WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive behavior assessment

  1. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  2. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  3. Applying computer adaptive testing to optimize online assessment of suicidal behavior: a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beurs, D.P.; de Vries, A.L.M.; de Groot, M.H.; de Keijser, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce

  4. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to

  5. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed,

  6. Review: The Necessity of Producing/Normalizing Adaptive Behavior Scales in Diagnosing Training Treatment Rehabilitation of Peop e and Assessment of the Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Jalal Sadrosadat

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior is defined as the manner in which people cope with the natural and social demands of their environments. Impairments in adaptive behavior are described as significant limitations in an individual's effectiveness in meeting the standards of maturation, learning, personal independence, and/or social responsibility that are expected for one's age level and cultural group, as determined by clinical assessment, and usually, standardized scales. The definitions of adaptive deficiencies imply an individual's ability to cope with demands of his or her environment. Some scholars support this notion when describing adaptive behavior's relationship to mental retardation. Despite the fact that adaptive behavior scales are the necessary tools in diagnosing training: treatment. Rehabilitation of people (Particularly with developmental disorders and the assessment of programs, those are not available to professionals. This article tries to explain the necessity of producing/normalizing such scales, and introduces one of the most famous scales named as "Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community".

  7. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  8. Review: The Necessity of Producing/Normalizing Adaptive Behavior Scales in Diagnosing Training Treatment Rehabilitation of Peop e and Assessment of the Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Jalal Sadrosadat; Leila Sadrosadat

    2000-01-01

    Adaptive behavior is defined as the manner in which people cope with the natural and social demands of their environments. Impairments in adaptive behavior are described as significant limitations in an individual's effectiveness in meeting the standards of maturation, learning, personal independence, and/or social responsibility that are expected for one's age level and cultural group, as determined by clinical assessment, and usually, standardized scales. The definitions of adaptive deficie...

  9. Value-based decision-making battery: A Bayesian adaptive approach to assess impulsive and risky behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Bernhardt, Nadine; Guevara, Alvaro; Huys, Quentin J M; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-02-01

    Using simple mathematical models of choice behavior, we present a Bayesian adaptive algorithm to assess measures of impulsive and risky decision making. Practically, these measures are characterized by discounting rates and are used to classify individuals or population groups, to distinguish unhealthy behavior, and to predict developmental courses. However, a constant demand for improved tools to assess these constructs remains unanswered. The algorithm is based on trial-by-trial observations. At each step, a choice is made between immediate (certain) and delayed (risky) options. Then the current parameter estimates are updated by the likelihood of observing the choice, and the next offers are provided from the indifference point, so that they will acquire the most informative data based on the current parameter estimates. The procedure continues for a certain number of trials in order to reach a stable estimation. The algorithm is discussed in detail for the delay discounting case, and results from decision making under risk for gains, losses, and mixed prospects are also provided. Simulated experiments using prescribed parameter values were performed to justify the algorithm in terms of the reproducibility of its parameters for individual assessments, and to test the reliability of the estimation procedure in a group-level analysis. The algorithm was implemented as an experimental battery to measure temporal and probability discounting rates together with loss aversion, and was tested on a healthy participant sample.

  10. Exploring adaptive program behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions....... Both solutions come at a cost; adaptivity issues a runtime overhead and requires more design effort, while dynamic recompilation takes time to perform. In this project, we plan to investigate the possibilities, limitations, and benefits of these techniques. This abstract covers our thoughts on how...

  11. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  12. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is ...

  13. Patient-Centeredness as Physician Behavioral Adaptability to Patient Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Valérie; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Jaunin-Stalder, Nicole; Junod Perron, Noëlle; Sommer, Johanna

    2018-05-01

    A physician who communicates in a patient-centered way is a physician who adapts his or her communication style to what each patient needs. In order to do so, the physician has to (1) accurately assess each patient's states and traits (interpersonal accuracy) and (2) possess a behavioral repertoire to choose from in order to actually adapt his or her behavior to different patients (behavioral adaptability). Physician behavioral adaptability describes the change in verbal or nonverbal behavior a physician shows when interacting with patients who have different preferences in terms of how the physician should interact with them. We hypothesized that physician behavioral adaptability to their patients' preferences would lead to better patient outcomes and that physician interpersonal accuracy was positively related to behavioral adaptability. To test these hypotheses, we recruited 61 physicians who completed an interpersonal accuracy test before being videotaped during four consultations with different patients. The 244 participating patients indicated their preferences for their physician's interaction style prior to the consultation and filled in a consultation outcomes questionnaire directly after the consultation. We coded the physician's verbal and nonverbal behavior for each of the consultations and compared it to the patients' preferences to obtain a measure of physician behavioral adaptability. Results partially confirmed our hypotheses in that female physicians who adapted their nonverbal (but not their verbal) behavior had patients who reported more positive consultation outcomes. Moreover, the more female physicians were accurate interpersonally, the more they showed verbal and nonverbal behavioral adaptability. For male physicians, more interpersonal accuracy was linked to less nonverbal adaptability.

  14. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  15. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  16. A stated adaptation approach to assess changes in individuals’ activity-travel behavior in presence of personalized travel information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvaneh, Zahra; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The rapid and inevitable growth of availability of travel information for travellers has increased expectations among policy makers about the benefits of travel information. It is increasingly expected that providing advanced travel information can trigger particular travel behaviors that would

  17. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  18. Executive Function and Adaptive Behavior in Muenke Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Colin M P; Addissie, Yonit A; Hadley, Donald W; Guillen Sacoto, Maria J; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B; Hart, Rachel A; Wiggs, Edythe A; Platte, Petra; Paelecke, Yvonne; Collmann, Hartmut; Schweitzer, Tilmann; Kruszka, Paul; Muenke, Maximilian

    2015-08-01

    To investigate executive function and adaptive behavior in individuals with Muenke syndrome using validated instruments with a normative population and unaffected siblings as controls. Participants in this cross-sectional study included individuals with Muenke syndrome (P250R mutation in FGFR3) and their mutation-negative siblings. Participants completed validated assessments of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF]) and adaptive behavior skills (Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition [ABAS-II]). Forty-four with a positive FGFR3 mutation, median age 9 years, range 7 months to 52 years were enrolled. In addition, 10 unaffected siblings served as controls (5 males, 5 females; median age, 13 years; range, 3-18 years). For the General Executive Composite scale of the BRIEF, 32.1% of the cohort had scores greater than +1.5 SD, signifying potential clinical significance. For the General Adaptive Composite of the ABAS-II, 28.2% of affected individuals scored in the 3rd-8th percentile of the normative population, and 56.4% were below the average category (General Executive Composite and the ABAS-II General Adaptive Composite. Individuals with Muenke syndrome are at an increased risk for developing adaptive and executive function behavioral changes compared with a normative population and unaffected siblings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Psychological adaptations for assessing gossip veracity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Nicole H; Hagen, Edward H

    2006-09-01

    Evolutionary models of human cooperation are increasingly emphasizing the role of reputation and the requisite truthful "gossiping" about reputation-relevant behavior. If resources were allocated among individuals according to their reputations, competition for resources via competition for "good" reputations would have created incentives for exaggerated or deceptive gossip about oneself and one's competitors in ancestral societies. Correspondingly, humans should have psychological adaptations to assess gossip veracity. Using social psychological methods, we explored cues of gossip veracity in four experiments. We found that simple reiteration increased gossip veracity, but only for those who found the gossip relatively uninteresting. Multiple sources of gossip increased its veracity, as did the independence of those sources. Information that suggested alternative, benign interpretations of gossip decreased its veracity. Competition between a gossiper and her target decreased gossip veracity. These results provide preliminary evidence for psychological adaptations for assessing gossip veracity, mechanisms that might be used to assess veracity in other domains involving social exchange of information.

  20. Model analysis of adaptive car driving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with two modeling approaches to car driving. The first one is a system theoretic approach to describe adaptive human driving behavior. The second approach utilizes neural networks. As an illustrative example the overtaking task is considered and modeled in system theoretic terms.

  1. Models of behavioral change and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explains and summarizes models of behavioral change and adaptation, which have received less application in the life choice analysis associated with urban policy. Related to various life choices, life trajectory events are major decisions with a relatively long-lasting impact, such as

  2. Longitudinal Profiles of Adaptive Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Eve-Marie; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A.; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Piven, Joseph; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinally the adaptive behavior patterns in fragile X syndrome. METHOD: Caregivers of 275 children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome and 225 typically developing children and adolescents (2–18 years) were interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales every 2 to 4 years as part of a prospective longitudinal study. RESULTS: Standard scores of adaptive behavior in people with fragile X syndrome are marked by a significant decline over time in all domains for males and in communication for females. Socialization skills are a relative strength as compared with the other domains for males with fragile X syndrome. Females with fragile X syndrome did not show a discernible pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale longitudinal study to show that the acquisition of adaptive behavior slows as individuals with fragile X syndrome age. It is imperative to ensure that assessments of adaptive behavior skills are part of intervention programs focusing on childhood and adolescence in this condition. PMID:25070318

  3. The Adaptation Gap Report. Towards Global Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, established the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an adequate adaptation response in the context...... Change (UNFCCC) to prepare for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. In contrast to previous Adaptation Gap Reports, the 2017 report focuses on issues relating to frameworks, comprising concepts, methodologies and data, rather than on assessing a particular dimension of the adaptation gap. Future...... extensive external review. The Paris Agreement’s global goal on adaptation provides a new starting point and impetus for assessing progress on adaptation at the global level, but additional information is required for assessing such progress. The global goal on adaptation provides a collective vision...

  4. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  5. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  6. Modeling Adaptive Behavior for Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Field studies in modern work systems and analysis of recent major accidents have pointed to a need for better models of the adaptive behavior of individuals and organizations operating in a dynamic and highly competitive environment. The paper presents a discussion of some key characteristics.......) The basic difference between the models of system functions used in engineering and design and those evolving from basic research within the various academic disciplines and finally 3.) The models and methods required for closed-loop, feedback system design....

  7. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  8. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  9. Behavioral Assessment: Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Chrisman

    1980-01-01

    This is a general discussion of the validity, reliability, function, and format of questionnaires designed to measure problem behavior, noncompliance, anxiety, social interaction, hyperactivity, drug use, and sexual behavior. Commonly used questionnaires are cited. (CP)

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of climate adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-10-15

    As governments and other agencies spend more money on adaptation to climate change they want to know that their investments are effective — that adaptation will keep development on track, that there is a fair distribution of costs and benefits, and that climate resilience is being built. But monitoring and evaluating adaptation policy and practice is not easy. Some approaches are unhelpful because they fail to integrate adaptation and development, use purely quantitative methods and do not include the perspectives of climate-vulnerable groups in their assessments. Enabling countries and organisations to effectively evaluate adaptation requires an inclusive approach built on sharing knowledge among all stakeholders — one that can capture behavioural and institutional changes and that answers to the needs of the climate-vulnerable poor.

  11. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda

    2013-01-01

    , an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly...

  12. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems Systems and Software Technology Conference April 2010 Dr. Suzette S. Johnson...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive...as they evolve – Control is dispersed and decentralized – Simple rules and governance used to direct behavior • Complexity Leadership Theory – Built on

  13. Plants : Adaptive behavior, root-brains, and minimal cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo Garzon, Paco; Keijzer, Fred

    Plant intelligence has gone largely unnoticed within the field of animal and human adaptive behavior. In this context, we will introduce current work on plant intelligence as a new set of relevant phenomena that deserves attention and also discuss its potential relevance for the study of adaptive

  14. The Relation Between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both the DSM-5 and AAIDD. The article also (a) provides an update of the understanding of adaptive behavior, (b) dispels two thinking errors regarding mistaken temporal or causal link between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, (c) explains that there is a strong correlational, but no causative, relation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, and (d) asserts that once a question of determining intellectual disability is raised, both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior are assessed and considered jointly and weighed equally in the diagnosis of intellectual disability. We discuss the problems created by an inaccurate statement that appears in the DSM-5 regarding a causal link between deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and propose an immediate revision to remove this erroneous and confounding statement.

  15. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  16. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  17. The Relation between Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence tests and adaptive behavior scales measure vital aspects of the multidimensional nature of human functioning. Assessment of each is a required component in the diagnosis or identification of intellectual disability, and both are frequently used conjointly in the assessment and identification of other developmental disabilities. The…

  18. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous

  19. Bureaucratization and Adaptive Behavior in the Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V. Volchik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to researching the economic behavior of individuals in the higher education in the term of increasing bureaucratization. Reasons of bureaucracy and inefficiencies generated by it are considered on the example of the higher education sector. Constant changes in the bureaucratic system requirements need to be adapted in the behavior of actors. The authors highlight approaches to adaptation within the framework of the Austrian school of economics. Austrian approaches to adapt and the adaptive rationality concept in institutional economics are compared. The role of rationality in the process of adaptation is shown in the research. The empirical basis of the study is represented by the transcripts of 50 in-depth interviews conducted in 2015 with students, lecturers and heads of higher education institutions of the Rostov region. The main objective of the interview is the allocation of institutional change in higher education. Bureaucratization was named by respondents as one of the most important changes. The paper systematizes the respondents' answers on the impact of bureaucracy and carries out typology of adapting ways to the formal innovations. Imitating practices as a form of adaptation to the growth of the formal requirements are considered clearly. The authors display the negative impact of this adaptation form to the quality of educational activities and organizational culture.

  20. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-03-23

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders.

  1. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  3. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  4. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  5. The science of adaptation. A framework for assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.; Burton, I.; Street, R.; Klein, R.J.T.; Maciver, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines what is meant by 'adaptation' to climate change, and how it might be addressed in the IPCC Assessments. Two roles of adaptation in the climate change field are identified: adaptation as part of impact assessment (where the key question is: what adaptations are likely?), and adaptation as part of the policy response (where the central question is: what adaptations are recommended?). The concept of adaptation has been adopted in several fields including climate impact assessment and policy development, risk management, and natural hazards research. A framework for systematically defining adaptations is based on three questions: (1) adaptation to what? (2) who or what adapts? and (3) how does adaptation occur? The paper demonstrates that, for adaptation purposes, climate extremes and variability are integral parts of climate change, along with shifts in mean conditions. Attributes for differentiating adaptations include purposefulness, timing, temporal and spatial scope, effects, form and performance. The framework provides a guide for the treatment of adaptation in the IPCC assessments, both in the assessment of impacts and in the evaluation of adaptive policy options. 64 refs

  6. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Behavior affects most aspects of ecological processes and rates, and yet modeling frameworks which efficiently predict and incorporate behavioral responses into ecosystem models remain elusive. Behavioral algorithms based on life-time optimization, adaptive dynamics or game theory are unsuited...... for large global models because of their high computational demand. We compare an easily integrated, computationally efficient behavioral algorithm known as Gilliam's rule against the solution from a life-history optimization. The approximation takes into account only the current conditions to optimize...... behavior; the so-called "myopic approximation", "short sighted", or "static optimization". We explore the performance of the myopic approximation with diel vertical migration (DVM) as an example of a daily routine, a behavior with seasonal dependence that trades off predation risk with foraging...

  7. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  8. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural...... learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal...... (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully...

  9. Adaptive Behavior in Young Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita P. Klein-Tasman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis-1 is the most common single gene disorder affecting 1 in 3000. In children, it is associated not only with physical features but also with attention and learning problems. Research has identified a downward shift in intellectual functioning as well, but to date, there are no published studies about the everyday adaptive behavior of children with NF1. In this study, parental reports of adaptive behavior of 61 children with NF1 ages 3 through 8 were compared to an unaffected contrast group (n=55 that comprised siblings and community members. Significant group differences in adaptive skills were evident and were largely related to group differences in intellectual functioning. In a subsample of children with average-range intellectual functioning, group differences in parent-reported motor skills were apparent even after controlling statistically for group differences in intellectual functioning. The implications of the findings for the care of children with NF1 are discussed.

  10. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  11. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  12. Characteristic Symptoms and Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, N. K.; Haq, A.; Aslam, N.; Anjum, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristic symptoms and adaptive behaviors of children with autism, as well as the distribution of autism severity groups across gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Special Education Schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, from September 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Thirty nine children of either gender, aged 3 - 16 years and enrolled in special education schools, fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of autism. Among those, were identified as meeting the criteria of autism. The childhood autism rating scale-2 (CARS-2) was used to study the characteristics and severity of symptoms of autism. Later, adaptive behavior scale (school edition: 2) ABS-S: 2, was administered on children (n=21) to formulate the level of adaptive functioning. Results: There were 15 boys and 8 girls with mean age of 10.6 +- 2.97 years. They showed marked impairment in verbal communication (mean=3.17 +- 0.90) followed by relating to people (mean=2.75 +- 0.83) and general impression (mean=2.73 +- 0.7). Most of the children showed average to below average adaptive behaviors on number and time (n=19, 90.5%), independent functioning (n=17, 81.0%), self direction (n=17, 81.0%), physical development (n=13, 61.9%), responsibility (n=12, 57.1%) and socialization (n=13, 61.9%) as well as poor to very poor adaptive behaviors on prevocational skill (n=15, 71.4%), language development (n=13, 61.9%) and economic development (n=13, 61.9%). The frequency of boys with autism was more towards moderate to severely impaired spectrum, without gender differences in any symptom associated with autism. Conclusion: Comprehension of the presentation of characteristic symptoms of children with autism will be helpful in devising the indigenous intervention plans that are congruent with the level of adaptive functioning. (author)

  13. Spanish adaptation of the Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Magallares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to adapt the Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS and validate the results for use among the Spanish population. Using snowball sampling methodology, 501 individuals from all areas of Spain were selected to participate in the study. The Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS and questionnaires that measure a sense of community, belief in a just world and Machiavellianism were used to analyze the criterion validity of the adapted scale. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the items on the questionnaire fit a second-order model with four factors, which corresponded to the four dimensions proposed by the original authors, namely, disengagement, civil participation, formal political participation and activism. Additionally, it has been found that the scale is related to a sense of community, belief in a just world and Machiavellianism. In light of these results, we concluded that the questionnaire is methodologically valid and can be used by the scientific community to measure participatory behavior.

  14. Adaptation in integrated assessment modeling: where do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Patt, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Aaheim, A.; Hof, A.F.; Isaac, M.; Mechler, R.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation is an important element on the climate change policy agenda. Integrated assessment models, which are key tools to assess climate change policies, have begun to address adaptation, either by including it implicitly in damage cost estimates, or by making it an explicit control variable. We analyze how modelers have chosen to describe adaptation within an integrated framework, and suggest many ways they could improve the treatment of adaptation by considering more of its bottom-up cha...

  15. Development of a computerized adaptive test for Schizotypy assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT to evaluate schizotypy through "The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment" (ESQUIZO-Q, in non-clinical adolescents. METHODS: The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2. RESULTS: The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ≤ 0.30 was of 34 items. CONCLUSION: The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.

  16. Adaptation of community health worker-delivered behavioral activation for torture survivors in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, J F; Lejuez, C W; Kamal, T; Blevins, E J; Murray, L K; Bass, J K; Bolton, P; Pagoto, S

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al . 2014 a ) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al .2014 a ), informed by the Assessment-Decision-Administration-Production-Topical experts-Integration-Training-Testing (ADAPT-ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT-ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource-limited, conflict-affected areas are discussed.

  17. (Non-) behavioral economics: a programmatic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Güth, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Economic theory has evolved without paying proper attention to behavioral approaches, especially to social, economic, and cognitive psychology. This has recently changed by including behavioral economics courses in many doctoral study programs. Although this new development is most welcome, the typical topics of the behavioral economics courses are not truly behavioral. More specifically, we question whether neoclassical repairs or game fitting exercises as well as more or less mechanic adapt...

  18. Dispersal, behavioral responses and thermal adaptation in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    were obtained with flies held for several generations in a laboratory common garden setting, therefore we suggest that exposure to and avoidance of high temperatures under natural conditions has been an important selective agent causing the suggested adaptive differentiation between the populations.......Behavioral traits can have great impact on an organism’s ability to cope with or avoidance of thermal stress, and are therefore of evolutionary importance for thermal adaptation. We compared the morphology, heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity and flight performance of three...

  19. Creating adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walek, Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior. The proposed system uses expert system to evaluating and recommending suitable items of content. Relevant items are subsequently evaluated and filtered based on history of visited items and user´s preferred categories of items. Main parts of the proposed system are presented and described. The proposed recommendation system is verified on specific example.

  20. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  1. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureline Logiaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  2. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  3. Towards Computerized Adaptive Assessment Based on Structured Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tvarožek, Jozef; Kravcik, Milos; Bieliková, Mária

    2008-01-01

    Tvarožek, J., Kravčík, M., & Bieliková, M. (2008). Towards Computerized Adaptive Assessment Based on Structured Tasks. In W. Nejdl et al. (Eds.), Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (pp. 224-234). Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.

  4. An adaptive randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for binge-eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E Y; Cacioppo, J; Fettich, K; Gallop, R; McCloskey, M S; Olino, T; Zeffiro, T A

    2017-03-01

    Early weak treatment response is one of the few trans-diagnostic, treatment-agnostic predictors of poor outcome following a full treatment course. We sought to improve the outcome of clients with weak initial response to guided self-help cognitive behavior therapy (GSH). One hundred and nine women with binge-eating disorder (BED) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (DSM-IV-TR) received 4 weeks of GSH. Based on their response, they were grouped into: (1) early strong responders who continued GSH (cGSH), and early weak responders randomized to (2) dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), or (3) individual and additional group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT+). Baseline objective binge-eating-day (OBD) frequency was similar between DBT, CBT+ and cGSH. During treatment, OBD frequency reduction was significantly slower in DBT and CBT+ relative to cGSH. Relative to cGSH, OBD frequency was significantly greater at the end of DBT (d = 0.27) and CBT+ (d = 0.31) although these effects were small and within-treatment effects from baseline were large (d = 1.41, 0.95, 1.11, respectively). OBD improvements significantly diminished in all groups during 12 months follow-up but were significantly better sustained in DBT relative to cGSH (d = -0.43). At 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments, DBT, CBT and cGSH did not differ in OBD. Early weak response to GSH may be overcome by additional intensive treatment. Evidence was insufficient to support superiority of either DBT or CBT+ for early weak responders relative to early strong responders in cGSH; both were helpful. Future studies using adaptive designs are needed to assess the use of early response to efficiently deliver care to large heterogeneous client groups.

  5. A qualitative assessment of climate adaptation options and some estimates of adaptation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; De Bruin, K.; Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Routeplanner project aims to provide a 'systematic assessment' of potential adaptation options to respond to climate change in the Netherlands in connection to spatial planning. The study is the result of a policy oriented project that took place between May and September 2006. The aim of the current study is to provide a 'qualitative assessment' of the direct and indirect effects of adaptation options and to provide an assessment of some of the costs and benefits of adaptation options. The present report presents and summarizes the results of all phases of the study: an inventory of adaptation options, a qualitative assessment of the effects of the adaptation options for the Netherlands in the long run, a database which allows to rank the various options according to a set of criteria and a relative ranking on the basis of these criteria. Finally, the report also contains the best available information on costs and benefits of various adaptation options.

  6. Adaptive behavior of neighboring neurons during adaptation-induced plasticity of orientation tuning in V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumikhina Svetlana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory neurons display transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation. In adult cat primary visual cortex, orientation-selective neurons shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. The direction of those shifts, towards (attractive or away (repulsive from the adapter depends mostly on adaptation duration. How the adaptive behavior of a neuron is related to that of its neighbors remains unclear. Results Here we show that in most cases (75%, cells shift their preferred orientation in the same direction as their neighbors. We also found that cells shifting preferred orientation differently from their neighbors (25% display three interesting properties: (i larger variance of absolute shift amplitude, (ii wider tuning bandwidth and (iii larger range of preferred orientations among the cluster of cells. Several response properties of V1 neurons depend on their location within the cortical orientation map. Our results suggest that recording sites with both attractive and repulsive shifts following adaptation may be located in close proximity to iso-orientation domain boundaries or pinwheel centers. Indeed, those regions have a more diverse orientation distribution of local inputs that could account for the three properties above. On the other hand, sites with all cells shifting their preferred orientation in the same direction could be located within iso-orientation domains. Conclusions Our results suggest that the direction and amplitude of orientation preference shifts in V1 depend on location within the orientation map. This anisotropy of adaptation-induced plasticity, comparable to that of the visual cortex itself, could have important implications for our understanding of visual adaptation at the psychophysical level.

  7. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Death Penalty Cases after Hall and DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Leigh D; Drogin, Eric Y; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants. We conclude with brief caveats regarding the standard error of measurement (SEM) in light of Hall, with reference to examples of ordinary life activities that directly illuminate adaptive functioning relevant to capital cases. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  8. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  9. Cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment: Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia L.F. Chaves

    Full Text Available Abstract A review of the evidence on cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment for the diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD is presented with revision and broadening of the recommendations on the use of tests and batteries in Brazil for the diagnosis of dementia due to AD. A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO database was carried out by a panel of experts. Studies on the validation and/or adaptation of tests, scales and batteries for the Brazilian population were analyzed and classified according to level of evidence. There were sufficient data to recommend the IQCODE, DAFS-R, DAD, ADL-Q and Bayer scale for the evaluation of instrumental activities of daily living, and the Katz scale for the assessment of basic activities of daily living. For the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and the CAMDEX were found to be useful, as was the Cornell scale for depression in dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination has clinical utility as a screening test, as do the multifunctional batteries (CAMCOG-R, ADAS-COG, CERAD and MDRS for brief evaluations of several cognitive domains. There was sufficient evidence to recommend the CDR scale for clinical and severity assessment of dementia. Tests for Brazilian Portuguese are recommended by cognitive domain based on available data.

  10. Adaptation in integrated assessment modeling: where do we stand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patt, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Aaheim, A.; Hof, A.F.; Isaac, M.; Mechler, R.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation is an important element on the climate change policy agenda. Integrated assessment models, which are key tools to assess climate change policies, have begun to address adaptation, either by including it implicitly in damage cost estimates, or by making it an explicit control variable. We

  11. Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

  12. Behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome: specifying targets for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents with Down syndrome experience increased behavior problems as compared to age matched peers; however, few studies have examined how these problems relate to adaptive functioning. The primary aim of this study was to characterize behavior in a sample of adolescents with Down syndrome using two widely-used caregiver reports: the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2 nd Edition (BASC-2) and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). The clinical utility of the BASC-2 as a measure of behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome was also examined. Fifty-two adolescents with Down syndrome between the ages of 12 and 18 (24 males) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4 th Edition (PPVT-IV) as an estimate of cognitive ability. Caregivers completed the BASC-2 and the CBCL for each participant. A significant proportion of the sample was reported to demonstrate behavior problems, particularly related to attention and social participation. The profile of adaptive function was variable, with caregivers most frequently rating impairment in skills related to activities of daily living and functional communication. Caregiver ratings did not differ by gender and were not related to age or estimated cognitive ability. Caregiver ratings of attention problems on the BASC-2 accounted for a significant proportion of variance in Activities of Daily Living ( Adj R 2 = 0.30) , Leadership ( Adj R 2 = 0.30) Functional Communication ( Adj R 2 = 0.28, Adaptability ( Adj R 2 = 0.29), and Social Skills ( Adj R 2 = 0.17). Higher frequencies of symptoms related to social withdrawal added incremental predictive validity for Functional Communication, Leadership, and Social Skills. Convergent validity between the CBCL and BASC-2 was poor when compared with expectations based on the normative sample. Our results confirm and extend previous findings by describing relationships between specific behavior problems and targeted areas of

  13. Behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome: specifying targets for intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that adolescents with Down syndrome experience increased behavior problems as compared to age matched peers; however, few studies have examined how these problems relate to adaptive functioning. The primary aim of this study was to characterize behavior in a sample of adolescents with Down syndrome using two widely-used caregiver reports: the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2) and Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). The clinical utility of the BASC-2 as a measure of behavior and adaptive functioning in adolescents with Down syndrome was also examined. Methods Fifty-two adolescents with Down syndrome between the ages of 12 and 18 (24 males) completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 4th Edition (PPVT-IV) as an estimate of cognitive ability. Caregivers completed the BASC-2 and the CBCL for each participant. Results A significant proportion of the sample was reported to demonstrate behavior problems, particularly related to attention and social participation. The profile of adaptive function was variable, with caregivers most frequently rating impairment in skills related to activities of daily living and functional communication. Caregiver ratings did not differ by gender and were not related to age or estimated cognitive ability. Caregiver ratings of attention problems on the BASC-2 accounted for a significant proportion of variance in Activities of Daily Living (Adj R2 = 0.30), Leadership (Adj R2 = 0.30) Functional Communication (Adj R2 = 0.28, Adaptability (Adj R2 = 0.29), and Social Skills (Adj R2 = 0.17). Higher frequencies of symptoms related to social withdrawal added incremental predictive validity for Functional Communication, Leadership, and Social Skills. Convergent validity between the CBCL and BASC-2 was poor when compared with expectations based on the normative sample. Conclusion Our results confirm and extend previous findings by describing relationships between specific behavior problems

  14. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  15. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  16. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  17. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, m...

  18. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  19. Adapting Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia disorder is common in patients undergoing cancer treatment. There is compelling evidence demonstrating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I should be the initial treatment, but there has been insufficient research has been conducted among cancer patients. This population presents with unique physical and psychosocial health issues that may interfere with standard CBT-I and addressing these issues can play a role in improving treatment adherence and efficacy. We explore potential adaptations that can be made to standard CBT-I for cancer patients. Further research for this growing population is essential.

  20. Driver's behavioral adaptation to adaptive cruise control (ACC): the case of speed and time headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel; Simões, Anabela

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Cruise Control is an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) that allows maintaining given headway and speed, according to settings pre-defined by the users. Despite the potential benefits associated to the utilization of ACC, previous studies warned against negative behavioral adaptations that might occur while driving with the system activated. Unfortunately, up to now, there are no unanimous results about the effects induced by the usage of ACC on speed and time headway to the vehicle in front. Also, few studies were performed including actual users of ACC among the subjects. This research aimed to investigate the effect of the experience gained with ACC on speed and time headway for a group of users of the system. In addition, it explored the impact of ACC usage on speed and time headway for ACC users and regular drivers. A matched sample driving simulator study was planned as a two-way (2×2) repeated measures mixed design, with the experience with ACC as between-subjects factor and the driving condition (with ACC and manually) as within-subjects factor. The results show that the usage of ACC brought a small but not significant reduction of speed and, especially, the maintenance of safer time headways, being the latter result greater for ACC users, probably as a consequence of their experience in using the system. The usage of ACC did not cause any negative behavioral adaptations to the system regarding speed and time headway. Based on this research work, the Adaptive Cruise Control showed the potential to improve road safety for what concerns the speed and the time headway maintained by the drivers. The speed of the surrounding traffic and the minimum time headway settable through the ACC seem to have an important effect on the road safety improvement achievable with the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  2. Issues related to adapting assessment practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    they leave school, then teaching and specifically assessment have failed. Gruender ... argues that the success of any system of assessment can be judged by the modeling ... proposed to replace the previous eight design features of Curriculum. 2005. ... ment of formative and continuous assessment (Chisholm, 1999:253).

  3. Assessing climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for smallholder agricultural systems in Uganda. ... from encroaching on swamps, which is one of the reported adaptation strategies to climate related stresses. Improving productivity of important crops (bananas for southwest, and sweet potatoes and bananas

  4. The Two Faces Of Adolescents’ Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, both marking high levels of concurrent psychosocial adaptation, but also predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. This hypothesis was tested with multi-method, longitudinal data obtained on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents. Sociometric popularity data were examined in relation to data from interview-based assessments of attachment security and ego development, observations of mother-adolescent interactions, and repeated self- and peer-report assessments of delinquency and alcohol use. Results indicated that popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent levels of ego development, secure attachment and more adaptive interactions with mothers and best friends. Longitudinal analyses supported a “popularity-socialization” hypothesis, however, in which popular adolescents were more likely to increase in behaviors that receive approval in the peer group (e.g., minor levels of drug use and delinquency) and decrease in behaviors unlikely to be well-received by peers (e.g., hostile behavior with peers). PMID:15892790

  5. A new approach to the measurement of adaptive behavior: development of the PEDI-CAT for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.M.; Coster, W.J.; Kao, Y.C.; Snow, A.; Orsmond, G.I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The

  6. A New Approach to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer…

  7. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic syndromes with intellectual disability: comparison of adaptive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nuovo, Santo; Buono, Serafino

    2011-10-30

    The study of distinctive and consistent behaviors in the most common genetic syndromes with intellectual disability is useful to explain abnormalities or associated psychiatric disorders. The behavioral phenotypes revealed outcomes totally or partially specific for each syndrome. The aim of our study was to compare similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles of the five most frequent genetic syndromes, i.e. Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Fragile-X syndrome (fully mutated), taking into account the relation with chronological age and the overall IQ level. The research was carried out using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (beside the Wechsler Intelligence scales to obtain IQ) with a sample of 181 persons (107 males and 74 females) showing genetic syndromes and mental retardation. Syndrome-based groups were matched for chronological age and mental age (excluding the Angelman group, presenting with severe mental retardation). Similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles are described, relating them to IQs and maladaptive behaviors. The results might be useful in obtaining a global index of adjustment for the assessment of intellectual disability level as well as for educational guidance and rehabilitative plans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A qualitative assessment of climate adaptation options and some estimates of adaptation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; De Bruin, K.; Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.

