for practice decisions; and Professional and Clinical Behaviours, including positive changes in their interactions with colleagues and patients described as patient advocacy, multidisciplinary communication skills and peer mentorship. TBL facilitated a virtuous cycle of feedback encouraging deep learning that increased confidence. Increased confidence improved deep learning that, in turn, led to the development of professional and clinical behaviours characteristic of high quality practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence
Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Hysse Forchhammer, Birgitte; Maier, Anja
We are entering an era of distributed healthcare that should fit and respond to individual needs, behaviour and lifestyles. Designing such systems is a challenging task that requires continuous information about human behaviour on a large scale, for which pervasive sensing (e.g. using smartphones...... specifically on activity and location data that can easily be obtained from smartphones or wearables. We further demonstrate how these are applied in healthcare design using an example from dementia care. Comparing a current and proposed scenario exemplifies how integrating sensor-derived information about...... user behaviour can support the healthcare design goals of personalisation, adaptability and scalability, while emphasising patient quality of life....
Haarhoff, Beverly; Gibson, Kerry; Flett, Ross
CBT case conceptualization is considered to be a key competency. Prior to the publication in 2009 of Kuyken, Padesky and Dudley's book, little has been documented concerning methods for training conceptualization skills and the conceptualization process is usually perceived as predominantly an intellectual process. In this paper, the Declarative-Procedural-Reflective model of therapist skill acquisition provides a route to understanding how different kinds of knowledge systems can be integrated to enhance therapist skill acquisition. Sixteen recent graduates of a postgraduate diploma in cognitive behaviour therapy worked independently through a self-practice/self-reflection workbook designed to lead them through a series of CBT interventions commonly used to elicit the information required for a CBT conceptualization. The participants' self-reflections were thematically analyzed and uncovered the following inter-related themes: increased theoretical understanding of the CBT model, self-awareness, empathy, conceptualization of the therapeutic relationship, and adaptation of clinical interventions and practice. A tentative conclusion reached, based on the self-reflections of the participants, was that targeted self-practice/self-reflection enhanced case conceptualization skill by consolidating the Declarative, Procedural and Reflective systems important in therapist skill acquisition. © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2011
Sanchez, Rebecca P.; Brown, Emily; DeRosier, Melissa E.
Educators, policymakers, and the general public agree that social skills should be taught to children. In an effort to bridge this gap between evidence-based social skills training and populations in need, the authors have developed an Intelligent Social Tutoring System (ISTS) that fosters learning through adaptive interaction between the student…
Carnevale, Anthony P.; And Others
Identifies the basic skills needed by workers to function in today's high technology workplace. Examines ways of training employees in learning and communication skills, adaptability, personal management, group effectiveness, and organizational leadership. Describes the eight-step training approach used by Mazda Motor Manufacturing Corporation.…
A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and thereby the behaviour of children exhibiting or at risk of developing antisocial behaviour. Given the high prevalence of childhood behaviour problems the task is to develop large scale application of effective programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the UK government funded implementation of the Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder (PEIP. This involved the large scale rolling out of three programmes to parents of children 8-13 years in 18 local authorities (LAs over a 2 year period. Methods The UK government's Department for Education allocated each programme (Incredible Years, Triple P and Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities to six LAs which then developed systems to intervene using parenting groups. Implementation fidelity was supported by the training of group facilitators by staff of the appropriate parenting programme supplemented by supervision. Parents completed measures of parenting style, efficacy, satisfaction, and mental well-being, and also child behaviour. Results A total of 1121 parents completed pre- and post-course measures. There were significant improvements on all measures for each programme; effect sizes (Cohen's d ranged across the programmes from 0.57 to 0.93 for parenting style; 0.33 to 0.77 for parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy; and from 0.49 to 0.88 for parental mental well-being. Effectiveness varied between programmes: Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities was significantly less effective than both the other two programmes in improving parental efficacy, satisfaction and mental well-being. Improvements in child behaviour were found for all programmes: effect sizes for reduction in conduct problems ranged from -0.44 to -0.71 across programmes, with Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities again having significantly lower reductions than Incredible Years. Conclusions
A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP).
Lindsay, Geoff; Strand, Steve; Davis, Hilton
There is growing evidence that parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and thereby the behaviour of children exhibiting or at risk of developing antisocial behaviour. Given the high prevalence of childhood behaviour problems the task is to develop large scale application of effective programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the UK government funded implementation of the Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder (PEIP). This involved the large scale rolling out of three programmes to parents of children 8-13 years in 18 local authorities (LAs) over a 2 year period. The UK government's Department for Education allocated each programme (Incredible Years, Triple P and Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities) to six LAs which then developed systems to intervene using parenting groups. Implementation fidelity was supported by the training of group facilitators by staff of the appropriate parenting programme supplemented by supervision. Parents completed measures of parenting style, efficacy, satisfaction, and mental well-being, and also child behaviour. A total of 1121 parents completed pre- and post-course measures. There were significant improvements on all measures for each programme; effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranged across the programmes from 0.57 to 0.93 for parenting style; 0.33 to 0.77 for parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy; and from 0.49 to 0.88 for parental mental well-being. Effectiveness varied between programmes: Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities was significantly less effective than both the other two programmes in improving parental efficacy, satisfaction and mental well-being. Improvements in child behaviour were found for all programmes: effect sizes for reduction in conduct problems ranged from -0.44 to -0.71 across programmes, with Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities again having significantly lower reductions than Incredible Years. Evidence-based parenting programmes can be implemented
Full Text Available Adaptive Architecture concerns buildings that are specifically designed to adapt to their inhabitants and to their environments. Work in this space has a very long history, with a number of adaptive buildings emerging during the modernist period, such as Rietveld’s Schröder house, Gaudi’s Casa Batlló and Chareau's Maison de Verre. Such early work included manual adaptivity, even if that was motor-assisted. Today, buildings have started to combine this with varying degrees of automation and designed-for adaptivity is commonplace in office buildings and eco homes, where lighting, air conditioning, access and energy generation respond to and influence the behaviour of people, and the internal and external climate.
Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.
Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...
(CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Calarco, Allan
In today's business world, the complexity and pace of change can be daunting. Adaptability has become recognized as a necessary skill for leaders to develop to be effective in this environment. Even so, leaders rarely know what they can do to become more adaptable and foster adaptability in others. This guidebook contributes to a greater understanding of adaptability and the cognitive, emotional, and dispositional flexibility it requires. Leaders will learn how to develop their adaptability and to become more effective for themselves, the people they lead, and their organizations.
Schoemaker, Paul J H; Krupp, Steve; Howland, Samantha
The more uncertain your environment, the greater the opportunity--if you have the leadership skills to capitalize on it. Research at the Wharton school and at the authors' consulting firm, involving more than 20,000 executives to date, has identified six skills that, when mastered and used in concert, allow leaders to think strategically and navigate the unknown effectively. They are the abilities to anticipate, challenge, interpret, decide, align, and learn. This article describes the six skills in detail and includes a self-assessment that will enable you to identify the ones that most need your attention. The authors have found that strength in one skill cannot easily compensate for a deficit in another. An adaptive strategic leader has learned to apply all six at once.
Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent
Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...
Non-technical skills are the cognitive and interpersonal behaviours that compliment clinical competence in surgery. Effective use of non-technical skills is essential for scrub practice, because they facilitate anticipation of the surgeon's requirements and promote appropriate communication behaviours. This literature review analyses the factors that may influence a scrub practitioner's use of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that are intended to improve their use by reducing behavioural variations during surgery.
Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...
Lundine, Kristopher; Buckley, Richard; Hutchison, Carol; Lockyer, Jocelyn
Communication skills play a key role in many aspects of both medical education and clinical patient care. The objectives of this study were to identify the key components of communication skills from the perspectives of both orthopaedic residents and their program directors and to understand how these skills are currently taught. This study utilized a mixed methods design. Quantitative data were collected with use of a thirty-item questionnaire distributed to all Canadian orthopaedic residents. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups with orthopaedic residents and semistructured interviews with orthopaedic program directors. One hundred and nineteen (37%) of 325 questionnaires were completed, twelve residents participated in two focus groups, and nine of sixteen program directors from across the country were interviewed. Both program directors and residents identified communication skills as being the accurate and appropriate use of language (i.e., content skills), not how the communication was presented (i.e., process skills). Perceived barriers to effective communication included time constraints and the need to adapt to the many personalities and types of people encountered daily in the hospital. Residents rarely have explicit training in communication skills. They rely on communication training implicitly taught through observation of their preceptors and clinical experience interacting with patients, peers, and other health-care professionals. Orthopaedic residents and program directors focus on content and flexibility within communication skills as well as on the importance of being concise. They value the development of communication skills in the clinical environment through experiential learning and role modeling. Education should focus on developing residents' process skills in communication. Care should be taken to avoid large-group didactic teaching sessions, which are perceived as ineffective.
reward skills counselling on students' study behaviour. It was also intended to ascertain the influence of gender on the study behaviour of participants in the experimental and control groups. Two null hypotheses were formulated.
