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Sample records for adaptive behavior scales

  1. Spanish adaptation of the Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS

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    Alejandro Magallares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to adapt the Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS and validate the results for use among the Spanish population. Using snowball sampling methodology, 501 individuals from all areas of Spain were selected to participate in the study. The Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS and questionnaires that measure a sense of community, belief in a just world and Machiavellianism were used to analyze the criterion validity of the adapted scale. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the items on the questionnaire fit a second-order model with four factors, which corresponded to the four dimensions proposed by the original authors, namely, disengagement, civil participation, formal political participation and activism. Additionally, it has been found that the scale is related to a sense of community, belief in a just world and Machiavellianism. In light of these results, we concluded that the questionnaire is methodologically valid and can be used by the scientific community to measure participatory behavior.

  2. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

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    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  3. The diagnostic adaptive behavior scale: evaluating its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

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    Balboni, Giulia; Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was constructed with items across three domains--conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills--and normed on a representative sample of American individuals from 4 to 21 years of age. The DABS was developed to focus its assessment around the decision point for determining the presence or absence of significant limitations of adaptive behavior for the diagnosis of Intellectual Disability (ID). The purpose of this study, which was composed of 125 individuals with and 933 without an ID-related diagnosis, was to determine the ability of the DABS to correctly identify the individuals with and without ID (i.e., sensitivity and specificity). The results indicate that the DABS sensitivity coefficients ranged from 81% to 98%, specificity coefficients ranged from 89% to 91%, and that the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve were excellent or good. These results indicate that the DABS has very good levels of diagnostic efficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Review: The Necessity of Producing/Normalizing Adaptive Behavior Scales in Diagnosing Training Treatment Rehabilitation of Peop e and Assessment of the Programs

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    Seyyed Jalal Sadrosadat

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior is defined as the manner in which people cope with the natural and social demands of their environments. Impairments in adaptive behavior are described as significant limitations in an individual's effectiveness in meeting the standards of maturation, learning, personal independence, and/or social responsibility that are expected for one's age level and cultural group, as determined by clinical assessment, and usually, standardized scales. The definitions of adaptive deficiencies imply an individual's ability to cope with demands of his or her environment. Some scholars support this notion when describing adaptive behavior's relationship to mental retardation. Despite the fact that adaptive behavior scales are the necessary tools in diagnosing training: treatment. Rehabilitation of people (Particularly with developmental disorders and the assessment of programs, those are not available to professionals. This article tries to explain the necessity of producing/normalizing such scales, and introduces one of the most famous scales named as "Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community".

  5. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

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    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  6. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

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    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  7. Longitudinal Profiles of Adaptive Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

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    Quintin, Eve-Marie; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A.; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Piven, Joseph; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinally the adaptive behavior patterns in fragile X syndrome. METHOD: Caregivers of 275 children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome and 225 typically developing children and adolescents (2–18 years) were interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales every 2 to 4 years as part of a prospective longitudinal study. RESULTS: Standard scores of adaptive behavior in people with fragile X syndrome are marked by a significant decline over time in all domains for males and in communication for females. Socialization skills are a relative strength as compared with the other domains for males with fragile X syndrome. Females with fragile X syndrome did not show a discernible pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale longitudinal study to show that the acquisition of adaptive behavior slows as individuals with fragile X syndrome age. It is imperative to ensure that assessments of adaptive behavior skills are part of intervention programs focusing on childhood and adolescence in this condition. PMID:25070318

  8. Review: The Necessity of Producing/Normalizing Adaptive Behavior Scales in Diagnosing Training Treatment Rehabilitation of Peop e and Assessment of the Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Jalal Sadrosadat; Leila Sadrosadat

    2000-01-01

    Adaptive behavior is defined as the manner in which people cope with the natural and social demands of their environments. Impairments in adaptive behavior are described as significant limitations in an individual's effectiveness in meeting the standards of maturation, learning, personal independence, and/or social responsibility that are expected for one's age level and cultural group, as determined by clinical assessment, and usually, standardized scales. The definitions of adaptive deficie...

  9. Comparison of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition, and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition.

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    Scattone, Dorothy; Raggio, Donald J; May, Warren

    2011-10-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II), and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) were administered to 65 children between the ages of 12 and 42 months referred for developmental delays. Standard scores and age equivalents were compared across instruments. Analyses showed no statistical difference between Vineland-II ABC standard scores and cognitive levels obtained from the Bayley-III. However, Vineland-II Communication and Motor domain standard scores were significantly higher than corresponding scores on the Bayley-III. In addition, age equivalent scores were significantly higher on the Vineland-II for the fine motor subdomain. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  10. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

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    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  11. Executive Function and Adaptive Behavior in Muenke Syndrome.

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    Yarnell, Colin M P; Addissie, Yonit A; Hadley, Donald W; Guillen Sacoto, Maria J; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B; Hart, Rachel A; Wiggs, Edythe A; Platte, Petra; Paelecke, Yvonne; Collmann, Hartmut; Schweitzer, Tilmann; Kruszka, Paul; Muenke, Maximilian

    2015-08-01

    To investigate executive function and adaptive behavior in individuals with Muenke syndrome using validated instruments with a normative population and unaffected siblings as controls. Participants in this cross-sectional study included individuals with Muenke syndrome (P250R mutation in FGFR3) and their mutation-negative siblings. Participants completed validated assessments of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF]) and adaptive behavior skills (Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition [ABAS-II]). Forty-four with a positive FGFR3 mutation, median age 9 years, range 7 months to 52 years were enrolled. In addition, 10 unaffected siblings served as controls (5 males, 5 females; median age, 13 years; range, 3-18 years). For the General Executive Composite scale of the BRIEF, 32.1% of the cohort had scores greater than +1.5 SD, signifying potential clinical significance. For the General Adaptive Composite of the ABAS-II, 28.2% of affected individuals scored in the 3rd-8th percentile of the normative population, and 56.4% were below the average category (General Executive Composite and the ABAS-II General Adaptive Composite. Individuals with Muenke syndrome are at an increased risk for developing adaptive and executive function behavioral changes compared with a normative population and unaffected siblings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Peer Pressure and Adaptive Behavior Learning: A Study of Adolescents in Gujrat City

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    Asma Yunus; Shahzad Khaver Mushtaq; Sobia Qaiser

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at discovering the influences of Peer Pressure on adaptive behavior learning in the adolescents. For the purpose two scales, Adaptive behavior scale (ABS) and Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) were developed to measure both variables. The Sample of the study was purposive in nature and comprised of late adolescents (n=120) i.e. 60 males and 60 females, from Gujrat city. Cronbach alpha was calculated and found to be significant for Peer Pressure Scale(PPS) and its subscales i.e. Belongi...

  13. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

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    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to

  14. Characteristic Symptoms and Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism

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    Rauf, N. K.; Haq, A.; Aslam, N.; Anjum, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristic symptoms and adaptive behaviors of children with autism, as well as the distribution of autism severity groups across gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Special Education Schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, from September 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Thirty nine children of either gender, aged 3 - 16 years and enrolled in special education schools, fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of autism. Among those, were identified as meeting the criteria of autism. The childhood autism rating scale-2 (CARS-2) was used to study the characteristics and severity of symptoms of autism. Later, adaptive behavior scale (school edition: 2) ABS-S: 2, was administered on children (n=21) to formulate the level of adaptive functioning. Results: There were 15 boys and 8 girls with mean age of 10.6 +- 2.97 years. They showed marked impairment in verbal communication (mean=3.17 +- 0.90) followed by relating to people (mean=2.75 +- 0.83) and general impression (mean=2.73 +- 0.7). Most of the children showed average to below average adaptive behaviors on number and time (n=19, 90.5%), independent functioning (n=17, 81.0%), self direction (n=17, 81.0%), physical development (n=13, 61.9%), responsibility (n=12, 57.1%) and socialization (n=13, 61.9%) as well as poor to very poor adaptive behaviors on prevocational skill (n=15, 71.4%), language development (n=13, 61.9%) and economic development (n=13, 61.9%). The frequency of boys with autism was more towards moderate to severely impaired spectrum, without gender differences in any symptom associated with autism. Conclusion: Comprehension of the presentation of characteristic symptoms of children with autism will be helpful in devising the indigenous intervention plans that are congruent with the level of adaptive functioning. (author)

  15. [Effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children].

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    Wang, Yan-Ni; Xue, Hong-Li; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children. The stratified cluster multistage sampling method was used to perform a questionnaire survey in the parents of 1 284 children aged 3-6 years in the urban area of Lanzhou, China. The general status questionnaire, Conners Child Behavior Checklist (Parent Symptom Question), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Second edition, Chinese version (FACESII-CV) were used to investigate behavioral problems and family cohesion and adaptability. The overall detection rate of behavioral problems in preschool children was 17.13%. The children with different types of family cohesion had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with free-type family cohesion showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (40.2%). The children with different types of family adaptability also had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with stiffness type showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (25.1%). The behavioral problems in preschool children were negatively correlated with family cohesion and adaptability. During the growth of preschool children, family cohesion and adaptability have certain effects on the mental development of preschool children.

  16. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment

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    Leyla Sadros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in socialand domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domainsof adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normalindividuals.Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals(7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study inTehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using"Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2,consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translatedinto Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English byanother translator, to ensure content non-distortion.Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentallyretarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economicactivity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization,disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement,conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documentedin the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors,sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, betweenthe two groups.Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normalones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that theadaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal ofattention and intervention. For these retarded people to function betterin their social and residential environment, it would be necessary todevelop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on theimportance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentallyretarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures,even for normal individuals.

  17. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

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    Tobin, William R. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  18. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic syndromes with intellectual disability: comparison of adaptive profiles.

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    Di Nuovo, Santo; Buono, Serafino

    2011-10-30

    The study of distinctive and consistent behaviors in the most common genetic syndromes with intellectual disability is useful to explain abnormalities or associated psychiatric disorders. The behavioral phenotypes revealed outcomes totally or partially specific for each syndrome. The aim of our study was to compare similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles of the five most frequent genetic syndromes, i.e. Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Fragile-X syndrome (fully mutated), taking into account the relation with chronological age and the overall IQ level. The research was carried out using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (beside the Wechsler Intelligence scales to obtain IQ) with a sample of 181 persons (107 males and 74 females) showing genetic syndromes and mental retardation. Syndrome-based groups were matched for chronological age and mental age (excluding the Angelman group, presenting with severe mental retardation). Similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles are described, relating them to IQs and maladaptive behaviors. The results might be useful in obtaining a global index of adjustment for the assessment of intellectual disability level as well as for educational guidance and rehabilitative plans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

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    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is ...

  20. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  1. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

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    Laureline Logiaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  2. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

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    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  3. The Relation between Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

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    Alexander, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence tests and adaptive behavior scales measure vital aspects of the multidimensional nature of human functioning. Assessment of each is a required component in the diagnosis or identification of intellectual disability, and both are frequently used conjointly in the assessment and identification of other developmental disabilities. The…

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: psychometric characteristics and construct validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, N.; van Esbroeck, R.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Cooman, R.; Pepermans, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot

  5. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

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    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  6. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model

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    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. Results According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). Conclusion The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors. PMID:23730484

  7. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model.

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    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Kim, Yeon Pyo

    2013-05-01

    The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors.

  8. Successful adaptation to climate change across scales

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    Adger, W.N.; Arnell, N.W.; University of Southampton; Tompkins, E.L.; University of East Anglia, Norwich; University of Southampton

    2005-01-01

    Climate change impacts and responses are presently observed in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to these impacts is increasingly being observed in both physical and ecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability and risk at different spatial and societal scales. We review the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes. We outline a set of normative evaluative criteria for judging the success of adaptations at different scales. We argue that elements of effectiveness, efficiency, equity and legitimacy are important in judging success in terms of the sustainability of development pathways into an uncertain future. We further argue that each of these elements of decision-making is implicit within presently formulated scenarios of socio-economic futures of both emission trajectories and adaptation, though with different weighting. The process by which adaptations are to be judged at different scales will involve new and challenging institutional processes. (author)

  9. Factor validation of the portuguese version of the social skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales

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    Maria João Seabra-Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of preschoolers’ social skills represents a topic of growing importance in research recently developed in the field. The purpose of this article is to present confirmatory factor analyses studies for the Social Skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2, a behavior rating scale that evaluates social skills and problem behaviors, adapted and validated for Portuguese preschool children. The 34 items of the Social Skills scale, distributed on three subscales (Social Cooperation/Adjustment, Social Interaction/Empathy and Social Independence/Assertiveness, were grouped into item-parcels. Model adjustment was analyzed for the total sample (N = 2000 and the analyses were replicated for the subsamples collected in the home (n = 1000 and school settings (n = 1000. The factor structure was very stable for the three samples, with high internal consistency levels and correlations between parcels/scales. The results highlight the utility/validity of the Social Skills scale of the PKBS-2 (Portuguese version.

  10. Patient-Centeredness as Physician Behavioral Adaptability to Patient Preferences.

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    Carrard, Valérie; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Jaunin-Stalder, Nicole; Junod Perron, Noëlle; Sommer, Johanna

    2018-05-01

    A physician who communicates in a patient-centered way is a physician who adapts his or her communication style to what each patient needs. In order to do so, the physician has to (1) accurately assess each patient's states and traits (interpersonal accuracy) and (2) possess a behavioral repertoire to choose from in order to actually adapt his or her behavior to different patients (behavioral adaptability). Physician behavioral adaptability describes the change in verbal or nonverbal behavior a physician shows when interacting with patients who have different preferences in terms of how the physician should interact with them. We hypothesized that physician behavioral adaptability to their patients' preferences would lead to better patient outcomes and that physician interpersonal accuracy was positively related to behavioral adaptability. To test these hypotheses, we recruited 61 physicians who completed an interpersonal accuracy test before being videotaped during four consultations with different patients. The 244 participating patients indicated their preferences for their physician's interaction style prior to the consultation and filled in a consultation outcomes questionnaire directly after the consultation. We coded the physician's verbal and nonverbal behavior for each of the consultations and compared it to the patients' preferences to obtain a measure of physician behavioral adaptability. Results partially confirmed our hypotheses in that female physicians who adapted their nonverbal (but not their verbal) behavior had patients who reported more positive consultation outcomes. Moreover, the more female physicians were accurate interpersonally, the more they showed verbal and nonverbal behavioral adaptability. For male physicians, more interpersonal accuracy was linked to less nonverbal adaptability.

  11. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

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    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  12. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

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    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  13. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiung NH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nai-Huan Hsiung,1 Yen Yang,1 Ming Shinn Lee,2 Koustuv Dalal,3 Graeme D Smith4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Curriculum Design and Human Potentials Development, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Public Health Science, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4School of Nursing, Midwifery & Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments. Keywords: pain, scales, BPS, CPOT, Taiwan

  14. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Kim, Yeon Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We us...

  15. Data concerning the psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales for the Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Almeida, Fernando; Pinto, Marta; Segarra, Pilar; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    The behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver & White, 1994), which allow rating the Gray's motivational systems, were translated and adapted into Portuguese. In this study, the authors present the procedure and the psychometric analyses of the Portuguese version of the scales, which included basic item and scales psychometric characteristics, as well as confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. After the psychometric analyses provided evidence for the quality of the Portuguese version of the scales, the normative data was provided by age and school grade. The confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS/BAS scales that the authors performed did not demonstrate satisfactory fit for the 2- or 4-factor solution. The authors also tested the more recent 5-factor model, but the fit indices remained inadequate. As fit indices were not satisfactory they proceeded with an exploratory factor analysis to examine the structure of the Portuguese scales. These psychometric analyses provided evidence of a successful translation of the original scales. Therefore these scales can now be used in future research with Portuguese or Brazilian population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  17. Adaptation and Validation of the Brazilian DASE and TUD Scales for Cocaine/Crack Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Dias Freire

    Full Text Available Abstract: Self-efficacy for abstinence and temptation to use illicit drugs are demonstrably key elements of changing addictive behaviors. This study’s aim was to analyze the psychometric evidence for the Brazilian adaptation of the scales Drug Abstinence Self-efficacy Scale (DASE and Temptation to Use Drugs Scale (TUD. The sample was composed of 300 men treated for cocaine and crack addiction. Análise Factorial Exploratory and internal consistency demonstrated the existence of four factors in the DASE that explained 54% of the total variation in the 24 items, and four factors in the TUD that explained 56% of the total change in the variation. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was at DSE .920 and TUD .927. The Brazilian adaptation of the scales showed appropriate evidence of validity in the sample of hospitalized individuals addicted to cocaine and crack.

  18. Evidence of Validity of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Silva de Carvalho Chinelato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractJob crafting behavior refers to the changes made by workers in their job context for adjusting their activities to their preferences. We sought to adapt and collect validity evidences of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale for the Brazilian context, in a sample of 491 workers, with a mean age of 26.7 years. Factor analysis revealed that the final instrument consisted of three dimensions (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands, which showed good internal consistency indexes. These dimensions showed low or moderate correlations with work engagement, positive psychological capital, positive job affect, and in-role performance. The scale showed evidence of validity, the use of which is recommended for future research on the changes that people make in their jobs.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gonçalves da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The internet has proven to be a valuable resource for self-care, allowing access to information and promoting interaction between professionals, caregivers, users of health care services and people interested in health information. However, recurring searches are often related to excessive health anxiety and a phenomenon known as cyberchondria can have impacts on physical and mental health. Within this background, a Cyberchondria Severity Scale has been developed to differentiate healthy and unhealthy behavior in internet searches for health information, based on the following criteria: compulsion, distress, excesses, and trust and distrust of health professionals. Objective: To conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese, because of the lack of an appropriate instrument for Brazil. Methods: This study was authorized by the original author of the scale. The process was divided into the following four steps: 1 initial translation, 2 back-translation, 3 development of a synthesized version, and 4 experimental application. Results: Translation into Brazilian Portuguese required some idiomatic expressions to be adapted. In some cases, words were not literally translated from English into Portuguese. Only items 7, 8, 12, 23 and 27 were altered, as a means of both conforming to proper grammar conventions and achieving easy comprehension. The items were rewritten without loss of the original content. Conclusion: This paper presents a translated version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale that has been semantically adapted for the Brazilian population, providing a basis for future studies in this area, which should in turn contribute to improved understanding of the cyberchondria phenomenon in this population.

  20. Epidemic spreading on adaptively weighted scale-free networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengfeng; Zhang, Haifeng; Kang, Huiyan; Zhu, Guanghu; Fu, Xinchu

    2017-04-01

    We introduce three modified SIS models on scale-free networks that take into account variable population size, nonlinear infectivity, adaptive weights, behavior inertia and time delay, so as to better characterize the actual spread of epidemics. We develop new mathematical methods and techniques to study the dynamics of the models, including the basic reproduction number, and the global asymptotic stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. We show the disease-free equilibrium cannot undergo a Hopf bifurcation. We further analyze the effects of local information of diseases and various immunization schemes on epidemic dynamics. We also perform some stochastic network simulations which yield quantitative agreement with the deterministic mean-field approach.

  1. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems Systems and Software Technology Conference April 2010 Dr. Suzette S. Johnson...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive...as they evolve – Control is dispersed and decentralized – Simple rules and governance used to direct behavior • Complexity Leadership Theory – Built on

  2. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda

    2013-01-01

    , an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly...

  3. Adaptive Vocational Personality Questionnaire Development and Validation of an adaptive personality questionnaire to analyze the vocational behavior of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Gómez-Artiga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a personality evaluation instrument adapted to the vocational setting: the Adaptive Vocational Personality Questionnaire (AVPQ. The questionnaire was developed and tested in a sample of 2160 university students in the final years of their degree programs. The purpose of the study is to validate the questionnaire, providing evidence about its internal structure and its usefulness for predicting scores on a criterion scale. A confirmatory factor analysis combined with a cross-validation design was used: the exploratory sample (n = 879 helped to identify the model with the factorial structure that best fit the relations among the items. As expected, this model had two related but clearly separate factors: Adaptive Personality Characteristics (AC with 9 items and Non-Adaptive Personality Characteristics (NAC with 11 items. The validation sample (n =932 was used to test the generalization capacity of this model, which was satisfactory and showed a good reliability index. Regarding its usefulness in predicting proactive job-search behaviors, the results were also satisfactory. The questionnaire and keys are provided, as well as the criteria for calculating the scores on each scale and on the entire questionnaire.

  4. A Factor-Analytic Study of Adaptive Behavior and Intellectual Functioning in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Dollye R.

    The factorial structure of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior was examined in 160 learning disabled students (6 to 16 years old). Ss were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Coping Inventory (CI). Factor analysis of WISC-R scores revealed three factors: verbal comprehenson, perceptual…

  5. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS) in Iranian female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Ziaeiha, Masoumeh; Burri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted Iranian version of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS-I) in a sample of college women. Further, the relationship between women's self-image, body appreciation, sexual functioning, and gynecological exam behavior was explored. A sample of 1,877 female students from five different universities across Qazvin and Tehran completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the FGSIS-I, and a gynecological exam behavior questionnaire. Good to excellent internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and convergent and construct validity were found. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) both provided a two-factor structure for the FGSIS-I. The validity of the FGSIS-I in predicting gynecological exam behavior of college women was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The final model accounted for 33% of the variance in gynecological exam behavior (p reliable instrument to assess female genital self-image in Iranian women.

  8. [Behavioral types in relation to burnout, mobbing, personality, and adaptation of self-conduct in health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Fernández, Julián Manuel; Padilla Segura, Inés; Domínguez Fernández, Javier; Domínguez Padilla, María

    2013-04-01

    To define the different patterns of behavior among workers in health care in Ceuta. Cross-sectional and descriptive. SITES AND PARTICIPANTS: 200 randomly selected workers in the Ceuta Health Care Area using a stratified sampling of workplace, job and sex. The instruments used were the MBI, the LIPT by Leymann, a reduced version of the Pinillos CEP, Musitu self concept and adaptation behavior, all adapted in the context of occupational health examinations. Principal components analysis allowed us to define 5 components, one strictly related to the scale of mobbing with 85% of weight; another for burnout with 70% weight; a third to adaptation and family satisfaction with a weight of 64%; a fourth with adaptation, control, emotional self, professional achievement and occupational self-weight of 52%; and a fifth component defined by social evaluations in the levels of extraversion and social adjustment with 73%. Highlights five different behavioral characteristics peculiar interest for clinical work are highlighted: burnout, mobbing, family work satisfaction; individual occupational and sociable satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Scale-adaptive Local Patches for Robust Visual Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of robustly tracking objects which undergo rapid and dramatic scale changes. To remove the weakness of global appearance models, we present a novel scheme that combines object’s global and local appearance features. The local feature is a set of local patches that geometrically constrain the changes in the target’s appearance. In order to adapt to the object’s geometric deformation, the local patches could be removed and added online. The addition of these patches is constrained by the global features such as color, texture and motion. The global visual features are updated via the stable local patches during tracking. To deal with scale changes, we adapt the scale of patches in addition to adapting the object bound box. We evaluate our method by comparing it to several state-of-the-art trackers on publicly available datasets. The experimental results on challenging sequences confirm that, by using this scale-adaptive local patches and global properties, our tracker outperforms the related trackers in many cases by having smaller failure rate as well as better accuracy.

  10. An innovative approach for Predicting Farmers' Adaptive Behavior at the Large Watershed Scale: Implications for Water Quality and Crop Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcu-Lisman, A. M.; Gassman, P. W.; Arritt, R. W.; Kling, C.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Panagopoulos, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Projected changes in the climatic patterns (higher temperatures, changes in extreme precipitation events, and higher levels of humidity) will affect agricultural cropping and management systems in major agricultural production areas. The concept of adaption to new climatic or economic conditions is an important aspect of the agricultural decision-making process. Adopting cover crops, reduced tillage, extending the drainage systems and adjusting crop management are only a few examples of adaptive actions. These actions can be easily implemented as long as they have private benefits (increased profits, reduced risk). However, each adaptive action has a different impact on water quality. Cover crops and no till usually have a positive impact on water quality, but increased tile drainage typically results in more degraded water quality due primarily to increased export of soluble nitrogen and phosphorus. The goal of this research is to determine the changes in water quality as well in crop yields as farmers undertake these adaptive measures. To answer this research question, we need to estimate the likelihood that these actions will occur, identify the agricultural areas where these actions are most likely to be implemented, and simulate the water quality impacts associated with each of these scenarios. We apply our modeling efforts to the whole Upper-Mississippi River Basin Basin (UMRB) and the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB). These two areas are critical source regions for the re-occurring hypoxic zone in the gulf of Mexico. The likelihood of each adaptive agricultural action is estimated using data from a survey conducted in 2012. A large, representative sample of farmers in the Corn Belt was used in the survey to elicit behavioral intentions regarding three of the most important agricultural adaptation strategies (no-till, cover crops and tile drainage). We use these data to study the relationship between intent to adapt, farmer characteristics, farm

  11. Self-adapted sliding scale spectroscopy ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qichun; Wang Jingjin

    1992-01-01

    The traditional sliding scale technique causes a disabled range that is equal to the sliding length, thus reduces the analysis range of a MCA. A method for reduce ADC's DNL, which is called self-adapted sliding scale method, has been designed and tested. With this method, the disabled range caused by a traditional sliding scale method can be eliminated by a random trial scale and there is no need of an additional amplitude discriminator with swing threshold. A special trial-and-correct logic is presented. The tested DNL of the spectroscopy ADC described here is less than 0.5%

  12. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

  13. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  15. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...

  16. Validation of an Adapted French Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in Four Francophone Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Claire S.; Broonen, Jean-Paul; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Hamtiaux, Armanda; Pouyaud, Jacques; Zecca, Gregory; Houssemand, Claude; Rossier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor…

  17. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; von Koch, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda ( in English ) by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda ( both in English and Luganda ) was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Overall, 10 of 59 (17%) items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75). The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision but also point out issues for further adaptation and improvement

  18. Examining the specific effects of context on adaptive behavior and achievement in a rural African community: six case studies from rural areas of Southern province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-02-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn. AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, SD = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes.

  19. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  20. Bureaucratization and Adaptive Behavior in the Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V. Volchik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to researching the economic behavior of individuals in the higher education in the term of increasing bureaucratization. Reasons of bureaucracy and inefficiencies generated by it are considered on the example of the higher education sector. Constant changes in the bureaucratic system requirements need to be adapted in the behavior of actors. The authors highlight approaches to adaptation within the framework of the Austrian school of economics. Austrian approaches to adapt and the adaptive rationality concept in institutional economics are compared. The role of rationality in the process of adaptation is shown in the research. The empirical basis of the study is represented by the transcripts of 50 in-depth interviews conducted in 2015 with students, lecturers and heads of higher education institutions of the Rostov region. The main objective of the interview is the allocation of institutional change in higher education. Bureaucratization was named by respondents as one of the most important changes. The paper systematizes the respondents' answers on the impact of bureaucracy and carries out typology of adapting ways to the formal innovations. Imitating practices as a form of adaptation to the growth of the formal requirements are considered clearly. The authors display the negative impact of this adaptation form to the quality of educational activities and organizational culture.

  1. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius T Kamwesiga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. Objective: To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. Method: The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (in English by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (both in English and Luganda was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Results: Overall, 10 of 59 (17% items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75. Conclusion: The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision

  2. Cultural adaptation and validation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 version in Uganda: A small-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwesiga, Julius T; von Koch, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. Objective: To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. Method: The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 was culturally adapted to form Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (in English) by involving 25 participants in three different expert committees. Subsequently, Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda from English to Luganda language was done in accordance with guidelines. The first language in Uganda is English and Luganda is the main spoken language in Kampala city and its surroundings. Translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda (both in English and Luganda) was then tested psychometrically by applying a Rasch model on data collected from 95 participants with stroke. Results: Overall, 10 of 59 (17%) items in the eight domains of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 were culturally adapted. The majority were 6 of 10 items in the domain Activities of Daily Living, 2 of 9 items in the domain Mobility, and 2 of 5 items in the domain Hand function. Only in two domains, all items demonstrated acceptable goodness of fit to the Rasch model. There were also more than 5% person misfits in the domains Participation and Emotion, while the Communication, Mobility, and Hand function domains had the lowest proportions of person misfits. The reliability coefficient was equal or larger than 0.90 in all domains except the Emotion domain, which was below the set criterion of 0.80 (0.75). Conclusion: The cultural adaptation and translation of Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 Uganda provides initial evidence of validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 when used in this context. The results provide support for several aspects of validity and precision but also point

  3. Physician behavioral adaptability: A model to outstrip a "one size fits all" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Valérie; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2015-10-01

    Based on a literature review, we propose a model of physician behavioral adaptability (PBA) with the goal of inspiring new research. PBA means that the physician adapts his or her behavior according to patients' different preferences. The PBA model shows how physicians infer patients' preferences and adapt their interaction behavior from one patient to the other. We claim that patients will benefit from better outcomes if their physicians show behavioral adaptability rather than a "one size fits all" approach. This literature review is based on a literature search of the PsycINFO(®) and MEDLINE(®) databases. The literature review and first results stemming from the authors' research support the validity and viability of parts of the PBA model. There is evidence suggesting that physicians are able to show behavioral flexibility when interacting with their different patients, that a match between patients' preferences and physician behavior is related to better consultation outcomes, and that physician behavioral adaptability is related to better consultation outcomes. Training of physicians' behavioral flexibility and their ability to infer patients' preferences can facilitate physician behavioral adaptability and positive patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of hippotherapy on motor control, adaptive behaviors, and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzenman, Heather F; Standeven, John W; Shurtleff, Tim L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether hippotherapy increased function and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesized improvements in motor control, which might increase adaptive behaviors and participation in daily activities. Six children with ASD ages 5-12 participated in 12 weekly 45-min hippotherapy sessions. Measures pre- and post-hippotherapy included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II and the Child Activity Card Sort. Motor control was measured preintervention and postintervention using a video motion capture system and force plates. Postural sway significantly decreased postintervention. Significant increases were observed in overall adaptive behaviors (receptive communication and coping) and in participation in self-care, low-demand leisure, and social interactions. These results suggest that hippotherapy has a positive influence on children with ASD and can be a useful treatment tool for this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Plants : Adaptive behavior, root-brains, and minimal cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo Garzon, Paco; Keijzer, Fred

    Plant intelligence has gone largely unnoticed within the field of animal and human adaptive behavior. In this context, we will introduce current work on plant intelligence as a new set of relevant phenomena that deserves attention and also discuss its potential relevance for the study of adaptive

  6. [Adaptation of a peer pressure scale in French and German: the Peer Pressure Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, S; Studer, J; Daeppen, J-B; Gmel, G

    2013-06-01

    Peer pressure is regarded as an important determinant of substance use, sexual behavior and juvenile delinquency. However, few peer pressure scales are validated, especially in French or German. Little is known about the factor structure of such scales or the kind of scale needed: some scales takes into account both peer pressure to do and peer pressure not to do, while others consider only peer pressure to do. The aim of the present study was to adapt French and German versions of the Peer Pressure Inventory, which is one of the most widely used scales in this field. We considered its factor structure and concurrent validity. Five thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven young Swiss men filled in a questionnaire on peer pressure, substance use, and other variables (conformity, involvement) in a cohort study. We identified a four-factor structure, with the three factors of the initial Peer Pressure Inventory (involvement, conformity, misconduct) and adding a new one (relationship with girls). A non-valued scale (from no peer pressure to peer pressure to do only) showed stronger psychometric qualities than a valued scale (from peer pressure not to do to peer pressure to do). Concurrent validity was also good. Each behavior or attitude was significantly associated with peer pressure. Peer pressure seems to be a multidimensional concept. In this study, peer pressure to do showed the strongest influence on participants. Indeed, peer pressure not to do did not add anything useful. Only peer pressure to do affected young Swiss men's behaviors and attitudes and was reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  8. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  9. Household Adaptive Behavior in Response to Coastal Flood Risk and External Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately forty percent of the world's population sits along ocean coastlines. This urban exposure to flooding is increasing due to population growth and sea level rise resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Recent research improving the characterization of physical hazards from climate change on the coastal zone has helped cities assess their risks. This work includes improving our understanding of the rate and magnitude of sea level rise, the change in distribution of tropical cyclones, and the resulting frequency and severity of flooding on global to local scales. However, the ability of settlements to cope or thrive under changing climate conditions will likely depend on the cooperation and initiative of households, regardless of any governmental efforts to reduce risk. Understanding individuals' likely responses to changing coastal hazards is thus critical for decision-makers to plan for a sustainable future. Individuals may be motivated not only by information regarding emerging flood hazards, but also by cognitive and contextual factors. For governments to develop effective adaptation policies, it is important to understand what factors tend to motivate household adaptation. We apply principles from economics and psychology to investigate how people respond to various existing adaptation options and policies, using a household survey with experiments in New York City neighborhoods affected by Hurricane Sandy. We investigate a comprehensive set of factors that may influence household adaptive behavior. A striking 64% of homeowners and 83% of renters intend to relocate among different plausible future conditions, such as frequent nuisance flooding and the adaptation of peers. This amount is substantial considering the political sensitivity of `retreat' and the lack of regional and federal preparation for large-scale climate-induced migration.

  10. Models of behavioral change and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explains and summarizes models of behavioral change and adaptation, which have received less application in the life choice analysis associated with urban policy. Related to various life choices, life trajectory events are major decisions with a relatively long-lasting impact, such as

  11. Adaptive nonparametric Bayesian inference using location-scale mixture priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We study location-scale mixture priors for nonparametric statistical problems, including multivariate regression, density estimation and classification. We show that a rate-adaptive procedure can be obtained if the prior is properly constructed. In particular, we show that adaptation is achieved if

  12. Evidence-based adaptation and scale-up of a mobile phone health information service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Plourde, Kate F; Zan, Trinity

    2017-01-01

    The research base recommending the use of mobile phone interventions for health improvement is growing at a rapid pace. The use of mobile phones to deliver health behavior change and maintenance interventions in particular is gaining a robust evidence base across geographies, populations, and health topics. However, research on best practices for successfully scaling mHealth interventions is not keeping pace, despite the availability of frameworks for adapting and scaling health programs. m4RH-Mobile for Reproductive Health-is an SMS, or text message-based, health information service that began in two countries and over a period of 7 years has been adapted and scaled to new population groups and new countries. Success can be attributed to following key principles for scaling up health programs, including continuous stakeholder engagement; ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and research including extensive content and usability testing with the target audience; strategic dissemination of results; and use of marketing and sustainability principles for social initiatives. This article investigates how these factors contributed to vertical, horizontal, and global scale-up of the m4RH program. Vertical scale of m4RH is demonstrated in Tanzania, where the early engagement of stakeholders including the Ministry of Health catalyzed expansion of m4RH content and national-level program reach. Ongoing data collection has provided real-time data for decision-making, information about the user base, and peer-reviewed publications, yielding government endorsement and partner hand-off for sustainability of the m4RH platform. Horizontal scale-up and adaptation of m4RH has occurred through expansion to new populations in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania, where best practices for design and implementation of mHealth programs were followed to ensure the platform meets the needs of target populations. m4RH also has been modified and packaged for global scale-up through licensing and toolkit

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale for Brazilian Portuguese Adaptación transcultural y validación de la European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale para el Portugués de Brasil Adaptação transcultural e validação da European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale para o português do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karolina Feijó

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale. METHODS: The cross-cultural adaptation (translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pretesting and validation (assessment of face validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability were carried out in accordance with the literature. The European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale assesses key components of self-care: recognition of the signs and symptoms of decompensated heart failure (HF and decision-making when these signs and symptoms arise. It comprises 12 items (range 12-60, where lower scores indicate better self-care. RESULTS: The sample comprised 124 HF patients with a mean age of 62.3 ± 12 years. The Cronbach's Alpha internal consistency was 0.70 and the intraclass correlation coefficient for reproducibility was 0.87. CONCLUSION: Face and content validity, internal consistency and reproducibility have lended validity and reliability for the use of the instrument in Brazil.OBJETIVO: Adaptar y validar European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale para uso en lengua portuguesa de Brasil. MÉTODOS: El proceso de adaptación cultural (traducción, síntesis, retro traducción, revisión por comité de expertos y pré test, validación (validez de facie, de contenido y confiabilidad fue realizado según la literatura. La European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale evalúa los componentes-clave para el auto cuidado: reconocimiento de señales y síntomas de descompensación de insuficiencia cardiaca (IC y la decisión cuando ocurren dichos síntomas. Se compone de 12 cuestiones (que van desde 12-60, en donde las puntuaciones bajas indican peor autocuidado. RESULTADOS: Fueron inclusos 124 pacientes con IC, con edad entre 62,3 ±12 años. La consistencia interna de las cuestiones presentó un Alfa de Cronbach de 0,70 y la reproducibilidad evaluada por el coeficiente de

  14. The Relation Between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both the DSM-5 and AAIDD. The article also (a) provides an update of the understanding of adaptive behavior, (b) dispels two thinking errors regarding mistaken temporal or causal link between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, (c) explains that there is a strong correlational, but no causative, relation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, and (d) asserts that once a question of determining intellectual disability is raised, both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior are assessed and considered jointly and weighed equally in the diagnosis of intellectual disability. We discuss the problems created by an inaccurate statement that appears in the DSM-5 regarding a causal link between deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and propose an immediate revision to remove this erroneous and confounding statement.

  15. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  16. Chinese-adapted youth attitude to noise scale: Evaluation of validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise exposure is central to hearing impairment, especially for adolescents. Chinese youth frequently and consciously expose themselves to loud noise, often for many hours. Hence, a Chinese-adapted evaluative scale to measure youth′s attitude toward noise could rigorously evaluate data validity and reliability. After authenticating the youth attitude to noise scale (YANS originally developed by Olsen and Erlandsson, we purposively sampled and surveyed 642 freshmen at Capital Medical University in Beijing, China. To establish validity, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis according to Olsen′s classification. To establish reliability, we calculated Cronbach′s alpha coefficient and split-half coefficient. We used Bland-Altman analysis to calculate the agreement limits between test and retest. Among 642 students, 550 (85.67% participated in statistical analysis (399 females [72.55%] vs. 151 males [27.45%]. Confirmatory factorial analysis sorted 19 items into four main subcategories (F1-F4 in terms of factor load, yielding a correlation coefficient between factors <0.40. The Cronbach′s alpha coefficient (0.70 was within the desirable range, confirming the reliability of Chinese-adapted YANS. The split-half coefficient was 0.53. Furthermore, the paired t-test reported a mean difference of 0.002 (P = 0.9601. Notably, the mean overall YANS score (3.46 was similar to YANS testing in Belgium (3.10, but higher than Sweden (2.10 and Brazil (2.80. The Chinese version of the YANS questionnaire is valid, reliable, and adaptable to Chinese adolescents. Analysis of the adapted YANS showed that a significant number of Chinese youth display a poor attitude and behavior toward noise. Therefore, Chinese YANS can play a pivotal role in programs that focus on increasing youth awareness of noise and hearing health.