    2007-02-01

    The Routeplanner project aims to provide a 'systematic assessment' of potential adaptation options to respond to climate change in the Netherlands in connection to spatial planning. The study is the result of a policy oriented project that took place between May and September 2006. The aim of the current study is to provide a 'qualitative assessment' of the direct and indirect effects of adaptation options and to provide an assessment of some of the costs and benefits of adaptation options. The present report presents and summarizes the results of all phases of the study: an inventory of adaptation options, a qualitative assessment of the effects of the adaptation options for the Netherlands in the long run, a database which allows to rank the various options according to a set of criteria and a relative ranking on the basis of these criteria. Finally, the report also contains the best available information on costs and benefits of various adaptation options. However, while conducting the study the project team observed that reliable information in this respect is in many cases still lacking and an urgent need exists for more detailed studies on costs and benefits of adaptation options and the design of the best options to cope with climate change

  9. The Association of Benefit Finding to Psychosocial and Health Behavior Adaptation Among HIV+ Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Blair, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation, such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of benefit finding to positive health behavior and psychosocial adaptation. HIV+ participants (N = 221) recruited during outpatient care completed self-report assessments of benefit finding, social support, depression, HAART adherence, substance use, and physical activity. In a series of multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic and health status variables, benefit finding was associated with lower depression scores, greater social support, and more physical activity, but showed no association to HAART adherence or substance use. The association of benefit finding to depression was partially mediated by differences in social support. Thus, benefit finding may improve psychological adjustment by motivating patients who experience stress-related growth to seek improved social support. PMID:18157689

  10. Functional Behavioral Assessment in Early Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Shelley; McEvoy, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is the process of identifying the events in the environment that consistently precede and follow challenging behavior. The use of FBA has increased significantly following the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, which mandated FBAs be conducted when children with…

  11. Effects of Training in Functional Behavior Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Charles; Rosenberg, Howard; Brady, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of training special education teachers in the process of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and subsequent development of recommendations to promote behavior change. An original evaluation instrument was developed that included measures of special education teachers' knowledge of…

  12. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Tactical Behaviors Technology Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childers, Marshal A; Bodt, Barry A; Hill, Susan G; Camden, Richard; Dean, Robert M; Dodson, William F; Sutton, Lyle G; Sapronov, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    During 4-14 February 2008, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and General Dynamics Robotic Systems conducted an unmanned systems tactical behaviors technology assessment at three training areas of Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA...

  13. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  14. Development and validation of an instrument to assess perceived social influence on health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOLT, CHERYL L.; CLARK, EDDIE M.; ROTH, DAVID L.; CROWTHER, MARTHA; KOHLER, CONNIE; FOUAD, MONA; FOUSHEE, RUSTY; LEE, PATRICIA A.; SOUTHWARD, PENNY L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (α = .81–.84) and acceptable testretest reliability (r = .68–.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions. PMID:20522506

  15. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  16. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to cater for user’s quality of experience (QoE) re- quirements, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) based solutions of video services have become popular recently. User QoE feedback can be instrumental in improving the capabilities of such services. Perceptual quality experiments that involve...... humans are considered to be the most valid method of the as- sessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual pref......- erences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment....

  18. Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

    2011-01-01

    The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

  19. Low-Back Pain Patients Learn to Adapt Motor Behavior with Adverse Secondary Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H.; Flor, Herta; Hodges, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that changes in motor behavior in individuals with low-back pain are adaptations aimed at minimizing the real or perceived risk of further pain. Through reinforcement learning, pain and subsequent adaptions result in less dynamic motor behavior, leading to increased loading

  20. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  1. Understanding real-life website adaptations by investigating the relations between user behavior and user experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, M.P.; Willemsen, M.C.; Swelsen, K.J.M.; Ricci, F.; Bontcheva, K.; Conlan, O; Lawless, S

    2015-01-01

    We study how a website adaptation based on segment predictions from click streams affects visitor behavior and user experience. Through statistical analysis we investigate how the adaptation changed actual behavior. Through structural equation modeling of subjective experience we answer why the

  2. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  3. The diagnostic adaptive behavior scale: evaluating its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Giulia; Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was constructed with items across three domains--conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills--and normed on a representative sample of American individuals from 4 to 21 years of age. The DABS was developed to focus its assessment around the decision point for determining the presence or absence of significant limitations of adaptive behavior for the diagnosis of Intellectual Disability (ID). The purpose of this study, which was composed of 125 individuals with and 933 without an ID-related diagnosis, was to determine the ability of the DABS to correctly identify the individuals with and without ID (i.e., sensitivity and specificity). The results indicate that the DABS sensitivity coefficients ranged from 81% to 98%, specificity coefficients ranged from 89% to 91%, and that the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve were excellent or good. These results indicate that the DABS has very good levels of diagnostic efficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Adaptation and Assessment of a Public Speaking Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Prominent spoken language assessments such as the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Test of Spoken English have been primarily concerned with speaking ability as it relates to conversation. This paper looks at an additional aspect of spoken language ability, namely public speaking. This study used an adapted form of a public speaking rating scale…

  5. Impact assessment of adaptation options and strategies for coping ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact assessment of adaptation options and strategies for coping with climate change on the livelihoods of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Sudan' Butana area. Ibrahim, Abdelhamed M.M.. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/53410. Date: 2013-11 ...

  6. Graphical assessment of yield stability and adaptation in cowpeas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graphical assessment of yield stability and adaptation in cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp). DK Ojo, MS Oduola, OA Oduwaye. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Genetics Vol. 20 2006: pp. 17-25. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  7. Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adger, W Neil; Brown, Iain; Surminski, Swenja

    2018-06-13

    Climate change risk assessment involves formal analysis of the consequences, likelihoods and responses to the impacts of climate change and the options for addressing these under societal constraints. Conventional approaches to risk assessment are challenged by the significant temporal and spatial dynamics of climate change; by the amplification of risks through societal preferences and values; and through the interaction of multiple risk factors. This paper introduces the theme issue by reviewing the current practice and frontiers of climate change risk assessment, with specific emphasis on the development of adaptation policy that aims to manage those risks. These frontiers include integrated assessments, dealing with climate risks across borders and scales, addressing systemic risks, and innovative co-production methods to prioritize solutions to climate challenges with decision-makers. By reviewing recent developments in the use of large-scale risk assessment for adaptation policy-making, we suggest a forward-looking research agenda to meet ongoing strategic policy requirements in local, national and international contexts.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  8. Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adger, W. Neil; Brown, Iain; Surminski, Swenja

    2018-01-01

    Climate change risk assessment involves formal analysis of the consequences, likelihoods and responses to the impacts of climate change and the options for addressing these under societal constraints. Conventional approaches to risk assessment are challenged by the significant temporal and spatial dynamics of climate change; by the amplification of risks through societal preferences and values; and through the interaction of multiple risk factors. This paper introduces the theme issue by reviewing the current practice and frontiers of climate change risk assessment, with specific emphasis on the development of adaptation policy that aims to manage those risks. These frontiers include integrated assessments, dealing with climate risks across borders and scales, addressing systemic risks, and innovative co-production methods to prioritize solutions to climate challenges with decision-makers. By reviewing recent developments in the use of large-scale risk assessment for adaptation policy-making, we suggest a forward-looking research agenda to meet ongoing strategic policy requirements in local, national and international contexts. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy’. PMID:29712800

  9. Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adger, W. Neil; Brown, Iain; Surminski, Swenja

    2018-06-01

    Climate change risk assessment involves formal analysis of the consequences, likelihoods and responses to the impacts of climate change and the options for addressing these under societal constraints. Conventional approaches to risk assessment are challenged by the significant temporal and spatial dynamics of climate change; by the amplification of risks through societal preferences and values; and through the interaction of multiple risk factors. This paper introduces the theme issue by reviewing the current practice and frontiers of climate change risk assessment, with specific emphasis on the development of adaptation policy that aims to manage those risks. These frontiers include integrated assessments, dealing with climate risks across borders and scales, addressing systemic risks, and innovative co-production methods to prioritize solutions to climate challenges with decision-makers. By reviewing recent developments in the use of large-scale risk assessment for adaptation policy-making, we suggest a forward-looking research agenda to meet ongoing strategic policy requirements in local, national and international contexts. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  10. Computerized Adaptive Test vs. decision trees: Development of a support decision system to identify suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, D; Baca-Garcia, E; Aguado, D; Courtet, P; Lopez-Castroman, J

    2016-12-01

    Several Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs) have been proposed to facilitate assessments in mental health. These tests are built in a standard way, disregarding useful and usually available information not included in the assessment scales that could increase the precision and utility of CATs, such as the history of suicide attempts. Using the items of a previously developed scale for suicidal risk, we compared the performance of a standard CAT and a decision tree in a support decision system to identify suicidal behavior. We included the history of past suicide attempts as a class for the separation of patients in the decision tree. The decision tree needed an average of four items to achieve a similar accuracy than a standard CAT with nine items. The accuracy of the decision tree, obtained after 25 cross-validations, was 81.4%. A shortened test adapted for the separation of suicidal and non-suicidal patients was developed. CATs can be very useful tools for the assessment of suicidal risk. However, standard CATs do not use all the information that is available. A decision tree can improve the precision of the assessment since they are constructed using a priori information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physician behavioral adaptability: A model to outstrip a "one size fits all" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Valérie; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2015-10-01

    Based on a literature review, we propose a model of physician behavioral adaptability (PBA) with the goal of inspiring new research. PBA means that the physician adapts his or her behavior according to patients' different preferences. The PBA model shows how physicians infer patients' preferences and adapt their interaction behavior from one patient to the other. We claim that patients will benefit from better outcomes if their physicians show behavioral adaptability rather than a "one size fits all" approach. This literature review is based on a literature search of the PsycINFO(®) and MEDLINE(®) databases. The literature review and first results stemming from the authors' research support the validity and viability of parts of the PBA model. There is evidence suggesting that physicians are able to show behavioral flexibility when interacting with their different patients, that a match between patients' preferences and physician behavior is related to better consultation outcomes, and that physician behavioral adaptability is related to better consultation outcomes. Training of physicians' behavioral flexibility and their ability to infer patients' preferences can facilitate physician behavioral adaptability and positive patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Xue, Hong-Li; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children. The stratified cluster multistage sampling method was used to perform a questionnaire survey in the parents of 1 284 children aged 3-6 years in the urban area of Lanzhou, China. The general status questionnaire, Conners Child Behavior Checklist (Parent Symptom Question), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Second edition, Chinese version (FACESII-CV) were used to investigate behavioral problems and family cohesion and adaptability. The overall detection rate of behavioral problems in preschool children was 17.13%. The children with different types of family cohesion had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with free-type family cohesion showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (40.2%). The children with different types of family adaptability also had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with stiffness type showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (25.1%). The behavioral problems in preschool children were negatively correlated with family cohesion and adaptability. During the growth of preschool children, family cohesion and adaptability have certain effects on the mental development of preschool children.

  13. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...

  14. Impact of environmental adaptation on tear film assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ocular environmental adaptation on clinical tear film assessment. Thirty subjects (male, mean age 23±2.5) participated in this study. A number of clinical tear film tests were applied, including: fluorescein tear break-up time (FTBUT), Schirmer test and tear prism height test (TPH). The tear physiology of each subject was evaluated twice, once immediately when they arrived from the external environment, and then after 30minutes adaptation in the exam room environment. The mean values were: Schirmer test A (22.1±2.99), Schirmer test B (24.2±2.63), FTBUT A (8.00±1.94), FTBUT B (9.13±2.04), TPH A (0.179±0.026) and TPH B* (0.187±0.023). Statistical testing using Wilcoxon-signed rank test showed a significant difference between the Schirmer test results measured at the different times (P=0.008). Also, the FTBUT and tear prism height test results showed significant differences between the two evaluation times, (P=0.001, 0.011, respectively) (A: tear assessed when the subject comes from the outside environment, B: tear film assessed after 30min adaptation in the clinical environment). This study showed a significant difference between the tear film test results evaluated when the subjects were assessed immediately from the outside environment and after an adaptation time in the clinic environment. Practitioners must consider the effect of differences between external and clinical environment adaptation on clinical tear film physiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. DMM assessments of attachment and adaptation: Procedures, validity and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnfield, Steve; Hautamäki, Airi; Nørbech, Peder; Sahhar, Nicola

    2010-07-01

    This article gives a brief over view of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM; Crittenden, 2008) together with the various DMM assessments of attachment that have been developed for specific stages of development. Each assessment is discussed in terms of procedure, outcomes, validity, advantages and limitations, comparable procedures and areas for further research and validation. The aims are twofold: to provide an introduction to DMM theory and its application that underlie the articles in this issue of CCPP; and to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to DMM assessments.

  16. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the works of an inter-departmental group and of sector-based and transverse groups which aimed at assessing the impacts of climate change. After a first contribution about the assessment methodology, the works of sector-based groups and transverse groups are reported. These groups are dealing with agriculture, forest, infrastructures and built environment, tourism, energy, health, water, natural risks (and insurance and adaptation to climatic change in metropolitan France), biodiversity and land. For each of them, challenges, assessment approaches, first results and perspectives are discussed

  17. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Are vent crab behavioral preferences adaptations for habitat choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Tseng, Li-Chun; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent organisms are adapted to their extreme and patchily distributed habitats. They are expected to have evolved mechanisms that keep them in their specific habitation. Since little is known about the recruitment or habitat selection of HV organisms such as brachyurans, we examined the properties of several hydrothermal vent-associated cues on the behavior of the hydrothermal vent (HV) crab Xenograpsus testudinatus in the laboratory that were contrasted by the offering of non-vent cues. This crab species is endemic and dominates the vent fauna of Turtle Island off the NE coast of Taiwan. HV crabs were separately and in combination offered the following vent-specific cues: (1) sulfuric sediment, (3) air-bubbling, (4) elevated temperature, (5) dead settled zooplankton, (7) other crabs, and (8) shade. The non-vent-specific cues were: (2) quarz sediment, (6) dead fish, (8) light. These cues were provided on either side of a two-choice chamber. The movement of individual crabs was monitored: as initial and final choices, and as the proportion of time the crabs spent in each compartment (resident time). Cues were offered alone and no such cue as a control in the same set-up. Sulfuric sediments and dead fish were significantly more attractive to females, and other crabs irrespective of gender were significantly more attractive to males. When compared to expected distributions, crabs, irrespective of gender, significantly avoided light and tended to select other crabs, air-bubbling, sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, dead fish, dead zooplankton, and quarz sediments in the order of decreasing importance. Data do not support the hypothesis that dead settled zooplankton was particularly attractive nor that the other gender was selected. A combination of several vent-associated cues (sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, air-bubbling) facilitated the strongest attraction to the crabs as reflected by all response variables. The 'first choice' responses

  20. Household Adaptive Behavior in Response to Coastal Flood Risk and External Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately forty percent of the world's population sits along ocean coastlines. This urban exposure to flooding is increasing due to population growth and sea level rise resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Recent research improving the characterization of physical hazards from climate change on the coastal zone has helped cities assess their risks. This work includes improving our understanding of the rate and magnitude of sea level rise, the change in distribution of tropical cyclones, and the resulting frequency and severity of flooding on global to local scales. However, the ability of settlements to cope or thrive under changing climate conditions will likely depend on the cooperation and initiative of households, regardless of any governmental efforts to reduce risk. Understanding individuals' likely responses to changing coastal hazards is thus critical for decision-makers to plan for a sustainable future. Individuals may be motivated not only by information regarding emerging flood hazards, but also by cognitive and contextual factors. For governments to develop effective adaptation policies, it is important to understand what factors tend to motivate household adaptation. We apply principles from economics and psychology to investigate how people respond to various existing adaptation options and policies, using a household survey with experiments in New York City neighborhoods affected by Hurricane Sandy. We investigate a comprehensive set of factors that may influence household adaptive behavior. A striking 64% of homeowners and 83% of renters intend to relocate among different plausible future conditions, such as frequent nuisance flooding and the adaptation of peers. This amount is substantial considering the political sensitivity of `retreat' and the lack of regional and federal preparation for large-scale climate-induced migration.

  1. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  2. Laboratory tests for assessing adaptability and stickiness of dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentritt, Martin; Buczovsky, Sebastian; Behr, Michael; Preis, Verena

    2014-09-01

    Handling (stickiness, adaptability) of a dental composite does strongly influence quality and success of a dental restoration. The purpose was to develop an in vitro test, which allows for evaluating adaptability and stickiness. 15 dentists were asked for providing individual assessment (school scores 1-6) of five dental composites addressing adaptability and stickiness. Composites were applied with a dental plugger (d=1.8 mm) in a class I cavity (human tooth 17). The tooth was fixed on a force gauge for simultaneous determination of application forces with varying storage (6/25°C) and application temperatures (6/25°C). On basis of these data tensile tests were performed with a dental plugger (application force 1N/2N; v=35 mm/min) on PMMA- or human tooth plates. Composite was dosed onto the tip of the plugger and applied. Application and unplugging was performed once and unplugging forces (UF) and length of the adhesive flags (LAF) were determined at different storage (6/25°C) and application temperatures (25/37°C). Unplugging work (UW) was calculated from area of UF and LAF data. The individual assessment revealed significantly different temperature-dependent application forces between 0.58 N and 2.23 N. Adaptability was assessed between 2.1 and 2.8 school scores. Stickiness varied significantly between the materials (scores: 2-3.2). UW differed significantly between the materials with values between 3.20 N mm and 37.83 N mm. Between PMMA substrate or tooth slides and between 1N or 2N application force only small UW differences were found. The presented in vitro unplugging work allows for an in vitro estimation of the handling parameters adaptability and stickiness. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  4. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  5. A vulnerability and risk assessment of SEPTA's regional rail : a transit climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This final report for the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Transit Climate Change Adaptation Assessment Pilot describes the actions : taken, information gathered, analyses performed, and lessons learned throughout the pilot project. This report d...

  6. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  7. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  8. Assessment of Coastal Governance for Climate Change Adaptation in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Lenice; Rosendo, Sergio; Celliers, Louis; Obura, David; Muiti, Anastasia; Kamula, James; Mwangi, Maina

    2017-11-01

    The coastline of Kenya already experiences effects of climate change, adding to existing pressures such as urbanization. Integrated coastal management (ICM) is increasingly recognized as a key policy response to deal with the multiple challenges facing coastal zones, including climate change. It can create an enabling governance environment for effective local action on climate change by facilitating a structured approach to dealing with coastal issues. It encompasses the actions of a wide range of actors, including local governments close to people and their activities affected by climate change. Functioning ICM also offers opportunities for reducing risks and building resilience. This article applied a modified capitals approach framework (CAF), consisting of five "capitals," to assess the status of county government capacity to respond to climate change within the context of coastal governance in three county governments in Kenya. The baseline was defined in terms of governance relating to the implementation of the interrelated policy systems of ICM and coastal climate change adaptation (CCA). The CAF framework provided a systematic approach to building a governance baseline against which to assess the progress of county governments in responding to climate change. It identified gaps in human capacity, financial resource allocation to adaptation and access to climate change information. Furthermore, it showed that having well-developed institutions, including regulatory frameworks at the national level can facilitate but does not automatically enable adaptation at the county level.

  9. The behavior of adaptive bone-remodeling simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Weinans (Harrie); R. Huiskes (Rik); H.J. Grootenboer

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe process of adaptive bone remodeling can be described mathematically and simulated in a computer model, integrated with the finite element method. In the model discussed here, cortical and trabecular bone are described as continuous materials with variable density. The remodeling rule

  10. A new adaptive testing algorithm for shortening health literacy assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Leanne M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low health literacy has a detrimental effect on health outcomes, as well as ability to use online health resources. Good health literacy assessment tools must be brief to be adopted in practice; test development from the perspective of item-response theory requires pretesting on large participant populations. Our objective was to develop a novel classification method for developing brief assessment instruments that does not require pretesting on large numbers of research participants, and that would be suitable for computerized adaptive testing. Methods We present a new algorithm that uses principles of measurement decision theory (MDT and Shannon's information theory. As a demonstration, we applied it to a secondary analysis of data sets from two assessment tests: a study that measured patients' familiarity with health terms (52 participants, 60 items and a study that assessed health numeracy (165 participants, 8 items. Results In the familiarity data set, the method correctly classified 88.5% of the subjects, and the average length of test was reduced by about 50%. In the numeracy data set, for a two-class classification scheme, 96.9% of the subjects were correctly classified with a more modest reduction in test length of 35.7%; a three-class scheme correctly classified 93.8% with a 17.7% reduction in test length. Conclusions MDT-based approaches are a promising alternative to approaches based on item-response theory, and are well-suited for computerized adaptive testing in the health domain.

  11. [Assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in Brazilian pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima E Silva, Janiny; Ferreira, Elizângela da Fonseca; Medeiros, Marcielle; Araújo, Maristela Lopes; Silva, Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho

    2011-08-01

    to evaluate psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy by translating and cross-culturally adapting a specific assessment instrument to be used with Brazilian women. this was a cross-sectional observational study. the translation and cross-cultural adaptation and of the Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire (PSeQ) was performed following all the required methodological steps. another questionnaire was applied to characterize the sociodemographic and clinical status of the pregnant women (n=36). Statistical analysis consisted of the determination of the mean and standard deviation (SD) and of absolute and relative frequency. the statistical test used for the analysis of internal consistency was Cronbach's alpha coefficient, using SPSS version 17.0. the volunteers were of low socioeconomic status, aged on average 25.1 years ( 5.5), and had an average gestational age of 25.9 weeks ( 8.1). 58.3% of these volunteers had not planned their current pregnancy. the pretest showed that 75% of the pregnant women found the questionnaire easy to understand. Regarding the PSeQ instrument, the identification with the maternal role was the subcategory which showed the highest average, 24.8 ( 5.6), while the relationship with the mother had the lowest average 15.4 ( 7.7). the internal consistency ranged from 0.52 to 0.89. the assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in pregnant women is very important during the progress of pregnancy and permits intervention through obstetric-neonatal actions of promotion and prevention regarding the well-being of mother and child.

  12. Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Sam P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation, neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i holds, we find that (ii the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties.

  13. Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort.

  14. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  15. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  16. Adaptive Characteristics and Suicidal Behavior: A Gender Comparison of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jon B.; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a…

  17. Effects of Germline Mutations in the Ras/MAPK Signaling Pathway on Adaptive Behavior: Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome and Noonan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Mendelsohn, Nancy J.; Roberts, Amy E.; Tworog-Dube, Erica; Rauen, Katherine A.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) and Noonan syndrome (NS) are two phenotypically overlapping genetic disorders whose underlying molecular etiologies affect a common signaling pathway. Mutations in the BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 genes cause most cases of CFC and mutations in PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS and RAF1 typically cause NS. Although both syndromes are associated with developmental delays of varying severity, the extent to which the behavioral profiles differ may shed light on the different roles these respective genes play in development of skills necessary for everyday functioning. In this study, profiles of adaptive behavior of individuals with CFC and NS who had confirmed pathogenic mutations in Ras/MAPK pathway genes were investigated. Patterns of strengths and weaknesses, age-related differences, and risk factors for difficulties in adaptive skills were assessed. Although genes acting more downstream in the Ras/MAPK pathway were associated with more difficulties in adaptive functioning than genes more upstream in the pathway, several inconsistencies highlight the wide spectrum of possible developmental courses in CFC and NS. Along with clinical and genetic factors, variables such as chronological age, gestational age at birth and parental education levels accounted for significant variance in adaptive skills. Results indicate that there is wide heterogeneity in adaptive ability in CFC and NS, but that these abilities are correlated to some extent with the specific disease-causing genes. PMID:20186801

  18. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information

  19. Functional-Based Assessment of Social Behavior: Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Sugai, George

    1994-01-01

    This introduction to and overview of a special issue on social behavior assessment within schools discusses the impact of function-based methodologies on assessment and intervention practices in identification and remediation of challenging social behaviors. (JDD)

  20. Adaptive Feeding behavior and functional responses in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, Enrico; Tiselius, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Zooplankton may modify their feeding behavior in response to prey availability and presence of predators with implications to populations of both predators and prey. Optimal foraging theory predicts that such responses result in a type II functional response for passive foragers and a type III re...

  1. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  2. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  3. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  4. [The Confusion Assessment Method: Transcultural adaptation of a French version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, V; Belmin, J; Blain, H; Bonin-Guillaume, S; Goldsmith, L; Guerin, O; Kergoat, M-J; Landais, P; Mahmoudi, R; Morais, J A; Rataboul, P; Saber, A; Sirvain, S; Wolfklein, G; de Wazieres, B

    2018-04-03

    The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is a validated key tool in clinical practice and research programs to diagnose delirium and assess its severity. There is no validated French version of the CAM training manual and coding guide (Inouye SK). The aim of this study was to establish a consensual French version of the CAM and its manual. Cross-cultural adaptation to achieve equivalence between the original version and a French adapted version of the CAM manual. A rigorous process was conducted including control of cultural adequacy of the tool's components, double forward and back translations, reconciliation, expert committee review (including bilingual translators with different nationalities, a linguist, highly qualified clinicians, methodologists) and pretesting. A consensual French version of the CAM was achieved. Implementation of the CAM French version in daily clinical practice will enable optimal diagnosis of delirium diagnosis and enhance communication between health professionals in French speaking countries. Validity and psychometric properties are being tested in a French multicenter cohort, opening up new perspectives for improved quality of care and research programs in French speaking countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A qualitative assessment of cross-cultural adaptation of intermediate measures for schizophrenia in multisite international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jodi M; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M; Velligan, Dawn I

    2013-04-30

    In this substudy of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia we examined qualitative feedback on the cross-cultural adaptability of four intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, and Cognitive Assessment Interview). Feedback was provided by experienced English-fluent clinical researchers at 31 sites in eight countries familiar with medication trials. Researchers provided feedback on test subscales and items which were rated as having adaptation challenges. They noted the specific concern and made suggestions for adaptation to their culture. We analyzed the qualitative data using a modified Grounded Theory approach guided by the International Testing Commission Guidelines model for test adaptation. For each measure except the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), the majority of subscales were reported to require major adaptations in terms of content and concepts contained in the subscale. In particular, social, financial, transportation and health care systems varied widely across countries-systems which are often used to assess performance capacity in the U.S. We provide suggestions for how to address future international test development and adaptation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessye Almeida Cantini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. For this reason, the use of psychometric instruments is fundamental to advancing research in this area. Psychometric instruments are also necessary for clinical care, as they can help conceptualize the disorder and plan adequate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS. Methods: The process consisted of: 1 two translations and back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; 2 development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health; 3 experimental application; and 4 investigation of operational equivalence. RESULTS: The adaptation process is described and a final Brazilian version of the DBS is presented. CONCLUSION: A new instrument is now available to assess the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, facilitating research in this field.

  7. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  8. Factors Influencing Maternal Behavioral Adaptability: Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.

  9. Assessing Affective and Deliberative Decision-Making: Adaptation of the Columbia Card Task to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Viola, Thiago W; Veiga, Eduardo; Bortolotto, Vanessa; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2015-11-20

    The ability to predict reward and punishment is essential for decision-making and the ability to learn about an ever-changing environment. Therefore, efforts have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying decision-making, especially regarding how affective and deliberative processes interact with risk behavior. To adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Columbia Card Task (CCT) and investigate affective and deliberative processes involved in decision-making. This study had two main phases: (1) a transcultural adaptation and (2) a pilot study. The feedback manipulation among the three conditions of CCT had an effect on the risk-taking level (p accounting for 17% of the variance. The Brazilian CCT performs well and is a versatile method for the assessment of affective and deliberative decision-making under risk according to different feedback manipulation scenarios. This study goes further, comparing electrodermal activity during hot and warm conditions and addressing an advantageous level index analysis to asses deliberative processing.

  10. Use of intervention mapping to adapt a health behavior change intervention for endometrial cancer survivors: the shape-up following cancer treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutoukidis, Dimitrios A; Lopes, Sonia; Atkins, Lou; Croker, Helen; Knobf, M Tish; Lanceley, Anne; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2018-03-27

    About 80% of endometrial cancer survivors (ECS) are overweight or obese and have sedentary behaviors. Lifestyle behavior interventions are promising for improving dietary and physical activity behaviors, but the constructs associated with their effectiveness are often inadequately reported. The aim of this study was to systematically adapt an evidence-based behavior change program to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in ECS. Following a review of the literature, focus groups and interviews were conducted with ECS (n = 16). An intervention mapping protocol was used for the program adaptation, which consisted of six steps: a needs assessment, formulation of matrices of change objectives, selection of theoretical methods and practical applications, program production, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning. Social Cognitive Theory and Control Theory guided the adaptation of the intervention. The process consisted of eight 90-min group sessions focusing on shaping outcome expectations, knowledge, self-efficacy, and goals about healthy eating and physical activity. The adapted performance objectives included establishment of regular eating, balanced diet, and portion sizes, reduction in sedentary behaviors, increase in lifestyle and organized activities, formulation of a discrepancy-reducing feedback loop for all above behaviors, and trigger management. Information on managing fatigue and bowel issues unique to ECS were added. Systematic intervention mapping provided a framework to design a cancer survivor-centered lifestyle intervention. ECS welcomed the intervention and provided essential feedback for its adaptation. The program has been evaluated through a randomized controlled trial.

  11. Adaptive Vocational Personality Questionnaire Development and Validation of an adaptive personality questionnaire to analyze the vocational behavior of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Gómez-Artiga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a personality evaluation instrument adapted to the vocational setting: the Adaptive Vocational Personality Questionnaire (AVPQ. The questionnaire was developed and tested in a sample of 2160 university students in the final years of their degree programs. The purpose of the study is to validate the questionnaire, providing evidence about its internal structure and its usefulness for predicting scores on a criterion scale. A confirmatory factor analysis combined with a cross-validation design was used: the exploratory sample (n = 879 helped to identify the model with the factorial structure that best fit the relations among the items. As expected, this model had two related but clearly separate factors: Adaptive Personality Characteristics (AC with 9 items and Non-Adaptive Personality Characteristics (NAC with 11 items. The validation sample (n =932 was used to test the generalization capacity of this model, which was satisfactory and showed a good reliability index. Regarding its usefulness in predicting proactive job-search behaviors, the results were also satisfactory. The questionnaire and keys are provided, as well as the criteria for calculating the scores on each scale and on the entire questionnaire.

  12. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Kim, Yeon Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We us...

  13. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leier André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested. We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between

  14. Adaptation behavior of skilled infant bouncers to different spring frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinda Habib Perez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Infants explore their environments through repetitive movements that are constrained or facilitated by the environmental context. In this study, we evaluated how skilled bouncers adapted to bouncing in systems with four different spring conditions (natural frequencies of 0.9, 1.15, 1.27 and 1.56 Hz. Trunk kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs were recorded from three pre-walking infants (mean age 10.6 ±0.9 months. Bounce frequency, trunk displacement, peak VGRF, percent of time on the ground and time to peak force as a function of time on the ground were analyzed. In addition, infant bounce frequencies were compared to measured oscillations of an inert mass equivalent to each infant’s mass. All infants bounced above the natural frequency of the spring system in all conditions suggesting that they did not behave solely like mass-spring systems. Infants produced asymmetrical VGRF loading patterns suggesting that a timing component, such as bounce frequency, was regulated. Skilled infants consistently increased their bounce frequency as their vertical trunk displacement decreased; however, the mode for regulating bounce frequency differed from infant to infant.

  15. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  16. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  17. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sadros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in socialand domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domainsof adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normalindividuals.Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals(7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study inTehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using"Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2,consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translatedinto Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English byanother translator, to ensure content non-distortion.Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentallyretarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economicactivity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization,disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement,conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documentedin the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors,sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, betweenthe two groups.Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normalones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that theadaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal ofattention and intervention. For these retarded people to function betterin their social and residential environment, it would be necessary todevelop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on theimportance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentallyretarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures,even for normal individuals.

  18. Peer Pressure and Adaptive Behavior Learning: A Study of Adolescents in Gujrat City

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Yunus; Shahzad Khaver Mushtaq; Sobia Qaiser

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at discovering the influences of Peer Pressure on adaptive behavior learning in the adolescents. For the purpose two scales, Adaptive behavior scale (ABS) and Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) were developed to measure both variables. The Sample of the study was purposive in nature and comprised of late adolescents (n=120) i.e. 60 males and 60 females, from Gujrat city. Cronbach alpha was calculated and found to be significant for Peer Pressure Scale(PPS) and its subscales i.e. Belongi...

  19. Fourteen-Month-Olds Adapt Their Imitative Behavior in Light of a Model’s Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Gellén

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than reenacting every action they observe, preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior. Although previous studies have revealed the capability of preverbal infants to imitate selectively, the question about the adaptability of this behavior on an individual level did not attract considerable scientific attention until now. In the current study, we investigated whether 14-month-old infants flexibly alternate their imitative response in accordance with a model’s changing physical constraints in a body-part imitation paradigm. Participants were presented with two novel actions whereby a model illuminated a light-box and turned on a sound-box, either by using her forehead (head touch or by sitting on the apparatus (sit-touch. Each participant observed these tasks in two conditions: once where the model’s hands were occupied and once where her hands were free while executing the head or sit-touch. Participants were more likely to reenact the observed novel behavior when the model had freely chosen to perform it than when she had to do so due to physical constraints. Not only did we replicate a number of previous findings, we show here that preverbal infants adapt their imitative behavior across conditions based on the physical constraints of the model. These results point towards the adaptable nature of imitative behavior also on an individual level. This ability might be one of the building blocks for children for learning their social group’s specific action repertoire.

  20. Delay-induced diversity of firing behavior and ordered chaotic firing in adaptive neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yubing; Wang Li; Xu Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the firing behavior and temporal coherence and synchronization in Newman–Watts thermosensitive neuron networks with adaptive coupling. At beginning, the firing exhibit disordered spiking in absence of time delay. As time delay is increased, the neurons exhibit diversity of firing behaviors including bursting with multiple spikes in a burst, spiking, bursting with four, three and two spikes, firing death, and bursting with increasing amplitude. The spiking is the most ordered, exhibiting coherence resonance (CR)-like behavior, and the firing synchronization becomes enhanced with the increase of time delay. As growth rate of coupling strength or network randomness increases, CR-like behavior shifts to smaller time delay and the synchronization of firing increases. These results show that time delay can induce diversity of firing behaviors in adaptive neuronal networks, and can order the chaotic firing by enhancing and optimizing the temporal coherence and enhancing the synchronization of firing. However, the phenomenon of firing death shows that time delay may inhibit the firing of adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activity of adaptive neuronal networks, and can help to better understand the complex firing phenomena in neural networks.