Kurhila, Jaakko; Laine, Tei
Describes AHMED (Adaptive and Assistive Hypermedia in Education), a computer learning environment which supports the evaluation of disabled children's cognitive skills in addition to supporting openness in learning materials and adaptivity in learning events. Discusses cognitive modeling and compares it to previous intelligent tutoring systems.…
for the third and fourth day precipitation forecasts. A marked improvement was shown for the consensus 24 hour precipitation forecast, and small... Zuckerberg (1980) found a small long term skill increase in forecasts of heavy snow events for nine eastern cities. Other National Weather Service...and maximum temperature) are each awarded marks 2, 1, or 0 according to whether the forecast is correct, 8 - *- -**■*- ———"—- - -■ t0m 1 MM—IB I
Tradução, adaptação e avaliação da consistência interna do Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test para uso com crianças do sexo feminino Translation, adaptation and internal consistency evaluation of the Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test for female children
Elizângela Moreira Careta Galindo
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo traduzir, adaptar e validar o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test, para uso com crianças de uma cidade do interior do estado de São Paulo. Foram sujeitos do estudo 261 escolares do sexo feminino, na faixa etária de 9 a 12 anos. Por meio da análise fatorial, com rotação varimax avaliou-se a consistência interna do instrumento. Esta análise, realizada com o auxílio do programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences, versão 10.0, revelou dois fatores. Para o instrumento total a consistência interna foi adequada (coeficiente a de Cronbach: 0,89 e para os dois fatores (1 e 2 os valores de a também foram considerados satisfatórios (alfa=0,90 e alfa=0,80, respectivamente, mostrando, assim, que o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test é útil para uma avaliação precoce, rastreando atitudes indicadoras de possíveis distúrbios no comportamento alimentar. Foram mantidas as características psicométricas do instrumento original.This study aimed to translate, adapt and validate the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test, to be used with children in a city in upstate São Paulo. Study subjects were 261 female students aging from 9 to 12 years. The internal consistency of the instrument was evaluated by means of factorial analysis with varimax rotation. This analysis was accomplished through Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0, revealing two factors. The internal consistency was adequate for the total instrument (Cronbach's alpha=0.89 and a values were also considered satisfactory for the two factors (1 and 2 (alpha=0.90 and alpha=0.80, respectively, which demonstrated that the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test is useful for an initial evaluation, tracing symptoms that indicate possible eating behavior disorders. The psychometric characteristics of the original instrument were maintained.
Francis, Heather M; Osborne-Crowley, Katherine; McDonald, Skye
To describe the reliability and validity of a new measure, the Social Skills Questionnaire for Traumatic Brain Injury (SSQ-TBI). Fifty-one adults with severe TBI completed the SSQ-TBI questionnaire. Scores were compared to informant- and self-report on questionnaires addressing frontal lobe mediated behaviour, as well as performance on an objective measure of social cognition and neuropsychological tasks, in order to provide evidence of concurrent, divergent and predictive validity. Internal consistency was excellent at α = 0.90. Convergent validity was good, with informant ratings on the SSQ-TBI significantly correlated with Neuropsychiatric Inventory Disinhibition sub-scales (r = 0.50-63), the Current Behaviour Scale (r = 0.39-0.48) and Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale (r = 0.60-0.83). However, no relationship was seen with an objective measure of social skills or neuropsychological tasks of disinhibition. There was a significant relationship with real-world psychosocial outcomes on the Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale-2 (r = -0.38--0.69) Conclusions: This study provides preliminary findings of good internal consistency and convergent and predictive validity of a social skills questionnaire adapted to be appropriate for individuals with TBI. Further assessment of psychometric properties such as test-re-test reliability and factor structure is warranted.
Ottavi, Paolo; D'Alia, Daria; Lysaker, Paul; Kent, Jerillyn; Popolo, Raffaele; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
There is much evidence indicating the presence of social deficits in schizophrenia and the detrimental effect of these deficits on global functioning in this population. As a result, social skills training (SST) has emerged as a legitimate psychosocial treatment, although effectiveness research has revealed small effect sizes and limited generalizability regarding the benefits of this treatment. In light of the strong evidence of metacognitive deficits in schizophrenia and the importance of metacognition to successful social functioning, we propose a novel therapeutic intervention wherein metacognitive remediation is integrated into SST: metacognition-oriented social skills training (MOSST). In the current paper, we present MOSST, an adapted SST programme wherein clients are also encouraged to have mindful contact with their own thoughts and to better consider and understand the mental states of others as well as the connection between mental states and behaviour. We present a case wherein an individual with schizophrenia successfully completed the MOSST programme. We outline directions for future research, starting with the logical next step of empirically testing the efficacy of MOSST. Currently social skills training is considered to be the elected psychosocial treatment for people affected by schizophrenia, although evidence indicates limited benefits. People with schizophrenia have metacognitive deficits, which interfere with proper social functioning. A metacognitive-oriented social skills training (MOSST) intervention has been developed by the authors.A treatment such as MOSST, which integrates social skills training and metacognitive training, promises to improve social skills through improving the metacognition. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fisher, M H; Lense, M D; Dykens, E M
Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with a distinct cognitive-behavioural phenotype including mild to moderate intellectual disability, visual-spatial deficits, hypersociability, inattention and anxiety. Researchers typically characterise samples of individuals with WS by their intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour. Because of the low prevalence of the syndrome, researchers often include participants with WS across a broad age range throughout childhood and adulthood and assume participants demonstrate consistent cognitive development across ages. Indeed, IQ scores are generally stable for children and adolescents with WS, although there are significant individual differences. It is less clear whether this pattern of stable intellectual ability persists into adulthood. Furthermore, while adaptive behaviour is an important indicator of an individual's ability to apply their conceptual skills to everyday functioning, conflicting findings on the trajectories of adaptive behaviour in adolescents and adults with WS have been reported. The current study examined longitudinal profiles of cognitive and adaptive functioning in adolescents and adults with WS. To examine cognitive functioning, participants included 52 individuals with WS (51.9% men) who were assessed with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, 2nd edition (KBIT-2) between two and seven times. At their first assessment, participants had a mean age of 25.4 years (SD = 8.4), ranging in age from 14.2 to 48.9 years. To assess adaptive behaviour, participants included a subset of 28 individuals with WS whose parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, 2nd edition (VABS-II) between two and five times. At their initial administration, participants ranged from 17.1-40.2 years of age, with a mean age of 26.5 years (SD = 7.3). A series of multilevel models were used to examine changes in KBIT-2 Composite IQ, Verbal IQ and Nonverbal IQ standard scores over time, as well as the
Watson, Judith; Toner, Paul; Day, Ed; Back, Donna; Brady, Louca-Mai; Fairhurst, Caroline; Renwick, Charlotte; Templeton, Lorna; Akhtar, Shabana; Lloyd, Charlie; Li, Jinshuo; Cocks, Kim; Ambegaokar, Sangeeta; Parrott, Steve; McArdle, Paul; Gilvarry, Eilish; Copello, Alex
Family interventions appear to be effective at treating young people's substance misuse. However, implementation of family approaches in UK services is low. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting young people to an intervention based on an adaptation of adult social behaviour and network therapy. It also sought to involve young people with experience of using substance misuse services in the research process. To demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting young people to family and social network therapy and to explore ways in which young people with experience of using substance misuse services could be involved in a study of this nature. A pragmatic, two-armed, randomised controlled open feasibility trial. Two UK-based treatment services for young people with substance use problems, with recruitment taking place from May to November 2014. Young people aged 12-18 years, newly referred and accepted for structured interventions for drug and/or alcohol problems. A remote, web-based computer randomisation system allocated young people to adapted youth social behaviour and network therapy (Y-SBNT) or treatment as usual (TAU). Y-SBNT participants were intended to receive up to six 50-minute sessions over a maximum of 12 weeks. TAU participants continued to receive usual care delivered by their service. Feasibility was measured by recruitment rates, retention in treatment and follow-up completion rates. The main clinical outcome was the proportion of days on which the main problem substance was used in the preceding 90-day period as captured by the Timeline Follow-Back interview at 3 and 12 months. In total, 53 young people were randomised (Y-SBNT, n = 26; TAU, n = 27) against a target of 60 (88.3%). Forty-two young people attended at least one treatment session [Y-SBNT 22/26 (84.6%); TAU 20/27 (74.1%)]; follow-up rates were 77.4% at month 3 and 73.6% at month 12. Data for nine young people were missing at both months 3 and 12, so the main
Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Rossum, T.R. van; Seeleman, C.M.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Dulmen, A.M. van
Background: Intercultural communication behaviour of doctors with patients requires specific intercultural communication skills, which do not seem structurally implemented in medical education. It is unclear what motivates doctors to apply intercultural communication skills. We investigated how
Paternotte, E; Scheele, F; van Rossum, T R; Seeleman, M C; Scherpbier, A J J A; van Dulmen, A M
BACKGROUND: Intercultural communication behaviour of doctors with patients requires specific intercultural communication skills, which do not seem structurally implemented in medical education. It is unclear what motivates doctors to apply intercultural communication skills. We investigated how
Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Rossum, T.R. van; Seeleman, M.C.; Scherpbier, A.J.; Dulmen, A.M. van
BACKGROUND: Intercultural communication behaviour of doctors with patients requires specific intercultural communication skills, which do not seem structurally implemented in medical education. It is unclear what motivates doctors to apply intercultural communication skills. We investigated how
Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....