  17. Multiple time scales of adaptation in auditory cortex neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, Nachum; Las, Liora; Farkas, Dina; Nelken, Israel

    2004-11-17

    Neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) of cats show strong stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). In probabilistic settings, in which one stimulus is common and another is rare, responses to common sounds adapt more strongly than responses to rare sounds. This SSA could be a correlate of auditory sensory memory at the level of single A1 neurons. Here we studied adaptation in A1 neurons, using three different probabilistic designs. We showed that SSA has several time scales concurrently, spanning many orders of magnitude, from hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. Similar time scales are known for the auditory memory span of humans, as measured both psychophysically and using evoked potentials. A simple model, with linear dependence on both short-term and long-term stimulus history, provided a good fit to A1 responses. Auditory thalamus neurons did not show SSA, and their responses were poorly fitted by the same model. In addition, SSA increased the proportion of failures in the responses of A1 neurons to the adapting stimulus. Finally, SSA caused a bias in the neuronal responses to unbiased stimuli, enhancing the responses to eccentric stimuli. Therefore, we propose that a major function of SSA in A1 neurons is to encode auditory sensory memory on multiple time scales. This SSA might play a role in stream segregation and in binding of auditory objects over many time scales, a property that is crucial for processing of natural auditory scenes in cats and of speech and music in humans.

  18. Crowd counting via scale-adaptive convolutional neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Shi, Miaojing; Chen, Qiaobo

    2017-01-01

    The task of crowd counting is to automatically estimate the pedestrian number in crowd images. To cope with the scale and perspective changes that commonly exist in crowd images, state-of-the-art approaches employ multi-column CNN architectures to regress density maps of crowd images. Multiple columns have different receptive fields corresponding to pedestrians (heads) of different scales. We instead propose a scale-adaptive CNN (SaCNN) architecture with a backbone of fixed small receptive fi...

  19. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural...... learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal...... (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully...

  20. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  1. Factors Influencing Maternal Behavioral Adaptability: Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.

  2. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) in Japanese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Dongil; Aum, Narae; Choi, Jung-Seok; Cheng, Cecilia; Ko, Huei-Chen; Watanabe, Hiroko

    2017-03-01

    The Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) was developed in Korea for assessing addictive internet behaviors. This study aims to adopt K-Scale and examine its psychometric properties in Japanese adolescents. In 2014, 589 (36.0% boys) high school students (Grade 10-12) from Japan completed a survey, including items of Japanese versions of K-Scale and Smartphone Scale for Smartphone Addiction (S-Scale). Model fit indices of the original four-factor structure, three-factor structure obtained from exploratory factor analysis, and improved two-factor structure of K-Scale were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, with internal reliability of included items reported. The convergent validity of K-Scale was tested against self-rated internet addiction, and S-Scale using multiple regression models. The results showed that a second-order two-factor 13-item structure was the most parsimonious model (NFI=0.919, NNFI=0.935, CFI=0.949, and RMSEA=0.05) with good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.87). The two factors revealed were "Disturbance of Adaptation and Life Orientation" and "Withdrawal and Tolerance". Moreover, the correlation between internet user classifications defined by K-Scale and self-rating was significant. K-Scale total score was significantly and positively associated with S-Scale total (adjusted R 2 =0.440) and subscale scores (adjusted R 2 =0.439). In conclusion, K-Scale is a valid and reliable assessment scale of internet addiction for Japanese high school students after modifications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Model analysis of adaptive car driving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with two modeling approaches to car driving. The first one is a system theoretic approach to describe adaptive human driving behavior. The second approach utilizes neural networks. As an illustrative example the overtaking task is considered and modeled in system theoretic terms.

  5. Partially satisfied to fully satisfied transitions in co-evolving inverse voter model and possible scaling behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.W.; Xu, C.; Hui, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding co-evolving networks characterized by the mutual influence of agents' actions and network structure remains a challenge. We study a co-evolving inverse voter model in which agents adapt to achieve a preferred environment with more opposite-opinion neighbors by rewiring their connections and switching opinion. Numerical studies reveal a transition from a dynamic partially satisfied phase to a frozen fully satisfied phase as the rewiring probability is varied. A simple mean field theory is shown to capture the behavior only qualitatively. An improved mean field theory carrying a longer spatial correlation gives better results. Motivated by numerical results in networks of different degrees and mean field results, we propose a scaling variable that combines the rewiring probability and mean degree in a special form. The scaling variable is shown to work well in analyzing data corresponding to different networks and different rewiring probabilities. An application is to predict the results for networks of different degrees based solely on results obtained from networks of one degree. Studying scaling behavior provides an alternative path for understanding co-evolving agent-based dynamical systems, especially in light of the trade-off between complexity of a theory and its accuracy. - Highlights: • Identified key features and phase transitions in coevolving inverse voter model. • Constructed a better theory incorporating longer spatial correlation. • Proposed scaling variable and illustrated possible scaling behavior. • Used scaling behavior to predict results of IVM in a different network.

  6. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Driving Anger Scale (DAS: long form and short form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessye Almeida Cantini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Driving anger has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years because it may induce individuals to drive aggressively or adopt risk behaviors. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was designed to evaluate the propensity of drivers to become angry or aggressive while driving. This study describes the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the short form and the long form of the DAS.Methods: Translation and adaptation were made in four steps: two translations and two back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; the development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health and driving behaviors; a subsequent experimental application; and, finally, an investigation of operational equivalence.Results: Final Brazilian versions of the short form and of the long form of the DAS were made and are presented. Conclusions: This important instrument, which assesses driving anger and aggressive behaviors, is now available to evaluate the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, which facilitates research in this field.

  7. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael R. Pratali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. METHODS: The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. RESULTS: Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. CONCLUSION: To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  8. Development and validation of the Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS): use in six studies of adaptation to a health condition or risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, Barbara B; Erby, Lori H; Woolford, Samuel; Adcock, Jessica Young; Cohen, Julie S; Lamb, Amanda; Lewis, Katie V; Truitt, Megan; Turriff, Amy; Reeve, Bryce B

    2013-11-01

    We introduce The Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS) for assessing adaptation to a chronic condition or risk and present validity data from six studies of genetic conditions. Informed by theory, we identified four domains of adaptation: effective coping, self-esteem, social integration, and spiritual/existential meaning. Items were selected from the PROMIS "positive illness impact" item bank and adapted from the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to create a 20-item scale. Each domain included five items, with four sub-scale scores. Data from studies of six populations: adults affected with or at risk for genetic conditions (N=3) and caregivers of children with genetic conditions (N=3) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). CFA suggested that all but five posited items converge on the domains as designed. Invariance of the PAS amongst the studies further suggested it is a valid and reliable tool to facilitate comparisons of adaptation across conditions. Use of the PAS will standardize assessments of adaptation and foster understanding of the relationships among related health outcomes, such as quality of life and psychological well-being. Clinical interventions can be designed based on PAS data to enhance dimensions of psychological adaptation to a chronic health condition or risk. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Investigating Validity Evidence of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C) and presents psychometric findings regarding its validation. The SWLS-C was adapted from the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al. 1985), which is one of the most commonly used measures to assess satisfaction with life in adults. Three subject matter…

  10. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  11. A NDVI assisted remote sensing image adaptive scale segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Shen, Jinxiang; Ma, Yanmei

    2018-03-01

    Multiscale segmentation of images can effectively form boundaries of different objects with different scales. However, for the remote sensing image which widely coverage with complicated ground objects, the number of suitable segmentation scales, and each of the scale size is still difficult to be accurately determined, which severely restricts the rapid information extraction of the remote sensing image. A great deal of experiments showed that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can effectively express the spectral characteristics of a variety of ground objects in remote sensing images. This paper presents a method using NDVI assisted adaptive segmentation of remote sensing images, which segment the local area by using NDVI similarity threshold to iteratively select segmentation scales. According to the different regions which consist of different targets, different segmentation scale boundaries could be created. The experimental results showed that the adaptive segmentation method based on NDVI can effectively create the objects boundaries for different ground objects of remote sensing images.

  12. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  13. Adaptation of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was developed in the USA. The adequacy of its use in Uganda to guarantee its reliability and validity has not been ascertained. Aim: Thus the aim of the present study was to adapt the MSPSS scale by testing the validity and reliability of the ...

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Italian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Breadth of Interests, Quality of Life, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)-Italian Form consists of four 6-item scales, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The 24-item CAAS-Italian Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. The factor structure was…

  15. Translation, cultural adaptation, and content validity index of the Juvenile Love Scale to the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayne Stephane Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passionate love involves physiological, emotional, and cognitive features that greatly changes behavior. This phenomenon seems universal or near universal. Even other animal species choose partners. An intense state of passionate love is associated with activity in dopamine pathways of the brain ‘reward system’, and recently has been regarded as a ‘natural addiction’. Instruments or tools to evaluate romantic love during childhood is still scarce. Objective To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Juvenile Love Scale (JLS for use in the Brazilian context targeted for adolescents between 14 and 18 years old. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of JLS followed international recommendations, and its content validity was analyzed by a panel of experts in different areas of knowledge. Results The final version of the JLS for use in the Brazilian context showed high content validity (> 90%. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first scale for measuring romantic or passionate love in adolescents adapted to the Brazilian context. This instrument is a significant contribution to the study of the dimensions of love, as well as to understand the impact of love on the psychiatric phenomena that pervade life in this stage of development.

  16. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Boardley, Ian D

    2009-02-01

    This research aimed to (a) develop a measure of prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport, (b) examine its invariance across sex and sport, and (c) provide evidence for its discriminant and concurrent validity. We conducted two studies. In study 1, team sport athletes (N=1,213) recruited from 103 teams completed questionnaires assessing demographics and prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. Factor analyses revealed two factors representing prosocial behavior and two factors representing antisocial behavior. The model had a very good fit to the data and showed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across sex and sport. The final scale consisted of 20 items. In Study 2, team-sport athletes (N=106) completed the scale and measures of empathy and goal orientation. Analyses provided support for the discriminant and concurrent validity of the scale. In conclusion, the new scale can be used to measure prosocial and antisocial behaviors in team sport.

  17. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard eGrinke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. They can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a walking robot is a challenging task. In this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a biomechanical walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations as well as escaping from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments.

  18. Low-Back Pain Patients Learn to Adapt Motor Behavior with Adverse Secondary Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H.; Flor, Herta; Hodges, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that changes in motor behavior in individuals with low-back pain are adaptations aimed at minimizing the real or perceived risk of further pain. Through reinforcement learning, pain and subsequent adaptions result in less dynamic motor behavior, leading to increased loading

  19. Behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome: specifying targets for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents with Down syndrome experience increased behavior problems as compared to age matched peers; however, few studies have examined how these problems relate to adaptive functioning. The primary aim of this study was to characterize behavior in a sample of adolescents with Down syndrome using two widely-used caregiver reports: the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2 nd Edition (BASC-2) and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). The clinical utility of the BASC-2 as a measure of behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome was also examined. Fifty-two adolescents with Down syndrome between the ages of 12 and 18 (24 males) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4 th Edition (PPVT-IV) as an estimate of cognitive ability. Caregivers completed the BASC-2 and the CBCL for each participant. A significant proportion of the sample was reported to demonstrate behavior problems, particularly related to attention and social participation. The profile of adaptive function was variable, with caregivers most frequently rating impairment in skills related to activities of daily living and functional communication. Caregiver ratings did not differ by gender and were not related to age or estimated cognitive ability. Caregiver ratings of attention problems on the BASC-2 accounted for a significant proportion of variance in Activities of Daily Living ( Adj R 2 = 0.30) , Leadership ( Adj R 2 = 0.30) Functional Communication ( Adj R 2 = 0.28, Adaptability ( Adj R 2 = 0.29), and Social Skills ( Adj R 2 = 0.17). Higher frequencies of symptoms related to social withdrawal added incremental predictive validity for Functional Communication, Leadership, and Social Skills. Convergent validity between the CBCL and BASC-2 was poor when compared with expectations based on the normative sample. Our results confirm and extend previous findings by describing relationships between specific behavior problems and targeted areas of

  20. Behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome: specifying targets for intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that adolescents with Down syndrome experience increased behavior problems as compared to age matched peers; however, few studies have examined how these problems relate to adaptive functioning. The primary aim of this study was to characterize behavior in a sample of adolescents with Down syndrome using two widely-used caregiver reports: the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2) and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). The clinical utility of the BASC-2 as a measure of behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome was also examined. Methods Fifty-two adolescents with Down syndrome between the ages of 12 and 18 (24 males) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4th Edition (PPVT-IV) as an estimate of cognitive ability. Caregivers completed the BASC-2 and the CBCL for each participant. Results A significant proportion of the sample was reported to demonstrate behavior problems, particularly related to attention and social participation. The profile of adaptive function was variable, with caregivers most frequently rating impairment in skills related to activities of daily living and functional communication. Caregiver ratings did not differ by gender and were not related to age or estimated cognitive ability. Caregiver ratings of attention problems on the BASC-2 accounted for a significant proportion of variance in Activities of Daily Living (Adj R2 = 0.30), Leadership (Adj R2 = 0.30) Functional Communication (Adj R2 = 0.28, Adaptability (Adj R2 = 0.29), and Social Skills (Adj R2 = 0.17). Higher frequencies of symptoms related to social withdrawal added incremental predictive validity for Functional Communication, Leadership, and Social Skills. Convergent validity between the CBCL and BASC-2 was poor when compared with expectations based on the normative sample. Conclusion Our results confirm and extend previous findings by describing relationships between specific behavior problems

  1. Adaptive Behavior in Young Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita P. Klein-Tasman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis-1 is the most common single gene disorder affecting 1 in 3000. In children, it is associated not only with physical features but also with attention and learning problems. Research has identified a downward shift in intellectual functioning as well, but to date, there are no published studies about the everyday adaptive behavior of children with NF1. In this study, parental reports of adaptive behavior of 61 children with NF1 ages 3 through 8 were compared to an unaffected contrast group (n=55 that comprised siblings and community members. Significant group differences in adaptive skills were evident and were largely related to group differences in intellectual functioning. In a subsample of children with average-range intellectual functioning, group differences in parent-reported motor skills were apparent even after controlling statistically for group differences in intellectual functioning. The implications of the findings for the care of children with NF1 are discussed.

  2. Adaptation en français et en allemand d'une échelle de pression des pairs pour jeunes adultes : le Peer Pressure Inventory [Adaptation of a peer pressure scale in French and German: the Peer Pressure Inventory].

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, S.; Studer, J.; Daeppen, J.B.; Gmel, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peer pressure is regarded as an important determinant of substance use, sexual behavior and juvenile delinquency. However, few peer pressure scales are validated, especially in French or German. Little is known about the factor structure of such scales or the kind of scale needed: some scales takes into account both peer pressure to do and peer pressure not to do, while others consider only peer pressure to do. The aim of the present study was to adapt French and German versions o...

  3. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  4. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  5. Scaling behavior of gas permeability measurements in volcanic tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.

    1994-01-01

    One of the critical issues facing the Yucca Mountain site characterization and performance assessment programs is the manner in which property scaling is addressed. Property scaling becomes an issue whenever heterogeneous media properties are measured at one scale but applied at another. A research program has been established to challenge current understanding of property scaling with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. The approach is to systematically isolate those factors believed to influence property scaling and investigate their relative contributions to overall scaling behavior. Two blocks of tuff, each exhibiting differing heterogeneity structure, have recently been examined. Results of the investigation show very different scaling behavior, as exhibited by changes in the distribution functions and variograms, for the two tuff samples. Even for the relatively narrow range of measurement scales employed significant changes in the distribution functions, variograms, and summary statistics occurred. Because such data descriptors will likely play an important role in calculating effective media properties, these results demonstrate both the need to understand and accurately model scaling behavior

  6. Stochastic analysis of epidemics on adaptive time varying networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy

    2013-06-01

    Many studies investigating the effect of human social connectivity structures (networks) and human behavioral adaptations on the spread of infectious diseases have assumed either a static connectivity structure or a network which adapts itself in response to the epidemic (adaptive networks). However, human social connections are inherently dynamic or time varying. Furthermore, the spread of many infectious diseases occur on a time scale comparable to the time scale of the evolving network structure. Here we aim to quantify the effect of human behavioral adaptations on the spread of asymptomatic infectious diseases on time varying networks. We perform a full stochastic analysis using a continuous time Markov chain approach for calculating the outbreak probability, mean epidemic duration, epidemic reemergence probability, etc. Additionally, we use mean-field theory for calculating epidemic thresholds. Theoretical predictions are verified using extensive simulations. Our studies have uncovered the existence of an “adaptive threshold,” i.e., when the ratio of susceptibility (or infectivity) rate to recovery rate is below the threshold value, adaptive behavior can prevent the epidemic. However, if it is above the threshold, no amount of behavioral adaptations can prevent the epidemic. Our analyses suggest that the interaction patterns of the infected population play a major role in sustaining the epidemic. Our results have implications on epidemic containment policies, as awareness campaigns and human behavioral responses can be effective only if the interaction levels of the infected populace are kept in check.

  7. Brazilian Portuguese transcultural adaptation of Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Polignano Godoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the importance of Executive Functions to clinical and nonclinical situations, Barkley proposed a new theory of executive functioning based on an evolutionary neuropsychological perspective and clinical research using large samples of clinical and community identified adults and children as well as children with ADHD followed to adulthood. Objective The present study aims to adapt the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functions Scales (BDEFS to Brazilian Portuguese and also assess its construct validity in a sample of normal Brazilian adults. Methods The original version of scale was adapted to Brazilian Portuguese according to the guideline from the ISPOR Task Force. To assess the semantic equivalence between the original and adapted version, both of them were applied into a sample of 25 Brazilian bilingual adults. Finally, 60 Brazilian adults completed the BDEFS and the Brazilian versions of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 and Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 to assess convergent validity. Results The BDEFS Brazilian Portuguese version has semantic correspondence with the original version indicating that the adaptation procedure was successful. The BDEFS correlated significantly with the impulsivity and attention scores from the BIS-11 and ASRS-18 supporting its construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.961 indicated that the BDEFS translated version has satisfactory internal consistency. Discussion Together, these findings indicate the successful adaptation of the BDEFS to Brazilian Portuguese and support its utility in that population.

  8. Adaptation of Vanderbilt Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Parent Scale in Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tüba KÜÇÜK DOĞAROĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adaptation of Vanderbilt Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale (Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish. This study was done 343 mother whose children with DEHB and 7 – 9 years old. Gender of mothers’ children is 132 girls and 211 boys. Age of children is that 82 children are 7 years old, 141 children are 8 years old and 120 children are 9 years old. Datas are gathering by Vanderbilt ADHD PRS and data form. Validity and reliability of scale was examined exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach Alpha. Results reveal that adaptation of Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish included 45 items which had 4 factors (inattention / hyperactivity / oppositional and conduct disorder / depression – anxiety. Results indicated that adaptation of Vanderbilt ADHD PRS to Turkish is valid and reliable scale

  9. Climate change adaptation strategies by small-scale farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mburu

    SPSS) ... were financial constraints (93.4%), lack of relevant skills (74.5%) and lack of ... Key words: Climate change, small-scale farmers, adaptation strategies. ... investment in irrigation infrastructure, high post-harvest ..... 72.0 School drop out.

  10. Diversification and intensification of agricultural adaptation from global to local scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Chen

    Full Text Available Smallholder farming systems are vulnerable to a number of challenges, including continued population growth, urbanization, income disparities, land degradation, decreasing farm size and productivity, all of which are compounded by uncertainty of climatic patterns. Understanding determinants of smallholder farming practices is critical for designing and implementing successful interventions, including climate change adaptation programs. We examine two dimensions wherein smallholder farmers may adapt agricultural practices; through intensification (i.e., adopt more practices or diversification (i.e. adopt different practices. We use data on 5314 randomly sampled households located in 38 sites in 15 countries across four regions (East and West Africa, South Asia, and Central America. We estimate empirical models designed to assess determinants of both intensification and diversification of adaptation activities at global scales. Aspects of adaptive capacity that are found to increase intensification of adaptation globally include variables associated with access to information and human capital, financial considerations, assets, household infrastructure and experience. In contrast, there are few global drivers of adaptive diversification, with a notable exception being access to weather information, which also increases adaptive intensification. Investigating reasons for adaptation indicate that conditions present in underdeveloped markets provide the primary impetus for adaptation, even in the context of climate change. We also compare determinants across spatial scales, which reveals a variety of local avenues through which policy interventions can relax economic constraints and boost agricultural adaptation for both intensification and diversification. For example, access to weather information does not affect intensification adaptation in Africa, but is significant at several sites in Bangladesh and India. Moreover, this information leads to

  11. Diversification and intensification of agricultural adaptation from global to local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie; Wichmann, Bruno; Luckert, Marty; Winowiecki, Leigh; Förch, Wiebke

    2018-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems are vulnerable to a number of challenges, including continued population growth, urbanization, income disparities, land degradation, decreasing farm size and productivity, all of which are compounded by uncertainty of climatic patterns. Understanding determinants of smallholder farming practices is critical for designing and implementing successful interventions, including climate change adaptation programs. We examine two dimensions wherein smallholder farmers may adapt agricultural practices; through intensification (i.e., adopt more practices) or diversification (i.e. adopt different practices). We use data on 5314 randomly sampled households located in 38 sites in 15 countries across four regions (East and West Africa, South Asia, and Central America). We estimate empirical models designed to assess determinants of both intensification and diversification of adaptation activities at global scales. Aspects of adaptive capacity that are found to increase intensification of adaptation globally include variables associated with access to information and human capital, financial considerations, assets, household infrastructure and experience. In contrast, there are few global drivers of adaptive diversification, with a notable exception being access to weather information, which also increases adaptive intensification. Investigating reasons for adaptation indicate that conditions present in underdeveloped markets provide the primary impetus for adaptation, even in the context of climate change. We also compare determinants across spatial scales, which reveals a variety of local avenues through which policy interventions can relax economic constraints and boost agricultural adaptation for both intensification and diversification. For example, access to weather information does not affect intensification adaptation in Africa, but is significant at several sites in Bangladesh and India. Moreover, this information leads to diversification of

  12. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  13. Brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to cognitive behavioral therapy for emotional disorders: A person-centered event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan; Klumpp, Heide

    2017-06-23

    Single-trial-level analyses afford the ability to link neural indices of elaborative attention (such as the late positive potential [LPP], an event-related potential) with downstream markers of attentional processing (such as reaction time [RT]). This approach can provide useful information about individual differences in information processing, such as the ability to adapt behavior based on attentional demands ("brain-behavioral adaptability"). Anxiety and depression are associated with maladaptive information processing implicating aberrant cognition-emotion interactions, but whether brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to psychotherapy is not known. We used a novel person-centered, trial-level analysis approach to link neural indices of stimulus processing to behavioral responses and to predict treatment outcome. Thirty-nine patients with anxiety and/or depression received 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Prior to treatment, patients performed a speeded reaction-time task involving briefly-presented pairs of aversive and neutral pictures while electroencephalography was recorded. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that larger LPPs predicted slower responses on subsequent trials, suggesting that increased attention to the task-irrelevant nature of pictures interfered with reaction time on subsequent trials. Whereas using LPP and RT averages did not distinguish CBT responders from nonresponders, in trial-level analyses individuals who demonstrated greater ability to benefit behaviorally (i.e., faster RT) from smaller LPPs on the previous trial (greater brain-behavioral adaptability) were more likely to respond to treatment and showed greater improvements in depressive symptoms. These results highlight the utility of trial-level analyses to elucidate variability in within-subjects, brain-behavioral attentional coupling in the context of emotion processing, in predicting response to CBT for emotional disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Data adaptive control parameter estimation for scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinklage, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Dose, Volker [Max-Planck- Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Bayesian experimental design quantifies the utility of data expressed by the information gain. Data adaptive exploration determines the expected utility of a single new measurement using existing data and a data descriptive model. In other words, the method can be used for experimental planning. As an example for a multivariate linear case, we apply this method for constituting scaling laws of fusion devices. In detail, the scaling of the stellarator W7-AS is examined for a subset of {iota}=1/3 data. The impact of the existing data on the scaling exponents is presented. Furthermore, in control parameter space regions of high utility are identified which improve the accuracy of the scaling law. This approach is not restricted to the presented example only, but can also be extended to non-linear models.

  15. Adaptive local routing strategy on a scale-free network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Liu; Han, Zhao; Ming, Li; Yan-Bo, Zhu; Feng-Yuan, Ren

    2010-01-01

    Due to the heterogeneity of the structure on a scale-free network, making the betweennesses of all nodes become homogeneous by reassigning the weights of nodes or edges is very difficult. In order to take advantage of the important effect of high degree nodes on the shortest path communication and preferentially deliver packets by them to increase the probability to destination, an adaptive local routing strategy on a scale-free network is proposed, in which the node adjusts the forwarding probability with the dynamical traffic load (packet queue length) and the degree distribution of neighbouring nodes. The critical queue length of a node is set to be proportional to its degree, and the node with high degree has a larger critical queue length to store and forward more packets. When the queue length of a high degree node is shorter than its critical queue length, it has a higher probability to forward packets. After higher degree nodes are saturated (whose queue lengths are longer than their critical queue lengths), more packets will be delivered by the lower degree nodes around them. The adaptive local routing strategy increases the probability of a packet finding its destination quickly, and improves the transmission capacity on the scale-free network by reducing routing hops. The simulation results show that the transmission capacity of the adaptive local routing strategy is larger than that of three previous local routing strategies. (general)

  16. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Adlakha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  17. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  18. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leier André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested. We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between

  19. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  20. Elders Health Empowerment Scale: Spanish adaptation and psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrani Azcurra, Daniel Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs.

  1. The Adaptation of the Academic Motivation Scale for Turkish Context

    OpenAIRE

    YURT, Eyüp; BOZER, Elif Nur

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are i) to adapt Vallerand et al. (1989)’ s Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) into Turkish, ii) to test the seven-factor structure of scale through confirmatory factor analysis, iii) to assess the reliability of the scale and iv) to examine whether the scores obtained from the scale show difference by gender. Accordingly, 343 secondary school students were included in the study. %56.9 (n=195) of the students were female and %43.1 (n=148) were male. Out of students, %23.3 (...

  2. Scaling behavior of heavy fermion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a, Chernova str. Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are fundamental systems in physics that are best studied experimentally, which until very recently have lacked theoretical explanations. This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as heavy-fermion (HF) metals and two-dimensional (2D) Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the scaling behavior of HF metals can be described within the framework of a fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) and an extended quasiparticle paradigm that allow us to explain the non-Fermi liquid behavior observed in strongly correlated Fermi systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Having analyzed the collected facts on strongly correlated Fermi systems with quite a different microscopic nature, we find these to exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior at FCQPT. We show both analytically and using arguments based entirely on the experimental grounds that the data collected on very different strongly correlated Fermi systems have a universal scaling behavior, and materials with strongly correlated fermions can unexpectedly be uniform in their diversity. Our analysis of strongly correlated systems such as HF metals and 2D Fermi systems is in the context of salient experimental results. Our calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, the scales and thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties are in good agreement with experimental facts.

  3. Satisfaction With Appearance Scale-SWAP: Adaptation and validation for Brazilian burn victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltran, Marina P; Freitas, Noélle O; Dantas, Rosana A S; Farina, Jayme Adriano; Rossi, Lidia A

    2016-09-01

    Methodological study that aimed to adapt the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) into Brazilian Portuguese language and to assess the validity, the reliability and the dimensionality of the adapted version in a sample of Brazilian burn victims. We carried out the adaptation process according to the international literature. Construct validity was assessed by correlating the adapted version of SWAP scores with depression (Beck Depression Index), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), health-related quality of Life (Short Form Health Survey-36) and health status of burn victims (Burn Specific Health Scale-Revised), and with gender, total body surface area burned, and visibility of the scars. We tested dimensionality using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and the reliability by means of Cronbach's alpha. Participants were 106 adult burned patients. The correlations between the Brazilian version of the SWAP scores and the correlated construct measures varied from moderate to strong (r=.30-.77). The participants who perceived their burn sequelae was visible reported being more dissatisfied with their body image than the participants who answered that their scars would not be visible (preliable for use with Brazilian burn victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking...... dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural...... mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online...

  5. Adaptation of community health worker-delivered behavioral activation for torture survivors in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, J F; Lejuez, C W; Kamal, T; Blevins, E J; Murray, L K; Bass, J K; Bolton, P; Pagoto, S

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al . 2014 a ) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al .2014 a ), informed by the Assessment-Decision-Administration-Production-Topical experts-Integration-Training-Testing (ADAPT-ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT-ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource-limited, conflict-affected areas are discussed.

  6. Client Motivation for Therapy Scale Adaptation to Turkish: Reliability and Validity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Ozer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt Client Motivation for Therapy Scale to the Turkish. Study group of the research consisted of 109 undergraduate students studying in Anadolu and Gaziosmanpasa Universities, in academic year 2014-2015. After establishing language, the validity and reliability of the scale of analysis was examined. Item-factor structure has been tested for compliance with a model by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Based on this, five-factor structure of Motivation for Counseling/Therapy Scale has been validated. The coefficient of the total internal consistency is found .79. As a result of the analysis for adaptation of Client Motivation for Therapy Scale to Turkish, it can be said that the scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool. It is suggested that studies on reliability and validity of Client Motivation for Therapy Scale on other samples can be made in future researches. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(1.000: 13-30

  7. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain.

  8. Adaptive Multidimensional Scaling : The Spatial Representation of Brand Consideration and Dissimilarity Judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Wedel, M.; DeSarbo, W.S.

    2002-01-01

    We propose Adaptive Multidimensional Scaling (AMDS) for simultaneously deriving a brand map and market segments using consumer data on cognitive decision sets and brand dissimilarities.In AMDS, the judgment task is adapted to the individual respondent: dissimilarity judgments are collected only for

  9. Modeling Adaptive Behavior for Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Field studies in modern work systems and analysis of recent major accidents have pointed to a need for better models of the adaptive behavior of individuals and organizations operating in a dynamic and highly competitive environment. The paper presents a discussion of some key characteristics.......) The basic difference between the models of system functions used in engineering and design and those evolving from basic research within the various academic disciplines and finally 3.) The models and methods required for closed-loop, feedback system design....

  10. [Counterproductive behaviors and moral disengagement of nurses as potential consequences of stress-related work: validity and reliability of measurement scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sili, Alessandro; Fida, Roberta; Zaghini, F; Tramontano, C; Paciello, Marinella

    2014-07-15

    Several studies, but no one in the nursing, have shown that work stress can facilitate the adoption of specific behaviors that the literature identifies as Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWB). Individuals, however, not giving up to their moral principles, may transgress social, organizational, moral and ethical norms, through the adoption of moral disengagement (MD). The purpose of this study is to validate two specific scales of deviant behaviors and MD in nursing: the Nursing Counterproductive Work Behaviours Scale (Nursing CWBS) and Nursing Moral Disengagement Scale (Nursing MDS). 460 nurses participated in the study. After the adaptation of the Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist by Spector and Fox to Nursing context (Nursing CWBS) and the ex novo development of the Nursing MDS, the psychometric properties of the two scales were tested. Also, the two scales were correlated. Through a cross-validation approach and based on the results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we have shown that the scales have good psychometric properties. Furthermore, the results, attest that the nurse with high levels of MD implements more CWB in the workplace. The Nursing CWBS and Nursing MDS represent a valid starting point for the study of such phenomena in this specific context where stress among nursing staff is sometimes of considerable extent, especially in specific contexts of clinical care.

  11. Sex differences in parent-reported executive functioning and adaptive behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily I; Wallace, Gregory L; Bascom, Julia; Armour, Anna C; Register-Brown, Kelly; Popal, Haroon S; Ratto, Allison B; Martin, Alex; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Females were rated by parents as having greater problems with executive function on the BRIEF. Parents also rated females as exhibiting more difficulties than males on the Daily Living Skills domain of the VABS. There was a correlation between increased global EF difficulty and decreased adaptive ability in both males and females. Our results indicate relative weaknesses for females compared to males diagnosed with ASD on executive function and daily living skills. These differences occur in the absence of sex differences in our sample in age, IQ, clinician ratings of core ASD symptomatology, parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported social and communication adaptive skills on the VABS. These findings indicate specific liabilities in real world EF and daily living skills for females with ASD and have important implications for targeting their treatments. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1653-1662. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Understanding real-life website adaptations by investigating the relations between user behavior and user experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, M.P.; Willemsen, M.C.; Swelsen, K.J.M.; Ricci, F.; Bontcheva, K.; Conlan, O; Lawless, S

    2015-01-01

    We study how a website adaptation based on segment predictions from click streams affects visitor behavior and user experience. Through statistical analysis we investigate how the adaptation changed actual behavior. Through structural equation modeling of subjective experience we answer why the

  13. Adaptive Characteristics and Suicidal Behavior: A Gender Comparison of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jon B.; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a…

  14. An Improved Scale-Adaptive Simulation Model for Massively Separated Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid modelling method termed improved scale-adaptive simulation (ISAS is proposed by introducing the von Karman operator into the dissipation term of the turbulence scale equation, proper derivation as well as constant calibration of which is presented, and the typical circular cylinder flow at Re = 3900 is selected for validation. As expected, the proposed ISAS approach with the concept of scale-adaptive appears more efficient than the original SAS method in obtaining a convergent resolution, meanwhile, comparable with DES in visually capturing the fine-scale unsteadiness. Furthermore, the grid sensitivity issue of DES is encouragingly remedied benefiting from the local-adjusted limiter. The ISAS simulation turns out to attractively represent the development of the shear layers and the flow profiles of the recirculation region, and thus, the focused statistical quantities such as the recirculation length and drag coefficient are closer to the available measurements than DES and SAS outputs. In general, the new modelling method, combining the features of DES and SAS concepts, is capable to simulate turbulent structures down to the grid limit in a simple and effective way, which is practically valuable for engineering flows.

  15. Dispersal, behavioral responses and thermal adaptation in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    were obtained with flies held for several generations in a laboratory common garden setting, therefore we suggest that exposure to and avoidance of high temperatures under natural conditions has been an important selective agent causing the suggested adaptive differentiation between the populations.......Behavioral traits can have great impact on an organism’s ability to cope with or avoidance of thermal stress, and are therefore of evolutionary importance for thermal adaptation. We compared the morphology, heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity and flight performance of three...

  16. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  17. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  18. Adaptive visualization for large-scale graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Shinano, Yuji; Ohzahata, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    We propose an adoptive visualization technique for representing a large-scale hierarchical dataset within limited display space. A hierarchical dataset has nodes and links showing the parent-child relationship between the nodes. These nodes and links are described using graphics primitives. When the number of these primitives is large, it is difficult to recognize the structure of the hierarchical data because many primitives are overlapped within a limited region. To overcome this difficulty, we propose an adaptive visualization technique for hierarchical datasets. The proposed technique selects an appropriate graph style according to the nodal density in each area. (author)

  19. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-07-25

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population.

  20. Adaptation to the Spanish population of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Díaz-Batanero, Carmen; Rojas-Tejada, Antonio J; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Lozano-Rojas, Óscar M

    2017-07-14

    The identification of different personality risk profiles for substance misuse is useful in preventing substance-related problems. This study aims to test the psychometric properties of a new version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) for Spanish college students. Cross-sectional study with 455 undergraduate students from four Spanish universities. A new version of the SURPS, adapted to the Spanish population, was administered with the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Internal consistency reliability ranged between 0.652 and 0.806 for the four SURPS subscales, while reliability estimated by split-half coefficients varied from 0.686 to 0.829. The estimated test-retest reliability ranged between 0.733 and 0.868. The expected four-factor structure of the original scale was replicated. As evidence of convergent validity, we found that the SURPS subscales were significantly associated with other conceptually-relevant personality scales and significantly associated with alcohol use measures in theoretically-expected ways. This SURPS version may be a useful instrument for measuring personality traits related to vulnerability to substance use and misuse when targeting personality with preventive interventions.

  1. The adaptive value of habitat preferences from a multi-scale spatial perspective: insights from marsh-nesting avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jedlikowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Habitat selection and its adaptive outcomes are crucial features for animal life-history strategies. Nevertheless, congruence between habitat preferences and breeding success has been rarely demonstrated, which may result from the single-scale evaluation of animal choices. As habitat selection is a complex multi-scale process in many groups of animal species, investigating adaptiveness of habitat selection in a multi-scale framework is crucial. In this study, we explore whether habitat preferences acting at different spatial scales enhance the fitness of bird species, and check the appropriateness of single vs. multi-scale models. We expected that variables found to be more important for habitat selection at individual scale(s, would coherently play a major role in affecting nest survival at the same scale(s. Methods We considered habitat preferences of two Rallidae species, little crake (Zapornia parva and water rail (Rallus aquaticus, at three spatial scales (landscape, territory, and nest-site and related them to nest survival. Single-scale versus multi-scale models (GLS and glmmPQL were compared to check which model better described adaptiveness of habitat preferences. Consistency between the effect of variables on habitat selection and on nest survival was checked to investigate their adaptive value. Results In both species, multi-scale models for nest survival were more supported than single-scale ones. In little crake, the multi-scale model indicated vegetation density and water depth at the territory scale, as well as vegetation height at nest-site scale, as the most important variables. The first two variables were among the most important for nest survival and habitat selection, and the coherent effects suggested the adaptive value of habitat preferences. In water rail, the multi-scale model of nest survival showed vegetation density at territory scale and extent of emergent vegetation within landscape scale as the most

  2. Adaptive Control of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Operating in Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to nonlinear applications, such as wind turbines, which are difficult to accurately model and which have effects from poorly known operating environments. The turbulent and unpredictable conditions in which wind turbines operate create many challenges for their operation. In this paper, we design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility scale, variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller in Region 3 is to regulate generator speed and reject step disturbances. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. We use an extension of the Direct Model Reference Adaptive Control (DMRAC) approach to track a reference point and to reject persistent disturbances. The turbine simulation models the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The CART is a utility-scale wind turbine which has a well-developed and extensively verified simulator. The adaptive collective pitch controller for Region 3 was compared in simulations with a bas celliansesical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. In the simulations, the adaptive pitch controller showed improved speed regulation in Region 3 when compared with the baseline PI pitch controller and it demonstrated robustness to modeling errors.

  3. Adapted Technology for Small-scale Manufacture of Caerphilly-Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adapted Technology for Small-scale Manufacture of Caerphilly-Type Cheese from Cow's Milk in the Western Highlands Region of Cameroon. ... The production of the cheese should be encouraged at the household level. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 5 Number 4 (October - December 2000), pp. 120- ...

  4. Delay-induced diversity of firing behavior and ordered chaotic firing in adaptive neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yubing; Wang Li; Xu Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the firing behavior and temporal coherence and synchronization in Newman–Watts thermosensitive neuron networks with adaptive coupling. At beginning, the firing exhibit disordered spiking in absence of time delay. As time delay is increased, the neurons exhibit diversity of firing behaviors including bursting with multiple spikes in a burst, spiking, bursting with four, three and two spikes, firing death, and bursting with increasing amplitude. The spiking is the most ordered, exhibiting coherence resonance (CR)-like behavior, and the firing synchronization becomes enhanced with the increase of time delay. As growth rate of coupling strength or network randomness increases, CR-like behavior shifts to smaller time delay and the synchronization of firing increases. These results show that time delay can induce diversity of firing behaviors in adaptive neuronal networks, and can order the chaotic firing by enhancing and optimizing the temporal coherence and enhancing the synchronization of firing. However, the phenomenon of firing death shows that time delay may inhibit the firing of adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activity of adaptive neuronal networks, and can help to better understand the complex firing phenomena in neural networks.