  1. Sex differences in parent-reported executive functioning and adaptive behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily I; Wallace, Gregory L; Bascom, Julia; Armour, Anna C; Register-Brown, Kelly; Popal, Haroon S; Ratto, Allison B; Martin, Alex; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Females were rated by parents as having greater problems with executive function on the BRIEF. Parents also rated females as exhibiting more difficulties than males on the Daily Living Skills domain of the VABS. There was a correlation between increased global EF difficulty and decreased adaptive ability in both males and females. Our results indicate relative weaknesses for females compared to males diagnosed with ASD on executive function and daily living skills. These differences occur in the absence of sex differences in our sample in age, IQ, clinician ratings of core ASD symptomatology, parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported social and communication adaptive skills on the VABS. These findings indicate specific liabilities in real world EF and daily living skills for females with ASD and have important implications for targeting their treatments. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1653-1662. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The health policy implications of individual adaptive behavior responses to smog pollution in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yi; Brooke Anderson, G; Li, Tiantian

    2017-09-01

    Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM 2.5 -polluted Chinese city was designed to establish smog concerns and behavior changes during smog events. The results demonstrate a variety of behavior responses associated with risk perception, experience of smog, age, and gender of respondents. An understanding of these variations is critical to the development of effective public policy and ultimately to the improvement of public health in cities affected by smog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioral assessment in youth sports: coaching behaviors and children's attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R E; Zane, N W; Smoll, F L; Coppel, D B

    1983-01-01

    To define the characteristics and dimensional patterning of coaching behaviors, 15,449 behaviors of 31 youth basketball coaches were coded in terms of a 10-category system. Post-season attitude and self-esteem data were obtained from players on 23 teams and were related to the behavioral measures. Compared with rates of reinforcement, encouragement, and technical instruction, punitive responses occurred relatively infrequently. Factor analysis of the coaching behaviors indicated that supportive and punitive behavioral dimensions were orthogonal or statistically independent of one another rather than opposite ends of the same dimension. Punitive and instructional categories were part of the same behavior cluster. The relationship between coaching behaviors and the various player attitudes were highly specific in nature. Coaching behaviors accounted for about half of the variance in post-season attitudes toward the coach and the sport, but for significantly less variance in measures of team solidarity and self-esteem. Surprisingly, the rate of positive reinforcement was unrelated to any of the attitudinal measures. Punishment was negatively related to liking for the coach. In general, technical instruction categories were the strongest predictors of basketball player attitudes.

  4. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response. Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli. Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments. Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = −0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = −0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed

  5. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S

    2017-03-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response. Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli. Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments. Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage ( r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation ( r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage ( r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control ( r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage ( P < 0.001). Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed

  6. Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Saylor Mase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change presents unique challenges to the resilience of United States agriculture, and farmers and advisors must utilize effective adaptation strategies to be both economically and environmentally sustainable. This study addresses Midwestern U.S. crop farmers’ beliefs about climate change, perceived risks from weather and climate, and attitudes toward adaptation that influence their decisions to adopt adaptation strategies. Analyzing a 2012 survey of nearly 5000 corn farmers across 22 Midwestern U.S. Watersheds, we investigate the most common weather and climate risk management strategies, including purchasing additional crop insurance, implementing conservation practices, and adding new technology. U.S. farmers’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, perceptions of changing weather patterns, climate risks to their farm and attitudes toward adapting are analyzed. Farmers’ perceptions of risk to their own farm, attitudes toward innovation and adaptation attitudes were the most important determinants of adaptation. This study highlights the critical role of risk perceptions in adaptation attitudes as well as behaviors among agriculturalists. Finally, we discuss how these findings could be applied to increase uptake of adaptation strategies and thus resilience of U.S. agriculture to a changing climate.

  7. Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Font-Roura, Josep; Gine, Climent; Matson, Johnny L.; Cifre, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) often engage in problem behaviors, such as verbal or physical aggression, property destruction, or self-injury. These behaviors become a challenge for the families and for professionals. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a method used to identify variables that influence or maintain challenging…

  8. Walking adaptability after a stroke and its assessment in clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K; Clark, David J; Fox, Emily J

    2014-01-01

    Control of walking has been described by a tripartite model consisting of stepping, equilibrium, and adaptability. This review focuses on walking adaptability, which is defined as the ability to modify walking to meet task goals and environmental demands. Walking adaptability is crucial to safe ambulation in the home and community environments and is often severely compromised after a stroke. Yet quantification of walking adaptability after stroke has received relatively little attention in the clinical setting. The objectives of this review were to examine the conceptual challenges for clinical measurement of walking adaptability and summarize the current state of clinical assessment for walking adaptability. We created nine domains of walking adaptability from dimensions of community mobility to address the conceptual challenges in measurement and reviewed performance-based clinical assessments of walking to determine if the assessments measure walking adaptability in these domains. Our literature review suggests the lack of a comprehensive well-tested clinical assessment tool for measuring walking adaptability. Accordingly, recommendations for the development of a comprehensive clinical assessment of walking adaptability after stroke have been presented. Such a clinical assessment will be essential for gauging recovery of walking adaptability with rehabilitation and for motivating novel strategies to enhance recovery of walking adaptability after stroke.

  9. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. Results According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). Conclusion The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors. PMID:23730484

  10. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Kim, Yeon Pyo

    2013-05-01

    The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors.

  11. Implicit attitudes toward violence and their relation to psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors in forensic psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwets, Almar J.; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Kanters, Thijs; Snowden, Robert J.; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between implicit attitudes toward violence and different aspects of violent and social behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients, an implicit association test was related to measures of psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors. Results

  12. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  13. Traffic flow impacts of adaptive cruise control deactivation and (Re)activation with cooperative driver behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.; Li, M.; Minderhoud, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 in the Netherlands, a field operational test was carried out to study the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane departure warning on driver behavior and traffic flow in real traffic. To estimate the effect for larger penetration rates, simulations were needed. For a reliable

  14. Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs: Application to Child Behavior Research in a Community Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on…

  15. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  16. How the Parent-Child Relationship Affects Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behavior Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Lauren Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent-child relationship characteristics (attachment, involvement, discipline practices, parenting confidence, and relational frustration) and behavioral outcomes (internalizing, externalizing, and adaptive) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD presents pervasive…

  17. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  18. Adaptive versus proactive behavior in service recovery: The role of self-managing teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.; Ruyter, de J.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we develop a conceptual model of adaptive versus proactive recovery behavior by self-managing teams (SMTs) in service recovery operations. To empirically test the conceptual model a combination of bank employee, customer, and archival data is collected. The results demonstrate

  19. A Factor-Analytic Study of Adaptive Behavior and Intellectual Functioning in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Dollye R.

    The factorial structure of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior was examined in 160 learning disabled students (6 to 16 years old). Ss were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Coping Inventory (CI). Factor analysis of WISC-R scores revealed three factors: verbal comprehenson, perceptual…

  20. Assessment of 48 Stock markets using adaptive multifractal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo; Dionísio, Andreia; Movahed, S. M. S.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Stock market comovements are examined using cointegration, Granger causality tests and nonlinear approaches in context of mutual information and correlations. Since underlying data sets are affected by non-stationarities and trends, we also apply Adaptive Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (AMF-DFA) and Adaptive Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (AMF-DXA). We find only 170 pair of Stock markets cointegrated, and according to the Granger causality and mutual information, we realize that the strongest relations lies between emerging markets, and between emerging and frontier markets. According to scaling exponent given by AMF-DFA, h(q = 2) > 1, we find that all underlying data sets belong to non-stationary process. According to Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH), only 8 markets are classified in uncorrelated processes at 2 σ confidence interval. 6 Stock markets belong to anti-correlated class and dominant part of markets has memory in corresponding daily index prices during January 1995 to February 2014. New-Zealand with H = 0 . 457 ± 0 . 004 and Jordan with H = 0 . 602 ± 0 . 006 are far from EMH. The nature of cross-correlation exponents based on AMF-DXA is almost multifractal for all pair of Stock markets. The empirical relation, Hxy ≤ [Hxx +Hyy ] / 2, is confirmed. Mentioned relation for q > 0 is also satisfied while for q behavior of markets for small fluctuations is affected by contribution of major pair. For larger fluctuations, the cross-correlation contains information from both local (internal) and global (external) conditions. Width of singularity spectrum for auto-correlation and cross-correlation are Δαxx ∈ [ 0 . 304 , 0 . 905 ] and Δαxy ∈ [ 0 . 246 , 1 . 178 ] , respectively. The wide range of singularity spectrum for cross-correlation confirms that the bilateral relation between Stock markets is more complex. The value of σDCCA indicates that all pairs of stock market studied in this time interval

  1. MRI assessment of cervical cancer for adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Schirl, Gertrude; Baldinger, Anja; Poetter, Richard; Helbich, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the importance of the information obtained from MRI for adaptive cervix cancer radiotherapy. Patients and methods: 49 patients with cervix cancer, treated by external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and MRI-assisted high-dose-rate brachytherapy ± concomitant cisplatin, underwent MRI at diagnosis and at the time of brachytherapy fractions. 190 MRI examinations were performed. Pretreatment scans were correlated with clinical examination (CE) findings. Measurements in 3-D of the tumor extension and also of the distance from the tumor to the pelvic side wall were performed using both MRI and CE. The tumor volume regression induced initially by EBRT and the subsequent regression after each brachytherapy fraction were assessed. Results: MRI and CE showed 92% agreement in overall parametrial staging and 73% agreement in terms of vaginal involvement. There was, however, disagreement in parametrial side (right/left) classification in 25% of the parametria examined. These were patients with unilateral displacement of the cervix and contralateral invasion of the parametrium. The mean tumor volume on the pretreatment MRI scan (GTVD) was 61 cm 3 . At the time of the four brachytherapy fractions the mean was 16 cm 3 , 10 cm 3 , 9 cm 3 , and 8 cm 3 , defined as the GTVBT plus the gray zones in the parametria. Conclusion: CE and MRI findings agree well in terms of overall staging. The clinical assessment of side-specific parametrial invasion improved when having access to the additional knowledge obtained from MRI. The greatest decrease in tumor volume occurs during EBRT, whereas tumor regression between the first and subsequent brachytherapy fractions is minor. (orig.)

  2. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the

  3. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  4. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations.

  5. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher

  6. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of

  7. Behavior Assessment Battery: A Pilot Study of the Affective, Behavioral, and Cognitive Correlates Surrounding Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Hoffman Ruddy, Bari; Lehman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) report to experience anxiety and voice problems in particular situations, indicate the presence of negative speech-associated attitude, and/or the use of coping behaviors, by means of the Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB) modified for voice. Thirty-two participants with ADSD and 32 adults without a voice disorder participated in this study. Each person completed four different BAB-Voice subtests. These standardized self-report tests are adaptations of the original BAB for people who stutter and explore an individual's speech-related belief, negative emotional reaction to and speech problems in particular speech situations, and the use of concomitant behaviors. Individuals with spasmodic dysphonia (SD) scored statistically significantly higher compared to typical speakers on all BAB subtests, indicating that individuals with SD report being significantly more anxious and experiencing significantly more voice problems in particular speech circumstances. They also reported a significant amount of negative speech-associated attitude and the use of a significant number of coping behaviors. Internal reliability was good for three of the four BAB subtests. The BAB is capable of reflecting the dimensions that surround the disorder of SD. The self-report measures have the potential to augment the observations made by the clinician and may lead to a more diverse and all-encompassing therapy for the person suffering from SD. Future research with a revised version of the BAB-Voice will continue to explore the validity, reliability, and replicability of the initial data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Analysis of Management Behavior Assessments and Affect on Productivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shipley, Jr, Steven E

    2005-01-01

    ... (Virtual Military Health Institute, 2003). The need exists for constructing a reliable behavior assessment instrument that captures data operationalized into correlational relationships between hospital management and employee beliefs...

  9. Behaviorally Mediated, Warm Adaptation: A Physiological Strategy When Mice Are Allowed to Behaviorally Thermoregulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of -22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller int...

  10. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  11. How Accurate Appraisal of Behavioral Costs and Benefits Guides Adaptive Pain Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Gandhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coping with pain is a complex phenomenon encompassing a variety of behavioral responses and a large network of underlying neural circuits. Whether pain coping is adaptive or maladaptive depends on the type of pain (e.g., escapable or inescapable, personal factors (e.g., individual experiences with coping strategies in the past, and situational circumstances. Keeping these factors in mind, costs and benefits of different strategies have to be appraised and will guide behavioral decisions in the face of pain. In this review we present pain coping as an unconscious decision-making process during which accurately evaluated costs and benefits lead to adaptive pain coping behavior. We emphasize the importance of passive coping as an adaptive strategy when dealing with ongoing pain and thus go beyond the common view of passivity as a default state of helplessness. In combination with passive pain coping, we highlight the role of the reward system in reestablishing affective homeostasis and discuss existing evidence on a behavioral and neural level. We further present neural circuits involved in the decision-making process of pain coping when circumstances are ambiguous and, therefore, costs and benefits are difficult to anticipate. Finally, we address the wider implications of this topic by discussing its relevance for chronic pain patients.

  12. Assessment of behavior factor of eccentrically braced frame with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of behavior factor of eccentrically braced frame with vertical link in cyclic loading. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... In order to understand the behavior of these structures using non-linear static and dynamic analysis of building's behavior factor, eccentric and exocentric systems were calculated ...

  13. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  14. Transcultural adaptation of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Iwamoto, Viviane Ernesto; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Noronha, Adriana Moreira; Oliveira, Ana Paula de Sousa; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Marques, Ifigenia Augusta Braga; Vendramim, Patrícia; Lopes, Paula Cristina; Sant'Ana, Thais Helena Saes de

    2016-08-29

    to perform the transcultural adaptation and content validity analysis of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool to assess both fall risk and fall-related injury risk for hospitalized elderly in Brazil. the transcultural adaptation consisted of translating the scale to Portuguese (Brazil), back-translating it into its language of origin, establishing a consensus version, and having an expert committee verify its transcultural equivalence. Content assessment was conducted by a committee of judges, ending with the calculation of the items and scales' content validity index. Nurses tested the tool. the scale's translated version went through two evaluation rounds by the judges, based on which, the items with unsatisfactory performance were changed. The content validity index for the items was ≥80.0% and the global index 97.1%. The experimental application showed the scale is user-friendly. the scale presents valid content for the assessment of fall risk and risk of fall-related injuries and is easy to use, with the potential to contribute to the proper identification of risks and the establishment of care actions. realizar a adaptação transcultural para uso no Brasil e a avaliação da validade de conteúdo da Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool para avaliação de risco de quedas e de danos por quedas em pacientes adultos hospitalizados. adaptação transcultural consistiu na tradução da escala para a língua portuguesa (Brasil), retrotradução para a língua de origem, versão de consenso e análise da equivalência transcultural por um comitê de especialistas. A avaliação do conteúdo foi realizada por meio de um comitê de juízes, finalizando com o cálculo do índice de validade de conteúdo dos itens e da escala. Foi realizada a aplicação experimental do instrumento por enfermeiros. a versão traduzida da escala passou por duas rodadas de avaliação pelos juízes, a partir das quais os itens com desempenho insatisfatório foram modificados

  15. Mission Adaptive UAS Platform for Earth Science Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of important Earth science remote sensing missions including several directed at the assessment of natural resources. A key asset for accessing high risk airspace has been the 180 kg class SIERRA UAS platform, providing mission durations of up to 8 hrs at altitudes up to 3 km. Recent improvements to this mission capability are embodied in the incipient SIERRA-B variant. Two resource mapping problems having unusual mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability are explored here. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This challenges the management of resources in the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the ocean color signal. Furthermore, as for all scanning imager applications, the primary flight control priority to fly the UAS directly to the next waypoint should compromise with the requirement to minimize roll and crab effects in the imagery. A second example involves the mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in several recent Earth Science missions including the October 2013 OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for hyperspectral reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magentometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and demanding requirements to manage solar angle, aircraft attitude and flight path orientation, and efficient (directly geo-rectified) surface and sub

  16. Technologies for Assessing Behavioral and Cognitive Markers of Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    assessing behavioral and cognitive markers of risk for suicide among U.S. Army National Guard personnel. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Policy...effective ways to prevent injury and death from suicide • No reliable method for predicting suicide risk in military personnel • Behavioral (e.g...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0632 TITLE: Technologies for Assessing Behavioral and Cognitive Markers of Suicide Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian

  17. Social Dynamics Management and Functional Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Managing social dynamics is a critical aspect of creating a positive learning environment in classrooms. In this paper three key interrelated ideas, reinforcement, function, and motivating operations, are discussed with relation to managing social behavior.

  18. Assessing Behavioral Stages From Social Media Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Weitzman, Elissa R; Chunara, Rumi

    2017-01-01

    Important work rooted in psychological theory posits that health behavior change occurs through a series of discrete stages. Our work builds on the field of social computing by identifying how social media data can be used to resolve behavior stages at high resolution (e.g. hourly/daily) for key population subgroups and times. In essence this approach opens new opportunities to advance psychological theories and better understand how our health is shaped based on the real, dynamic, and rapid actions we make every day. To do so, we bring together domain knowledge and machine learning methods to form a hierarchical classification of Twitter data that resolves different stages of behavior. We identify and examine temporal patterns of the identified stages, with alcohol as a use case (planning or looking to drink, currently drinking, and reflecting on drinking). Known seasonal trends are compared with findings from our methods. We discuss the potential health policy implications of detecting high frequency behavior stages.

  19. Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

  20. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of step size adaptation rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin; Glasmachers, Tobias; Igel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We present a comparison of step size adaptation methods for evolution strategies, covering recent developments in the field. Following recent work by Hansen et al. we formulate a concise list of performance criteria: a) fast convergence of the mean, b) near-optimal fixed point of the normalized s...... that cumulative step size adaptation (CSA) and twopoint adaptation (TPA) provide reliable estimates of the optimal step size. We further find that removing the evolution path of CSA still leads to a reliable algorithm without the computational requirements of CSA.......We present a comparison of step size adaptation methods for evolution strategies, covering recent developments in the field. Following recent work by Hansen et al. we formulate a concise list of performance criteria: a) fast convergence of the mean, b) near-optimal fixed point of the normalized...

  1. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard eGrinke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. They can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a walking robot is a challenging task. In this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a biomechanical walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations as well as escaping from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments.

  2. Towards Player’s Affective and Behavioral Visual Cues as drives to Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Shaker, Noor; Karpouzis, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...... itself, during gameplay. In this paper, we explore player’s behavior, as captured by computer vision techniques, and player’s details regarding his own experience and profile. The objective of the current research is game adaptation aiming at maximizing player enjoyment. To this aim, the ability to infer...... player engagement and frustration, along with the degree of challenge imposed by the game is explored. The estimated levels of the induced metrics can feed an engine’s artificial intelligence, allowing for game adaptation....

  3. A Novel Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Foraging Behavior in Optimization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of repeated trial and proofreading is generally used to the convention reducer design, but these methods is low efficiency and the size of the reducer is often large. Aiming the problems, this paper presents an adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm with foraging behavior, in this method, the bacterial foraging process is introduced into the adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm, which can provide the function of particle chemotaxis, swarming, reproduction, elimination and dispersal, to improve the ability of local search and avoid premature behavior. By test verification through typical function and the application of the optimization design in the structure of the reducer with discrete and continuous variables, the results are shown that the new algorithm has the advantages of good reliability, strong searching ability and high accuracy. It can be used in engineering design, and has a strong applicability.

  4. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  5. Integrated assessment of adaptation to Climate change in Flevoland at the farm and regional level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Mandryk, M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Schaap, B.F.; Reidsma, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2011-01-01

    A key objective of the AgriAdapt project is to assess climate change impacts on agriculture including adaptation at regional and farm type level in combination with market and technological changes. More specifically, the developed methodologies enable (a) the assessment of impacts, risks and

  6. Effectiveness of Adaptive Assessment versus Learner Control in a Multimedia Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of adaptive assessment versus learner control in a multimedia learning system designed to help secondary students learn science. Unlike other systems, this paper presents a workflow of adaptive assessment following instructional materials that better align with learners' cognitive…

  7. Specific behavioral and cellular adaptations induced by chronic morphine are reduced by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Hakimian

    Full Text Available Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA, could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and

  8. Emotional intelligence and features of social and psychological adaptation in adolescents with deviant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev A.V.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.

  9. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptability on Behavior Problems and Maternal Depression in Families of Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family-systems perspective to examine whether family-level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the three-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptability, the mother-child relationship, their own depressive symptoms, and the behavior problems of their children at Wave 1, and these factors were used to predict maternal depression and child behavior problems three years later. Family-level adaptability predicted change in both maternal depression and child behavior problems over the study period, above and beyond the contribution of the dyadic mother-child relationship. These associations did not appear to depend upon the intellectual disability status of the individual with autism. Implications for autism, parent mental health, family systems theory, and for intervention with this population are discussed. PMID:21668120

  10. ASSESSING TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR IN LIDAR POINT CLOUDS OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schachtschneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-driving cars and robots that run autonomously over long periods of time need high-precision and up-to-date models of the changing environment. The main challenge for creating long term maps of dynamic environments is to identify changes and adapt the map continuously. Changes can occur abruptly, gradually, or even periodically. In this work, we investigate how dense mapping data of several epochs can be used to identify the temporal behavior of the environment. This approach anticipates possible future scenarios where a large fleet of vehicles is equipped with sensors which continuously capture the environment. This data is then being sent to a cloud based infrastructure, which aligns all datasets geometrically and subsequently runs scene analysis on it, among these being the analysis for temporal changes of the environment. Our experiments are based on a LiDAR mobile mapping dataset which consists of 150 scan strips (a total of about 1 billion points, which were obtained in multiple epochs. Parts of the scene are covered by up to 28 scan strips. The time difference between the first and last epoch is about one year. In order to process the data, the scan strips are aligned using an overall bundle adjustment, which estimates the surface (about one billion surface element unknowns as well as 270,000 unknowns for the adjustment of the exterior orientation parameters. After this, the surface misalignment is usually below one centimeter. In the next step, we perform a segmentation of the point clouds using a region growing algorithm. The segmented objects and the aligned data are then used to compute an occupancy grid which is filled by tracing each individual LiDAR ray from the scan head to every point of a segment. As a result, we can assess the behavior of each segment in the scene and remove voxels from temporal objects from the global occupancy grid.

  11. Assessing Temporal Behavior in LIDAR Point Clouds of Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, J.; Schlichting, A.; Brenner, C.

    2017-05-01

    Self-driving cars and robots that run autonomously over long periods of time need high-precision and up-to-date models of the changing environment. The main challenge for creating long term maps of dynamic environments is to identify changes and adapt the map continuously. Changes can occur abruptly, gradually, or even periodically. In this work, we investigate how dense mapping data of several epochs can be used to identify the temporal behavior of the environment. This approach anticipates possible future scenarios where a large fleet of vehicles is equipped with sensors which continuously capture the environment. This data is then being sent to a cloud based infrastructure, which aligns all datasets geometrically and subsequently runs scene analysis on it, among these being the analysis for temporal changes of the environment. Our experiments are based on a LiDAR mobile mapping dataset which consists of 150 scan strips (a total of about 1 billion points), which were obtained in multiple epochs. Parts of the scene are covered by up to 28 scan strips. The time difference between the first and last epoch is about one year. In order to process the data, the scan strips are aligned using an overall bundle adjustment, which estimates the surface (about one billion surface element unknowns) as well as 270,000 unknowns for the adjustment of the exterior orientation parameters. After this, the surface misalignment is usually below one centimeter. In the next step, we perform a segmentation of the point clouds using a region growing algorithm. The segmented objects and the aligned data are then used to compute an occupancy grid which is filled by tracing each individual LiDAR ray from the scan head to every point of a segment. As a result, we can assess the behavior of each segment in the scene and remove voxels from temporal objects from the global occupancy grid.

  12. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  13. A Module for Adaptive Course Configuration and Assessment in Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Carla; Sciarrone, Filippo; Temperini, Marco; Vaste, Giulia

    Personalization and Adaptation are among the main challenges in the field of e-learning, where currently just few Learning Management Systems, mostly experimental ones, support such features. In this work we present an architecture that allows Moodle to interact with the Lecomps system, an adaptive learning system developed earlier by our research group, that has been working in a stand-alone modality so far. In particular, the Lecomps responsibilities are circumscribed to the sole production of personalized learning objects sequences and to the management of the student model, leaving to Moodle all the rest of the activities for course delivery. The Lecomps system supports the "dynamic" adaptation of learning objects sequences, basing on the student model, i.e., learner's Cognitive State and Learning Style. Basically, this work integrates two main Lecomps tasks into Moodle, to be directly managed by it: Authentication and Quizzes.

  14. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  15. Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and

  16. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQpreschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing developmental surveillance in this population remains warranted, particularly for those with abnormal birth histories, seizures, and heightened disease severity. PMID:26890559

  17. Escala de avaliação de comportamento sexual de risco para adultos: tradução e adaptação transcultural para o português brasileiro Sexual risk behavior assessment schedule for adults: translation and cross-cultural adaptation into brazilian portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana de Souza Pinto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A investigação sistemática e detalhada dos comportamentos sexuais de risco constitui um dos principais alicerces para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas que visam à criação de intervenções eficazes para a prevenção do HIV. OBJETIVO: Descrever e discutir as etapas do processo de adaptação lingüístico-cultural das versões masculina e feminina da Escala de Avaliação de Comportamento Sexual de Risco para pacientes psiquiátricos para o português brasileiro pelo Projeto Interdisciplinar em Sexualidade, Saúde Mental e AIDS. MÉTODOS: Treinamento dos investigadores brasileiros no instrumento original, comparação da tradução e da retrotradução, seguida de adaptação lingüístico-cultural à luz da fase formativa do projeto, resultando em uma versão utilizada no treinamento dos entrevistadores brasileiros em entrevistas com pacientes psiquiátricos. Verificação lingüística, confiabilidade qualitativa do instrumento e confiabilidade entre entrevistadores constituíram as etapas complementares para a versão final do questionário. RESULTADOS: Exclusão e adição de seções e itens da escala, tanto nos aspectos conceituais quanto estruturais, foram realizadas, bem como a incorporação de achados resultantes da fase formativa do piloto da pesquisa e mudanças lingüísticas relativas ao registro empregado.INTRODUCTION: A systematic and detailed investigation of sexual risk behaviors is one of the main foundations in the development of research projects aimed at designing effective interventions for HIV prevention. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents and discusses the stages of the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of male and female versions of the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule for psychiatric patients into Brazilian Portuguese, carried out by the Interdisciplinary Project in Sexuality, Mental Health and AIDS. METHODS: Training of Brazilian investigators in the original questionnaire, comparison

  18. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiung NH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nai-Huan Hsiung,1 Yen Yang,1 Ming Shinn Lee,2 Koustuv Dalal,3 Graeme D Smith4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Curriculum Design and Human Potentials Development, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Public Health Science, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4School of Nursing, Midwifery & Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments. Keywords: pain, scales, BPS, CPOT, Taiwan

  19. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMierau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. 32-channel EEG, surface EMG of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e. Euclidean distance of the supporting platform were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area 5 and midline fronto-central cortex (Brodmann area 6, respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and m. peroneus longus EMG activity of the non-dominant (free leg; an indicator reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control.

  20. Adapting Dialectical Behavior Therapy for the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Van Orden, Kim

    2016-12-31

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2. The authors describe adapting DBT, and especially its techniques for Stage 1 safety work, for work with DID patients. Basic theoretical principles are described and illustrated with a case example.

  1. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  2. Climate change impact assessment and adaptation under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Expected impacts of climate change are associated with large uncertainties, particularly at the local level. Adaptation scientists, practitioners, and decision-makers will need to find ways to cope with these uncertainties. Several approaches have been suggested as ‘uncertainty-proof’ to some

  3. Study design and protocol for a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress and self-management intervention for localized prostate cancer: The Encuentros de Salud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Antoni, Michael H; Moreno, Patricia I; Traeger, Lara; Perdomo, Dolores; Dahn, Jason; Miller, Gregory E; Cole, Steve; Orjuela, Julian; Pizarro, Edgar; Yanez, Betina

    2018-06-14

    Almost 2.8 million men in the U.S. are living with prostate cancer (PC), accounting for 40% of all male cancer survivors. Men diagnosed with prostate cancer may experience chronic and debilitating treatment side effects, including sexual and urinary dysfunction, pain and fatigue. Side effects can be stressful and can also lead to poor psychosocial functioning. Prior trials reveal that group-based cognitive behavioral stress and self-management (CBSM) is effective in reducing stress and mitigating some of these symptoms, yet little is known about the effects of culturally-translated CBSM among Spanish-speaking men with PC. This manuscript describes the rationale and study design of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial to determine whether participation in a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (C-CBSM) intervention leads to significantly greater reductions in symptom burden and improvements in health-related quality of life relative to participation in a non-culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention. Participants (N = 260) will be Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino men randomized to the standard, non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention (e.g., cognitive behavioral strategies, stress management, and health maintenance) or the culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention (e.g., content adapted to be compatible with Hispanic/Latino cultural patterns and belief systems, meanings, values and social context) for 10 weeks. Primary outcomes (i.e., disease-specific symptom burden and health-related quality of life) will be assessed across time. We hypothesize that a culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention will be more efficacious in reducing symptom burden and improving health-related quality of life among Hispanic/Latino men when compared to a non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. INSTRUMENTS OF HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human's life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of "risky sexual behavior assessment", "sexual risk assessment", "high risk sexual behavior", "sexual risk taking". By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended.

  5. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France. Second phase report. September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, this report presents the context and challenges of works dealing with climate change adaptation assessment: observations and perspectives of climate change, concepts and definitions of adaptation to climate change, adaptation within national, European and international context, objectives and organisation of the France's inter-departmental Group. It describes the chosen methodology: hypothesis, methodological tools (climate model), bibliographical tool, and heat wave counting methodology. It discusses the present results, outlines the encountered difficulties and discusses the perspectives for future work

  6. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew), Korea, the US (Spanish), India (Malayalam and Kannada), and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Diane; Furtado, Tamzin; Angalakuditi, Mallik

    2012-01-01

    Background The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally. Objective The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy. Methods A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity. Results A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel. Conclusion An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation. PMID:22715318

  7. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  8. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation using an economic pluvial flood risk framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    It is anticipated that climate change is likely to lead to an increasing risk level of flooding in cities in northern Europe. One challenging question is how to best address the increasing flood risk and assess the costs and benefits of adapting to such changes. We established an integrated...... approach for identification and assessment of climate change adaptation options by incorporating climate change impacts, flood inundation modelling, economic tool and risk assessment and management. The framework is further extended and adapted by embedding a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the total...

  9. Writing Assessment's "Debilitating Inheritance": Behaviorism's Dismissal of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maja Joiwind

    2013-01-01

    In this project, I examine the legacy of behaviorism's dismissal of experience on contemporary writing assessment theory and practice within the field of composition studies. I use an archival study of John B. Watson's letters to Robert Mearns Yerkes to establish behaviorism's systematic denial of experience and its related constructs: mind,…

  10. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  11. Treatment Sequencing for Childhood ADHD: A Multiple-Randomization Study of Adaptive Medication and Behavioral Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication.

  12. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking...... dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural...... mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online...

  13. The Family in Us: Family History, Family Identity and Self-Reproductive Adaptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferring, Dieter

    2017-06-01

    This contribution is an essay about the notion of family identity reflecting shared significant experiences within a family system originating a set of signs used in social communication within and between families. Significant experiences are considered as experiences of events that have an immediate impact on the adaptation of the family in a given socio-ecological and cultural context at a given historical time. It is assumed that family history is stored in a shared "family memory" holding both implicit and explicit knowledge and exerting an influence on the behavior of each family member. This is described as transgenerational family memory being constituted of a system of meaningful signs. The crucial dimension underlying the logic of this essay are the ideas of adaptation as well as self-reproduction of systems.

  14. Introduction to a Special Issue Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Evolution and Adaptations in the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alec L

    2015-01-01

    Born from the randomized controlled trial by Linehan and colleagues in 1991, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become the gold standard for treatment of individuals who are suicidal and have borderline personality disorder. In this special issue, we begin with a historical review of DBT provided by the treatment developer herself. We then introduce readers to new, 21(st) century adaptations developed of this treatment modality. In this issue we explore the use of DBT for suicidal adolescents with one paper focusing on Latina teens and their parents, and one focused on the more recently developed walking the middle path skills module. Other papers in this issue include unique adaptations of DBT for eating disorders, and disorders of over-control, as well as trauma in incarcerated male adolescents. We also look at transdiagnostic applications of DBT and finally a comparison of DBT with mentalization-based treatment.

  15. Web-Based System for Adaptable Rubrics: Case Study on CAD Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Pedro; Contero, Manuel; Otey, Jeffrey; Camba, Jorge D.; Agost, María-Jesús; Pérez-López, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and testing of our concept of adaptable rubrics, defined as analytical rubrics that arrange assessment criteria at multiple levels that can be expanded on demand. Because of its adaptable nature, these rubrics cannot be implemented in paper formats, neither are they supported by current Learning Management…

  16. Professional Learning Communities Assessment: Adaptation, Internal Validity, and Multidimensional Model Testing in Turkish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Selçuk; Tatik, R. Samil; Yurtseven, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to adapt and validate the Professional Learning Communities Assessment Revised (PLCA-R) by Olivier, Hipp, and Huffman within the context of Turkish schools. The instrument was translated and adapted to administer to teachers in Turkey. Internal structure of the Turkish version of PLCA-R was investigated by using…

  17. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Leisure Assessment Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz-Baz, M. Begona; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Martinez-Aguirre, M. Magdalena; Longo-Araujo-de-Melo, Egmar; Ullan-de-la-Fuente, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    "Participation"--defined as engagement in life situations, including leisure and recreational activities--is associated with the improvement of people with disabilities' quality of life. Several specific instruments assess leisure, but none of them has been adapted to the Spanish context. The goal of this study is to adapt and validate the Spanish…

  18. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-01-01

    to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics...