Bergin, Christi; Talley, Susan; Hamer, Lynne
This study investigated young adolescents' perceptions of their peers' prosocial behaviours. In eight focus groups, 53 11- to 13-year olds described specific prosocial acts of their peers. Results suggest that traditional research has not addressed the diversity of prosocial behaviours that youth enact, nor emphasized behaviours that are salient to young adolescents. Such behaviours included standing up for others, encouraging others, helping others develop skills, including others who are left out, and being humorous. Facilitating emotional regulation of others emerged as an important component of prosocial behaviour. These data can help guide future research on prosocial development to include a broader array of authentic behaviours of young adolescents.
Fekkes, M.; Sande, M.C.E. van de; Gravesteijn, J.C.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Buijs, G.J.; Diekstra, R.F.W.; Kocken, P.L.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the Dutch “Skills for Life” programme on students’ health behaviours, bullying behaviour and suicidal ideation. Design/methodology/approach – The effectiveness of the “Skills for Life” programme on health behaviour outcomes was
Fekkes, M.; van de Sande, M. C. E.; Gravesteijn, J. C.; Pannebakker, F. D.; Buijs, G. J.; Diekstra, R. F. W.; Kocken, P. L.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the Dutch "Skills for Life" programme on students' health behaviours, bullying behaviour and suicidal ideation. Design/methodology/approach: The effectiveness of the "Skills for Life" programme on health behaviour outcomes was evaluated at three points in time in…
Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe
of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....
Tin Cheuk Leung
Full Text Available This paper studies optimal distribution of skills in an optimal income tax framework with convex skill constraints. The problem is cast as a social planning problem where a redistributive planner chooses how to distribute a given amount of aggregate skills across people. We find that optimal skill distribution is either perfectly equal or perfectly unequal, but an interior level of skill inequality is never optimal.
Stöckel, Tino; Fries, Udo
We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevant information needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice.
Financial insight and behaviour of household consumers in Port Elizabeth. ... improve their money management skills and ensure they eliminate debt, which can be ... Significant relationships between demographical variables and financial ...
Apr 12, 2013 ... facilitation of self-regulation skills early in life may predict future food intake ... eating behaviour through communicating their attitudes and beliefs about ..... as well as disturbances in self-esteem, body image and socialisation ...
Full Text Available The paper discusses the importance of organizational socialization as a process of gaining knowledge on the organizational success of employees' social adaptation and encouraging their social competence. Organizational socialization as a scientific discipline as well as practically oriented adjustment activity towards employees' working environment has developed methodology and tactics of socio-cognitive, behavioural and motivational encouragement of employees to the acceptance of organizational culture. It is assumed that in the process of organizational socialization, in addition to professional and organizational adaptation, the focus is on the development of employees' social competences. Although within the evaluated performance appraisal of social competence is only estimated, and also neglected in the overall assessment of employees' work performance, organizational climate for good social skills is of great importance due to the fact that enhanced social and interpersonal communication and interaction can increase operating synergies and contribute to better business results. Although social skills are an important element of human capital, they are still insufficiently recognized as a form of intangible resources that participate in the long-term value creation. The deficit in this area can lead to the problems in performance of human relations at the workplace.
Full Text Available ASEAN Economic Community (AEC has been started rolling. Market competition, industry, and skilled workers, especially in the field of education are becoming increasingly stringent. Madrasah teachers as the front liners in the education process should improve the quality of human resources. Hard skills and soft skills of madrasah teachers must be improved to deal with the Asean Economic Community (AEC. Hard skills are academic skills that include pedagogic competence and professional competence. How to improve the hard skills is to meet the pedagogic competence (ability to manage learning students and professional competence (the ability to master the learning material is broad and deep. Soft skills is the ability to organize themselves (intrapersonal skills, such as creativity, motivation, and self-contained and the ability to interact with others (interpersonal skills, such as communication, team building and adaptation to maximize performance. Soft skills include personal competence and social competence. Madrasah teachers should be able to change the mindset of a passenger became good driver. Professional madrasah teachers are teachers who have the balanced hard skills and soft skills, which can compete healthily in AEC era.
Bullying has become a major problem in schools worldwide. It might escalate to serious forms of anti-social behaviour, therefore the teaching of social skills are important in the school as a whole. The language classroom is the ideal place to teach social and communication skills. In the whole language approach, combined ...
Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.
Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…
... acquisition of new mental skills was a theme pervasive throughout their responses as was an increased ability to regulate their thoughts, feelings and behaviour more effectively. Implicit in all the responses was an increase in mindfulness of the mental aspects of their rugby game and the acquisition of these mental skills.
Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco
With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.
Full Text Available The development of adaptive learning systems is only in the very beginning. In fact, the concept of adaptive learning systems range from different user interfaces to behaviour adaptive systems as well as from the place and time independent systems to terminal independent systems. When approaching the concept of adaptive learning materials, we must first have conceptual models of the behaviour of different learners within digital environments.The aim of this study was to develop a geometry learning game that adapts to users behaviour. The learners in this study were six years old Finnish pre-school pupils. The adaptive system was very limited and the observed behaviour was defined as very simple. However, the software developed achieves good learning results among the tested pupils. The study shows that the learning effect is very promising with this kind of handheld platform and simple adaptation system. This study gives good visions of what can be achieved with more complex behaviour adaptive systems in the field of eLearning.
Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars
The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to im......The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...
Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.
Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled...... provision continued for a further 4 weeks. Behaviour and apparent nutrient digestibilities were assessed in weeks 3 and 4 of each period. Pelleted food had a lower proportion of water (P, 0.12; C, 0.22), but relative proportions of oil (0.04), crude protein (0.08), crude fibre (0.29), neutral....... Following transfer from pellets to chaff, DEI decreased (P behaviour caused no detectable change in the appetite...
Full Text Available ... Medical Student Core Curriculum ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education ... Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed ...
Full Text Available ... Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...
Full Text Available ... Careers at ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills ...
Full Text Available ... ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy ...
Full Text Available This paper provides historical, theoretical, and empirical syntheses in understanding the rationality of investors, stock prices, and stock market efficiency behaviour in the theoretical lenses of behavioural finance paradigm. The inquiry is guided by multidisciplinary behavioural-related theories. The analyses employed a long span of Bursa Malaysia stock market data from 1977 to 2014 along the different phases of economic development and market states. The tests confirmed the presence of asymmetric dynamic behaviour of prices predictability as well as risk and return relationships across different market states, risk states and quantiles data segments. The efficiency tests show trends of an adaptive pattern of weak market efficiency across various economic phases and market states. Collectively, these evidences lend support to bounded-adaptive rational of investors' behaviour, dynamic stock price behaviour, and accordingly forming bounded-adaptive market efficiency.
The study examined the joint and relative effects of emotional intelligence and communication skill on conflict management behaviour of labour leaders in Lagos State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted using questionnaire as the main instrument. 180 respondents (labour leaders) were purposively ...
Anderson, Lorin W.
Schools have devised several ways to adapt instruction to a wide variety of student abilities and needs. Judged by criteria for what adaptive education should be, most learning for mastery programs look good. (Author/JM)
Schaap, Nina; van der Horst, A.R.A.; van Arem, Bart; Brusque, Corinne
Computer based simulation models of human driving behaviour can be used effectively to model driving behaviour and behavioural adaptation to Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This can be a useful step in human centered design of ITS. To construct a comprehensive model of driving behaviour, the
Estudo das habilidades adaptativas desenvolvidas por jovens com Síndrome de Down incluídos e não incluídos no mercado de trabalho Adaptive skills developed by young people with Down Syndrome included and not included in the labor market
Maria Luiza Gomes-Machado
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a relação entre o desenvolvimento de habilidades adaptativas por pessoas portadoras de síndrome de Down (SD e sua inclusão no mercado de trabalho. Este estudo analisou as habilidades desenvolvidas por pessoas incluídas e não incluídas no mercado de trabalho. A pesquisa revelou que as pessoas portadoras de habilidades adaptativas prévias são favorecidas na seleção para o trabalho, em detrimento das demais. Em seguida analisaremos tais resultados, confrontando-os com alguns fatores condicionantes do desenvolvimento de tais habilidades prévias, tais como o ambiente familiar, assim como as influências socioculturais. Por fim, apontaremos a necessidade de inclusão das demais pessoas com SD.The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between the development of adaptive skills by people with Down syndrome (DS and their inclusion in the labor market. This study examined the skills developed by people included and not included in the labor market. The research showed that people with prior adaptive abilities are favored in the work selection to the detriment of the others. In the following pages, we will analyze these results, comparing them with some of the factors that condition the development of such prior skills, such as family environment and sociocultural influences. Finally, we will indicate the need to include the other people with DS.