  5. Predicting risk behaviors: development and validation of a diagnostic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K; Cameron, K A; McKeon, J K; Berkowitz, J M

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and validate the Risk Behavior Diagnosis (RBD) Scale for use by health care providers and practitioners interested in promoting healthy behaviors. Theoretically guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM; a fear appeal theory), the RBD scale was designed to work in conjunction with an easy-to-use formula to determine which types of health risk messages would be most appropriate for a given individual or audience. Because some health risk messages promote behavior change and others backfire, this type of scale offers guidance to practitioners on how to develop the best persuasive message possible to motivate healthy behaviors. The results of the study demonstrate the RBD scale to have a high degree of content, construct, and predictive validity. Specific examples and practical suggestions are offered to facilitate use of the scale for health practitioners.

  6. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Behavior affects most aspects of ecological processes and rates, and yet modeling frameworks which efficiently predict and incorporate behavioral responses into ecosystem models remain elusive. Behavioral algorithms based on life-time optimization, adaptive dynamics or game theory are unsuited...... for large global models because of their high computational demand. We compare an easily integrated, computationally efficient behavioral algorithm known as Gilliam's rule against the solution from a life-history optimization. The approximation takes into account only the current conditions to optimize...... behavior; the so-called "myopic approximation", "short sighted", or "static optimization". We explore the performance of the myopic approximation with diel vertical migration (DVM) as an example of a daily routine, a behavior with seasonal dependence that trades off predation risk with foraging...

  7. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson's disease in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson's disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively.

  8. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in a French-Speaking Swiss Sample: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossier, Jerome; Zecca, Gregory; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Maggiori, Christian; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in a French-speaking Swiss sample and its relationship with personality dimensions and work engagement. The heterogeneous sample of 391 participants (M[subscript age] = 39.59, SD = 12.30) completed the CAAS-International and a short version…

  9. Cultural Adaptation Quality of Family Life Scale for the Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Bianca Miguel; Levy, Cilmara Cristina Alves da Costa; Granato, Lídio

    2015-01-01

    To culturally adapt the Family Quality of Life Scale to the Brazilian Portuguese version and evaluate the instrument reliability and family quality of life of those who have children with hearing loss. The process of cultural adaptation of the scale followed the steps of the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measure. It was conducted in three stages: translation, back translation, and application in a pilot sample, as a way to check the comprehension difficulties of the items. After it had been completed, it was administered to 41 families who have children with hearing loss and, with their results, the quality of life and reliability were analyzed based on the Cronbach's alpha statistical test. In the first version (translation), among the 25 items, there were differences between the translators only in four items; after the corrections, the second version was done (back translation), in which other four more differences were found. Finally, after the final corrections, the last version was developed and used in the pilot sample without differences. Thus, it was applied to families with deaf children, who believe to be satisfied as to their quality of life. The Cronbach's alpha test found that the scale shows a satisfactory reliability. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Family Quality of Life Scale is a tool of easy use and satisfactory reliability. The families are satisfied with their family quality of life.

  10. Self-adaptive phosphor coating technology for wafer-level scale chip packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Linsong; Rao Haibo; Wang Wei; Wan Xianlong; Liao Junyuan; Wang Xuemei; Zhou Da; Lei Qiaolin

    2013-01-01

    A new self-adaptive phosphor coating technology has been successfully developed, which adopted a slurry method combined with a self-exposure process. A phosphor suspension in the water-soluble photoresist was applied and exposed to LED blue light itself and developed to form a conformal phosphor coating with self-adaptability to the angular distribution of intensity of blue light and better-performing spatial color uniformity. The self-adaptive phosphor coating technology had been successfully adopted in the wafer surface to realize a wafer-level scale phosphor conformal coating. The first-stage experiments show satisfying results and give an adequate demonstration of the flexibility of self-adaptive coating technology on application of WLSCP. (semiconductor devices)

  11. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  12. Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale: Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzüm, Hanifi; Karli, Ünal; Yildiz, Nuh Osman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale, which will serve to determine how attitudes and behaviors of the coaches are perceived by the athletes. The scale, named as "Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale" (PCABS) was developed through various processes including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Following the…

  13. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-03-23

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders.

  14. Spanish adaptation of the internal functioning of the Work Teams Scale (QFI-22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar; Boada-Grau, Joan; Torrent-Sellens, Joan; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this article is to develop the Spanish adaptation of the internal functioning of Work Teams Scale (QFI-22). The scale was adapted from the French version, and was applied to a sample of 1,055 employees working for firms operating in Spain. The article analyses the internal structure (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) and internal consistency, and provides convergent validity evidence of the scale. The QFI-22 scale shows the same internal structure as the original. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of two factors: interpersonal support and team work management, with good internal consistency coefficients (α1 = .93, α2 = .92). Regarding validity evidence, the QFI-22 scale has significant correlations with other correlates and alternative scales used for comparison purposes. The two factors correlated positively with team vision, participation safety, task orientation and support for innovation (Team Climate Inventory, TCI scale), with progressive culture (Organisational Culture, X-Y scale), and with creating change, customer focus and organisational learning (Denison Organizational Culture Survey, DOCS scale). In contrast, the two factors correlated negatively with traditional culture (X-Y scale). The QFI-22 scale is a useful instrument for assessing the internal functioning of work teams.

  15. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  16. Adaptive Scaling of Cluster Boundaries for Large-Scale Social Media Data Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lei; Tan, Ah-Hwee; Wunsch, Donald C

    2016-12-01

    The large scale and complex nature of social media data raises the need to scale clustering techniques to big data and make them capable of automatically identifying data clusters with few empirical settings. In this paper, we present our investigation and three algorithms based on the fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (Fuzzy ART) that have linear computational complexity, use a single parameter, i.e., the vigilance parameter to identify data clusters, and are robust to modest parameter settings. The contribution of this paper lies in two aspects. First, we theoretically demonstrate how complement coding, commonly known as a normalization method, changes the clustering mechanism of Fuzzy ART, and discover the vigilance region (VR) that essentially determines how a cluster in the Fuzzy ART system recognizes similar patterns in the feature space. The VR gives an intrinsic interpretation of the clustering mechanism and limitations of Fuzzy ART. Second, we introduce the idea of allowing different clusters in the Fuzzy ART system to have different vigilance levels in order to meet the diverse nature of the pattern distribution of social media data. To this end, we propose three vigilance adaptation methods, namely, the activation maximization (AM) rule, the confliction minimization (CM) rule, and the hybrid integration (HI) rule. With an initial vigilance value, the resulting clustering algorithms, namely, the AM-ART, CM-ART, and HI-ART, can automatically adapt the vigilance values of all clusters during the learning epochs in order to produce better cluster boundaries. Experiments on four social media data sets show that AM-ART, CM-ART, and HI-ART are more robust than Fuzzy ART to the initial vigilance value, and they usually achieve better or comparable performance and much faster speed than the state-of-the-art clustering algorithms that also do not require a predefined number of clusters.

  17. Projective synchronization of time-varying delayed neural network with adaptive scaling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Banerjee, Santo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Projective synchronization in coupled delayed neural chaotic systems with modulated delay time is introduced. • An adaptive rule for the scaling factors is introduced. • This scheme is highly applicable in secure communication. -- Abstract: In this work, the projective synchronization between two continuous time delayed neural systems with time varying delay is investigated. A sufficient condition for synchronization for the coupled systems with modulated delay is presented analytically with the help of the Krasovskii–Lyapunov approach. The effect of adaptive scaling factors on synchronization are also studied in details. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the analytic results

  18. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  19. How Accurate Appraisal of Behavioral Costs and Benefits Guides Adaptive Pain Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Gandhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coping with pain is a complex phenomenon encompassing a variety of behavioral responses and a large network of underlying neural circuits. Whether pain coping is adaptive or maladaptive depends on the type of pain (e.g., escapable or inescapable, personal factors (e.g., individual experiences with coping strategies in the past, and situational circumstances. Keeping these factors in mind, costs and benefits of different strategies have to be appraised and will guide behavioral decisions in the face of pain. In this review we present pain coping as an unconscious decision-making process during which accurately evaluated costs and benefits lead to adaptive pain coping behavior. We emphasize the importance of passive coping as an adaptive strategy when dealing with ongoing pain and thus go beyond the common view of passivity as a default state of helplessness. In combination with passive pain coping, we highlight the role of the reward system in reestablishing affective homeostasis and discuss existing evidence on a behavioral and neural level. We further present neural circuits involved in the decision-making process of pain coping when circumstances are ambiguous and, therefore, costs and benefits are difficult to anticipate. Finally, we address the wider implications of this topic by discussing its relevance for chronic pain patients.

  20. Temporal scaling behavior of forest and urban fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Song, W.; Zheng, H.; Telesca, L.

    2009-04-01

    It has been found that many natural systems are characterized by scaling behavior. In such systems natural factors dominate the event dynamics. Forest fires in different countries have been found to exhibit frequency-size power law over many orders of magnitude and with similar value of parameters. But in countries with high population density such as China and Japan, more than 95% of the forest fire disasters are caused by human activities. Furthermore, with the development of society, the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area is becoming more and more populated, and the forest fire is much connected with urban fire. Therefore exploring the scaling behavior of fires dominated by human-related factors is very challenging. The present paper explores the temporal scaling behavior of forest fires and urban fires in Japan with mathematical methods. Two factors, Allan factor (AF) and Fano factor (FF) are used to investigate time-scaling of fire systems. It is found that the FF for both forest fires and urban fires increases linearly in log-log scales, and this indicates that it behaves as a power-law for all the investigated timescales. From the AF plot a 7 days cycle is found, which indicates a weekly cycle. This may be caused by human activities which has a weekly periodicity because on weekends people usually have more outdoor activities, which may cause more hidden trouble of fire disasters. Our findings point out that although the human factors are the main cause, both the forest fires and urban fires exhibit time-scaling behavior. At the same time, the scaling exponents for urban fires are larger than forest fires, signifying a more intense clustering. The reason may be that fires are affected not only by weather condition, but also by human activities, which play a more important role for urban fires than forest fires and have a power law distribution and scaling behavior. Then some work is done to the relative humidity. Similar distribution law characterizes the

  1. Adaptation and Validation of the Teacher Emotional Labour Strategy Scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbiao

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the adaptation and validation of the Teacher Emotional Labour Strategy Scale (TELSS) as tested on samples of 633 Beijing teachers and 648 Chongqing teachers in Chinese mainland. Results show that the 13-item TELSS adapted for this study had good internal consistency on three subscales which measure three types of teacher…

  2. Dysfunctional Consumer Behavior: Proposition of a Measurement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lara Marcondes Machado de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of a scale that can identify customers that are more prone to behave in a dysfunctional manner. Dysfunctional Consumer Behavior can negatively influence the organization profits, since this kind of consumer can generate monetary losses, such as fixing damaged pr operty. Several hypotheses are proposed based on consumer characteristics that could foster dysfunctional behavior. For this, we used an hybrid methodology, combining Churchill’s (1979 with C - OAR - SE (2002. In order to develop the scale, scenarios with dy sfunctional behaviors where constructed. Respondents were asked to rate the appropriateness of each behavior and answers a group of questions based on the hypothesis developed. The data was collected over the Internet (Amazon Turk and the statistical meth ods used for the scale development were cluster and discriminant analysis. The results showed evidence that it is possible to distinguish consumers through a discriminant function using interpersonal influence, such as aggressiveness, self - exposure, moral flexibility and machiavellianism; and personality aspects, such as dissatisfaction and acceptance.

  3. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  4. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptation and learning: characteristic time scales of performance dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Karl M; Mayer-Kress, Gottfried; Hong, S Lee; Liu, Yeou-Teh

    2009-12-01

    A multiple time scales landscape model is presented that reveals structures of performance dynamics that were not resolved in the traditional power law analysis of motor learning. It shows the co-existence of separate processes during and between practice sessions that evolve in two independent dimensions characterized by time scales that differ by about an order of magnitude. Performance along the slow persistent dimension of learning improves often as much and sometimes more during rest (memory consolidation and/or insight generation processes) than during a practice session itself. In contrast, the process characterized by the fast, transient dimension of adaptation reverses direction between practice sessions, thereby significantly degrading performance at the beginning of the next practice session (warm-up decrement). The theoretical model fits qualitatively and quantitatively the data from Snoddy's [Snoddy, G. S. (1926). Learning and stability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 10, 1-36] classic learning study of mirror tracing and other averaged and individual data sets, and provides a new account of the processes of change in adaptation and learning. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediyama, Cristina Y. N.; Moura, Ricardo; Garcia, Marina S.; da Silva, Antonio G.; Soraggi, Carolina; Neves, Fernando S.; Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Whiteside, Setephen P.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a) urgency, (b) lack of premeditation; (c) lack of perseverance; (d) sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men), who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis. Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years) scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach’s alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory. Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS. PMID:28484414

  7. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a urgency, (b lack of premeditation; (c lack of perseverance; (d sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men, who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis.Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach’s alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory.Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS.

  8. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediyama, Cristina Y N; Moura, Ricardo; Garcia, Marina S; da Silva, Antonio G; Soraggi, Carolina; Neves, Fernando S; Albuquerque, Maicon R; Whiteside, Setephen P; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a) urgency, (b) lack of premeditation; (c) lack of perseverance; (d) sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men), who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis. Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years) scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach's alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory. Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS.

  9. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groarke, Jenny M; Hogan, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Music listening may serve many adaptive functions in everyday life. However, studies examining the relationship between the functions of music listening (FML) and wellbeing outcomes have produced mixed findings. The purpose of this study is to develop a new measure to assess music listening functions that is psychometrically robust, and suitable for outcomes-based research on music listening and wellbeing. Scale items were developed based on a literature review and a prior qualitative enquiry. The items were reviewed by four content experts in music psychology and scale development. Scale structure was investigated by EFA and CFA in two large samples of participants ( N = 1,191, 17-66 years, M = 22.04, SD = 6.23, 326 males). Tests of dimensionality revealed a 46-item scale with 11 factors for the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening (AFML) scale. Namely, Stress Regulation, Anxiety Regulation, Anger Regulation, Loneliness Regulation, Rumination, Reminiscence, Strong Emotional Experiences, Awe and Appreciation, Cognitive Regulation, Identity , and Sleep FML. The scale and its subscales possess good internal consistency and construct validity. In line with theory and research on gender differences in FML, scores on factors representing affect regulation FML were significantly higher among female respondents. Supporting the concurrent validity of the AFML scale, factors were positively correlated with an existing measure of the FML-the Music USE questionnaire. Further evidence of construct validity derives from positive associations between affect regulation factor scores and level of reappraisal, and lack of association with suppression, as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Consistent with the view that adaptive FML are positively related to wellbeing, a number of factors, affect regulation factors in particular, were significantly positively correlated with subjective, psychological, and social wellbeing measures across two cross-sectional studies.

  10. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M. Groarke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Music listening may serve many adaptive functions in everyday life. However, studies examining the relationship between the functions of music listening (FML and wellbeing outcomes have produced mixed findings. The purpose of this study is to develop a new measure to assess music listening functions that is psychometrically robust, and suitable for outcomes-based research on music listening and wellbeing. Scale items were developed based on a literature review and a prior qualitative enquiry. The items were reviewed by four content experts in music psychology and scale development. Scale structure was investigated by EFA and CFA in two large samples of participants (N = 1,191, 17–66 years, M = 22.04, SD = 6.23, 326 males. Tests of dimensionality revealed a 46-item scale with 11 factors for the Adaptive Functions of Music Listening (AFML scale. Namely, Stress Regulation, Anxiety Regulation, Anger Regulation, Loneliness Regulation, Rumination, Reminiscence, Strong Emotional Experiences, Awe and Appreciation, Cognitive Regulation, Identity, and Sleep FML. The scale and its subscales possess good internal consistency and construct validity. In line with theory and research on gender differences in FML, scores on factors representing affect regulation FML were significantly higher among female respondents. Supporting the concurrent validity of the AFML scale, factors were positively correlated with an existing measure of the FML—the Music USE questionnaire. Further evidence of construct validity derives from positive associations between affect regulation factor scores and level of reappraisal, and lack of association with suppression, as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Consistent with the view that adaptive FML are positively related to wellbeing, a number of factors, affect regulation factors in particular, were significantly positively correlated with subjective, psychological, and social wellbeing measures across two cross

  11. Implementation of the Agitated Behavior Scale in the Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen John; Dasgupta, Kritis; Michael, Kathleen

    The purpose of the study was to implement an Agitated Behavior Scale through an electronic health record and to evaluate the usability of the scale in a brain injury unit at a rehabilitation hospital. A quality improvement project was conducted in the brain injury unit at a large rehabilitation hospital with registered nurses as participants using convenience sampling. The project consisted of three phases and included education, implementation of the scale in the electronic health record, and administration of the survey questionnaire, which utilized the system usability scale. The Agitated Behavior Scale was found to be usable, and there was 92.2% compliance with the use of the electronic Electronic Agitated Behavior Scale. The Agitated Behavior Scale was effectively implemented in the electronic health record and was found to be usable in the assessment of agitation. Utilization of the scale through the electronic health record on a daily basis will allow for an early identification of agitation in patients with traumatic brain injury and enable prompt interventions to manage agitation.

  12. Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort.

  13. Self-Adaptive Event-Driven Simulation of Multi-Scale Plasma Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Yuri; Karimabadi, Homayoun

    2005-10-01

    Multi-scale plasmas pose a formidable computational challenge. The explicit time-stepping models suffer from the global CFL restriction. Efficient application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to systems with irregular dynamics (e.g. turbulence, diffusion-convection-reaction, particle acceleration etc.) may be problematic. To address these issues, we developed an alternative approach to time stepping: self-adaptive discrete-event simulation (DES). DES has origin in operations research, war games and telecommunications. We combine finite-difference and particle-in-cell techniques with this methodology by assuming two caveats: (1) a local time increment, dt for a discrete quantity f can be expressed in terms of a physically meaningful quantum value, df; (2) f is considered to be modified only when its change exceeds df. Event-driven time integration is self-adaptive as it makes use of causality rules rather than parametric time dependencies. This technique enables asynchronous flux-conservative update of solution in accordance with local temporal scales, removes the curse of the global CFL condition, eliminates unnecessary computation in inactive spatial regions and results in robust and fast parallelizable codes. It can be naturally combined with various mesh refinement techniques. We discuss applications of this novel technology to diffusion-convection-reaction systems and hybrid simulations of magnetosonic shocks.

  14. Adaptation of My Classroom Activities Scale to Turkish Culture: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Zülfikar DENİZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Student interest in class activities, their enjoyment of activity topics, their ability to make choices about the activity topics, and opportunities for students to challenge themselves during activities are among basic components that support their higher level learning. Properties of educational activities that make them interesting, enjoyable, and challenging while allowing students with choices are also among properties that are known to be necessary in all educational content, processes, and products within educational systems of the 21st century. Consequently, measuring these properties is also of great importance. The goal of this study is to perform the Turkish adaptation of the My Class Activities Scale, developed by Gentry and Gable (2001 in the United States and subsequently adapted to the Korean, Chinese, and Arabic languages. To this end, data was collected from 214 students attending 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades during the 2015-2016 academic year. As part of the validity study for the scale, the factor structure obtained from the original development of the scale was tested using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA method. Moreover, item-total correlation and inter-dimensional correlation analyses were also performed as part of the validity study. In studying the reliability of the scale, the Cronbach-Alpha reliability coefficients were estimated (Cronbach alpha values ranged between 0.82-0.90. Based on the results, the factor structure of the scale was verified in parallel with the original development work for the scale. In conclusion, the validity and reliability of using the scale in Turkey was established, contributing a new scale adaptation to the Turkish literature for use in different studies.

  15. Transcultural adaptation and validation of Hindi version of Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sahar; Verma, Shalini; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed E

    2017-08-07

    To transculturally adapt the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale for Hindi-speaking population and examine its psychometric properties in patients with low back pain. The Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Hindi following international guidelines. Hindi version of the scale was completed by 120 patients with low back pain and 60 healthy controls. Patients with low back pain were also administered the Hindi-Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale. Psychometric evaluation included test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminative validity. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to determine the factor structure. The factorial analysis revealed a four-factor solution (bending/carrying, ambulation/reach, prolonged postures and rest). Convergent validity was confirmed by high correlation of Hindi Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale to the Hindi version of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (r = 0.77 and p Visual Analog Scale (r = 0.682 and p Disability Scale has good test-retest reliability, discriminative and convergent validity and is appropriate for clinical and research use in Hindi-speaking low back pain patients. Implications for rehabilitation Linguistically and culturally adapted questionnaires help researchers make adequate inferences about instruments measuring health and quality of life. The translated version would serve as a valid research tool allowing comparability of data across cultures thus, providing opportunities for large multicenter, multicountry trials. A Hindi Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale version will help to improve the quality and efficacy of assessment of low back pain by developing in patients, a better understanding of the items which can be easily correlated with the activities of daily living.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spence children's anxiety scale in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Atefeh; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khan, Aqeel; Latif, Adibah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety among children has increased in recent years. Culturally adapted questionnaires developed to measure the level of anxiety are the best screening instruments for the general population. This study describes the scientific translation and adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) into the Malay language. The process of scientific translation of this selfreport instrument followed the guidelines of the Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). The Malay version and its adaptation for a new cultural context are described. The Malay version achieved the aims of the original version and its conceptual and operational equivalence. It may be used as the first Malay instrument to measure anxiety among children in research and in clinical and community settings.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety among children has increased in recent years. Culturally adapted questionnaires developed to measure the level of anxiety are the best screening instruments for the general population. This study describes the scientific translation and adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS into the Malay language.Method: The process of scientific translation of this selfreport instrument followed the guidelines of the Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR.Results: The Malay version and its adaptation for a new cultural context are described.Conclusion: The Malay version achieved the aims of the original version and its conceptual and operational equivalence. It may be used as the first Malay instrument to measure anxiety among children in research and in clinical and community settings.

  18. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease in Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. Results: The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. Conclusions: The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively. PMID:26770638

  19. Fourteen-Month-Olds Adapt Their Imitative Behavior in Light of a Model’s Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Gellén

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than reenacting every action they observe, preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior. Although previous studies have revealed the capability of preverbal infants to imitate selectively, the question about the adaptability of this behavior on an individual level did not attract considerable scientific attention until now. In the current study, we investigated whether 14-month-old infants flexibly alternate their imitative response in accordance with a model’s changing physical constraints in a body-part imitation paradigm. Participants were presented with two novel actions whereby a model illuminated a light-box and turned on a sound-box, either by using her forehead (head touch or by sitting on the apparatus (sit-touch. Each participant observed these tasks in two conditions: once where the model’s hands were occupied and once where her hands were free while executing the head or sit-touch. Participants were more likely to reenact the observed novel behavior when the model had freely chosen to perform it than when she had to do so due to physical constraints. Not only did we replicate a number of previous findings, we show here that preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior across conditions based on the physical constraints of the model. These results point towards the adaptable nature of imitative behavior also on an individual level. This ability might be one of the building blocks for children for learning their social group’s specific action repertoire.

  20. Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions ASSAR Intro Presentation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mark New

    adaptation? • Where are the knowledge and capacity gaps in accessing, contextualizing and acting on climate information? • What new approaches can be developed to lead to more effective shaping and communication of climate messages? Understanding the governance context across scales will help to identify barriers ...

  1. Report on farm scale eco-efficiency of mitigation and adaption options. D10.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Hutchings, Nicholas John

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable collates the information on simulated effects of mitigation and adaptation options at the farm scale in Europe, primarily using the FarmAC model for the mitigation options, and applying semi quantitative modelling for the adaptation options....

  2. Computerized Adaptive Test vs. decision trees: Development of a support decision system to identify suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, D; Baca-Garcia, E; Aguado, D; Courtet, P; Lopez-Castroman, J

    2016-12-01

    Several Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs) have been proposed to facilitate assessments in mental health. These tests are built in a standard way, disregarding useful and usually available information not included in the assessment scales that could increase the precision and utility of CATs, such as the history of suicide attempts. Using the items of a previously developed scale for suicidal risk, we compared the performance of a standard CAT and a decision tree in a support decision system to identify suicidal behavior. We included the history of past suicide attempts as a class for the separation of patients in the decision tree. The decision tree needed an average of four items to achieve a similar accuracy than a standard CAT with nine items. The accuracy of the decision tree, obtained after 25 cross-validations, was 81.4%. A shortened test adapted for the separation of suicidal and non-suicidal patients was developed. CATs can be very useful tools for the assessment of suicidal risk. However, standard CATs do not use all the information that is available. A decision tree can improve the precision of the assessment since they are constructed using a priori information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptation of Collins' revised adult attachment dimensional scale to the Chilean context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Adult Attachment Revised Scale is a measure of relationship attachment that contains three dimensions: closeness, dependence and anxiety. In Study 1, the scale was translated and applied to a sample of 420 university students in order to assess reliability. In addition, the scale criterion validity was estimated through measures of self-perception and affectivity. The results of Study 1 supported the internal consistency of two dimensions of attachment, but dependence was lower than expected (α = .62. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and failed to reach a convergent fit, thus demonstrating that two of the items in dependence were considered problematic. In Study 2, difficult items in Study 1 were reworded and the new version of the scale was applied to 81 participants. The results of two subsequent CFAs showed adequate fit of the scale and increased internal consistency with this new wording (α > .73, which replaced the expression "depend on others" by "getting help from others", which is a better construct representation of the meaning of dependence in the context of attachment closeness. Therefore, not only did we adapt the three dimensions of the attachment scale, but also provided evidence of its validity related to locally adapted instruments.

  4. Development of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Research Product 2018-06 Development of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for Leadership Tatiana H. Toumbeva Krista L...anchored Rating Scale for Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W5J9CQ-11-D-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62278 6...observer- based behavioral measure to help instructors more reliably and accurately evaluate the development of leadership attributes and competencies

  5. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  6. Disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA): development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Fakhri, Ahmad; Vali, Esmaeel; Vali, Farzaneh; Veiga, Feliciano H; Stein, L A R; Araban, Marzieh

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that if disruptive behavior is left unidentified and untreated, a significant proportion of these problems will persist and may develop into problems linked with delinquency, substance abuse, and violence. Research is needed to develop valid and reliable measures of disruptive behavior to assist recognition and impact of treatments on disruptive behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale for disruptive behavior in adolescents. Six hundred high school students (50% girls), ages ranged 15-18 years old, selected through multi stage random sampling. Psychometrics of the disruptive behavior scale for adolescents (DISBA) (Persian version) was assessed through content validity, explanatory factor analysis (EFA) using Varimax rotation and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The reliability of this scale was assessed via internal consistency and test-retest reliability. EFA revealed four factors accounting for 59% of observed variance. The final 29-item scale contained four factors: (1) aggressive school behavior, (2) classroom defiant behavior, (3) unimportance of school, and (4) defiance to school authorities. Furthermore, CFA produced a sufficient Goodness of Fit Index > 0.90. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were acceptable at 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the Iranian version of DISBA questionnaire has content validity. Further studies are needed to evaluate stronger psychometric properties for DISBA.

  7. Driver's behavioral adaptation to adaptive cruise control (ACC): the case of speed and time headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel; Simões, Anabela

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Cruise Control is an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) that allows maintaining given headway and speed, according to settings pre-defined by the users. Despite the potential benefits associated to the utilization of ACC, previous studies warned against negative behavioral adaptations that might occur while driving with the system activated. Unfortunately, up to now, there are no unanimous results about the effects induced by the usage of ACC on speed and time headway to the vehicle in front. Also, few studies were performed including actual users of ACC among the subjects. This research aimed to investigate the effect of the experience gained with ACC on speed and time headway for a group of users of the system. In addition, it explored the impact of ACC usage on speed and time headway for ACC users and regular drivers. A matched sample driving simulator study was planned as a two-way (2×2) repeated measures mixed design, with the experience with ACC as between-subjects factor and the driving condition (with ACC and manually) as within-subjects factor. The results show that the usage of ACC brought a small but not significant reduction of speed and, especially, the maintenance of safer time headways, being the latter result greater for ACC users, probably as a consequence of their experience in using the system. The usage of ACC did not cause any negative behavioral adaptations to the system regarding speed and time headway. Based on this research work, the Adaptive Cruise Control showed the potential to improve road safety for what concerns the speed and the time headway maintained by the drivers. The speed of the surrounding traffic and the minimum time headway settable through the ACC seem to have an important effect on the road safety improvement achievable with the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive behavior of neighboring neurons during adaptation-induced plasticity of orientation tuning in V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumikhina Svetlana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory neurons display transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation. In adult cat primary visual cortex, orientation-selective neurons shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. The direction of those shifts, towards (attractive or away (repulsive from the adapter depends mostly on adaptation duration. How the adaptive behavior of a neuron is related to that of its neighbors remains unclear. Results Here we show that in most cases (75%, cells shift their preferred orientation in the same direction as their neighbors. We also found that cells shifting preferred orientation differently from their neighbors (25% display three interesting properties: (i larger variance of absolute shift amplitude, (ii wider tuning bandwidth and (iii larger range of preferred orientations among the cluster of cells. Several response properties of V1 neurons depend on their location within the cortical orientation map. Our results suggest that recording sites with both attractive and repulsive shifts following adaptation may be located in close proximity to iso-orientation domain boundaries or pinwheel centers. Indeed, those regions have a more diverse orientation distribution of local inputs that could account for the three properties above. On the other hand, sites with all cells shifting their preferred orientation in the same direction could be located within iso-orientation domains. Conclusions Our results suggest that the direction and amplitude of orientation preference shifts in V1 depend on location within the orientation map. This anisotropy of adaptation-induced plasticity, comparable to that of the visual cortex itself, could have important implications for our understanding of visual adaptation at the psychophysical level.

  9. Epidemic spreading on preferred degree adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, B; Zia, R K P

    2012-01-01

    We study the standard SIS model of epidemic spreading on networks where individuals have a fluctuating number of connections around a preferred degree κ. Using very simple rules for forming such preferred degree networks, we find some unusual statistical properties not found in familiar Erdös-Rényi or scale free networks. By letting κ depend on the fraction of infected individuals, we model the behavioral changes in response to how the extent of the epidemic is perceived. In our models, the behavioral adaptations can be either 'blind' or 'selective'--depending on whether a node adapts by cutting or adding links to randomly chosen partners or selectively, based on the state of the partner. For a frozen preferred network, we find that the infection threshold follows the heterogeneous mean field result λ(c)/μ = / and the phase diagram matches the predictions of the annealed adjacency matrix (AAM) approach. With 'blind' adaptations, although the epidemic threshold remains unchanged, the infection level is substantially affected, depending on the details of the adaptation. The 'selective' adaptive SIS models are most interesting. Both the threshold and the level of infection changes, controlled not only by how the adaptations are implemented but also how often the nodes cut/add links (compared to the time scales of the epidemic spreading). A simple mean field theory is presented for the selective adaptations which capture the qualitative and some of the quantitative features of the infection phase diagram.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Charantola Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork.

  11. "I know, therefore I adapt?" Complexities of individual adaptation to climate-induced forest dieback in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Oakes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual actions to avoid, benefit from, or cope with climate change impacts partly shape adaptation; much research on adaptation has focused at the systems level, overlooking drivers of individual responses. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies of environmental behavior identify a complex web of cognitive, affective, and evaluative factors that motivate stewardship. We explore the relationship between knowledge of, and adaptation to, widespread, climate-induced tree mortality to understand the cognitive (i.e., knowledge and learning, affective (i.e., attitudes and place attachment, and evaluative (i.e., use values factors that influence how individuals respond to climate-change impacts. From 43 semistructured interviews with forest managers and users in a temperate forest, we identified distinct responses to local, climate-induced environmental changes that we then categorized as either behavioral or psychological adaptations. Interviewees developed a depth of knowledge about the dieback through a combination of direct, place-based experiences and indirect, mediated learning through social interactions. Knowing that the dieback was associated with climate change led to different adaptive responses among the interviewees, although knowledge alone did not explain this variation. Forest users reported psychological adaptations to process negative attitudes; these adaptations were spurred by knowledge of the causes, losses of intangible values, and impacts to a species to which they held attachment. Behavioral adaptations exclusive to a high level of knowledge included actions such as using the forests to educate others or changing transportation behaviors to reduce personal energy consumption. Managers integrated awareness of the dieback and its dynamics across spatial scales into current management objectives. Our findings suggest that adaptive management may occur from the bottom up, as individual managers implement new practices in

  12. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bijen FİLİZ; Gıyasettin DEMİRHAN

    2018-01-01

    In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S)” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 i...

  13. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher

  14. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of

  15. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  16. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  17. Optimal Information Extraction of Laser Scanning Dataset by Scale-Adaptive Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Y.; Yang, B.

    2018-04-01

    3D laser technology is widely used to collocate the surface information of object. For various applications, we need to extract a good perceptual quality point cloud from the scanned points. To solve the problem, most of existing methods extract important points based on a fixed scale. However, geometric features of 3D object come from various geometric scales. We propose a multi-scale construction method based on radial basis function. For each scale, important points are extracted from the point cloud based on their importance. We apply a perception metric Just-Noticeable-Difference to measure degradation of each geometric scale. Finally, scale-adaptive optimal information extraction is realized. Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the effective of the proposed method, suggesting a reliable solution for optimal information extraction of object.

  18. OPTIMAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION OF LASER SCANNING DATASET BY SCALE-ADAPTIVE REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available 3D laser technology is widely used to collocate the surface information of object. For various applications, we need to extract a good perceptual quality point cloud from the scanned points. To solve the problem, most of existing methods extract important points based on a fixed scale. However, geometric features of 3D object come from various geometric scales. We propose a multi-scale construction method based on radial basis function. For each scale, important points are extracted from the point cloud based on their importance. We apply a perception metric Just-Noticeable-Difference to measure degradation of each geometric scale. Finally, scale-adaptive optimal information extraction is realized. Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the effective of the proposed method, suggesting a reliable solution for optimal information extraction of object.

  19. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

    OpenAIRE

    Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Mendes,Aida Cruz; Azeredo,Zaida Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...

  20. Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Sam P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation, neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i holds, we find that (ii the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties.

  1. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  2. The Learning Behaviors Scale: National Standardization in Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jessica L.; McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Drogalis, Anna Rhoad; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the national standardization and validation of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) for use in Trinidad and Tobago. The LBS is a teacher rating scale centering on observable behaviors relevant to identifying childhood approaches to classroom learning. Teachers observed a stratified sample of 900 students across the islands'…

  3. Dynamical adaptation in photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon A Clark

    Full Text Available Adaptation is at the heart of sensation and nowhere is it more salient than in early visual processing. Light adaptation in photoreceptors is doubly dynamical: it depends upon the temporal structure of the input and it affects the temporal structure of the response. We introduce a non-linear dynamical adaptation model of photoreceptors. It is simple enough that it can be solved exactly and simulated with ease; analytical and numerical approaches combined provide both intuition on the behavior of dynamical adaptation and quantitative results to be compared with data. Yet the model is rich enough to capture intricate phenomenology. First, we show that it reproduces the known phenomenology of light response and short-term adaptation. Second, we present new recordings and demonstrate that the model reproduces cone response with great precision. Third, we derive a number of predictions on the response of photoreceptors to sophisticated stimuli such as periodic inputs, various forms of flickering inputs, and natural inputs. In particular, we demonstrate that photoreceptors undergo rapid adaptation of response gain and time scale, over ∼ 300[Formula: see text] ms-i. e., over the time scale of the response itself-and we confirm this prediction with data. For natural inputs, this fast adaptation can modulate the response gain more than tenfold and is hence physiologically relevant.

  4. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected.

  5. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German S Fox-Rabinovich, Kenji Yamamoto, Ben D Beake, Iosif S Gershman, Anatoly I Kovalev, Stephen C Veldhuis, Myram H Aguirre, Goulnara Dosbaeva and Jose L Endrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality

  6. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  7. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  8. Numerical investigation of room-temperature deformation behavior of a duplex type γTiAl alloy using a multi-scale modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.R.; Chernova, L.; Bartsch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Room-temperature deformation of a niobium-rich TiAl alloy with duplex microstructure has been numerically investigated. The model links the microstructural features at micro- and meso-scale by the two-level (FE 2 ) multi-scale approach. The deformation mechanisms of the considered phases were described in the micro-mechanical crystal-plasticity model. Initial material parameters for the model were taken from the literature and validated using tensile experiments at macro-scale. For the niobium-rich TiAl alloy further adaptation of the crystal plasticity parameters is proposed. Based on these model parameters, the influences of the grain orientation, grain size, and texture on the global mechanical behavior have been investigated. The contributions of crystal deformation modes (slips and dislocations in the phases) to the mechanical response are also analyzed. The results enable a quantitative prediction of relationships between microstructure and mechanical behavior on global and local scale, including an assessment of possible crack initiation sites. The model can be used for microstructure optimization to obtain better material properties.

  9. Adaptive scaling of reward in episodic memory: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alice; Ludwig, Casimir; Farrell, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Reward is thought to enhance episodic memory formation via dopaminergic consolidation. Bunzeck, Dayan, Dolan, and Duzel [(2010). A common mechanism for adaptive scaling of reward and novelty. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1380-1394] provided functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioural evidence that reward and episodic memory systems are sensitive to the contextual value of a reward-whether it is relatively higher or lower-as opposed to absolute value or prediction error. We carried out a direct replication of their behavioural study and did not replicate their finding that memory performance associated with reward follows this pattern of adaptive scaling. An effect of reward outcome was in the opposite direction to that in the original study, with lower reward outcomes leading to better memory than higher outcomes. There was a marginal effect of reward context, suggesting that expected value affected memory performance. We discuss the robustness of the reward memory relationship to variations in reward context, and whether other reward-related factors have a more reliable influence on episodic memory.

  10. Creating adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walek, Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior. The proposed system uses expert system to evaluating and recommending suitable items of content. Relevant items are subsequently evaluated and filtered based on history of visited items and user´s preferred categories of items. Main parts of the proposed system are presented and described. The proposed recommendation system is verified on specific example.

  11. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  12. Adaptive Spot Detection With Optimal Scale Selection in Fluorescence Microscopy Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Antoine; Boulanger, Jérôme; Salamero, Jean; Bouthemy, Patrick; Kervrann, Charles

    2015-11-01

    Accurately detecting subcellular particles in fluorescence microscopy is of primary interest for further quantitative analysis such as counting, tracking, or classification. Our primary goal is to segment vesicles likely to share nearly the same size in fluorescence microscopy images. Our method termed adaptive thresholding of Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) images with autoselected scale (ATLAS) automatically selects the optimal scale corresponding to the most frequent spot size in the image. Four criteria are proposed and compared to determine the optimal scale in a scale-space framework. Then, the segmentation stage amounts to thresholding the LoG of the intensity image. In contrast to other methods, the threshold is locally adapted given a probability of false alarm (PFA) specified by the user for the whole set of images to be processed. The local threshold is automatically derived from the PFA value and local image statistics estimated in a window whose size is not a critical parameter. We also propose a new data set for benchmarking, consisting of six collections of one hundred images each, which exploits backgrounds extracted from real microscopy images. We have carried out an extensive comparative evaluation on several data sets with ground-truth, which demonstrates that ATLAS outperforms existing methods. ATLAS does not need any fine parameter tuning and requires very low computation time. Convincing results are also reported on real total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy images.