  19. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  20. Framework for economic pluvial flood risk assessment considering climate change effects and adaptation benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the water cycle by influencing the precipitation patterns. It is important to integrate the anticipated changes into the design of urban drainage in response to the increased risk level in cities. This paper presents a pluvial flood risk assessment framework...... to identify and assess adaptation options in the urban context. An integrated approach is adopted by incorporating climate change impact assessment, flood inundation modeling, economic tool, and risk assessment, hereby developing a step-by-step process for cost-benefit assessment of climate change adaptation...

  1. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  2. [Neural Mechanisms That Facilitate Adaptive Behavior Based on Acquired Stimulus-Outcome Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaaki

    2017-11-01

    In response to changing internal and external situations, we always need to adapt our behavior based on previous experiences, particularly, acquired stimulus-outcome information. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a prefrontal cortical region, is critical for this type of decision-making. The current understanding of the fundamental functions of the OFC has been reviewed by introducing, as an example, how the OFC contributes to the processing of uncertain rewards. Furthermore, the importance of revealing context and temporally specific causal roles of neural circuits including the OFC in decision-making, as well as the techniques to achieve the goal, have been discussed.

  3. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  4. Assessing and adapting to climate change in the Blue Mountains, Oregon (USA: Overview, biogeography, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Mountains Adaptation Partnership (BMAP was established to increase climate change awareness, assess vulnerability to climate change, and develop science-based adaptation strategies for national forest lands in the Blue Mountains region of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington (USA. The BMAP process included (1 development of a science-management partnership, (2 a vulnerability assessment of the effects of climate change on natural resources and infrastructure, (3 development of adaptation options that will help reduce negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a changing climate, and (4 ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the Blue Mountains region. This special issue of Climate Services describes social context and climate change vulnerability assessments for water use and infrastructure, vegetation, and riparian ecosystems of the Blue Mountains region, as well as adaptation options for natural resource management. This manuscript introduces the special issue, describing the management, biogeographic, and climatic context for the Blue Mountains region; the climate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation process used in BMAP; and the potential applications of the information described in the special issue. Although the institutional focus of information in the special issue is U.S. Forest Service lands (Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman National Forests, the broader social context and adaptation options should be applicable to other lands throughout this region and the Pacific Northwest. Keywords: Climate change adaptation, Pacific Northwest, Resource management, Vulnerability assessment, Blue Mountains

  5. A modified theoretical framework to assess implementation fidelity of adaptive public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dennis; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Zabala, Maríadel Carmen; Castro, Marta; Lefèvre, Pierre

    2016-07-08

    One of the major debates in implementation research turns around fidelity and adaptation. Fidelity is the degree to which an intervention is implemented as intended by its developers. It is meant to ensure that the intervention maintains its intended effects. Adaptation is the process of implementers or users bringing changes to the original design of an intervention. Depending on the nature of the modifications brought, adaptation could either be potentially positive or could carry the risk of threatening the theoretical basis of the intervention, resulting in a negative effect on expected outcomes. Adaptive interventions are those for which adaptation is allowed or even encouraged. Classical fidelity dimensions and conceptual frameworks do not address the issue of how to adapt an intervention while still maintaining its effectiveness. We support the idea that fidelity and adaptation co-exist and that adaptations can impact either positively or negatively on the intervention's effectiveness. For adaptive interventions, research should answer the question how an adequate fidelity-adaptation balance can be reached. One way to address this issue is by looking systematically at the aspects of an intervention that are being adapted. We conducted fidelity research on the implementation of an empowerment strategy for dengue prevention in Cuba. In view of the adaptive nature of the strategy, we anticipated that the classical fidelity dimensions would be of limited use for assessing adaptations. The typology we used in the assessment-implemented, not-implemented, modified, or added components of the strategy-also had limitations. It did not allow us to answer the question which of the modifications introduced in the strategy contributed to or distracted from outcomes. We confronted our empirical research with existing literature on fidelity, and as a result, considered that the framework for implementation fidelity proposed by Carroll et al. in 2007 could potentially meet

  6. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURESR. Julian PrestonEnvironmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USAThere ...

  7. Adaptive Self-Occlusion Behavior Recognition Based on pLSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition is an important area of human action recognition research. Focusing on the problem of self-occlusion in the field of human action recognition, a new adaptive occlusion state behavior recognition approach was presented based on Markov random field and probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA. Firstly, the Markov random field was used to represent the occlusion relationship between human body parts in terms an occlusion state variable by phase space obtained. Then, we proposed a hierarchical area variety model. Finally, we use the topic model of pLSA to recognize the human behavior. Experiments were performed on the KTH, Weizmann, and Humaneva dataset to test and evaluate the proposed method. The compared experiment results showed that what the proposed method can achieve was more effective than the compared methods.

  8. East Tennessee State University's "Make a Difference" Project: Using a Team-Based Consultative Model To Conduct Functional Behavioral Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kelley; Hales, Cindy; Bush, Marta; Fox, James

    1998-01-01

    Describes implementation of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) through collaboration between a university (East Tennessee State University) and the local school system. Discusses related issues such as factors in team training, team size, FBA adaptations, and replicability of the FBA team model. (Author/DB)

  9. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing climate adaptation options and uncertainties for cereal systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, K.; Sultan, B.; Biasutti, M.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The already fragile agriculture production system in West Africa faces further challenges in meeting food security in the coming decades, primarily due to a fast increasing population and risks of climate change. Successful adaptation of agriculture should not only benefit in the current climate but should also reduce negative (or enhance positive) impacts for climate change. Assessment of various possible adaptation options and their uncertainties provides key information for prioritizing adaptation investments. Here, based on the several robust aspects of climate projections in this region (i.e. temperature increases and rainfall pattern shifts), we use two well-validated crop models (i.e. APSIM and SARRA-H) and an ensemble of downscaled climate forcing to assess five possible and realistic adaptation options (late sowing, intensification, thermal time increase, water harvesting and increased resilience to heat stress) in West Africa for the staple crop production of sorghum. We adopt a new assessment framework to account for both the impacts of adaptation options in current climate and their ability to reduce impacts of future climate change, and also consider changes in both mean yield and its variability. Our results reveal that most proposed "adaptation options" are not more beneficial in the future than in the current climate, i.e. not really reduce the climate change impacts. Increased temperature resilience during grain number formation period is the main adaptation that emerges. We also find that changing from the traditional to modern cultivar, and later sowing in West Sahel appear to be robust adaptations.

  11. An Evolutionary Approach to Adaptive Capacity Assessment: A Case Study of Soufriere, Saint Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ryan Hogarth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the capacity of Soufriere, Saint Lucia to adapt to climate change. A community-based vulnerability assessment was conducted that employed semi-structured interviews with community members. The results were analysed using the Local Adaptive Capacity (LAC framework, which characterises adaptive capacity based on five elements: asset base; institutions and entitlements; knowledge and information; innovation; and flexible forward-looking decision-making and governance. Beyond providing an in-depth analysis of Soufriere’s capacity to adapt to climate change, the paper argues that the elements of the LAC framework largely correspond with an evolutionary perspective on adaptive capacity. However, other evolutionary themes—such as structure, history, path-dependency, scale, agency, conservation of diversity, and the perils of specialisation—should also be taken into account.

  12. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Halsnæs, K; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.

  13. Assessment of Behavior Management and Behavioral Interventions in State Child Welfare Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…

  14. Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans: Legal Requirements and Professional Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren W.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) are critical components in the education of students with, or at risk for, emotional disturbance (ED). The purpose of this article is to compare the legal requirements with the professional requirements for FBAs and BIPs. The comparison is first according to the…

  15. Adapting the Critical Thinking Assessment Test for Palestinian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sami; Drane, Denise; Light, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is a key learning outcome for Palestinian students. However, there are no validated critical thinking tests in Arabic. Suitability of the US developed Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT) for use in Palestine was assessed. The test was piloted with university students in English (n = 30) and 4 questions were piloted in Arabic…

  16. 9: ADAPTATION OF PREGNANCY RISK ASSESSMENT MONITORING SYSTEM (PRAMS) AND PROVIDE A MODEL ON IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaghani, Roghieh; Shariati, Mohammad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud; Moghisi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    (legal feasibility). There was no statistically significant differences in mother's participation rate between phone (90.9%) and home visit (92.8%) groups and about 90.8% of different sections of the questionnaire were completed (operational feasibility). All data collection processes took 35 days (schedule feasibility). Based on the study results, the appropriate model of surveillance system was suggested with the goals of reducing infant morbidity and mortality and promoting maternal health by influencing maternal and child health programs, and maternal behaviors during pregnancy and early infancy. Conclusion The adapted PRAMS could be considered feasible in Iran and may offer a potential solution to some data deficits in maternal and child health indicators. Moreover, by monitoring pregnancy risks and outcomes, we can assess, analyses, and modify the current prenatal care program through PRAMS widespread and periodic implementation.

  17. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  18. Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character. PMID:21874087

  19. Debris flows: behavior and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Debris flows are water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock that rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form lobate deposits when they spill onto valley floors. Because they have volumetric sediment concentrations that exceed 40 percent, maximum speeds that surpass 10 m/s, and sizes that can range up to ~109 m3, debris flows can denude slopes, bury floodplains, and devastate people and property. Computational models can accurately represent the physics of debris-flow initiation, motion and deposition by simulating evolution of flow mass and momentum while accounting for interactions of debris' solid and fluid constituents. The use of physically based models for hazard forecasting can be limited by imprecise knowledge of initial and boundary conditions and material properties, however. Therefore, empirical methods continue to play an important role in debris-flow hazard assessment.

  20. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  1. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight.

  3. Measurement Properties of Indirect Assessment Methods for Functional Behavioral Assessment: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Phaneuf, Robin L.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Indirect assessment instruments used during functional behavioral assessment, such as rating scales, interviews, and self-report instruments, represent the least intrusive techniques for acquiring information about the function of problem behavior. This article provides criteria for examining the measurement properties of these instruments…

  4. Stanovich's arguments against the "adaptive rationality" project: An assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonioli, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses Stanovich's appeal to individual differences in reasoning and decision-making to undermine the "adaptive rationality" project put forth by Gigerenzer and his co-workers. I discuss two different arguments based on Stanovich's research. First, heterogeneity in the use of heuristics seems to be at odds with the adaptationist background of the project. Second, the existence of correlations between cognitive ability and susceptibility to cognitive bias suggests that the "standard picture of rationality" (Stein, 1996, 4) is normatively adequate. I argue that, as matters stand, none of the arguments can be seen as fully compelling. Nevertheless, my discussion is not only critical of Stanovich's research, as I also show that (and how) his research can push forward the so-called "rationality debate" by encouraging greater theoretical and experimental work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing Human Judgment of Computationally Generated Swarming Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harvey

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based swarm systems, aiming to replicate the flocking behavior of birds, were first introduced by Reynolds in 1987. In his initial work, Reynolds noted that while it was difficult to quantify the dynamics of the behavior from the model, observers of his model immediately recognized them as a representation of a natural flock. Considerable analysis has been conducted since then on quantifying the dynamics of flocking/swarming behavior. However, no systematic analysis has been conducted on human identification of swarming. In this paper, we assess subjects’ assessment of the behavior of a simplified version of Reynolds’ model. Factors that affect the identification of swarming are discussed and future applications of the resulting models are proposed. Differences in decision times for swarming-related questions asked during the study indicate that different brain mechanisms may be involved in different elements of the behavior assessment task. The relatively simple but finely tunable model used in this study provides a useful methodology for assessing individual human judgment of swarming behavior.

  6. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-13

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-01

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  8. Adapting cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis for case managers: increasing access to services in a community mental health agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Vicki L; Sivec, Harry J; Munetz, Mark R; Pelton, Jeremy R; Turkington, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe the adaptation of an evidence-based practice and, (b) using a dissemination framework, to describe the process of implementing the practice at a community mental health agency. The authors describe the training concept and dissemination framework of implementing an emerging practice: high-yield cognitive behavioral techniques for psychosis, which is rooted in cognitive behavioral therapy. Thirteen case managers who represented teams from across the agency delivered the adapted practice at a community mental health agency. Implementation required buy in from all stakeholders, communication across disciplines, persistence, and flexibility. It appears that the use of a dissemination framework that is grounded in the literature, yet flexible, eases the process of implementing an adapted practice. Further research focusing on the effectiveness of this approach, along with the impact of implementing a full spectrum of cognitive behavioral therapy services for individuals with persistent psychotic symptoms, based on cognitive behavioral therapy principles, is indicated.

  9. Towards a robust methodology to assess coastal impacts and adaptation policies for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    .2 and 18.3 billion €/year by 2100 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively (values correspond to a medium ice-sheet behavior scenario). The projected Expected Annual Number of People forced to relocate because of RSLR by the year 2100 is 22,000 and 35,000 for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Finally, the expected annual number of people affected by coastal flooding in Europe is projected to increase from presently 27,000 to 67,000 and 197,000 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively by 2040, and to 81,000 and 295,000 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively by 2100. Apart from improving the impact assessment approach, the main current priority is to advance further towards the evaluation of coastal adaptation and risk reduction strategies.

  10. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We

  11. Are adaptations self-organized, autonomous, and harmonious? Assessing the social-ecological resilience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hahn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how adaptability (adaptive capacity and adaptations is constructed in the literature on resilience of social-ecological systems (SES. According to some critics, this literature views adaptability as the capacity of SES to self-organize in an autonomous harmonious consensus-building process, ignoring strategies, conflicting goals, and power issues. We assessed 183 papers, coding two dimensions of adaptability: autonomous vs. intentional and descriptive vs. normative. We found a plurality of framings, where 51% of the papers perceived adaptability as autonomous, but one-third constructed adaptability as intentional processes driven by stakeholders; where social learning and networking are often used as strategies for changing power structures and achieving sustainability transformations. For the other dimension, adaptability was used normatively in 59% of the assessed papers, but one-third used descriptive framings. We found no evidence that the SES literature in general assumes a priori that adaptations are harmonious consensus-building processes. It is, rather, conflicts that are assumed, not spelled out, and assertions of "desirable" that are often not clarified by reference to policy documents or explicit normative frameworks. We discuss alternative definitions of adaptability and transformability to clarify or avoid the notion of desirability. Complex adaptive systems framing often precludes analysis of agency, but lately self-organization and emergence have been used to study actors with intentions, strategies, and conflicting interests. Transformations and power structures are increasingly being addressed in the SES literature. We conclude that ontological clashes between social science and SES research have resulted in multiple constructive pathways.

  12. Translation and Adaptation of the Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life (ABEL Questionnaire into Persian: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Majid Oryadi-Zanjani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditory rehabilitation is one of the important tasks of speechlanguage pathologists. So, it is necessary to know auditory behaviors in order to make some decisions about the children with hearing loss such as determining the effectiveness of the current rehabilitation programs and/or devices. The Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life (ABEL questionnaire is a valid and reliable assessment tool in English which is developed by Purdy et al. (1995. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt ABEL questionnaire for Persian language. Methods: The ABEL consists of three factors of auditory-oral, auditory awareness, and conversational/social skills. First, the questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted from English to Persian by an independent Iranian translator. The back translated version was compared with the original one in terms of the semantic/idiomatic equivalence. Then the questionnaire was completed two times by 43 mothers of 4-to-6 year old children with hearing loss who were using either hearing aids or cochlear implants. Finally, the results of the test-retest reliability were statistically compared in order to assess internal consistency. The statistical tests which were used include Cronbach’s Alpha, Spearman correlation, and Pearson correlation tests in significance level of 0.05. Results: There was a significant strength correlation among the items of the factor 1 (Alpha=0.94, factor 2 (Alpha=0.86, factor 3 (Alpha=0.82 and three factors (Alpha=0.96. There was a significant strength correlation at the 0.01 level between the scores of each factor in test-retest include auditory-oral (Spearman’s rho=0.94, P<0.001, auditory awareness (Spearman’s rho=0.92, P<0.001, and conversational/social skills (Spearman’s rho=0.82, P<0.001. Conclusion: The Persian version of ABEL questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of auditory performance development in Persianspeaking children wearing hearing aids

  13. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  14. Assessing Strategies for Urban Climate Change Adaptation: The Case of Six Metropolitan Cities in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As interest in climate change adaptation grows, an increasing number of national and local governments are developing adaptation strategies. This study assesses the strategies for urban climate change adaptation of municipal governments in South Korea. The adaptation plans and budget expenditures of six metropolitan cities in South Korea were compared, based on the Implementation Plan for Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (IPCCAS 2012–2016 and annual expenditure reports of each city. The results show that the actual implementation of these adaptation programs varied vis-à-vis the original plans, in terms of the level of overall expenditure and sector-specific expenditure. The following findings were drawn from the analysis: First, in most cases, the highest adaptation priorities were disaster/infrastructure, water management, and the health sector. Second, actual expenditure on climate change adaptation programs was smaller than the planned budget in the IPCCAS. Third, the prioritized sectors matched for planning and implementation in Seoul, Daegu, Daejeon, and Incheon, but not in Busan and Ulsan. Fourth, the adaptation programs of South Korean metropolitan cities do not seem to have been well-tailored to each case.

  15. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  16. Comparing strategies to assess multiple behavior change in behavioral intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bettina F; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Sapp, Amy L; Li, Yi; Harley, Amy E; Emmons, Karen M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-03-01

    Alternatives to individual behavior change methods have been proposed, however, little has been done to investigate how these methods compare. To explore four methods that quantify change in multiple risk behaviors targeting four common behaviors. We utilized data from two cluster-randomized, multiple behavior change trials conducted in two settings: small businesses and health centers. Methods used were: (1) summative; (2) z-score; (3) optimal linear combination; and (4) impact score. In the Small Business study, methods 2 and 3 revealed similar outcomes. However, physical activity did not contribute to method 3. In the Health Centers study, similar results were found with each of the methods. Multivitamin intake contributed significantly more to each of the summary measures than other behaviors. Selection of methods to assess multiple behavior change in intervention trials must consider study design, and the targeted population when determining the appropriate method/s to use.

  17. Concentration-related metabolic rate and behavioral thermoregulatory adaptations to serial administrations of nitrous oxide in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Initial administration of ≥60% nitrous oxide (N2O) to rats evokes hypothermia, but after repeated administrations the gas instead evokes hyperthermia. This sign reversal is driven mainly by increased heat production. To determine whether rats will behaviorally oppose or assist the development of hyperthermia, we previously performed thermal gradient testing. Inhalation of N2O at ≥60% causes rats to select cooler ambient temperatures both during initial administrations and during subsequent administrations in which the hyperthermic state exists. Thus, an available behavioral response opposes (but does not completely prevent) the acquired hyperthermia that develops over repeated high-concentration N2O administrations. However, recreational and clinical uses of N2O span a wide range of concentrations. Therefore, we sought to determine the thermoregulatory adaptations to chronic N2O administration over a wide range of concentrations. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase we adapted rats to twelve 3-h N2O administrations at either 0%, 15%, 30%, 45%, 60% or 75% N2O (n = 12 per group); outcomes were core temperature (via telemetry) and heat production (via respirometry). In the second phase, we used a thermal gradient (range 8°C—38°C) to assess each adapted group’s thermal preference, core temperature and locomotion on a single occasion during N2O inhalation at the assigned concentration. Results In phase 1, repeated N2O administrations led to dose related hyperthermic and hypermetabolic states during inhalation of ≥45% N2O compared to controls (≥ 30% N2O compared to baseline). In phase 2, rats in these groups selected cooler ambient temperatures during N2O inhalation but still developed some hyperthermia. However, a concentration-related increase of locomotion was evident in the gradient, and theoretical calculations and regression analyses both suggest that locomotion contributed to the residual hyperthermia. Conclusions Acquired

  18. Clean Energy and Water : an Assessment of Services for Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to assess the potential of - and barriers to - the use of decentralized renewable energy technologies, as opposed to fossil-fuel based large-scale-systems. Independent researchers will prepare 12 case studies that will provide the basis for four reports to be presented and discussed in an expert meeting ...

  19. Intellectual, Adaptive, and Behavioral Functioning in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, HyeSeung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L.; Batshaw, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain, and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. The current study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs (33 neonatal onset, 59 late onset). Results indicate that children who present with neonatal onset have poorer outcome than those who present later in childhood. Approximately half of the children with neonatal onset performed in the range of intellectual disability (ID), including a substantial number (~30%) who were severely impaired. In comparison, only a quarter of the late onset group were in the range of ID. There is also evidence that the UCD group has difficulties in aspects of emotional/behavioral and executive skills domains. In conclusion, children with UCDs present with a wide spectrum of cognitive outcomes. Children with neonatal onset disease have a much higher likelihood of having an intellectual disability, which becomes even more evident with increasing age. However, even children with late onset UCDs demonstrate evidence of neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, particularly in aspects of attention and executive functioning. PMID:19287347

  20. Assessing confidence in management adaptation approaches for climate-sensitive ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J M; Julius, S H; Weaver, C P

    2012-01-01

    A number of options are available for adapting ecosystem management to improve resilience in the face of climatic changes. However, uncertainty exists as to the effectiveness of these options. A report prepared for the US Climate Change Science Program reviewed adaptation options for a range of federally managed systems in the United States. The report included a qualitative uncertainty analysis of conceptual approaches to adaptation derived from the review. The approaches included reducing anthropogenic stressors, protecting key ecosystem features, maintaining representation, replicating, restoring, identifying refugia and relocating organisms. The results showed that the expert teams had the greatest scientific confidence in adaptation options that reduce anthropogenic stresses. Confidence in other approaches was lower because of gaps in understanding of ecosystem function, climate change impacts on ecosystems, and management effectiveness. This letter discusses insights gained from the confidence exercise and proposes strategies for improving future assessments of confidence for management adaptations to climate change. (letter)

  1. A structured assessment of motor function, behavior, and communication in patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Heidi E; Bergsaker, David K; Hunn, Bente S; Schmidt, Susanne; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to increase the knowledge about Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), especially concerning motor function, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and adapted behavior, but also regarding clinical symptoms in general. Motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) or Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. In total, two males and eight females between one and 48 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of WHS and their parents participated in this study. Deletion sizes were known for seven of the ten patients and varied between 55 Kb and 20 Mb. The chromosome coordinates were known for six of them, and none of those had the same break points in their deletion. The main finding in this study was that patients with WHS may have a better outcome regarding motor skills and expressive communication than previously described. We could confirm the main medical findings described earlier, but found also a population with a less severe dysmorphology, fewer congenital malformations, and fewer medical challenges than expected. Sleep problems may persist into adulthood and need a more thorough investigation. Research on possible indications of ASD is strongly needed for targeted interventions. In conclusion, a more thorough assessment of communication, possible ASD, and sleep in larger groups of patients with WHS are needed to confirm and further investigate the findings from this study and to provide more targeted interventions for WHS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

  3. Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver......There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation...... to increasing urban flood risk. Assessment of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis of current risk, drivers of change of risk over time, and measures to reduce the risk. However, such studies are often associated with large uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from...

  4. The Impact of Adaptive Complex Assessment on the HOT Skill Development of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiyn, Jamal; Tilchin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for the adaptive complex assessment (ACA) of the higher-order thinking (HOT) skills needed by students for problem solving, and we examine the impact of the method on the development of HOT skills in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Complexity in the assessment is provided by initial, formative, and…

  5. Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

  6. Adapting a rapid assessment protocol to environmentally assess palm swamp (Veredas) springs in the Cerrado biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ariane; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-30

    The exploitation and degradation of natural environments exert intense pressure on important ecosystems worldwide. Thus, it is necessary developing or adapting assessment methods to monitor environmental changes and to generate results to be applied to environmental management programs. The Brazilian Veredas (phytophysiognomies typical to the Cerrado biome) are threatened by several human activities; thus, the aim of the present study is to adapt a rapid assessment protocol (RAP) to be applied to Veredas springs, by using the upper course of the Vai-e-Vem stream watershed (Ipameri County, Goiás State, Brazil). Therefore, several springs in the study site were visited and 11 of them were considered Veredas springs. After the RAP was adapted, the instrument was validated and used to environmentally assess the springs in order to demonstrate its applicability. The present study has provided an instrument of option to monitor Veredas springs.

  7. Evolution of the developmental plasticity and a coupling between left mechanosensory neuromasts and an adaptive foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vânia Filipa Lima; Macaspac, Christian; Lu, Louise; Yoshizawa, Masato

    2018-05-18

    Many animal species exhibit laterality in sensation and behavioral responses, namely, the preference for using either the left or right side of the sensory system. For example, some fish use their left eye when observing social stimuli, whereas they use their right eye to observe novel objects. However, it is largely unknown whether such laterality in sensory-behavior coupling evolves during rapid adaptation processes. Here, in the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, we investigate the laterality in the relationship between an evolved adaptive behavior, vibration attraction behavior (VAB), and its main sensors, mechanosensory neuromasts. A. mexicanus has a surface-dwelling form and cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), whereby a surface fish ancestor colonized the new environment of a cave, eventually evolving cave-type morphologies such as increased numbers of neuromasts at the cranium. These neuromasts are known to regulate VAB, and it is known that, in teleosts, the budding (increasing) process of neuromasts is accompanied with dermal bone formation. This bone formation is largely regulated by endothelin signaling. To assess the evolutionary relationship between bone formation, neuromast budding, and VAB, we treated 1-3 month old juvenile fish with endothelin receptor antagonists. This treatment significantly increased cranial neuromasts in both surface and cavefish, and the effect was significantly more pronounced in cavefish. Antagonist treatment also increased the size of dermal bones in cavefish, but neuromast enhancement was observed earlier than dermal bone formation, suggesting that endothelin signaling may independently regulate neuromast development and bone formation. In addition, although we did not detect a major change in VAB level under this antagonist treatment, cavefish did show a positive correlation of VAB with the number of neuromasts on their left side but not their right. This laterality in correlation was observed when VAB emerged during cavefish

  8. Adapting instruments and modifying statements: The confirmation method for the inventory and model for information sharing behavior using social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiny Azleen Binti Yahaya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to confirm the information sharing behavior using social media scale and to vali-date every item and make it reliable as an inventory by using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA. The researcher adapted the measuring instruments for every latent construct from the literature and customized the items to suit this particular study. The study sent the revised questionnaire to 262 respondents in order to gather the pilot study data and able to get 163 filled ones as final data. The set of questionnaires consists of 66 items that assess the 6 constructs. Data is analyzed using SPSS AMOS Version 21.0. The results show that every construct achieved its Bartletts’ Test of Spherici-ty 6.0 with the result of Information Sharing Behavior .000 and .871; Intention .000 and .782; Belief Expectancy .000 and .911; Attitude Influence .000 and .925; Readiness For Change .000 and .959; and Self-Efficacy .000 and .902. The entire item of the construct has exceeded the minimum limit of 0.7 reliability of Alpha Cronbach value to achieve the Internal Reliability. The new integrate model has been proposed due to this finding.

  9. Children with cochlear implants: cognitive skills, adaptive behaviors, social and emotional skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; D'Elia, Alessandra; Giagnotti, Francesca; Matera, Emilia; Quaranta, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine cognitive skills, adaptive behavior, social and emotional skills in deaf children with cochlear implant (CI) compared to normal hearing children. The study included twenty children affected by profound hearing loss implanted with a CI compared to 20 healthy children matched to chronological age and gender. Results of this study indicated that 55% of children with CI showed a score in the normal range of nonverbal intelligence (IQ > 84), 40% in the borderline range (71 differences were found after comparison with normal hearing children.Children with CI reported more abnormalities in emotional symptoms (p = .018) and peer problems(p = .037) than children with normal hearing. Age of CI was negatively correlated with IQ (p = .002),positively correlated with emotional symptoms (p = .04) and with peer problems (p = .02). CI has a positive effect on the lives of deaf children, especially if it is implanted in much earlier ages.

  10. Comparative ecological and behavioral adaptations of Ovibos moschatus and Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou/reindeer and muskoxen are the only two ungulate species that have successfully occupied arctic tundra habitats. Although confronted with similar environmental constraints, their morphological dissimilarities have enabled them to develop unique behavioral and ecological adaptations that under most circumstances result in minimal overlap in use of forage resources. The large body and gut capacity of muskoxen have enabled them to adopt a strategy maximizing rate of forage intake and energy conservation, whereas caribou/reindeer of substantially smaller body size must pursue selective feeding, requiring high mobility and high energy expenditure. Responses to predators and insects by the two species show similar contrasts in associated energy costs. When confronted with environmental extremes that limit forage availability, competition for food may occur and the resulting differential success is a reflection of their divergent evolutionary routes.

  11. A self-adapting herding model: The agent judge-abilities influence the dynamic behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linrong

    2008-10-01

    We propose a self-adapting herding model, in which the financial markets consist of agent clusters with different sizes and market desires. The ratio of successful exchange and merger depends on the volatility of the market and the market desires of the agent clusters. The desires are assigned in term of the wealth of the agent clusters when they merge. After an exchange, the beneficial cluster’s desire keeps on the same, the losing one’s desire is altered which is correlative with the agent judge-ability. A parameter R is given to all agents to denote the judge-ability. The numerical calculation shows that the dynamic behaviors of the market are influenced distinctly by R, which includes the exponential magnitudes of the probability distribution of sizes of the agent clusters and the volatility autocorrelation of the returns, the intensity and frequency of the volatility.

  12. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Adaptation Potential of Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesina Iryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of theoretical and methodological recommendations with respect to assessment of the adaptation potential of employees as an important prerequisite of development of employees and ensuring competitiveness of an enterprise. It contains the author’s interpretation of the adaptation potential as a possibility of adjusting to the environment with the aim of achieving socio-economic goals of an enterprise. Adaptation potential is a property of a person as a performer of labour functions and ability to master new methods of work, adjustment to new labour conditions, processing of information and also a communicative property. At the same time adaptation potential is an aggregate of motivational, professional, information and integration components of a person. For assessing the adaptation potential it is proposed to combine 360 degrees method and method of paired comparison, which facilitates increase of trustworthiness of results. The author marks out some criteria of assessment of the adaptation potential: ratio of professional experience, ratio of official experience, ratio of efficiency of work, independence in mastering new methods of work, fast adjustment to new labour conditions, ability to quickly process big volumes of information, mobility, high level of productivity under different labour conditions, sharpness of wit in different production situations, ability to form interpersonal relations in a collective and psychological features.

  13. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Hojat; Amini, Mitra; Momen Nasab, Ameneh; Malek Pour, Abdolrasoul; Jafari, Mohammad Morad

    2014-07-01

    Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual's performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7(th) year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale.  After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.83). Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57) for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD= 4.49±0.53) for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32) for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students' learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  14. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOJAT RAEE

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducrion: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale. After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83. Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57 for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD=4.49±0.53 for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32 for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  16. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  17. Cognitive Adaptations for n-person Exchange: The Evolutionary Roots of Organizational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda; Price, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are composed of stable, predominantly cooperative interactions or n-person exchanges. Humans have been engaging in n-person exchanges for a great enough period of evolutionary time that we appear to have evolved a distinct constellation of species-typical mechanisms specialized to solve the adaptive problems posed by this form of social interaction. These mechanisms appear to have been evolutionarily elaborated out of the cognitive infrastructure that initially evolved for dyadic exchange. Key adaptive problems that these mechanisms are designed to solve include coordination among individuals, and defense against exploitation by free riders. Multi-individual cooperation could not have been maintained over evolutionary time if free riders reliably benefited more than contributors to collective enterprises, and so outcompeted them. As a result, humans evolved mechanisms that implement an aversion to exploitation by free riding, and a strategy of conditional cooperation, supplemented by punitive sentiment towards free riders. Because of the design of these mechanisms, how free riding is treated is a central determinant of the survival and health of cooperative organizations. The mapping of the evolved psychology of n-party exchange cooperation may contribute to the construction of a principled theoretical foundation for the understanding of human behavior in organizations. PMID:23814325

  18. Effect of hippotherapy on motor control, adaptive behaviors, and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzenman, Heather F; Standeven, John W; Shurtleff, Tim L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether hippotherapy increased function and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesized improvements in motor control, which might increase adaptive behaviors and participation in daily activities. Six children with ASD ages 5-12 participated in 12 weekly 45-min hippotherapy sessions. Measures pre- and post-hippotherapy included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II and the Child Activity Card Sort. Motor control was measured preintervention and postintervention using a video motion capture system and force plates. Postural sway significantly decreased postintervention. Significant increases were observed in overall adaptive behaviors (receptive communication and coping) and in participation in self-care, low-demand leisure, and social interactions. These results suggest that hippotherapy has a positive influence on children with ASD and can be a useful treatment tool for this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Behavioral Assessment of the Negative Emotion Aspect of Distress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Pollert, Garrett A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Shaver, Jennifer A; Hill, Morgan A

    2017-01-01

    The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress. In a series of three studies, we found that the EIT correlated with extant behavioral measures of distress tolerance, the computerized mirror-tracing task and a physical cold pressor task. Across all of the studies, we also evaluated whether the EIT correlated with self-report measures of distress tolerance and measures of psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety, and binge eating). Implications for the refinement of the distress tolerance construct are discussed.

  20. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Countries are implementing CO 2 emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 °C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO 2 reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: ► Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. ► SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. ► SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. ► Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  1. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  2. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Villa

    Full Text Available Ecosystem Services (ES are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services, which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  3. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  4. A behavior setting assessment for community programs and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D V; Baker, F

    1991-10-01

    Using the concept of person-environment fit to determine the effectiveness of residential and program placements for chronic psychiatric clients requires systematic and concrete information about these community environments in addition to information about the clients themselves. The conceptual and empirical development of the Behavior Setting Assessment (BSA), a measure based on Barker's behavior setting theory, is described. Use of the BSA with 28 residences (117 settings) and 11 programs (176 settings) from two community support systems demonstrated that all 293 settings assessed could be described and analyzed in terms of differences in their demands for self-care skills, food preparation and consumption, verbal/cognitive responses, and solitary or group activities. The BSA is an efficient measure for obtaining specific, concrete information about the behavioral demands of important community environments.

  5. Learning assessment for students with mental and behavioral disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The session aims at presenting a learning-based model for how to conduct a comprehensive psychological evaluation of the learning resources and challenges amongst students with mental and behavioral disorders. In the learning assessment model the learning resources and challenges of the students...