Full Text Available ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and Emergency ...
Andrews, Sophie Claire; Pavlis, Alexia; Staios, Mathew; Fisher, Fiona
Behaviour change is increasingly recognised as a common feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and may be similar to that seen in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The behaviours most disturbed in ALS, and those that relate most significantly to caregiver burden, however, have not been well established. Forty ALS participants and their caregivers, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls and their relatives, participated in this study. ALS participants were assessed on a disease rating scale, and caregivers and control informants completed the revised version of the Cambridge Behaviour Inventory and a measure of burden. ALS caregivers reported significantly more disturbance than healthy control informants on the functional domains of everyday skills, self-care, and sleep, and in the behavioural domains of mood and motivation. There were no differences between groups in frequency of memory and orientation difficulties, or behaviours characteristic of FTD, such as changes to eating habits or stereotypic and motor behaviour, indicating that the behavioural profile in ALS may differ from FTD. In the ALS group, the domains with the strongest relationship to caregiver burden were everyday skills, motivation and memory, likely because poor motivation, memory dysfunction and difficulties completing activities of daily living require more carer support via direct supervision, prompting or hands on care. Services to support ALS patients and caregivers need to provide targeted interventions for those functional and behavioural changes which are most burdensome in the disease.
Full Text Available Employers worldwide are seeking and failing to find in new recruits many skills that are critical for success. Skills that enable employees to work as part of a team, communicate effectively, take decisions, lead, adapt to change and solve problems creatively are not often found in fresh graduates. Education does not impart these skills as efficiently as it does academic knowledge and subject-specific skills. A change in the pedagogy and content of education is required to bridge the increasing skills gap we face today. The World University Consortium has identified themes that must be part of our future education, and this article highlights methods and strategies that can implement these ideas.
Petersen, Kjell Yngve
The changes from static to dynamic, and further to adaptive behaviours in architectural lighting design asks for a re-interpretation of the relation between the environment and the engaged experiencing human; i.e. the architecture and the inhabitant. To grasp the many factors involved, and to focus...
Mouga, Susana; Almeida, Joana; Café, Cátia; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar
We investigated the influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in learning adaptive behaviour, besides intelligence quotient (IQ). Participated 217 school-aged: ASD (N = 115), and other neurodevelopmental disorders (OND) groups (N = 102) matched by Full-Scale IQ. We compared standard scores of Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale…
The behavioural agency theory was developed to provide a more comprehensive explanation and prediction of managerial risk taking, in response to some shortcomings of agency theory. In general, the theory offers explanations of why decision makers prefer some strategic choices to others. The use of behavioural agency theory in family business research has, however, been very limited. Family business scholars recently adapted this theory to construct the family business variant, the ‘socioemoti...
Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper
Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...
Huneman, Philippe; Martens, Johannes
Natural selection is often envisaged as the ultimate cause of the apparent rationality exhibited by organisms in their specific habitat. Given the equivalence between selection and rationality as maximizing processes, one would indeed expect organisms to implement rational decision-makers. Yet, many violations of the clauses of rationality have been witnessed in various species such as starlings, hummingbirds, amoebas and honeybees. This paper attempts to interpret such discrepancies between economic rationality (defined by the main axioms of rational choice theory) and biological rationality (defined by natural selection). After having distinguished two kinds of rationality we introduce irrationality as a negation of economic rationality by biologically rational decision-makers. Focusing mainly on those instances of irrationalities that can be understood as exhibiting inconsistency in making choices, i.e. as non-conformity of a given behaviour to axioms such as transitivity or independence of irrelevant alternatives, we propose two possible families of Darwinian explanations that may account for these apparent irrationalities. First, we consider cases where natural selection may have been an indirect cause of irrationality. Second, we consider putative cases where violations of rationality axioms may have been directly favored by natural selection. Though the latter cases (prima facie) seem to clearly contradict our intuitive representation of natural selection as a process that maximizes fitness, we argue that they are actually unproblematic; for often, they can be redescribed as cases where no rationality axiom is violated, or as situations where no adaptive solution exists in the first place.
Hagemann, Vera; Herbstreit, Frank; Kehren, Clemens; Chittamadathil, Jilson; Wolfertz, Sandra; Dirkmann, Daniel; Kluge, Annette; Peters, Jürgen
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a tailor-made, non-technical skills seminar on medical student's behaviour, attitudes, and performance during simulated patient treatment. Seventy-seven students were randomized to either a non-technical skills seminar (NTS group, n=43) or a medical seminar (control group, n=34). The human patient simulation was used as an evaluation tool. Before the seminars, all students performed the same simulated emergency scenario to provide baseline measurements. After the seminars, all students were exposed to a second scenario, and behavioural markers for evaluating their non-technical skills were rated. Furthermore, teamwork-relevant attitudes were measured before and after the scenarios, and perceived stress was measured following each simulation. All simulations were also evaluated for various medical endpoints. Non-technical skills concerning situation awareness (ptechnical skills to improve student's non-technical skills. In a next step, to improve student's handling of emergencies and patient outcomes, non-technical skills seminars should be accompanied by exercises and more broadly embedded in the medical school curriculum.
Collie, Rebecca J.; Holliman, Andrew J.; Martin, Andrew J.
University entry is a time of great change for students. The extent to which students are able to effectively navigate such change likely has an impact on their success in university. In the current study, we examined this by way of adaptability, the extent to which students' adaptability is associated with their behavioural engagement at…
Rißling, J K; Melzer, J; Menke, B; Petermann, F; Daseking, M
Children with language disorders are at increased risk of developing behavioural and emotional problems. The analysis focused on the question whether behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit. The present study examines the behaviour of preschool children with different language impairments. The results of N=540 children aged between 4;0 and 5;11 years were analyzed. Language impairments were classified into phonetics/phonology (n=44), vocabulary (n=44), grammar (n=58), pragmatics (n=26) and multiple language impairments (n=171). In addition, a distinction was made between deficits in language production and comprehension. The children were compared with an unimpaired control group (n=197). The extent of emotional and behavioural problems were analyzed. The results indicate that emotional and behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit already in preschoolers. Especially deficits in language comprehension, pragmatic impairments and multiple language impairments increase the risk of behavioural and emotional problems and hyperactivity. The relationship between language skills and emotional and behavioural problems should be emphasized in the developmental observation and documentation in preschool. In particular, the distinction between deficits in pragmatics and behavioural problems requires a differentiated examination to ensure an optimal intervention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Saebi, Tina; Lien, Lasse B.; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Business models change as managers not only innovate business models, but also engage in more mundane adaptation in response to external changes, such as changes in the level or composition of demand. However, little is known about what causes such business model adaptation. We employ threat......-rigidity as well as prospect theory to examine business model adaptation in response to external threats and opportunities. Additionally, drawing on the behavioural theory of the firm, we argue that the past strategic orientation of a firm creates path dependencies that influence the propensity of the firm...... to adapt its business model. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 1196 Norwegian companies, and find that firms are more likely to adapt their business model under conditions of perceived threats than opportunities, and that strategic orientation geared towards market development is more conducive...
Full Text Available Several treatment evaluations have highlighted the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural programmes with both youth and adult offenders. This paper describes the application and assessment of a cognitive-behavioural treatment (adapted to Spanish from Ross and Fabiano’s Reasoning & Rehabilitation Programme with juvenile offenders serving community orders in an educational measure called in Spanish ‘libertad vigilada’ (similar to parole. The intervention comprised six different therapeutic components: self-control, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, social skills/assertiveness, values/empathy, and relapse prevention. Treatment effectiveness was tested using a quasi-experimental design involving two groups and pre/post evaluation. The results show that the programme was effective (with low to moderate effect sizes in improving participants’ social skills and self-esteem, as well as in reducing their aggressiveness. However, the intervention had no positive influence on empathy, cognitive distortions or impulsiveness. These results are in line with those of many other correctional studies, in which the treatment applied had a significant but partial effect on participants.
Korucu, Irem; Selcuk, Bilge; Harma, Mehmet
It is argued that self-regulation skill is necessary both for displaying constructive behaviour and for controlling negative social behaviour, and self-regulation might affect social behaviours by increasing the ability to understand others' minds. In this research, in order to examine different aspects of self-regulation and their similarities…
Crossman, Joanne M.