  13. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Hayden B Bosworth1–4 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities. Keywords: program sustainability, diffusion of innovation, information dissemination, health services research, intervention studies 

  14. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijen FİLİZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 items and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA were applied to 330 high-school students. Items that did not apply as a result of the analysis were omitted from 52-item trial scale and the scale was reduced to 14 items. A final scale consisting of two factors was created. Obtained scale was applied to different 250 high-school students for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. It has been determined that EFA and CFA results of two-factor PSRB-S and reliability and validity of internal consistency coefficients are at an acceptable level. It was not detected a significance difference in total scores of athlete students’ responsibility behaviors in terms of gender and age variables while there were significant difference in their total scores of years of sport practice.

  15. Psychometric Properties of the “Sport Motivation Scale (SMS” Adapted to Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Granero-Gallegos, Antonio Baena-Extremera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38 as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44 and three-factor model (χ2/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53.

  16. Adaptability: Conceptual and Empirical Perspectives on Responses to Change, Novelty and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Nejad, Harry; Colmar, Susan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptability is proposed as individuals' capacity to constructively regulate psycho-behavioral functions in response to new, changing, and/or uncertain circumstances, conditions and situations. The present investigation explored the internal and external validity of an hypothesised adaptability scale. The sample comprised 2,731 high school…

  17. Adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Vasquez, A; Dos Santos, E; Paico, E; Hurtz, C; Schaufeli, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563

    2015-01-01

    Engagement at work is a positive mental and dispositional state characterized by Vigor, Dedication and Concentration. The aim of this study was to adapt and get evidence of validity for the Brazilian version of the utrecht work engagement scale (UWES). Participated in the study 1167 workers between

  18. Analyzing extreme sea levels for broad-scale impact and adaptation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, T.; Haigh, I. D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Arns, A.; Dangendorf, S.; Hinkel, J.; Slangen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal impact and adaptation assessments require detailed knowledge on extreme sea levels (ESL), because increasing damage due to extreme events is one of the major consequences of sea-level rise (SLR) and climate change. Over the last few decades, substantial research efforts have been directed towards improved understanding of past and future SLR; different scenarios were developed with process-based or semi-empirical models and used for coastal impact studies at various temporal and spatial scales to guide coastal management and adaptation efforts. Uncertainties in future SLR are typically accounted for by analyzing the impacts associated with a range of scenarios and model ensembles. ESL distributions are then displaced vertically according to the SLR scenarios under the inherent assumption that we have perfect knowledge on the statistics of extremes. However, there is still a limited understanding of present-day ESL which is largely ignored in most impact and adaptation analyses. The two key uncertainties stem from: (1) numerical models that are used to generate long time series of storm surge water levels, and (2) statistical models used for determining present-day ESL exceedance probabilities. There is no universally accepted approach to obtain such values for broad-scale flood risk assessments and while substantial research has explored SLR uncertainties, we quantify, for the first time globally, key uncertainties in ESL estimates. We find that contemporary ESL uncertainties exceed those from SLR projections and, assuming that we meet the Paris agreement, the projected SLR itself by the end of the century. Our results highlight the necessity to further improve our understanding of uncertainties in ESL estimates through (1) continued improvement of numerical and statistical models to simulate and analyze coastal water levels and (2) exploit the rich observational database and continue data archeology to obtain longer time series and remove model bias

  19. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H; Burri, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Certain sexual health problems in men can be attributed to genital self-image. Therefore, a culturally adapted version of a Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS) could help health professionals understand this concept and its associated correlates. To translate the original English version of the MGSIS into Persian and to assess the psychometric properties of this culturally adapted version (MGSIS-I) for use in Iranian men. In total, 1,784 men were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Backward and forward translations of the MGSIS were used to produce the culturally adapted version. Reliability of the MGSIS-I was assessed using Cronbach α and intra-class correlation coefficients. Divergent and convergent validities were examined using Pearson correlation and known-group validity was assessed in subgroups of participants with different sociodemographic statuses. Factor validity of the scale was investigated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Demographic information, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Body Appreciation Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the MGSIS. Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS-I (root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, comparative fit index > 1.00 vs root mean

  20. Observations to support adaptation: Principles, scales and decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    As has been long noted, a comprehensive, coordinated observing system is the backbone of any Earth information system. Demands are increasingly placed on earth observation and prediction systems and attendant services to address the needs of economically and environmentally vulnerable sectors and investments, including energy, water, human health, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, and national security. Climate services include building capacity to interpret information and recognize standards and limitations of data in the promotion of social and economic development in a changing climate. This includes improving the understanding of climate in the context of a variety of temporal and spatial scales (including the influence of decadal scale forcings and land surface feedbacks on seasonal forecast reliability). Climate data and information are central for developing decision options that are sensitive to climate-related uncertainties and the design of flexible adaptation pathways. Ideally monitoring should be action oriented to support climate risk assessment and adaptation including informing robust decision making to multiple risks over the long term. Based on the experience of global observations programs and empirical research we outline- Challenges in developing effective monitoring and climate information systems to support adaptation. The types of observations of critical importance needed for sector planning to enhance food, water and energy security, and to improve early warning for disaster risk reduction Observations needed for ecosystem-based adaptation including the identification of thresholds, maintenance of biological diversity and land degradation The benefits and limits of linking regional model output to local observations including analogs and verification for adaptation planning To support these goals a robust systems of integrated observations are needed to characterize the uncertainty surrounding emergent risks

  1. Emotional intelligence and features of social and psychological adaptation in adolescents with deviant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev A.V.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.

  2. Personal Professional Development Efforts Scale for Middle School Mathematics Teachers: An Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbag, M. Zafer; Yenilmez, Kürsat; Turgut, Melih

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at adapting the personal professional development efforts scale developed for science and technology teachers to be applied for middle school mathematics teachers. For this purpose, first of all, the items of the original scale were adjusted for the middle school mathematics teachers by a team of experts. Data obtained by the new…

  3. The Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) Scale: Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathology in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Alain D.; Sacco, Silvia; Carfi, Angelo; Benejam, Bessy; Vermeiren, Yannick; Beugelsdijk, Gonny; Schippers, Mieke; Hassefras, Lyanne; Eleveld, José; Grefelman, Sharina; Fopma, Roelie; Bomer-Veenboer, Monique; Boti, Mariángeles; Oosterling, G. Danielle E.; Scholten, Esther; Tollenaere, Marleen; Checkley, Laura; Strydom, André; Van Goethem, Gert; Onder, Graziano; Blesa, Rafael; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Coppus, Antonia M.W.; Rebillat, Anne-Sophie; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2018-01-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) scale was developed to identify frequency and severity of behavioral changes taking account of life-long characteristic behavior. 83 behavioral items in 12 clinically defined sections were evaluated. The central aim was to identify items that change in relation to the dementia status, and thus may differentiate between diagnostic groups. Structured interviews were conducted with informants of persons with DS without dementia (DS, n = 149), with questionable dementia (DS+Q, n = 65), and with diagnosed dementia (DS+AD, n = 67). First exploratory data suggest promising interrater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability measures. Concerning item relevance, group comparisons revealed pronounced increases in frequency and severity in items of anxiety, sleep disturbances, agitation & stereotypical behavior, aggression, apathy, depressive symptoms, and eating/drinking behavior. The proportion of individuals presenting an increase was highest in DS+AD, intermediate in DS+Q, and lowest in DS. Interestingly, among DS+Q individuals, a substantial proportion already presented increased anxiety, sleep disturbances, apathy, and depressive symptoms, suggesting that these changes occur early in the course of AD. Future efforts should optimize the scale based on current results and clinical experiences, and further study applicability, reliability, and validity. Future application of the scale in daily care may aid caregivers to understand changes, and contribute to timely interventions and adaptation of caregiving. PMID:29689719

  4. The Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) Scale: Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathology in Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Alain D; Sacco, Silvia; Carfi, Angelo; Benejam, Bessy; Vermeiren, Yannick; Beugelsdijk, Gonny; Schippers, Mieke; Hassefras, Lyanne; Eleveld, José; Grefelman, Sharina; Fopma, Roelie; Bomer-Veenboer, Monique; Boti, Mariángeles; Oosterling, G Danielle E; Scholten, Esther; Tollenaere, Marleen; Checkley, Laura; Strydom, André; Van Goethem, Gert; Onder, Graziano; Blesa, Rafael; Zu Eulenburg, Christine; Coppus, Antonia M W; Rebillat, Anne-Sophie; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2018-01-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) scale was developed to identify frequency and severity of behavioral changes taking account of life-long characteristic behavior. 83 behavioral items in 12 clinically defined sections were evaluated. The central aim was to identify items that change in relation to the dementia status, and thus may differentiate between diagnostic groups. Structured interviews were conducted with informants of persons with DS without dementia (DS, n = 149), with questionable dementia (DS+Q, n = 65), and with diagnosed dementia (DS+AD, n = 67). First exploratory data suggest promising interrater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability measures. Concerning item relevance, group comparisons revealed pronounced increases in frequency and severity in items of anxiety, sleep disturbances, agitation & stereotypical behavior, aggression, apathy, depressive symptoms, and eating/drinking behavior. The proportion of individuals presenting an increase was highest in DS+AD, intermediate in DS+Q, and lowest in DS. Interestingly, among DS+Q individuals, a substantial proportion already presented increased anxiety, sleep disturbances, apathy, and depressive symptoms, suggesting that these changes occur early in the course of AD. Future efforts should optimize the scale based on current results and clinical experiences, and further study applicability, reliability, and validity. Future application of the scale in daily care may aid caregivers to understand changes, and contribute to timely interventions and adaptation of caregiving.

  5. Children's Food Allergies: Development of the Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinnert, Mary D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Fedele, David A; Faino, Anna; Strand, Matthew; Robinson, Jane; Atkins, Dan; Fleischer, David M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Cohen, Sophia; Fransen, Hannah

    2015-07-01

    Develop a measure that evaluates effective pediatric food allergy (FA) management, child and parent FA anxiety, and integration of FA into family life. A semistructured family interview was developed to evaluate FA management using a pilot sample (n = 27). Rating scales evaluated eight dimensions of FA management (FAMComposite), child anxiety, parent anxiety, and overall balanced integration (BI). Families of children with IgE-mediated food allergies (n = 60, child age: 6-12) were recruited for interview and rating scale validation. FAMComposite was correlated with physician ratings for families' food avoidance and reaction response readiness. FA anxiety was correlated with general anxiety measures for children, but not parents. Parents' FA anxiety was correlated with expectations of negative outcomes from FA. Low BI was associated with poor quality of life and negative impact on family functioning. Preliminary analyses support Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale validity as a measure of family adaptation to pediatric FA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Advanced Dynamically Adaptive Algorithms for Stochastic Simulations on Extreme Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Dongbin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The focus of the project is the development of mathematical methods and high-performance computational tools for stochastic simulations, with a particular emphasis on computations on extreme scales. The core of the project revolves around the design of highly efficient and scalable numerical algorithms that can adaptively and accurately, in high dimensional spaces, resolve stochastic problems with limited smoothness, even containing discontinuities.

  7. Adaptive Processes in Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth

    2018-01-01

    , and is essential to achieve successful speech communication, correct orientation in our full environment, and eventually survival. These adaptive processes may differ in individuals with hearing loss, whose auditory system may cope via ‘‘readapting’’ itself over a longer time scale to the changes in sensory input...... induced by hearing impairment and the compensation provided by hearing devices. These devices themselves are now able to adapt to the listener’s individual environment, attentional state, and behavior. These topics related to auditory adaptation, in the broad sense of the term, were central to the 6th...... International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2017. The symposium addressed adaptive processes in hearing from different angles, together with a wide variety of other auditory and audiological topics. The papers in this special issue result from some...

  8. Cultural adaptation of the Tuberculosis-related stigma scale to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Yamamura, Mellina; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Santos, Cláudia Benedita Dos; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The process of stigmatization associated with TB has been undervalued in national research as this social aspect is important in the control of the disease, especially in marginalized populations. This paper introduces the stages of the process of cultural adaptation in Brazil of the Tuberculosis-related stigma scale for TB patients. It is a methodological study in which the items of the scale were translated and back-translated with semantic validation with 15 individuals of the target population. After translation, the reconciled back-translated version was compared with the original version by the project coordinator in Southern Thailand, who approved the final version in Brazilian Portuguese. The results of the semantic validation conducted with TB patients enable the identification that, in general, the scale was well accepted and easily understood by the participants.

  9. Global adaptation in networks of selfish components: emergent associative memory at the system scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L

    2011-01-01

    In some circumstances complex adaptive systems composed of numerous self-interested agents can self-organize into structures that enhance global adaptation, efficiency, or function. However, the general conditions for such an outcome are poorly understood and present a fundamental open question for domains as varied as ecology, sociology, economics, organismic biology, and technological infrastructure design. In contrast, sufficient conditions for artificial neural networks to form structures that perform collective computational processes such as associative memory/recall, classification, generalization, and optimization are well understood. Such global functions within a single agent or organism are not wholly surprising, since the mechanisms (e.g., Hebbian learning) that create these neural organizations may be selected for this purpose; but agents in a multi-agent system have no obvious reason to adhere to such a structuring protocol or produce such global behaviors when acting from individual self-interest. However, Hebbian learning is actually a very simple and fully distributed habituation or positive feedback principle. Here we show that when self-interested agents can modify how they are affected by other agents (e.g., when they can influence which other agents they interact with), then, in adapting these inter-agent relationships to maximize their own utility, they will necessarily alter them in a manner homologous with Hebbian learning. Multi-agent systems with adaptable relationships will thereby exhibit the same system-level behaviors as neural networks under Hebbian learning. For example, improved global efficiency in multi-agent systems can be explained by the inherent ability of associative memory to generalize by idealizing stored patterns and/or creating new combinations of subpatterns. Thus distributed multi-agent systems can spontaneously exhibit adaptive global behaviors in the same sense, and by the same mechanism, as with the organizational

  10. Validation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty scales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.; Barie, S.; Joest, K.; Rosemann, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty scales (PRU) in primary care physicians. METHODS: In a structured process, the original questionnaire was translated, culturally adapted and assessed

  11. Strong anticipation: Multifractal cascade dynamics modulate scaling in synchronization behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We investigated anticipatory behaviors in response to chaotic metronomes. → We assessed multifractal structure in tap intervals and onset intervals. → Strength of multifractality in tap intervals appears to match that in onset intervals. - Abstract: Previous research on anticipatory behaviors has found that the fractal scaling of human behavior may attune to the fractal scaling of an unpredictable signal [Stephen DG, Stepp N, Dixon JA, Turvey MT. Strong anticipation: Sensitivity to long-range correlations in synchronization behavior. Physica A 2008;387:5271-8]. We propose to explain this attunement as a case of multifractal cascade dynamics [Schertzer D, Lovejoy S. Generalised scale invariance in turbulent phenomena. Physico-Chem Hydrodyn J 1985;6:623-5] in which perceptual-motor fluctuations are coordinated across multiple time scales. This account will serve to sharpen the contrast between strong and weak anticipation: whereas the former entails a sensitivity to the intermittent temporal structure of an unpredictable signal, the latter simply predicts sensitivity to an aggregate description of an unpredictable signal irrespective of actual sequence. We pursue this distinction through a reanalysis of Stephen et al.'s data by examining the relationship between the widths of singularity spectra for intertap interval time series and for each corresponding interonset interval time series. We find that the attunement of fractal scaling reported by Stephen et al. was not the trivial result of sensitivity to temporal structure in aggregate but reflected a subtle sensitivity to the coordination across multiple time scales of fluctuation in the unpredictable signal.

  12. Adaptation in Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yuhai; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2018-03-01

    Adaptation refers to the biological phenomenon where living systems change their internal states in response to changes in their environments in order to maintain certain key functions critical for their survival and fitness. Adaptation is one of the most ubiquitous and arguably one of the most fundamental properties of living systems. It occurs throughout all biological scales, from adaptation of populations of species over evolutionary time to adaptation of a single cell to different environmental stresses during its life span. In this article, we review some of the recent progress made in understanding molecular mechanisms of cellular-level adaptation. We take the minimalist (or the physicist) approach and study the simplest systems that exhibit generic adaptive behaviors, namely chemotaxis in bacterium cells (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic cells (Dictyostelium). We focus on understanding the basic biochemical interaction networks that are responsible for adaptation dynamics. By combining theoretical modeling with quantitative experimentation, we demonstrate universal features in adaptation as well as important differences in different cellular systems. Future work in extending the modeling framework to study adaptation in more complex systems such as sensory neurons is also discussed.

  13. Evaluation of convergence behavior of metamodeling techniques for bridging scales in multi-scale multimaterial simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Oishik; Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several metamodeling techniques, viz. the Polynomial Stochastic Collocation method, Adaptive Stochastic Collocation method, a Radial Basis Function Neural Network, a Kriging Method and a Dynamic Kriging Method is evaluated. This is done with the express purpose of using metamodels to bridge scales between micro- and macro-scale models in a multi-scale multimaterial simulation. The rate of convergence of the error when used to reconstruct hypersurfaces of known functions is studied. For sufficiently large number of training points, Stochastic Collocation methods generally converge faster than the other metamodeling techniques, while the DKG method converges faster when the number of input points is less than 100 in a two-dimensional parameter space. Because the input points correspond to computationally expensive micro/meso-scale computations, the DKG is favored for bridging scales in a multi-scale solver

  14. College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale when getting online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline interaction. The effect of gender, Internet addiction, depression, and online gaming on the difference of reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline were also evaluated. The subjects were 2,258 college students (1,066 men and 1,192 women). They completed the Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale (BIS/BAS) according to their experience online or offline. Internet addiction, depression, and Internet activity type were evaluated simultaneously. The results showed that reinforcement sensitivity was lower when interacting online than when interacting offline. College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer score on BIS and BAS after getting online than did others. The higher reward and aversion sensitivity are associated with the risk of Internet addiction. The fun seeking online might contribute to the maintenance of Internet addiction. This suggests that reinforcement sensitivity would change after getting online and would contribute to the risk and maintenance of Internet addiction. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Scale-adaptive surface modeling of vascular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective geometric modeling of vascular structures is crucial for diagnosis, therapy planning and medical education. These applications require good balance with respect to surface smoothness, surface accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. Methods Our method first extracts the vascular boundary voxels from the segmentation result, and utilizes these voxels to build a three-dimensional (3D point cloud whose normal vectors are estimated via covariance analysis. Then a 3D implicit indicator function is computed from the oriented 3D point cloud by solving a Poisson equation. Finally the vessel surface is generated by a proposed adaptive polygonization algorithm for explicit 3D visualization. Results Experiments carried out on several typical vascular structures demonstrate that the presented method yields both a smooth morphologically correct and a topologically preserved two-manifold surface, which is scale-adaptive to the local curvature of the surface. Furthermore, the presented method produces fewer and better-shaped triangles with satisfactory surface quality and accuracy. Conclusions Compared to other state-of-the-art approaches, our method reaches good balance in terms of smoothness, accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. The vessel surfaces produced by our method are suitable for applications such as computational fluid dynamics simulations and real-time virtual interventional surgery.

  16. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance.

  17. Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised: Scale Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for…

  18. Adaptation and Factorial Validation of the Attitudes Toward Gender Roles Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attitudes toward gender roles result from a social construction process that has implications for the accepted gender role models for men and women. This study aims at the adaptation and factorial validation of a measurement scale for attitudes toward gender roles. The sample consisted of 746 college students and young professionals. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to check the scale's structure. A two-factor structure was found for the Attitudes toward Gender Roles Scale: the first factor reflects a traditional division of gender roles, and the second factor reflects an egalitarian division of gender roles. A preliminary study using the scale was conducted on 101 families with adult children (each family included a father, a mother, and an adult child with a university degree. The results revealed the importance of the scale in assessing the attitudes of different generations toward gender roles.

  19. Histogram-based adaptive gray level scaling for texture feature classification of colorectal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Marc; Lu, Hongbing; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2018-02-01

    Texture features have played an ever increasing role in computer aided detection (CADe) and diagnosis (CADx) methods since their inception. Texture features are often used as a method of false positive reduction for CADe packages, especially for detecting colorectal polyps and distinguishing them from falsely tagged residual stool and healthy colon wall folds. While texture features have shown great success there, the performance of texture features for CADx have lagged behind primarily because of the more similar features among different polyps types. In this paper, we present an adaptive gray level scaling and compare it to the conventional equal-spacing of gray level bins. We use a dataset taken from computed tomography colonography patients, with 392 polyp regions of interest (ROIs) identified and have a confirmed diagnosis through pathology. Using the histogram information from the entire ROI dataset, we generate the gray level bins such that each bin contains roughly the same number of voxels Each image ROI is the scaled down to two different numbers of gray levels, using both an equal spacing of Hounsfield units for each bin, and our adaptive method. We compute a set of texture features from the scaled images including 30 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features and 11 gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) features. Using a random forest classifier to distinguish between hyperplastic polyps and all others (adenomas and adenocarcinomas), we find that the adaptive gray level scaling can improve performance based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by up to 4.6%.

  20. Adaptation of Organizational Justice in Sport Scale into Turkish Language: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Ayfer; Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide a Turkish adaptation of the Organizational Justice in Sport Scale and perform reliability and validity studies. Answers provided by 260 participants who work as football, male basketball and female basketball coaches in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) were analysed using the original scale that…

  1. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations.

  2. An Adaptation, Validity and Reliability of the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale to the Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, F. Selda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale (LSRS) developed by Riggio (2000) to Turkish. The scale with its original form in English consists of 48 items in total. The original scale was translated into Turkish by three instructors who are proficient both in the field and the language. Later, the original and…

  3. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.011130 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=216=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., ∝Nα for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α≃0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent αeff(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent αeff(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N-1/3 for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of tb, and γ≈1/3 for its variance.

  4. Relationship of Level of Functioning of Institutionalized Women on a Task Analysis of Personal Care for Menstruation and the Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Beverly W.; And Others

    A 40-item behavior analysis task, the Menstrual Care Scale, was developed and tested with 75 randomly selected institutionalized severely retarded women (13-59 years old). The need for developing personal care skills in menstruation habits had been identified as a priority area for sexuality instruction by staff and confirmed by analysis of…

  5. [Correlation between adolescents psychical disorders and their difficulties of psychosocial adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Kalkyte, Rūta; Adomaitiene, Virginija; Gudiene, Devika; Velaviciene, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    To study the correlation between adolescents' psychical disorders and their difficulties of psychosocial adaptation. There were 63 adolescent participants in our study (47 girls and 16 boys) who were hospitalized in Department of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital (Lithuania) during the period from September to December, 2005. Twenty-seven adolescents (19 girls and 8 boys) had suicidal and self-harming behavior. Psychical disorders were diagnosed according to ICD-10 diagnostic criterions. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ-lit adapted for Lithuania. While comparing the mean scores in both sexes of adolescents with diagnoses of depressive, behavioral and adaptation disturbances, we found a statistically significant difference only in emotionally disturbance scale results (p=0.016). Analyzing groups of girls and boys separately, girls showed to be worse psychosocially adapted and had more emotional problems. Girls who tried to commit suicide had more emotional (p=0.006) and psychosocial problems (padaptation (p=0.031) difficulties. Parents noted that those who committed a suicide and had behavior disturbances had more expressed emotional (p=0.007) and general adaptation (p=0.053) problems. 1. Adolescent girls who were diagnosed depressive illnesses had more emotional and general adaptation problems than girls who were diagnosed behavior or adaptation disorders. 2. Adolescent girls who tried to commit suicide had more expressed behavior problems and difficulties of emotional, general adaptation. 3. Most expressed difficulties of emotional and general adaptation were typical to girls who were diagnosed with depression and who tried to commit a suicide.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the brazilian version of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the process of transcultural adaptation of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: For the semantic adaptation step, the scale was translated to Portuguese and then back-translated to English by two professional translators and one psychologist, without any communication between them. The scale was then applied to 20 participants from the general population for language adjustments. For the construct validation step, an exploratory factor analysis was performed, using the scree plot test, principal component analysis for factor extraction, and Varimax rotation. For convergent validity, the correlation matrix was analyzed through Pearson's coefficient. RESULTS: The scale showed easy applicability, satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.87, and a high correlation with other rating scales for compulsive buying disorder, indicating that it is suitable to be used in the assessment and diagnosis of compulsive buying disorder, as it presents psychometric validity. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale has good validity and reliability

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the brazilian version of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Priscilla; Rangé, Bernard; Kukar-Kiney, Monika; Ridgway, Nancy; Monroe, Kent; Ribas Junior, Rodolfo; Landeira Fernandez, J; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    To present the process of transcultural adaptation of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale to Brazilian Portuguese. For the semantic adaptation step, the scale was translated to Portuguese and then back-translated to English by two professional translators and one psychologist, without any communication between them. The scale was then applied to 20 participants from the general population for language adjustments. For the construct validation step, an exploratory factor analysis was performed, using the scree plot test, principal component analysis for factor extraction, and Varimax rotation. For convergent validity, the correlation matrix was analyzed through Pearson's coefficient. The scale showed easy applicability, satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.87), and a high correlation with other rating scales for compulsive buying disorder, indicating that it is suitable to be used in the assessment and diagnosis of compulsive buying disorder, as it presents psychometric validity. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale has good validity and reliability.

  8. Spanish adaptation of social withdrawal motivation and frequency scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indias García, Sílvia; De Paúl Ochotorena, Joaquín

    2016-11-01

    To adapt into Spanish three scales measuring frequency (SWFS) and motivation for social withdrawal (CSPS and SWMS) and to develop a scale capable of assessing the five motivations for social withdrawal. Participants were 1,112 Spanish adolescents, aged 12-17 years. The sample was randomly split into two groups in which exploratory and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses were performed separately. A sample of adolescents in residential care (n = 128) was also used to perform discriminant validity analyses. SWFS was reduced to eight items that account for 40% of explained variance (PVE), and its reliability is high. SWMS worked adequately in the original version, according to CFA. Some items from the CSPS were removed from the final Spanish version. The newly developed scale (SWMS-5D) is composed of 20 items including five subscales: Peer Isolation, Unsociability, Shyness, Low Mood and Avoidance. Analyses reveal adequate convergent and discriminant validities. The resulting SWFS-8 and SWMS-5D could be considered useful instruments to assess frequency and motivation for social withdrawal in Spanish samples.

  9. The health policy implications of individual adaptive behavior responses to smog pollution in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yi; Brooke Anderson, G; Li, Tiantian

    2017-09-01

    Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM 2.5 -polluted Chinese city was designed to establish smog concerns and behavior changes during smog events. The results demonstrate a variety of behavior responses associated with risk perception, experience of smog, age, and gender of respondents. An understanding of these variations is critical to the development of effective public policy and ultimately to the improvement of public health in cities affected by smog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation and validation of a Spanish-language version of the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turró-Garriga, O; Hermoso Contreras, C; Olives Cladera, J; Mioshi, E; Pelegrín Valero, C; Olivera Pueyo, J; Garre-Olmo, J; Sánchez-Valle, R

    2017-06-01

    The Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS) is a tool designed to aid with clinical staging and assessment of the progression of frontotemporal dementia (FTD-FRS). Present a multicentre adaptation and validation study of a Spanish version of the FRS. The adapted version was created using 2 translation-back translation processes (English to Spanish, Spanish to English) and verified by the scale's original authors. We validated the adapted version in a sample of consecutive patients diagnosed with FTD. The procedure included evaluating internal consistency, testing unidimensionality with the Rasch model, analysing construct validity and discriminant validity, and calculating the degree of agreement between the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) and FTD-FRS for FTD cases. The study included 60 patients with DFT. The mean score on the FRS was 12.1 points (SD=6.5; range, 2-25) with inter-group differences (F=120.3; df=3; Pde Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive Self-Occlusion Behavior Recognition Based on pLSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition is an important area of human action recognition research. Focusing on the problem of self-occlusion in the field of human action recognition, a new adaptive occlusion state behavior recognition approach was presented based on Markov random field and probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA. Firstly, the Markov random field was used to represent the occlusion relationship between human body parts in terms an occlusion state variable by phase space obtained. Then, we proposed a hierarchical area variety model. Finally, we use the topic model of pLSA to recognize the human behavior. Experiments were performed on the KTH, Weizmann, and Humaneva dataset to test and evaluate the proposed method. The compared experiment results showed that what the proposed method can achieve was more effective than the compared methods.

  12. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  13. Towards Player’s Affective and Behavioral Visual Cues as drives to Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Shaker, Noor; Karpouzis, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...... itself, during gameplay. In this paper, we explore player’s behavior, as captured by computer vision techniques, and player’s details regarding his own experience and profile. The objective of the current research is game adaptation aiming at maximizing player enjoyment. To this aim, the ability to infer...... player engagement and frustration, along with the degree of challenge imposed by the game is explored. The estimated levels of the induced metrics can feed an engine’s artificial intelligence, allowing for game adaptation....

  14. Validity of the Mexican version of the combined Foot Care Confidence / Foot-Care Behavior scale for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. García-Inzunza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To 1 translate / transculturally adapt the original (English-language combined Foot Care Confidence Scale / Foot-Care Behavior instrument (FCCS-FCB to produce a Mexican-Spanish version and 2 determine its validity and reliability in a population with diabetes in Tijuana, Mexico. METHODS: The original FCCS-FCB was translated (and back-translated, the content validated (by a group of health professional experts, and the instrument applied to 304 patients 23-78 years old in diabetes support groups in Tijuana, Mexico. Internal consistency for the study constructs ("self-efficacy," and risk / preventive foot self-care behaviors was measured using Cronbach's alpha. The constructs were validated using principal component factor analysis. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha values for internal consistency were 0.782 for self-efficacy and 0.505 for behaviors. Based on the analysis, two factors explained 49.1% of the total variance for self-efficacy, and six factors explained 57.7% of the total variance for behaviors. The results were consistent with those for the original (English version of the FCCS-FCB. CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican version of the FCCS-FCB is a reliable and valid instrument recommended for use with Mexican-Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes.

  15. A Study of Disaster Adaptation Behavior and Risk Communication for watershed Area Resident - the Case of Kaoping River Watershed in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the

  16. Scaling behaviors of magnetoconductivity in amorphous indium oxide near the metal-insulator transition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y J; Kim, Y S

    2000-01-01

    Magnetoconductivity is measured in an amorphous indium-oxide sample which is in the microscopic region. Two different scaling behaviors are observed for the magnetoconductivity The scaling behavior is determined by either the localization or the electron correlation effects, whichever becomes stronger more rapidly at a given temperature and magnetic field. Qualitative explanations are given for the observed scaling behaviors. A curve of a function of H/T sup 2 sup / sup 3 exists on which all our magnetoconductivity data lie.

  17. The birth satisfaction scale: Turkish adaptation, validation and reliability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Fatma Cosar; Sezer, Ayse; Merih, Yeliz Dogan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the validity and the reliability of Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and to adapt it into the Turkish language. This scale is used for measuring maternal satisfaction with birth in order to evaluate women’s birth perceptions. METHODS: In this study there were 150 women who attended to inpatient postpartum clinic. The participants filled in an information form and the BSS questionnaire forms. The properties of the scale were tested by conducting reliability and validation analyses. RESULTS: BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions. It was developed by Hollins Martin and Fleming. Total scale scores ranged between 30–150 points. Higher scores from the scale mean increases in birth satisfaction. Three overarching themes were identified in Scale: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, prolonged labour and baby’s health). Cronbach’s alfa coefficient was 0.62. CONCLUSION: According to the present study, BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions and evaluates women’s birth perceptions. The Turkish version of BSS has been proven to be a valid and a reliable scale. PMID:28058355

  18. Different behaviors of epidemic spreading in scale-free networks with identical degree sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Xiangwei; Guan Jihong [School of Electronics and Information, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Zhang Zhongzhi; Zhou Shuigeng [School of Computer Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li Mo, E-mail: zhangzz@fudan.edu.c, E-mail: jhguan@tongj.edu.c, E-mail: sgzhou@fudan.edu.c [Software School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-02-12

    Recently, the study of dynamical behaviors of the susceptible-infected (SI) disease model in complex networks, especially in Barabasi-Albert (BA) scale-free networks, has attracted much attention. Although some interesting phenomena have been observed, the formative reasons for those particular dynamical behaviors are still not well understood, despite the speculation that topological properties (for example the degree distribution) have a strong impact on epidemic spreading. In this paper, we study the evolution behaviors of epidemic spreading on a class of scale-free networks sharing identical degree sequence, and observe significantly different evolution behaviors in the whole family of networks. We show that the power-law degree distribution does not suffice to characterize the dynamical behaviors of disease diffusion on scale-free networks.

  19. Different behaviors of epidemic spreading in scale-free networks with identical degree sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Xiangwei; Guan Jihong; Zhang Zhongzhi; Zhou Shuigeng; Li Mo

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the study of dynamical behaviors of the susceptible-infected (SI) disease model in complex networks, especially in Barabasi-Albert (BA) scale-free networks, has attracted much attention. Although some interesting phenomena have been observed, the formative reasons for those particular dynamical behaviors are still not well understood, despite the speculation that topological properties (for example the degree distribution) have a strong impact on epidemic spreading. In this paper, we study the evolution behaviors of epidemic spreading on a class of scale-free networks sharing identical degree sequence, and observe significantly different evolution behaviors in the whole family of networks. We show that the power-law degree distribution does not suffice to characterize the dynamical behaviors of disease diffusion on scale-free networks.

  20. An assessment of the spatial scale of local adaptation in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.): footprints of selection at microsatellite DNA loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Local adaptation is considered a paradigm in studies of salmonid fish populations. Yet, little is known about the geographical scale of local adaptation. Is adaptive divergence primarily evident at the scale of regions or individual populations? Also, many salmonid populations are subject to spaw...

  1. Anomalous Scaling Behaviors in a Rice-Pile Model with Two Different Driving Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Duanming; Sun Hongzhang; Li Zhihua; Pan Guijun; Yu Boming; Li Rui; Yin Yanping

    2005-01-01

    The moment analysis is applied to perform large scale simulations of the rice-pile model. We find that this model shows different scaling behavior depending on the driving mechanism used. With the noisy driving, the rice-pile model violates the finite-size scaling hypothesis, whereas, with fixed driving, it shows well defined avalanche exponents and displays good finite size scaling behavior for the avalanche size and time duration distributions.

  2. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  3. Adaptation to Spanish language and validation of the fecal incontinence quality of life scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Miguel; Garrigues, Vicente; Soria, Maria Jose; Andreu, Montserrat; Mearin, Fermin; Clave, Pere

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale in the Spanish language. Eleven hospitals in Spain participated in the study, which included 118 patients with active fecal incontinence. All the patients filled out a questionnaire on the severity of their incontinence, a general questionnaire of health (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form), and a Spanish translation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal), which consists of 29 items in four domains: lifestyle, behavior, depression, and embarrassment. On a second visit, patients repeated the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. For each domain, an evaluation was made of temporal reliability, internal reliability, the convergent validity with the generic questionnaire of health, and the discriminant validity correlating the domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal with the severity of fecal incontinence. For cultural adaptation, the answer alternatives for 14 items were modified. A total of 111 patients (94 percent) completed the study adequately. Temporal reliability (test-retest) was good for all domains except for embarrassment, which showed significant differences (P 0.80, between 0.84 and 0.96). The four domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal significantly correlated with the domains of the generic questionnaire on health (P de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal correlated negatively with the need to wear pads (P de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal incorporates sufficient requirements of reliability and validity to be applied to patients with fecal incontinence.

  4. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  5. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew), Korea, the US (Spanish), India (Malayalam and Kannada), and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Diane; Furtado, Tamzin; Angalakuditi, Mallik

    2012-01-01

    Background The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally. Objective The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy. Methods A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity. Results A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel. Conclusion An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation. PMID:22715318

  6. Distributed Recurrent Neural Forward Models with Synaptic Adaptation and CPG-based control for Complex Behaviors of Walking Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakyasingha eDasgupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of 1 central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, 2 distributed (at each leg recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and 3 searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to sensorimotor prediction outperforms the previous state of the art adaptive neuron

  7. Iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker for large-scale systems: a digital redesign approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jason Sheng-Hong; Du, Yan-Yi; Huang, Pei-Hsiang; Guo, Shu-Mei; Shieh, Leang-San; Chen, Yuhua

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a digital redesign methodology of the iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker is proposed to improve the dynamic performance of sampled-data linear large-scale control systems consisting of N interconnected multi-input multi-output subsystems, so that the system output will follow any trajectory which may not be presented by the analytic reference model initially. To overcome the interference of each sub-system and simplify the controller design, the proposed model reference decentralized adaptive control scheme constructs a decoupled well-designed reference model first. Then, according to the well-designed model, this paper develops a digital decentralized adaptive tracker based on the optimal analog control and prediction-based digital redesign technique for the sampled-data large-scale coupling system. In order to enhance the tracking performance of the digital tracker at specified sampling instants, we apply the iterative learning control (ILC) to train the control input via continual learning. As a result, the proposed iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker not only has robust closed-loop decoupled property but also possesses good tracking performance at both transient and steady state. Besides, evolutionary programming is applied to search for a good learning gain to speed up the learning process of ILC. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polish Adaptation of the Psychache Scale by Ronald Holden and Co-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Jan; Miniszewska, Joanna; Strzelczyk, Dorota; Gąsior, Krzysztof

    2017-04-30

    The conducted study was aimed at making a Polish adaptation of the Scale of Psychache by Ronald Holden and co-workers. The scale is a self-assessment method which comprises 13 statements and is designed to assess subjectively experienced psychological pain. 300 persons were examined - undergraduates and postgraduates of the University of Lodz and the Technical University of Lodz. The group of the study participants consisted of 185 women and 115 men. Moreover, there were examined 150 alcohol addicted men, 50 co-addicted women and 50 major depressive episode (MDE) patients. The Polish version of the Scale is a reliable and valid tool. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis has proved the existence of one factor. The internal consistency, assessed on the basis of Cronbach's alpha, equalled 0.93. The method displays positive and statistically significant relationships to levels of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, anhedonia and negative relations to levels of optimism, life satisfaction, and positive orientation. Alcohol addicted men with presently diagnosed suicidal thoughts were characterised by a significantly higher level of psychological pain as compared to alcoholics without such thoughts. A higher level of psychache was also reported in people with depression who have a history of attempted suicide compared with those who have not attempted suicide. The effect of the conducted adaptation works on the Psychache Scale speaks for recommending the method for scientific research and use in therapeutic practice.

  9. Adaptive scaling of reward in episodic memory:a replication study

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Alice; Ludwig, Casimir; Farrell, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Reward is thought to enhance episodic memory formation via dopaminergic consolidation. Bunzeck, Dayan, Dolan, and Duzel [(2010). A common mechanism for adaptive scaling of reward and novelty. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1380–1394] provided functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioural evidence that reward and episodic memory systems are sensitive to the contextual value of a reward—whether it is relatively higher or lower—as opposed to absolute value or prediction error. We carrie...

  10. THE IMPACT OF SERVICE QUALITY ON BEHAVIORAL INTENTION IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    KURUUZUM, Ayse; KOKSAL, Can Deniz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of service quality on behavioral intention in hospitality industry. In order to measure service quality, five-dimensional and twenty two-itemed scale which adapted for hospitality industry by Tsaur, Lin and Wu from Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry’s SERVQUAL scale, was used. Together with this scale, five-dimensional and thirteenitemed scale which developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry was used in order to measure behavioral intention....