  6. Personality assessment and behavioral prediction at first impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartanian, O.; Stewart, K.; Mandel, D.R.; Pavlovic, N.; McLellan, L.; Taylor, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated high levels of consensus and self-other agreement for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, the mechanisms whereby these assessments contribute to accuracy in behavioral predictions remain unclear. In this study, two judges rated targets on Big Five personality

  7. Brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to cognitive behavioral therapy for emotional disorders: A person-centered event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan; Klumpp, Heide

    2017-06-23

    Single-trial-level analyses afford the ability to link neural indices of elaborative attention (such as the late positive potential [LPP], an event-related potential) with downstream markers of attentional processing (such as reaction time [RT]). This approach can provide useful information about individual differences in information processing, such as the ability to adapt behavior based on attentional demands ("brain-behavioral adaptability"). Anxiety and depression are associated with maladaptive information processing implicating aberrant cognition-emotion interactions, but whether brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to psychotherapy is not known. We used a novel person-centered, trial-level analysis approach to link neural indices of stimulus processing to behavioral responses and to predict treatment outcome. Thirty-nine patients with anxiety and/or depression received 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Prior to treatment, patients performed a speeded reaction-time task involving briefly-presented pairs of aversive and neutral pictures while electroencephalography was recorded. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that larger LPPs predicted slower responses on subsequent trials, suggesting that increased attention to the task-irrelevant nature of pictures interfered with reaction time on subsequent trials. Whereas using LPP and RT averages did not distinguish CBT responders from nonresponders, in trial-level analyses individuals who demonstrated greater ability to benefit behaviorally (i.e., faster RT) from smaller LPPs on the previous trial (greater brain-behavioral adaptability) were more likely to respond to treatment and showed greater improvements in depressive symptoms. These results highlight the utility of trial-level analyses to elucidate variability in within-subjects, brain-behavioral attentional coupling in the context of emotion processing, in predicting response to CBT for emotional disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  8. The Assessment, Development, Assurance Pharmacist's Tool (ADAPT) for ensuring quality implementation of health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hoai-An; Taylor, Catherine R; DiPietro, Natalie A

    2012-02-10

    To develop and validate the Assessment, Development, Assurance Pharmacist's Tool (ADAPT), an instrument for pharmacists and student pharmacists to use in developing and implementing health promotion programs. The 36-item ADAPT instrument was developed using the framework of public health's 3 core functions (assessment, policy development, and assurance) and 10 essential services. The tool's content and usage was assessed and conducted through peer-review and initial validity testing processes. Over 20 faculty members, preceptors, and student pharmacists at 5 institutions involved in planning and implementing health promotion initiatives reviewed the instrument and conducted validity testing. The instrument took approximately 15 minutes to complete and the findings resulted in changes and improvements to elements of the programs evaluated. The ADAPT instrument fills a need to more effectively plan, develop, implement, and evaluate pharmacist-directed public health programs that are evidence-based, high-quality, and compliant with laws and regulations and facilitates documentation of pharmacists' contributions to public health.

  9. How assessment and reflection relate to more effective learning in adaptive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Biggs

    2011-05-01

    Two other studies in the Kruger National Park, which have examined learning specifically, are also discussed. One of them suggests that in a complex environment, learning necessarily has a dual nature, with each component of seven contrasting pairs of the aspects of learning in partial tension with the other. We use these dualities to further probe assessment, reflection, inter-relatedness and learning in the cases presented. Each contrasting aspect of a ‘learning duality’ turns out to emphasise either assessment or reflection, which reinforces the idea that both are needed to facilitate sufficient learning for successful adaptive management. We hope this analysis can act as a springboard for further study, practice and reflection on these important and often underrated components of adaptive management. Conservation implications: The better understanding of assessment and reflection as being largely separate but complementary actions will assist adaptive management practitioners to give explicit attention to both, and to relate them better to each other.

  10. Systematic, Multimethod Assessment of Adaptations Across Four Diverse Health Systems Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsika A. Rabin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany health outcomes and implementation science studies have demonstrated the importance of tailoring evidence-based care interventions to local context to improve fit. By adapting to local culture, history, resources, characteristics, and priorities, interventions are more likely to lead to improved outcomes. However, it is unclear how best to adapt evidence-based programs and promising innovations. There are few guides or examples of how to best categorize or assess health-care adaptations, and even fewer that are brief and practical for use by non-researchers.Materials and methodsThis study describes the importance and potential of assessing adaptations before, during, and after the implementation of health systems interventions. We present a promising multilevel and multimethod approach developed and being applied across four different health systems interventions. Finally, we discuss implications and opportunities for future research.ResultsThe four case studies are diverse in the conditions addressed, interventions, and implementation strategies. They include two nurse coordinator-based transition of care interventions, a data and training-driven multimodal pain management project, and a cardiovascular patient-reported outcomes project, all of which are using audit and feedback. We used the same modified adaptation framework to document changes made to the interventions and implementation strategies. To create the modified framework, we started with the adaptation and modification model developed by Stirman and colleagues and expanded it by adding concepts from the RE-AIM framework. Our assessments address the intuitive domains of Who, How, When, What, and Why to classify and organize adaptations. For each case study, we discuss how the modified framework was operationalized, the multiple methods used to collect data, results to date and approaches utilized for data analysis. These methods include a real-time tracking system and

  11. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. © 2015 Society for

  12. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  13. Adapting a reactor safety assessment system for specific plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, T.L.; Cordes, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the University of Maryland (UofM) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for use in the NRC Operations center. RSAS is designed to help the Reactor Safety Team monitor and project core status during an emergency at a licensed nuclear power plant. Analysis uses a hierarchical plant model based on equipment availability and automatically input parametric plant information. There are 3 families of designs of pressurized water reactors and 75 plants using modified versions of the basic design. In order to make an RSAS model for each power plant, a generic model for a given plant type is used with differences being specified by plant specific files. Graphical displays of this knowledge are flexible enough to handle any plant configuration. A variety of tools have been implemented to make it easy to modify a design to fit a given plant while minimizing chance for error. 3 refs., 4 figs

  14. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  15. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  16. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-01-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and

  17. Adapting to climate change. Towards a European framework for action. Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    the general objective of promoting adaptation is translated into this context to specific objectives i.e. of identifying priority adaptation measures and of defining an action plan for the next 4 years. It also establishes operational objectives corresponding to the key problems identified in the previous section. This impact assessment is of a qualitative nature. A first set of options is presented in Chapter 4, these refer to the overall adaptation approaches, for which a proportionate assessment of the economic, environmental and social impacts is conducted to allow a prioritisation of adaptation actions. A second set of options is presented in Chapter 5, which refers to the specific actions to be undertaken in the short term. These options are assessed with respect to the operational criteria defined in chapter 3, and with respect to subsidiarity, knowledge basis and resources aspects. Chapter 6 describes the monitoring and evaluation actions to be undertaken in priority, to allow a further review of the action framework with respect to the operational objectives defined in chapter 3. The analysis is based on the 2008 EEA/JRC/WHO report on Climate Change Impacts, and on a list of other reports and papers quoted in footnotes or detailed in an appendix, together with a glossary and a report providing detailed results on the public and stakeholder consultations on the Green Paper. Annex 1 provides further details on the framework for integrated assessment of adaptation policies, including recent estimates on adaptation costs from the literature. A more detailed analysis of climate change vulnerability, adaptation potential and the need for EU action is provided for environmental cross cutting issues (Annex 2) and at Sectoral or geographical level (Annex 3). Annex 4 provides an overview of National adaptation strategies. Annex 5 provides details on the concrete measures that have been screened for the short-term EU action plan. An executive summary is presented in a

  18. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  19. Multisurface Interpersonal Assessment in a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention.

  20. Sociocultural Behavior Influence Modelling & Assessment: Current Work and Research Frontiers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A common problem associated with the effort to better assess potential behaviors of various individuals within different countries is the shear difficulty in comprehending the dynamic nature of populations, particularly over time and considering feedback effects. This paper discusses a theory-based analytical capability designed to enable analysts to better assess the influence of events on individuals interacting within a country or region. These events can include changes in policy, man-made or natural disasters, migration, war, or other changes in environmental/economic conditions. In addition, this paper describes potential extensions of this type of research to enable more timely and accurate assessments.

  1. An Overview of Recent Developments in Cognitive Diagnostic Computer Adaptive Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Huebner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive diagnostic modeling has become an exciting new field of psychometric research. These models aim to diagnose examinees' mastery status of a group of discretely defined skills, or attributes, thereby providing them with detailed information regarding their specific strengths and weaknesses. Combining cognitive diagnosis with computer adaptive assessments has emerged as an important part of this new field. This article aims to provide practitioners and researchers with an introduction to and overview of recent developments in cognitive diagnostic computer adaptive assessments.

  2. INKAS – a guidance tool to assess the impact of adaptation measures against urban heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Buchholz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities are particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as heat waves, which are expected to increase in frequency, duration and intensity by the end of this century. Hence, climate adaptation in cities is necessary to improve their resilience against climate change impacts and to secure their sustainability, quality of life and economic strength. Urban planners, practitioners and decision-makers require knowledge about the effectiveness of city-scale climate adaptation measures to prioritise their options for action and to push forward the political process for the implementation of climate adaptation strategies in cities. The Deutscher Wetterdienst's new Information Portal for Climate Adaptation in Cities, INKAS, enables its users to assess and compare the quantitative effect of different adaptation measures for varying degrees of implementation. The impact of different climate adaptation measures designed to reduce summertime air temperatures in cities is systematically investigated by means of the urban climate modelling of idealised cities. INKAS is based on about 2000 urban climate simulations of various combinations of nine urban settlement types typical for Germany and of four urban surrounding countrysides. The simplified assumptions of idealised cities with typical urban settlement types simulated with the 3‑dimensional urban climate model MUKLIMO_3 increases the transferability of complex urban interrelations to local decision-makers and urban planners. Simulated adaptation measures include the use of materials with high reflectivity, the installation of green roofs and the transformation of impervious surfaces between buildings into pervious surfaces.

  3. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline eHarms

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a hunch about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower and teacher-rated academic performance (higher at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.

  4. Dermal regulatory T cells display distinct migratory behavior that is modulated during adaptive and innate inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Zachary; Mueller, Scott N; Deane, James A; Hickey, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in controlling skin inflammation, an effect dependent on their ability to home to this organ. However, little is known regarding their behavior in the skin. In this study, we used multiphoton imaging in Foxp3-GFP mice to examine the behavior of endogenous Tregs in resting and inflamed skin. Although Tregs were readily detectable in the uninflamed dermis, most were nonmotile. Induction of contact sensitivity increased the proportion of motile Tregs, and also induced Treg recruitment. This response was significantly blunted in mice challenged with an irrelevant hapten, or by inhibition of effector cell recruitment, indicating a role for T cell-dependent inflammation in induction of Treg migration. Moreover, induction of Treg migration was inhibited by local injection of a CCR4 antagonist, indicating a role for CCR4 in this response. Exposure of naive mice to hapten also induced an increase in the proportion of migratory Tregs, demonstrating that innate signals can also induce Treg migration. Simultaneous examination of the migration of CD4⁺ effector cells and Tregs in the same region of uninflamed skin demonstrated that effector cells behaved differently, being uniformly highly migratory. These findings indicate that Treg behavior in skin differs from that of CD4⁺ effector cells, in that only a low proportion of Tregs is migratory under resting conditions. However, in response to both adaptive and innate inflammation, the proportion of migratory Tregs increases, raising the possibility that this response is important in multiple forms of skin inflammation.

  5. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew, Korea, the US (Spanish, India (Malayalam and Kannada, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diane Wild,1 Tamzin Furtado,1 Mallik Angalakuditi21Oxford Outcomes, Oxford, UK; 2Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USABackground: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally.Objective: The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy.Methods: A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity.Results: A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel.Conclusion: An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation.Keywords: epilepsy, multinational studies, content validity

  6. Automated Clinical Assessment from Smart home-based Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behaviour in the home and predicting standard clinical assessment scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a Clinical Assessment using Activity Behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident’s daily behavior and predict the corresponding standard clinical assessment scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident’s daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical assessment scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years using prediction and classification-based experiments. In the prediction-based experiments, we obtain a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive assessment scores and a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. Similarly, for the classification-based experiments, we find CAAB has a classification accuracy of 72% while classifying cognitive assessment scores and 76% while classifying mobility scores. These prediction and classification results suggest that it is feasible to predict standard clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis. PMID:26292348

  7. A review: Development of a microdose model for analysis of adaptive response and bystander dose response behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2008-02-27

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type (125)I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  8. Distributed Recurrent Neural Forward Models with Synaptic Adaptation and CPG-based control for Complex Behaviors of Walking Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakyasingha eDasgupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of 1 central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, 2 distributed (at each leg recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and 3 searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to sensorimotor prediction outperforms the previous state of the art adaptive neuron

  9. Brazilian adaptation of the Hotel Task: A tool for the ecological assessment of executive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Caroline de Oliveira; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Paraná, Camila Borges; Gindri, Gigiane; de Pereira, Ana Paula Almeida; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, neuropsychological research has been increasingly concerned with the need to develop more ecologically valid instruments for the assessment of executive functions. The Hotel Task is one of the most widely used ecological measures of executive functioning, and provides an assessment of planning, organization, self-monitoring and cognitive flexibility. Objective The goal of this study was to adapt the Hotel Task for use in the Brazilian population. Methods The sample comprised 27 participants (three translators, six expert judges, seven healthy adults, ten patients with traumatic brain injuries and one hotel manager). The adaptation process consisted of five steps, which were repeated until a satisfactory version of the task was produced. The steps were as follows: (1) Translation; (2) Development of new stimuli and brainstorming among the authors; (3) Analysis by expert judges; (4) Pilot studies; (5) Assessment by an expert in business administration and hotel management. Results The adapted version proved adequate and valid for the assessment of executive functions. However, further research must be conducted to obtain evidence of the reliability, as well as the construct and criterion validity, sensitivity and specificity, of the Hotel Task. Conclusion Many neurological and/or psychiatric populations may benefit from the adapted task, since it may make significant contributions to the assessment of dysexecutive syndromes and their impact on patient functioning. PMID:29213957

  10. Brazilian adaptation of the Hotel Task: A tool for the ecological assessment of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Caroline de Oliveira; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Paraná, Camila Borges; Gindri, Gigiane; de Pereira, Ana Paula Almeida; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, neuropsychological research has been increasingly concerned with the need to develop more ecologically valid instruments for the assessment of executive functions. The Hotel Task is one of the most widely used ecological measures of executive functioning, and provides an assessment of planning, organization, self-monitoring and cognitive flexibility. The goal of this study was to adapt the Hotel Task for use in the Brazilian population. The sample comprised 27 participants (three translators, six expert judges, seven healthy adults, ten patients with traumatic brain injuries and one hotel manager). The adaptation process consisted of five steps, which were repeated until a satisfactory version of the task was produced. The steps were as follows:(1) Translation;(2) Development of new stimuli and brainstorming among the authors;(3) Analysis by expert judges;(4) Pilot studies;(5) Assessment by an expert in business administration and hotel management. The adapted version proved adequate and valid for the assessment of executive functions. However, further research must be conducted to obtain evidence of the reliability, as well as the construct and criterion validity, sensitivity and specificity, of the Hotel Task. Many neurological and/or psychiatric populations may benefit from the adapted task, since it may make significant contributions to the assessment of dysexecutive syndromes and their impact on patient functioning.

  11. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    killifish, and that locomotor alterations could be observed in early larval stages. Additionally, our study highlights the resistance to behavioral alterations caused by low-level PAH mixture exposure in the adapted killifish population. Furthermore, this is the first longitudinal behavioral study to use killifish, an environmentally important estuarine teleost fish, and this testing framework can be used for future contaminant assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans - Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    gender sub-analyses. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Borderline Personality Disorder , SUICIDE 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...this will be to identify symptoms associated with suicidal behavior that may advise future treatment. We will assess symptom domains including mood ...extend beyond personality disorder diagnosis. Thirty suicide attempters with BPD (SABPD+) will be compared with 30 suicide attempters without BPD

  13. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  14. Turning risk assessment and adaptation policy priorities into meaningful interventions and governance processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn; DiMauro, Manuela; Johns, Daniel; Holmes, Gemma; Thompson, David; Russell, Andrew; Style, David

    2018-06-01

    The UK is one of the first countries in the world to have set up a statutory system of national climate risk assessments followed by a national adaptation programme. Having this legal framework has been essential for enabling adaptation at the government level in a challenging political environment. However, using this framework to create an improvement in resilience to climate change across the country requires more than publishing a set of documents; it requires careful thought about what interventions work, how they can be enabled and what level of risk acceptability individuals, organizations and the country should be aiming for. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  15. Examining the specific effects of context on adaptive behavior and achievement in a rural African community: six case studies from rural areas of Southern province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-02-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn. AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, SD = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes.

  16. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  17. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  19. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  20. Improving the role of vulnerability assessments In decision support for effective climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Constance I. Millar

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments (VA) have been proposed as an initial step in a process to develop and implement adaptation management for climate change in forest ecosystems. Scientific understanding of the effects of climate change is an ever-accumulating knowledge base. Synthesizing information from this knowledge base in the context of our understanding of ecosystem...

  1. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessments for Use in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Gómez Soler, Inmaculada; Dell'Aquilla, Julia; Uribe, Patricia Martinez

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a 6-step process for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of counseling assessments from source document into a target language. An illustrative example is provided using the Brief Resilience Scale (Smith et al., 2008) and considerations for counseling researchers are discussed.

  2. Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation to climate change in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the thesis allowed assessing plausible futures of agriculture in Flevoland around 2050 with insights in effective adaptation to climate change at different levels. Besides empirical findings, this thesis contributed methodologically to the portfolio of climate change impact and

  3. Beyond Vulnerability Assessment: Impact of Developments toward Local Adaptive Capacity in Kemijen City Village, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanimitta, M. E.; Puspasari, D. A.; Widyahantari, R.; Kristina, D.; Ratnaningtyas, T.; Setionurjaya, A.; Anindita, Y. A.

    2018-02-01

    Vulnerability Assessment is usually used for assessing the ability of an area on facing disaster. In previous studies, the study of Vulnerability Assessment applied only quantitative method to show the vulnerability level. Therefore, this study attempts to add information reviews using qualitative method. Kemijen City Village is one of the administrative areas in the northern part of Semarang City affected by climate change. The residents have to adapt it by renovating and elevating their houses and other infrastructures to avoid floods. There are some development programs held by government, NGOs, and corporations such as Banger Polder Development, PLPBK, etc. It is interesting to know how big the vulnerability level of Kemijen on facing flood disasters, then how the projects can affect local adaptive capacity. To answer it, this research uses mixed-method approach. Vulnerability Assessment uses quantitative method by scoring indicators of Exposure, Sensitivity, and Adaptive Capacity, while the development impact uses qualitative method. The data were collected through interviews and FGD conducted in Joint Studio Course between Diponegoro University and University of Hawaii in October 2016. Non-physical programs such as community empowerment have more positive impacts on local adaptive capacity in Kemijen. Community participation is important for environmental sustainability that can not be done in a short time to educate the people.

  4. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine...

  5. Translation and adaptation of a questionnaire to assess the group processes of rehabilitation team conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, E.E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bouter, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the internal consistency, the domain structure and the influence of social desirability with regard to a questionnaire translated and adapted to assess the quality of rehabilitation team conferences in the Netherlands. Study design: A questionnaire to determine group

  6. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Developmental Assessment for Arabic-Speaking Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrine, Sheila L.; Heji, Hayat; Sabri, Amel; Dalton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Developmental screening has become an established component of child health programs in many developed countries. The research objective of this project was to translate and adapt a developmental assessment (Oregon Project Skills Inventory) for use with young children with visual impairments who speak Arabic. The study was prompted by the lack of…

  7. Systematic adaptive cluster sampling for the assessment of rare tree species in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, B.; Bhattarai, G.; Gier, de A.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    Sampling to assess rare tree species poses methodic problems, because they may cluster and many plots with no such trees are to be expected. We used systematic adaptive cluster sampling (SACS) to sample three rare tree species in a forest area of about 40 ha in Nepal. We checked its applicability

  8. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  9. A critical assessment of adaptive ecosystem management in a large savanna protected area in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses five inter-related topics (the management of rivers, fire regimes, invasive alien species, rare antelope and elephants) to assess 15 years of adaptive management in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. The importance...

  10. The Use of a Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Self Management Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Saleem A.; Fore, Cecil, III; Jones, Arthur; Smith, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The research literature on the use of Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) to develop Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) for students with emotional/behavioral disorders, who present problem classroom behaviors for use in the schools, is well documented. There are school-wide, district-wide, and state-wide plans that are currently being…

  11. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  12. Employee recruitment: using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K

    2007-01-01

    The labor shortage of skilled health care professionals continues to make employee recruitment and retention a challenge for health care managers. Greater accountability is being placed on health care managers to retain their employees. The urgency to retain health care professionals is largely an issue that should be considered during the initial recruitment of potential employees. Health care managers should analyze candidates rigorously to ensure that appropriate hiring decisions are made. Behavioral assessments can be used as a useful employee selection tool to assist managers in the appropriate placement and training of potential new employees. When administered appropriately, these tools can provide managers with a variety of useful information. This information can assist health care managers in demystifying the hiring process. Although there are varying organizational concerns to address when using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool, the potential return on investment is worth the effort.

  13. Cultural adaptation of a pediatric functional assessment for rehabilitation outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arestad, Kristen E; MacPhee, David; Lim, Chun Y; Khetani, Mary A

    2017-09-15

    Significant racial and ethnic health care disparities experienced by Hispanic children with special health care needs (CSHCN) create barriers to enacting culturally competent rehabilitation services. One way to minimize the impact of disparities in rehabilitation is to equip practitioners with culturally relevant functional assessments to accurately determine service needs. Current approaches to culturally adapting assessments have three major limitations: use of inconsistent translation processes; current processes assess for some, but not all, elements of cultural equivalence; and limited evidence to guide decision making about whether to undertake cultural adaptation with and without language translation. The aims of this observational study are (a) to examine similarities and differences of culturally adapting a pediatric functional assessment with and without language translation, and (b) to examine the feasibility of cultural adaptation processes. The Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM), a pediatric functional assessment, underwent cultural adaptation (i.e., language translation and cognitive testing) to establish Spanish and English pilot versions for use by caregivers of young CSHCN of Mexican descent. Following language translation to develop a Spanish YC-PEM pilot version, 7 caregivers (4 Spanish-speaking; 3 English-speaking) completed cognitive testing to inform decisions regarding content revisions to English and Spanish YC-PEM versions. Participant responses were content coded to established cultural equivalencies. Coded data were summed to draw comparisons on the number of revisions needed to achieve cultural equivalence between the two versions. Feasibility was assessed according to process data and data quality. Results suggest more revisions are required to achieve cultural equivalence for the translated (Spanish) version of the YC-PEM. However, issues around how the participation outcome is conceptualized were

  14. Cephalopods as Predators: A Short Journey among Behavioral Flexibilities, Adaptions, and Feeding Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Villanueva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of cephalopod species and the differences in morphology and the habitats in which they live, illustrates the ability of this class of molluscs to adapt to all marine environments, demonstrating a wide spectrum of patterns to search, detect, select, capture, handle, and kill prey. Photo-, mechano-, and chemoreceptors provide tools for the acquisition of information about their potential preys. The use of vision to detect prey and high attack speed seem to be a predominant pattern in cephalopod species distributed in the photic zone, whereas in the deep-sea, the development of mechanoreceptor structures and the presence of long and filamentous arms are more abundant. Ambushing, luring, stalking and pursuit, speculative hunting and hunting in disguise, among others are known modes of hunting in cephalopods. Cannibalism and scavenger behavior is also known for some species and the development of current culture techniques offer evidence of their ability to feed on inert and artificial foods. Feeding requirements and prey choice change throughout development and in some species, strong ontogenetic changes in body form seem associated with changes in their diet and feeding strategies, although this is poorly understood in planktonic and larval stages. Feeding behavior is altered during senescence and particularly in brooding octopus females. Cephalopods are able to feed from a variety of food sources, from detritus to birds. Their particular requirements of lipids and copper may help to explain why marine crustaceans, rich in these components, are common prey in all cephalopod diets. The expected variation in climate change and ocean acidification and their effects on chemoreception and prey detection capacities in cephalopods are unknown and needs future research.

  15. Cephalopods as Predators: A Short Journey among Behavioral Flexibilities, Adaptions, and Feeding Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Roger; Perricone, Valentina; Fiorito, Graziano

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of cephalopod species and the differences in morphology and the habitats in which they live, illustrates the ability of this class of molluscs to adapt to all marine environments, demonstrating a wide spectrum of patterns to search, detect, select, capture, handle, and kill prey. Photo-, mechano-, and chemoreceptors provide tools for the acquisition of information about their potential preys. The use of vision to detect prey and high attack speed seem to be a predominant pattern in cephalopod species distributed in the photic zone, whereas in the deep-sea, the development of mechanoreceptor structures and the presence of long and filamentous arms are more abundant. Ambushing, luring, stalking and pursuit, speculative hunting and hunting in disguise, among others are known modes of hunting in cephalopods. Cannibalism and scavenger behavior is also known for some species and the development of current culture techniques offer evidence of their ability to feed on inert and artificial foods. Feeding requirements and prey choice change throughout development and in some species, strong ontogenetic changes in body form seem associated with changes in their diet and feeding strategies, although this is poorly understood in planktonic and larval stages. Feeding behavior is altered during senescence and particularly in brooding octopus females. Cephalopods are able to feed from a variety of food sources, from detritus to birds. Their particular requirements of lipids and copper may help to explain why marine crustaceans, rich in these components, are common prey in all cephalopod diets. The expected variation in climate change and ocean acidification and their effects on chemoreception and prey detection capacities in cephalopods are unknown and needs future research.

  16. Adaptive and Behavioral Changes in Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Knockout Mice: Relevance to Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Sophie; Pocivavsek, Ana; Repici, Mariaelena; Liu, Xi-Cong; Imbeault, Sophie; Maddison, Daniel C; Thomas, Marian A R; Smalley, Joshua L; Larsson, Markus K; Muchowski, Paul J; Giorgini, Flaviano; Schwarcz, Robert

    2017-11-15

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated adaptive-and possibly regulatory-changes in mice with a targeted deletion of Kmo (Kmo -/- ) and characterized the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase-deficient mice using six behavioral assays relevant for the study of schizophrenia. Genome-wide differential gene expression analyses in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of these mice identified a network of schizophrenia- and psychosis-related genes, with more pronounced alterations in cerebellar tissue. Kynurenic acid levels were also increased in these brain regions in Kmo -/- mice, with significantly higher levels in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. Kmo -/- mice exhibited impairments in contextual memory and spent less time than did controls interacting with an unfamiliar mouse in a social interaction paradigm. The mutant animals displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and in a light/dark box. After a D-amphetamine challenge (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), Kmo -/- mice showed potentiated horizontal activity in the open field paradigm. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the elimination of Kmo in mice is associated with multiple gene and functional alterations that appear to duplicate aspects of the psychopathology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Database support for adaptation to climate change: An assessment of web-based portals across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Hilden, Mikael; Russel, Duncan; Dessai, Suraje

    2016-10-01

    The widely recognized increase in greenhouse gas emissions is necessitating adaptation to a changing climate, and policies are being developed and implemented worldwide, across sectors, and between government scales globally. The aim of this article is to reflect on one of the major challenges: facilitating and sharing information on the next adaptation practices. Web portals (i.e., web sites) for disseminating information are important tools in meeting this challenge, and therefore, we assessed the characteristics of select major portals across multiple scales. We found that there is a rather limited number of case studies available in the portals-between 900 and 1000 in total-with 95 that include cost information and 195 that include the participation of stakeholders globally. Portals are rarely cited by researchers, suggesting a suboptimal connection between the practical, policy-related, and scientific development of adaptation. The government portals often lack links on search results between US and European Union (EU) web sites, for example. With significant investments and policy development emerging in both the United States and the European Union, there is great potential to share information via portals. Moreover, there is the possibility of better connecting the practical adaptation experience from bottom-up projects to the science of adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:627-631. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

  19. Enhancing Brigade Combat Team Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Developing Learning Infrastructures (Training, Education , Practice, Research, Doctrine) -Create a shared vision -Build the business case (assess/Buy...To effectively respond to the characteristics of the operational environment, Brigade Combat Teams must be able to learn constantly from experience...behavior. Organizational adaptive behavior consists of three supporting emergent behaviors which are: self-organization, learning , and organizational

  20. Assessment of vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change and adaptation planning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M. A.; Chitale, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding ecosystem level vulnerability of forests and dependence of local communities on these ecosystems is a first step towards developing effective adaptation strategies. As forests are important components of livelihoods system for a large percentage of the population in the Himalayan region, they offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities. Increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of drought and heat stress, changes in winter ecology, and pest and fire outbreaksunder climate change scenarios could fundamentally alter the composition, productivity and biogeography of forests affecting the potential ecosystem services offered and forest-based livelihoods. Hence, forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and the development of a knowledgebase to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is identified as an urgent need. Climate change vulnerability is measured as a function of exposure, sensitivity and the adaptive capacity of the system towards climate variability and extreme events. Effective adaptation to climate change depends on the availability of two important prerequisites: a) information on what, where, and how to adapt, and b) availability of resources to implement the adaptation measures. In the present study, we introduce the concept of two way multitier approach, which can support effective identification and implementation of adaptation measures in Nepal and the framework can be replicated in other countries in the HKH region. The assessment of overall vulnerability of forests comprises of two components: 1) understanding the relationship between exposure and sensitivity and positive feedback from adaptive capacity of forests; 2) quantifying the dependence of local communities on these ecosystems. We use climate datasets from Bioclim and biophysical products from MODIS, alongwith field datasets. We report that most of the forests along the high altitude areas and few

  1. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Bricard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  2. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane; Khlat, Myriam

    2017-06-07

    The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation) and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP) survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  3. Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

    Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

  4. Gender role behavior, sexuality, and psychosocial adaptation in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to CYP21A2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisén, Louise; Nordenström, Anna; Falhammar, Henrik; Filipsson, Helena; Holmdahl, Gundela; Janson, Per Olof; Thorén, Marja; Hagenfeldt, Kerstin; Möller, Anders; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2009-09-01

    Gender-atypical behavior has been described in young girls as well as in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to a CYP21A2 deficiency. The aim of the study was to assess health-related, psychosexual, and psychosocial parameters and correlate the results to CYP21A2 genotype. Sixty-two Swedish women with CAH and age-matched controls completed a 120-item questionnaire and a validated quality of life instrument [psychological general well-being (PGWB) formula] to identify psychosexual and psychosocial parameters. The patients were divided into four CYP21A2 genotype groups. The women with CAH held more male-dominant occupations (30%) compared to controls (13%) (P = 0.04), especially those in the null genotype group (55%) (P = 0.006). They also reported a greater interest in rough sports (74%) compared to controls (50%) (P = 0.007). Eight women with CAH (14%) reported a prime interest in motor vehicles, compared to none of the controls (P = 0.002). Non-heterosexual orientation was reported by 19% of women with CAH (P = 0.005), 50% in the null genotype group (P = 0.0001), 30% in I2 splice (NS), and 5% in I172N (NS). PGWB total score did not differ between patients and controls. We identified increased gender-atypical behavior in women with CAH that could be correlated to the CYP21A2 genotype. This speaks in favor of dose-dependent effects of prenatal androgens on the development of higher brain functions. The impact of the disease on upbringing and interpersonal relationships did not correlate with disease severity, indicating that other factors, such as coping strategies, are important for psychosocial adaptation. This illustrates the need for psychological support to parents and patients.

  5. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is why active learning is such an effective instructional tool and the limits of this instructional method’s ability to influence performance. This dissertation builds a case in three steps for why active learning is an effective instructional tool. In step one, I assessed the influence of different types of active learning (clickers, group activities, and whole class discussions) on student engagement behavior in one semester of two different introductory biology courses and found that active learning positively influenced student engagement behavior significantly more than lecture. For step two, I examined over four semesters whether student engagement behavior was a predictor of performance and found participation (engagement behavior) in the online (video watching) and in-class course activities (clicker participation) that I measure were significant predictors of performance. In the third, I assessed whether certain active learning satisfied the psychological needs that lead to students’ intrinsic motivation to participate in those activities when compared over two semesters and across two different institutions of higher learning. Findings from this last step show us that student’s perceptions of autonomy, competency, and relatedness in doing various types of active learning are significantly higher than lecture and consistent across two institutions of higher learning. Lastly, I tie everything together, discuss implications of the research, and address future directions for research on biology student motivation and behavior.

  6. [Behavioral types in relation to burnout, mobbing, personality, and adaptation of self-conduct in health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Fernández, Julián Manuel; Padilla Segura, Inés; Domínguez Fernández, Javier; Domínguez Padilla, María

    2013-04-01

    To define the different patterns of behavior among workers in health care in Ceuta. Cross-sectional and descriptive. SITES AND PARTICIPANTS: 200 randomly selected workers in the Ceuta Health Care Area using a stratified sampling of workplace, job and sex. The instruments used were the MBI, the LIPT by Leymann, a reduced version of the Pinillos CEP, Musitu self concept and adaptation behavior, all adapted in the context of occupational health examinations. Principal components analysis allowed us to define 5 components, one strictly related to the scale of mobbing with 85% of weight; another for burnout with 70% weight; a third to adaptation and family satisfaction with a weight of 64%; a fourth with adaptation, control, emotional self, professional achievement and occupational self-weight of 52%; and a fifth component defined by social evaluations in the levels of extraversion and social adjustment with 73%. Highlights five different behavioral characteristics peculiar interest for clinical work are highlighted: burnout, mobbing, family work satisfaction; individual occupational and sociable satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. The German Adaptation and Standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julia A; Engel, Rolf R

    2007-02-01

    We developed the German Adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) under careful consideration of current adaptation literature and guidelines. The adaptation process included the translation of the 344 items into German, a back translation into English as well as the testing of the language equivalence using a bilingual sample. We then standardized the final German version of the PAI for the German population. We compared the American and German norm and reliability data. The observed differences in PAI scale means did not exceed 5 T scores. Internal consistency reliability showed a similar pattern in both language versions, although the German alpha coefficients were on average slightly lower than the American ones. Factor structure was similar in both versions. We discuss expectations about the German PAI and possible problems for its practical usefulness for the German-speaking population.