Study objective: To describe a successful approach to teaching principles and practices of behaviour change through a behaviour change plan (BCP) initiative to improve personal health while advancing health knowledge and general education intellectual skills. Students' perspectives of obstacles, behaviours important towards goal attainment and the…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...
Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years, from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy.
Urbain, Charline; Houyoux, Emeline; Albouy, Geneviève; Peigneux, Philippe
Although a beneficial role of post-training sleep for declarative memory has been consistently evidenced in children, as in adults, available data suggest that procedural memory consolidation does not benefit from sleep in children. However, besides the absence of performance gains in children, sleep-dependent plasticity processes involved in procedural memory consolidation might be expressed through differential interference effects on the learning of novel but related procedural material. To test this hypothesis, 32 10-12-year-old children were trained on a motor rotation adaptation task. After either a sleep or a wake period, they were first retested on the same rotation applied at learning, thus assessing offline sleep-dependent changes in performance, then on the opposite (unlearned) rotation to assess sleep-dependent modulations in proactive interference coming from the consolidated visuomotor memory trace. Results show that children gradually improve performance over the learning session, showing effective adaptation to the imposed rotation. In line with previous findings, no sleep-dependent changes in performance were observed for the learned rotation. However, presentation of the opposite, unlearned deviation elicited significantly higher interference effects after post-training sleep than wakefulness in children. Considering that a definite feature of procedural motor memory and skill acquisition is the implementation of highly automatized motor behaviour, thus lacking flexibility, our results suggest a better integration and/or automation or motor adaptation skills after post-training sleep, eventually resulting in higher proactive interference effects on untrained material. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that action videogames could enhance a variety of cognitive skills and more specifically attention skills. The aim of this study was to develop a novel adaptive videogame to support the rehabilitation of the most common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI, that is the impairment of attention and executive functions. TBI patients can be affected by psychomotor slowness and by difficulties in dealing with distraction, maintain a cognitive set for a long time, processing different simultaneously presented stimuli, and planning purposeful behaviour. Accordingly, we designed a videogame that was specifically conceived to activate those functions. Playing involves visuospatial planning and selective attention, active maintenance of the cognitive set representing the goal, and error monitoring. Moreover, different game trials require to alternate between two tasks (i.e., task switching or to perform the two tasks simultaneously (i.e., divided attention / dual-tasking. The videogame is controlled by a multidimensional adaptive algorithm that calibrates task difficulty on-line based on a model of user performance that is updated on a trial-by-trial basis. We report simulations of user performance designed to test the adaptive game as well as a validation study with healthy participants engaged in a training protocol. The results confirmed the involvement of the cognitive abilities that the game is supposed to enhance and suggested that training improved attentional control during play.
Full Text Available This paper deals with convergence parameters determination of adaptive algorithms, which are used in adaptive L-filters design. Firstly the stability of adaptation process, convergence rate or adaptation time, and behaviour of convergence curve belong among basic properties of adaptive algorithms. L-filters with variety of adaptive algorithms were used to their determination. Convergence performances finding of adaptive filters is important mainly for their hardware applications, where filtration in real time or adaptation of coefficient filter with low capacity of input data are required.
Schwenkreis, Peter; El Tom, Susan; Ragert, Patrick; Pleger, Burkhard; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R
As a model for use-dependent plasticity, the brains of professional musicians have been extensively studied to examine structural and functional adaptation to unique requirements of skilled performance. Here we provide a combination of data on motor performance and hand representation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex of professional violin players, with the aim of assessing possible behavioural consequences of sensorimotor cortical asymmetries. We studied 15 healthy right-handed professional violin players and 35 healthy nonmusician controls. Motor and somatosensory cortex asymmetry was assessed by recording the motor output map after transcranial magnetic stimulation from a small hand muscle, and by dipole source localization of somatosensory evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves. Motor performance was examined using a series of standardized motor tasks covering different aspects of hand function. Violin players showed a significant right-larger-than-left asymmetry of the motor and somatosensory cortex, whereas nonmusician controls showed no significant interhemispheric difference. The amount of asymmetry in the motor and somatosensory cortices of musicians was significantly correlated. At the behavioural level, motor performance did not significantly differ between musicians and nonmusicians. The results support a use-dependent enlargement of the left hand representation in the sensorimotor cortex of violin players. However, these cortical asymmetries were not paralleled by accompanying altered asymmetries at a behavioural level, suggesting that the reorganisation might be task-specific and does not lead to improved motor abilities in general.
Yildiz, F. Ülkü; Çagdas, Aysel; Kayili, Gökhan
The purpose of this study is to perform the validity-reliability analysis of the three subtests of Basic School Skills Inventory 3--Mathematics, Classroom Behavior and Daily Life skills--and do its adaptation for four to six year-old Turkish children. The sample of the study included 595 four to six year-old Turkish children attending public and…
Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.
In this study the authors argue that, in order to sufficiently adapt to task demands in traffic, drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills. There are indications that drivers in general, and novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. The objective of this
Screen time and physical activity behaviours develop during the crucial early childhood period (0–5 years) and impact multiple health and developmental outcomes, including psychosocial wellbeing. Social skills, one component of psychosocial wellbeing, are vital for children’s school readiness and future mental health. This study investigates potential associations of screen time and outdoor play (as a proxy for physical activity) with social skills. Cross sectional data were available for 575 mothers with a child (54% boys) aged 2–5 years. Mothers reported their child’s screen time, outdoor play time and social skills (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASBI). Multiple linear regression analyses assessed associations of screen and outdoor play time (Model 1) and compliance with screen time and physical activity recommendations (Model 2) with three ASBI subscales. Boys and girls spent a mean of 2.0 and 2.2 hours per day in screen time, and 3.3 and 2.9 hours per day in outdoor play, respectively. Girls scores for express and comply skills were significantly higher than boys (poutdoor play time was positively associated with both expressive (B = 0.20 95% CI 0.07, 0.34; p = 0.004) and compliant (B = 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.36; p = 0.002) scores. Findings indicate that television/DVD/video viewing may be adversely, and outdoor play favourably, associated with preschool children’s social skills. Future research is required to identify the direction of causation and explore potential mechanisms of association. PMID:29617366
Hinkley, Trina; Brown, Helen; Carson, Valerie; Teychenne, Megan
Screen time and physical activity behaviours develop during the crucial early childhood period (0-5 years) and impact multiple health and developmental outcomes, including psychosocial wellbeing. Social skills, one component of psychosocial wellbeing, are vital for children's school readiness and future mental health. This study investigates potential associations of screen time and outdoor play (as a proxy for physical activity) with social skills. Cross sectional data were available for 575 mothers with a child (54% boys) aged 2-5 years. Mothers reported their child's screen time, outdoor play time and social skills (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASBI). Multiple linear regression analyses assessed associations of screen and outdoor play time (Model 1) and compliance with screen time and physical activity recommendations (Model 2) with three ASBI subscales. Boys and girls spent a mean of 2.0 and 2.2 hours per day in screen time, and 3.3 and 2.9 hours per day in outdoor play, respectively. Girls scores for express and comply skills were significantly higher than boys (p<0.005). After applying the Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure to adjust for multiple associations, children's television/DVD/video viewing was inversely associated with their compliant scores (B = -0.35 95% CI -0.26, -0.14; p = 0.001) and outdoor play time was positively associated with both expressive (B = 0.20 95% CI 0.07, 0.34; p = 0.004) and compliant (B = 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.36; p = 0.002) scores. Findings indicate that television/DVD/video viewing may be adversely, and outdoor play favourably, associated with preschool children's social skills. Future research is required to identify the direction of causation and explore potential mechanisms of association.
Amalia Qistina Abdullah
Full Text Available Teaching listening skills is very challenging to ESL teachers. It involves active participation from both teachers and students to ensure the objectives of teaching listening skills can be achieved. Hence, this presentation provides interesting and exciting strategies to teach listening skills using selected songs. It is hoped that this would motivate ESL teachers to apply and adapt these strategies in their English language classrooms.
Jantzen, Jan; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
This simulation study provides an analysis of the adaptation mechanism in the self-organising fuzzy controller, SOC. The approach is to apply a traditional adaptive control viewpoint. A simplified performance measure in the SOC controller is used in a loss function, and thus the MIT rule implies...... an update mechanism similar to the SOC update mechanism. Two simulations of proportionally controlled systems show the behaviour of the proportional gain as it adapts to a specified behaviour....
Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob
We investigate the connection between contract duration, relational mechanisms, and premature relationship termination. Based on an analysis of a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service-provider industry, we argue that investments in either longer contract duration or more in...... ambiguous reference points for adaption and thus increase the likelihood of premature termination by restricting the parties' set of adaptive actions....
Kinzig, Ann P.