  11. Toronto Alexithymia Scale: Adaptation of the Brazilian Version to Low-Educated Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Roccato Fortes

    Full Text Available Abstract: For the purpose of studying Alexithymia in low-educated adults, we intend to adapt the Brazilian version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26 and to verify its internal consistency. With that aim, we translated the original TAS-26 (English to Portuguese, adopting a colloquial language, without content distortion. An exploratory qualitative study interviewed 50 women (38-65 years, education <9 years and identified comprehension difficulties in 22 items, that needed adaptation. A professional translator performed the back-translation of the adapted TAS-26, that was applied to a new sample of women (90 with chronical pain and 90 without pain, 38-65 years, education <9 years to evaluate its internal consistency. Only four items (1/2/3/16 of the pre-existing Brazilian version (appropriate to university students did not require modification. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory for total score (0.65 and elevated for factor 1 (0.87. The adapted Brazilian version of TAS-26 is appropriate to low-educated adults.

  12. Signs of long-term adaptation to permanent brain damage as revealed by prehension studies of children with spastic hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Latash, M.L.; Levin, M.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter focusses on signs of long-term adaptation to permanent brain damage in children with spastic hemiparesis. First, we recognize that adaptation processes may occur at various time scales. Then, we formulate a tentative strategy to infer signs of adaptation from behavioral data.

  13. The Turkish Adaptation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürefe, Nejla; Akçakin, Veysel

    2018-01-01

    Persistent in mathematical studies is an important element allowing students to be successful in their STEM careers, and there is a need for affective measurement instruments to assess persistence in mathematics in spite of problems. For this reason, this study aims to adapt the Mathematical Resilience Scale developed to assess resilience, which…

  14. A New Approach to Adaptive Control of Multiple Scales in Plasma Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Yuri

    2007-04-01

    A new approach to temporal refinement of kinetic (Particle-in-Cell, Vlasov) and fluid (MHD, two-fluid) simulations of plasmas is presented: Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). DES adaptively distributes CPU resources in accordance with local time scales and enables asynchronous integration of inhomogeneous nonlinear systems with multiple time scales on meshes of arbitrary topologies. This removes computational penalties usually incurred in explicit codes due to the global Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) restriction on a time-step size. DES stands apart from multiple time-stepping algorithms in that it requires neither selecting a global synchronization time step nor pre-determining a sequence of time-integration operations for individual parts of the system (local time increments need not bear any integer multiple relations). Instead, elements of a mesh-distributed solution self-adaptively predict and synchronize their temporal trajectories by directly enforcing local causality (accuracy) constraints, which are formulated in terms of incremental changes to the evolving solution. Together with flux-conservative propagation of information, this new paradigm ensures stable and fast asynchronous runs, where idle computation is automatically eliminated. DES is parallelized via a novel Preemptive Event Processing (PEP) technique, which automatically synchronizes elements with similar update rates. In this mode, events with close execution times are projected onto time levels, which are adaptively determined by the program. PEP allows reuse of standard message-passing algorithms on distributed architectures. For optimum accuracy, DES can be combined with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) techniques for structured and unstructured meshes. Current examples of event-driven models range from electrostatic, hybrid particle-in-cell plasma systems to reactive fluid dynamics simulations. They demonstrate the superior performance of DES in terms of accuracy, speed and robustness.

  15. Probabilistic Simulation of Multi-Scale Composite Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the non-deterministic composite response at all composite scales (from micro to structural) due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties, in the fabrication process and in structural variables (primitive variables). The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of composite behavior, such as material properties, laminate and structural responses. Bi-products of the methodology are probabilistic sensitivities of the composite primitive variables. The methodology has been implemented into the computer codes PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer) and IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in composite typical laminates and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. Available experimental data of composite laminate behavior at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN. Multi-scaling is extended to simulate probabilistic thermo-mechanical fatigue and to simulate the probabilistic design of a composite redome in order to illustrate its versatility. Results show that probabilistic fatigue can be simulated for different temperature amplitudes and for different cyclic stress magnitudes. Results also show that laminate configurations can be selected to increase the redome reliability by several orders of magnitude without increasing the laminate thickness--a unique feature of structural composites. The old reference denotes that nothing fundamental has been done since that time.

  16. A characterization of scale invariant responses in enzymatic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Skataric

    Full Text Available An ubiquitous property of biological sensory systems is adaptation: a step increase in stimulus triggers an initial change in a biochemical or physiological response, followed by a more gradual relaxation toward a basal, pre-stimulus level. Adaptation helps maintain essential variables within acceptable bounds and allows organisms to readjust themselves to an optimum and non-saturating sensitivity range when faced with a prolonged change in their environment. Recently, it was shown theoretically and experimentally that many adapting systems, both at the organism and single-cell level, enjoy a remarkable additional feature: scale invariance, meaning that the initial, transient behavior remains (approximately the same even when the background signal level is scaled. In this work, we set out to investigate under what conditions a broadly used model of biochemical enzymatic networks will exhibit scale-invariant behavior. An exhaustive computational study led us to discover a new property of surprising simplicity and generality, uniform linearizations with fast output (ULFO, whose validity we show is both necessary and sufficient for scale invariance of three-node enzymatic networks (and sufficient for any number of nodes. Based on this study, we go on to develop a mathematical explanation of how ULFO results in scale invariance. Our work provides a surprisingly consistent, simple, and general framework for understanding this phenomenon, and results in concrete experimental predictions.

  17. Translation and adaptation of the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofia; Pampliega Pérez, Ana; Peral Gómez, Paula; Pastor, María Ángeles; Hurtado-Pomares, Miriam

    2017-09-20

    Functional assessment is especially relevant in patients with cognitive impairment (CI). The Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale assesses functional ability and its use is becoming increasingly popular. This study aims to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the DAD scale in order to create a Spanish version: DAD-E. A double translation/back-translation process was developed, as well as a pilot study with 14 caregivers of patients with CI, and 3 review meetings to achieve general agreement. The DAD-E includes the 40 original items. Four response options and 8 scores were added in order to detect functional disability induced by CI independently of other possible causes. More detailed instructions for administration and scoring of the scale have been provided in order to improve the reliability of the content. The DAD-E was shown to be a cultural and linguistic adaptation equivalent of the original scale, which allows it to be applied to the Spanish population. It may be a useful instrument in clinical practice since it provides a more accurate assessment of functional disability due to cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation of the EMIC Stigma Scale for people with leprosy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Silveira, Erika Maria Kopp Xavier da; Sales, Anna Maria; Nascimento, Lilian Pinheiro Rodrigues do; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Oliveira, Aldair J; Illarramendi, Ximena

    2017-09-04

    Describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the "Explanatory Model Interview Catalog - Stigma Scale" for people affected by leprosy in Brazil. After being authorized by the author of the scale to use it in the national context, we initiated the five steps process of cross-cultural adaptation: (1) translation, (2) synthesis meeting, (3) back-translation, (4) committee of experts and (5) pre-test. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 15 items of the scale's original version were translated into Brazilian Portuguese. The adapted scale showed evidence of a good understanding of its content, attested both by experts and members of the target population. Its internal consistency was 0.64. The adapted instrument shows satisfactory internal consistency. It may be useful in future studies that intend to provide broad situational analysis that supports solid public health programs with a focus on effective stigma reduction. In a later study, the construct's validity, criterion, and reproducibility will be evaluated. Descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural da "Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue - Stigma Scale" para pessoas afetadas por hanseníase no Brasil. Após a autorização do autor da escala para seu uso no contexto nacional, deu-se início aos cinco passos do processo de adaptação transcultural: (1) tradução, (2) reunião de síntese, (3) retrotradução, (4) comitê de peritos e (5) pré-teste. A consistência interna da escala foi avaliada utilizando o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Os 15 itens da versão original da escala foram traduzidos para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. A escala adaptada apresentou evidência de boa compreensão de seu conteúdo, atestada tanto por peritos como por membros da população alvo. Sua consistência interna foi de 0,64. O instrumento adaptado apresenta consistência interna satisfatória. Pode ser útil em estudos futuros que intencionem viabilizar

  19. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptability on Behavior Problems and Maternal Depression in Families of Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family-systems perspective to examine whether family-level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the three-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptability, the mother-child relationship, their own depressive symptoms, and the behavior problems of their children at Wave 1, and these factors were used to predict maternal depression and child behavior problems three years later. Family-level adaptability predicted change in both maternal depression and child behavior problems over the study period, above and beyond the contribution of the dyadic mother-child relationship. These associations did not appear to depend upon the intellectual disability status of the individual with autism. Implications for autism, parent mental health, family systems theory, and for intervention with this population are discussed. PMID:21668120

  20. Scale Adaptive Simulation Model for the Darrieus Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowski, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Maroński, R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of aerodynamic loads for the Darrieus wind turbine using more or less complex aerodynamic models is still a challenge. One of the problems is the small amount of experimental data available to validate the numerical codes. The major objective of the present study is to examine...... the scale adaptive simulation (SAS) approach for performance analysis of a one-bladed Darrieus wind turbine working at a tip speed ratio of 5 and at a blade Reynolds number of 40 000. The three-dimensional incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are used. Numerical results of aerodynamic loads...

  1. [Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life Scale for European Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque Dos Reis, Luis; Donato, Mariana; Sousa, Rita; Escada, Pedro

    2017-02-27

    The scale Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life uses a simple and easily administered questionnaire to evaluate the adaptation of individuals to their hearing aids. The objective of this study is to validate the scale for European Portuguese speakers, by means of translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The study includes an evaluation of reproducibility and a description of the results of the administration of the questionnaire to patients fitted with hearing aids. We invited 147 individuals fitted with hearing aids (uni- or bilateral) to participate in the study. Participants had used a hearing aid for at least six weeks and were patients of the Department of Otolaryngology at the Egas Moniz Hospital (Lisbon). The consent as well the guidelines for translation from and into the English language were obtained from the author of the scale, and the translation from and into, and cultural adaptation were carried out, along with an evaluation of reproducibility and internal consistency. The participants were 54% male and 46% female, aged between 16 and 93 (66.09 ± 17.41 years). The results of the study showed an overall level of satisfaction of 5.4 among hearing aids users. The sub-scale satisfaction levels were: positive effects 5.88, service and cost 5.25, negative effects 4.24, and self-image 5.57. The Cronbach α score was 0.75 which indicates good internal consistency. Furthermore, the questionnaire's overall and sub-scale average scores did not differ significantly from the results obtained under the American scale. The inter-examiner reproducibility was also good. This study provides reliable results of the scale for the Portuguese of Portugal and adequate internal consistency, with significant age variability in the sample. This adaptation of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire for European Portuguese speakers should be considered a good tool for evaluation of the level of satisfaction of hearing aid users

  2. The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network: Describing Our Scale-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Timothy J.; Longwill, Douglas A.; Staszkiewicz, Mark J.; Palmiero, James; Lawson, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    Pennsylvania began scaling up high-fidelity implementation of SchoolWide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) in 2006-2007 due to converging regulatory, legal, ethical, and practical influences. The Pennsylvania Community of Practice on School-Based Behavioral Health adopted Algozzine et al.'s (2010) blueprint to describe and…

  3. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale in the sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Tomás, Inés; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Bartholomew, Kimberley; Duda, Joan L; Balaguer, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to translate into Spanish and examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS) in male soccer players. The CCBS is a questionnaire designed to assess athletes' perceptions of sports coaches' controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of the self-determination theory. Study 1 tested the factorial structure of the translated scale using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and provided evidence of discriminant validity. Studies 2 and 3 examined the invariance across time and across competitive level via multi-sample CFA. Reliability analyses were also conducted. The CFA results revealed that a four-factor model was acceptable, indicating that a controlling interpersonal style is a multidimensional construct represented by four separate and related controlling coaching strategies. Further, results supported the invariance of the CCBS factor structure across time and competitive level and provided support for the internal consistency of the scale. Overall, the CCBS demonstrated adequate internal consistency, as well as good factorial validity. The Spanish version of the CCBS represents a valid and reliable adaptation of the instrument, which can be confidently used to measure soccer players' perceptions of their coaches' controlling interpersonal style.

  5. Database support for adaptation to climate change: An assessment of web-based portals across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Hilden, Mikael; Russel, Duncan; Dessai, Suraje

    2016-10-01

    The widely recognized increase in greenhouse gas emissions is necessitating adaptation to a changing climate, and policies are being developed and implemented worldwide, across sectors, and between government scales globally. The aim of this article is to reflect on one of the major challenges: facilitating and sharing information on the next adaptation practices. Web portals (i.e., web sites) for disseminating information are important tools in meeting this challenge, and therefore, we assessed the characteristics of select major portals across multiple scales. We found that there is a rather limited number of case studies available in the portals-between 900 and 1000 in total-with 95 that include cost information and 195 that include the participation of stakeholders globally. Portals are rarely cited by researchers, suggesting a suboptimal connection between the practical, policy-related, and scientific development of adaptation. The government portals often lack links on search results between US and European Union (EU) web sites, for example. With significant investments and policy development emerging in both the United States and the European Union, there is great potential to share information via portals. Moreover, there is the possibility of better connecting the practical adaptation experience from bottom-up projects to the science of adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:627-631. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Adaptation, Validation, Reliability and Factorial Equivalence of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in Colombian and Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lugo, Mayra; Espada, José P; Morales, Alexandra; Marchal-Bertrand, Laurent; Soler, Franklin; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2016-10-14

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is the most widely used instrument to assess self-esteem. In light of the absence of adaptations in Colombia, this study seeks to validate and adapt this scale in the Colombian population, and perform factorial equivalence with the Spanish version. A total of 1,139 seniors (633 Colombians and 506 Spaniards) were evaluated; the individuals answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and sexual self-esteem scale. The average score of the items was similar to the questionnaire's theoretical average, and standard deviations were close to one. The psychometric properties of the items are generally adequate with alphas of .83 and .86 and significant (CI = .95) and correlations with the sexual self-esteem scale ranging from .31 and .41. Factorial equivalence was confirmed by means of a structural equation model (CFI = .912 and RMSEA = .079), thus showing a strong level of invariance.

  7. Adaptive versus proactive behavior in service recovery: The role of self-managing teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.; Ruyter, de J.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we develop a conceptual model of adaptive versus proactive recovery behavior by self-managing teams (SMTs) in service recovery operations. To empirically test the conceptual model a combination of bank employee, customer, and archival data is collected. The results demonstrate

  8. A review: Development of a microdose model for analysis of adaptive response and bystander dose response behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2008-02-27

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type (125)I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  9. Full-Scaled Advanced Systems Testbed: Ensuring Success of Adaptive Control Research Through Project Lifecycle Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on the Full-Scale Advance Systems Testbed (FAST) in January of 2011. The research addressed technical challenges involved with reducing risk in an increasingly complex and dynamic national airspace. Specific challenges lie with the development of validated, multidisciplinary, integrated aircraft control design tools and techniques to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage, control surface failures, or aerodynamic upsets. The testbed is an F-18 aircraft serving as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research and lends a significant confidence to the development, maturation, and acceptance process of incorporating adaptive control laws into follow-on research and the operational environment. The experimental systems integrated into FAST were designed to allow for flexible yet safe flight test evaluation and validation of modern adaptive control technologies and revolve around two major hardware upgrades: the modification of Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) and integration of two, fourth-generation Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS). Post-hardware integration verification and validation provided the foundation for safe flight test of Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion and Model Reference Aircraft Control adaptive control law experiments. To ensure success of flight in terms of cost, schedule, and test results, emphasis on risk management was incorporated into early stages of design and flight test planning and continued through the execution of each flight test mission. Specific consideration was made to incorporate safety features within the hardware and software to alleviate user demands as well as into test processes and training to reduce human factor impacts to safe and successful flight test. This paper describes the research configuration

  10. “The Impact of Service Quality on Behavioral Intention in Hospitality Industry”

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Kuruuzum; Can Deniz Koksal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of service quality on behavioral intention in hospitality industry. In order to measure service quality, five-dimensional and twenty two-itemed scale which adapted for hospitality industry by Tsaur, Lin and Wu from Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry’s SERVQUAL scale, was used. Together with this scale, five-dimensional and thirteenitemed scale which developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry was used in order to measure behavioral intention....

  11. Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Chiari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To translate, to perform a cultural adaptation of and to test the reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil. METHODS: First, the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and was then back-translated into French. These translations were reviewed by a committee to establish a Brazilian version of the questionnaire to be tested. The validity and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was evaluated. Patients of both sexes, who were aged 18 to 60 years and presented with rheumatoid arthritis affecting their hands, were interviewed. The patients were initially interviewed by two observers and were later interviewed by a single rater. First, the Visual Analogue Scale for hand pain, the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Disability questionnaire and the Health Assessment Questionnaire were administered. The third administration of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was performed fifteen days after the first administration. Ninety patients were assessed in the present study. RESULTS: Two questions were modified as a result of the assessment of cultural equivalence. The Cronbach's alpha value for this assessment was 0.93. The intraclass intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.96, respectively. The Spearman's coefficient indicated that there was a low level of correlation between the Cochin Hand Functional Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0.46 and that there was a moderate level of correlation of the Cochin Scale with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0.66 and with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (0.63. The average administration time for the Cochin Scale was three minutes. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was successfully translated and adapted, and this version exhibited good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity.

  12. A Novel Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Foraging Behavior in Optimization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of repeated trial and proofreading is generally used to the convention reducer design, but these methods is low efficiency and the size of the reducer is often large. Aiming the problems, this paper presents an adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm with foraging behavior, in this method, the bacterial foraging process is introduced into the adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm, which can provide the function of particle chemotaxis, swarming, reproduction, elimination and dispersal, to improve the ability of local search and avoid premature behavior. By test verification through typical function and the application of the optimization design in the structure of the reducer with discrete and continuous variables, the results are shown that the new algorithm has the advantages of good reliability, strong searching ability and high accuracy. It can be used in engineering design, and has a strong applicability.

  13. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQpreschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing developmental surveillance in this population remains warranted, particularly for those with abnormal birth histories, seizures, and heightened disease severity. PMID:26890559

  14. The Two Faces Of Adolescents’ Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, both marking high levels of concurrent psychosocial adaptation, but also predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. This hypothesis was tested with multi-method, longitudinal data obtained on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents. Sociometric popularity data were examined in relation to data from interview-based assessments of attachment security and ego development, observations of mother-adolescent interactions, and repeated self- and peer-report assessments of delinquency and alcohol use. Results indicated that popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent levels of ego development, secure attachment and more adaptive interactions with mothers and best friends. Longitudinal analyses supported a “popularity-socialization” hypothesis, however, in which popular adolescents were more likely to increase in behaviors that receive approval in the peer group (e.g., minor levels of drug use and delinquency) and decrease in behaviors unlikely to be well-received by peers (e.g., hostile behavior with peers). PMID:15892790

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale: application to Brazilian adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Suellen Pires de Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: translate and adapt the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale to Portuguese in the Brazilian context. The scale originated in the United States and measures self-efficacy in condom use. Method: methodological study in two phases: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and verification of psychometric properties. The translation and adaptation process involved four translators, one mediator of the synthesis and five health professionals. The content validity was verified using the Content Validation Index, based on 22 experts’ judgments. Forty subjects participated in the pretest, who contributed to the understanding of the scale items. The scale was applied to 209 students between 13 and 26 years of age from a school affiliated with the state-owned educational network. The reliability was analyzed by means of Cronbach’s alpha. Results: the Portuguese version of the scale obtained a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.85 and the total mean score was 68.1 points. A statistically significant relation was found between the total scale and the variables not having children (p= 0.038, condom use (p= 0.008 and condom use with fixed partner (p=0.036. Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale is a valid and reliable tool to verify the self-efficacy in condom use among adolescents and young adults.

  16. Adaptation and Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, Ana Claudia Souza; Magnan, Emília dos Santos; Pacico, Juliana Cerentini; Hutz, Claudio Simon; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2015-01-01

    Engagement at work is a positive mental and dispositional state characterized by Vigor, Dedication and Concentration. The aim of this study was to adapt and get evidence of validity for the Brazilian version of the utrecht work engagement scale (UWES). Participated in the study 1167 workers between 18 and 70 years (M = 36.8, SD = 10.3) in the Brazilian regions. Studies to establish content and construct validity with the 17- item and the 9- item scales were performed. Exploratory and confirma...

  17. Cultural adaptation, psychometric properties, and outcomes of the Native American Spirituality Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Brenna L; Hallgren, Kevin A; Venner, Kamilla L; Hagler, Kylee J; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Sheche, Judith N; Homer, Everett; Lupee, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Spirituality is central to many Native Americans (NAs) and has been associated with recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). However, no published questionnaire uniquely taps tribal-specific spiritual beliefs and practices. This hinders efforts to integrate traditional NA spirituality into SUD treatment and track spiritual outcomes. As part of a randomized controlled trial examining SUD treatment for NAs, we adapted the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) in collaboration with members of a Southwest tribe to create the Native American Spirituality Scale (NASS) and measured changes in the NASS over the course of treatment. The 83 participants (70% male) were from a single Southwest tribe and seeking SUD treatment. They completed the NASS at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 months. Exploratory factor analysis of the NASS was conducted and its temporal invariance, construct validity, and longitudinal changes in the factor and item scores were examined. The NASS yielded a 2-factor structure that was largely invariant across time. Factor 1 reflected behavioral practices, while Factor 2 reflected more global beliefs. Both factors significantly increased across 12 months, albeit at different assessment points. At baseline, Factor 1 was negatively related to substance use and positively associated with measures of tribal identification while Factor 2 was unrelated to these measures. Given the importance of tribal spirituality to many NAs, the development of this psychometrically sound measure is a key precursor and complement to the incorporation of tribal spirituality into treatment, as well as research on mechanisms of change for SUD treatment among NAs and assessment of NA spirituality in relation to other aspects of health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew, Korea, the US (Spanish, India (Malayalam and Kannada, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diane Wild,1 Tamzin Furtado,1 Mallik Angalakuditi21Oxford Outcomes, Oxford, UK; 2Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USABackground: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally.Objective: The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy.Methods: A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity.Results: A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel.Conclusion: An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation.Keywords: epilepsy, multinational studies, content validity

  19. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  20. Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Saylor Mase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change presents unique challenges to the resilience of United States agriculture, and farmers and advisors must utilize effective adaptation strategies to be both economically and environmentally sustainable. This study addresses Midwestern U.S. crop farmers’ beliefs about climate change, perceived risks from weather and climate, and attitudes toward adaptation that influence their decisions to adopt adaptation strategies. Analyzing a 2012 survey of nearly 5000 corn farmers across 22 Midwestern U.S. Watersheds, we investigate the most common weather and climate risk management strategies, including purchasing additional crop insurance, implementing conservation practices, and adding new technology. U.S. farmers’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, perceptions of changing weather patterns, climate risks to their farm and attitudes toward adapting are analyzed. Farmers’ perceptions of risk to their own farm, attitudes toward innovation and adaptation attitudes were the most important determinants of adaptation. This study highlights the critical role of risk perceptions in adaptation attitudes as well as behaviors among agriculturalists. Finally, we discuss how these findings could be applied to increase uptake of adaptation strategies and thus resilience of U.S. agriculture to a changing climate.

  1. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  2. Exploring adaptive program behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions....... Both solutions come at a cost; adaptivity issues a runtime overhead and requires more design effort, while dynamic recompilation takes time to perform. In this project, we plan to investigate the possibilities, limitations, and benefits of these techniques. This abstract covers our thoughts on how...

  3. Geometric scaling behavior of the scattering amplitude for DIS with nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene; Tapia, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    The main question, that we answer in this paper, is whether the initial condition can influence on the geometric scaling behavior of the amplitude for DIS at high energy. We re-write the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation in the form which is useful for treating the interaction with nuclei. Using the simplified BFKL kernel, we find the analytical solution to this equation with the initial condition given by the McLerran-Venugopalan formula. This solution does not show the geometric scaling behavior of the amplitude deeply in the saturation region. On the other hand, the BFKL Pomeron calculus with the initial condition at x=1/mR given by the solution to Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, leads to the geometric scaling behavior. The McLerran-Venugopalan formula is the natural initial condition for the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach. Therefore, our result gives a possibility to check experimentally which approach: CGC or BFKL Pomeron calculus, is more satisfactory.

  4. Geometric scaling behavior of the scattering amplitude for DIS with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene; Tapia, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The main question, that we answer in this paper, is whether the initial condition can influence on the geometric scaling behavior of the amplitude for DIS at high energy. We re-write the non-linear Balitsky–Kovchegov equation in the form which is useful for treating the interaction with nuclei. Using the simplified BFKL kernel, we find the analytical solution to this equation with the initial condition given by the McLerran–Venugopalan formula. This solution does not show the geometric scaling behavior of the amplitude deeply in the saturation region. On the other hand, the BFKL Pomeron calculus with the initial condition at x A =1/mR A given by the solution to Balitsky–Kovchegov equation, leads to the geometric scaling behavior. The McLerran–Venugopalan formula is the natural initial condition for the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach. Therefore, our result gives a possibility to check experimentally which approach: CGC or BFKL Pomeron calculus, is more satisfactory.

  5. The Association of Benefit Finding to Psychosocial and Health Behavior Adaptation Among HIV+ Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Blair, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation, such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of benefit finding to positive health behavior and psychosocial adaptation. HIV+ participants (N = 221) recruited during outpatient care completed self-report assessments of benefit finding, social support, depression, HAART adherence, substance use, and physical activity. In a series of multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic and health status variables, benefit finding was associated with lower depression scores, greater social support, and more physical activity, but showed no association to HAART adherence or substance use. The association of benefit finding to depression was partially mediated by differences in social support. Thus, benefit finding may improve psychological adjustment by motivating patients who experience stress-related growth to seek improved social support. PMID:18157689

  6. Adapting cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis for case managers: increasing access to services in a community mental health agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Vicki L; Sivec, Harry J; Munetz, Mark R; Pelton, Jeremy R; Turkington, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe the adaptation of an evidence-based practice and, (b) using a dissemination framework, to describe the process of implementing the practice at a community mental health agency. The authors describe the training concept and dissemination framework of implementing an emerging practice: high-yield cognitive behavioral techniques for psychosis, which is rooted in cognitive behavioral therapy. Thirteen case managers who represented teams from across the agency delivered the adapted practice at a community mental health agency. Implementation required buy in from all stakeholders, communication across disciplines, persistence, and flexibility. It appears that the use of a dissemination framework that is grounded in the literature, yet flexible, eases the process of implementing an adapted practice. Further research focusing on the effectiveness of this approach, along with the impact of implementing a full spectrum of cognitive behavioral therapy services for individuals with persistent psychotic symptoms, based on cognitive behavioral therapy principles, is indicated.

  7. RHEOLOGY AND SCALING BEHAVIOR OF SWELLING CLAY DISPERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chaoui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and scaling of rheological properties of colloidal gels of bentonite investigated as a function of volume fraction and strength of interparticle interaction over a range of volume fractions, elastic modulus is well described with a scaling law functions of volume fractions, while the role of interparticle attractions can be accounted for by expressing these rheological properties as (f/fg-1n, where fg captures the strength of particle interaction and n the microstructure. The scaling variable (fp/fpc-1, suggested in percolation theory to describe rheological behavior near percolation transition, acts to collapse G’ data suggesting that along lines of constant (f/fg-1 these gels are rheologically identical.

  8. RHEOLOGY AND SCALING BEHAVIOR OF SWELLING CLAY DISPERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CHAOUI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and scaling of rheological properties of colloidal gels of bentonite investigated as a function of volume fraction and strength of interparticle interaction over a range of volume fractions, elastic modulus is well described with a scaling law functions of volume fractions, while the role of interparticle attractions can be accounted for by expressing these rheological properties as (/g-1n, where g captures the strength of particle interaction and n the microstructure.The scaling variable (p/pc-1, suggested in percolation theory to describe rheological behavior near percolation transition, acts to collapse G’ data suggesting that along lines of constant (/g-1 these gels are rheologically identical.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluations of the Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Umay, Ebru; Cakci, Aytul

    2018-06-07

    The objectives of the present study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the English version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale into Turkish, to evaluate its psychometric properties, and to compare them with that of other language versions. A total of 144 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease were included in the study. The Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale was evaluated for data quality, scaling assumptions, acceptability, reliability, and validity. The questionnaire response rate was 100% for both test and retest. The percentage of missing data was zero for items, and the percentage of computable scores was full. Floor and ceiling effects were absent. The Parkinson Fatigue Scale provides an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was 0.974 for 1st test and 0.964 for a retest, and corrected item-to-total correlations were ranged from 0.715 to 0.906) and test-retest reliability (Cohen's kappa coefficients were ranged from 0.632 to 0.786 for individuals items, and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.887 for the overall Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score). An exploratory factor analysis of the items revealed a single factor explaining 71.7% of variance. The goodness-of-fit statistics for the one-factorial confirmatory factor analysis were Tucker Lewis index = 0.961, comparative fit index = 0.971 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.077 for a single factor. The average Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score was correlated significantly with sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics and scores of rating scales. The Turkish version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale seems to be culturally well adapted and have good psychometric properties. The scale can be used in further studies to assess the fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  10. Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form for Assessing Behavior in a Sample of Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Terri N; Thompson, Erin L

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the structure and validity of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form (PBFS-TR) for assessing students' frequency of specific forms of aggression and victimization, and positive behavior. Analyses were conducted on two waves of data from 727 students from two urban middle schools (Sample 1) who were rated by their teachers on the PBFS-TR and the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), and on data collected from 1,740 students from three urban middle schools (Sample 2) for whom data on both the teacher and student report version of the PBFS were obtained. Confirmatory factor analyses supported first-order factors representing 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 3 forms of victimization (physical, verbal and relational), and 2 forms of positive behavior (prosocial behavior and effective nonviolent behavior), and higher-order factors representing aggression, victimization, and positive behavior. Strong measurement invariance was established over gender, grade, intervention condition, and time. Support for convergent validity was found based on correlations between corresponding scales on the PBFS-TR and teacher ratings on the SSIS in Sample 1. Significant correlations were also found between teacher ratings on the PBFS-TR and student ratings of their behavior on the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR) and a measure of nonviolent behavioral intentions in Sample 2. Overall the findings provided support for the PBFS-TR and suggested that teachers can provide useful data on students' aggressive and prosocial behavior and victimization experiences within the school setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Adapting Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia disorder is common in patients undergoing cancer treatment. There is compelling evidence demonstrating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I should be the initial treatment, but there has been insufficient research has been conducted among cancer patients. This population presents with unique physical and psychosocial health issues that may interfere with standard CBT-I and addressing these issues can play a role in improving treatment adherence and efficacy. We explore potential adaptations that can be made to standard CBT-I for cancer patients. Further research for this growing population is essential.

  12. Adaptation and psychometric properties of the SBI-U scale for Academic Burnout in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Boada-Grau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to draw up a Spanish adaptation for university students of the School Burnout Inventory (SBI 9-item scale. This entailed a double adaptation, on the one hand from English into Spanish and then from secondary school students to university students. The scale was applied to 578 university students (25.7% men; 74.3% women from different regions in Spain. The findings indicate that the University students-SBI has the same structure as the original version in English for secondary school students. This was confirmed by factor analysis that pointed to the existence of three factors: Exhaustion, Cynicism and Inadequacy. Furthermore, the three subscales showed acceptable reliability (between .77 and .70 In addition to this, indications of validity were found using eighteen external correlates and seven contrast scales. Finally the SBI-U constitutes a potentially useful instrument for evaluating academic burnout in university students.

  13. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112–121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference. PMID:25586064

  14. Scaling behavior in first-order quark-hadron phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that in the Ginzburg-Landau description of first-order quark-hadron phase transition the normalized factorial moments exhibit scaling behavior. The scaling exponent ν depends on only one effective parameter g, which characterizes the strength of the transition. For a strong first-order transition, we find ν=1.45. For weak transition it is 1.30 in agreement with the earlier result on second-order transition

  15. Behavioral Profiles of Children with Epilepsy: Parent and Teacher Reports of Emotional, Behavioral, and Educational Concerns on the BASC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Jeffrey B.; Kanive, Rebecca; Sanders, Sarah J.; Blackburn, Lynn Bennett

    2008-01-01

    The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2) was administered to 108 parents and 37 teachers of children with epilepsy (mean age of 10.6 years; 51% female, 49% male). Results demonstrated high mean scores on the Atypicality, Attention Problems, Withdrawal, and Adaptive Skills scales and a high percentage of At-Risk or…

  16. Validation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joest Katharina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty scales (PRU in primary care physicians. Methods In a structured process, the original questionnaire was translated, culturally adapted and assessed after administering it to 93 GPs. Test-retest reliability was tested by sending the questionnaire to the GPs again after two weeks. Results The principal factor analysis confirmed the postulated four-factor structure underlying the 15 items. In contrast to the original version, item 5 achieved a higher loading on the 'concern about bad outcomes' scale. Consequently, we rearranged the scales. Good item-scale correlations were obtained, with Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging from 0.56–0.84. As regards the item-discriminant validity between the scales 'anxiety due to uncertainty' and 'concern about bad outcomes', partially high correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.02–0.69; p Conclusion Dealing with uncertainty is an important issue in daily practice. The psychometric properties of the rearranged German version of the PRU are satisfying. The revealed floor effects do not limit the significance of the questionnaire. Thus, the German version of the PRU could contribute to the further evaluation of the impact of uncertainty in primary care physicians.

  17. Adapting Dialectical Behavior Therapy for the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Van Orden, Kim

    2016-12-31

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2. The authors describe adapting DBT, and especially its techniques for Stage 1 safety work, for work with DID patients. Basic theoretical principles are described and illustrated with a case example.

  18. Scale Development and Initial Tests of the Multidimensional Complex Adaptive Leadership Scale for School Principals: An Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Hamit; Turan, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the scale of the Complex Adaptive Leadership for School Principals (CAL-SP) and examine its psychometric properties. This was an exploratory mixed method research design (ES-MMD). Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study…

  19. Use of intervention mapping to adapt a health behavior change intervention for endometrial cancer survivors: the shape-up following cancer treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutoukidis, Dimitrios A; Lopes, Sonia; Atkins, Lou; Croker, Helen; Knobf, M Tish; Lanceley, Anne; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2018-03-27

    About 80% of endometrial cancer survivors (ECS) are overweight or obese and have sedentary behaviors. Lifestyle behavior interventions are promising for improving dietary and physical activity behaviors, but the constructs associated with their effectiveness are often inadequately reported. The aim of this study was to systematically adapt an evidence-based behavior change program to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in ECS. Following a review of the literature, focus groups and interviews were conducted with ECS (n = 16). An intervention mapping protocol was used for the program adaptation, which consisted of six steps: a needs assessment, formulation of matrices of change objectives, selection of theoretical methods and practical applications, program production, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning. Social Cognitive Theory and Control Theory guided the adaptation of the intervention. The process consisted of eight 90-min group sessions focusing on shaping outcome expectations, knowledge, self-efficacy, and goals about healthy eating and physical activity. The adapted performance objectives included establishment of regular eating, balanced diet, and portion sizes, reduction in sedentary behaviors, increase in lifestyle and organized activities, formulation of a discrepancy-reducing feedback loop for all above behaviors, and trigger management. Information on managing fatigue and bowel issues unique to ECS were added. Systematic intervention mapping provided a framework to design a cancer survivor-centered lifestyle intervention. ECS welcomed the intervention and provided essential feedback for its adaptation. The program has been evaluated through a randomized controlled trial.

  20. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yongjoo; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-05-01

    Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 for the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vedovato Silva-Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 for the Brazilian context. Method The following stages were used: translation into Brazilian Portuguese by independent translators, elaboration of a synthesis version, back-translation, evaluation by experts and pretest with target population. Results All the stages of cross-cultural adaptation were completed, and in the majority of items evaluated, good concordance between experts was obtained (≥ 80%. Suggested adjustments were compiled into the consensus version by the two authors, with the resulting material being considered adequate in the pretest (and thus no further changes were needed. Termed as “Escala de Ansiedade Esportiva-2,” the final version was considered by the main author of the original scale as an official version in Brazilian Portuguese. Conclusions In view of the fulfilment of all steps suggested for the cross-cultural adaptation process, the SAS-2 is now available in Brazilian Portuguese to be tested for its psychometric qualities.

  2. [Adaptation and psychometric proprieties study for the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale - Escala de Coping para Adolescentes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Cruz, Diana; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sampaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Coping is a psychological process that prompts the individual to adapt to stressful situations. The Adolescent Coping Scale is a widely used research and clinical tool. This study aimed to develop a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale and to analyze the strategies and coping styles of young people in our sample. An anonymous questionnaire comprising the Adolescent Coping Scale was submitted and replied by 1 713 students (56% female, from 12 to 20 years, average age 16) The validity study of the scale included: principal component and reliability analysis; confirmatory analysis using structural equation modelling Subsequently, a gender comparison of both the strategies and the coping styles was conducted through independent samples t tests. The final structure of the Adolescent Coping Scale adaptation retained 70 items assessing 16 coping strategies grouped into three major styles. The scales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha values between 0.63. and 0.86, with the exception of one dimension that as shown a value of 0.55) and the confirmatory model showed a good fit (goodness of fit index values between 0.94 e 0.96). Two coping strategies were eliminated on statistical grounds (insufficient saturations of items in the corresponding dimensions). We found that the style of coping focused on problem solving is the most used by youths from our sample, in both sexes. Females had higher mean values in non-productive coping style and reference to others. This adapted version has high similarity with the original scale, with expectable minor changes, given that coping is influenced by cultural, geographical and socio-economic variables. The present study represents an important part of the validation protocol Portuguese Adolescent Coping Scale, including its linguistic adaptation and its internal consistency and factor structure studies.

  3. From dinosaurs to modern bird diversity: extending the time scale of adaptive radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What explains why some groups of organisms, like birds, are so species rich? And what explains their extraordinary ecological diversity, ranging from large, flightless birds to small migratory species that fly thousand of kilometers every year? These and similar questions have spurred great interest in adaptive radiation, the diversification of ecological traits in a rapidly speciating group of organisms. Although the initial formulation of modern concepts of adaptive radiation arose from consideration of the fossil record, rigorous attempts to identify adaptive radiation in the fossil record are still uncommon. Moreover, most studies of adaptive radiation concern groups that are less than 50 million years old. Thus, it is unclear how important adaptive radiation is over temporal scales that span much larger portions of the history of life. In this issue, Benson et al. test the idea of a "deep-time" adaptive radiation in dinosaurs, compiling and using one of the most comprehensive phylogenetic and body-size datasets for fossils. Using recent phylogenetic statistical methods, they find that in most clades of dinosaurs there is a strong signal of an "early burst" in body-size evolution, a predicted pattern of adaptive radiation in which rapid trait evolution happens early in a group's history and then slows down. They also find that body-size evolution did not slow down in the lineage leading to birds, hinting at why birds survived to the present day and diversified. This paper represents one of the most convincing attempts at understanding deep-time adaptive radiations.