  8. Adapting crop rotations to climate change in regional impact modelling assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Edmar I; de Ruiter, John; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle; Daigneault, Adam; Johnstone, Paul; Holmes, Allister; Tait, Andrew; Ewert, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The environmental and economic sustainability of future cropping systems depends on adaptation to climate change. Adaptation studies commonly rely on agricultural systems models to integrate multiple components of production systems such as crops, weather, soil and farmers' management decisions. Previous adaptation studies have mostly focused on isolated monocultures. However, in many agricultural regions worldwide, multi-crop rotations better represent local production systems. It is unclear how adaptation interventions influence crops grown in sequences. We develop a catchment-scale assessment to investigate the effects of tactical adaptations (choice of genotype and sowing date) on yield and underlying crop-soil factors of rotations. Based on locally surveyed data, a silage-maize followed by catch-crop-wheat rotation was simulated with the APSIM model for the RCP 8.5 emission scenario, two time periods (1985-2004 and 2080-2100) and six climate models across the Kaituna catchment in New Zealand. Results showed that direction and magnitude of climate change impacts, and the response to adaptation, varied spatially and were affected by rotation carryover effects due to agronomical (e.g. timing of sowing and harvesting) and soil (e.g. residual nitrogen, N) aspects. For example, by adapting maize to early-sowing dates under a warmer climate, there was an advance in catch crop establishment which enhanced residual soil N uptake. This dynamics, however, differed with local environment and choice of short- or long-cycle maize genotypes. Adaptation was insufficient to neutralize rotation yield losses in lowlands but consistently enhanced yield gains in highlands, where other constraints limited arable cropping. The positive responses to adaptation were mainly due to increases in solar radiation interception across the entire growth season. These results provide deeper insights on the dynamics of climate change impacts for crop rotation systems. Such knowledge can be used

  9. Ecological momentary assessment in a behavioral drinking moderation training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R L; Morsheimer, E T; Shiffman, S; Paty, J A; Gnys, M; Papandonatos, G D

    1998-08-01

    We assessed predictors of self-reported excessive drinking (> 5 drinks) in a sample of heavy drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to moderation training or a waiting-list control condition. They were trained in ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-monitoring of drinking and other variables on a small hand-held computer, the electronic diary (ED). During the 8-week study, participants were compliant in their use of the ED for both random prompts and the entry of data related to specific drinking episodes. Generalized estimating equations were used to fit models involving predictors related to past history of drinking, aspects of the training program, drinking restraint, and episode-specific mood. The models indicated robust predictors of decreased and increased drinking. Our results suggest that EMA is a useful methodology for assessing drinking and related behaviors.

  10. Effectiveness of Adaptive E-Learning Environments on Knowledge, Competence, and Behavior in Health Professionals and Students: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Guillaume; Cossette, Sylvie; Maheu-Cadotte, Marc-André; Mailhot, Tanya; Deschênes, Marie-France; Mathieu-Dupuis, Gabrielle

    2017-07-05

    Adaptive e-learning environments (AEEs) can provide tailored instruction by adapting content, navigation, presentation, multimedia, and tools to each user's navigation behavior, individual objectives, knowledge, and preferences. AEEs can have various levels of complexity, ranging from systems using a simple adaptive functionality to systems using artificial intelligence. While AEEs are promising, their effectiveness for the education of health professionals and health professions students remains unclear. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of AEEs in improving knowledge, competence, and behavior in health professionals and students. We will follow the Cochrane Collaboration and the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group guidelines on systematic review methodology. A systematic search of the literature will be conducted in 6 bibliographic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science) using the concepts "adaptive e-learning environments," "health professionals/students," and "effects on knowledge/skills/behavior." We will include randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, in addition to controlled before-after, interrupted time series, and repeated measures studies published between 2005 and 2017. The title and the abstract of each study followed by a full-text assessment of potentially eligible studies will be independently screened by 2 review authors. Using the EPOC extraction form, 1 review author will conduct data extraction and a second author will validate the data extraction. The methodological quality of included studies will be independently assessed by 2 review authors using the EPOC risk of bias criteria. Included studies will be synthesized by a descriptive analysis. Where appropriate, data will be pooled using meta-analysis by applying the RevMan software version 5.1, considering the heterogeneity of studies. The review is in progress. We plan to submit the results in the

  11. Eating habits and psychopathology: translation, adaptation, reliability of the Nutrition Behavior Inventory to Portuguese and relation to psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Roberta Benko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Nutrition-Behavior Inventory (NBI is a self-administered instrument that allows eating habits to be correlated with psychopathological symptoms. The objective was to translate and adapt the NBI to Portuguese, and test the Portuguese NBI’s reliability. The second aim was to verify its sensitivity for identification of risk factors in terms of behavior/eating habits in children and adolescents. Methods: The NBI was translated, adapted, and back-translated. The Portuguese version of the NBI was then applied (N = 96; 9-12 years. In order to verify the internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha was used. The psychopathological indicators of the participants were accessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. The mean CBCL scores were analyzed in relation to the NBI data (cutoff point: ≥ 30 with indicators, and 30 on the following: anxiety and depression (p = 0.041, social difficulties (p = 0.028, attention problems (p = 0.001, aggressive behavior (p = 0.015; ADHD (p < 0.001, and conduct problems (p = 0.032. Conclusion: The present results indicate that the NBI is a reliable instrument. The NBI can be useful for evaluating psychopathological symptoms related to the eating habits and behaviors of children and adolescents.

  12. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: A Computer Avatar Task Designed to Assess Behavioral Inhibition Extends to Harm Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI, a temperamental tendency for avoidance in the face of unfamiliar situations, have been identified as risk factors for anxiety disorders. Personality factors are generally identified through self-report inventories. However, this tendency to avoid may affect the accuracy of these self-report inventories. Previously, a computer based task was developed in which the participant guides an on-screen “avatar” through a series of onscreen events; performance on the task could accurately predict participants’ BI, measured by a standard paper and pencil questionnaire (Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition, or AMBI. Here, we sought to replicate this finding as well as compare performance on the avatar task to another measure related to BI, the harm avoidance (HA scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. The TPQ includes HA scales as well as scales assessing reward dependence (RD, novelty seeking (NS and persistence. One hundred and one undergraduates voluntarily completed the avatar task and the paper and pencil inventories in a counter-balanced order. Scores on the avatar task were strongly correlated with BI assessed via the AMBI questionnaire, which replicates prior findings. Females exhibited higher HA scores than males, but did not differ on scores on the avatar task. There was a strong positive relationship between scores on the avatar task and HA scores. One aspect of HA, fear of uncertainty was found to moderately mediate the relationship between AMBI scores and avatar scores. NS had a strong negative relationship with scores on the avatar task, but there was no significant relationship between RD and scores on the avatar task. These findings indicate the effectiveness of the avatar task as a behavioral alternative to self-report measures to assess avoidance. In addition, the use of computer based behavioral tasks are a viable alternative to paper and pencil self

  13. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. (Tom Raadgever

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  14. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustainable Building Assessment of Colonial Shophouses after Adaptive Reuse in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam M. Al-Obaidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kuala Lumpur, as a major capital city, has undergone a drastic transformation in the past ten years. Many heritage buildings have been sacrificed for urban renewal projects. Those located in the touristic heritage zones within Kuala Lumpur were being converted by their owners into hotels and cafés to meet current demands to sustain their incomes. This approach, however, creates several physical and environmental issues within the new adaptation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the building performance of heritage shophouses that were adapted into budget hotels. The research focuses on two case studies in a strategic and historical location of Jalan Sultan, Kuala Lumpur. At the initial stage, interviews and physical surveys were done to determine the context of this study. The authors of this research then used a triangulation method through indoor environmental condition assessment, measurements of indoor environmental conditions and occupant survey to determine the indoor building performance after the adaption. Results showed that adaptive reuse heritage buildings can perform and meet new indoor environmental requirements, but many sensitive design judgments need to be made before the adaptive reuse renovation. The research found that the use of natural light, natural ventilation, recycled materials and water efficiency have been neglected and thus, they should be prioritized and preserved to ensure a successful change of use. Conserving existing heritage buildings, while incorporating new usages with acceptable comfort, is in line with the principle of sustainability.

  16. Measuring patient-provider communication skills in Rwanda: Selection, adaptation and assessment of psychometric properties of the Communication Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaka, Vincent Kalumire; Schriver, Michael; Vedsted, Peter; Makoul, Gregory; Kallestrup, Per

    2018-04-23

    To identify, adapt and validate a measure for providers' communication and interpersonal skills in Rwanda. After selection, translation and piloting of the measure, structural validity, test-retest reliability, and differential item functioning were assessed. Identification and adaptation: The 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) was selected and adapted. Content validation found all items highly relevant in the local context except two, which were retained upon understanding the reasoning applied by patients. Eleven providers and 291 patients were involved in the field-testing. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit for the original one factor model. Test-retest reliability assessment revealed a mean quadratic weighted Kappa = 0.81 (range: 0.69-0.89, N = 57). The average proportion of excellent scores was 15.7% (SD: 24.7, range: 9.9-21.8%, N = 180). Differential item functioning was not observed except for item 1, which focuses on greetings, for age groups (p = 0.02, N = 180). The Kinyarwanda version of CAT (K-CAT) is a reliable and valid patient-reported measure of providers' communication and interpersonal skills. K-CAT was validated on nurses and its use on other types of providers may require further validation. K-CAT is expected to be a valuable feedback tool for providers in practice and in training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M S; Podesta, G; Fazey, I; Geeson, N; Hessel, R; Hubacek, K; Letson, D; Nainggolan, D; Prell, C; Rickenbach, M G; Ritsema, C; Schwilch, G; Stringer, L C; Thomas, A D

    2013-10-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.

  18. Investigations on GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling in stress and stress adaptive behavior in electric foot shock subjected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of GSK-3β and NF-kB signaling in electric foot shock-induced stress and stress adaptation. Mice were subjected to foot shocks of 0.5mA intensity and 1s duration of 1h to produce acute stress. Animals were exposed to the same stressor for 5 days to induce stress adaptation. The behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were assessed as a marker of the HPA axis. The levels of total GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB were determined in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. Acute electric foot shock stress produced behavioral and biochemical changes; decreased the levels of p-GSK-3β-S9, produced no change in total GSK-3β levels and increased p-NF-kB levels in the brain. However, repeated exposure of foot shock stress restored the behavioral and biochemical changes along with normalization of p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels. Administration of AR-A01, a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDTC), a selective NF-kB inhibitor, diminished acute stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Furthermore, AR-A014418 normalized acute stress-induced alterations in p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels, however, DDTC selectively restored NF-kB levels without any change in p-GSK-3β-S9 levels. It probably suggests that NF-kB is a downstream mediator of the GSK-3 signaling cascade. It may conclude that acute stress associated decrease in p-GSK-3β-S9 and increase in p-NF-kB levels in the brain contribute in the development of behavioral and biochemical alterations and normalization of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling may contribute in stress adaptive behavior in response to repeated electric foot shock-subjected mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders adapted for a group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Stephanie; Byrne, Sue; Allen, Karina

    2017-08-01

    This randomized control trial is an evaluation of the effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT-E) for eating disorders adapted for a group setting. The study aimed to examine the effects of group CBT-E on eating disorder psychopathology and additional maintaining pathology. A transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders with a BMI ≥ 18 kg/m 2 (N = 40) were randomized to an immediate-start or delayed-start condition so as to compare therapeutic effects of group CBT-E with a waitlist control. Global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) scores, BMI, and measures of Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were measured across the 8-week control period, throughout the group treatment and at 3-months post-treatment. Over 70% of those who entered the trial completed treatment. The first eight weeks of group CBT-E were more effective at reducing Global EDE-Q scores than no treatment (waitlist control). By post-treatment, good outcome (a Global EDE-Q within 1 SD of Australian community norms plus BMI ≥ 18.5) was achieved by 67.9% of treatment completers and 66.7% of the total sample. Symptom abstinence within the previous month was reported by 14.3% of treatment completers and 10.3% of the total sample. Significant reductions in Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were also observed. This study demonstrated that a group version of CBT-E can be effective at reducing eating disorder psychopathology in a transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders. Group CBT-E could provide a means of increasing availability of evidence-based treatment for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  1. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German S Fox-Rabinovich, Kenji Yamamoto, Ben D Beake, Iosif S Gershman, Anatoly I Kovalev, Stephen C Veldhuis, Myram H Aguirre, Goulnara Dosbaeva and Jose L Endrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality

  2. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  3. Life cycle assessment of stormwater management in the context of climate change adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Expected increases in pluvial flooding, due to climatic changes, require large investments in the retrofitting of cities to keep damage at an acceptable level. Many cities have investigated the possibility of implementing stormwater management (SWM) systems which are multi-functional and consist...... of different elements interacting to achieve desired safety levels. Typically, an economic assessment is carried out in the planning phase, while environmental sustainability is given little or no attention. In this paper, life cycle assessment is used to quantify environmental impacts of climate change...... adaptation strategies. The approach is tested using a climate change adaptation strategy for a catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark. A stormwater management system, using green infrastructure and local retention measures in combination with planned routing of stormwater on the surfaces to manage runoff...

  4. Advancing national climate change risk assessment to deliver national adaptation plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R. F.; Wilby, R. L.; Brown, K.; Watkiss, P.; Betts, Richard A.; Murphy, James M.; Lowe, Jason A.

    2018-06-01

    A wide range of climate vulnerability and risk assessments have been implemented using different approaches at different scales, some with a broad multi-sectoral scope and others focused on single risks or sectors. This paper describes the novel approach to vulnerability and risk assessment which was designed and put into practice in the United Kingdom's Second Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA2) so as to build upon its earlier assessment (CCRA1). First, we summarize and critique the CCRA1 approach, and second describe the steps taken in the CCRA2 approach in detail, providing examples of how each was applied in practice. Novel elements of the approach include assessment of both present day and future vulnerability, a focus on the urgency of adaptation action, and a structure focused around systems of receptors rather than conventional sectors. Both stakeholders and reviewers generally regarded the approach as successful in providing advice on current risks and future opportunities to the UK from climate change, and the fulfilment of statutory duty. The need for a well-supported and open suite of impact indicators going forward is highlighted. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  5. Advancing national climate change risk assessment to deliver national adaptation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R F; Wilby, R L; Brown, K; Watkiss, P; Betts, Richard A; Murphy, James M; Lowe, Jason A

    2018-06-13

    A wide range of climate vulnerability and risk assessments have been implemented using different approaches at different scales, some with a broad multi-sectoral scope and others focused on single risks or sectors. This paper describes the novel approach to vulnerability and risk assessment which was designed and put into practice in the United Kingdom's Second Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA2) so as to build upon its earlier assessment (CCRA1). First, we summarize and critique the CCRA1 approach, and second describe the steps taken in the CCRA2 approach in detail, providing examples of how each was applied in practice. Novel elements of the approach include assessment of both present day and future vulnerability, a focus on the urgency of adaptation action, and a structure focused around systems of receptors rather than conventional sectors. Both stakeholders and reviewers generally regarded the approach as successful in providing advice on current risks and future opportunities to the UK from climate change, and the fulfilment of statutory duty. The need for a well-supported and open suite of impact indicators going forward is highlighted.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Adapting the Apsim model for assessing maize cultivars performances through European stressing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lacube, Sébastien; Tardieu, Francois; Parent, Boris; Hammer, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Genetic progress will largely depend on the adaptation of new genotypes to the diversity of environments, market requirements and types of agriculture. Most experiments for cultivar evaluation use networks of field experiments to assess the suitability of hundreds of genotypes to environmental conditions. In most cases, most of them run for a few years, thereby taking into account a small fraction of the climatic variability. The use of crop models for predicting plant performance under di...

  7. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine the runtime of each method with respect to the number of inputs. Furthermore, it allows to identify, which method is preferable in case of changes in the power system such as the integration of distributed ...

  8. Assessing the Usability of Gaze-Adapted Interface against Conventional Eye-based Input Emulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Chandan; Menges, Raphael; Staab, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, eye tracking systems have greatly improved, beginning to play a promising role as an input medium. Eye trackers can be used for application control either by simply emulating the mouse and keyboard devices in the traditional graphical user interface, or by customized interfaces for eye gaze events. In this work, we evaluate these two approaches to assess their impact in usability. We present a gaze-adapted Twitter application interface with direct interaction of eye gaze inpu...

  9. Change in children's school behavior after mass administration of praziquantel for Schistosoma mansoni infection in endemic areas of western Kenya: A pilot study using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musuva, Rosemary; Shen, Ye; Wei, Xianjue; Binder, Sue; Ivy, Julianne A; Secor, W Evan; Montgomery, Susan P; King, Charles H; Mwinzi, Pauline N M

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasite-related chronic inflammatory condition that can cause anemia, decreased growth, liver abnormalities, and deficits in cognitive functioning among children. This study used the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2) to collect data on thirty-six 9-12 year old school-attending children's behavioral profiles in an Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area of western Kenya, before and after treatment with praziquantel for S. mansoni infection. BASC-2 T scores were significantly reduced post-treatment (p behavior categories including externalizing problems (hyperactivity, aggression, and conduct problems that are disruptive in nature), internalizing problems (anxiety, depression, somatization, atypicality, and withdrawal), school problems (academic difficulties, included attention problems and learning problems), and the composite behavioral symptoms index (BSI), signifying improved behavior. While the observed improvement in the 'positive' behavior category of adaptive skills (adaptability, functional communication, social skills, leadership, and study skills) was not statistically significant, there were significant improvements in two adaptive skills subcategories: social skills and study skills. Results of this study suggest that children have better school-related behaviors without heavy S. mansoni infection, and that infected children's behaviors, especially disruptive problem behaviors, improve significantly after praziquantel treatment.

  10. Change in children's school behavior after mass administration of praziquantel for Schistosoma mansoni infection in endemic areas of western Kenya: A pilot study using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Musuva

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasite-related chronic inflammatory condition that can cause anemia, decreased growth, liver abnormalities, and deficits in cognitive functioning among children.This study used the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2 to collect data on thirty-six 9-12 year old school-attending children's behavioral profiles in an Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area of western Kenya, before and after treatment with praziquantel for S. mansoni infection. BASC-2 T scores were significantly reduced post-treatment (p < 0.05 for each of the 'negative' behavior categories including externalizing problems (hyperactivity, aggression, and conduct problems that are disruptive in nature, internalizing problems (anxiety, depression, somatization, atypicality, and withdrawal, school problems (academic difficulties, included attention problems and learning problems, and the composite behavioral symptoms index (BSI, signifying improved behavior. While the observed improvement in the 'positive' behavior category of adaptive skills (adaptability, functional communication, social skills, leadership, and study skills was not statistically significant, there were significant improvements in two adaptive skills subcategories: social skills and study skills.Results of this study suggest that children have better school-related behaviors without heavy S. mansoni infection, and that infected children's behaviors, especially disruptive problem behaviors, improve significantly after praziquantel treatment.

  11. The assessment of nonverbal behavior in schizophrenia through the Formal Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granziol, Umberto; Spoto, Andrea; Vidotto, Giulio

    2018-03-01

    The nonverbal behavior (NVB) of people diagnosed with schizophrenia consistently interacts with their symptoms during the assessment. Previous studies frequently observed such an interaction when a prevalence of negative symptoms occurred. Nonetheless, a list of NVBs linked to negative symptoms needs to be defined. Furthermore, a list of items that can exhaustively assess such NVBs is still needed. The present study aims to introduce both lists by using the Formal Psychological Assessment. A deep analysis was performed on both the scientific literature and the DSM-5 for constructing the set of nonverbal behaviors; similarly, an initial list of 138 items investigating the behaviors was obtained from instruments used to assess schizophrenia. The Formal Psychological Assessment was then applied to reduce the preliminary list. A final list of 23 items necessary and sufficient to investigate the NVBs emerged. The list also allowed us to analyze specific relations among items. The present study shows how it is possible to deepen a patient's negative symptomatology, starting with the relations between items and the NVBs they investigate. Finally, this study examines the advantages and clinical implications of defining an assessment tool based on the found list of items. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne; McIver, Lachlan

    2013-01-30

    Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of bio-physical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food, who provided informed comment and input into the understanding of the potential health impacts and development of adaptation strategies. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed with the application of a qualitative process that considered both the consequences and the likelihood of each of the potential health impacts occurring. Potential adaptation strategies and actions were developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by the various sectors in Vanuatu to contribute to future decision making processes associated with the health impacts of climate change.

  13. Assessing causality in the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual online behavior and their perceptions of this behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching

  14. Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans in Rural Schools: An Exploration of the Need, Barriers, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Lindsay; Owens, Sarah; Maras, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research highlights negative outcomes associated with mental and behavioral health problems in children and adolescents. Prevention-based frameworks have been developed to provide prevention and early intervention in the school setting. Tertiary behavioral supports often include the use of functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and…

  15. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  16. Theta synchronization between medial prefrontal cortex and cerebellum is associated with adaptive performance of associative learning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Yi-jie; Yang, Li; Sui, Jian-feng; Hu, Zhi-an; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Associative learning is thought to require coordinated activities among distributed brain regions. For example, to direct behavior appropriately, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) must encode and maintain sensory information and then interact with the cerebellum during trace eyeblink conditioning (TEBC), a commonly-used associative learning model. However, the mechanisms by which these two distant areas interact remain elusive. By simultaneously recording local field potential (LFP) signals from the mPFC and the cerebellum in guinea pigs undergoing TEBC, we found that theta-frequency (5.0–12.0 Hz) oscillations in the mPFC and the cerebellum became strongly synchronized following presentation of auditory conditioned stimulus. Intriguingly, the conditioned eyeblink response (CR) with adaptive timing occurred preferentially in the trials where mPFC-cerebellum theta coherence was stronger. Moreover, both the mPFC-cerebellum theta coherence and the adaptive CR performance were impaired after the disruption of endogenous orexins in the cerebellum. Finally, association of the mPFC -cerebellum theta coherence with adaptive CR performance was time-limited occurring in the early stage of associative learning. These findings suggest that the mPFC and the cerebellum may act together to contribute to the adaptive performance of associative learning behavior by means of theta synchronization. PMID:26879632

  17. Attitudes to climate change, perceptions of disaster risk, and mitigation and adaptation behavior in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan; Tung, Chuan-Ming; Lin, Shih-Chien

    2018-02-08

    Issues that are associated with climate change have global importance. Most related studies take a national or regional perspective on the impact of climate change. Taiwan is constrained by its geographical conditions, which increase its vulnerability to climate change, especially in its western coastal areas. The county that is most affected by climate change is Yunlin. In 2013-2014, projects that were sponsored by Taiwan's government analyzed the relationship among synthesized vulnerability, ecological footprint (EF) and adaptation to climate change and proposed 15 categories of synthesized vulnerability and EF values. This study further examines the relationship between vulnerability and EF values and examines how residents of four townships-Linnei, Sihu, Mailiao, and Huwei-cope with the effects of climate change. This study investigates whether the residents of the four townships vary in their attitudes to climate change, their perceptions of disaster risk, and their behavioral intentions with respect to coping with climate change. The structural equation model (SEM) is used to examine the relationships among attitudes to climate change, perceptions of disaster risk, and the behavioral intentions of residents in townships with various vulnerabilities to climate change. The results that are obtained using the SEM reveal that climate change mitigation/adaptation behavior is affected by attitudes to climate change and perceptions of disaster risk. However, the effects of attitudes and perceptions on mitigation and adaptation that are mediated by place attachment are not statistically significant.

  18. An International Assessment of the Emotional and Behavioral Strengths of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Kuorelahti, Matti; Epstein, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths has been identified as an important part of the assessment process for children referred for specialized services. The Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2; Epstein, Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: a strength-based approach to assessment. PRO-Ed, Austin, TX, 2004) was developed…

  19. Blind Demodulation of Pass Band OFDMA Signals and Jamming Battle Damage Assessment Utilizing Link Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Access (OFDMA) signal so that jamming effectiveness can be assessed; referred to in this research as Battle Damage Assessment ( BDA ). The research extends...the 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) OFDMA standard, and presents a novel method for performing BDA via observation of Sub Carrier (SC...interferer is also evaluated where the blind demodulator’s performance is degraded. BDA is achieved via observing SC LA modulation behavior of the

  20. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  1. An assessment of the impact of climate adaptation measures to reduce flood risk on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Peter H; Koomen, Eric; Hilferink, Maarten; Pérez-Soba, Marta; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    Measures of climate change adaptation often involve modification of land use and land use planning practices. Such changes in land use affect the provision of various ecosystem goods and services. Therefore, it is likely that adaptation measures may result in synergies and trade-offs between a range of ecosystems goods and services. An integrative land use modelling approach is presented to assess such impacts for the European Union. A reference scenario accounts for current trends in global drivers and includes a number of important policy developments that correspond to on-going changes in European policies. The reference scenario is compared to a policy scenario in which a range of measures is implemented to regulate flood risk and protect soils under conditions of climate change. The impacts of the simulated land use dynamics are assessed for four key indicators of ecosystem service provision: flood risk, carbon sequestration, habitat connectivity and biodiversity. The results indicate a large spatial variation in the consequences of the adaptation measures on the provisioning of ecosystem services. Synergies are frequently observed at the location of the measures itself, whereas trade-offs are found at other locations. Reducing land use intensity in specific parts of the catchment may lead to increased pressure in other regions, resulting in trade-offs. Consequently, when aggregating the results to larger spatial scales the positive and negative impacts may be off-set, indicating the need for detailed spatial assessments. The modelled results indicate that for a careful planning and evaluation of adaptation measures it is needed to consider the trade-offs accounting for the negative effects of a measure at locations distant from the actual measure. Integrated land use modelling can help land use planning in such complex trade-off evaluation by providing evidence on synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services, different policy fields and societal

  2. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.

  3. Biobehavioral Insights into Adaptive Behavior in Complex and Dynamic Operational Settings: Lessons learned from the Soldier Performance and Effective, Adaptable Response Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Haufler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the biobehavioral correlates of adaptive behavior in the context of a standardized laboratory-based mission-relevant challenge [the Soldier Performance and Effective, Adaptable Response (SPEAR task]. Participants were 26 healthy male volunteers (M = 34.85 years, SD = 4.12 with active military duty and leadership experience within the last 5 years (i.e., multiple leadership positions, operational deployments in combat, interactions with civilians and partner nation forces on the battlefield, experience making decisions under fire. The SPEAR task simultaneously engages perception, cognition, and action aspects of human performance demands similar to those encountered in the operational setting. Participants must engage with military-relevant text, visual, and auditory stimuli, interpret new information, and retain the commander’s intent in working memory to create a new plan of action for mission success. Time-domain measures of heart period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA were quantified, and saliva was sampled [later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA] before-, during-, and post-SPEAR. Results revealed a predictable pattern of withdraw and recovery of the cardiac vagal tone during repeated presentation of battlefield challenges. Recovery of vagal inhibition following executive function challenge was strongly linked to better task-related performance. Rate of RSA recovery was also associated with better recall of the commander’s intent. Decreasing magnitude in the skin conductance response prior to the task was positively associated with better overall task-related performance. Lower levels of RSA were observed in participants who reported higher rates of combat deployments, and reduced RSA flexibility was associated with higher rates of casualty exposure. Greater RSA flexibility during SPEAR was associated with greater self-reported resilience. There was no consistent

  4. Adapting tests of sign language assessment for other sign languages--a review of linguistic, cultural, and psychometric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from one natural sign language to another. Two tests which have been adapted for several other sign languages are focused upon: the Test for American Sign Language and the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test. A brief description is given of each test as well as insights from ongoing adaptations of these tests for other sign languages. The problems reported in these adaptations were found to be grounded in linguistic and cultural differences, which need to be considered for future test adaptations. Other reported shortcomings of test adaptation are related to the question of how well psychometric measures transfer from one instrument to another.

  5. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Aparecida Rocha Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to adapt the Freiburg Life Quality Assessment - Wound Module to Brazilian Portuguese and to measure its psychometric properties: reliability and validity. Method: the cultural adaptation was undertaken following the stages of translation, synthesis of the translations, back translation, committee of specialists, pre-test and focus group. A total of 200 patients participated in the study. These were recruited in Primary Care Centers, Family Health Strategy Centers, in a philanthropic hospital and in a teaching hospital. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and stability. Validity was ascertained through the correlation of the instrument's values with those of the domains of the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index - Wound Version and with the quality of life score of the visual analog scale. Results: the instrument presented adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86 and high stability in the test and retest (0.93. The validity presented correlations of moderate and significant magnitude (-0.24 to -0.48, p<0.0001. Conclusion: the results indicated that the adapted version presented reliable and valid psychometric measurements for the population with chronic wounds in the Brazilian culture.

  6. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  7. A Behavior Focused Assessment of Co-Op Performance: A Comparison of Co-Op and Non-Co-Op Graduating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how student-workers' performance can be assessed through the notion of work-role performance, on the basis of three behavioral-related dimensions (proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity), and proposes a definition of performance prior to graduation. By taking into account the accumulation of work experience, this article…

  8. A Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) to assess spatial behavior in open-field and structured mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlier, Frédéric; Arleo, Angelo; Petit, Géraldine H; Lefort, Julie M; Fouquet, Céline; Burguière, Eric; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2013-05-15

    Spatial navigation calls upon mnemonic capabilities (e.g. remembering the location of a rewarding site) as well as adaptive motor control (e.g. fine tuning of the trajectory according to the ongoing sensory context). To study this complex process by means of behavioral measurements it is necessary to quantify a large set of meaningful parameters on multiple time scales (from milliseconds to several minutes), and to compare them across different paradigms. Moreover, the issue of automating the behavioral analysis is critical to cope with the consequent computational load and the sophistication of the measurements. We developed a general purpose Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) that provides an integrated architecture consisting of a data management system (implemented in MySQL), a core analysis toolbox (in MATLAB), and a graphical user interface (in JAVA). Its extensive characterization of trajectories over time, from exploratory behavior to goal-oriented navigation with decision points using a wide range of parameters, makes NAT a powerful analysis tool. In particular, NAT supplies a new set of specific measurements assessing performances in multiple intersection mazes and allowing navigation strategies to be discriminated (e.g. in the starmaze). Its user interface enables easy use while its modular organization provides many opportunities of extension and customization. Importantly, the portability of NAT to any type of maze and environment extends its exploitation far beyond the field of spatial navigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAIs) in Mobile Health: Key Components and Design Principles for Ongoing Health Behavior Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Smith, Shawna N; Spring, Bonnie J; Collins, Linda M; Witkiewitz, Katie; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A

    2018-05-18

    The just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) is an intervention design aiming to provide the right type/amount of support, at the right time, by adapting to an individual's changing internal and contextual state. The availability of increasingly powerful mobile and sensing technologies underpins the use of JITAIs to support health behavior, as in such a setting an individual's state can change rapidly, unexpectedly, and in his/her natural environment. Despite the increasing use and appeal of JITAIs, a major gap exists between the growing technological capabilities for delivering JITAIs and research on the development and evaluation of these interventions. Many JITAIs have been developed with minimal use of empirical evidence, theory, or accepted treatment guidelines. Here, we take an essential first step towards bridging this gap. Building on health behavior theories and the extant literature on JITAIs, we clarify the scientific motivation for JITAIs, define their fundamental components, and highlight design principles related to these components. Examples of JITAIs from various domains of health behavior research are used for illustration. As we enter a new era of technological capacity for delivering JITAIs, it is critical that researchers develop sophisticated and nuanced health behavior theories capable of guiding the construction of such interventions. Particular attention has to be given to better understanding the implications of providing timely and ecologically sound support for intervention adherence and retention.

  10. Improving the use of crop models for risk assessment and climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Andrew J; Müller, Christoph; Asseng, Senthold; Deva, Chetan; Nicklin, Kathryn Jane; Wallach, Daniel; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Whitfield, Stephen; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Koehler, Ann-Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Crop models are used for an increasingly broad range of applications, with a commensurate proliferation of methods. Careful framing of research questions and development of targeted and appropriate methods are therefore increasingly important. In conjunction with the other authors in this special issue, we have developed a set of criteria for use of crop models in assessments of impacts, adaptation and risk. Our analysis drew on the other papers in this special issue, and on our experience in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 and the MACSUR, AgMIP and ISIMIP projects. The criteria were used to assess how improvements could be made to the framing of climate change risks, and to outline the good practice and new developments that are needed to improve risk assessment. Key areas of good practice include: i. the development, running and documentation of crop models, with attention given to issues of spatial scale and complexity; ii. the methods used to form crop-climate ensembles, which can be based on model skill and/or spread; iii. the methods used to assess adaptation, which need broadening to account for technological development and to reflect the full range options available. The analysis highlights the limitations of focussing only on projections of future impacts and adaptation options using pre-determined time slices. Whilst this long-standing approach may remain an essential component of risk assessments, we identify three further key components: 1.Working with stakeholders to identify the timing of risks. What are the key vulnerabilities of food systems and what does crop-climate modelling tell us about when those systems are at risk?2.Use of multiple methods that critically assess the use of climate model output and avoid any presumption that analyses should begin and end with gridded output.3.Increasing transparency and inter-comparability in risk assessments. Whilst studies frequently produce ranges that quantify uncertainty, the assumptions

  11. Adapting the helpful responses questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: preliminary psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-08-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues' (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write 'what they would say next.' In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Translation and adaptation of the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofia; Pampliega Pérez, Ana; Peral Gómez, Paula; Pastor, María Ángeles; Hurtado-Pomares, Miriam

    2017-09-20

    Functional assessment is especially relevant in patients with cognitive impairment (CI). The Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale assesses functional ability and its use is becoming increasingly popular. This study aims to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the DAD scale in order to create a Spanish version: DAD-E. A double translation/back-translation process was developed, as well as a pilot study with 14 caregivers of patients with CI, and 3 review meetings to achieve general agreement. The DAD-E includes the 40 original items. Four response options and 8 scores were added in order to detect functional disability induced by CI independently of other possible causes. More detailed instructions for administration and scoring of the scale have been provided in order to improve the reliability of the content. The DAD-E was shown to be a cultural and linguistic adaptation equivalent of the original scale, which allows it to be applied to the Spanish population. It may be a useful instrument in clinical practice since it provides a more accurate assessment of functional disability due to cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Adapting a rapid river assessment protocols to be used by elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adapt a rapid river assessment protocols (RAP to be used by elementary school children. The study was conducted in Ipameri, GO and the RAP was adapted for the evaluation of streams in the Cerrado biome. Based on two protocol models, the developed RAP included: physical parameters that affect the functioning of streams, language adapted to the educational level of elementary school and the presence of drawings that could facilitate the field application of RAP by the students. For consolidation of the adapted instrument, it was offered a monitoring workshop to 95 students from two public education institutions, and developed an analysis and interpretation of the pattern of responses obtained during the practical step of the workshop. The Bartlett and Levene tests revealed no statistical differences between the response patterns of the students, allowing to infer that the developed RAP was understandable by the evaluators. The application of the RAP was fast (20 to 40 minutes and the students reported that the developed instrument helped them to familiarize with environmental issues. In addition, the monitoring workshop helped them to understand the instrument and the available illustrations facilitated the field evaluation. In addition, the students concluded that they have become aware of the issues related to the water resource preservation and also that participation in the environmental monitoring workshop allowed the appropriation of knowledge about the river system functioning. It was concluded that adapted RAP has been proved to be a useful and interesting tool for using in environmental education projects and programs.