This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.
iCanADAPT Early protocol: randomised controlled trial (RCT) of clinician supervised transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) for depression and/or anxiety in early stage cancer survivors -vs- treatment as usual
Murphy, M. J.; Newby, J. M.; Butow, P.; Kirsten, L.; Allison, K.; Loughnan, S.; Price, M. A.; Shaw, J.; Shepherd, H.; Smith, J.; Andrews, G.
Background This RCT with two parallel arms will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention for the treatment of clinical depression and/or anxiety in early stage cancer survivors. Methods/design Early stage cancer survivors will be recruited via the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical research unit and randomised to an intervention (iCBT) group or a ?treatment as usual? (TAU) control group. The minimum sample size for...
Subekti, S.; Ana, A.
Vocational High Schools as one of the educational institutions that has the responsibility in preparing skilled labors has a challenge to improve the quality of human resources as a candidate for skilled labors, to compete and survive in a changing climate of work. BPS noted an increase in the number of non-worker population (BAK) in 2015-2017 on vocational graduates as many as 564,272 people. The ability to adapt and maintain jobs in a variety of conditions is called employability skills. This study purpose to measure the development of employability skills of communication skills, problem-solving skills and teamwork skills on the implementation of teaching factory learning in SMK Negeri 1 Cibadak, THPH Skills Program on bakery competency. This research uses mixed method, with concurrent triangulation mix methods research design. Data collection techniques used interviews and questionnaires. The result shows that there are increasing students’ employability skills in communication skills, problem solving skills, and teamwork skills in teaching factory learning. Principles of learning that apply learning by doing student centering and learning arrangements such as situations and conditions in the workplace have an impact on improving student employability skills.
Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Li, Grace; Memon, Nasir D.
Steganalysis techniques attempt to differentiate between stego-objects and cover-objects. In recent work we developed an explicit analytic upper bound for the steganographic capacity of LSB based steganographic techniques for a given false probability of detection. In this paper we look at adaptive steganographic techniques. Adaptive steganographic techniques take explicit steps to escape detection. We explore different techniques that can be used to adapt message embedding to the image content or to a known steganalysis technique. We investigate the advantages of adaptive steganography within an analytical framework. We also give experimental results with a state-of-the-art steganalysis technique demonstrating that adaptive embedding results in a significant number of bits embedded without detection.
Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper
the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...
This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…
provision of training is not a major focus of this project, trainees were able to practice trauma management skills as well as leadership skills...SUBJECT TERMS Military healthcare team; Trauma teams; Team training; Teamwork; Adaptive performance; Leadership ; Simulation; Modeling; Bayesian belief...ABBREVIATIONS Healthcare team Trauma Trauma teams Team training Teamwork Adaptability Adaptive performance Leadership Simulation Modeling
Full Text Available The concept of intercultural competence is associated in the literature lists both abilities to be "successful" as an individual and an organization in cross-cultural relations, as most critical visions and interested in different contexts and social roles that play a role in the definition and perception of these relations.The concept of intercultural competence authors as Earley and Ang (2003, p. 59 prefer the concept of cultural intelligence in relation to how people can adapt to new cultural contexts, and in continuity with the work on intelligence of educational psychologists (H. Gardner, RJ Sternberg, and in relation to the interaction between cognitive styles and management of daily activities (Zhang, Sternberg, 2001, p. 198-200.From different approaches, has occurred in recent years a significant number of tools for assessing intercultural competence (Earley and Ang 2003, p. 193-199; Fowler and Blohm 2004, p. 37-84, Paige 2004, pp. 85-128.In this contribution we investigate the relevant aspects and implications of the discourses on intercultural skills for learning and for education policies that integrate an intercultural approach.
Dinya, Elek; Csorba, Janos; Suli, Agota; Grosz, Zsofia
The behaviour dimensions of 244 Hungarian adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a dual diagnosis (intellectual disability and psychiatric diagnosis) were examined by means of the adapted version of the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001). Four IQ subgroups were created: borderline, mild, moderate…
This paper discusses sickness behaviour as a central motivational state. It deals with the adaptational value and underlying mechanisms of sickness behaviour and with the consequences of the body's failure to terminate the activity of the symptoms-producing cytokines. SA Fam Pract 2003;45(10):15-18 ...
Alhaji Cherif; Kamal Barley; Marcel Hurtado
We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation). In particular, we use SIR(B)S (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component) model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancin...
Full Text Available ... Congress Educational Program Events and Special Activities Resources Housing and Travel Exhibitors Media Information Clinical Congress 2017 ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills ...
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Full Text Available ... kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...
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Full Text Available ... skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma Practice Model Stoma supplies (measurement guide, marking ...
Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a debilitating disease, highly prevalent in UK South Asians, and preventable by lifestyle intervention. The 'New life, New you' (NLNY) physical activity (PA) and dietary intervention for T2D prevention was culturally adapted to better engage minority ethnic populations and tested for feasibility. To investigate Pakistani female participants' perspectives of their behaviour change and of salient intervention features. A community-based 8-week programme of group delivered PA sessions with behavioural counselling and dietary advice, culturally adapted for ethnic minority populations, in an area of socioeconomic deprivation. Participants to NLNY were recruited through screening events in community venues across the town. Interviews were conducted with 20 Pakistani female NLNY participants, aged 26-45 (mean 33.5) years, from different parts of town. Within the a priori Theoretical Domains Framework (intentions and goals, reinforcement, knowledge, nature of the activity, social role and identity, social influences, capabilities and skills, regulation and decision, emotion and environment), we identified the importance of social factors relating to participants' own PA and dietary behaviour change. We also identified cross-cutting themes as collateral benefits of the intervention including participants' 'psychological health'; 'responsibility' (for others' health, especially family members included in the new PA and diet regimes) and 'inclusion' (an ethos of accommodating differences). Our findings suggest that culturally adapted interventions for Pakistani women at risk of T2D, delivered via group PA sessions with counselling and dietary advice, may encourage their PA and dietary behaviour change, and have collateral health and social benefits. The NLNY intervention appeared to be acceptable. We plan to evaluate recruitment, retention and likely effect of the intervention on participant behaviour prior to definitive evaluation. Published by the
Avila Mireles, Edwin Johnatan; Zenzeri, Jacopo; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; De Santis, Dalia
It is known that physical coupling between two subjects may be advantageous in joint tasks. However, little is known about how two people mutually exchange information to exploit the coupling. Therefore, we adopted a reversed, novel perspective to the standard one that focuses on the ability of physically coupled subjects to adapt to cooperative contexts that require negotiating a common plan: we investigated how training in pairs on a novel task affects the development of motor skills of each of the interacting partners. The task involved reaching movements in an unstable dynamic environment using a bilateral non-linear elastic tool that could be used bimanually or dyadically. The main result is that training with an expert leads to the greatest performance in the joint task. However, the performance in the individual test is strongly affected by the initial skill level of the partner. Moreover, practicing with a peer rather than an expert appears to be more advantageous for a naive; and motor skills can be transferred to a bimanual context, after training with an expert, only if the non-expert subject had prior experience of the dynamics of the novel task.
Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda
The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…
Fidan, Tuncer; Balci, Ali
This conceptual study examines the analogies between schools and complex adaptive systems and identifies strategies used to manage schools as complex adaptive systems. Complex adaptive systems approach, introduced by the complexity theory, requires school administrators to develop new skills and strategies to realize their agendas in an…
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis
The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…
ANNE LOUISE NEWTON
The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...
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Weigel, Richard A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…
Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William
Kerr and Zigmond (1986) found that 67 percent of all high school teachers surveyed viewed organizational skills as crucial for student success in school. How can teachers get their students to agree? One way is to teach organizational skills just as they would teach writing or computation skills. Explain and demonstrate what students are to do,…
Roshier, A L; McBride, E A
Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23-55 years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided.
Addressing Climate Change Adaptation in Africa through Participatory Action Research. A Regional Observatory ... while the average annual rainfall recorded between. 1968 and 1999 was .... the region of Thies. For sustainability reasons, the.
adaptation to climate change from various regions of the Sahel. Their .... This simple system, whose cost and maintenance were financially sustainable, brought ... method that enables him to learn from experience and save time, which he ...
Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.
Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Rø stad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid
Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.
Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika
The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, clinical skills centers are important structural components of authentic universities in the world. These centers can be use for tuition of cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills. In this study we have designed a surgical course, consist of 19 theoretical knowledge (cognitive skills and 10 procedural skills. Purpose: teaching and testing the designed course. Methods: This study has been conducted on 678 medical students at clerkship stage. Pre and post-self assessment technique has been used to assess learning progress. A multivariate statistical comparison were adapted for Judgments of learning achievement, Hotelling’s T-square has been used to ascertain the differences between pre and post tests score. For measuring the reliability of the test items. Cronbach's Alpha has been used to measure the reliability of test item. Results: The reliability of the test was 0.84 for cognitive skills and 0.92 for procedural skills. The two tailed test for comparing each pairs of score of 19 cognitive items showed a significant statistical difference between 13 items (P=0.000. For procedural skills the differences between the mean score of 9 items were significant (P=0.000. These results indicate learning achievements by students. Conclusion: This study suggests that, the ability of trainees in both cognitive and psychomotor skills can be improved by tuition of basic surgical skills in skill Lab. (without use of patients. Key words: BASIC SURGICAL SKILLS, CSC, (CLINICAL SKILLS CENTER PRE AND POST SELF-ASSESSMENT
Full Text Available This study investigated how different profiles of kindergarten readiness in terms of student intellectual ability, academic skills and classroom engagement relate to future academic performance. Participants are French-Canadian children followed in the context of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 670. Trained examiners measured number knowledge, receptive vocabulary and fluid intelligence when children were in kindergarten. Teachers rated kindergarten classroom engagement. Outcomes included fourth-grade teacherrated achievement and directly assessed mathematical skills. Latent class analyses revealed three kindergarten readiness profiles: high (57%, moderate (34% and low (9.3% readiness. Using multiple regression, we found that a more favourable kindergarten profile predicted better fourth-grade academic performance. Identifying children at risk of academic difficulty is an important step for preventing underachievement and dropout. These results suggest the importance of promoting a variety of cognitive, academic and behavioural skills to enhance later achievement in at-risk learners.
Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie; Parsons, Rachel
Generalized imitation plays an important role in the acquisition of new skills, in particular language and communication. In this case report a multiple exemplar training procedure, with an errorless learning phase, was used to teach Ben, a 13-year-old child with severe intellectual disabilities, to imitate behaviours modelled by an adult instructor. After exposure to seven multiple exemplars, Ben learned to imitate novel actions to criterion (i.e. generalized imitation). These skills were maintained at 90 percent at 6 week and 18 week follow-up. In line with earlier research, this article provides some further support for the finding that multiple exemplar training can facilitate the reliable emergence of generalized imitation skills. Topographically similar behaviours during the learning phase can be difficult to discriminate and hence can slow the learning process. Future research could explore how generalized imitation supports the development of basic communication and activity skills.
Young, Ian; Thaivalappil, Abhinand; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Waddell, Lisa
Theories of behaviour change can explain the factors affecting food handlers' use of food safety practices. A systematic review was conducted on this topic to identify which theories have been applied in this area and to determine which theories are the most consistent predictors of food handlers' behaviours. Standard systematic review procedures were followed: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; article characterization; data extraction; risk-of-bias assessment; and descriptive analysis. Among 19 relevant studies, the most commonly investigated theories were the Theory of Planned Behaviour (n = 9 studies) and Health Belief Model (n = 5). All investigated theories were useful to explain food handlers' behavioural intentions and behaviours related to food safety across different settings, and could serve as useful frameworks for future research and practice. However, there was wide variability in the predictive ability of the theories and their specific constructs, indicating theories should be adapted to the local context of application.
Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz
Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition
Goldstein, Thalia R.
Empathy, theory of mind, and adaptive emotion regulation are critical skills for social functioning. However, the ways in which these skills may co- or differentially develop has thus far been understudied. We explored how these social-cognitive skills converge and diverge across a year of development in early adolescence, and with different kinds…
Full text: Most of French operating nuclear plants were constructed within a small time window. Few new plants have come on line within the last decade. As a result, most operating plants today have an ageing workforce that is going to retire in large numbers. In the next ten years, 40% of EDF nuclear workforce is going to retire, in average 600 people per year. At the same time, potential restructurings are opportunities to provide internal personnel for Nuclear Power Plants. The first generation of nuclear industry workers was hired during nuclear plant starting and testing. That was an opportunity to for training in the field without nuclear hazard. In addition, the NPP requirements increased dramatically through the last twenty years. This situation led to start a project to effectively adapt and renew workforce competences in the 19 EDF NPP in France. This Paper describes three steps to successfully ensure this transition to the new generation of nuclear industry workers. Acting in the field from their initial training, recruits are earlier ready to perform: 1. A Nuclear Job Academy in each French region based on Team Building and Sister Plants association, new training techniques and field training regarding behaviour and craft. All the new comers in Nuclear Power Station are led by an experienced technical mentor and trained by managers and experienced staff. 2. Flow loop maintenance simulator in each plant.On line training and test for periodic training.Step by Step qualification process. Internal workforce moving and rotation become a consistent, safe and successful opportunity to renew competences: EDF Group promotes the mobility of human resources by improving skills management (training programs, encouraging profession mobility, and reorientation towards priority jobs). To ensure that each nuclear new comer from internal workforce meets the nuclear requirements (as hired people), we build strong process witch guaranty internal people recruitment with
Stevenson, M; Crnic, K
Fathers have unique influences on children's development, and particularly in the development of social skills. Although father-child relationship influences on children's social competence have received increased attention in general, research on fathering in families of children with developmental delays (DD) is scant. This study examined the pathway of influence among paternal intrusive behaviour, child social skills and child self-regulatory ability, testing a model whereby child regulatory behaviour mediates relations between fathering and child social skills. Participants were 97 families of children with early identified DD enrolled in an extensive longitudinal study. Father and mother child-directed intrusiveness was coded live in naturalistic home observations at child age 4.5, child behaviour dysregulation was coded from a video-taped laboratory problem-solving task at child age 5, and child social skills were measured using independent teacher reports at child age 6. Analyses tested for mediation of the relationship between fathers' intrusiveness and child social skills by child behaviour dysregulation. Fathers' intrusiveness, controlling for mothers' intrusiveness and child behaviour problems, was related to later child decreased social skills and this relationship was mediated by child behaviour dysregulation. Intrusive fathering appears to carry unique risk for the development of social skills in children with DD. Findings are discussed as they related to theories of fatherhood and parenting in children with DD, as well as implications for intervention and future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Mariager-Anderson, Kristina; Cort, Pia
Should low-skilled workers continuously adapt to the needs of the labour market to ensure their own employability? The preoccupation with low-skilled people and their reluctance to be lifelong learners is apparent in surveys and research projects attempting to identify low-skilled workers’ barrie...... to learning: Are low-skilled workers unable to do what is right according to policies? Should they continuously adapt to the needs of the labour market and ensure their own employability? This policy narrative of ‘unmotivated’ low-skilled workers needs to be questioned....
The paper will present the relation between students’ beliefs and their behaviours observed in the process of learning critical thinking skills. In the first place some consideration concerning the fundamental epistemological concepts used in the research and about the particular critical thinking skills are to be sketched. Then the testing- learning procedure will be shortly summarized. Thirdly the evaluation of beliefs, their relations with knowledge and the associated behaviors are present...
Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E
Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.
Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. Method: The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Results: Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. Conclusions: More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education. PMID:24282452
Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R
Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians' everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education.
Coxon, Kristy; Keay, Lisa
Safe-transport is important to well-being in later life but balancing safety and independence for older drivers can be challenging. While self-regulation is a promising tool to promote road safety, more research is required to optimise programs. Qualitative research was used to inform the choice and adaptation of a safe-transport education program for older drivers. Three focus groups were conducted with older drivers living in northwest Sydney to explore four key areas related to driving in later life including aged-based licensing, stopping or limiting driving, barriers to driving cessation and alternative modes of transportation. Data were analysed using content analysis. Four categories emerged from the data; bad press for older drivers, COMPETENCE not age, call for fairness in licensing regulations, and hanging up the keys: It's complicated! Two key issues being (1) older drivers wanted to drive for as long as possible but (2) were not prepared for driving cessation; guided the choice and adaption of the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS) program. This program was adapted for the Australian context and focus group findings raised the need for practical solutions, including transport alternatives, to be added. Targeted messages were developed from the data using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM), allowing the education to be tailored to the individual's stage of behaviour change. Adapting our program based on insights gained from community consultation should ensure the program is sensitive to the needs, skills and preferences of older drivers.