  4. From dinosaurs to modern bird diversity: extending the time scale of adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    What explains why some groups of organisms, like birds, are so species rich? And what explains their extraordinary ecological diversity, ranging from large, flightless birds to small migratory species that fly thousand of kilometers every year? These and similar questions have spurred great interest in adaptive radiation, the diversification of ecological traits in a rapidly speciating group of organisms. Although the initial formulation of modern concepts of adaptive radiation arose from consideration of the fossil record, rigorous attempts to identify adaptive radiation in the fossil record are still uncommon. Moreover, most studies of adaptive radiation concern groups that are less than 50 million years old. Thus, it is unclear how important adaptive radiation is over temporal scales that span much larger portions of the history of life. In this issue, Benson et al. test the idea of a "deep-time" adaptive radiation in dinosaurs, compiling and using one of the most comprehensive phylogenetic and body-size datasets for fossils. Using recent phylogenetic statistical methods, they find that in most clades of dinosaurs there is a strong signal of an "early burst" in body-size evolution, a predicted pattern of adaptive radiation in which rapid trait evolution happens early in a group's history and then slows down. They also find that body-size evolution did not slow down in the lineage leading to birds, hinting at why birds survived to the present day and diversified. This paper represents one of the most convincing attempts at understanding deep-time adaptive radiations.

  5. THE ADAPTATION TO TURKISH OF THE WRITING ATTITUDE SCALE (WAS): THE STUDY OF VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    GÖÇER, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make Turkish adaptation the Writing Attitude Scale (WAS) that In order to measure writing anxiety developed by Marcia et al (1984). For this purpose was carried out the Validation of a Writing Attitude Scale and to examine its reliability and validity. Writing Attitude Scale (WAS) was first translated into Turkish and, equivalence analysis of forms English / Turkish language of the scale were carried out by the reading of three English teachers / lecturers. The...

  6. Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): a hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane X; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual's necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time assessment of perioperative behaviors in children and parents: development and validation of the perioperative adult child behavioral interaction scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Cohen, Lindsey L; Hosu, Liana; Gorman, Kristin L; Wang, Yu; Nick, Todd G; Jou, Jing Fang; Samol, Nancy; Szabova, Alexandra; Hagerman, Nancy; Hein, Elizabeth; Boat, Anne; Varughese, Anna; Kurth, Charles Dean; Willging, J Paul; Gunter, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    Behavior in response to distressful events during outpatient pediatric surgery can contribute to postoperative maladaptive behaviors, such as temper tantrums, nightmares, bed-wetting, and attention seeking. Currently available perioperative behavioral assessment tools have limited utility in guiding interventions to ameliorate maladaptive behaviors because they cannot be used in real time, are only intended to be used during 1 phase of the experience (e.g., perioperative), or provide only a static assessment of the child (e.g., level of anxiety). A simple, reliable, real-time tool is needed to appropriately identify children and parents whose behaviors in response to distressful events at any point in the perioperative continuum could benefit from timely behavioral intervention. Our specific aims were to (1) refine the Perioperative Adult Child Behavioral Interaction Scale (PACBIS) to improve its reliability in identifying perioperative behaviors and (2) validate the refined PACBIS against several established instruments. The PACBIS was used to assess the perioperative behaviors of 89 children aged 3 to 12 years presenting for adenotonsillectomy and their parents. Assessments using the PACBIS were made during perioperative events likely to prove distressing to children and/or parents (perioperative measurement of blood pressure, induction of anesthesia, and removal of the IV catheter before discharge). Static measurements of perioperative anxiety and behavioral compliance during anesthetic induction were made using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and the Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC). Each event was videotaped for later scoring using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Short Form (CAMPIS-SF) and Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD). Interrater reliability using linear weighted kappa (kappa(w)) and multiple validations using Spearman correlation coefficients were analyzed. The PACBIS demonstrated good to excellent

  8. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Jyoti; Diwanji, Amish; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Sharma, Dipal

    2017-01-01

    To develop a simple method to assess the level of anxiety by using children's drawings and correlating them with Frankl's behavior rating scale. A total of 178 patients aged of 3 to 14 years were handed out two-page forms which contained three sections on coloring and drawing, along with general information, and Frankl's behavior rating scale for the visit. The three types of drawing exercises given to the patients were geometric copy drawings, coloring a nonthreatening figure, and an empty sheet for freehand drawing. Out of 178 patients, 60 showed definitely positive behavior, 73 exhibited positive behavior, 37 showed negative behavior, and 8 were definitely negative on Frankl's behavior rating scale; 133 children had none or, 1 stress marker and 45 exhibited 2 or 3 stress markers in their drawings. Chi-square (χ 2 ) analysis was done with a 2 × 2 contingency table. Observed χ 2 value was 46.166, which at 1 degree of freedom was much greater than that at 0.995 percentile. Therefore, the result was highly significant. Children requiring specialized behavioral techniques can be identified by the presence of stress markers in their drawings. This nonverbal activity by itself can have an overall positive effect on the behavior displayed in the dental clinic. Mathur J, Diwanji A, Sarvaiya B, Sharma D. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):24-28.

  9. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Mendes, Aida Cruz; Azeredo, Zaida Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    To adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional states. The instrument reveals good internal consistency. Factorial analysis shows that the two-factor structure is more adequate. The first factor groups most of the items that theoretically assess anxiety and stress, and the second groups most of the items that assess depression, explaining, on the whole, 58.54% of total variance. The strong positive correlation between the DASS 21 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) confirms the hypothesis regarding the criterion validity, however, revealing fragilities as to the divergence between theoretically different constructs.

  10. The Adaptation of the Academic Motivation Scale for Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp YURT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are i to adapt Vallerand et al. (1989’ s Academic Motivation Scale (AMS into Turkish, ii to test the seven-factor structure of scale through confirmatory factor analysis, iii to assess the reliability of the scale and iv to examine whether the scores obtained from the scale show difference by gender. Accordingly, 343 secondary school students were included in the study. %56.9 (n=195 of the students were female and %43.1 (n=148 were male. Out of students, %23.3 (n=80 were fifthgrade, %21 (n=72 were sixth-grade, %26.5 (n=91 were seventh-grade and %29.2 (n=100 were eighth-grade students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the seven-factor original structure of AMS, dual consistency coefficient was used to determine whether the classification is modest or not and Cronbach coefficient was used to determine the reliability. According to the results it was found that the seven-factor structure of scale adjust with the collected data at an acceptable level, the scale has a consistent and high distinctiveness in terms of the measuring feature and subscales have sufficient internal consistency coefficient. Also it was found that scores of intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishments and intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation do not differ according to gender. On the other hand extrinsic motivation-introjected regulation score differs significantly on behalf of female students and extrinsic motivation- external regulation, identified regulation and amotivation scores differ significantly on behalf of male students.

  11. A new approach to the measurement of adaptive behavior: development of the PEDI-CAT for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.M.; Coster, W.J.; Kao, Y.C.; Snow, A.; Orsmond, G.I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The

  12. Cultural adaptation into Spanish of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7 scale as a screening tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Páramo María

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a prevalent mental health condition which is underestimated worldwide. This study carried out the cultural adaptation into Spanish of the 7-item self-administered GAD-7 scale, which is used to identify probable patients with GAD. Methods The adaptation was performed by an expert panel using a conceptual equivalence process, including forward and backward translations in duplicate. Content validity was assessed by interrater agreement. Criteria validity was explored using ROC curve analysis, and sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and negative value for different cut-off values were determined. Concurrent validity was also explored using the HAM-A, HADS, and WHO-DAS-II scales. Results The study sample consisted of 212 subjects (106 patients with GAD with a mean age of 50.38 years (SD = 16.76. Average completion time was 2'30''. No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to fill in the questionnaire. The scale was shown to be one-dimensional through factor analysis (explained variance = 72%. A cut-off point of 10 showed adequate values of sensitivity (86.8% and specificity (93.4%, with AUC being statistically significant [AUC = 0.957-0.985; p 0.001. Limitations Elderly people, particularly those very old, may need some help to complete the scale. Conclusion After the cultural adaptation process, a Spanish version of the GAD-7 scale was obtained. The validity of its content and the relevance and adequacy of items in the Spanish cultural context were confirmed.

  13. How the Parent-Child Relationship Affects Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behavior Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Lauren Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent-child relationship characteristics (attachment, involvement, discipline practices, parenting confidence, and relational frustration) and behavioral outcomes (internalizing, externalizing, and adaptive) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD presents pervasive…

  14. Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS1 and GSS2): empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2012-01-01

    In study 1 (n = 51, M age = 21.4 years, SD = 5.7), the validity of the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (Pires, 2011) was shown through the comparison of means of the original (Gudjonsson, 1997) and the translated scales and the analysis of the correlations between the GSS1 and GSS2 scores. The relationships between interrogative suggestibility and the big five were also addressed and the results point to independence between suggestibility and personality, which ...

  15. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  16. A Decentralized Multivariable Robust Adaptive Voltage and Speed Regulator for Large-Scale Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okou, Francis A.; Akhrif, Ouassima; Dessaint, Louis A.; Bouchard, Derrick

    2013-05-01

    This papter introduces a decentralized multivariable robust adaptive voltage and frequency regulator to ensure the stability of large-scale interconnnected generators. Interconnection parameters (i.e. load, line and transormer parameters) are assumed to be unknown. The proposed design approach requires the reformulation of conventiaonal power system models into a multivariable model with generator terminal voltages as state variables, and excitation and turbine valve inputs as control signals. This model, while suitable for the application of modern control methods, introduces problems with regards to current design techniques for large-scale systems. Interconnection terms, which are treated as perturbations, do not meet the common matching condition assumption. A new adaptive method for a certain class of large-scale systems is therefore introduces that does not require the matching condition. The proposed controller consists of nonlinear inputs that cancel some nonlinearities of the model. Auxiliary controls with linear and nonlinear components are used to stabilize the system. They compensate unknown parametes of the model by updating both the nonlinear component gains and excitation parameters. The adaptation algorithms involve the sigma-modification approach for auxiliary control gains, and the projection approach for excitation parameters to prevent estimation drift. The computation of the matrix-gain of the controller linear component requires the resolution of an algebraic Riccati equation and helps to solve the perturbation-mismatching problem. A realistic power system is used to assess the proposed controller performance. The results show that both stability and transient performance are considerably improved following a severe contingency.

  17. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-08-01

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task—especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna E. M. Marangoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gait impairment is reported by 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS as main complaint. In 2003, Hobart et al. developed a scale for walking known as The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12, which combines the perspectives of patients with psychometric methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population with MS. METHODS: This study included 116 individuals diagnosed with MS, in accordance with McDonald's criteria. The steps of the adaptation process included translation, back-translation, review by an expert committee and pretesting. A test and retest of MSWS-12/BR was made for validation, with comparison with another scale (MSIS-29/BR and another test (T25FW. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of MSWS-12/BR was shown to be similar to the original. The results indicate that MSWS-12/BR is a reliable and reproducible scale. CONCLUSIONS: MSWS-12/BR has been adapted and validated, and it is a reliable tool for the Brazilian population.

  19. Scaling behavior of individual barkhausen avalanches in nucleation-mediated magnetization reversal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2009-11-09

    We report the scaling behavior of Barkhausen avalanches along the hysteresis loop of a CoCrPt alloy film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for every field step of 200 Oe. Individual Barkhausen avalanches are directly observed via high-resolution soft X-ray microscopy with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. The Barkhausen avalanches exhibit a power-law scaling behavior, where the scaling exponent of the power-law distribution drastically changes from 1 {+-} 0.04 to 1.47 {+-} 0.03 as the applied magnetic field approaches the coercivity of the CoCrPt film. We infer that this is due to the coupling of adjacent domains.

  20. Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

  1. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  2. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. ADAPTER: Analysing and developing adaptability and performance in teams to enhance resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Dolf van der; Schraagen, Jan Maarten

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the concept of team resilience was operationalized by developing a first version of a questionnaire (ADAPTER) driven by the four essential abilities of resilience (Hollnagel E, 2011, Resilience engineering in practice: a guidebook, p. 275–96) and expanded with more relation-oriented abilities of leadership and cooperation. The development and administration of ADAPTER took place within two companies. Factor analyses using data of 91 participants largely supported the hypothesized 6-dimension taxonomy. Support was found for Team responding behavior, Shared Leadership and Cooperation with other teams/departments. Anticipation showed considerable overlap with the monitoring scale, possibly due to the fact that monitoring items dealt with prospective situations. Using ADAPTER questionnaire results as a starting point for further in-depth discussion among the different teams in the pilot companies proved very useful. Suggestions for future research include contextualizing the questionnaire by embedding it in actual cases or having it filled in after specific incidents. Also, support of organization should be included as a separate dimension in ADAPTER. - Highlights: • Development of a team resilience questionnaire (ADAPTER). • Driven by Hollnagel's resilience abilities plus shared leadership and cooperation. • Pilot testing of ADAPTER took place within two companies. • Factor analyses (N=91) largely supported the hypothesized 6-dimension taxonomy. • Results provide a useful starting point for further in-depth discussions

  4. A structure-based approach to evaluation product adaptability in adaptable design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Zhifeng; Cai, Ligang; Zhang, Guojun; Gu, Peihua

    2011-01-01

    Adaptable design, as a new design paradigm, involves creating designs and products that can be easily changed to satisfy different requirements. In this paper, two types of product adaptability are proposed as essential adaptability and behavioral adaptability, and through measuring which respectively a model for product adaptability evaluation is developed. The essential adaptability evaluation proceeds with analyzing the independencies of function requirements and function modules firstly based on axiomatic design, and measuring the adaptability of interfaces secondly with three indices. The behavioral adaptability reflected by the performance of adaptable requirements after adaptation is measured based on Kano model. At last, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an illustrative example of the motherboard of a personal computer. The results show that the method can evaluate and reveal the adaptability of a product in essence, and is of directive significance to improving design and innovative design

  5. Brazilian Portuguese transcultural adaptation of Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS)

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Victor Polignano; Mata, Fernanda Gomes Da; Conde, Bárbara Romaneli; Souza, Caroline Antunes de Oliveira e; Martins, Ana Luiza Guimarães; Mattos, Paulo; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Considering the importance of Executive Functions to clinical and nonclinical situations, Barkley proposed a new theory of executive functioning based on an evolutionary neuropsychological perspective and clinical research using large samples of clinical and community identified adults and children as well as children with ADHD followed to adulthood. Objective The present study aims to adapt the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functions Scales (BDEFS) to Brazilian Portug...

  6. Religious Involvement and Adaptation in Female Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F; Saxena, Salil; Cohen, Harvey Jay

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relationship between religious involvement (RI) and adaptation of women caring for family members with severe physical or neurological disability. Two-site cross-sectional study. Community. A convenience sample of 251 caregivers was recruited. RI and caregiver adaptation (assessed by perceived stress, caregiver burden, and depressive symptoms) were measured using standard scales, along with caregiver characteristics, social support, and health behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify relationships and mediating and moderating factors. Religious involvement (RI) was associated with better caregiver adaptation independent of age, race, education, caregiver health, care recipient's health, social support, and health behaviors (B = -0.09, standard error = 0.04, t = -2.08, P = .04). This association was strongest in caregivers aged 58-75 and spouses and for perceived stress in blacks. Religious involvement (RI) in female caregivers is associated with better caregiver adaptation, especially for those who are older, spouses of the care recipients, and blacks. These results are relevant to the development of future interventions that provide support to family caregivers. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs: Application to Child Behavior Research in a Community Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on…

  8. Applying computer adaptive testing to optimize online assessment of suicidal behavior: a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beurs, D.P.; de Vries, A.L.M.; de Groot, M.H.; de Keijser, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce

  9. A New Approach to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer…

  10. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Observing the World Through Your Own Lenses – The Role of Perceived Adaptability for Epistemological Beliefs About the Development of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Scherer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Students are exposed to vast amounts of information and knowledge that is rapidly changing. This exposure requires them to be adaptive, that is, to constantly adjust their thinking, behavior, and even their affect to successfully solve information-rich and knowledge-lean problems. Considering these developments, the purpose of the present study is twofold: First, it is aimed at exploring the link between students’ beliefs about their adaptability in an ever-changing world and their beliefs about the changing nature of scientific knowledge, thus linking two educationally relevant belief systems. Second, this study further explores validity issues related to the well-established and commonly used “Epistemological Beliefs about the Development of Scientific Knowledge (EBDE” scale. Performing structural equation modeling on a large-scale data set of 1,662 Norwegian tenth-grade students, we estimated the correlations among different aspects of adaptability (i.e., cognitive-behavioral and affective-emotional adaptability and EBDE. Moving beyond these correlations, we tested whether students’ perceived adaptability had an impact on the functioning of EBDE items by means of moderated factor analysis. Our analyses revealed that adaptability was associated with sophisticated EBDE in science, and the EB scale functioned differently with respect to different adaptability scores. The results of this study indicate that students perceive the development of scientific knowledge through the lenses of their own adaptability. Furthermore, the differential functioning of the EBDE scale challenges its validity.

  12. Fine Scale Baleen Whale Behavior Observed Via Tagging Over Daily Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    system to do a comparison between the two. While at Wildlife Computers, I also asked for and they kindly provided a small change in how their MK10...cetacean behavior at intermediate daily time scales. Recent efforts to assess the impacts of sound on marine mammals and to estimate foraging ...efficiency have called for the need to measure daily activity budgets to quantify how much of each day an individual devotes to foraging , resting

  13. Implicit attitudes toward violence and their relation to psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors in forensic psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwets, Almar J.; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Kanters, Thijs; Snowden, Robert J.; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between implicit attitudes toward violence and different aspects of violent and social behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients, an implicit association test was related to measures of psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors. Results

  14. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  15. Adaptation of Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS) into Turkish Culture: A Study on Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoskun, Muhammet Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt self-control and self-management scale (SCMS) developed by Mezo into Turkish and to test it considering gender and academic achievement variables. The scale was translated from English to Turkish for linguistic validity and then this scale was translated into English using back translation. The original and…

  16. Development and Validation of the Transgender Inclusive Behavior Scale (TIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattari, Shanna K; O'Connor, Ashley A; Kattari, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Transgender-inclusive behaviors are actions and communication supporting transgender individuals. Examples include using language not reinforcing the gender binary, asking for and using correct pronouns, creation of spaces that welcome members of the transgender community, and acknowledging cisgender (non-transgender) privilege. A survey was developed measuring this behavior in individuals to examine the impact of transgender-inclusive behavior and the potential effect of interventions on promoting inclusive behavior. Data were collected utilizing an online survey (N = 1,051). The sample was split in half to run two sets of cases in a principal components analysis. Analysis of the full sample showed Cronbach's alpha to be .93 (n = 918). Findings suggest that the Transgender Inclusive Behavior Scale (TIBS) may be a useful instrument for identifying behaviors related to being inclusive of transgender individuals, groups, and communities. It may also be used to measure behavior change before and after transgender-specific educational and behavioral interventions.

  17. A New Perspective on Changing Arctic Marine Ecosystems: Panarchy Adaptive Cycles in Pan-Arctic Spatial and Temporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, F. K.; Huntington, H. P.; Carmack, E.; Wassmann, P. F. J.; Leu, E. S.; Gradinger, R.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the physical/biological interactions in the Arctic are occurring across a variety of spatial and temporal scales and may be mitigated or strengthened based on varying rates of evolutionary adaptation. A novel way to view these interactions and their social relevance is through the systems theory perspective of "Panarchy" proposed by Gunderson and Holling. Panarchy is an interdisciplinary approach in which structures, scales and linkages of complex-adaptive systems, including those of nature (e.g. ocean), humans (e.g. economics), and combined social-ecological systems (e.g. institutions that govern natural resource use), are mapped across multiple space and time scales in continual and interactive adaptive cycles of growth, accumulation, restructuring and renewal. In complex-adaptive systems the dynamics at a given scale are generally dominated by a small number of key internal variables that are forced by one or more external variables. The stability of such a system is characterized by its resilience, i.e. its capacity to absorb disturbance and re-organize while undergoing change, so as to retain essentially similar function, structure, identity and feedbacks. It is in the capacity of a system to cope with pressures and adversities such as exploitation, warming, governance restrictions, competition, etc. that resilience embraces human and natural systems as complex entities continually adapting through cycles of change. In this paper we explore processes at four linked spatial domains in the Arctic Ocean and link it to ecosystem resilience and re-organization characteristics. From this we derive a series of hypotheses concerning the biological responses to future physical changes and suggest ways how Panarchy theory can be applied to observational strategies to help detect early signs of environmental shifts affecting marine system services and functions. We close by discussing possible implications of the Panarchy framework for policy and governance.

  18. Adapting and Validating a Scale to Measure Sexual Stigma among Lesbian, Bisexual and Queer Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Earnshaw, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one’s group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466) in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24) and Calgary (n=20). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72), test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  19. Adapting and validating a scale to measure sexual stigma among lesbian, bisexual and queer women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one's group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466 in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24 and Calgary (n=20. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  20. Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  2. Validation of a Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Hair Specific Skindex-29 Scale to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Buendía-Eisman, A; Ferrando, J

    2018-06-01

    Female androgenetic alopecia (FAA) has considerable impact on quality of life. Our analysis of the clinical scales available in the literature to measure the impact of FAA led us to choose the Hair Specific Skindex 29 (HSS29) as the most appropriate for adaptation to Spanish as a tool for following patients in treatment for FAA. This tool assesses disease impact on quality of life over time so that treatments can be tailored to patients' needs. The HSS29 score reflects impact in 3 domains (emotions, symptoms, and functioning) on a scale of 0 (no effect) to 100 (maximum effect). The scale is useful in routine clinical practice, and patients can respond to all items in 5minutes. We followed recommended procedures to produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the scale. The process involved forward translation of the questionnaire to Spanish followed by back translation by 2 native speakers of the original language (English) and revision as needed after discussion and consensus by a committee of 3 expert dermatologists. The comprehensibility of the resulting translation was assessed in a test-retest step. Next, the psychometric properties, reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, reliability with Cronbach's α, and construct validity by factor analysis using a Varimax rotation. Face validity was also assessed during the process. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated in the test-retest step. A total of 170 women with FAA and 30 control subjects completed the cross-culturally adapted Spanish questionnaire. A subgroup of 15 subjects responded a second time between 1 and 2 days after their first session (test-retest). Sensitivity and specificity were excellent according to the area under the ROC curve (0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99), and high reliability was reflected by a Cronbach's α of 0.96. Factor analysis showed that the items were

  3. Individual-Based Compulsive Sexual Behavior Scale: Its Development and Importance in Examining Compulsive Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Yaniv; Mikulincer, Mario

    2018-04-03

    Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined. In Study 2 (N = 406), we assessed I-CSB's convergent validity. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined whether the I-CSB differentiates between individuals who suffer from compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Results revealed a four-factor structure for individual-based compulsive sexual behavior that is associated with an intense inner conflict regarding sexuality (high arousal contrasting with high sexual anxiety), and that accounts for approximately 75% of the differences between people with compulsive sexual behavior and controls. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of compulsive sexual behavior.

  4. Cognitive and behavioral functioning in Coffin-Siris syndrome and epilepsy: a case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, H Allison; Zaroff, Charles M; Karantzoulis, Stella; Nakhutina, Luba; MacAllister, William S; Luciano, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The authors characterized the cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral sequelae of Coffin-Siris (CS) syndrome and epilepsy in a 7.5-year-old child. Little is known about the early neurobehavioral presentation of CS. Clinical features consistent with this genetic anomaly include underdeveloped tips and nails of the fifth fingers, extended infranasal depression, and craniofacial abnormalities. MRI findings often reveal callosal agenesis. The authors conducted a neuropsychological evaluation and obtained parental ratings of behavioral and adaptive functioning. Attentional abilities were limited. As assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, receptive language abilities (age equivalent [AE]: 3-3) were relatively stronger than expressive skills (AE: 1-4). Adaptive functioning was low across all domains (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite AE: 1-9). On the Behavior Assessment for Children (BASC-2), social skills dysfunction, stereotyped and self-stimulatory behaviors, restricted interests, ritualistic play, and inappropriate object usage were noted. No significant mood disturbances were endorsed. Study findings indicate a diffuse pattern of neurobehavioral deficits in a child with CS and epilepsy. Further clinical assessment and research should include multidimensional assessment techniques, including evaluation of adaptive behavior, in an effort to capture the full range developmental sequelae in children with CS.

  5. Adapting the Body Appreciation Scale-2 for Children: A psychometric analysis of the BAS-2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Jarman, Hannah; Tylka, Tracy; Slater, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Positive body image among adults is related to numerous indicators of well-being. However, no research has explored body appreciation among children. To facilitate our understanding of children's positive body image, the current study adapts and validates the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a) for use with children. Three hundred and forty-four children (54.4% girls) aged 9-11 completed the adapted Body Appreciation Scale-2 for Children (BAS-2C) alongside measures of body esteem, media influence, body surveillance, mood, and dieting. A sub-sample of 154 participants (62.3% girls) completed the questionnaire 6-weeks later to examine stability (test-retest) reliability. The BAS-2C displayed a unidimensional factor structure and evidence of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct, criterion-related, and incremental validity. Additionally, the results suggest adaptive properties of body appreciation for body-related and emotional well-being among children. The BAS-2C could serve as an essential component within research to understand and estimate children's positive body image. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Scale Adaptive Simulation Model for the Darrieus Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, K.; Hansen, M. O. L.; Maroński, R.; Lichota, P.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate prediction of aerodynamic loads for the Darrieus wind turbine using more or less complex aerodynamic models is still a challenge. One of the problems is the small amount of experimental data available to validate the numerical codes. The major objective of the present study is to examine the scale adaptive simulation (SAS) approach for performance analysis of a one-bladed Darrieus wind turbine working at a tip speed ratio of 5 and at a blade Reynolds number of 40 000. The three-dimensional incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are used. Numerical results of aerodynamic loads and wake velocity profiles behind the rotor are compared with experimental data taken from literature. The level of agreement between CFD and experimental results is reasonable.

  7. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Stanford presenteeism scale-6 and work instability scale for ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorf, Renata; de Medeiros Pinheiro, Marcelo; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2014-12-01

    Loss of productivity at work, as a result of health problems, is becoming an issue of interest due to the high burden it represents in society. The measurement of such phenomenon can be made using generic and specific scales for certain diseases such as the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) and the Work Instability Scale for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS-WIS), specific for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of SPS-6 and AS-WIS into Portuguese and check their psychometric properties. The study also aimed to evaluate the relationship between the general scores of the scales and the main sociodemographic and clinical data, lifestyles, and absenteeism in patients with AS and correlate these variables with SPS-6 and AS-WIS scales. A sample of 120 patients with AS and 80 workers at a university hospital was evaluated. The processes for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the instruments followed preestablished steps and rules presented in the literature. For the evaluation of measurement properties and correlations between scales, intra-class correlation coefficient (reproducibility analysis), Cronbach alpha (internal consistency), and Pearson correlation coefficient (validity) were employed. The inter-observer (0.986) and intra-observer (0.992) reproducibilities of the AS-WIS were shown to be high as well as the internal consistency (0.995). Similarly, the inter-observer reliability of SPS-6 was considered good (0.890), although it showed a poorer performance when considering the same observer (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.675 and intra-class correlation = 0.656). Internal consistency, for the total number of items, as measured by Cronbach alpha, was 0.889. The validity of the scales was evaluated thru the comparison of the achieved scores with the results of the WLQ, SF-36, ASQoL, BASFI, BASDAI, HAQ-S, and SRQ-20 instruments. Correlations between loss of

  8. Multi-approaches analysis reveals local adaptation in the emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) at macro- but not micro-geographical scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volis, Sergei; Ormanbekova, Danara; Yermekbayev, Kanat; Song, Minshu; Shulgina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Detecting local adaptation and its spatial scale is one of the most important questions of evolutionary biology. However, recognition of the effect of local selection can be challenging when there is considerable environmental variation across the distance at the whole species range. We analyzed patterns of local adaptation in emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at two spatial scales, small (inter-population distance less than one km) and large (inter-population distance more than 50 km) using several approaches. Plants originating from four distinct habitats at two geographic scales (cold edge, arid edge and two topographically dissimilar core locations) were reciprocally transplanted and their success over time was measured as 1) lifetime fitness in a year of planting, and 2) population growth four years after planting. In addition, we analyzed molecular (SSR) and quantitative trait variation and calculated the QST/FST ratio. No home advantage was detected at the small spatial scale. At the large spatial scale, home advantage was detected for the core population and the cold edge population in the year of introduction via measuring life-time plant performance. However, superior performance of the arid edge population in its own environment was evident only after several generations via measuring experimental population growth rate through genotyping with SSRs allowing counting the number of plants and seeds per introduced genotype per site. These results highlight the importance of multi-generation surveys of population growth rate in local adaptation testing. Despite predominant self-fertilization of T. dicoccoides and the associated high degree of structuring of genetic variation, the results of the QST - FST comparison were in general agreement with the pattern of local adaptation at the two spatial scales detected by reciprocal transplanting.

  9. A scenario framework to explore the future migration and adaptation in deltas: A multi-scale and participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abiy S.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hill, Chris T.; Hutton, Craig W.; Kay, Susan; Lawn, Jon; Lazar, Attila N.; Whitehead, Paul W.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal deltas are home for over 500 million people globally, and they have been identified as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments during the 21st century. They are susceptible to multiple climatic (e.g., sea-level rise, storm surges, change in temperature and precipitation) and socio-economic (e.g., human-induced subsidence, population and urbanisation changes, GDP growth) drivers of change. These drivers also operate at multiple scales, ranging from local to global and short- to long-term. This highlights the complex challenges deltas face in terms of both their long-term sustainability as well as the well-being of their residents and the health of ecosystems that support the livelihood of large (often very poor) population under uncertain changing conditions. A holistic understanding of these challenges and the potential impacts of future climate and socio-economic changes is central for devising robust adaptation policies. Scenario analysis has long been identified as a strategic management tool to explore future climate change and its impacts for supporting robust decision-making under uncertainty. This work presents the overall scenario framework, methodology, and processes adopted for the development of scenarios in the DECCMA* project. DECCMA is analysing the future of three deltas in South Asia and West Africa: (i) the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta (Bangladesh/India), (ii) the Mahanadi delta (India), and (iii) the Volta delta (Ghana). This includes comparisons between these three deltas. Hence, the scenario framework comprises a multi-scale hybrid approach, with six levels of scenario considerations: (i) global (climate change, e.g., sea-level rise, temperature change; and socio-economic assumptions, e.g., population and urbanisation changes, GDP growth); (ii) regional catchments (e.g., river flow modelling), (iii) regional seas (e.g., fisheries modelling), (iv) regional politics (e.g., transboundary disputes), (v) national (e.g., socio

  10. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD AND MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.

  11. Adaptive management for a turbulent future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Fontaine, J.J.; Pope, K.L.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  12. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  13. Adaptive Strategies in the Russian Vocational Education and Training System: Institutional Barriers and Rent-Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V.Volchik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of institutional change is going very rapidly in the Russian vocational education and training (VET system. If implemented reforms are inconsistent with present working rules and institutions in the field, it causes inefficiencies of the VET system and may result in institutional traps. The actors involved in the VET system are working in an increasingly demanding environment. They have to adapt their behaviors to complicated and constantly changing rules. Seeking to meet the requirements of students and employers, who operate under resource constraints, educational organizations undertake curriculum reductions to minimize costs. These measures usually result in low education outcomes and poor quality of education. In an attempt to identify adaptive behavioral patterns of actors involved in the educational process, we have conducted and analyzed 50 in-depth interviews with lecturers, managers and students within the educational organizations of Rostov region that offer VET programs. Our research aims to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation among academic staff members and VET students using the concepts of institutional economics and qualitative research methods.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale adapted for people who use psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Verónica Del Valle; Burrone, María Soledad; Fernandez, Alicia Ruth; Boyd, Jennifer E; Abeldaño, Roberto Ariel

    2017-01-01

    People who consume psychoactive substances may experience situations of social stigma on the part of the society in general, and also situations of internalized-stigma derived from their own consumption of substances. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale has been shown to be valid and reliable to evaluate the internalized-stigma in people with severe mental disorders, but in Argentina there is no a Spanish version of this scale for use with people who use psychoactive substances. The objective of this work was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness instrument adapted for people who use psychoactive substances. The work was carried out on a sample of 200 patients older than 18 years under treatment of rehabilitation by consumption of psychoactive substances in a public institution of the city of Córdoba (Argentina) between the years 2014 and 2016. The instrument used was the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) previously adapted for use in these groups of patients. It was determined the reliability of the scale through Cronbach's coefficients α and factorial structure was analyzed through an exploratory factor analysis. The obtained coefficients showed a high reliability, while in the factorial structure emerged the 4 theoretical dimensions described by Ritsher, namely: social isolation, perceived discrimination, alienation and stereotyping. It is concluded that the scale adapted for people who use psychoactive substances is reliable and with an adequate factorial structure.

  15. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  16. Psychometric Testing of Two Chinese-Version Scales on Attitudes Toward and Caregiving Behaviors for End-of-Life Patients and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luke; Liu, Yung-Fang; Sun, Huey-Fang; Chiang, Hsien-Hsien; Tsai, Yu-Lun; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-03-01

    The study purpose was to examine the validities and reliabilities of the Chinese-versions Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying Scale (Attitudes Scale) and Caregiving Behaviors Scale for End-of-Life Patients and Families (Behaviors Scale). The scales were tested in a convenience sample of 318 nurses with ≥6 months work experience at three hospitals. Cronbach's alphas of the Attitudes and Behaviors Scales were .90 and .96, respectively. Each scale had Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index >.85 and Bartlett's test of sphericity >4000 ( p < .001). Attitudes Scale loaded on three factors: respecting and caring for dying patients and families, avoiding care of the dying, and involving patients and families in end-of-life care. The Behaviors Scale loaded on two factors: supporting dying patients and families, and helping families cope with grief. Factor loadings for both scales were ≥.49. Both Attitudes and Behaviors Scales are reliable and valid for evaluating nurses' attitudes and caregiving behaviors for the dying.

  17. Sign and magnitude scaling properties of heart rate variability in patients with end-stage renal failure: Are these properties useful to identify pathophysiological adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Infante, Oscar; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; González-Gómez, Hortensia

    2017-09-01

    The scaling properties of heart rate variability data are reliable dynamical features to predict mortality and for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this manuscript was to determine if the scaling properties, as provided by the sign and magnitude analysis, can be used to differentiate between pathological changes and those adaptations basically introduced by modifications of the mean heart rate in distinct manoeuvres (active standing or hemodialysis treatment, HD), as well as clinical conditions (end stage renal disease, ESRD). We found that in response to active standing, the short-term scaling index (α1) increased in healthy subjects and in ESRD patients only after HD. The sign short-term scaling exponent (α1sign) increased in healthy subjects and ESRD patients, showing a less anticorrelated behavior in active standing. Both α1 and α1sign did show covariance with the mean heart rate in healthy subjects, while in ESRD patients, this covariance was observed only after HD. A reliable estimation of the magnitude short-term scaling exponent (α1magn) required the analysis of time series with a large number of samples (>3000 data points). This exponent was similar for both groups and conditions and did not show covariance with the mean heart rate. A surrogate analysis confirmed the presence of multifractal properties (α1magn > 0.5) in the time series of healthy subjects and ESDR patients. In conclusion, α1 and α1sign provided insights into the physiological adaptations during active standing, which revealed a transitory impairment before HD in ESRD patients. The presence of multifractal properties indicated that a reduced short-term variability does not necessarily imply a declined regulatory complexity in these patients.

  18. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  19. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  20. Factorial Validation of Malaysian Adapted Brunel Mood Scale in an Adolescent Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Zulkifli, Erie Zuraidee; Yusof @ Hanafi, Hazwani Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the psychometric properties of a Malaysian adapted Brunel Mood Scale. Methods The questionnaire was administered to 355 young sport athletes with a mean age of 14.69+1.70 years. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine the factorial validity and the internal consistency of the questionnaire respectively. Results CFA results revealed adequate model fit, best represented by a 6-factor model with one of the items remove...

  1. A review of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, Kristiana G H; Mayo, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing an instrument's psychometric properties to determine appropriateness for use can be a challenging process. Dissecting the statistical terminology may be even more perplexing. There are several instruments that evaluate adolescents' perceived social support, but a fairly new instrument related to this construct assesses not only the availability of social support but also support for healthy behaviors in this population. The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors, first published in 2013, demonstrates adequate initial reliability and validity. The purpose of this article is to review the psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors and potential uses of the instrument.

  2. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMierau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. 32-channel EEG, surface EMG of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e. Euclidean distance of the supporting platform were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area 5 and midline fronto-central cortex (Brodmann area 6, respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and m. peroneus longus EMG activity of the non-dominant (free leg; an indicator reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control.

  3. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  4. Construct Validation of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…

  5. Characterizing multi-scale self-similar behavior and non-statistical properties of fluctuations in financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sayantan; Manimaran, P.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2011-11-01

    We make use of wavelet transform to study the multi-scale, self-similar behavior and deviations thereof, in the stock prices of large companies, belonging to different economic sectors. The stock market returns exhibit multi-fractal characteristics, with some of the companies showing deviations at small and large scales. The fact that, the wavelets belonging to the Daubechies’ (Db) basis enables one to isolate local polynomial trends of different degrees, plays the key role in isolating fluctuations at different scales. One of the primary motivations of this work is to study the emergence of the k-3 behavior [X. Gabaix, P. Gopikrishnan, V. Plerou, H. Stanley, A theory of power law distributions in financial market fluctuations, Nature 423 (2003) 267-270] of the fluctuations starting with high frequency fluctuations. We make use of Db4 and Db6 basis sets to respectively isolate local linear and quadratic trends at different scales in order to study the statistical characteristics of these financial time series. The fluctuations reveal fat tail non-Gaussian behavior, unstable periodic modulations, at finer scales, from which the characteristic k-3 power law behavior emerges at sufficiently large scales. We further identify stable periodic behavior through the continuous Morlet wavelet.