  14. Adaptation and validation of a questionnaire about risk behaviors for AIDS among drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechansky Flavio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To initiate the process of validation of an instrument based on an American self-reported questionnaire named RAB (Risk Assessment Battery -- called CRA in its Brazilian version --, which covers aspects related to drug use, HIV testing, sexual behavior and concern with the transmission of the virus. The questionnaire was back-translated and its concurrent validity was tested, as well as the utility of an Overall Risk Score (ORS for the transmission of the HIV virus or of subscores for Drug Use (SDU or Sexual Risk (SSR. Methods: Case vignettes of ten typical cases had their questionnaire scores compared with the impression of independent referees. Results: There were systematic differences in the comparison with the specific referees for each area, suggesting that only the ORS has clinical validity, specifically regarding the exposure to risk of infection/reinfection by HIV. Conclusion: The questionnaire in its current use and format is not adequate to express impairment already caused by exposure to the virus. The specific subscores were not clinically valid to express such risk, and the instrument needs the addition of a more comprehensive section about intravenous drug use to be used in future studies.

  15. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are

  16. Evaluating within-population variability in behavior and demography for the adaptive potential of a dispersal-limited species to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David J.; Miller Hesed, Kyle; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pathways exist for species to respond to changing climates. However, responses of dispersal-limited species will be more strongly tied to ability to adapt within existing populations as rates of environmental change will likely exceed movement rates. Here, we assess adaptive capacity in Plethodon cinereus, a dispersal-limited woodland salamander. We quantify plasticity in behavior and variation in demography to observed variation in environmental variables over a 5-year period. We found strong evidence that temperature and rainfall influence P. cinereus surface presence, indicating changes in climate are likely to affect seasonal activity patterns. We also found that warmer summer temperatures reduced individual growth rates into the autumn, which is likely to have negative demographic consequences. Reduced growth rates may delay reproductive maturity and lead to reductions in size-specific fecundity, potentially reducing population-level persistence. To better understand within-population variability in responses, we examined differences between two common color morphs. Previous evidence suggests that the color polymorphism may be linked to physiological differences in heat and moisture tolerance. We found only moderate support for morph-specific differences for the relationship between individual growth and temperature. Measuring environmental sensitivity to climatic variability is the first step in predicting species' responses to climate change. Our results suggest phenological shifts and changes in growth rates are likely responses under scenarios where further warming occurs, and we discuss possible adaptive strategies for resulting selective pressures.

  17. Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): a hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane X; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual's necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Building health behavior models to guide the development of just-in-time adaptive interventions: A pragmatic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Hekler, Eric B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Advances in wireless devices and mobile technology offer many opportunities for delivering just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs)-suites of interventions that adapt over time to an individual's changing status and circumstances with the goal to address the individual's need for support, whenever this need arises. A major challenge confronting behavioral scientists aiming to develop a JITAI concerns the selection and integration of existing empirical, theoretical and practical evidence into a scientific model that can inform the construction of a JITAI and help identify scientific gaps. The purpose of this paper is to establish a pragmatic framework that can be used to organize existing evidence into a useful model for JITAI construction. This framework involves clarifying the conceptual purpose of a JITAI, namely, the provision of just-in-time support via adaptation, as well as describing the components of a JITAI and articulating a list of concrete questions to guide the establishment of a useful model for JITAI construction. The proposed framework includes an organizing scheme for translating the relatively static scientific models underlying many health behavior interventions into a more dynamic model that better incorporates the element of time. This framework will help to guide the next generation of empirical work to support the creation of effective JITAIs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Adaptive Strategies in the Russian Vocational Education and Training System: Institutional Barriers and Rent-Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V.Volchik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of institutional change is going very rapidly in the Russian vocational education and training (VET system. If implemented reforms are inconsistent with present working rules and institutions in the field, it causes inefficiencies of the VET system and may result in institutional traps. The actors involved in the VET system are working in an increasingly demanding environment. They have to adapt their behaviors to complicated and constantly changing rules. Seeking to meet the requirements of students and employers, who operate under resource constraints, educational organizations undertake curriculum reductions to minimize costs. These measures usually result in low education outcomes and poor quality of education. In an attempt to identify adaptive behavioral patterns of actors involved in the educational process, we have conducted and analyzed 50 in-depth interviews with lecturers, managers and students within the educational organizations of Rostov region that offer VET programs. Our research aims to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation among academic staff members and VET students using the concepts of institutional economics and qualitative research methods.

  20. Work-related stress risk assessment in Italy: a methodological proposal adapted to regulatory guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persechino, Benedetta; Valenti, Antonio; Ronchetti, Matteo; Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Di Tecco, Cristina; Vitali, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    Work-related stress is one of the major causes of occupational ill health. In line with the regulatory framework on occupational health and safety (OSH), adequate models for assessing and managing risk need to be identified so as to minimize the impact of this stress not only on workers' health, but also on productivity. After close analysis of the Italian and European reference regulatory framework and work-related stress assessment and management models used in some European countries, we adopted the UK Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) Management Standards (MS) approach, adapting it to the Italian context in order to provide a suitable methodological proposal for Italy. We have developed a work-related stress risk assessment strategy, meeting regulatory requirements, now available on a specific web platform that includes software, tutorials, and other tools to assist companies in their assessments. This methodological proposal is new on the Italian work-related stress risk assessment scene. Besides providing an evaluation approach using scientifically validated instruments, it ensures the active participation of occupational health professionals in each company. The assessment tools provided enable companies not only to comply with the law, but also to contribute to a database for monitoring and assessment and give access to a reserved area for data analysis and comparisons.

  1. Assessing Freshman Engineering Students' Understanding of Ethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Murray, Susan L; Olbricht, Gayla R; Ludlow, Douglas K; Hays, Malcolm E; Nelson, Hannah M

    2017-02-01

    Academic dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarism, is on the rise in colleges, particularly among engineering students. While students decide to engage in these behaviors for many different reasons, academic integrity training can help improve their understanding of ethical decision making. The two studies outlined in this paper assess the effectiveness of an online module in increasing academic integrity among first semester engineering students. Study 1 tested the effectiveness of an academic honesty tutorial by using a between groups design with a Time 1- and Time 2-test. An academic honesty quiz assessed participants' knowledge at both time points. Study 2, which incorporated an improved version of the module and quiz, utilized a between groups design with three assessment time points. The additional Time 3-test allowed researchers to test for retention of information. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA and t tests. In Study 1, the experimental group exhibited significant improvement on the plagiarism items, but not the total score. However, at Time 2 there was no significant difference between groups after controlling for Time 1 scores. In Study 2, between- and within-group analyses suggest there was a significant improvement in total scores, but not plagiarism scores, after exposure to the tutorial. Overall, the academic integrity module impacted participants as evidenced by changes in total score and on specific plagiarism items. Although future implementation of the tutorial and quiz would benefit from modifications to reduce ceiling effects and improve assessment of knowledge, the results suggest such tutorial may be one valuable element in a systems approach to improving the academic integrity of engineering students.

  2. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K

    2013-01-01

    level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons...... and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein...... in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated...

  3. The OTOLITH Experiment - Assessment of Otolith Function During Postflight Re-adaption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A. H.; Wood, S. J.; Schoenfeld, U.

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing "Otolith" experiment is designed to comprehensively assess the otolith function during the re-adaptation phase after spaceflight. The novel protocol includes unilateral testing of each of the two otolith organs the utricle and the saccule. To assess utricle function, the otolith-ocular response (OOR) and the subjective visual vertical (SVV) are measured during unilateral centrifugation, which permits independent stimulation of the right and left ear. Measurement of the unilateral otolith-ocular response (uOOR) yields information on the response behaviour of the right and left peripheral utricles, whereas the SVV reflects the behaviour of the entire pathway from the peripheral otolith receptors to the vestibular cortex. Thus, by comparative evaluation of the results from the two tests, the degree of peripheral versus central adaptation during the post-flight period can be determined. To assess unilateral saccule function, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are recorded. Since the saccules are predominantly aligned to gravity, and interplay with the antigravity muscles, it is hypothesised that these potentials shall be altered after spaceflight. To date the study has been conducted with 5 of a planned 8 short-flight Shuttle astronauts. Preliminary results will be discussed together with those from clinical studies of dizziness patients, where the same test protocol is employed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (Grant DLR W130729) and is conducted under the auspices of ESA, in cooperation with NASA.

  4. Physician assessments of drug seeking behavior: A mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Fischer

    Full Text Available Pain complaints are common, but clinicians are increasingly concerned about overuse of opioid pain medications. This may lead patients with actual pain to be stigmatized as "drug-seeking," or attempting to obtain medications they do not require medically. We assessed whether patient requests for specific opioid pain medication would lead physicians to classify them as drug-seeking and change management decisions.Mixed-methods analysis of interviews with 192 office-based primary care physicians after viewing video vignettes depicting patients presenting with back pain. For each presentation physicians were randomly assigned to see either an active request for a specific medication or a more general request for help with pain. The main outcome was assignment by the physician of "drug-seeking" as a potential diagnosis among patients presenting with back pain. Additional outcomes included other actions the physician would take and whether the physician would prescribe the medication requested. A potential diagnosis of drug-seeking behavior was included by 21% of physicians seeing a specific request for oxycodone vs. 3% for a general request for help with back pain(p<0.001. In multivariable models an active request was most strongly associated with a physician-assigned diagnosis of drug-seeking behavior(OR 8.10; 95% CI 2.11-31.15;p = 0.002; other major patient and physician characteristics, including gender and race, did not have strong associations with drug-seeking diagnosis. Physicians described short courses of opioid medications as a strategy for managing patients with pain while avoiding opioid overuse.When patients make a specific request for opioid pain medication, physicians are far more likely to suspect that they are drug-seeking. Physician suspicion of drug-seeking behavior did not vary by patient characteristics, including gender and race. The strategies used to assess patients further varied widely. These findings indicate a need for

  5. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI, the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+, that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1 negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2 high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3 local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4 healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5 misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6 PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol’s impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.

  6. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-05-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence-favorably evaluated in the West-for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources.

  7. Environmental assessment, continual improvement and adaptive management within the AREVA sustainable development framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosaasen, A.; Frostad, S.

    2006-01-01

    COGEMA Resources Inc. (which is part of the AREVA Group) is a Canadian company with its head office in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It owns and operates mining and milling facilities in northern Saskatchewan, which produce uranium concentrate. The McClean Lake Operation commenced production in 1999 and its environmental management system represents an integrated approach to environmental assessment, continual improvement and adaptive management based on operational results. In Canada, sustainable development is promoted through the application of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA). Environmental Assessment (EA) is a planning tool, which incorporates environmental considerations before irrevocable decisions are taken. The basic tenet of the Act is the determination of whether the potential environmental effects of a project are adverse, significant and likely, taking into consideration mitigation measures. Thus, project planning and design entails an iterative process that incorporates mitigation measures to minimize potentially significant adverse effects. As part of the EA process conservative approaches are taken to predict potential effects. Several important elements are generated through the EA process including: a set of environmental effects predictions, a compliance and environmental effects monitoring program, a follow-up program to address uncertainties in the prediction of environmental effects, and the identification of contingency measures that could be implemented should non-conservative assumptions be identified in the original assessment framework. The challenge is to integrate each of these elements into the environmental management framework of the operating facility and develop an iterative mechanism to evaluate operational performance relative to what was originally predicted. In Saskatchewan, a requirement of operational licenses is the periodic evaluation of the 'Status of the Environment' surrounding operational facilities. These

  8. Climate change: assessment of the vulnerability of nuclear power and cost of adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillere, H.; Cameron, R. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris (France); Caneill, J.-Y. [EDF Group, Paris, (France); Syri, S. [Aalto Univ., Dept. of Energy Technology, Aalto (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary outcome of an OECD study (2013-14) aimed at assessing the vulnerability of nuclear power generation in the event of extreme weather events that could be induced by climate change. Nuclear power plants (NPPs), just as other energy infrastructures, can be affected by phenomena such as floods, storms, heat waves, droughts, etc. This paper reports on examples of extreme weather events that have affected the operation of NPPs, and describes the adaptation strategy that can be implemented to improve the resilience of existing generating assets as well as new infrastructures. (author)

  9. Integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, K.; Kuikman, P.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Van Walsum, P.E.V.; Westein, E.; Verhagen, A.; Daan, N.; Van Ierland, E.C.; Szoenyi, J.; De Groot, R.S.; Van Vliet, A.; Martens, P.; Amelung, B.; Huynen, M.

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is warming and that regional climates are changing. The changes include alterations in rainfall pattern and intensities, sea level, and the frequencies of extreme weather events. Climate changes will not just have global effects, they will also occur regionally. The consequences will be felt and dealt with in our own region. In addition to studies at the European level, a study entitled 'An integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands' was carried out

  10. Development of a Brazilian Portuguese adapted version of the Gap-Kalamazoo communication skills assessment form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Anna Beatriz C N; Rider, Elizabeth A; Lajolo, Paula P; Tone, Luiz G; Pinto, Rogerio M C; Lajolo, Marisa P; Calhoun, Aaron W

    2016-12-11

    The goal of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the items of the Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form for use in the Brazilian cultural setting. The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was translated into Portuguese by two independent bilingual Brazilian translators and was reconciled by a third bilingual healthcare professional. The translated text was then assessed for content using a modified Delphi technique and adjusted as needed to assure content validity. A total of nine phrases in the completed tool were adjusted. The final tool was then used to assess videotaped simulations as a means of validation.  Response process was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and internal structure was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha (internal consistency) and Intraclass Correlation (test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability). One hundred and four (104) videotaped communication skills simulations were assessed by 38 subjects (6 staff physicians, 4 faculty physicians, 8 resident physicians, 4 professional actors with experience in simulation, and 16 other allied healthcare professionals). Measures of Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.818) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.942) were high.  Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the uni-dimensionality of the instrument. Our results support the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form when used among Brazilian medical residents.  The Brazilian version of Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was found to be adequate both in the linguistic and technical aspects.  The use of this instrument in Brazilian medical education can enhance the assessment of physician-patient-team relationships on an ongoing basis.

  11. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Thangavel, K; Lalitha, N; Malmarugan, S; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18(th)(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of Preschool Language Assessment Instrument: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, formal tools for the evaluation of spoken language are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to translate and adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument: Second Edition (PLAI-2). The process of translation and adaptation of this instrument was conducted in two stages - Stage 1: (1a) translation of the original version to Brazilian Portuguese, (1b) comparison of the translated versions and synthesis into a single Portuguese version, (1c) back-translation, (1d) revision of the translated version; and Step 2: (2a) application of the Portuguese version in a pilot project with 30 subjects, and (2b) statistical comparison of three age groups. In the Brazilian version, all items of the original version were kept. However, it was necessary to modify the application order of one item, and the change of one picture was suggested in another. The results obtained after application indicated that the Brazilian version of the PLAI-2 allows us to distinguish the performance of participants belonging to different age groups, and that the raw score tends to increase with age. Semantic and syntactic adjustments were required and made to ensure that PLAI-2 would be used with the same methodological rigor of the original instrument. The adaptation process observed the theoretical, semantic, and cultural equivalences.

  13. Web-based computer adaptive assessment of individual perceptions of job satisfaction for hospital workplace employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Lai, Wen-Pin; Lu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Weng-Chung; Chen, Shih-Chung; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Su, Shih-Bin

    2011-04-17

    To develop a web-based computer adaptive testing (CAT) application for efficiently collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job satisfaction, we examined whether a 37-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-37) could evaluate the job satisfaction of individual employees as a single construct. The JCQ-37 makes data collection via CAT on the internet easy, viable and fast. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to analyze data from 300 randomly selected hospital employees who participated in job-satisfaction surveys in 2008 and 2009 via non-adaptive and computer-adaptive testing, respectively. Of the 37 items on the questionnaire, 24 items fit the model fairly well. Person-separation reliability for the 2008 surveys was 0.88. Measures from both years and item-8 job satisfaction for groups were successfully evaluated through item-by-item analyses by using t-test. Workers aged 26 - 35 felt that job satisfaction was significantly worse in 2009 than in 2008. A Web-CAT developed in the present paper was shown to be more efficient than traditional computer-based or pen-and-paper assessments at collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job content.

  14. Web-based computer adaptive assessment of individual perceptions of job satisfaction for hospital workplace employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Chung

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop a web-based computer adaptive testing (CAT application for efficiently collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job satisfaction, we examined whether a 37-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-37 could evaluate the job satisfaction of individual employees as a single construct. Methods The JCQ-37 makes data collection via CAT on the internet easy, viable and fast. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to analyze data from 300 randomly selected hospital employees who participated in job-satisfaction surveys in 2008 and 2009 via non-adaptive and computer-adaptive testing, respectively. Results Of the 37 items on the questionnaire, 24 items fit the model fairly well. Person-separation reliability for the 2008 surveys was 0.88. Measures from both years and item-8 job satisfaction for groups were successfully evaluated through item-by-item analyses by using t-test. Workers aged 26 - 35 felt that job satisfaction was significantly worse in 2009 than in 2008. Conclusions A Web-CAT developed in the present paper was shown to be more efficient than traditional computer-based or pen-and-paper assessments at collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job content.

  15. Virtual reality based adaptive dose assessment method for arbitrary geometries in nuclear facility decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Kuo; Chao, Nan; Xia, Hong; Peng, Min-Jun; Ayodeji, Abiodun

    2018-05-17

    This paper presents an improved and efficient virtual reality-based adaptive dose assessment method (VRBAM) applicable to the cutting and dismantling tasks in nuclear facility decommissioning. The method combines the modeling strength of virtual reality with the flexibility of adaptive technology. The initial geometry is designed with the three-dimensional computer-aided design tools, and a hybrid model composed of cuboids and a point-cloud is generated automatically according to the virtual model of the object. In order to improve the efficiency of dose calculation while retaining accuracy, the hybrid model is converted to a weighted point-cloud model, and the point kernels are generated by adaptively simplifying the weighted point-cloud model according to the detector position, an approach that is suitable for arbitrary geometries. The dose rates are calculated with the Point-Kernel method. To account for radiation scattering effects, buildup factors are calculated with the Geometric-Progression formula in the fitting function. The geometric modeling capability of VRBAM was verified by simulating basic geometries, which included a convex surface, a concave surface, a flat surface and their combination. The simulation results show that the VRBAM is more flexible and superior to other approaches in modeling complex geometries. In this paper, the computation time and dose rate results obtained from the proposed method were also compared with those obtained using the MCNP code and an earlier virtual reality-based method (VRBM) developed by the same authors. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. [The CAD-S, an instrument for the assessment of adaptation to divorce - separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz Yaben, Sagrario; Comino González, Priscila

    2010-02-01

    The CAD-S, an Instrument for the Assessment of Adaptation to Divorce - Separation. This paper presents an instrument for the evaluation of the adaptation to divorce-separation. The CAD-S is a questionnaire created in Spanish, made up of 20 items whose aim is the evaluation of the family's adaptation to divorce-separation, using one of the parents as informant. Data were collected in four different samples of divorced persons and their children from different autonomous comunities from the Spanish state. 223 parents and 160 children from divorced families took part in this study. Four factors emerged, accounting for 52.39 percent of the total variance: psychological and emotional difficulties, conflict with the ex-partner, disposition to co-parentality, and negative outcomes of separation for children. The results suggest that CAD-S appears to be a reliable and valid instrument, with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and adequate construct validity supported by its relations with measures of satisfaction with life (SWLS), in the case of parents, and conduct problems (CBCL) for children.

  17. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  18. 77 FR 48989 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in... ``Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials.'' The purpose of... suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials of drug and biological products, including drugs for...

  19. [Recovery Self Assessment: Translation and cultural adaption of a recovery oriented assessment instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuaboni, Gianfranco; Degano Kieser, Luciana; Kozel, Bernd; Glavanovits, Katharina; Utschakowski, Jörg; Behrens, Johann

    2015-08-01

    The recovery approach is becoming increasingly important in mental health services and research. In English-speaking countries, its practical implementation as well as the scientific discussion is far more advanced. To support the approach, assessment instruments are required. A widespread and recognised tool is the Recovery Self Assessment Scale {RSA}. This includes four versions of a questionnaire, which cover the perspectives of users, providers, family members and management. In this article, the development of the instrument and the system atictranslation process are presented. Two independent research groups applied different translation. The Swiss research group {AGS} used the ISOPR principles, the German research group (AGN} the Guidelines of the European Social Survey Programme for survey translations TRAPD. The methods differ in the fact,that TRAPD uses focus groups. The results of both groups were combined by means of a consensus process. Within the translation and cultural adjustment of the RSA-D, the the oretical framework of the RSA as well as the transferability into the German speaking context has been ensured. Before the RSA-D c~n beused in practice and research, further studies towards psychometric testing should be conducted.

  20. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by

  1. The Adaptive Capacity Wheel : a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Joyeeta; Termeer, Catrien; Klostermann, Judith; Meijerink, Sander; van den Brink, Margo; Jong, Pieter; Nooteboom, Sibout; Bergsma, Emmy

    2010-01-01

    Climate change potentially brings continuous and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Consequently, it calls for institutions that promote the adaptive capacity of society and allow society to modify its institutions at a rate commensurate with the rate of environmental change. Institutions,

  2. The Adaptive Capacity Wheel: a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Termeer, C.; Klostermann, J.; Meijerink, S.; van den Brink, M.; de Jong, P.; Nootebooms, S.; Bergsma, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change potentially brings continuous and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Consequently, it calls for institutions that promote the adaptive capacity of society and allow society to modify its institutions at a rate commensurate with the rate of environmental change. Institutions,

  3. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to…

  4. Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H; Lechner, Suzanne; Diaz, Alain; Vargas, Sara; Holley, Heather; Phillips, Kristin; McGregor, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S; Blomberg, Bonnie

    2009-07-01

    A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Women with Stages 1-3 breast cancer recruited 4-8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group and completed questionnaires and late afternoon blood samples at study entry and 6 and 12 months after assignment to experimental condition. Of 128 women initially providing psychosocial questionnaire and blood samples at study entry, 97 provided complete data for anxiety measures and cortisol analysis at all time points, and immune assays were run on a subset of 85 of these women. Those assigned to a 10-week group-based CBSM intervention evidenced better psychosocial adaptation (lower reported cancer-specific anxiety and interviewer-rated general anxiety symptoms) and physiological adaptation (lower cortisol, greater Th1 cytokine [interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma] production and IL-2:IL-4 ratio) after their adjuvant treatment compared to those in the control group. Effects on psychosocial adaptation indicators and cortisol appeared to hold across the entire 12-month observation period. Th1 cytokine regulation changes held only over the initial 6-month period. This intervention may have facilitated a "recovery or maintenance" of Th1 cytokine regulation during or after the adjuvant therapy period. Behavioral interventions that address dysregulated neuroendocrine function could play a clinically significant role in optimizing host immunologic resistance during a vulnerable period.

  5. A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

  6. Cross-cultural Adaptation of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire Needs to Assess the Measurement Properties: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Zhu, Sen; Tian, Zi-Rui; Song, Yong-Jia; Yang, Long; Wang, Yong-Jun; Cui, Xue-Jun

    2018-03-26

    To assess the cross cultural-adaptations of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). English and Chinese databases were searched through December 2017. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties were evaluated using the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures and the Quality Criteria for Psychometric Properties of Health Status Questionnaire. Among 34 studies, there were 31 RMDQ adaptations for 26 different languages/cultures. In the cross-cultural adaptation process, few studies reported expert committees completely constituted (3/31), and only ten studies complete the test of the pre-final version (10/31) due to insufficient sample sizes. As for the measurement properties, content validity (31/31) and construct validity (24/31) were assessed in most of the adaptations, whereas internal consistency (0/31), agreement (5/31), responsiveness (3/31), interpretability (6/31), and floor and ceiling effects (6/31) were not. The Hungarian and Moon's Korean adaptations were the highest quality translations. Where there were multiple adaptations for a language/culture, the Moon's Korean and Fan's simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland adaptations are recommended over the other Korean or simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland adaptations. Further studies are required to fully assess the measurement properties of the Arabic-Moroccan, Arabic-Tunisian, German- Austrian, Greek, Guajarati, Kim's Korean, Persian-Iranian, Polish, He's simplified Chinese-Chinese Mainland, Spanish, Spanish-Chilean, Thai, traditional Chinese-Taiwan, and Turkish adaptations of the RMDQ. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  8. Assessing university students' sexual risk behaviors as predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Rebecca L; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Christopher, Kara M; Geneus, Christian J; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba

    2018-05-09

    There exists a significant gap in vaccine coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged students. This study assessed sexual risk-taking behavior among university students and analyzed predictors of HPV vaccine initiation and completion in this population. Data (n = 746) were from an anonymous online, cross-sectional survey distributed to university students, between the ages of 19-26 years, at a private Midwestern university. Both chi-square and multivariable logistics regression models estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk factors (including number of vaginal sexual partners, number of oral sexual partners, initiation of oral sex, and initiation of vaginal sex), with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. A significant number of participants (40%) had not received a single dose of the HPV vaccine series. Of those who initiated the series, more than half (51%) did not achieve completion. Additionally, a greater number of participants have had multiple (4 or more) oral sexual partners than vaginal sexual partners (25.7% vs. 20.3%). After adjusting for covariates, it was found that sexual risk factors were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine initiation or completion. HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates are suboptimal among university students. High levels of sexual-risk taking behaviors associated with HPV infection persist, yet are not significant predictors of HPV vaccine behaviors in this age group. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old students, future public health interventions should focus on HPV vaccine education and uptake across the entire population, irrespective of sexual risk profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  10. Adaption of the suspension behavior of suspended matter in natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenbach, K.; Schreier, H.H.; Zimmermann, H.U.

    1980-01-01

    The particle size distribution of an artificial tracer is adapted to that of suspended matter in natural water. Therefore the material of a tracer was divided into fractions and afterwards mixed according to computed proportions. The determination of particle size distribution was carried out using a sedimentation balance. For calculation of the distribution curve a special mathematical function was assumed. (orig.) [de

  11. Statistical Indexes for Monitoring Item Behavior under Computer Adaptive Testing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Renbang; Yu, Feng; Liu, Su

    A computerized adaptive test (CAT) administration usually requires a large supply of items with accurately estimated psychometric properties, such as item response theory (IRT) parameter estimates, to ensure the precision of examinee ability estimation. However, an estimated IRT model of a given item in any given pool does not always correctly…

  12. [Assessment of adaptation to on-board conditions on "The Ship for World Youth"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, H; Kurabayashi, L; Yamato, H; Inamura, H

    1992-01-01

    The adaptation process of youth from 13 countries on board "The 3rd Ship for World Youth" cruise which was held from January 18 to March 20 in 1991 was analyzed. The age of almost all of the participants was in the 20's (average age was 24.9 yrs), and there were 103 participants (47 males, 56 females) from Japan, 171 participants (86 males, 85 females) from North, Middle and South America, and Oceanian countries for total of 274 participants (133 males, 141 females). The living environment on board differed significantly from daily living conditions of the participants, particularly due to the need to communicate in a foreign language, and to live in harmony with different cultures in a confinement situation, such that they were inevitably susceptible to various stressors. Among the participants there were some who needed psychiatric care and treatment. In order to assess quantitatively psychosomatic reactions to those stressors, a 28-item scaled GHQ (= General Health Questionnaire) assessment was performed four times on board with the following findings: 1. Highest scores were seen shortly after embarkment and decreased as the participants got accustomed to the living conditions on board. 2. The scores of the Japanese participants were higher than those of foreign participants, possibly indicating awkward adaptational skill on the part of Japanese participants especially during the first stage. 3. Japanese females scored slightly higher than Japanese males throughout the course of the program. 4. No clear difference in scores between Japanese participants aged under 25 y and over 26 y was observed. 5. A large proportion (77.3%) of Japanese participants had Y-G personality test results classifying them in the 'stable positive' group (D group). These participants had significantly lower scaled GHQ scores than those in the non-D group, indicating a high adaptational ability of D group participants.

  13. Evidence-Based School Behavior Assessment of Externalizing Behavior in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M; Boggs, Stephen R; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System (REDSOCS). Participants were 68 children ages 3 to 6 who completed parent-child interaction therapy for Oppositional Defiant Disorder as part of a larger efficacy trial. Interobserver reliability on REDSOCS categories was moderate to high, with percent agreement ranging from 47% to 90% (M = 67%) and Cohen's kappa coefficients ranging from .69 to .95 (M = .82). Convergent validity of the REDSOCS categories was supported by significant correlations with the Intensity Scale of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised and related subscales of the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (CTRS-R: L). Divergent validity was indicated by nonsignificant correlations between REDSOCS categories and scales on the CTRS-R: L expected not to relate to disruptive classroom behavior. Treatment sensitivity was demonstrated for two of the three primary REDSOCS categories by significant pre to posttreatment changes. This study provides psychometric support for the designation of REDSOCS as an evidence-based assessment procedure for young children.

  14. Risk assessment for infectious disease and its impact on voluntary vaccination behavior in social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Kokubo, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a vaccination game from the standpoint of network reciprocity on 2 × 2 game. • We investigate the impacts of public information for infectious disease. • Effect of risk assessment based on public information depends on network structure. • Use of public information yields positive effect if vaccination cost is small. - Abstract: Achievement of the herd immunity is essential for preventing the periodic spreading of an infectious disease such as the flu. If vaccination is voluntary, as vaccination coverage approaches the critical level required for herd immunity, there is less incentive for individuals to be vaccinated; this results in an increase in the number of so-called “free-riders” who craftily avoid infection via the herd immunity and avoid paying any cost. We use a framework originating in evolutionary game theory to investigate this type of social dilemma with respect to epidemiology and the decision of whether to be vaccinated. For each individual in a population, the decision on vaccination is associated with how one assesses the risk of infection. In this study, we propose a new risk-assessment model in a vaccination game when an individual updates her strategy, she compares her own payoff to a net payoff obtained by averaging a collective payoff over individuals who adopt the same strategy as that of a randomly selected neighbor. In previous studies of vaccination games, when an individual updates her strategy, she typically compares her payoff to the payoff of a randomly selected neighbor, indicating that the risk for changing her strategy is largely based on the behavior of one other individual, i.e., this is an individual-based risk assessment. However, in our proposed model, risk assessment by any individual is based on the collective success of a strategy and not on the behavior of any one other individual. For strategy adaptation, each individual always takes a survey of the degree of success of a certain

  15. Adaptive Encoding of Outcome Prediction by Prefrontal Cortex Ensembles Supports Behavioral Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, Alberto; Park, Junchol; Wood, Jesse; Kim, Yunbok; Moghaddam, Bita

    2017-08-30

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play a critical role in behavioral flexibility by monitoring action-outcome contingencies. How PFC ensembles represent shifts in behavior in response to changes in these contingencies remains unclear. We recorded single-unit activity and local field potentials in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) of male rats during a set-shifting task that required them to update their behavior, among competing options, in response to changes in action-outcome contingencies. As behavior was updated, a subset of PFC ensembles encoded the current trial outcome before the outcome was presented. This novel outcome-prediction encoding was absent in a control task, in which actions were rewarded pseudorandomly, indicating that PFC neurons are not merely providing an expectancy signal. In both control and set-shifting tasks, dmPFC neurons displayed postoutcome discrimination activity, indicating that these neurons also monitor whether a behavior is successful in generating rewards. Gamma-power oscillatory activity increased before the outcome in both tasks but did not differentiate between expected outcomes, suggesting that this measure is not related to set-shifting behavior but reflects expectation of an outcome after action execution. These results demonstrate that PFC neurons support flexible rule-based action selection by predicting outcomes that follow a particular action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tracking action-outcome contingencies and modifying behavior when those contingencies change is critical to behavioral flexibility. We find that ensembles of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex neurons differentiate between expected outcomes when action-outcome contingencies change. This predictive mode of signaling may be used to promote a new response strategy at the service of behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378363-11$15.00/0.