Charalambous, Charalambos C; Alcantara, Carolina C; French, Margaret A; Li, Xin; Matt, Kathleen S; Kim, Hyosub E; Morton, Susanne M; Reisman, Darcy S
Previous work demonstrated an effect of a single high-intensity exercise bout coupled with motor practice on the retention of a newly acquired skilled arm movement, in both neurologically intact and impaired adults. In the present study, using behavioural and computational analyses we demonstrated that a single exercise bout, regardless of its intensity and timing, did not increase the retention of a novel locomotor task after stroke. Considering both present and previous work, we postulate that the benefits of exercise effect may depend on the type of motor learning (e.g. skill learning, sensorimotor adaptation) and/or task (e.g. arm accuracy-tracking task, walking). Acute high-intensity exercise coupled with motor practice improves the retention of motor learning in neurologically intact adults. However, whether exercise could improve the retention of locomotor learning after stroke is still unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity and timing on the retention of a novel locomotor learning task (i.e. split-belt treadmill walking) after stroke. Thirty-seven people post stroke participated in two sessions, 24 h apart, and were allocated to active control (CON), treadmill walking (TMW), or total body exercise on a cycle ergometer (TBE). In session 1, all groups exercised for a short bout (∼5 min) at low (CON) or high (TMW and TBE) intensity and before (CON and TMW) or after (TBE) the locomotor learning task. In both sessions, the locomotor learning task was to walk on a split-belt treadmill in a 2:1 speed ratio (100% and 50% fast-comfortable walking speed) for 15 min. To test the effect of exercise on 24 h retention, we applied behavioural and computational analyses. Behavioural data showed that neither high-intensity group showed greater 24 h retention compared to CON, and computational data showed that 24 h retention was attributable to a slow learning process for sensorimotor adaptation. Our findings demonstrated that acute exercise
Hoa, H.; Lам, P.
Teachers’ pedagogical activities are constituted by many skills such as teaching skills, education skills, and skills of performing varied pedagogical ac- tivities. Each skill is formed from a variety of specifi c skills. Approaching teachers’ teaching skills based on pedagogical operation base can help us establish methods and develop skills for teachers. By doing so, we can assist teachers to enhance their teaching competence contributing to teaching quality improvement in schools
Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N. H.; Naimie, Z.
Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses ...
Full Text Available We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation. In particular, we use SIR(BS (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancing and voluntary vaccination participations. Our analyses reveal complex relationships between spontaneous and uncoordinated behavioural changes, the emergence of its contagion properties, and mitigation of infectious diseases. We find that the presence of effective behavioural changes can impede the persistence of disease. Furthermore, it was found that under perfect effective behavioural change, there are three regions in the response factor (e.g., imitation and/or reactionary and behavioural scale factor (e.g., global/local factors ρ–α behavioural space. Mainly, (1 disease is always endemic even in the presence of behavioural change, (2 behavioural-prevalence plasticity is observed and disease can sometimes be eradication, and (3 elimination of endemic disease under permanence of permanent behavioural change is achieved. These results suggest that preventive behavioural changes (e.g., non-pharmaceutical prophylactic measures, social distancing and exclusion, crowd avoidance are influenced by individual differences in perception of risks and are a salient feature of epidemics. Additionally, these findings indicates that care needs to be taken when considering the effect of adaptive behavioural change in predicting the course of epidemics, and as well as the interpretation and development of the public health measures that account for spontaneous behavioural changes.
Cherif, Alhaji; Barley, Kamal; Hurtado, Marcel
We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation). In particular, we use SIR(B)S (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component) model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancing and voluntary vaccination participations. Our analyses reveal complex relationships between spontaneous and uncoordinated behavioural changes, the emergence of its contagion properties, and mitigation of infectious diseases. We find that the presence of effective behavioural changes can impede the persistence of disease. Furthermore, it was found that under perfect effective behavioural change, there are three regions in the response factor (e.g., imitation and/or reactionary) and behavioural scale factor (e.g., global/local) factors ρ-α behavioural space. Mainly, (1) disease is always endemic even in the presence of behavioural change, (2) behavioural-prevalence plasticity is observed and disease can sometimes be eradication, and (3) elimination of endemic disease under permanence of permanent behavioural change is achieved. These results suggest that preventive behavioural changes (e.g., non-pharmaceutical prophylactic measures, social distancing and exclusion, crowd avoidance) are influenced by individual differences in perception of risks and are a salient feature of epidemics. Additionally, these findings indicates that care needs to be taken when considering the effect of adaptive behavioural change in predicting the course of epidemics, and as well as the interpretation and development of the public health measures that account for spontaneous behavioural changes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... number of authors. The paper then concludes that matching a manager to a business strategy needs learning. However managerial characteristics are difficult to change as business change. At best the matching concepts suits manual and technical jobs. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.8(2) 2000: 32-36 ...
Comportamento adaptativo e perspectivação do futuro: algumas evidências nos contextos da educação e da saúde Adaptive behaviour and future time perspective: some evidence from education and health settings
Renato Gil Carvalho
Full Text Available O papel do futuro no comportamento actual dos indivíduos, em particular dos jovens, tem sido alvo de atenção ao longo do tempo, destacando-se aquele que tem vindo a ser um efeito consistente de associação entre, por um lado, a perspectivação e a construção de planos de futuro - expressados pelo conceito de perspectiva temporal de futuro (PTF - e, por outro, a expressão de comportamentos adaptativos, que contribuem para uma maior adaptação ao meio. Dois dos contextos de estudo em que essa relação é mais abordada são os da educação e da saúde, este último especificamente ao nível da promoção de comportamentos saudáveis e da prevenção de riscos. Tendo em conta estes dois contextos, o presente trabalho pretende sistematizar e discutir um conjunto de dados, resultantes de vários estudos, e que se consideram relevantes para a evidenciação dessa relação.The role of future in the current individual behavior, especially among youngsters, has been receiving considerable attention. It is important to underline the consistent effect of association between future plans construction and perspectives - as expressed by the Future Time Perspective (FTP concept and adaptive behavior expression. This aspect is considered as a contributor to higher adaptation. Two of the contexts where that relation is studied are education and health, the latter specifically at healthy behavior development and risk prevention levels. Having in mind these two dimensions, the present article intends, to discuss some data from several studies, which are considered relevant for giving emphasis on such relation.
Krage, R. (Ralf); L. Zwaan (Laura); Tjon Soei Len, L. (Lian); Kolenbrander, M.W. (Mark W); Van Groeningen, D. (DIck); S.A. Loer (Stephan A.); C. Wagner (Cordula); P. Schober (P.)
textabstractBackground Non-technical skills, such as task management, leadership, situational awareness, communication and decision-making refer to cognitive, behavioural and social skills that contribute to safe and efficient team performance. The importance of these skills during cardiopulmonary
Lopes, Marta A.R.; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Janda, Kathryn B.; Peixoto, Paulo; Martins, Nelson
The transition to smart grids is an on-going process that may both shape and be shaped by end-users' energy behavioural adaptations. This study explores current and potential energy behavioural adaptations in Portugal during the smart grid transition process. A web-based survey was made to a representative sample of a specific segment of Portuguese residential end-users. The survey evaluated current energy behaviours and hypothetical future behaviours in a dynamic pricing scenario. Results sh...
Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas
on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....
Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...
Wijnen, G.J.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Janssen, I.I.
This study explores how shopping centre attributes can be adapted to culture-related shopping behaviour of expatriates. The study is relevant since only limited information is available on consumer behaviour of this target group and since insight in the heterogeneity of consumer shopping behaviour
Evidence is accumulating that abundance in cerebral connectivity is the neural basis of human behavioural variability, i.e., the ability to select adaptive solutions from a large repertoire of behavioural options. Recently it was demonstrated that variability in motor behaviour - the hallmark of
Schaap, T.W.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Arem, B. van
Computer based simulation models of human driving behaviour can be used effectively to model driving and behavioural adaptation to Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This can be a useful step in human centered design of ITS. To construct a comprehensive model of driving behaviour, the interaction
Stuart, Simon; Graham, Christopher D.; Butler, Sarah
A substantial body of literature exists concerning the adaptation of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for people with learning disabilities. However, it is possible that cognitive approaches have been prioritised at the expense of behavioural techniques that are simpler and more effective. This case conceptualisation considers a behaviourally focused…
Cnossen, Fokie; Lanzer, Peter
Cognition encompasses all processes from perception to action including attention and memory, reasoning, and decision making. Therefore, all skills (perceptual skills, motor skills, diagnosing skill, medical skills) are cognitive skills. Cognitive skills are supported by two types of knowledge:
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study aimed to investigate the requirements of the business sector in light of the skills and competencies students should have in order to be recruited. In this fashion, the study intended to measure the importance of the skills and competencies sought by the business world, revealing ways through which students can develop such skills. This project portrayed that, some of the required classes will certainly give students a strong theoretical background but they will neither completely prepare this student with all possible skills or competencies nor provide the student with any practical experience that will enable him/her to be more competitive when entering the business market. In some classes, however, like Public Speaking, which is designed to teach presentation skills, successful students are able to build good communication and interpersonal skills. Additionally, an English writing class will certainly attempt to provide them with strong writing skills, and a business class will possibly demand reading skills. Moreover, a calculus and a statistics class will provide basic arithmetic/mathematical skills. However, through this project it is proven that all of these classes will neglect the indoctrination of creative thinking in students, or make students believe in their own self-worth (self-esteem skills; the courses will also fail to develop the sense of urgency, drive and determination that students should possess not just to compete but also to survive in a business world.
Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo
Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.
Claudio Ricardo Lazzari
Full Text Available Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.