  6. Energetic benefits and adaptations in mammalian limbs: Scale effects and selective pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2015-06-01

    Differences in limb size and shape are fundamental to mammalian morphological diversity; however, their relevance to locomotor costs has long been subject to debate. In particular, it remains unknown if scale effects in whole limb morphology could partially underlie decreasing mass-specific locomotor costs with increasing limb length. Whole fore- and hindlimb inertial properties reflecting limb size and shape-moment of inertia (MOI), mass, mass distribution, and natural frequency-were regressed against limb length for 44 species of quadrupedal mammals. Limb mass, MOI, and center of mass position are negatively allometric, having a strong potential for lowering mass-specific locomotor costs in large terrestrial mammals. Negative allometry of limb MOI results in a 40% reduction in MOI relative to isometry's prediction for our largest sampled taxa. However, fitting regression residuals to adaptive diversification models reveals that codiversification of limb mass, limb length, and body mass likely results from selection for differing locomotor modes of running, climbing, digging, and swimming. The observed allometric scaling does not result from selection for energetically beneficial whole limb morphology with increasing size. Instead, our data suggest that it is a consequence of differing morphological adaptations and body size distributions among quadrupedal mammals, highlighting the role of differing limb functions in mammalian evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Integrating cross-scale analysis in the spatial and temporal domains for classification of behavioral movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since various behavioral movement patterns are likely to be valid within different, unique ranges of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., instantaneous, diurnal, or seasonal with the corresponding spatial extents, a cross-scale approach is needed for accurate classification of behaviors expressed in movement. Here, we introduce a methodology for the characterization and classification of behavioral movement data that relies on computing and analyzing movement features jointly in both the spatial and temporal domains. The proposed methodology consists of three stages. In the first stage, focusing on the spatial domain, the underlying movement space is partitioned into several zonings that correspond to different spatial scales, and features related to movement are computed for each partitioning level. In the second stage, concentrating on the temporal domain, several movement parameters are computed from trajectories across a series of temporal windows of increasing sizes, yielding another set of input features for the classification. For both the spatial and the temporal domains, the ``reliable scale'' is determined by an automated procedure. This is the scale at which the best classification accuracy is achieved, using only spatial or temporal input features, respectively. The third stage takes the measures from the spatial and temporal domains of movement, computed at the corresponding reliable scales, as input features for behavioral classification. With a feature selection procedure, the most relevant features contributing to known behavioral states are extracted and used to learn a classification model. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a dataset of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio swimming movements in testing tanks, following exposure to different drug treatments. Our results show that behavioral classification accuracy greatly increases when firstly cross-scale analysis is used to determine the best analysis scale, and

  8. Adaptation and validation of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS) to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignola, Rose Claudia Batistelli; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa

    2014-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been associated with a range of symptoms that often overlap. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a single instrument to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. This study aimed to adapt and validate the DASS-21 for use in the Brazilian Portuguese language. The DASS-21 has been adapted following the translation-back translation methodology from English to Portuguese. 242 subjects completed the following assessments: the DASS-21, the Beck Depression Index (BDI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) and the Inventory of Stress Symptoms of Lipp (ISSL). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) result was .949, indicating that the adequacy of the model was high. Cronbach's alpha was .92 for the depression, .90 for the stress, and .86 for the anxiety, indicating a good internal consistency for each subscale. The correlations between DASS scale and BDI scale, BAI scale and ISSL inventory were strong. The factorial analysis and distribution of factors among the subscales indicated that the structure of three distinct factors is adequate. Older subjects over 65 years of age were not largely represented in this sample. A study specific to this elderly population should be conducted. Another limitation of the study was education level. The impact of low education in its applicability should be considered. The findings support the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the DASS-21 and add to the evidence of the DASS-21 quality and ability to assess emotional states separately, eliminating the use of different instruments to assess these states. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Dietary Salt Reduction Self-Care Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikan, Pratsani; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2014-07-01

    Valid, reliable, and culturally-specific scales to measure salt reduction self-care behavior in older adults are needed. The purpose of this study was to develop the Dietary Salt Reduction Self-Care Behavior Scale (DSR-SCB) for use in hypertensive older adults with Orem's self-care deficit theory as a base. Exploratory factor analysis, Rasch modeling, and reliability were performed on data from 242 older Thai adults. Nine items loaded on one factor (factor loadings = 0.63 to 0.79) and accounted for 52.28% of the variance (Eigenvalue = 4.71). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin method of sampling adequacy was 0.89, and the Bartlett's test showed significance (χ 2 ( df =36 ) = 916.48, p < 0.0001). Infit and outfit mean squares ranged from 0.81 to 1.25, while infit and outfit standardized mean squares were located at ±2. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The 9-item DSR-SCB is a short and reliable scale. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Combining agreement and frequency rating scales to optimize psychometrics in measuring behavioral health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to investigate optimal functioning of using frequency vs. agreement rating scales in two subdomains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery: the Mood & Emotions and Behavioral Control scales. A psychometric study comparing rating scale performance embedded in a cross-sectional survey used for developing a new instrument to measure behavioral health functioning among adults applying for disability benefits in the United States was performed. Within the sample of 1,017 respondents, the range of response category endorsement was similar for both frequency and agreement item types for both scales. There were fewer missing values in the frequency items than the agreement items. Both frequency and agreement items showed acceptable reliability. The frequency items demonstrated optimal effectiveness around the mean ± 1-2 standard deviation score range; the agreement items performed better at the extreme score ranges. Findings suggest an optimal response format requires a mix of both agreement-based and frequency-based items. Frequency items perform better in the normal range of responses, capturing specific behaviors, reactions, or situations that may elicit a specific response. Agreement items do better for those whose scores are more extreme and capture subjective content related to general attitudes, behaviors, or feelings of work-related behavioral health functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  12. Construction of scales to measure leadership behavior at nuclear power plants. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Shinohara, Shinobu

    1994-01-01

    In order to construct scales to measure leadership behavior of managers and supervisors at nuclear power plants, we prepared questionnaire covering all the leadership behaviors of leaders and then had their subordinates fill out the questionnaire. We selected questionnaire items for use in measuring leadership behaviors, analyzing the responses by means of factor analysis, etc. For the section chiefs, five factors were named, i.e., 'consideration' and 'self-righteousness' that belong to group maintenance behavior and 'thorough dissemination of information', 'specialty, planning' and 'pressure' that belong to goal achievement behavior. For the maintenance subsection chiefs were found seven factors, i.e., 'example setting', 'appropriate handling of work', 'planning', 'rigidity', 'educational guidance' that belong to goal achievement behavior and 'consideration for work' and 'personal consideration' that belong to group maintenance behavior. For maintenance and repair foremen were named six factors, i.e., 'consideration' that belongs to group maintenance behavior and 'specialty, planning', 'reporting, liaison', 'adjustment, rigidity', 'paper work confirmation', and 'example setting' that belong to goal achievement behavior. For subcontractors' field leaders were named seven factors, i.e., 'example setting, specialty and planning', 'careful guidance', 'rigidity', 'observance of rules' and 'paper work handling' that belong to goal achievement behavior and, 'consideration', 'frank communication'. In order to examine the validity of these items, we analyzed relationship between the 'morale'-(satisfaction, etc.) variables of the company's regular employees and subcontractors' employees and their leadership. It was found that the three leadership behavior scales for the section chiefs, maintenance and repair subsection chiefs and subcontractor leaders were very much the same as those found in private sector. (J.P.N.)

  13. Construction of scales to measure leadership behavior at nuclear power plants. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Shinohara, Shinobu [and others

    1994-05-01

    In order to construct scales to measure leadership behavior of managers and supervisors at nuclear power plants, we prepared questionnaire covering all the leadership behaviors of leaders and then had their subordinates fill out the questionnaire. We selected questionnaire items for use in measuring leadership behaviors, analyzing the responses by means of factor analysis, etc. For the section chiefs, five factors were named, i.e., `consideration` and `self-righteousness` that belong to group maintenance behavior and `thorough dissemination of information`, `specialty, planning` and `pressure` that belong to goal achievement behavior. For the maintenance subsection chiefs were found seven factors, i.e., `example setting`, `appropriate handling of work`, `planning`, `rigidity`, `educational guidance` that belong to goal achievement behavior and `consideration for work` and `personal consideration` that belong to group maintenance behavior. For maintenance and repair foremen were named six factors, i.e., `consideration` that belongs to group maintenance behavior and `specialty, planning`, `reporting, liaison`, `adjustment, rigidity`, `paper work confirmation`, and `example setting` that belong to goal achievement behavior. For subcontractors` field leaders were named seven factors, i.e., `example setting, specialty and planning`, `careful guidance`, `rigidity`, `observance of rules` and `paper work handling` that belong to goal achievement behavior and, `consideration`, `frank communication`. In order to examine the validity of these items, we analyzed relationship between the `morale`-(satisfaction, etc.) variables of the company`s regular employees and subcontractors` employees and their leadership. It was found that the three leadership behavior scales for the section chiefs, maintenance and repair subsection chiefs and subcontractor leaders were very much the same as those found in private sector. (J.P.N.)

  14. Testing the Classroom Citizenship Behaviors Scale: Exploring the Association of Classroom Citizenship Behaviors and Student Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, James; Miller, Ann Neville; Brown, Tim

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of Myers and colleagues' Classroom Citizenship Behavior scale, as well as the relationship between student personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and communication apprehension) and CCBs. Two hundred and thirteen students completed…

  15. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessye Almeida Cantini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. For this reason, the use of psychometric instruments is fundamental to advancing research in this area. Psychometric instruments are also necessary for clinical care, as they can help conceptualize the disorder and plan adequate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS. Methods: The process consisted of: 1 two translations and back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; 2 development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health; 3 experimental application; and 4 investigation of operational equivalence. RESULTS: The adaptation process is described and a final Brazilian version of the DBS is presented. CONCLUSION: A new instrument is now available to assess the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, facilitating research in this field.

  16. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Eating habits and psychopathology: translation, adaptation, reliability of the Nutrition Behavior Inventory to Portuguese and relation to psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Roberta Benko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Nutrition-Behavior Inventory (NBI is a self-administered instrument that allows eating habits to be correlated with psychopathological symptoms. The objective was to translate and adapt the NBI to Portuguese, and test the Portuguese NBI’s reliability. The second aim was to verify its sensitivity for identification of risk factors in terms of behavior/eating habits in children and adolescents. Methods: The NBI was translated, adapted, and back-translated. The Portuguese version of the NBI was then applied (N = 96; 9-12 years. In order to verify the internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha was used. The psychopathological indicators of the participants were accessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. The mean CBCL scores were analyzed in relation to the NBI data (cutoff point: ≥ 30 with indicators, and 30 on the following: anxiety and depression (p = 0.041, social difficulties (p = 0.028, attention problems (p = 0.001, aggressive behavior (p = 0.015; ADHD (p < 0.001, and conduct problems (p = 0.032. Conclusion: The present results indicate that the NBI is a reliable instrument. The NBI can be useful for evaluating psychopathological symptoms related to the eating habits and behaviors of children and adolescents.

  18. Theta synchronization between medial prefrontal cortex and cerebellum is associated with adaptive performance of associative learning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Yi-jie; Yang, Li; Sui, Jian-feng; Hu, Zhi-an; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Associative learning is thought to require coordinated activities among distributed brain regions. For example, to direct behavior appropriately, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) must encode and maintain sensory information and then interact with the cerebellum during trace eyeblink conditioning (TEBC), a commonly-used associative learning model. However, the mechanisms by which these two distant areas interact remain elusive. By simultaneously recording local field potential (LFP) signals from the mPFC and the cerebellum in guinea pigs undergoing TEBC, we found that theta-frequency (5.0–12.0 Hz) oscillations in the mPFC and the cerebellum became strongly synchronized following presentation of auditory conditioned stimulus. Intriguingly, the conditioned eyeblink response (CR) with adaptive timing occurred preferentially in the trials where mPFC-cerebellum theta coherence was stronger. Moreover, both the mPFC-cerebellum theta coherence and the adaptive CR performance were impaired after the disruption of endogenous orexins in the cerebellum. Finally, association of the mPFC -cerebellum theta coherence with adaptive CR performance was time-limited occurring in the early stage of associative learning. These findings suggest that the mPFC and the cerebellum may act together to contribute to the adaptive performance of associative learning behavior by means of theta synchronization. PMID:26879632

  19. Adaptive subdomain modeling: A multi-analysis technique for ocean circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Alper; Baugh, John

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal and ocean processes of interest operate over large temporal and geographical scales and require a substantial amount of computational resources, particularly when engineering design and failure scenarios are also considered. This study presents an adaptive multi-analysis technique that improves the efficiency of these computations when multiple alternatives are being simulated. The technique, called adaptive subdomain modeling, concurrently analyzes any number of child domains, with each instance corresponding to a unique design or failure scenario, in addition to a full-scale parent domain providing the boundary conditions for its children. To contain the altered hydrodynamics originating from the modifications, the spatial extent of each child domain is adaptively adjusted during runtime depending on the response of the model. The technique is incorporated in ADCIRC++, a re-implementation of the popular ADCIRC ocean circulation model with an updated software architecture designed to facilitate this adaptive behavior and to utilize concurrent executions of multiple domains. The results of our case studies confirm that the method substantially reduces computational effort while maintaining accuracy.

  20. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of Kidney Disease Loss Scale to the Brazilian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Ana Carolina; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Losses can be conceptualized as cognitive and affective responses to individual sorrows, characterized by brooding, yearning, disbelief and stunned feelings, being clinically significant in chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Kidney Disease Loss Scale into Portuguese. Validation study involving the steps recommended in the literature for healthcare instruments: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, review by a committee of judges and pretest. The scale was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language, being quick and easy to application. The reliability and reproducibility showed satisfactory values. Factor analysis indicated a factor that explains 59.7% of the losses construct. The Kidney Disease Loss Scale was translated, adapted and validated for the Brazilian context, allowing future studies of losses and providing tools for the professionals working in dialysis centers for assistance to people with chronic kidney disease. As perdas podem ser conceituadas como respostas cognitivas e afetivas para tristezas individuais, caracterizadas pelo remoer, anseio, descrença e sentimentos atordoados, sendo clinicamente significativa em doenças crônicas. O objetivo do estudo foi traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e validar o Kidney Disease Loss Scale para a língua portuguesa. Estudo de validação envolveu as etapas preconizadas na literatura internacional para instrumentos da área de saúde: tradução inicial, síntese das traduções, retrotradução, revisão por um comitê de juízes, pré-teste e avaliação das propriedades psicométricas. A escala foi traduzida e adaptada para o idioma português, sendo de fácil e rápida aplicação. A confiabilidade e a reprodutibilidade apresentaram valores satisfatórios. A análise fatorial indicou um fator que explica 59,7% do constructo de perdas. A Escala de Perdas referente à Doença Renal foi traduzida, adaptada e validada para o

  1. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  2. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Large-Scale Systems With Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Shaocheng

    2017-09-01

    The problem of adaptive fuzzy output-constrained tracking fault-tolerant control (FTC) is investigated for the large-scale stochastic nonlinear systems of pure-feedback form. The nonlinear systems considered in this paper possess the unstructured uncertainties, unknown interconnected terms and unknown nonaffine nonlinear faults. The fuzzy logic systems are employed to identify the unknown lumped nonlinear functions so that the problems of structured uncertainties can be solved. An adaptive fuzzy state observer is designed to solve the nonmeasurable state problem. By combining the barrier Lyapunov function theory, adaptive decentralized and stochastic control principles, a novel fuzzy adaptive output-constrained FTC approach is constructed. All the signals in the closed-loop system are proved to be bounded in probability and the system outputs are constrained in a given compact set. Finally, the applicability of the proposed controller is well carried out by a simulation example.

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Beliefs about Emotions Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mograbi, Daniel C; Indelli, Pamela; Lage, Caio A; Tebyriça, Vitória; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Rimes, Katharine A

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Beliefs about the unacceptability of expression and experience of emotion are present in the general population but seem to be more prevalent in patients with a number of health conditions. Such beliefs, which may be viewed as a form of perfectionism about emotions, may have a deleterious effect on symptomatology as well as on treatment adherence and outcome. Nevertheless, few questionnaires have been developed to measure such beliefs about emotions, and no instrument has been validated in a developing country. The current study adapted and validated the Beliefs about Emotions Scale in a Brazilian sample. Methods The adaptation procedure included translation, back-translation and analysis of the content, with the final Brazilian Portuguese version of the scale being tested online in a sample of 645 participants. Internal consistency of the scale was very high and results of a principal axis factoring analysis indicated a two-factor solution. Results Respondents with high fatigue levels showed more perfectionist beliefs, and the scale correlated positively with questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression and fear of negative evaluation, confirming cross-cultural associations reported before. Finally, men, non-Caucasians and participants with lower educational achievement gave greater endorsement to such beliefs than women, Caucasian individuals and participants with higher educational level. Conclusions The study confirms previous clinical findings reported in the literature, but indicates novel associations with demographic variables. The latter may reflect cultural differences related to beliefs about emotions in Brazil.

  4. Health Belief Model Scale for Human Papilloma Virus and its Vaccination: Adaptation and Psychometric Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Seven, Memnun; Akyuz, Aygul

    2016-06-01

    To adapt and psychometrically test the Health Belief Model Scale for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Its Vaccination (HBMS-HPVV) for use in a Turkish population and to assess the Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge score (HPV-KS) among female college students. Instrument adaptation and psychometric testing study. The sample consisted of 302 nursing students at a nursing school in Turkey between April and May 2013. Questionnaire-based data were collected from the participants. Information regarding HBMS-HPVV and HPV knowledge and descriptive characteristic of participants was collected using translated HBMS-HPVV and HPV-KS. Test-retest reliability was evaluated and Cronbach α was used to assess internal consistency reliability, and exploratory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity of the HBMS-HPVV. The scale consists of 4 subscales that measure 4 constructs of the Health Belief Model covering the perceived susceptibility and severity of HPV and the benefits and barriers. The final 14-item scale had satisfactory validity and internal consistency. Cronbach α values for the 4 subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.78. Total HPV-KS ranged from 0 to 8 (scale range, 0-10; 3.80 ± 2.12). The HBMS-HPVV is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring young Turkish women's beliefs and attitudes about HPV and its vaccination. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Beliefs about Emotions Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Mograbi

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Beliefs about the unacceptability of expression and experience of emotion are present in the general population but seem to be more prevalent in patients with a number of health conditions. Such beliefs, which may be viewed as a form of perfectionism about emotions, may have a deleterious effect on symptomatology as well as on treatment adherence and outcome. Nevertheless, few questionnaires have been developed to measure such beliefs about emotions, and no instrument has been validated in a developing country. The current study adapted and validated the Beliefs about Emotions Scale in a Brazilian sample. Methods The adaptation procedure included translation, back-translation and analysis of the content, with the final Brazilian Portuguese version of the scale being tested online in a sample of 645 participants. Internal consistency of the scale was very high and results of a principal axis factoring analysis indicated a two-factor solution. Results Respondents with high fatigue levels showed more perfectionist beliefs, and the scale correlated positively with questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression and fear of negative evaluation, confirming cross-cultural associations reported before. Finally, men, non-Caucasians and participants with lower educational achievement gave greater endorsement to such beliefs than women, Caucasian individuals and participants with higher educational level. Conclusions The study confirms previous clinical findings reported in the literature, but indicates novel associations with demographic variables. The latter may reflect cultural differences related to beliefs about emotions in Brazil.

  6. Traffic flow impacts of adaptive cruise control deactivation and (Re)activation with cooperative driver behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.; Li, M.; Minderhoud, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 in the Netherlands, a field operational test was carried out to study the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane departure warning on driver behavior and traffic flow in real traffic. To estimate the effect for larger penetration rates, simulations were needed. For a reliable

  7. [Spanish validation of Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GASA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret Irles, Daniel; Morell Gomis, Ramon; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Tirado González, Sonia

    The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GASA) to the Spanish youth population. Cultural adaptation and validation study. Secondary Education centres. Two independent studies were conducted on a group of 466 young people with a mean age of 15.27 years (13-18, SD: 1.83) and 48.7% ♀ and on another group of 566, with a mean age of 21.24 years (19-26; SD: 1.86) 44.1% ♀. Addiction to video games (GASA); Game behavior (Game habits usage questionnaire), Impulsiveness (Plutchik Impulsiveness Scale) and Group Pressure (Ad hoc questionnaire). The Spanish version of GASA has shown good reliability and true to the original scale factor structure. As regards criterion validity, GASA scores are significantly different according to four criteria related to problem gambling: Game intensity and frequency, impulsiveness, and peer pressure. The results show that the adapted version GASA is adequate and a valid tool for assessing problematic gaming behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Adapting the academic motivation scale for use in pre-tertiary mathematics classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2015-09-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale ( ams) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades 11 and 12) in Asia. This study adapted the ams for this use and assessed the properties of the adapted instrument with 1610 students from Singapore. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a five-factor structure for the modified instrument (the three original ams intrinsic subscales collapsed into a single factor). Additionally, the modified instrument exhibited good internal consistency (mean α = .88), and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 1-month interval (mean r xx = .73). The validity of the modified ams was further demonstrated through correlational analyses among scores on its subscales, and with scores on other instruments measuring mathematics attitudes, anxiety and achievement.

  9. The Adaptation, Validation, Reliability Process of the Turkish Version Orientations to Happiness Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Saricam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to adapt the Scale of Happiness Orientations, which was developed by Peterson, Park, and Seligman (2005, into Turkish and examine the psychometric properties of the scale. The participants of the research consist of 489 students. The psychometric properties of the scale was examined with test methods; linguistic equivalence, descriptive factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, criterion-related validity, internal consistency, and test-retest. For criterion-related validity (concurrent validity, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form is used. Articles resulting from the descriptive factor analysis for structural validity of scale were summed into three factors (life of meaning, life of pleasure, life of engagement in accordance with the original form. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted yielded the value of three-factor fit indexes of 18 items: (χ2/df=1.94, RMSEA= .059, CFI= .96, GFI= .95, IFI= .95, NFI= .96, RFI= .95 and SRMR= .044. Factor load of the scale ranges from .36 to .59. During criterion-validity analysis, between Scale of Happiness Orientations and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, positive strong relations were seen at the level of p<.01 significance level. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient was .88 for the life of meaning sub-scale, .84 for the life of pleasure sub-scale, and .81 for the life of engagement sub-scale. In addition, a corrected items total correlation ranges from .39 to .61. According to these results, it can be said that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument for positive psychology, educational psychology, and other fields.

  10. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference.

  11. The adaptation study of the Q-sport-14 scale for the private sport establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZTÜRK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study is to adapt the “Q-SPORT 14” scale which is a tool to measure service quality for the private sport establishments. Material and Methods: The “Q-SPORT 10” scale, developed by Rial et al. (2010, reliability and validity study was conducted by Yıldız (2011 and adapted in Turkish, was used as data gathering tool. Total 585 scales were distributed to the participants and were withdrawn. The researcher ignored 103 of them due to incomplete marking. In the study, factor analysis, the rotated components matrix test, KMO and Barlet sphericity test, and the anti-image correlation test and reliability analaysis were used. The significance level was p<0.05 and the confidence interval was 95%. Results: KMO test was performed for the suitability of the sample size and it was 0.905. Bartlett sphericity test score was significant (p <0.01. The total variance description exposed 2 factors that Eigenvalues were higher than 1 and contributions to variance of these factors are 55%. After rotated components matrix analysis two sub-dimensions were identified (higher greater than 0.5; 9 items were related to "program and instructor quality" and the rest 5 items were related to “the physical environment and quality of equipment." The anti-image correlation presented that all items were higher than 0.5 All scores were more higher than 0.3 in the corrected item-total correlation and higher than 0.7 in Cronbach's alpha when item deleted. Conclusion: Q-SPORT 14 scale is highly reliable and usable measurement tool to test service quality in private sport establishments.

  12. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, factorial structure validity, and convergent validity of a Korean version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale adapted for children (K-SWLS-C). Participants consisted of 653 elementary school students (48% were male). The internal consistency of the…

  13. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  14. The influence of passion and empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior of teachers mediated by organizational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Cheasakul, Uree; Varma, Parvathy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The present research aims to study the direct and indirect influence of passion and empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior of teachers in a private university in Thailand mediated by organizational commitment. The sample comprises 124 teachers teaching in the university and the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale, adapted by Podsakoff and Mackenzie (1990), Passion Scale, developed by Vallerand, Carbonneau, Fernet and Guay (2008), School Participant Empowerment Scal...

  15. Quantum Information Biology: From Theory of Open Quantum Systems to Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    This chapter reviews quantum(-like) information biology (QIB). Here biology is treated widely as even covering cognition and its derivatives: psychology and decision making, sociology, and behavioral economics and finances. QIB provides an integrative description of information processing by bio-systems at all scales of life: from proteins and cells to cognition, ecological and social systems. Mathematically QIB is based on the theory of adaptive quantum systems (which covers also open quantum systems). Ideologically QIB is based on the quantum-like (QL) paradigm: complex bio-systems process information in accordance with the laws of quantum information and probability. This paradigm is supported by plenty of statistical bio-data collected at all bio-scales. QIB re ects the two fundamental principles: a) adaptivity; and, b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). In addition, quantum adaptive dynamics provides the most generally possible mathematical representation of these principles.

  16. Effects of Germline Mutations in the Ras/MAPK Signaling Pathway on Adaptive Behavior: Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome and Noonan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Mendelsohn, Nancy J.; Roberts, Amy E.; Tworog-Dube, Erica; Rauen, Katherine A.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) and Noonan syndrome (NS) are two phenotypically overlapping genetic disorders whose underlying molecular etiologies affect a common signaling pathway. Mutations in the BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 genes cause most cases of CFC and mutations in PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS and RAF1 typically cause NS. Although both syndromes are associated with developmental delays of varying severity, the extent to which the behavioral profiles differ may shed light on the different roles these respective genes play in development of skills necessary for everyday functioning. In this study, profiles of adaptive behavior of individuals with CFC and NS who had confirmed pathogenic mutations in Ras/MAPK pathway genes were investigated. Patterns of strengths and weaknesses, age-related differences, and risk factors for difficulties in adaptive skills were assessed. Although genes acting more downstream in the Ras/MAPK pathway were associated with more difficulties in adaptive functioning than genes more upstream in the pathway, several inconsistencies highlight the wide spectrum of possible developmental courses in CFC and NS. Along with clinical and genetic factors, variables such as chronological age, gestational age at birth and parental education levels accounted for significant variance in adaptive skills. Results indicate that there is wide heterogeneity in adaptive ability in CFC and NS, but that these abilities are correlated to some extent with the specific disease-causing genes. PMID:20186801

  17. [King's Parkinson's disease pain scale : Intercultural adaptation in the German language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, W H; Rizos, A; Odin, P; Löhle, M; Storch, A

    2018-02-01

    Pain is a frequent symptom of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and has a substantial impact on quality of life. The King's Parkinson's disease pain scale (KPPS) has become internationally established and is an English-language, standardized, reliable and valid scale for evaluation of pain in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. This article presents a validated version in German. The German translation was adapted interculturally and developed using an internationally recognized procedure in consultation with the authors of the original publication. The primary text was first translated by two bilingual neuroscientists independently of one another. Thereafter, the two versions were collated to generate a consensus version, which was accepted by the translators and preliminarily trialled with 10 patients. Hereafter, the German version was re-translated back into English by two other neurologists, again independently of one another, and a final consensus was agreed on using these versions. This English version was then compared with the original text by all of the translators, a process which entailed as many linguistic modifications to the German version as the translators considered necessary to generate a linguistically acceptable German version that was as similar as possible to the original English version. After this test text had been subsequently approved by the authors, the German text was applied to 50 patients in two hospitals, and reviewed as to its practicability and comprehensibility. This work led to the successful creation of an inter-culturally adapted and linguistically validated German version of the KPPS. The German version presented here is a useful scare for recording and quantifying pain in empirical studies, as well as in clinical practice.

  18. The Family in Us: Family History, Family Identity and Self-Reproductive Adaptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferring, Dieter

    2017-06-01

    This contribution is an essay about the notion of family identity reflecting shared significant experiences within a family system originating a set of signs used in social communication within and between families. Significant experiences are considered as experiences of events that have an immediate impact on the adaptation of the family in a given socio-ecological and cultural context at a given historical time. It is assumed that family history is stored in a shared "family memory" holding both implicit and explicit knowledge and exerting an influence on the behavior of each family member. This is described as transgenerational family memory being constituted of a system of meaningful signs. The crucial dimension underlying the logic of this essay are the ideas of adaptation as well as self-reproduction of systems.

  19. Disruptive behaviors in the classroom: initial standardization data on a new teacher rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G L; Owen, S M

    1990-10-01

    This study presents initial standardization data on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI), a teacher-completed measure of disruptive classroom behaviors. SESBIs were completed on 1116 children in kingergarten through fifth grade in a rural eastern Washington school district. Various analyses (Cronbach's alpha, corrected item-total correlations, average interitem correlations, principal components analyses) indicated that the SESBI provides a homogeneous measure of disruptive behaviors. Support was also found for three factors within the scale (e.g., overt aggression, oppositional behavior, and attentional difficulties). While the child's age did not have a significant effect on the SESBI, the child's gender did have a significant effect on scale scores as well as on most of the items, with males being rated more problematic than females. The SESBI was also able to discriminate between children in treatment for behavioral problems or learning disabilities and children not in treatment.

  20. [Study of adaptation and validation of the Practice environment scale of the nursing work index for the Portuguese reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Regina Sardinheiro do Céu Furtado; Martins, José Joaquim Penedos Amendoeira

    2014-08-01

    Testing the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. A descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, for the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the psychometric properties of the scale. The study participants were 236 nurses from two hospitals in the regions of Lisbon and Vale do Tejo. The 0.92 Cronbach's alpha was obtained for overall reliability and support of a five-dimension structure. The excellent quality of adjustment of analysis confirms the validity of the adapted version to hospital care settings, although there was no total coincidence of items in the five dimensions

  1. Psychometric appraisal of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SIB) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvard, M; Arrindell, W A; Guérin, J; Bouchard, C; Rion, A C; Ducottet, E; Séchaud, M; Mollard, E; Grillet, P R; Dang, C; Cottraux, J

    1999-08-01

    The present study was carried out in France to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SIB), a multidimensional measure of difficulty and distress in assertiveness that was originally developed in The Netherlands. This appraisal was conducted with a clinical sample (N = 166) and a general population sample (N = 150). The clinical series comprised 115 patients with social phobia and 51 patients with personality disorder, 28 of whom were of the avoidant type. Support was found for internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the French SIB. Compared to controls, both social phobics and patients with an avoidant personality disorder had significantly lower mean scores on all performance scales and significantly higher ones on all distress scales, with the social phobics occupying a position in between. Findings in relation to convergent and divergent validity were quite satisfactory. Sensitivity of the French SIB for detecting change was demonstrated in a subgroup of the clinical Ss who had undergone 15 sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for underassertiveness.

  2. An adaptive framework to differentiate receiving water quality impacts on a multi-scale level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumensaat, F; Tränckner, J; Helm, B; Kroll, S; Dirckx, G; Krebs, P

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in recent years towards sustainable and coherent water resources management on a river basin scale has changed the subject of investigations to a multi-scale problem representing a great challenge for all actors participating in the management process. In this regard, planning engineers often face an inherent conflict to provide reliable decision support for complex questions with a minimum of effort. This trend inevitably increases the risk to base decisions upon uncertain and unverified conclusions. This paper proposes an adaptive framework for integral planning that combines several concepts (flow balancing, water quality monitoring, process modelling, multi-objective assessment) to systematically evaluate management strategies for water quality improvement. As key element, an S/P matrix is introduced to structure the differentiation of relevant 'pressures' in affected regions, i.e. 'spatial units', which helps in handling complexity. The framework is applied to a small, but typical, catchment in Flanders, Belgium. The application to the real-life case shows: (1) the proposed approach is adaptive, covers problems of different spatial and temporal scale, efficiently reduces complexity and finally leads to a transparent solution; and (2) water quality and emission-based performance evaluation must be done jointly as an emission-based performance improvement does not necessarily lead to an improved water quality status, and an assessment solely focusing on water quality criteria may mask non-compliance with emission-based standards. Recommendations derived from the theoretical analysis have been put into practice.

  3. Parameter study on dynamic behavior of ITER tokamak scaled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes that the study on dynamic behavior of ITER tokamak scaled model according to the parametric analysis of base plate thickness, in order to find a reasonable solution to give the sufficient rigidity without affecting the dynamic behavior. For this purpose, modal analyses were performed changing the base plate thickness from the present design of 55 mm to 100 mm, 150 mm and 190 mm. Using these results, the modification plan of the plate thickness was studied. It was found that the thickness of 150 mm gives well fitting of 1st natural frequency about 90% of ideal rigid case. Thus, the modification study was performed to find out the adequate plate thickness. Considering the material availability, transportation and weldability, it was found that the 300mm thickness would be a limitation. The analysis result of 300mm thickness case showed 97% fitting of 1st natural frequency to the ideal rigid case. It was however found that the bolt length was too long and it gave additional twisting mode. As a result, it was concluded that the base plate thickness of 150mm or 190mm gives sufficient rigidity for the dynamic behavior of the scaled model. (author)

  4. Turkish adaptation and psychometric characteristics of the Nursing Authority and Autonomy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran Acil, Seher; Dinç, Leyla

    2018-04-14

    To adapt the Nursing Authority and Autonomy Scale (NAAS) into Turkish the Nursing Authority and Autonomy Scale (NAAS) to Turkish and assess its psychometric properties for Turkish nurses and nurse managers. The NAAS is a tool that specifically measures nursing authority and autonomy from the perspectives of nurses and nurse managers. The study sample consisted of 160 nurse managers and 266 staff nurses. Content validity was assessed using expert approval. Construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's α, and the test-retest reliability was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. The model achieved a good fit. The internal reliability of the NAAS' authority and autonomy in nursing practice and importance of nursing practice subscales were .84. The Cronbach's α of the instrument was .88. The test-retest scores within an interval of 3 weeks were statistically not significant. The Turkish version of the NAAS has good psychometric properties and this scale can be employed to measure nurses' authority and autonomy. Nurse managers and educators should use an appropriate scale such as NAAS in order to assess nurses' clinical authority and autonomy to improve patient outcomes and develop nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  6. [Spanish adaptation of a perceived Social Support Scale in sportspeople].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems.

  7. The Swedish version of the Acceptance of Chronic Health Conditions Scale for people with multiple sclerosis: Translation, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslin, Mia; Kottorp, Anders; Kierkegaard, Marie; Johansson, Sverker

    2016-11-11

    To translate and culturally adapt the Acceptance of Chronic Health Conditions (ACHC) Scale for people with multiple sclerosis into Swedish, and to analyse the psychometric properties of the Swedish version. Ten people with multiple sclerosis participated in translation and cultural adaptation of the ACHC Scale; 148 people with multiple sclerosis were included in evaluation of the psychometric properties of the scale. Translation and cultural adaptation were carried out through translation and back-translation, by expert committee evaluation and pre-test with cognitive interviews in people with multiple sclerosis. The psychometric properties of the Swedish version were evaluated using Rasch analysis. The Swedish version of the ACHC Scale was an acceptable equivalent to the original version. Seven of the original 10 items fitted the Rasch model and demonstrated ability to separate between groups. A 5-item version, including 2 items and 3 super-items, demonstrated better psychometric properties, but lower ability to separate between groups. The Swedish version of the ACHC Scale with the original 10 items did not fit the Rasch model. Two solutions, either with 7 items (ACHC-7) or with 2 items and 3 super-items (ACHC-5), demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties. Use of the ACHC-5 Scale with super-items is recommended, since this solution adjusts for local dependency among items.

  8. An adaptive scaling and biasing scheme for OFDM-based visible light communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaocheng; Wang, Qi; Chen, Sheng; Hanzo, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely used in visible light communication systems to achieve high-rate data transmission. Due to the nonlinear transfer characteristics of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and owing the high peak-to-average-power ratio of OFDM signals, the transmitted signal has to be scaled and biased before modulating the LEDs. In this contribution, an adaptive scaling and biasing scheme is proposed for OFDM-based visible light communication systems, which fully exploits the dynamic range of the LEDs and improves the achievable system performance. Specifically, the proposed scheme calculates near-optimal scaling and biasing factors for each specific OFDM symbol according to the distribution of the signals, which strikes an attractive trade-off between the effective signal power and the clipping-distortion power. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly improves the performance without changing the LED's emitted power, while maintaining the same receiver structure.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote-Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Multi-Scale Detail Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xinming; Xie, Junfeng; Song, Weidong; Mo, Fan; Gao, Xiaoming

    2018-02-07

    There are many problems in existing reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, such as the lack of texture-feature representation and of high-frequency details. Multi-scale detail enhancement can produce more texture information and high-frequency information. Therefore, super-resolution reconstruction of remote-sensing images based on adaptive multi-scale detail enhancement (AMDE-SR) is proposed in this paper. First, the information entropy of each remote-sensing image is calculated, and the image with the maximum entropy value is regarded as the reference image. Subsequently, spatio-temporal remote-sensing images are processed using phase normalization, which is to reduce the time phase difference of image data and enhance the complementarity of information. The multi-scale image information is then decomposed using the L ₀ gradient minimization model, and the non-redundant information is processed by difference calculation and expanding non-redundant layers and the redundant layer by the iterative back-projection (IBP) technique. The different-scale non-redundant information is adaptive-weighted and fused using cross-entropy. Finally, a nonlinear texture-detail-enhancement function is built to improve the scope of small details, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as an iterative constraint. Ultimately, high-resolution remote-sensing images with abundant texture information are obtained by iterative optimization. Real results show an average gain in entropy of up to 0.42 dB for an up-scaling of 2 and a significant promotion gain in enhancement measure evaluation for an up-scaling of 2. The experimental results show that the performance of the AMED-SR method is better than existing super-resolution reconstruction methods in terms of visual and accuracy improvements.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote-Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Multi-Scale Detail Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xinming; Xie, Junfeng; Song, Weidong; Mo, Fan; Gao, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    There are many problems in existing reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, such as the lack of texture-feature representation and of high-frequency details. Multi-scale detail enhancement can produce more texture information and high-frequency information. Therefore, super-resolution reconstruction of remote-sensing images based on adaptive multi-scale detail enhancement (AMDE-SR) is proposed in this paper. First, the information entropy of each remote-sensing image is calculated, and the image with the maximum entropy value is regarded as the reference image. Subsequently, spatio-temporal remote-sensing images are processed using phase normalization, which is to reduce the time phase difference of image data and enhance the complementarity of information. The multi-scale image information is then decomposed using the L0 gradient minimization model, and the non-redundant information is processed by difference calculation and expanding non-redundant layers and the redundant layer by the iterative back-projection (IBP) technique. The different-scale non-redundant information is adaptive-weighted and fused using cross-entropy. Finally, a nonlinear texture-detail-enhancement function is built to improve the scope of small details, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as an iterative constraint. Ultimately, high-resolution remote-sensing images with abundant texture information are obtained by iterative optimization. Real results show an average gain in entropy of up to 0.42 dB for an up-scaling of 2 and a significant promotion gain in enhancement measure evaluation for an up-scaling of 2. The experimental results show that the performance of the AMED-SR method is better than existing super-resolution reconstruction methods in terms of visual and accuracy improvements. PMID:29414893

  11. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SL<115 mm sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45 mm feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45 mm ≤ SL, attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.

  12. Cultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Talita Prado; Lopes Chaves, Erika de Cássia; Campos de Carvalho, Emília; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Carvalho, Camila Csizmar; Ku, Ya-Li; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2016-01-01

    To culturally adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale. In Brazil, there is currently a lack of validated instruments that assess the spiritual dimension, which includes the spiritual distress phenomenon that can be experienced at different moments in a person's life. This can include times when a person is affected by a disease such as cancer, which occurs suddenly and causes significant life changes. Methodological and cross-sectional study. Cultural adaptation of the Spiritual Distress Scale was performed using translation and back-translation stages, evaluation of cultural equivalence, committee review and pretesting. An interview using the Brazilian version of the scale was conducted with 170 patients in a cancer treatment unit of a charitable general hospital (not state funded). The following psychometric properties were evaluated: construct validity (divergence and factor analysis) and internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach's α and Kappa). Reliability analysis in the intra- and inter-rater phase showed that more than half of the items had Kappa values > 0·75. A correlation between the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Spiritual Distress Scale was found. Overall, the Spiritual Distress Scale showed a Cronbach's α of 0·87, with three of its four domains showing significant parameters. The Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale proved to be a reliable, valid and efficient instrument that is capable of assessing spiritual distress. The Brazilian Spiritual Distress Scale presented reliability and validity parameters that correspond to the original English version of the scale. The existence of an internationally validated instrument that assesses spiritual distress will assist healthcare professionals and researchers in recognising this phenomenon in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  15. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-01-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and

  16. Exploring the link between multiscale entropy and fractal scaling behavior in near-surface wind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Nogueira

    Full Text Available The equivalency between the power law behavior of Multiscale Entropy (MSE and of power spectra opens a promising path for interpretation of complex time-series, which is explored here for the first time for atmospheric fields. Additionally, the present manuscript represents a new independent empirical validation of such relationship, the first one for the atmosphere. The MSE-fractal relationship is verified for synthetic fractal time-series covering the full range of exponents typically observed in the atmosphere. It is also verified for near-surface wind observations from anemometers and CFSR re-analysis product. The results show a ubiquitous β ≈ 5/3 behavior inside the inertial range. A scaling break emerges at scales around a few seconds, with a tendency towards 1/f noise. The presence, extension and fractal exponent of this intermediate range are dependent on the particular surface forcing and atmospheric conditions. MSE shows an identical picture which is consistent with the turbulent energy cascade model: viscous dissipation at the small-scale end of the inertial range works as an information sink, while at the larger (energy-containing scales the multiple forcings in the boundary layer act as widespread information sources. Another scaling transition occurs at scales around 1-10 days, with an abrupt flattening of the spectrum. MSE shows that this transition corresponds to a maximum of the new information introduced, occurring at the time-scales of the synoptic features that dominate weather patterns. At larger scales, a scaling regime with flatter slopes emerges extending to scales larger than 1 year. MSE analysis shows that the amount of new information created decreases with increasing scale in this low-frequency regime. Additionally, in this region the energy injection is concentrated in two large energy peaks: daily and yearly time-scales. The results demonstrate that the superposition of these periodic signals does not destroy the

  17. Exploring the link between multiscale entropy and fractal scaling behavior in near-surface wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The equivalency between the power law behavior of Multiscale Entropy (MSE) and of power spectra opens a promising path for interpretation of complex time-series, which is explored here for the first time for atmospheric fields. Additionally, the present manuscript represents a new independent empirical validation of such relationship, the first one for the atmosphere. The MSE-fractal relationship is verified for synthetic fractal time-series covering the full range of exponents typically observed in the atmosphere. It is also verified for near-surface wind observations from anemometers and CFSR re-analysis product. The results show a ubiquitous β ≈ 5/3 behavior inside the inertial range. A scaling break emerges at scales around a few seconds, with a tendency towards 1/f noise. The presence, extension and fractal exponent of this intermediate range are dependent on the particular surface forcing and atmospheric conditions. MSE shows an identical picture which is consistent with the turbulent energy cascade model: viscous dissipation at the small-scale end of the inertial range works as an information sink, while at the larger (energy-containing) scales the multiple forcings in the boundary layer act as widespread information sources. Another scaling transition occurs at scales around 1-10 days, with an abrupt flattening of the spectrum. MSE shows that this transition corresponds to a maximum of the new information introduced, occurring at the time-scales of the synoptic features that dominate weather patterns. At larger scales, a scaling regime with flatter slopes emerges extending to scales larger than 1 year. MSE analysis shows that the amount of new information created decreases with increasing scale in this low-frequency regime. Additionally, in this region the energy injection is concentrated in two large energy peaks: daily and yearly time-scales. The results demonstrate that the superposition of these periodic signals does not destroy the underlying

  18. Brazilian Portuguese translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility assessment of the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Debora Rodrigues; Oliveira, Isabelle Stefan de Faria; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva; Oliveira Junior, Wilson Elias de; Comes, Giovana Tuccille; Cassettari, Vanessa Mello Granado; Self, Mariella Marie; Lourenção, Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda

    2018-03-15

    To translate and culturally adapt the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children into Brazilian Portuguese, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the translated version. The stage of translation and cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to an internationally accepted methodology, including the translation, back-translation, and pretest application of the translated version to a sample of 74 children to evaluate the degree of understanding. The reproducibility of the translated scale was assessed by applying the final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children to a sample of 64 children and 25 healthcare professionals, who were asked to correlate a randomly selected description from the translated scale with the corresponding representative illustration of the stool type. The final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children were evidently reproducible, since almost complete agreement (k>0,8) was obtained among the translated descriptions and illustrations of the stool types, both among the children and the group of specialists. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children was shown to be reliable in providing very similar results for the same respondents at different times and for different examiners. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children is reproducible; it can be applied in clinical practice and in scientific research in Brazil. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel adaptive synchronization control of a class of master-slave large-scale systems with unknown channel time-delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qikun; Zhang, Tianping

    2015-05-01

    The paper addresses a practical issue for adaptive synchronization in master-slave large-scale systems with constant channel time-delay., and a novel adaptive synchronization control scheme is proposed to guarantee the synchronization errors asymptotically converge to the origin, in which the matching condition as in the related literatures is not necessary. The real value of channel time-delay can be estimated online by a proper adaptation mechanism, which removes the conditions that the channel time-delay should be known exactly as in existing works. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  20. Cross-cultural validity of the scale for interpersonal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Laura; Arrindell, Willem A; Soresi, Salvatore; van der Ende, Jan; Sanavio, Ezio

    2011-01-01

    The Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SIB) is a 50-item multidimensional measure of difficulty and distress in assertiveness. The SIB assesses negative assertion, expression of and dealing with personal limitations, initiating assertiveness and positive assertion. The SIB was originally developed in the Netherlands. The present study attempted to replicate the original factors with an Italian student sample (n = 995). The four distress and four performance factors were replicable across two methods of analysis (the multiple group method of confirmatory analysis and Tucker's coefficient of congruence (phi). The corresponding scales were internally consistent and showed predicted patterns of correlations with a measure of self-efficacy. Sex and age differences in assertiveness were generally negligible. Italian students had higher positive assertion-performance scores than the Dutch and comparable scores on other performance scales; by contrast, the Italian subjects had significantly higher scores on all SIB distress scales than their Dutch equivalents. This was ascribed to the stronger pressure on people in Italian society to behave assertively (Hofstede's National Masculinity score = 70) as opposed to the Dutch society (National Masculinity score = 14).

  1. Adapting instruments and modifying statements: The confirmation method for the inventory and model for information sharing behavior using social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiny Azleen Binti Yahaya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to confirm the information sharing behavior using social media scale and to vali-date every item and make it reliable as an inventory by using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA. The researcher adapted the measuring instruments for every latent construct from the literature and customized the items to suit this particular study. The study sent the revised questionnaire to 262 respondents in order to gather the pilot study data and able to get 163 filled ones as final data. The set of questionnaires consists of 66 items that assess the 6 constructs. Data is analyzed using SPSS AMOS Version 21.0. The results show that every construct achieved its Bartletts’ Test of Spherici-ty 6.0 with the result of Information Sharing Behavior .000 and .871; Intention .000 and .782; Belief Expectancy .000 and .911; Attitude Influence .000 and .925; Readiness For Change .000 and .959; and Self-Efficacy .000 and .902. The entire item of the construct has exceeded the minimum limit of 0.7 reliability of Alpha Cronbach value to achieve the Internal Reliability. The new integrate model has been proposed due to this finding.

  2. Attitudes to climate change, perceptions of disaster risk, and mitigation and adaptation behavior in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan; Tung, Chuan-Ming; Lin, Shih-Chien

    2018-02-08

    Issues that are associated with climate change have global importance. Most related studies take a national or regional perspective on the impact of climate change. Taiwan is constrained by its geographical conditions, which increase its vulnerability to climate change, especially in its western coastal areas. The county that is most affected by climate change is Yunlin. In 2013-2014, projects that were sponsored by Taiwan's government analyzed the relationship among synthesized vulnerability, ecological footprint (EF) and adaptation to climate change and proposed 15 categories of synthesized vulnerability and EF values. This study further examines the relationship between vulnerability and EF values and examines how residents of four townships-Linnei, Sihu, Mailiao, and Huwei-cope with the effects of climate change. This study investigates whether the residents of the four townships vary in their attitudes to climate change, their perceptions of disaster risk, and their behavioral intentions with respect to coping with climate change. The structural equation model (SEM) is used to examine the relationships among attitudes to climate change, perceptions of disaster risk, and the behavioral intentions of residents in townships with various vulnerabilities to climate change. The results that are obtained using the SEM reveal that climate change mitigation/adaptation behavior is affected by attitudes to climate change and perceptions of disaster risk. However, the effects of attitudes and perceptions on mitigation and adaptation that are mediated by place attachment are not statistically significant.

  3. [Perceived Autonomy in Old Age scale: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Sense of autonomy - the possibility to choose and decide - is one of the markers of positive and active aging. The goal of this study was to examine the Polish adaptation of the Perceived Autonomy in Old Age (PAA) scale and to determine its internal structure and psychometric properties: reliability, as well as construct and discriminant validity. 277 seniors (female=187; male=90), without cognitive function disorders aged 60 to 100 (M=77.4; SD=9.2) took part in the study. Apart from the PAA, the ADL and IADL scales (self-reliance assessment) were used, as well as the Emotional State Questionnaire (a measure for positive and negative emotions) and the WHOQoL-Brief (a measure for health-related quality of life). As a result of an exploratory and confirmation factor analysis a one-factor tool with five items was built. Reliability coefficients of the scale measured with the internal consistency method and test-retest were ≥ 0.80. Positive correlations were found with indicators in the ADL, IADL, as well as in the somatic and psychological domain of life quality, and positive emotions. Negative correlations were found for negative emotions. The obtained results indicated very high reliability and accuracy for the Polish adaptation of the SPA. The tool can be used as a predictor and/or indicator of successful aging and life quality of seniors.

  4. Understanding extreme sea levels for broad-scale coastal impact and adaptation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, T.; Haigh, I. D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Arns, A.; Dangendorf, S.; Hinkel, J.; Slangen, A. B. A.

    2017-07-01

    One of the main consequences of mean sea level rise (SLR) on human settlements is an increase in flood risk due to an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme sea levels (ESL). While substantial research efforts are directed towards quantifying projections and uncertainties of future global and regional SLR, corresponding uncertainties in contemporary ESL have not been assessed and projections are limited. Here we quantify, for the first time at global scale, the uncertainties in present-day ESL estimates, which have by default been ignored in broad-scale sea-level rise impact assessments to date. ESL uncertainties exceed those from global SLR projections and, assuming that we meet the Paris agreement goals, the projected SLR itself by the end of the century in many regions. Both uncertainties in SLR projections and ESL estimates need to be understood and combined to fully assess potential impacts and adaptation needs.

  5. Intellectual, Adaptive, and Behavioral Functioning in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, HyeSeung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L.; Batshaw, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain, and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. The current study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs (33 neonatal onset, 59 late onset). Results indicate that children who present with neonatal onset have poorer outcome than those who present later in childhood. Approximately half of the children with neonatal onset performed in the range of intellectual disability (ID), including a substantial number (~30%) who were severely impaired. In comparison, only a quarter of the late onset group were in the range of ID. There is also evidence that the UCD group has difficulties in aspects of emotional/behavioral and executive skills domains. In conclusion, children with UCDs present with a wide spectrum of cognitive outcomes. Children with neonatal onset disease have a much higher likelihood of having an intellectual disability, which becomes even more evident with increasing age. However, even children with late onset UCDs demonstrate evidence of neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, particularly in aspects of attention and executive functioning. PMID:19287347

  6. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  7. Scaling behavior of spin gap of the bond alternating anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Susobhan, E-mail: suso.phy.paul@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Scottish Church College, 1 & 3 Urquhart Square, Kolkata-700006 (India); Ghosh, Asim Kumar, E-mail: asimkumar96@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S C Mallik Road, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Scaling behavior of spin gap of a bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain has been studied both in ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) cases. Spin gap has been estimated by using exact diagonalization technique. All those quantities have been obtained for a region of anisotropic parameter Δ defined by 0≤Δ≤1. Spin gap is found to develop as soon as the non-uniformity in the alternating bond strength is introduced in the AFM regime which furthermore sustains in the FM regime as well. Scaling behavior of the spin gap has been studied by introducing scaling exponent. The variation of scaling exponents with Δ is fitted with a regular function.

  8. Global Rebalancing of Cellular Resources by Pleiotropic Point Mutations Illustrates a Multi-scale Mechanism of Adaptive Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utrilla, José; O'Brien, Edward J.; Chen, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Pleiotropic regulatory mutations affect diverse cellular processes, posing a challenge to our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships across multiple biological scales. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) allows for such mutations to be found and characterized in the context of clear se...

  9. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Figueredo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737, while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the

  10. Thermodynamic scaling behavior in genechips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hummelen Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affymetrix Genechips are characterized by probe pairs, a perfect match (PM and a mismatch (MM probe differing by a single nucleotide. Most of the data preprocessing algorithms neglect MM signals, as it was shown that MMs cannot be used as estimators of the non-specific hybridization as originally proposed by Affymetrix. The aim of this paper is to study in detail on a large number of experiments the behavior of the average PM/MM ratio. This is taken as an indicator of the quality of the hybridization and, when compared between different chip series, of the quality of the chip design. Results About 250 different GeneChip hybridizations performed at the VIB Microarray Facility for Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed. The investigation of such a large set of data from the same source minimizes systematic experimental variations that may arise from differences in protocols or from different laboratories. The PM/MM ratios are derived theoretically from thermodynamic laws and a link is made with the sequence of PM and MM probe, more specifically with their central nucleotide triplets. Conclusion The PM/MM ratios subdivided according to the different central nucleotides triplets follow qualitatively those deduced from the hybridization free energies in solution. It is shown also that the PM and MM histograms are related by a simple scale transformation, in agreement with what is to be expected from hybridization thermodynamics. Different quantitative behavior is observed on the different chip organisms analyzed, suggesting that some organism chips have superior probe design compared to others.

  11. Experimental study on dynamic behavior of large scale foundation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Kazufumi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Esashi, Yasuyuki; Ueshima, Teruyuki; Nakamura, Hideharu

    1983-01-01

    The large-sized, high performance vibrating table in the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center is installed on a large-scale concrete foundation of length 90.9 m, width 44.8 m and maximum thickness 21 m, weighing 150,000 tons. Through the experimental study on the behavior of the foundation, which is set on gravel ground, useful information should be obtained on the siting of a nuclear power plant on the Quaternary stratum ground. The objective of research is to grasp the vibration characteristics of the foundation during the vibration of the table to evaluate the interaction between the foundation and the ground, and to evaluate an analytical method for numerically simulating the vibration behavior. In the present study, the vibration behavior of the foundation was clarified by measurement, and in order to predict the vibration behavior, the semi-infinite theory of elasticity was applied. The accuracy of this analytical method was demonstrated by comparison with the measured results. (Mori, K.)

  12. Engineering behavior of small-scale foundation piers constructed from alternative materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudin, Maxim Mikhaylovich

    Testing small-scale prototype pier foundations to evaluate engineering behavior is an alternative to full-scale testing that facilitates testing of several piers and pier groups at relatively low cost. In this study, various pier systems and pier groups at one tenth scale were subjected to static vertical loading under controlled conditions to evaluate stiffness, bearing capacity, and group efficiency. Pier length, material properties and methods of installation were evaluated. Pier length to diameter ratios varied between four and eight. A unique soil pit with dimensions of 2.1 m in width, 1.5 m in length and 2.0 m in depth was designed to carry out this research. The test pit was filled with moisture conditioned and compacted Western Iowa loess. A special load test frame was designed and fabricated to provide up to 25,000 kg vertical reaction force for load testing. A load cell and displacement instrumentation was setup to capture the load test data. Alternative materials to conventional cement concrete were studied. The pier materials evaluated in this study included compacted aggregate, cement stabilized silt, cementitious grouts, and fiber reinforced silt. Key findings from this study demonstrated that (1) the construction method influences the behavior of aggregate piers, (2) the composition of the pier has a significant impact on the stiffness, (3) group efficiencies were found to be a function of pier length and pier material, (4) in comparison to full-scale testing the scaled piers were found to produce a stiffer response with load-settlement and bearing capacities to be similar. Further, although full-scale test results were not available for all pier materials, the small-scale testing provided a means for comparing results between pier systems. Finally, duplicate pier tests for a given length and material were found to be repeatable.

  13. Study of adaptation and validation of the Practice environment scale of the nursing work index for the portuguese reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Sardinheiro do Céu Furtado Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Testing the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Method: A descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, for the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the psychometric properties of the scale. The study participants were 236 nurses from two hospitals in the regions of Lisbon and Vale do Tejo. Results: The 0.92 Cronbach’s alpha was obtained for overall reliability and support of a five-dimension structure. Conclusion: The excellent quality of adjustment of analysis confirms the validity of the adapted version to hospital care settings, although there was no total coincidence of items in the five dimensions

  14. Multi-scale analysis of deformation behavior at SCC crack tip (2). (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Hayakawa, Masao; Nagashima, Nobuo

    2007-03-01

    This report describes a result of the research conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the National Institute for Materials Science under contract with Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) that was concerned with a multi-scale analysis of plastic deformation behavior at the crack tip of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The research was carried out to evaluate the validity of the SCC growth data acquired in the intergranular SCC (IGSCC) project based on a mechanistic understanding of SCC. For the purpose, in this research, analyses of the plastic deformation behavior and microstructure around the crack tip were performed in a nano-order scale. The hardness measured in nano, meso and macro scales was employed as a common index of the strength, and the essential data necessary to understand the SCC propagation behavior were acquired and analyzed that are mainly a size of plastic deformation region and a microstructural information in the region, e.g. data of crystallografy, microscopic deformation and dislocations at the inside of grains and grain boundaries. In this year, we analyzed the state of plastic deformation region at the crack tip of IGSCC under various conditions and investigated relationship between crack growth behavior and stress intensity factor. Especially, we investigated in detail about two different hardened specimens used in the SCC growth tests in the IGSCC project. (J.P.N.)

  15. Self-* and Adaptive Mechanisms for Large Scale Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragopoulou, P.; Mastroianni, C.; Montero, R.; Andrjezak, A.; Kondo, D.

    Large-scale distributed computing systems and infrastructure, such as Grids, P2P systems and desktop Grid platforms, are decentralized, pervasive, and composed of a large number of autonomous entities. The complexity of these systems is such that human administration is nearly impossible and centralized or hierarchical control is highly inefficient. These systems need to run on highly dynamic environments, where content, network topologies and workloads are continuously changing. Moreover, they are characterized by the high degree of volatility of their components and the need to provide efficient service management and to handle efficiently large amounts of data. This paper describes some of the areas for which adaptation emerges as a key feature, namely, the management of computational Grids, the self-management of desktop Grid platforms and the monitoring and healing of complex applications. It also elaborates on the use of bio-inspired algorithms to achieve self-management. Related future trends and challenges are described.

  16. Psychometric Examination, Adaptation, and Evaluation of the Hebrew Translation of the MMPI-2-RF VRIN-r and TRIN-r Validity Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkalim, Eleanor; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Handel, Richard W; Almagor, Moshe; Tellegen, Auke

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008/2011) Variable Response Inconsistency-Revised (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency-Revised (TRIN-r) scales, including alternative versions of the scales, in the Hebrew translation of the test. First, we examined the applicability of the U.S. VRIN-r and TRIN-r scales in an Israeli Hebrew-speaking mixed clinical sample, and replaced original item pairs that did not meet the development criteria with substitution item pairs that did. Then, using the Israeli normative sample and a pure clinical sample, we compared the psychometric functioning of the adapted Hebrew-language VRIN-r and TRIN-r scales with that of the original versions of these scales under various conditions of simulated non-content-based (random and fixed) responding. Overall, results showed that the adapted versions of the scales did not improve on the original ones. We therefore recommend using the U.S. VRIN-r and TRIN-r versions, which could also facilitate cross-cultural comparisons.

  17. Land radiative management as contributor to regional-scale climate adaptation and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Phipps, Steven J.; Pitman, Andrew J.; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Donat, Markus G.; Hirschi, Martin; Lenton, Andrew; Wilhelm, Micah; Kravitz, Ben

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions urgently need to be reduced. Even with a step up in mitigation, the goal of limiting global temperature rise to well below 2 °C remains challenging. Consequences of missing these goals are substantial, especially on regional scales. Because progress in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions has been slow, climate engineering schemes are increasingly being discussed. But global schemes remain controversial and have important shortcomings. A reduction of global mean temperature through global-scale management of solar radiation could lead to strong regional disparities and affect rainfall patterns. On the other hand, active management of land radiative effects on a regional scale represents an alternative option of climate engineering that has been little discussed. Regional land radiative management could help to counteract warming, in particular hot extremes in densely populated and important agricultural regions. Regional land radiative management also raises some ethical issues, and its efficacy would be limited in time and space, depending on crop growing periods and constraints on agricultural management. But through its more regional focus and reliance on tested techniques, regional land radiative management avoids some of the main shortcomings associated with global radiation management. We argue that albedo-related climate benefits of land management should be considered more prominently when assessing regional-scale climate adaptation and mitigation as well as ecosystem services.

  18. Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Siang Fung; Bortel, Emely L; Swain, Michael V; Klocke, Arndt; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure of enamel like most biological tissues has a hierarchical structure which determines their mechanical behavior. However, current studies of the mechanical behavior of enamel lack a systematic investigation of these hierarchical length scales. In this study, we performed macroscopic uni-axial compression tests and the spherical indentation with different indenter radii to probe enamel's elastic/inelastic transition over four hierarchical length scales, namely: 'bulk enamel' (mm), 'multiple-rod' (10's microm), 'intra-rod' (100's nm with multiple crystallites) and finally 'single-crystallite' (10's nm with an area of approximately one hydroxyapatite crystallite). The enamel's elastic/inelastic transitions were observed at 0.4-17 GPa depending on the length scale and were compared with the values of synthetic hydroxyapatite crystallites. The elastic limit of a material is important as it provides insights into the deformability of the material before fracture. At the smallest investigated length scale (contact radius approximately 20 nm), elastic limit is followed by plastic deformation. At the largest investigated length scale (contact size approximately 2 mm), only elastic then micro-crack induced response was observed. A map of elastic/inelastic regions of enamel from millimeter to nanometer length scale is presented. Possible underlying mechanisms are also discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  20. Psychometric appraisal of the scale for interpersonal behavior (SIB) in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvard, M; Arrindell, WA; Guerin, J; Bouchard, C; Rion, AC; Ducottet, E; Sechaud, M; Mollard, E; Grillet, PR; Dang, C; Cottraux, J

    The present study was carried out in France to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SIB), a multidimensional measure of difficulty and distress in assertiveness that was originally developed in The Netherlands. This appraisal was conducted with a

  1. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Activity Rating Scale for Disorders of the Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    and cross-culturally adapt the ARS into Swedish and to assess measurement properties of the Swedish version of the ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: The COSMIN guidelines were followed. Participants (N = 100 [55 women]; mean age, 27 years) who were undergoing...... rehabilitation for a knee injury completed the ARS twice for test-retest reliability. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Tegner Activity Scale (TAS), and modernized Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) were administered at baseline to validate the ARS. Construct validity...

  2. The Adaptation of Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan SEZER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the validity and reliability of the Turkish adaptation ofAcceptance of Couple Violence Scale (ACVS. The data of research has been attainedfrom 474 (M =243, F=231 high school students who were attending 1st, 2nd and 3thclass and coming from middle socio-economic levels in Malatya. Acceptance of CoupleViolence Scale has 11 items, Likert type and 4 point response format. The constructvalidity of ACVS was conducted by using exploratory factor analysis and varimaxrotation. Single independent factor with the eigenvalue over 1.00 has been found. Thisfactor explained 44% of total variance. To test concurrent validity, correlations betweenscores on ACVS and Aggressiveness Questionnaire were calculated. There was asignificant relationship between scores on the two scales (r= .61. Cronbach alphacoefficient of the scale was found “.87”; test-retest correlation coefficient was “r=.80”.Item-total correlation co-efficiencies vary between “.52” and “.71”. Findings show thatACVS can be used with acceptable level of validity and reliability for high schoolstudents.

  3. Micro- and macro-geographic scale effect on the molecular imprint of selection and adaptation in Norway spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Scalfi

    Full Text Available Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst, at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale, and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale. At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based F(ST-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the F(ST-outlier methods detected together 11 F(ST-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with F(ST-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also

  4. Micro- and macro-geographic scale effect on the molecular imprint of selection and adaptation in Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfi, Marta; Mosca, Elena; Di Pierro, Erica Adele; Troggio, Michela; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sperisen, Christoph; La Porta, Nicola; Neale, David B

    2014-01-01

    Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale), and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale). At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based F(ST)-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the F(ST)-outlier methods detected together 11 F(ST)-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale) and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale) significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with F(ST)-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also suggests that an

  5. Overcoming Deception in Evolution of Cognitive Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    When scaling neuroevolution to complex behaviors, cognitive capabilities such as learning, communication, and memory become increasingly important. However, successfully evolving such cognitive abilities remains difficult. This paper argues that a main cause for such difficulty is deception, i.......e. evolution converges to a behavior unrelated to the desired solution. More specifically, cognitive behaviors often require accumulating neural structure that provides no immediate fitness benefit, and evolution often thus converges to non-cognitive solutions. To investigate this hypothesis, a common...... evolutionary robotics T-Maze domain is adapted in three separate ways to require agents to communicate, remember, and learn. Indicative of deception, evolution driven by objective-based fitness often converges upon simple non- cognitive behaviors. In contrast, evolution driven to explore novel behaviors, i...

  6. Adaptive user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing and building adaptive user interfaces developed in the large AID project undertaken by the contributors.Key Features* Describes one of the few large-scale adaptive interface projects in the world* Outlines the principles of adaptivity in human-computer interaction

  7. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  8. Conception and validation of the Behavioral Intentions Scale of Organizational Citizenship (BISOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Passos Gomes Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to construct and validate the Behavioral Intentions of Organizational Citizenship Scale (BISOC. Organizational citizenship consists of measures of voluntary behaviors, which are beneficial to organizations and are not explicit in employment contracts. To investigate the psychometric properties of BISOC, we selected 767 employees in different cities from the states of Bahia and Pernambuco (Brazil. The validation procedures adopted, which used techniques from both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory, showed that the BISOC has a unidimensional structure. From the initial set of 42 items, 35 items met the validation criteria. By presenting suitable psychometric parameters, BISOC is the first measure of organizational citizenship behaviors developed and validated to assess behavioral intentions.

  9. Using the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial and Borderline Features Scales to Predict Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, Brittany N; Ruchensky, Jared R; Morey, Leslie C; Edens, John F

    2016-11-01

    A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes. The current study utilizes a large sample of youthful offenders ( N = 1,354) from the Pathways to Desistance project to examine the separate effects of the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial Features (ANT) and Borderline Features (BOR) scales in predicting future offending behavior as well as trends in other negative outcomes (e.g., substance abuse, violence, employment difficulties) over a 1-year follow-up period. In addition, an ANT × BOR interaction term was created to explore the predictive effects of secondary psychopathy. ANT and BOR both explained unique variance in the prediction of various negative outcomes even after controlling for past indicators of those same behaviors during the preceding year.

  10. Validity and reliability analysis of the planned behavior theory scale related to the testicular self-examination in a Turkish context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyigun, Emine; Tastan, Sevinc; Ayhan, Hatice; Kose, Gulsah; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability levels of the Planned Behavior Theory Scale as related to a testicular self-examination. The study was carried out in a health-profession higher-education school in Ankara, Turkey, from April to June 2012. The study participants comprised 215 male students. Study data were collected by using a questionnaire, a planned behavior theory scale related to testicular self-examination, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). The sub-dimensions of the planned behavior theory scale, namely those of intention, attitude, subjective norms and self-efficacy, were found to have Cronbach's alpha values of between 0.81 and 0.89. Exploratory factor analysis showed that items of the scale had five factors that accounted for 75% of the variance. Of these, the sub-dimension of intention was found to have the highest level of contribution. A significant correlation was found between the sub-dimensions of the testicular self-examination planned behavior theory scale and those of CHBMS (p Planned Behavior Theory Scale is a valid and reliable measurement for Turkish society.

  11. Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the graded chronic pain scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Peña, Raúl; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Jiménez-Penick, Virginia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    To adapt the Graded Chronic Pain Scale for use in Primary care patients in Spain, and to assess its psychometric properties. Clinical measures observational study investigating the severity of chronic pain. The methodology included a process of translation and back-translation following the international guidelines. Study participants were 75 patients who experienced lower back pain for more than six months and were sent to Primary Care physiotherapy units. Internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, floor and ceiling effects, and answering capacity were analysed. The Spanish version of the Graded Chronic Pain Scale had a high internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.81. Regarding construct validity, it was identified that two factors explained 72.37% of the variance. Convergent validity showed a moderate positive correlation with the Visual Analogue Scale, the activity avoidance subscale of the Tampa Scale of Kinesophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Roland-Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire, and the FearAvoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. A moderate negative correlation was identified with the Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale. The mean time of questionnaire administration was 2minutes and 28seconds. The Spanish version of the Graded Chronic Pain Scale appears to be a valid, reliable, and useful tool for measuring chronic pain at an early stage in Primary Care settings in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  12. MD Simulation on Collision Behavior Between Nano-Scale TiO₂ Particles During Vacuum Cold Spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hai-Long; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-04-01

    Particle collision behavior influences significantly inter-nano particle bonding formation during the nano-ceramic coating deposition by vacuum cold spraying (or aerosol deposition method). In order to illuminate the collision behavior between nano-scale ceramic particles, molecular dynamic simulation was applied to explore impact process between nano-scale TiO2 particles through controlling impact velocities. Results show that the recoil efficiency of the nano-scale TiO2 particle is decreased with the increase of the impact velocity. Nano-scale TiO2 particle exhibits localized plastic deformation during collision at low velocities, while it is intensively deformed by collision at high velocities. This intensive deformation promotes the nano-particle adhesion rather than rebounding off. A relationship between the adhesion energy and the rebound energy is established for the bonding formation of the nano-scale TiO2 particle. The adhesion energy required to the bonding formation between nano-scale ceramic particles can be produced by high velocity collision.

  13. Responding to flow: How phytoplankton adapt migration strategies to tackle turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anupam; Carrara, Francesco; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Phytoplankton are among the ocean's most important organisms and it has long been recognized that turbulence is a primary determinant of their fitness. Yet, mechanisms by which phytoplankton may adapt to turbulence have remained unknown. We present experiments that demonstrate how phytoplankton are capable of rapid adaptive behavior in response to fluid flow disturbances that mimic turbulence. Our study organism was the toxic marine alga Heterosigma akashiwo, known to exhibit ``negative gravitaxis,'' i . e . , to frequently migrate upwards against gravity. To mimic the effect of Kolmogorov-scale turbulent eddies, which expose cells to repeated reorientations, we observed H. akashiwo in a ``flip chamber,'' whose orientation was periodically flipped. Tracking of single cells revealed a striking, robust behavioral adaptation, whereby within tens of minutes half of the population reversed its direction of migration to swim downwards, demonstrating an active response to fluid flow. Using confocal microscopy, we provide a physiological rationalization of this behavior in terms of the redistribution of internal organelles, and speculate on the motives for this bet-hedging-type strategy. This work suggests that the effects of fluid flow - not just passive but also active - on plankton represents a rich area of investigation with considerable implications for some of earth's most important organisms.

  14. Study design and protocol for a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress and self-management intervention for localized prostate cancer: The Encuentros de Salud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Antoni, Michael H; Moreno, Patricia I; Traeger, Lara; Perdomo, Dolores; Dahn, Jason; Miller, Gregory E; Cole, Steve; Orjuela, Julian; Pizarro, Edgar; Yanez, Betina

    2018-06-14

    Almost 2.8 million men in the U.S. are living with prostate cancer (PC), accounting for 40% of all male cancer survivors. Men diagnosed with prostate cancer may experience chronic and debilitating treatment side effects, including sexual and urinary dysfunction, pain and fatigue. Side effects can be stressful and can also lead to poor psychosocial functioning. Prior trials reveal that group-based cognitive behavioral stress and self-management (CBSM) is effective in reducing stress and mitigating some of these symptoms, yet little is known about the effects of culturally-translated CBSM among Spanish-speaking men with PC. This manuscript describes the rationale and study design of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial to determine whether participation in a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (C-CBSM) intervention leads to significantly greater reductions in symptom burden and improvements in health-related quality of life relative to participation in a non-culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention. Participants (N = 260) will be Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino men randomized to the standard, non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention (e.g., cognitive behavioral strategies, stress management, and health maintenance) or the culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention (e.g., content adapted to be compatible with Hispanic/Latino cultural patterns and belief systems, meanings, values and social context) for 10 weeks. Primary outcomes (i.e., disease-specific symptom burden and health-related quality of life) will be assessed across time. We hypothesize that a culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention will be more efficacious in reducing symptom burden and improving health-related quality of life among Hispanic/Latino men when compared to a non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  16. Large-scale experiments on aerosol behavior in light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, W.; Bunz, H.; Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Rahn, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, three large-scale experimental programs were carried out dealing with the behavior of aerosols during core-melt accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). In the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) program, the principal behaviors of different insoluble aerosols and of mixed aerosols were measured in dry air atmospheres and in condensing steam-air atmospheres contained in a 38-m/sup 3/ steel vessel. The Demonstration of Nuclear Aerosol Behavior (DEMONA) program used a 640-m/sup 3/ concrete containment model to simulate typical accident sequence conditions, and measured the behavior of different insoluble aerosols and mixed aerosols in condensing and transient atmospheric conditions. Part of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) program was also devoted to aerosol behavior in containment; and 852-m/sup 3/ steel vessel was used, and the aerosols were composed of mixtures of insoluble and soluble species. The results of these experiments provide a suitable data base for validation of aerosol behavior codes. Fundamental insight into details of aerosol behavior in condensing environments has been gained through the results of the NSPP tests. Code comparisons have been and are being performed in the DEMONA and LACE experiments

  17. Copy of Using Emulation and Simulation to Understand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chiang, Ken; Gentile, Ann C.; Lloyd, Levi; Minnich, Ronald G.; Vanderveen, Keith; Van Randwyk, Jamie A; Rudish, Don W.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the work done in the late-start LDRDUsing Emulation and Simulation toUnderstand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet. We describe the creation of a researchplatform that emulates many thousands of machines to be used for the study of large-scale inter-net behavior. We describe a proof-of-concept simple attack we performed in this environment.We describe the successful capture of a Storm bot and, from the study of the bot and furtherliterature search, establish large-scale aspects we seek to understand via emulation of Storm onour research platform in possible follow-on work. Finally, we discuss possible future work.3

  18. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  19. [Neural Mechanisms That Facilitate Adaptive Behavior Based on Acquired Stimulus-Outcome Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaaki

    2017-11-01

    In response to changing internal and external situations, we always need to adapt our behavior based on previous experiences, particularly, acquired stimulus-outcome information. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a prefrontal cortical region, is critical for this type of decision-making. The current understanding of the fundamental functions of the OFC has been reviewed by introducing, as an example, how the OFC contributes to the processing of uncertain rewards. Furthermore, the importance of revealing context and temporally specific causal roles of neural circuits including the OFC in decision-making, as well as the techniques to achieve the goal, have been discussed.

  20. Adaptation at Scale in Semi-arid Regions (ASSAR)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Microsoft Office User

    Long-term climate projections in Africa & suggest necessity of far reaching adaptation actions. • Large potential impacts on food production & security, water resources, from both heat and changes in moisture. • Often many social, political, economic and governance barriers to adaptation. • Robust knowledge systems and ...

  1. Measurement Model and Psychometric Properties of Family Communication Scale (FCS and Family Satisfaction Scale (FSS in Iranian Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مجتبی حبیبی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the stability of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the complementary scales of family adaptability and cohesion evaluation scales (FACES in Iranian families. The scale was translated into Persian language and was used as part of a battery of questionnaires consisting of the scales measuring family communication scale (FCS, family satisfaction scale (FSS, depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS, youth self-report for behavior problems (YSR, parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF, and life events (LF. A sample of  1652 subjects (father= 558, mother= 576, child=518 from seven capital cities including Tehran, Mashhad, Tabriz, Kermanshah, Yazd, Shiraz, and Esfahan completed questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the original two-factor structure. The results provided acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent, and divergent validity. Findings supported the Persian version of FCS and FSS for cross-cultural use as a valid and reliable measure for diagnostic purposes in family context.

  2. Neuropsychological Assessment at Preschool Age: Adaptation and Validation of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities to 4 Year-old Basque-speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiarena, Ainara; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-10-23

    Early neuropsychological assessment provides important information for clinical practice and research. As previously no tool for neuropsychological assessment has been developed in or adapted to Basque, the aim of this study was to adapt and validate the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities for 4 years old children. The adaptation and validation of the original instrument followed the methodological steps established by the International Test Commission. We examined the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument in 273 Basque preschool children (aged between 4 years and 4 months and 4 years and 11 months; 52.2% boys). Confirmatory factor analysis showed satisfactory fit indexes except for the General Cognitive and Memory scales. Most scales presented adequate internal consistency (Reliability coefficients ranged between .55 and .81). The Basque version also showed evidence of validity based on the relationship between neuropsychological development and sex, parental education, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviours and early neurodevelopment (p < .05; effect sizes ranged between Cohen's d = .26 and .52 and r = .15 and 39). The Basque MSCA can be regarded as a useful tool to evaluate cognitive and psychomotor development in preschool children.

  3. Adaptation Studies of the Aggression and Victimization Scales for Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KURNAZ

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR had acceptable validity and reliability properties. As relational aggression and victimization were found to be related with several mental health problems among school children, both scales could be utilized in the evaluation of overt and relational dimensions of both agression and victimization among Turkish elementary school children. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 106-115 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 106-115

  4. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT to American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mondrzak

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT - originally, Escala para Avaliação de Contratransferência (EACT - is a self-administered instrument comprising questions that assess 23 feelings (divided into three blocs, closeness, distance, and indifference that access conscious countertransferential emotions and sentiments. This paper describes the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the RSCT into American English. Methods: This study employed the guidelines proposed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation which define 10 steps for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-report instruments. Additionally, semantic equivalence tools were employed to select the final versions of terms used. The author of the RSCT gave permission for translation and took part in the process. The instrument is available for use free of charge. Results: Analysis of the back-translation showed that just seven of the 23 terms needed to be adjusted to arrive at the final version in American English. Conclusions: This study applied rigorous standards to construct a version of the RSCT in American English. This version of the RSCT translated and adapted into American English should be of great use for accessing and researching countertransferential feelings that are part of psychodynamic treatment.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do not identify when these experiences may have occurred, who was involved or the feelings evoked, such as helplessness or terror. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed to overcome these limitations. Objective : In view of the improvements over previous self-report instruments that this new tool offers and of the small number of self-report questionnaires for childhood maltreatment assessment available in Brazil, this study was conducted to conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the MACE scale for Brazilian Portuguese. Method : The following steps were performed: translation, back-translation, committee review for semantic and conceptual evaluation, and acceptability trial for equivalence. Results : Semantic and structural changes were made to the interview to adapt it for the Brazilian culture and all 75 of the items that comprise the longer version of MACE were translated. The results of the acceptability trial suggest that the items are comprehensible. Conclusion : The MACE scales may be useful tools for investigation of childhood maltreatment and make a valuable contribution to research in Brazil. Future studies should consider testing the availability and reliability of the three versions of the instrument translated into Brazilian Portuguese.

  6. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life Scale for European Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roque dos Reis

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: This adaptation of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questio