  16. A Multimode Adaptive Pushover Procedure for Seismic Assessment of Integral Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mohtashami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new adaptive pushover procedure to account for the effect of higher modes in order to accurately estimate the seismic response of bridges. The effect of higher modes is considered by introducing a minimum value for the total effective modal mass. The proposed method employs enough number of modes to ensure that the defined total effective modal mass participates in all increments of the pushover loading. An adaptive demand curve is also developed for assessment of the seismic demand. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by conducting a parametric study. The analysis includes 18 four-span integral bridges with various heights of piers. The inelastic response history analysis is employed as reference solution in this study. Numerical results indicate excellent accuracy of the proposed method in assessment of the seismic response. For most bridges investigated in this study, the difference between the estimated response of the proposed method and the inelastic response history analysis is less than 25% for displacements and 10% for internal forces. This indicates a very good accuracy compared to available pushover procedures in the literature. The proposed method is therefore recommended to be applied to the seismic performance evaluation of integral bridges for engineering applications.

  17. A Study of Disaster Adaptation Behavior and Risk Communication for watershed Area Resident - the Case of Kaoping River Watershed in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the

  18. Behavioral response to a just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) to reduce sedentary behavior in obese adults: Implications for JITAI optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S

    2015-12-01

    Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) use mobile computers, sensors, and software analytics to automatically detect behavior and deliver tailored treatment. However, little is known about how JITAIs influence patterns of behavior or how best to design JITAIs for maximum effect. This study examined prompts and behavioral response to the B-MOBILE JITAI for reducing sedentary behavior (SB) in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty participants (83% women; 67% White, mean ± SD body mass index = 36.2 kg/m2) tested 3 conditions presented in a randomized counterbalanced order involving smartphone-based prompts for walking breaks of (a) 3 min after 30 SB min, (b) 6 min after 60 SB min, and (c) 12 min after 120 SB min. Participants carried the smartphone an average of 6.90 days during each 7-day condition, for an average of 14.94 hr per day. The 3- and 6-min conditions resulted in the greatest number of prompts, walking breaks, the best adherence to prompts, the greatest amount of daily time spent in walking breaks, and fastest adherence to prompts (ps < .01). Small but statistically significant decreases in the number of daily walking breaks, adherence to prompts, and minutes per day spent in walking breaks were observed as a function of the number of days spent in a condition (ps < .05). The B-MOBILE JITAI was effective in prompting breaks in sedentary behavior when it was most clinically relevant. Frequent prompts for small change may be an optimal strategy for shaping sedentary behavior, although more research is needed to determine how best to promote long-term adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version of General Oral Health Assessment Index-Tml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, D P; Vinayagavel, M; Balasundaram, A; Damodaran, L K; Shivaraman, P; Gunasshegaran, K

    2015-01-01

    Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml). Linguistic adaptation involved forward and backward blind translation process. Reliability was analyzed using test-retest, Cronbach alpha, and split half reliability. Inter-item and item-total correlation were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Convenience sampling was done, and 265 consecutive patients aged 20-70 years attending the outpatient department were recruited. Subjects were requested to fill a self-reporting questionnaire along with Tamil GOHAI version. Clinical examination was done on the same visit. Concurrent validity was measured by assessing the relationship between GOHAI scores and self-perceived oral health and general health status, satisfaction with oral health, need for dental treatment and esthetic satisfaction. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the GOHAI scores with the objectively assessed clinical parameters. Exploratory factor analysis was done to examine the factor structure. Mean GOHAI-Tml was 52.7 (6.8, range 22-60, median 54). The mean number of negative impacts was 2 (2.4, range 0-11, median 1). The Spearman rank correlation for test-retest ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 (P Tamil speaking population.

  20. MPH program adaptability in a competitive marketplace: the case for continued assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rosemary M; Tutko, Holly

    2010-06-01

    In the last several years, the number of Master of Public Health (MPH) programs has increased rapidly in the US. As such, MPH programs, particularly smaller-sized ones, need to critically examine how their programs are meeting the needs and preferences of local public health practitioners. To assist in this necessity, the University of New Hampshire conducted a comprehensive educational assessment of its effectiveness as a smaller-sized, accredited MPH program. The aim of the assessment was to review the MPH program from the perspective of all stakeholders and then to agree on changes that would contribute to the fulfillment of the program's mission, as well as improve program quality and reach. The program's stakeholders examined the following components: policy development and implementation; target audience; marketing strategies; marketplace position; delivery model; curriculum design; and continuing education. Though assessment activities explored a wide array of program attributes, target audience, curriculum design, and delivery strategy presented significant challenges and opportunities for our smaller MPH Program to remain competitive. The effort put forth into conducting an in-depth assessment of the core components of our program also allowed for a comparison to the increasing number of MPH programs developing regionally. Since public health practice is changing and the education of public health practitioners must be adaptable, we propose that a routine assessment of an institution's MPH program could not only meet this need but also assist with keeping smaller, unbranded MPH programs competitive in a burgeoning marketplace.

  1. GEOGLAM Crop Assessment Tool: Adapting from global agricultural monitoring to food security monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nordling, J.; Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's Crop Assessment Tool was released in August 2013 in support of the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's objective to develop transparent, timely crop condition assessments in primary agricultural production areas, highlighting potential hotspots of stress/bumper crops. The Crop Assessment Tool allows users to view satellite derived products, best available crop masks, and crop calendars (created in collaboration with GEOGLAM Crop Monitor partners), then in turn submit crop assessment entries detailing the crop's condition, drivers, impacts, trends, and other information. Although the Crop Assessment Tool was originally intended to collect data on major crop production at the global scale, the types of data collected are also relevant to the food security and rangelands monitoring communities. In line with the GEOGLAM Countries at Risk philosophy of "foster[ing] the coordination of product delivery and capacity building efforts for national and regional organizations, and the development of harmonized methods and tools", a modified version of the Crop Assessment Tool is being developed for the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). As a member of the Countries at Risk component of GEOGLAM, FEWS NET provides agricultural monitoring, timely food security assessments, and early warnings of potential significant food shortages focusing specifically on countries at risk of food security emergencies. While the FEWS NET adaptation of the Crop Assessment Tool focuses on crop production in the context of food security rather than large scale production, the data collected is nearly identical to the data collected by the Crop Monitor. If combined, the countries monitored by FEWS NET and GEOGLAM Crop Monitor would encompass over 90 countries representing the most important regions for crop production and food security.

  2. Behavioral Assessment of Spaceflight Effects on Neurocognitive Performance: Extent and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dios, Y. E.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Peters, B. T.; Taylor, L. C.; Campbell, D. J.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Seidler, R. D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment during spaceflight missions impacts crewmembers' sensorimotor function. Bock et al. [1] studied the cognitive demands of human sensorimotor performance and dual tasking during long duration missions and concluded that both stress and scarcity of cognitive resources required for sensorimotor adaptation may be responsible for these deficits during spaceflight. Therefore, in consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers in- and post-flight, we are conducting this study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor, cognitive, and neural changes. The data presented will focus on the behavioral measures that were collected pre-, in- and post-flight including spatial cognition, processing speed, bimanual coordination, functional mobility, computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), and vibrotactile induced vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). To date, data were collected over the course of two pre-flight sessions and four post-flight sessions on five crewmembers (n=13) using the protocol described in Koppelmans et al. [2]. Balance control was assessed using CDP, with eyes closed and a sway-referenced base of support (Sensory Organization Test 5), with and without head movements in the pitch plane. Spatial working memory was assessed using Thurston's Card Rotation Test and a Mental Rotation Test. The Rod and Frame Test was performed to test visual dependence. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test was performed to evaluate processing speed, and the Purdue Pegboard Task was performed to test bimanual coordination. Vestibular function was assessed by eliciting ocular VEMP via a hand held striker on the side of the head as subjects lay supine on a gurney. Subjects also performed the Functional Mobility Test of walking through an obstacle course to assess rate of early motor learning. Data were also collected on the same crewmembers during three in-flight sessions on

  3. An innovative approach for Predicting Farmers' Adaptive Behavior at the Large Watershed Scale: Implications for Water Quality and Crop Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcu-Lisman, A. M.; Gassman, P. W.; Arritt, R. W.; Kling, C.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Panagopoulos, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Projected changes in the climatic patterns (higher temperatures, changes in extreme precipitation events, and higher levels of humidity) will affect agricultural cropping and management systems in major agricultural production areas. The concept of adaption to new climatic or economic conditions is an important aspect of the agricultural decision-making process. Adopting cover crops, reduced tillage, extending the drainage systems and adjusting crop management are only a few examples of adaptive actions. These actions can be easily implemented as long as they have private benefits (increased profits, reduced risk). However, each adaptive action has a different impact on water quality. Cover crops and no till usually have a positive impact on water quality, but increased tile drainage typically results in more degraded water quality due primarily to increased export of soluble nitrogen and phosphorus. The goal of this research is to determine the changes in water quality as well in crop yields as farmers undertake these adaptive measures. To answer this research question, we need to estimate the likelihood that these actions will occur, identify the agricultural areas where these actions are most likely to be implemented, and simulate the water quality impacts associated with each of these scenarios. We apply our modeling efforts to the whole Upper-Mississippi River Basin Basin (UMRB) and the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB). These two areas are critical source regions for the re-occurring hypoxic zone in the gulf of Mexico. The likelihood of each adaptive agricultural action is estimated using data from a survey conducted in 2012. A large, representative sample of farmers in the Corn Belt was used in the survey to elicit behavioral intentions regarding three of the most important agricultural adaptation strategies (no-till, cover crops and tile drainage). We use these data to study the relationship between intent to adapt, farmer characteristics, farm

  4. Preschoolers' Performance on the Brazilian Adaptation of the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument - Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tâmara Andrade; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to test whether the Brazilian version of the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument - Second Edition (PLAI-2) has the potential to assess and identify differences in typical language development of Portuguese-speaking preschoolers. The study included 354 children of both genders with typical language development who were between the ages of 3 years and 5 years 11 months. The version of the PLAI-2 previously translated into Brazilian Portuguese was used to assess the communication skills of these preschool-age children. Statistically significant differences were found between the age groups, and the raw score tended to increase as a function of age. With nonstandardized assessments, the performances of the younger groups revealed behavioral profiles (e.g., nonresponsive, impulsive behavior) that directly influenced the evaluation. The findings of this study show that the PLAI-2 is effective in identifying differences in language development among Brazilian children of preschool age. Future research should include studies validating and standardizing these findings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  6. Assessing for suicidal behavior in youth using the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Anna R; Algorta, Guillermo Perez; Youngstrom, Eric A; Lechtman, Yana; Youngstrom, Jen K; Feeny, Norah C; Findling, Robert L

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical utility of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) for identifying youth at risk for suicide. Specifically, we investigated how well the Total Problems scores and the sum of two suicide-related items (#18 "Deliberately harms self or attempts suicide" and #91 "Talks about killing self") were able to distinguish youth with a history of suicidal behavior. Youth (N = 1117) aged 5-18 were recruited for two studies of mental illness. History of suicidal behavior was assessed by semi-structured interviews (K-SADS) with youth and caregivers. Youth, caregivers, and a primary teacher each completed the appropriate form (YSR, CBCL, and TRF, respectively) of the ASEBA. Areas under the curve (AUCs) from ROC analyses and diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLRs) were used to measure the ability of both Total Problems T scores, as well as the summed score of two suicide-related items, to identify youth with a history of suicidal behavior. The Suicide Items from the CBCL and YSR performed well (AUCs = 0.85 and 0.70, respectively). The TRF Suicide Items did not perform better than chance, AUC = 0.45. The AUCs for the Total Problems scores were poor-to-fair (0.33-0.65). The CBCL Suicide Items outperformed all other scores (ps = 0.04 to youth's risk for suicidal behavior. The low burden of this approach could facilitate wide-spread screening for suicide in an increasingly at-risk population.

  7. Adaptive behaviors of experts in following standard protocol in trauma management: implications for developing flexible guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankipuram, Mithra; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Patel, Vimla L

    2012-01-01

    Critical care environments are complex and dynamic. To adapt to such environments, clinicians may be required to make alterations to their workflows resulting in deviations from standard procedures. In this work, deviations from standards in trauma critical care are studied. Thirty trauma cases were observed in a Level 1 trauma center. Activities tracked were compared to the Advance Trauma Life Support standard to determine (i) if deviations had occurred, (ii) type of deviations and (iii) whether deviations were initiated by individuals or collaboratively by the team. Results show that expert clinicians deviated to innovate, while deviations of novices result mostly in error. Experts' well developed knowledge allows for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealing with standards, resulting in innovative deviations while minimizing errors made. Providing informatics solution, in such a setting, would mean that standard protocols would have be flexible enough to "learn" from new knowledge, yet provide strong support for the trainees.

  8. Assessing farmer use of climate change adaptation practices and impacts on food security and poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is set to be particularly disruptive in poor agricultural communities. We assess the factors influencing farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation practices and associated impacts on household food security and poverty in Pakistan using comprehensive data from 950 farmers from its major provinces. A probit model was used to investigate the factors influencing the use of climate-change adaptation practices; the censored least absolute deviation (CLAD was used to analyze the determinants of the number of adaptation practices used; and a propensity score matching (PSM approach was employed to evaluate the impact of adaptation practices on food security and poverty levels. Adjustment in sowing time (22% households, use of drought tolerant varieties (15% and shifting to new crops (25% were the three major adaptation practices used by farmers in the study area. Results show that younger farmers and farmers with higher levels of education are more likely to use these adaptation practices, as do farmers that are wealthier, farm more land and have joint families. The number of adaptation practices used was found to be positively associated with education, male household heads, land size, household size, extension services, access to credit and wealth. Farmers adopting more adaptation practices had higher food security levels (8–13% than those who did not, and experienced lower levels of poverty (3–6%. Climate change adaptation practices at farm level can thereby have significant development outcomes in addition to reducing exposure to weather risks.

  9. Cephalopods as Predators: A Short Journey among Behavioral Flexibilities, Adaptions, and Feeding Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Roger; Perricone, Valentina; Fiorito, Graziano

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of cephalopod species and the differences in morphology and the habitats in which they live, illustrates the ability of this class of molluscs to adapt to all marine environments, demonstrating a wide spectrum of patterns to search, detect, select, capture, handle, and kill prey. Photo-, mechano-, and chemoreceptors provide tools for the acquisition of information about their potential preys. The use of vision to detect prey and high attack speed seem to be a predominant pattern...

  10. An empirical assessment of implementation, adaptation, and tailoring: the evaluation of CDC's National Diffusion of VOICES/VOCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Camilla; Simmons, Gretchen; Coelho, Helen; Sloop, Kira; Collins, Charles

    2006-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), through its Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program, trained over 260 agencies on VOICES/VOCES between August 2003 and April 2005. ORC Macro conducted interviews with agency staff 3 months after receiving VOICES/VOCES training. This article discusses the diffusion of VOICES/VOCES; agencies' adoption, adaptation, and implementation of this intervention; and needs for ongoing proactive technical assistance (TA) for agencies to successfully integrate behavioral interventions into their programs. The vastmajority of agencies implemented VOICES/VOCES with fidelity to the core elements, and agencies successfully adapted the intervention to make it more appealing to target populations. TA is needed for interventions to be successfully adapted and implemented with fidelity to the core elements, and to ensure program sustainability. More effective interventions of short duration and minimum complexity to easily match with existing resources and conditions of agency capacity among HIV prevention providers in the community are needed.

  11. Barrancaceae: A new green algal lineage with structural and behavioral adaptations to a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caisová, Lenka; Reyes, Carolina Pérez; Álamo, Virginia Cruz; Quintana, Antera Martel; Surek, Barbara; Melkonian, Michael

    2015-09-01

    To enhance our knowledge of the diversity of microalgae, a phycological survey of the Canary Islands (Spain) was undertaken. Here we report the discovery of a (semi)terrestrial green filamentous alga isolated from a steep volcanic canyon on La Palma. This alga is continually exposed to changing weather conditions (floods vs. droughts) and thus provides a good opportunity to investigate possible adaptations to a semiterrestrial habitat with large fluctuations of environmental parameters. We used axenic cultures, simulated flood and drought stresses and studied their effect on the life history of the alga using light, confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy including fluorescent staining. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses using rDNA sequence comparisons were performed. Three specific life-history traits that likely represent adaptations to the fluctuating environment of the canyon were observed: (1) fragmentation through "filament splitting", a unique branching mechanism not reported before in algae and initiated by formation of oblique cross walls, (2) aplanospore formation, and (3) reproduction by multiflagellate zoospores with 4-24 flagella arranged in groups of four. Phylogenetic analyses identified the alga as Barranca multiflagellata gen. et sp. nov. (Barrancaceae fam. nov., Chaetophorales, Chlorophyceae). Moreover, the Chaetophoraceae Greville, 1824 was emended and a new family, Uronemataceae (fam. nov.) erected. The discovery of Barrancaceae fam. nov. highlights the importance of investigating nonconventional habitats to explore microalgal diversity. The reproductive versatility demonstrated by Barranca suggests adaptation to a semiterrestrial habitat with large fluctuations in water availability. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  12. The predator and prey behaviors of crabs: from ecology to neural adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta; Berón de Astrada, Martín; Oliva, Damián; Lanza, Estela

    2017-07-01

    Predator avoidance and prey capture are among the most vital of animal behaviors. They require fast reactions controlled by comparatively straightforward neural circuits often containing giant neurons, which facilitates their study with electrophysiological techniques. Naturally occurring avoidance behaviors, in particular, can be easily and reliably evoked in the laboratory, enabling their neurophysiological investigation. Studies in the laboratory alone, however, can lead to a biased interpretation of an animal's behavior in its natural environment. In this Review, we describe current knowledge - acquired through both laboratory and field studies - on the visually guided escape behavior of the crab Neohelice granulata Analyses of the behavioral responses to visual stimuli in the laboratory have revealed the main characteristics of the crab's performance, such as the continuous regulation of the speed and direction of the escape run, or the enduring changes in the strength of escape induced by learning and memory. This work, in combination with neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies, has allowed the identification of various giant neurons, the activity of which reflects most essential aspects of the crabs' avoidance performance. In addition, behavioral analyses performed in the natural environment reveal a more complex picture: crabs make use of much more information than is usually available in laboratory studies. Moreover, field studies have led to the discovery of a robust visually guided chasing behavior in Neohelice Here, we describe similarities and differences in the results obtained between the field and the laboratory, discuss the sources of any differences and highlight the importance of combining the two approaches. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for Binge Eating: A Feasibility Study with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G. Terence; Thompson, Douglas R.; Striegel, Ruth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pre-treatment to post-treatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

  14. Treating kleptomania: cross-cultural adaptation of the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale and assessment of an outpatient program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianini, Aparecida Rangon; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-01-01

    Kleptomania is characterized by repetitive stealing and has severe consequences for patients. Stigma, a lack of standardized therapy and a limited number of assessment tools hinder advances in treatment. This study provides preliminary data on the Portuguese-language version of the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale (P-K-SAS) and preliminary data on an outpatient program. Experts in the field analyzed an initial P-K-SAS version, produced through translation/back-translation, in order to arrive at a final version. Eight patients currently on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and 10 patients under maintenance CBT were initially assessed, then re-assessed 6months later. The mean P-K-SAS score was higher among patients initiating CBT than among those under maintenance CBT (21.1±8.0 vs. 11.3±7.5; Mann-Whitney U=15.0, P=.024). The final version of the P-K-SAS presented excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.980; inter-item correlation, 0.638-0.907). The P-K-SAS presented solid psychometrics and seems ready for use in assessing the effectiveness of treatments for kleptomania. The findings suggest that kleptomania patients need follow-up treatment that goes beyond the traditional 12-session structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Variable Planting Date as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Variability in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture accounts for approximately 70% of global freshwater withdrawals. Changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change as well as increasing demands for water necessitate an increased understanding of the water-­food intersection, notably at a local scale to inform farmer adaptations to improve water productivity, i.e., to get more food with less water. Local assessments of water-food security are particularly important for nations with self-sufficiency policies, which prioritize in-country production of certain resources. An ideal case study is the small island nation of Sri Lanka, which has a self-sufficiency policy for its staple food of rice. Because rice is a water-intensive crop, assessment of irrigation water requirements (IWRs) and the associated changes over time is especially important. Previous studies on IWRs of rice in Sri Lanka have failed to consider the Yala (dry) season, when water is scarcest.The goal of this study is to characterize the role that a human decision, setting the planting date, can play in buffering declines in rice yield against changes in precipitation patterns. Using four meteorological stations in the main rice-growing zones in Sri Lanka, we explore (1) general changes in IWRs over time during the Yala season and (2) the impact of the rice planting date. We use both historical data from meteorological stations as well as future projections from regional climate models. Our results indicate that gains can be achieved using a variable planting date relative to a fixed date, in accordance with a similar conclusion for the Maha (wet) season. This local scale assessment of Sri Lanka IWRs will contribute to the growing global literature on the impacts of water scarcity on agriculture and the role that one adaptation measure can play in mitigating deleterious impacts.

  16. Formal psychological assessment in evaluating depression: a new methodology to build exhaustive and irredundant adaptive questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Francesca; Spoto, Andrea; Ghisi, Marta; Vidotto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Psychological Assessment can be defined as a complex procedure of information collection, analysis and processing. Formal Psychological Assessment (FPA) tries to improve this procedure by providing a formal framework to build assessment tools. In this paper, FPA is applied to depression. Seven questionnaires widely used for the self-evaluation of depression were selected. Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were derived from the DSM-5, literature and Seligman's and Beck's theories. A Boolean matrix was built, including 266 items from the questionnaires in the rows and 20 selected attributes, obtained through diagnostic criteria decomposition, in the columns. In the matrix, a 1 in a cell meant that the corresponding item investigated the specific attribute. It was thus possible to analyze the relationships between items and attributes and among items. While none of the considered questionnaires could alone cover all the criteria for the evaluation of depressive symptoms, we observed that a set of 30 items contained the same information that was obtained redundantly with 266 items. Another result highlighted by the matrix regards the relations among items. FPA allows in-depth analysis of currently used questionnaires based on the presence/absence of clinical elements. FPA allows for going beyond the mere score by differentiating the patients according to symptomatology. Furthermore, it allows for computerized-adaptive assessment.

  17. Evolutionary Developmental Soft Robotics As a Framework to Study Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior in Animals and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corucci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive methodology and simulation framework will be reviewed, designed in order to study the emergence of adaptive and intelligent behavior in generic soft-bodied creatures. By incorporating artificial evolutionary and developmental processes, the system allows to evolve complete creatures (brain, body, developmental properties, sensory, control system, etc. for different task environments. Whether the evolved creatures will resemble animals or plants is in general not known a priori, and depends on the specific task environment set up by the experimenter. In this regard, the system may offer a unique opportunity to explore differences and similarities between these two worlds. Different material properties can be simulated and optimized, from a continuum of soft/stiff materials, to the interconnection of heterogeneous structures, both found in animals and plants alike. The adopted genetic encoding and simulation environment are particularly suitable in order to evolve distributed sensory and control systems, which play a particularly important role in plants. After a general description of the system some case studies will be presented, focusing on the emergent properties of the evolved creatures. Particular emphasis will be on some unifying concepts that are thought to play an important role in the emergence of intelligent and adaptive behavior across both the animal and plant kingdoms, such as morphological computation and morphological developmental plasticity. Overall, with this paper, we hope to draw attention on set of tools, methodologies, ideas and results, which may be relevant to researchers interested in plant-inspired robotics and intelligence.

  18. Vineland-II adaptive behavior profile of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Giulia; Incognito, Oriana; Belacchi, Carmen; Bonichini, Sabrina; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of adaptive behavior is informative in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or specific learning disorders (SLD). However, the few investigations available have focused only on the gross level of domains of adaptive behavior. To investigate which item subsets of the Vineland-II can discriminate children with ADHD or SLD from peers with typical development. Student's t-tests, ROC analysis, logistic regression, and linear discriminant function analysis were used to compare 24 children with ADHD, 61 elementary students with SLD, and controls matched on age, sex, school level attended, and both parents' education level. Several item subsets that address not only ADHD core symptoms, but also understanding in social context and development of interpersonal relationships, allowed discrimination of children with ADHD from controls. The combination of four item subsets (Listening and attending, Expressing complex ideas, Social communication, and Following instructions) classified children with ADHD with both sensitivity and specificity of 87.5%. Only Reading skills, Writing skills, and Time and dates discriminated children with SLD from controls. Evaluation of Vineland-II scores at the level of item content categories is a useful procedure for an efficient clinical description. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Road pricing as an impetus for environment-friendly travel behavior : Results from a stated adaptation experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, D.; Cools, M.; Moons, E.; Wets, G.; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2009-01-01

    An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a detailed classification of activities is examined to assess likely traveler response to congestion

  20. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  1. Walking-adaptability assessments with the Interactive Walkway: Between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerse, Daphne J; Coolen, Bert H; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2017-05-01

    The ability to adapt walking to environmental circumstances is an important aspect of walking, yet difficult to assess. The Interactive Walkway was developed to assess walking adaptability by augmenting a multi-Kinect-v2 10-m walkway with gait-dependent visual context (stepping targets, obstacles) using real-time processed markerless full-body kinematics. In this study we determined Interactive Walkway's usability for walking-adaptability assessments in terms of between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations. Under varying task constraints, 21 healthy subjects performed obstacle-avoidance, sudden-stops-and-starts and goal-directed-stepping tasks. Various continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures were concurrently determined with the Interactive Walkway and a gold-standard motion-registration system: available response time, obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stop margins, step length, stepping accuracy and walking speed. The same holds for dichotomous classifications of success and failure for obstacle-avoidance and sudden-stops tasks and performed short-stride versus long-stride obstacle-avoidance strategies. Continuous walking-adaptability outcome measures generally agreed well between systems (high intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, low biases and narrow limits of agreement) and were highly sensitive to task and subject variations. Success and failure ratings varied with available response times and obstacle types and agreed between systems for 85-96% of the trials while obstacle-avoidance strategies were always classified correctly. We conclude that Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability outcome measures are reliable and sensitive to task and subject variations, even in high-functioning subjects. We therefore deem Interactive Walkway walking-adaptability assessments usable for obtaining an objective and more task-specific examination of one's ability to walk, which may be feasible for both high

  2. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  3. A Methodology for Evaluating the Hygroscopic Behavior of Wood in Adaptive Building Skins using Motion Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dabaa, Rana; Abdelmohsen, Sherif

    2018-05-01

    The challenge in designing kinetic architecture lies in the lack of applying computational design and human computer interaction to successfully design intelligent and interactive interfaces. The use of ‘programmable materials’ as specifically fabricated composite materials that afford motion upon stimulation is promising for low-cost low-tech systems for kinetic facades in buildings. Despite efforts to develop working prototypes, there has been no clear methodological framework for understanding and controlling the behavior of programmable materials or for using them for such purposes. This paper introduces a methodology for evaluating the motion acquired from programmed material – resulting from the hygroscopic behavior of wood – through ‘motion grammar’. Motion grammar typically allows for the explanation of desired motion control in a computationally tractable method. The paper analyzed and evaluated motion parameters related to the hygroscopic properties and behavior of wood, and introduce a framework for tracking and controlling wood as a programmable material for kinetic architecture.

  4. A Proposed Model for Selecting Measurement Procedures for the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B; Sellers, Tyra P; Carr, James E

    2016-03-01

    Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment.

  5. Cross-cultural Translation and Adaptation of the Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire (LAQ-CP) Into Dutch: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Laura; Speth, Lucianne; Rameckers, Eugène; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    To produce a Dutch translation of the Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy (LAQ-CP), adapted for cross-cultural differences. The translation process consisted of 6 stages, following a guideline for cross-cultural adaptations including duplicate forward- and back-translations, expert group review, pilot-testing, and a process audit. Several adaptations to the questionnaire were required due to cross-cultural differences. As a result of the pilot-test, the layout was adapted to the desires of the users. The process auditor stated that the process had been comprehensive and valued the quality of the work. The project resulted in a Dutch translation of the LAQ-CP, adapted for cross-cultural differences. Validation of the translated questionnaire is required before use in clinical practice and research is recommended (Dutch abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/PPT/A164).

  6. A Parameter-based Model for Generating Culturally Adaptive Nonverbal Behaviors in Embodied Conversational Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to integrate culture as a computational term in embodied conversational agents by employing an empirical data-driven approach as well as a theoretical model-driven approach. We propose a parameter-based model that predicts nonverbal expressions appropriate for specific...... cultures. First, we introduce the Hofstede theory to describe socio-cultural characteristics of each country. Then, based on the previous studies in cultural differences of nonverbal behaviors, we propose expressive parameters to characterize nonverbal behaviors. Finally, by integrating socio-cultural...

  7. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, Denise Martins

    2004-01-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  8. Performance Comparison of Adaptive Estimation Techniques for Power System Small-Signal Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Feilat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the assessment of the small-signal stability of a single-machine infinite- bus power system under widely varying loading conditions using the concept of synchronizing and damping torques coefficients. The coefficients are calculated from the time responses of the rotor angle, speed, and torque of the synchronous generator. Three adaptive computation algorithms including Kalman filtering, Adaline, and recursive least squares have been compared to estimate the synchronizing and damping torque coefficients. The steady-state performance of the three adaptive techniques is compared with the conventional static least squares technique by conducting computer simulations at different loading conditions. The algorithms are compared to each other in terms of speed of convergence and accuracy. The recursive least squares estimation offers several advantages including significant reduction in computing time and computational complexity. The tendency of an unsupplemented static exciter to degrade the system damping for medium and heavy loading is verified. Consequently, a power system stabilizer whose parameters are adjusted to compensate for variations in the system loading is designed using phase compensation method. The effectiveness of the stabilizer in enhancing the dynamic stability over wide range of operating conditions is verified through the calculation of the synchronizing and damping torque coefficients using recursive least square technique.

  9. An adaptive cubature formula for efficient reliability assessment of nonlinear structural dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Kong, Fan

    2018-05-01

    Extreme value distribution (EVD) evaluation is a critical topic in reliability analysis of nonlinear structural dynamic systems. In this paper, a new method is proposed to obtain the EVD. The maximum entropy method (MEM) with fractional moments as constraints is employed to derive the entire range of EVD. Then, an adaptive cubature formula is proposed for fractional moments assessment involved in MEM, which is closely related to the efficiency and accuracy for reliability analysis. Three point sets, which include a total of 2d2 + 1 integration points in the dimension d, are generated in the proposed formula. In this regard, the efficiency of the proposed formula is ensured. Besides, a "free" parameter is introduced, which makes the proposed formula adaptive with the dimension. The "free" parameter is determined by arranging one point set adjacent to the boundary of the hyper-sphere which contains the bulk of total probability. In this regard, the tail distribution may be better reproduced and the fractional moments could be evaluated with accuracy. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a ten-storey shear frame structure under seismic excitations, which exhibits strong nonlinearity. The numerical results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  10. Common-but-differentiated-Responsibilities for adaptation financing. An assessment of the contributions of countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellink, R. [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Den Elzen, M. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aikinga, H.; Bergsm, E.; Berkhout, F.; Dekker, T.; Gupta, J. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-03-15

    Climate change may cause most harm to countries that have historically contributed the least to greenhouse gas emissions and land-use change. This paper identifies deontology, solidarity and consequentialism as the principles that can serve as a basis for a fair international burden sharing scheme of climate change adaptation costs. We translate these principles into criteria that can be applied in assigning a share of the financial burden to individual countries, namely historical responsibility, equality and capacity to pay. Specific political and scientific choices are discussed, highlighting implications for international burden-sharing schemes. A hybrid approach, combining historical responsibility and capacity to pay seems a promising starting point for international negotiations on the design of burden-sharing schemes. From the numerical assessment, it is clear that UNFCCC Annex I countries carry the greatest burden under most scenarios, but contributions differ substantially subject to the choice of an indicator for capacity to pay. The contributions are less sensitive to choices related to responsibility calculations, apart from those associated with land-use related emissions. Assuming the costs of climate adaptation are USD100 billion per year, the total financial contribution by the Annex I countries would be in the range of USD 55-68 billion per year.

  11. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Verhagen, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot

  12. The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP’s) National Assessment of ...

  13. Assessing the Resolution Adaptability of the Zhang-McFarlane Cumulus Parameterization With Spatial and Temporal Averaging: RESOLUTION ADAPTABILITY OF ZM SCHEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yuxing [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Fan, Jiwen [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Xiao, Heng [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zhang, Guang J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego CA USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Xu, Kuan-Man [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton VA USA; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gustafson, William I. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-11-01

    Realistic modeling of cumulus convection at fine model resolutions (a few to a few tens of km) is problematic since it requires the cumulus scheme to adapt to higher resolution than they were originally designed for (~100 km). To solve this problem, we implement the spatial averaging method proposed in Xiao et al. (2015) and also propose a temporal averaging method for the large-scale convective available potential energy (CAPE) tendency in the Zhang-McFarlane (ZM) cumulus parameterization. The resolution adaptability of the original ZM scheme, the scheme with spatial averaging, and the scheme with both spatial and temporal averaging at 4-32 km resolution is assessed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, by comparing with Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) results. We find that the original ZM scheme has very poor resolution adaptability, with sub-grid convective transport and precipitation increasing significantly as the resolution increases. The spatial averaging method improves the resolution adaptability of the ZM scheme and better conserves the total transport of moist static energy and total precipitation. With the temporal averaging method, the resolution adaptability of the scheme is further improved, with sub-grid convective precipitation becoming smaller than resolved precipitation for resolution higher than 8 km, which is consistent with the results from the CRM simulation. Both the spatial distribution and time series of precipitation are improved with the spatial and temporal averaging methods. The results may be helpful for developing resolution adaptability for other cumulus parameterizations that are based on quasi-equilibrium assumption.

  14. Analysis of Management Behavior Assessments and Affect on Productivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shipley, Jr, Steven E

    2005-01-01

    The basis of this study originates from the identification of management behavioral attributes within executive skill competencies necessary in the successful management of military treatment facilities...

  15. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  16. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  17. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Francois G.

    2003-01-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives and modular configuration

  18. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Grancois G.

    2004-01-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives, and modular configuration

  19. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  20. Group dialectical behavior therapy adapted for obese emotional eaters; a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosen, M.A.; Safer, D.; Adler, S.; Cebolla, A.; Strien, T. van

    2012-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED). This study pilots the effectiveness of group DIVE for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters