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Sample records for adapted swimming pool reactor austria

  1. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  2. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to keep my child safe around swimming pools? An adult should actively watch children at ...

  3. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  4. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  5. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  6. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  7. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall be...

  8. Airways disorders and the swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the possible detrimental effects of chlorine derivatives in indoor swimming pool environments. Indeed, a controversy has arisen regarding the possibility that chlorine commonly used worldwide as a disinfectant favors the development of asthma and allergic diseases. The effects of swimming in indoor chlorinated pools on the airways in recreational and elite swimmers are presented. Recent studies on the influence of swimming on airway inflammation and remodeling in competitive swimmers, and the phenotypic characteristics of asthma in this population are reviewed. Preventative measures that could potentially reduce the untoward effects of pool environment on airways of swimmers are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  10. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming.

  11. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made.

  12. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Swimming level of pupils from elementary schools with own swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Zálupská, Klára

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming level of pupils from primary school with private swimming pool. Work objectives: The aim is to identify assess level of swimming of pupils from first to ninth grade of primary school with a private pool in Chomutov district using continuous swimming test with regular swimming lessons, which is started in the first grade and persists until the ninth grade. The condition was organizing a school swimming lessons once a week for 45 minutes in all grades. Methodology: Swimming leve...

  14. The Pool Is Not Just for Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzker, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Participating in water fitness workouts is one way to benefit one's health at very little cost. If the pool at a school is used only for swimming, then the benefits of having one barely causes a ripple. When the properties of water and how humans react to water are understood and applied to water activity programs, health benefits and enjoyment…

  15. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    of the strategies which can be used to achieve microbiological safe water with low levels of DBPs to ensure healthy environment for bathers. There are different approaches to achieve healthy environment in public swimming pools which in this thesis are divided into three strategies: alternatives to chlorination...

  16. [Infections transmitted in swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suzani, C; Hazeghi, P

    1976-01-01

    Public swimmingpools can be the source of infections due to micro-organism such as mycobacterium balnei, adeno and enteroviruses, the virus of plantar warts and molluscum contagiosum, the TRIC-Agent of swimmingpool-conjonctivitis and pathogenic fungi. The transmission of trichomonas vaginalis is considered unlikely-Water of pools, supposed to present satisfactory qualities by standard controls, was found to contain pathogenic staphylococci and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective preventive measures include the continuous recording of the redox-potential of the water, limiting the number of visitors to pool design specifications, better desinfection of sanitary installations, regular maintenance of technical equipment including frequent backwashing of filters and exclusion of visitors with communicable disease.

  17. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  18. Swimming Pools, Swimming pools, licensed - name, address, contact, volume, Published in 2006, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Swimming pools, licensed - name,...

  19. Alternative heating of a municipal swimming pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    1982-03-01

    Swimming pools require great amounts of energy at low temperature levels. Therefore the application of alternative heating systems is very suitable. Four different systems are taken into account: compression heat pump, absorption heat pump, motor driven heat pump with thermal recovery, and a combined system. A short thermodynamic analysis is carried out in order to evaluate operating savings. Initial cost estimates demonstrate the advantages of each proposed solution over the conventional system.

  20. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Font-Ribera, Laia

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  1. Three modules supply a health resort indoor swimming pool. Drei Module versorgen Kurmittelhaus und Hallenbad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R. (COMUNA-metall Vorrichtungs- und Maschinenbau GmbH, Herford (Germany))

    The article reports on the utilization of dual purpose power plants for the indoor swimming pool at Bad Rothenfelde: Adaptation of the hydraulic circuit, utilization of the gross calorific, heat recovery, electric power load management. (HW)

  2. Disinfection byproducts in swimming pool: occurrences, implications and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Alhooshani, Khalid; Karanfil, Tanju

    2014-04-15

    Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Many swimming pools apply chlorine or bromine based disinfectants to prevent microbial growth. The chlorinated swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than a typical drinking water distribution system. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water and air as a consequence of continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to those DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer, while such exposures can have elevated risks to human health. To date, over 70 peer-reviewed publications have reported various aspects of swimming pool, including types and quantities of DBPs, organic loads from bathers, factors affecting DBPs formation in swimming pool, human exposure and their potential risks. This paper aims to review the state of research on swimming pool including with the focus of DBPs in swimming pools, understand their types and variability, possible health effects and analyze the factors responsible for the formation of various DBPs in a swimming pool. The study identifies the current challenges and future research needs to minimize DBPs formation in a swimming pool and their consequent negative effects to bathers and trainers.

  3. [Green hair caused by frequent swimming pool use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, K; Kretzschmar, L; Müller, C; Metze, D; Traupe, H

    1997-08-01

    Three patients presented with an acquired green discoloration of their scalp hair. History revealed that all of them swam regularly in private swimming pools. Examination of the hair by atomic emission spectroscopy showed that the green discoloration was caused by an excessively high copper content of the hair. This exogeneous discoloration is characteristically related to the uptake of copper from private swimming pools.

  4. Chemical contaminants in swimming pools: Occurrence, implications and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tiffany L L; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-03-01

    A range of trace chemical contaminants have been reported to occur in swimming pools. Current disinfection practices and monitoring of swimming pool water quality are aimed at preventing the spread of microbial infections and diseases. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectants used react with organic and inorganic matter in the pool. Additional chemicals may be present in swimming pools originating from anthropogenic sources (bodily excretions, lotions, cosmetics, etc.) or from the source water used where trace chemicals may already be present. DBPs have been the most widely investigated trace chemical contaminants, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), halobenzoquinones (HBQs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), N-nitrosamines, nitrite, nitrates and chloramines. The presence and concentrations of these chemical contaminants are dependent upon several factors including the types of pools, types of disinfectants used, disinfectant dosages, bather loads, temperature and pH of swimming pool waters. Chemical constituents of personal care products (PCPs) such as parabens and ultraviolet (UV) filters from sunscreens have also been reported. By-products from reactions of these chemicals with disinfectants and UV irradiation have been reported and some may be more toxic than their parent compounds. There is evidence to suggest that exposure to some of these chemicals may lead to health risks. This paper provides a detailed review of various chemical contaminants reported in swimming pools. The concentrations of chemicals present in swimming pools may also provide an alternative indicator to swimming pool water quality, providing insights to contamination sources. Alternative treatment methods such as activated carbon filtration and advanced oxidation processes may be beneficial in improving swimming pool water quality.

  5. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  6. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  7. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Laia Font-Ribera

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemio...

  8. Inorganic Chemical Composition of Swimming Pools in Amman-Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bety Saqarat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring was carried out during summer 2011 in three types of swimming pools in Amman-Jordan. Thirty six water samples, collected from three users type of swimming pools (adults, family and infants, were examined for its major ionic composition (HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4=, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+ and PO4+4 in addition to its BOD and COD content. All of the examined samples from the swimming pools water were acceptable according to the local and WHO standards. The type and number of users as well as the maintenance of the swimming pool water influenced the water quality. The results showed that there was a noticeable increase in NO3, PO4 and Cl than other ions. All of the examined samples from the swimming pools water were acceptable according to the local and WHO standards and although the water of the infant’s users changed frequently, it showed the highest concentration of most of the parameters and Adults’ pool showed the lowest.

  9. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  10. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  11. [An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Toriumi, Hiroshi; Endo, Takuro; Yamamoto, Norishige; Kuroki, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    A waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred among visitors at a hotel with a swimming pool, gymnasium, and other sports facilities, in northern Nagano Prefecture. The outbreak began in late August, peaked on August 27 and 28, and tapered off at the beginning of September 2004. On August 30, 288 clinical cases with digestive symptoms, including watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and tenesmus, were reported to local authorities. Among case-patients who submitted stool samples, 74 were positive for Cryptosporidium. Descriptive epidemiology, environmental investigations, and laboratory tests suggested that a fecal accident in the swimming pool by swimmers infected before attending the summer training camp was thought to be the source of contamination, and case-patients were mostly among swimmers. Some other clinical-cases had no history of swimming in the pool during their stay and likely were infected through drinking contaminated self-made sports drinks dissolved in water from contaminated faucets and/or sinks nearby the gymnasium toilet. The sink was used to deal with the aftermath of a toilet accident at the entrance of the toilet by a swimming school attendee on August 21. This report is, to our knowledge, the first of a cryptosporidiosis outbreak associated with swimming pools in Japan.

  12. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  13. Acanthamoeba species in Swimming Pools of Cairo, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Herrawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in swimming pools in Egypt using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Water samples were collected from 10 different swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar for the detection of Acanthamoeba isolates that were confirmed by PCR amplification using genus specific primers. The molecularly confirmed Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically identified to the species level.Members of genus Acanthamoeba were detected in 49.2% of the examined swimming-pool water samples. Morphologically, six Acanthamoeba species were isolated from the examined swimming pool water namely A. polyphaga, A.castellanii, A. rhysodes, A. mauritaniensis, A. royreba and A. triangularis. All the identified species of Acanthamoeba were molecularly confirmed to be related to the genus Acanthamoeba.The isolated species of Acanthamoeba could provoke variable degrees of infections to the swimmers. The culture method is cheaper and easier than PCR techniques that are faster for the detection of free-living amoebae.

  14. [Swimming pool lung -- extrinsic allergic alveolitis or mycobacterial disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschel, D; Pietrzyk, C; Sennekamp, J; Müller-Wening, D

    2006-05-01

    There have been several recent reports of pulmonary disease resulting from exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in indoor hot tubs. The disease is thought to be due either to infection or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). In this report we describe the case of a patient who developed episodes of fever, dyspnea and cough 4-6 hours after cleaning his indoor swimming pool. A diagnosis of EAA was made on finding a restrictive lung function pattern with gas exchange abnormalities, a predominant lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar lavage, diffuse ground-glass opacities in the lower lobes on high-resolution computer tomography, and specific IgG antibody activity to the swimming pool water. There was no precipitin reaction or specific IgG antibody activity to microbes extracted from the water. Interestingly, the water contained Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in huge amounts and in this case the histopathological features of the lung biopsy specimens differed from those seen in typical EAA, but were similar to those described in "hot tub lung" caused by mycobacteria. Solely by avoidance of cleaning the swimming pool, without any pharmacological treatment, the patient recovered completely within three months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EAA possibly associated with MAC exposure in a swimming pool environment.

  15. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-06-01

    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  16. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. Methods: Respiratory health and pool attenda

  17. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. Methods: Respiratory health and pool attenda

  18. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. Methods: Respiratory health and pool

  19. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314101144; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30482383X; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. METHODS Respiratory health and pool

  20. Indoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory and dermal health in schoolchildren: HITEA Catalonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, L.; Villanueva, C.M.; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Kogevinas, M.; Zock, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health benefits of swimming in pools may outweigh adverse health outcomes in children, but evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce or inconclusive for different health outcomes. We evaluated the association between indoor swimming pool attendance during childhood and respiratory

  1. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. METHODS Respiratory health and pool attendanc

  2. Swimming pool attendance and hay fever rates later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhammer, Y; Döring, A; Schäfer, T; Wichmann, H-E; Heinrich, J

    2006-11-01

    Exposure to chlorination by-products through swimming pool attendance showed adverse health effects on children. The aim of our study was to assess whether pool attendance in childhood would be related to higher rates of allergic diseases in adulthood, with special regard to hay fever. 2606 adults aged 35-74 years provided retrospectively collected information on swimming pool attendance and medical history, including data on atopic diseases. Information was assessed by a combination of a personal interview and a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to study associations between hay fever and swimming pool attendance, adjusted for potentially relevant confounders, such as age, gender, region, education and smoking. Higher rates of hay fever could be seen when frequently exposed at school age (aOR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.09-2.77), frequently exposed during the past 12 months (aOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.92-1.89) and ever exposed (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 0.98-2.78). Strongest associations were found for the youngest subjects and were dose-related to the extent of current and school-age pool attendance. Impaired integrity of the lung epithelial by exposure to chlorination by-products might facilitate a closer contact to allergens and therefore could result in higher rates of hay fever.

  3. Effects of indoor swimming pools on the nasal cytology of pool workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkul, E; Yaz, A; Cıngı, C; İnançli, H M; San, T; Bal, C

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between swimming pool pollutants and allergic rhinitis in swimming pool workers. Twenty-seven indoor pool workers (group 1) and 49 control subjects (group 2) were enrolled in the study. A skin prick test was performed and a nasal smear was obtained from each subject to evaluate rhinitis. When the groups were compared in terms of epithelial cells, group 1 had significantly more epithelial cells than group 2. When the groups were compared with regard to eosinophils, group 1 had significantly more eosinophils than group 2. The skin prick test results for both groups were not significantly different. Indoor pool workers showed severe symptoms of rhinitis and eosinophilic nasal cytology, likely due to chlorine. Nasal cytology is an easy-to-administer diagnostic test and can be used to follow up rhinitis in indoor pool workers, along with nasal endoscopy, a detailed clinical history and a skin prick test.

  4. Study of Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nanbakhsh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are found in different environments with variable distribution patterns depending on various factors. The aim of this study was determination of fungal contaminants in public swimming pools in Uromia, Iran. The fungal contaminations of four indoor swimming pools were studied by using membrane filtration and swab sampling method. Samples were collected by a manual plastic pump, in a 200 ml sterilized bottle. All samples were collected within 2 hours and then transferred to the laboratory. A total of 384 samples including water and environmental surfaces were collected and tested for the presence of fungi in different seasons within one year. In addition to the above information, some physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, residual chlorine, pH, turbidity of water and the number of swimmers were studied. Findings indicated that, the average temperature, pH, residual chlorine and turbidity of water in the swimming pools within one year were: 29.9°C, 8.1, 0.6 ppm and 0.8 NTU respectively. The most common fungi recovered were as follows: Asepergillus Spp. 56.25%, Candida spp. 22.9%, Rhizopus spp. 4.16 %, other filamentous fungi 16.6% and other yeast species 2.8%. The fungi such as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Philophora and Trichophyton mentagrophytis were isolated from dressing room, bathing room and other places out of pools. According to these results and previous studies on pools, it has been indicated that contamination by fungi in the pools is not significant in water and environment. Presence of dermatophytic fungus from dressing room is probably due to human contact.

  5. Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tiffany L L; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the presence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in public swimming pools. Various types of public swimming pool water were analysed, taken from freshwater indoor swimming pools, outdoor swimming pools, spa pools and seawater swimming pools. Swimming pool water samples were analysed for 30 PPCPs using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All PPCPs were below quantification limits in seawater pools. However, caffeine was detected in 12 chlorinated swimming pools at concentrations up to 1540 ng/L and ibuprofen was observed in 7 chlorinated pools at concentrations up to 83 ng/L. Caffeine and ibuprofen concentrations were below quantification limits in all fill water samples, eliminating this as their source in swimming pools. High variations in caffeine concentrations monitored throughout the day roughly reflect bather loads in swimming pools. Future monitoring of these compounds may assist in evaluating what portion of organic matter measured in swimming pools may come from human excretions.

  6. Stade NPP. Dismantling of the reactor pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Daniel; Dziwis, Joachim [E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH Nukleartechnik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Kemp, Lutz-Hagen [KKW Stade GmbH und Co. oHG, Stade (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Within the scope of the 4{sup th} partial decommissioning permission of Stade NPP the activated and contaminated structures of the reactor pool had to be dismantled in order to gain a completely non-radioactive reactor pool area for the subsequent clearance measurement of the reactor building. In order to achieve the aim it was intended to remove the activated pool liner sheets, its activated framework and several contaminated ventilation channels made of stainless steel, the concrete walls of the reactor pool entirely or in parts depending on their activation level, as well as the remaining activated carbon steel structures of the reactor pool bottom. Embedded in the concrete walls there were several highly contaminated excore tubes and the contaminated pool top edge, which were intended to be removed to its full extent. The contract of the Stade NPP initiated reactor pool dismantling project had been awarded to E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH (EAS) and its subsupplier sat. Kerntechnik GmbH for the concrete dismantling works and was performed as follows. In order to minimize the radiation level in the main working area in accordance with the ALARA principle, the liner sheets and middle parts of its framework were removed by means of angle grinders first, as they were the most dose rate relevant parts. As a result the primary average radiation level in the reactor pool (measured in a distance of 500 mm from the walls) was lowered from 40 {mu}Sv/h to less than 2 {mu}Sv/h. After the minimization of the radiation level in the working area the main dismantling step started with the cutting of the reactor pool walls in blocks by means of diamond rope cutters. Once a concrete block was cut out, it was transported into the fuel pool by means of a crane and crane fork, examined radiologically, marked area by area and segmented to debris by means of an electrical excavator with a hydraulic chisel. Afterwards the debris and carbon steel parts were fractioned and packed for further

  7. Comparison of heat recovery systems in public indoor swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M. [Istituto di Ingeneria Gestionale, Universita di Padova (Italy); Longo, G.A. [Istituto di Fisica Tecnica, Universita di Padova (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    The heating of swimming pools can be expensive in terms of energy costs and energy-saving measures which are much more effective than the simple recovery of the exhausted air are recommended. A new open-cycle absorption system is presented here, operating by chemical dehumidification on the exhausted air. It allows important energy savings of the same order as the motor-driven heat pump systems, although its technology is in principle simpler and cheaper. (Author)

  8. Analysis of swimming pool accidents resulting in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B A; Gabrielsen, M A; Hall, W J; O'Heir, J

    1980-04-01

    This paper is a summary of a study of 72 cases of swimming-pool accidents resulting in serious injuries with the potential of permanent disability. Sixty-four of the 72 cases resulted in spinal cord injuries, 57 of which involved quadriplegic lesions. The authors observed that the majority of these injuries resulted from a lack of good judgement and common sense rather than from intoxication or pool structural deficiencies. Also of note was the lack of appropriate first-aid and extrication rendered, as well as the absence of uniform treatment and care received by the majority of the patients.

  9. Improved swimming pool achieves higher reproducibility and sensitivity to effect of food components as ergogenic AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kengo; Yamada, Ayumi; Mita, Yukiko; Goto, Ayako; Ishimi, Tomoe; Mabuchi, Haruko; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    2009-06-01

    A previously developed current swimming pool for mice has been used to evaluate many food components that enhance endurance exercise performance. In this article, to improve reproducibility, reliability and sensitivity of this assay system, we improved the spout part to generate a uniform current and divided the pool into six lanes to avoid physical interference between swimming mice. The stability of the current flow was assessed by measuring the surface current speed and water volume from the spout part. Maximum swimming times of ddY and BALB/c mice were measured to assess the reproducibility of the maximum swimming time. The improvement in sensitivity compared to the original equipment was estimated under three physiological conditions: low carbohydrate diet feeding, low blood hemoglobin level, and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise. The new spout part improved uniformity and quick adjustment of surface current, yielding an increase of workload in a stepwise manner during swimming. Exercise workload was increased in proportion to surface current speed, as evidenced by cadence of kicks and serum lactic acid levels. The improved swimming pool showed higher reproducibility of swimming time until fatigue (pswimming time was improved in the swimming pool. The improved swimming pool yielded higher sensitivity for low carbohydrate diet feeding (pswimming pool. The improvement of the swimming pool achieved higher sensitivity and reproducibility in assessing various diet and food components compared to the original swimming pool.

  10. Evaluation and Treatment of Swimming Pool Avoidance Exhibited by an Adolescent Girl with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, John T.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and treated swimming pool avoidance that was exhibited by a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with autism. In part, treatment involved blocking for flopping (dropping to the ground) and elopement (running away from the pool) and access to food for movements toward a swimming pool. Treatment also involved reinforcement for exposure to various…

  11. Evaluation and Treatment of Swimming Pool Avoidance Exhibited by an Adolescent Girl with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, John T.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and treated swimming pool avoidance that was exhibited by a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with autism. In part, treatment involved blocking for flopping (dropping to the ground) and elopement (running away from the pool) and access to food for movements toward a swimming pool. Treatment also involved reinforcement for exposure to various…

  12. Incidence of otitis externa following swimming pool attendance--a case study in 6 indoor pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borneff, M.; Geyer, G.

    1982-08-01

    A bacteriological study of the microflora in the auditory meatus of patients with otitis externa after swimming in correlation to the water flora was done during winter 80/81. Six indoor-pools (monthly controls ahead had proven unobjectionable water quality) were analyzed daily, while all swimmers were asked to come for otologic examination whenever symptoms of otitis externa appeared. In a control group without otitis externa the auditory canal was inspected and swabs were taken immediately after swimming. The results indicate, that a short term contamination of the ear canal is possible by swimming in water of unobjectionable quality; this however does not necessarily lead to clinical appearances. Since the incidence of otitis externa in our study (0.01%) was not higher than the morbidity rate in nonswimmers, the data support the concept of the multiplex etiology for otitis externa.

  13. Environmental burdens of a Finnish indoor swimming pool; Uimahallin ympaeristoekuormitukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaahterus, T.; Saari, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this study the environmental burdens of a Finnish indoor swimming pool generated by its energy consumption were calculated. The calculations were made by using a calculation method based on LCA methodology. Calculations were made of 50 years period. The energy consumption dating from the time of the indoor swimming pool causes towards the gross-floor area a nearly four times bigger environmental load than for example a block of flats and indoor ice- skating rink. On a block of flats and indoor ice-skating rink the energy consumption dating from the time of the use causes more than 90 % of the environmental burdens of the whole life span. One can suppose that at the indoor swimming pool the share of the energy consumption dating from the time of the use only is emphasized. In this study confine therefore to dealing with the environmental loads caused only by the energy consumption dating from the time of the use. The results of these calculations showed that the energy flow of the life cycle energy consumption was 193 000 MJ/brm{sup 2}. 11,2 ton per gross-floor area CO{sub 2} equivalents, 21 kg per gross-floor area SO{sub 2} equivalents and 290 g per gross-floor area ethene equivalents of environmental burdens were caused. The main factor causing the most environmental loads were the need of heating energy. The need of heating energy produced 75 % of the CO{sub 2} equivalents, 70 % of the SO{sub 2} equivalents and 59 % of the ethene equivalents. The need of the electric energy produced 23 % of the CO{sub 2} equivalents, 23 % of the SO{sub 2} equivalents and 17 % of the ethene equivalents. Of the heating energy the share of the warming of water was 56 %. The most significant part of the electric energy were consumed in the use of the sauna stoves and vapor sauna (31 %) and heating pumps and water elements (30 %). Almost all (87 %) of the energy, consumed during the life cycle, was produced with non-renewable energy sources. The source information of the energy was

  14. Swimming pools and health-related behaviours: results of an Italian multicentre study on showering habits among pool users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, C; Veronesi, L; Napoli, C; Castaldi, S; Pasquarella, M L; Saccani, E; Colucci, M E; Auxilia, F; Gallè, F; Di Onofrio, V; Tafuri, S; Signorelli, C; Liguori, G

    2013-07-01

    Showering before entering a swimming pool is highly recommended to reduce the risk of biological and chemical contamination. This study evaluated the behaviour of indoor swimming pool users; analysed the variables associated with lack of showering; and assessed awareness of the importance of showering. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about users of swimming pools located in five different Italian cities. The association between specific variables and the lack of showering was assessed. P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. In total, 4356 questionnaires were analysed. Sixty-five percent of interviewees always showered before entering the pool. The main reason given for pre-swim showering was 'to wash oneself' (50.5%); or 'to get used to the temperature of the water' (44.3%); and 5.2% answered 'for both reasons'. Risk factors significantly associated with lack of showering were: female sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.59), age 14-17 years (OR 5.09, 95% CI 3.40-7.64); not reading the swimming pool rules (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41); living in Central Italy (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.65-4.1) or Southern Italy (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.18-1.55); and previous/current attendance of a swimming course (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.48-1.97). The results revealed low compliance with the rule of showering before entering a swimming pool, and little awareness of the preventive role of showering in the hygienic management of swimming pools. There is a need for targeted educational interventions to inform swimming pool users of the reasons for the importance of showering before entering a pool. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Swimming Lessons: Learning, New Materialisms, Posthumanism, and Post Qualitative Research Emerge through a Pool Poem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    This article shifts from the formal learning spaces of school and university to an Australian public swimming pool to playfully engage some of the dilemmas that recent theory poses for curriculum studies. The article enacts multiple diffractions (Barad, 2007) as theory becomes swimming and swimming becomes theory, and ideas and movements are…

  16. Swimming Lessons: Learning, New Materialisms, Posthumanism, and Post Qualitative Research Emerge through a Pool Poem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    This article shifts from the formal learning spaces of school and university to an Australian public swimming pool to playfully engage some of the dilemmas that recent theory poses for curriculum studies. The article enacts multiple diffractions (Barad, 2007) as theory becomes swimming and swimming becomes theory, and ideas and movements are…

  17. Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    This discussion of Austria focuses on the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Austria. As of July 1982, the population of Austria totaled 7.6 million with an annual growth rate of 0.1%. The infant mortality rate is 16/1000, and life expectancy is 73 years. Austria is primarily mountainous, and the climate is moderate. 99% of Austria's population are native German speakers. The only 2 significant minority groups are about 20,000 Slovenes in Carinthia and about 25,000 Croatians in Burgenland. The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a decisive role in central European history, partly because of its strategic position astride the southeast approaches to western Europe and the north-south routes between Germany and Italy. The president of Austria is directly elected to a 6-year term and may not serve more than 2 successive terms. As chief of state, the president's functions are largely representational. The chancellor (head of government) is either the leader of the party that wins the majority of seats in parliamentary elections and therefore can form a government or a coalition, or the leader of the party having the support of the president in the formation of a minority government. The chancellor selects the cabinet and, with its assistance, weilds actual power and is responsible to the Federal Assembly. The Federal Assembly (parliament) is composed of 2 houses--the National Council, or lower house, and the Federal Council, or upper house. Virtually all legislative authority is concentrated in the National Council. Since World War 2 Austria has enjoyed politcal stability. The 2 major parties that formed during the 1945-66 period have the support of about 90% of the electorate. Austria has a free enterprise economy in which the government plays an important role. More than half of the gross domestic product (GDP) comes from manufacturing and services. Austrian farms are small

  18. Energy conservation strategies for sports centers: Pt. B. Swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trianti-Stourna, E.; Theofylaktos, C.; Santamouris, M.; Lazaropoulou, G.; Papanikolaou, N. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Applied Physics; Spyropoulou, K. [Spyropoulou and Associares, Architects and Planners, Athens (Greece); Droutsa, K.; Balaras, C.A.; Asimakopoulos, D.N. [IMPAE, National Observatory of Athens (Greece)

    1998-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a number of energy audits and the analysis performed in order to improve indoor conditions and optimize energy use, in Hellenic indoor swimming pools, performed for the European Commission, in the framework of the SAVE program. The aim of this work was to investigate the technical, functional and administrative obstacles for energy conservation in sports centers (including sports halls) and to propose practical and cost-effective solutions for improving their energy efficiency, indoor thermal and visual comfort throughout the year. The work concentrated on retrofitting of existing buildings, although the proposed design and management principles could also be followed in new projects in the area of sports and recreation facilities. (orig.)

  19. Bacteriological Assessment of Water Quality of Public Swimming Pools in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Pesewu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for life and in most parts of the world including Ghana it is used for various activities such as drinking, bathing and recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to assess the bacteriological quality of swimming pools’ water in the Accra Metropolis. Five swimming pools were selected randomly and a research team visited the pools to collect water samples and at the same time administer short questionnaires about the characteristics of the pools. The average number of swimmers, swimming bathing loads, average age group of pool users, methods of disinfection, type of chlorine used, recycling, and treatment of the water before and after use were investigated. During the visit, water samples were collected for total coliform, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus counts using the Membrane Filtration (MF method and cultured on chromogenic media. Most (60% of the selected swimming pools had a bathing load≤20 per day. The operators of the pools disinfect their pools’ water with chorine but majority (60% of the pool operators chlorinated their pools manually with powdered chlorine. The 20 water samples investigated show that 48% of swimming pools water was contaminated with S. aureus, 30.4% with Ps. aeruginosa , 20.9% with total coli form and 0.7% with E. coli. The E. coli count found in this study was very low indicating that the selected swimming pools were not feacally polluted at the time of sampling. It is recommended that future studies should use large sample sizes.

  20. Analysis of enterovirus and adenovirus presence in swimming pools in Cyprus from 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiardes, S; Koptides, D; Pavlidou, S; Richter, J; Stavrou, N; Kourtis, C; Papageorgiou, G T; Christodoulou, C G

    2011-01-01

    An analysis was carried out to determine the presence of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in public swimming pools in Cyprus. The effectiveness of the commonly implemented disinfection procedure of chlorination was confirmed by determination of bacteriological markers. Analysis of viral presence was carried out by sampling random swimming pools from the five major cities in Cyprus during a period of 21 months spanning from April 2007 to December 2008. A 10 I sample was taken from each swimming pool to be tested and was subsequently concentrated via membrane filtration using a new methodological approach for virus elution. Concentrated samples were analysed using of a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) TaqMan probe based approach to detect the presence of enteroviruses and adenoviruses. Over the period of 21 months a total of 126 swimming pools were sampled and analysed. In four swimming pools enteroviruses were detected, in one pool echovirus 18 was identified, in two pools echovirus 30 was identified and in one other pool poliovirus Sabin 1 was identified. Similarly, in four swimming pools adenoviruses were detected, in all four adenovirus 41 was identified. Bacteriological marker analysis showed that 98% of pools complied with Cyprus regulations.

  1. Survey of bacterial contamination of environment of swimming pools in Yazd city, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections are readily transmitted as a result of bacterial contamination of swimming pools. Therefore, hygiene and preventing the contamination of swimming pools is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of bacterial contamination in indoor pools of Yazd in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, all indoor swimming pools of Yazd (12 pools were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2013, in terms of bacterial contamination. In order to determine contamination, a sterile cotton swab was used for sampling. On average, 45 samples were taken from different surfaces in each pool (shower, dressing room, sitting places in sauna, platforms and around the pool. In total, about 540 samples from all pools were tested for bacterial contamination. Results: The results show that from 540 samples, bacterial contamination was observed in about 93 samples (17.22%; and was seen more in showers, edges of the pool and jacuzzis, and the slippers used in swimming pools. The most important isolated bacteria types were E. coli, Actinobacteria, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of bacterial contamination on the surface of these places. It is recommended that health authorities should pay more attention to cleaning and disinfecting surfaces around the pool, showers, dressing rooms etc, to prevent infectious disease transfer as a result of contact with contaminated swimming pool surfaces.

  2. Occurrence, origin, and toxicity of disinfection byproducts in chlorinated swimming pools: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasfi, Tarek; Coulomb, Bruno; Boudenne, Jean-Luc

    2017-05-01

    Disinfection treatments are critical to conserve the microbiological quality of swimming pool water and to prevent water-borne infections. The formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools is an undesirable consequence resulting from reactions of disinfectants (e.g. chlorine) with organic and inorganic matter present in pool water, mainly brought by bathers. A considerable body of occurrence studies has identified several classes of DBPs in swimming pools with more than 100 compounds detected, mainly in chlorinated freshwater pools. Trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are among the major DBPs in swimming pools. Other DBPs such as haloacetonitriles (HAN), haloamines, nitrosamines, and halobenzoquinones have also been detected. Researchers have been interested in identifying the precursors responsible for the formation of DBPs. In swimming pools, anthropogenic organic loads brought by swimmers increase the complexity of pool water chemistry. When human inputs (e.g. sweat, urine, hair, skin and personal care products) containing very diverse organic compounds are introduced to pools by swimmers, they react with chlorine resulting in the formation of complex mixtures of DBPs. The overwhelming majority of the total organic halide (TOX) content is still unknown in swimming pools. Exposure of swimmers to DBPs can take place through multiple routes, depending on the chemical properties of each DBP. Toxicological studies have shown that swimming pool water can be mutagenic with different potencies reported in different studies. Many DBPs have been shown to be genotoxic and carcinogenic. DBPs were also shown to induce reproductive and neurotoxic adverse effects in animal studies. Epidemiologic studies in humans have shown that exposure to DBPs increases the risk of respiratory adverse effects and bladder cancer. Association between DBPs and other health effects are still inconclusive. Data gathered in the present review

  3. Monitoring organic loading to swimming pools by fluorescence excitation–emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seredynska-Sobecka, Bozena; Stedmon, Colin; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence Excitation–Emission Matrix spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis was employed to monitor water quality and organic contamination in swimming pools. The fluorescence signal of the swimming pool organic matter was low but increased slightly through the day. The analysis...... loading in swimming pool water. The fluorescence at 420nm gradually increased during opening hours and represented material accumulating through the day....

  4. The Europeanisation of Austria: Misfit, Adaptation and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Falkner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the multiple dimensions of Austrias Europeanisation and the high degree of both misfit and conflict involved therein. Austrias path to EU membership was characterised by fundamental doubts due to the countrys status of neutrality, and by a basic reinterpretation of this concept. After accession, need for institutional adaptation to the EUs decision-making patterns was significant since major tenets of the Austrian political system are special. Furthermore, policy misfit between the domestic and the EU level was considerable in several fields, among them highly symbolic ones. Austrias EU-related diplomacy recently witnessed a major crisis with the other 14 member states sanctioning the new centre-right government in a controversial way. Against this background of strong and multi-dimensional misfit, Austrian performance in implementing EU law is still surprisingly good. By contrast, public appreciation of EU membership has declined even further, and a majority of Austrians oppose enlargement while the Freedom Party advocates a referendum on that issue. Therefore, the conclusions argue that improved communication processes and mutual learning across the multiple levels of the EU system are crucial.

  5. The Europeanisation of Austria: Misfit, Adaptation and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Falkner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the multiple dimensions of Austria’s Europeanisation and the high degree of both misfit and conflict involved therein. Austria’s path to EU membership was characterised by fundamental doubts due to the country’s status of neutrality, and by a basic reinterpretation of this concept. After accession, need for institutional adaptation to the EU’s decision-making patterns was significant since major tenets of the Austrian political system are special. Furthermore, policy misfit between the domestic and the EU level was considerable in several fields, among them highly symbolic ones. Austria’s EU-related diplomacy recently witnessed a major crisis with the other 14 member states ‘sanctioning’ the new centre-right government in a controversial way. Against this background of strong and multi-dimensional misfit, Austrian performance in implementing EU law is still surprisingly good. By contrast, public appreciation of EU membership has declined even further, and a majority of Austrians oppose enlargement while the Freedom Party advocates a referendum on that issue. Therefore, the conclusions argue that improved communication processes and mutual learning across the multiple levels of the EU system are crucial.

  6. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the thermal performance of a solar heated indoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings with indoor swimming pools have a large energy footprint. The source of major energy loss is the swimming pool hall where air humidity is increased by evaporation from the pool water surface. This increases energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the pool hall, fresh water supply loss and heat demand for pool water heating. In this paper, a mathematical model of the swimming pool was made to assess energy demands of an indoor swimming pool building. The mathematical model of the swimming pool is used with the created multi-zone building model in TRNSYS software to determine pool hall energy demand and pool losses. Energy loss for pool water and pool hall heating and ventilation are analyzed for different target pool water and air temperatures. The simulation showed that pool water heating accounts for around 22%, whereas heating and ventilation of the pool hall for around 60% of the total pool hall heat demand. With a change of preset controller air and water temperatures in simulations, evaporation loss was in the range 46-54% of the total pool losses. A solar thermal sanitary hot water system was modelled and simulated to analyze it's potential for energy savings of the presented demand side model. The simulation showed that up to 87% of water heating demands could be met by the solar thermal system, while avoiding stagnation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  7. Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Font-Ribera, Laia; Liviac, Danae; Bustamante, Mariona; Espinoza, Felicidad; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Espinosa, Aina; Fernandez, Pilar; DeMarini, David M.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Grummt, Tamara; Marcos, Ricard

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been associated with cancer risk. A recent study (Villanueva et al. 2007; Am J Epidemiol 165:148–156) found an increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools relative to those not attending. Objectives We evaluated adults who swam in chlorinated pools to determine whether exposure to DBPs in pool water is associated with biomarkers of genotoxicity. Methods We collected blood, urine, and exhaled air samples from 49 nonsmoking adult volunteers before and after they swam for 40 min in an indoor chlorinated pool. We estimated associations between the concentrations of four trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath and changes in micronuclei (MN) and DNA damage (comet assay) in peripheral blood lymphocytes before and 1 hr after swimming; urine mutagenicity (Ames assay) before and 2 hr after swimming; and MN in exfoliated urothelial cells before and 2 weeks after swimming. We also estimated associations and interactions with polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair or to DBP metabolism. Results After swimming, the total concentration of the four THMs in exhaled breath was seven times higher than before swimming. The change in the frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes after swimming increased in association with higher exhaled concentrations of the brominated THMs (p = 0.03 for bromodichloromethane, p = 0.05 for chlorodibromomethane, p = 0.01 for bromoform) but not chloroform. Swimming was not associated with DNA damage detectable by the comet assay. Urine mutagenicity increased significantly after swimming, in association with the higher concentration of exhaled bromoform (p = 0.004). We found no significant associations with changes in micronucleated urothelial cells. Conclusions Our findings support potential genotoxic effects of exposure to DBPs from swimming pools. The positive health effects gained by swimming could be increased by reducing the potential health

  8. Occurrence and human exposure of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-11-01

    As an emerging group of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, parabens have attracted growing attention due to their potential effects on human health. In the present study, the occurrence and distribution of eight parabens, four chlorinated parabens, and their common hydrolysis product, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), were investigated in 39 swimming pools in Beijing, China. Methyl paraben and propyl paraben were the predominant compounds in swimming pools, accounting for 91.2 % of the total parabens. It is noteworthy that octyl paraben, a paraben with longer chain, was firstly detected in this study. There were several factors affecting the levels of parabens among the 39 swimming pools. The concentrations of parabens and chlorinated derivatives detected in indoor pools (144 ng L(-1)) were roughly 20-fold higher than those in outdoor pools (6.78 ng L(-1)). Hotel pools appear to present higher level of target compounds (361 ng L(-1)) than that in health club (228 ng L(-1)), municipal (130 ng L(-1)), school (75.6 ng L(-1)), and community pools (63.0 ng L(-1)). Moreover, the level of these compounds in pools during weekends (174 ng L(-1)) was much higher than that during weekdays (52.3 ng L(-1)). The dynamics of target compounds were also investigated to provide a general trend of the level of parabens in a school indoor swimming pool during a 14-week period. Human exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the potential risk of exposure to parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in swimming pools. Considering the total exposure dose of multiple parabens, human exposure to parabens from the water of swimming pools is negligible. However, the threat of these parabens to children in swimming pool should be concerned.

  9. Water treatment in public swimming pools - reduction of energy consumption; Vandbehandling i svoemmebade - reduktion af energiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerich, H.; Radisch, N. (Ramboell, Koege (Denmark)); Olesen, Jens Christian (Gladsaxe Sportscenter, Gladsaxe (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements were made in five public swimming baths, and energy savings were achieved using new filters, pumps, water treatment control depending on bather load, etc. In a 50 metre pool, electricity consumption for water treatment decreased by 50%, and in a hot-water/paddling pool, electricity consumption decreased by 30-40% while still maintaining satisfactory water quality - even during periods of heavy bather load. In another swimming bath, ventilation electricity consumption was reduced by 15%. The results will e.g. be used to revise the Danish executive order on swimming pools and water quality to allow bather load-dependent water circulation. (ln)

  10. Energy saving with heat pumps in indoor swimming pools; Energiebesparing met warmtepompen in overdekte zwembaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langreck, J. [Colibri, Vaals (Netherlands)

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the results of a study in which heat pumps and heat recovery equipment for indoor swimming pools are compared. By means of an average, reference indoor swimming pool the effects of energy savings and costs of different combinations of equipment are compared. It is concluded that more energy can be saved by a heat pump than by a heat recovery installation, although the payback period is longer for heat pumps. In all cases, an individual optimization of the total system for a specific swimming pool is decisive for the success of the energy saving investment costs. 3 figs., 1 ill., 2 tabs.

  11. An outbreak of swimming-pool related respiratory symptoms: An elusive source of trichloramine in a municipal indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Sven F; Feyen, Ludo; Keirsbilck, Stephan; Adams, Els; Dupont, Lieven J; Nemery, Benoit

    2015-06-01

    Several members of a swimming club complained of respiratory symptoms associated with attending a municipal indoor swimming pool. Trichloramine, a volatile chlorination by-product and a potent respiratory irritant, was the most probable culprit, but the exact cause for its presence in excessive concentrations remained elusive. Twenty-two competitive swimmers and six coaches were evaluated during the outbreak and nine swimmers and four coaches were re-evaluated one year later. Symptoms were recorded by non-standardized history taking; pulmonary function testing included spirometry, measurement of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and histamine provocation. Concentrations of trichloramine in air were measured repeatedly by the method of Héry. The most commonly reported symptoms consisted of cough (n=16), dyspnoea (n=13), tearing eyes (n=10) and blocked or runny nose (n=6). Mean FEV1% predicted was 109.1%. Mean FENO level was 19.7 ppb (higher than 25 ppb in 3 subjects). Airway hyperreactivity to histamine (PC20 ≤ 8 mg/ml) was detected in 22/26 subjects. Measured trichloramine concentrations in air exceeded the maximal concentration (WHO) of 0.5mg/m(3) four times between May and October 2011 and four times between January and March 2012. Polyamine compounds, present in glue used for repairing pipework, were identified as a probable external source of nitrogen resulting in increasing trichloramine concentrations. After the removal of the presumed cause of the excessive trichloramine concentrations, most subjects improved clinically, but several subjects remained symptomatic and had bronchial hyperreactivity. A high prevalence of airway hyperreactivity, accompanied by symptoms of upper and lower airways, was detected in swimmers who had been repeatedly exposed to high trichloramine concentrations. A glue containing polyamines, used to repair a pipework, was suspected to be the source of this excessive production of trichloramine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Gmb

  12. [Swimming pool suction injury: etiology, profylaxis and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škach, J; Kašák, P; Šrám, J

    2015-01-01

    Swimming pool suction injuries are unique and rare with a substantive risk of fatal consequences. Little children under the age of 8 are the most frequent victims with serious injuries. Drownings of different seriousness are also a usual part of accidents. The case of a 19 year old man trapped in the gluteal area by a unsecured suction drainage hole illustrates the uniqueness of this problem in an interesting way. Prophylactic arrangements are well known but the problem is with their strict application. Fatal causes excluding drowning include hypovolemic shock from the sudden redistribution of intersticial fluid and blood and also the evisceration of the bowel and other abdominal organs. Localised often bizarre and large swellings and sufusions can be treated nonoperatively in the vast majority of cases. For the prevention of these injuries it is important to inform the public and increase their awareness to these injuries. It is also crucial for the correct management of these injuries a deeper awareness of this issue and a sharing of experiences and solutions with other experts.Key words: vacuum - accident - entrapment - compartment syndrome.

  13. Determinants of soil organic carbon pools in oak stands in northeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Hochbichler, Eduard; Yan, Shuai; Glatzel, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Recently deciduous forests in northeastern Austria received increased attention as potential sources of biomass for energetic utilisation. There are still substantial deficits in the knowledge on carbon pools, -sequestration and -dynamics at these forest sites. The aim of our study was therefore to identify the main determinants which control soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in differently managed Quercus petraea dominated stands. We used the chronosequence approach to test the influence of stand age and management on the SOC pool. Soil samples were systematically collected from 14 plots by means of a 70mm hand auger to a depth of max. 60cm and separated into five geometric horizons. Narrow O-layers and signs of active bioturbation on most sites suggest rapid carbon mineralisation. Carbon pools of the aboveground biomass, the O horizon as well as fine and coarse roots and decay were determined. Soils in our study are cambisols derived from fossil alluvial deposits and loess and calcic chernozems derived from loess. Total soil carbon was determined by means of dry combustion and subtraction of soil inorganic carbon (SIC, by means of the Scheibler-method) if present. Mean SOC contents ranged from 5.3 kg.m-2 to10.4 kg.m-2 in the entire study area. The highest contents were found in calcic chernozem sites (7.2-10.4 kg.m-2) followed by loamy cambisol (6.1-6.8 kg.m-2) and sandy cambisol sites (5.3-6.9 kg.m-2). Among three chronosequence sets, we found strong positive correlations with total nitrogen (Pearson correlation coefficients of +0.91 to +0.93, pcoppice with standards vs. high forest system) in deciduous forests in the northeastern lowlands of Austria has no decisive influence on soil carbon pools.

  14. Indoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory and dermal health in schoolchildren: HITEA Catalonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Font-Ribera, L.; Villanueva, C M; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Kogevinas, M; Zock, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health benefits of swimming in pools may outweigh adverse health outcomes in children, but evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce or inconclusive for different health outcomes. We evaluated the association between indoor swimming pool attendance during childhood and respiratory and dermal conditions and symptoms in Catalan schoolchildren. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 2758 children aged 6–12 years from 18 primary schools in Barcelona province. Information on regular i...

  15. Measurement of Chloroform in Swimming Pools' Waters and Swimmers’ Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shegefti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: A new microextraction method named dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME for determination of chloroform in pool water and blood of swimmers after swimming is described."nMethods: This method was performed based on coupling dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME with gas chromatog­raphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Methanol and trichloroethylenes were used as the disperser solvent and the extrac­tion solvents, respectively. The volumes of these solvents were optimized for pool water by central composite design. The study involved three indoor swimming pools and nine swimmers."nResults: Chloroform concentration of pool water was 118-135 µg L-1 and of blood ranged from 1.26 to 1.66 µg L-1."nConclusion: Indoor swimming pools are closed environments presenting detectable levels of trihalomethanes (THMs. Chloro­form (CHCl3 is the most represented THMs. Therefore, the presence of CHCl3 may be considered representative of the THMs. The new method DLLME was applied for determination of CHCl3 in pool water and blood of swimmers after swim­ming inside the indoor swimming pool. The method was optimized by experimental design. Chloroform concentra­tions in the specified pool waters were 135, 124, 118 µg L-1.

  16. Health effects from swimming training in chlorinated pools and the corresponding metabolic stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Deng, Zhao-Hui; Cai, Can-Xin; Qiu, Li-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Lin, Ya-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chlorination is the most popular method for disinfecting swimming pool water; however, although pathogens are being killed, many toxic compounds, called disinfection by-products (DBPs), are formed. Numerous epidemiological publications have associated the chlorination of pools with dysfunctions of the respiratory system and with some other diseases. However, the findings concerning these associations are not always consistent and have not been confirmed by toxicological studies. Therefore, the health effects from swimming in chlorinated pools and the corresponding stress reactions in organisms are unclear. In this study, we show that although the growth and behaviors of experimental rats were not affected, their health, training effects and metabolic profiles were significantly affected by a 12-week swimming training program in chlorinated water identical to that of public pools. Interestingly, the eyes and skin are the organs that are more directly affected than the lungs by the irritants in chlorinated water; instead of chlorination, training intensity, training frequency and choking on water may be the primary factors for lung damage induced by swimming. Among the five major organs (the heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys), the liver is the most likely target of DBPs. Through metabolomics analysis, the corresponding metabolic stress pathways and a defensive system focusing on taurine were presented, based on which the corresponding countermeasures can be developed for swimming athletes and for others who spend a lot of time in chlorinated swimming pools.

  17. Occupational asthma caused by chloramines in indoor swimming-pool air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thickett, K M; McCoach, J S; Gerber, J M; Sadhra, S; Burge, P S

    2002-05-01

    The first series of three workers who developed occupational asthma following exposure to airborne chloramines in indoor chlorinated swimming pools is reported. Health problems of swimmers in indoor pools have traditionally been attributed to the chlorine in the water. Chlorine reacts with bodily proteins to form chloramines; the most volatile and prevalent in the air above swimming pools is nitrogen trichloride. Two lifeguards and one swimming teacher with symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma kept 2-hourly measurements of peak expiratory flow at home and at work, analysed using the occupational asthma system (OASYS) plotter, and/or had specific bronchial challenge testing to nitrogen trichloride, or a workplace challenge. Air measurement in one of the pools showed the nitrogen trichloride levels to be 0.1-0.57 mg x m(-3), which was similar to other studies. Two workers had peak expiratory flow measurements showing occupational asthma (OASYS-2 scores 2.88 and 3.8), both had a positive specific challenge to nitrogen trichloride at 0.5 mg x m(-3) with negative challenges to chlorine released from sodium hypochlorite. The third worker had a positive workplace challenge. Swimming-pool asthma due to airborne nitrogen trichloride can occur in workers who do not enter the water because of this chloramine. The air above indoor swimming pools therefore needs to be assessed and managed as carefully as the water.

  18. Analysis of the water quality in a municipal indoor swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Liljegren, Elin

    2013-01-01

    Bath has been a part of human history for a long time. Today bathing/swimming in municipal pools is for people of all ages and it is possible to take swimming courses, exercise or enjoy recreation. The municipal indoor pool of Hogdalen in Sweden was build in the sixties and has had problems with high levels of heterotrophic bacteria. The facility has two larger pools, one adventure park for young kids, two smaller bath tubs and a jacuzzi. To improve water quality UV light and coal filter were...

  19. Occurrence and health risk assessment of halogenated disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chen; Zhang, Beibei; Gong, Tingting; Xian, Qiming

    2016-02-01

    Swimming pool disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have become a concern in many countries all over the world. In this study, the concentrations of several categories of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKs) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), in 13 public indoor swimming pools in Nanjing, China were determined, the correlations between DBPs and water quality parameters as well as between different DBP categories were evaluated, and the health risks of the DBPs to human were examined. The results indicate that the DBP levels in the swimming pools in Nanjing were relatively high, with HAAs as the most dominant category, followed by THMs, HANs, HKs and TCNM sequentially. Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were the most dominant species among HAAs, THMs, HANs, and HKs, respectively. For all the different categories of DBPs, the concentrations in the pool disinfected with ozonation/chlorination were lower than those in the pool disinfected with chlorination. The DBP levels were generally not affected by the number of swimmers and the DBP levels on different dates were relatively stable. Besides, the chlorine residual seemed to be a critical concern in most of the swimming pools in this study. Moreover, there were some correlations between DBPs and water quality parameters as well as between different DBP categories. It is to be noted that the predicted cancer and health risks of the DBPs in these swimming pools were generally higher than the regulatory limits by USEPA, and thus DBPs in these swimming pools should be concerned.

  20. Laboratory studies on the effect of ozonation on THM formation in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from indoor swimming pool were ozonated at different pH values to evaluate the effect of pH on decomposition of ozone in swimming pool water. Furthermore, drinking and pool water were repeatedly ozonated followed by chlorination to evaluate THM formation. Decomposition of ozone...... was not affected by pH in the range relevant to swimming pools (pH 6.8 – 7.8) and a half-life time at 10-12 min was obtained. Repeating the ozonation, the decomposition of ozone increased at the second dose of ozone added (t½,2=8 min) and then decreased again at the third and fourth dose of ozone (t½,3=17 min; t...... chlorine for drinking water as lower TTHM formation occurred than in non-ozonated samples. For pool water, a higher TTHM formation was observed in ozonated than non-ozonated pool water. Thus, it was observed that ozone reacts markedly different in swimming pool water from the known pattern in drinking...

  1. Analytic Assessment of Microbial Water Quality in Public Swimming Pools of Tehran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beiki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Swimming is one of the most popular sport fields and entertainments that has considerable benefits for human health, but on the other hand microbial water contamination in swimming pools through transmission and spread of infectious diseases is a significant threat against public health. In this study, microbial water quality of all public swimming pools in Tehran were assessed and effective factors on microbial water quality were analyzed. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study with the analytical approach was performed in 2013. The whole public swimming pools in Tehran were inspected and water samples were taken for measurement of microbial indicators including thermotolerant coliforms, heterotrophic plate count (HPC, and physicochemical parameters affecting the microbial water quality including turbidity, free residual chlorine and pH and an integrated swimming pool microbial water quality index were used to describe the overall situation. Operational parameters with probable effects on microbial water quality were checked through inspection using a checklist. Results: The assessment of the swimming pool microbial water quality indicated that the compliance rates of thermotolerant coliforms and HPC were 91.4 and 84.5%, respectively. Compliance rates of free residual chlorine, turbidity, Ph, and temperature were also obtained to be 82.7, 45.5, 85.6, and 65.4% respectively. Based on the integrated swimming pool microbial water quality index, the proportions of swimming pools with excellent and good microbial water quality were 39.6 and 50.4% respectively and the others had not proper microbial water quality. The parameters of water free residual chlorine and turbidity, swimmer density, water recirculation period, dilution amount, cleaning, usage rates of shower and disinfection basin and operation of water treatment systems had significant effects on the microbial indicators (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study

  2. Determination of Monochloroacetic Acid in Swimming Pool Water by Ion Chromatography-Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pythias B. Espino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analytical method involving ion chromatography with conductivity detection was developed and optimized for the determination of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water. The ion chromatographic method has a detection limit of 0.02 mg L-1 and linear range of 0.05 to 1.0 mg L-1 with correlation coeff icient of 0.9992. The method is reproducible with percent RSD of 0.052% (n=10. The recovery of monochloroacetic acid spiked in different water types (bottled, tap and swimming pool water ranged from 28 to 122%. In dilute solutions, chloride and bromide were simultaneously analyzed along with monochloroacetic acid using the optimized method. Chloride and bromide have detection limits of 0.01 to 0.05 mg L-1, respectively. The usefulness of the ion chromatographic method was demonstrated in the analysis of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water samples. In such highly-chlorinated samples, an Ag/H cartridge was used prior to the ion chromatographic determination so as to minimize the signal due to chloride ion. Monochloroacetic acid was detected in concentrations between 0.020 and 0.093 mg L-1 in three of the six swimming pool water samples studied. The presence of monochloroacetic acid in the swimming pool water samples suggests the possible occurrence of other disinfection by-products in these waters.

  3. Determination of Monochloroacetic Acid in Swimming Pool Water by Ion Chromatography-Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pythias B. Espino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analytical method involving ion chromatography with conductivity detection was developed and optimized for the determination of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water. The ion chromatographic method has a detection limit of 0.02 mg L-1 and linear range of 0.05 to 1.0 mg L-1 with correlation coeff icient of 0.9992. The method is reproducible with percent RSD of 0.052% (n=10. The recovery of monochloroacetic acid spiked in different water types (bottled, tap and swimming pool water ranged from 28 to 122%. In dilute solutions, chloride and bromide were simultaneously analyzed along with monochloroacetic acid using the optimized method. Chloride and bromide have detection limits of 0.01 to 0.05 mg L-1, respectively. The usefulness of the ion chromatographic method was demonstrated in the analysis of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water samples. In such highly-chlorinated samples, an Ag/H cartridge was used prior to the ion chromatographic determination so as to minimize the signal due to chloride ion. Monochloroacetic acid was detected in concentrations between 0.020 and 0.093 mg L-1 in three of the six swimming pool water samples studied. The presence of monochloroacetic acid in the swimming pool water samples suggests the possible occurrence of other disinfection by-products in these waters.

  4. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME - ADAPTED SWIMMING -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chera-Ferrario B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport activities have a beneficial effect on the mind and body of any type of person. The benefits of sport are even more evident in children with Down Syndrome, who exhibit a general delay in neuro-motor structures. Our aim was to develop the psycho-motor skills in children with Down Syndrome through adapted swimming exercises. We believe that our involvement in adapted swimming for children with Down Syndrome may help develop certain aspects of psycho-motor abilities. The swimming took place with 6 Down Syndrome children from the Special Needs School in Targoviste, for a period of six months and the children being assisted by volunteer students from the Valahia University Department of Sport in Targoviste.The most important result was the children's delight in coming to the pool and taking part in the swimming lessons. Through the methods and exercises used and the devoted involvement of the volunteers, the children developed great levels of trust and courage and learned to swim using only aids. After performing motor skill tests on the children, we observed a general growth in the motor skills monitored.Continuation of the adapted swimming is very important in order to mobilize the skills obtained and continue development of psycho-motor abilities.

  5. Safety belt promotion at community swimming pools :effects of policy, rewards, prompts, and education

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Michael Richard

    1990-01-01

    Data on safety belt use were collected at two swimming pools over three consecutive summers. The impact of several variables upon safety belt use was examined. First, an Intervention Program (IP) was designed, comprised of Promotional, Reward, and Feedback components. Second, an Awareness/Education (AE) strategy was introduced to children enrolled in swim lessons. Third, belt use was examined before and after a mandatory safety belt use law (BUL) was enacted in Virginia. The moderating ef...

  6. Infant swimming in chlorinated pools and the risks of bronchiolitis, asthma and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, C; Sardella, A; Marcucci, F; Bernard, A

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that swimming in chlorinated pools during infancy may increase the risks of lower respiratory tract infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of swimming in chlorinated pools on the risks of bronchiolitis and its late consequences. A total of 430 children (47% female; mean age 5.7 yrs) in 30 kindergartens were examined. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding the child's health history, swimming practice and potential confounders. Attendance at indoor or outdoor chlorinated pools ever before the age of 2 yrs was associated with an increased risk of bronchiolitis (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.08-2.68; p = 0.03), which was exposure-dependent for both types of pool (p-value for trend 20 h spent in chlorinated pools during infancy. Infant swimmers who developed bronchiolitis also showed higher risks of asthma and respiratory allergies later in childhood. Swimming pool attendance during infancy is associated with a higher risk of bronchiolitis, with ensuing increased risks of asthma and allergic sensitisation.

  7. A risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in swimming pools: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Scott A; van den Akker, Ben; Pomati, Francesco; Roser, David

    2012-06-01

    Despite routine monitoring and disinfection, treated swimming pools are frequently contaminated with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can represent a significant public health threat. This review was undertaken to identify the current understanding of risk factors associated with pool operation with respect to P. aeruginosa. The ecology and factors that promote growth of P. aeruginosa in the pool environment are complex and dynamic and so we applied a systematic risk assessment approach to integrate existing data, with the aim to improve pool management and safety. Sources of P. aeruginosa, types of infections, dose responses, routes of transmission, as well as the efficacy of current disinfectant treatments were reviewed. This review also highlights the critical knowledge gaps that are required for a more robust, quantitative risk assessment of P. aeruginosa. Quantitative risk management strategies have been successfully applied to drinking water systems and should similarly be amenable to developing a better understanding of the risk posed by P. aeruginosa in swimming pools.

  8. Production of various disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jun, Myung-Jin; Lee, Man-Ho; Lee, Min-Hwan; Eom, Seog-Won; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the concentrations of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform), haloacetic acids (HAAs; dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid), haloacetonitriles (HANs; dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, and dibromoacetonitrile), and chloral hydrate (CH) were measured in 86 indoor swimming pools in Seoul, Korea, treated using different disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone and chlorine, and a technique that uses electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMOs). The correlations between DBPs and other environmental factors such as with total organic carbon (TOC), KMnO(4) consumption, free residual chlorine, pH, and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the pools were examined. The geometric mean concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pool waters were 183.1±2.5μg/L, 32.6±2.1μg/L, and 139.9±2.4μg/L in pools disinfected with chlorine, ozone/chlorine, and EGMO, respectively. The mean concentrations of total THMs (TTHMs), total HAAs (THAAs), total HANs (THANs), and CH differed significantly depending on the disinfection method used (P<0.01). Interestingly, THAAs concentrations were the highest, followed by TTHMs, CH, and THANs in all swimming pools regardless of disinfection method. TOC showed a good correlation with the concentrations of DBPs in all swimming pools (chlorine; r=0.82, P<0.01; ozone/chlorine; r=0.52, P<0.01, EGMO; r=0.39, P<0.05). In addition, nitrate was positively correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pools disinfected with chlorine and ozone/chlorine (chlorine; r=0.58; ozone/chlorine; r=0.60, P<0.01), whereas was negative correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs (r=-0.53, P<0.01) in the EGMO-treated pools.

  9. Occurrence and formation of disinfection by-products in the swimming pool environment: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rhys A A; Joll, Cynthia A

    2017-08-01

    Disinfection of water for human use is essential to protect against microbial disease; however, disinfection also leads to formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are of health concern. From a chemical perspective, swimming pools are a complex matrix, with continual addition of a wide range of natural and anthropogenic chemicals via filling waters, disinfectant addition, pharmaceuticals and personal care products and human body excretions. Natural organic matter, trace amounts of DBPs and chlorine or chloramines may be introduced by the filling water, which is commonly disinfected distributed drinking water. Chlorine and/or bromine is continually introduced via the addition of chemical disinfectants to the pool. Human body excretions (sweat, urine and saliva) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (sunscreens, cosmetics, hair products and lotions) are introduced by swimmers. High addition of disinfectant leads to a high formation of DBPs from reaction of some of the chemicals with the disinfectant. Swimming pool air is also of concern as volatile DBPs partition into the air above the pool. The presence of bromine leads to the formation of a wide range of bromo- and bromo/chloro-DBPs, and Br-DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. This is particularly important for seawater-filled pools or pools using a bromine-based disinfectant. This review summarises chemical contaminants and DBPs in swimming pool waters, as well as in the air above pools. Factors that have been found to affect DBP formation in pools are discussed. The impact of the swimming pool environment on human health is reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Particles in swimming pool filters – Does pH determine the DBP formation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Mosbæk, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The formation was investigated for different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination of filter particles from swimming pools at different pH-values and the toxicity was estimated. Specifically, the formation of the DBP group trihalomethanes (THMs), which is regulated in many...... or initial free chlorine concentrations the particles were chlorinated at different pH-values in the relevant range for swimming pools. THM and HAA formations were reduced by decreasing pH while HAN formation increased with decreasing pH. Based on the organic content the relative DBP formation from...

  11. Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools, Ahwaz, South-west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rafiei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Using public swimming pools during different seasons and poor health behavior could be responsible in transmis­sion of fungal disease through pool water and its environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to investi­gate fungal agents of indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz, capital city of Khouzestan Province, south-west of Iran."nMethods: Ten indoor swimming pools of Ahwaz were investigated during two seasons for 6 months. Water specimens were col­lected by pump and environment samples including shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slip­pers, by sterile carpet pieces. All specimens were cultured in SC and SCC culture media and fungal agents identification were based on macroscopic, microscopic characteristic and complement tests when it was necessary. Data analyzing was per­formed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing."nResults: A total of 593 samples were collected from different parts of pools. Interestingly in 13 samples from environ­mental places, dermatophytes were isolated as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermo­phyton floccosum 5, 4, 3 and 1 cases respectively. Ten cases of dermatophytes were isolated from floor of dressing area. Three hundred seventy two saprophytic fungi species and 32 yeasts were recovered from water and environment sur­faces samples. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor were the most common isolated saprophytic fungi."nConclusion: Existence of saprophytic fungi and yeast in pools water seems to be an indicator of their resistance to detergent agents. In addition, yeast water contamination could be from swimmers. Dermatophytes isolation from pools environment ar­eas and foot washing sink, reveals the importance of public swimming pools in disease transmission. Because dressing places are being used by all of the swimmers, take care of hygienic discipline in these places should be noted by health pol­icy markers.

  12. Swimming pool attendance, respiratory symptoms and infections in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M; Ballester, Ferran; Santa Marina, Loreto; Tardón, Adonina; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Esplugues, Ana; Rodríguez Dehli, Cristina; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the relationship between indoor and outdoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and infections during the first year of life. A population-based mother-child cohort study was conducted in four Spanish areas (INMA project). Study subjects were recruited at pregnancy, followed to delivery and 14 months after birth. Information on swimming pool attendance and health manifestations during the first year of life was collected at 14 months: low respiratory tract infection (LRTI), persistent cough, wheezing, atopic eczema and otitis. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence interval (OR 95 %CI) were calculated by logistic regression adjusting for confounders. Among the 2,205 babies included, 37 % reported having LRTI, 37 % wheezing, 16 % persistent cough, 22 % atopic eczema, 33 % otitis and 50 % attended swimming pools during the first year of life. Around 40 % went to outdoor pools in summer with a median cumulative duration of 7.5 h/year, and 20 % attended indoor pools with a median cumulative duration of 18 h/year. Pool attendance differed by area, season of birth and sociodemographic characteristics, and was not associated with LRTI, wheezing, persistent cough, atopic eczema or otitis. Adjusted OR of wheezing and LRTI were, respectively, 1.06 (95 %CI, 0.88-1.28) and 1.09 (0.90-1.31) for babies attending vs. babies not attending pools. Stratification by type of swimming pool, cumulative duration or parental atopy did not modify the results. No association was detected between pool attendance and LRTI, wheezing, persistent cough, atopic eczema or otitis during the first year of life in Spain.

  13. Indoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory and dermal health in schoolchildren--HITEA Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M; Gràcia-Lavedan, Esther; Borràs-Santos, Alícia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2014-07-01

    Health benefits of swimming in pools may outweigh adverse health outcomes in children, but evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce or inconclusive for different health outcomes. We evaluated the association between indoor swimming pool attendance during childhood and respiratory and dermal conditions and symptoms in Catalan schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study in 2758 children aged 6-12 years from 18 primary schools in Barcelona province. Information on regular indoor swimming pool attendance in seven age periods, history of health conditions (asthma, wheezing, eczema, dermatitis, rhinitis, allergic rhinitis) and symptoms in the last 12 months (wheezing, dermatitis, rhinitis and number of cold, tonsillitis or otitis episodes) were collected through parental self-administered questionnaires. The associations between swimming pool attendance and health outcomes were evaluated using multivariate mixed logistic and Poisson regression models. Regular indoor swimming before 2 years of age was not related to having ever had asthma (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.14; 95%CI = 0.73-1.77), wheezing (OR = 1.02; 95%CI = 0.82-1.28), or eczema (OR = 1.09; 95%CI = 0.87-1.36). Current indoor swimming was not associated with symptoms in the last 12 months (Incidence Rate Ratio for otitis was 0.94; 95%CI = 0.77-1.15). Stratification by eczema or maternal education gave very similar results. This new large population-based study indicates that regular indoor swimming during infancy does not increase respiratory, allergic or dermal symptoms in Catalan schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of water and air chemistry in an indoor chlorinated swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Afifi, Mehrnaz; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2015-01-01

    Although swimming is known to be beneficial in terms of cardiovascular health, as well as for some forms of rehabilitation, swimming is also known to present risks to human health, largely in the form of exposure to microbial pathogens and disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Relatively little information is available in the literature to characterize the seasonal dynamics of air and water chemistry in indoor chlorinated swimming pools. To address this issue, water samples were collected five days per week from an indoor chlorinated swimming pool facility at a high school during the academic year and once per week during summer over a fourteen-month period. The samples were analyzed for free and combined chlorine, urea, volatile DBPs, pH, temperature and total alkalinity. Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) was used to identify and measure the concentrations of eleven aqueous-phase volatile DBPs. Variability in the concentrations of these DBPs was observed. Factors that influenced variability included bather loading and mixing by swimmers. These compounds have the ability to adversely affect water and air quality and human health. A large fraction of the existing literature regarding swimming pool air quality has focused on trichloramine (NCl₃). For this work, gas-phase NCl₃ was analyzed by an air sparging-DPD/KI method. The results showed that gas-phase NCl₃ concentration is influenced by bather loading and liquid-phase NCl₃ concentration. Urea is the dominant organic-N compound in human urine and sweat, and is known to be an important precursor for producing NCl₃ in swimming pools. Results of daily measurements of urea indicated a link between bather load and urea concentration in the pool.

  15. Detection of free living amoebae, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, in swimming pools, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Init, I; Lau, Y L; Arin Fadzlun, A; Foead, A I; Neilson, R S; Nissapatorn, V

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the detection of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species in 14 swimming pools around Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sampling was carried out at 4 sites (the platforms (P), wall (W), 1 meter from the wall (1) and middle (2)) of each swimming pool. These free living amoebae (FLA) were detected under light and inverted microscopes after being cultured on the surface of non-nutrient agar lawned with Escherichia coli. Acanthamoeba species were detected in higher number of culture plates from all sampling sites of all the swimming pools. While Naegleria, were detected in fewer culture plates at 3 sampling sites (absent at site P) of 8 swimming pools. This suggested that the thick double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba were more resistant, thus remaining viable in the dry-hot areas of the platforms and in chlorinated water of the swimming pools whereas Naegleria cysts, that are fragile and susceptible to desiccation, preferred watery or moist areas for growth and proliferation. The prevalence of both FLA was highest at site W (76.2%), followed by site 1 (64.7%), lowest at site 2 (19.4%), and could be detected at all 3 sampling levels (top, middle and bottom) of these 3 sites. The surface of site W might act as a bio-film that accumulated all kinds of microbes providing sufficient requirement for the FLA to develop and undergo many rounds of life cycles as well as moving from top to bottom in order to graze food. Other factors such as human activities, the circulating system which was fixed at all swimming pools, blowing wind which might carry the cysts from surroundings and the swimming flagellate stage of Naegleria could also contribute to the distribution of the FLA at these sampling sites. Both FLA showed highest growth (80.4%) at room temperature (25-28 ºC) and lesser (70.0%) at 37 ºC which might be due to the overgrowth of other microbes (E. coli, fungi, algae, etc). While at 44 ºC, only Acanthamoeba species could survive thus showing that

  16. Occurrence and simulation of trihalomethanes in swimming pool water: A simple prediction method based on DOC and mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Saravia, Florencia; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THM) are the most typical disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in public swimming pool water. DBPs are produced when organic and inorganic matter in water reacts with chemical disinfectants. The irregular contribution of substances from pool visitors and long contact time with disinfectant make the forecast of THM in pool water a challenge. In this work occurrence of THM in a public indoor swimming pool was investigated and correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Daily sampling of pool water for 26 days showed a positive correlation between DOC and THM with a time delay of about two days, while THM and DOC didn't directly correlate with the number of visitors. Based on the results and mass-balance in the pool water, a simple simulation model for estimating THM concentration in indoor swimming pool water was proposed. Formation of THM from DOC, volatilization into air and elimination by pool water treatment were included in the simulation. Formation ratio of THM gained from laboratory analysis using native pool water and information from field study in an indoor swimming pool reduced the uncertainty of the simulation. The simulation was validated by measurements in the swimming pool for 50 days. The simulated results were in good compliance with measured results. This work provides a useful and simple method for predicting THM concentration and its accumulation trend for long term in indoor swimming pool water.

  17. Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANYAKAPO Mallika; SOONTORNCHAI Sarisak; PAOPUREE Pongsri

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water and swimming pool water in the area of the Nakhon Path-om Municipality during the period April 2005-March 2006.The concentrations of total THMs,chloroform,bromodichloromethane,dibromochloromethane and bromoform in tap water were 12.70-41.74,6.72-29.19,1.12-11.75,0.63-3.55 and 0.08-3.40 μg/L,respectively,whereas those in swimming pool water were 26.15-65.09,9.50-36.97,8.90-18.01,5.19-22.78 and ND-6.56 μg/L,respectively.It implied that the concentration of THMs in swimming pool water was higher than those in tap water,particularly,brominated-THMs.Both tap water and swimming pool water contained concentrations of total THMs below the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO),European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) phase Ⅰ,but 1 out of 60 tap water samples and 60 out of 72 swimming pool water samples contained those over the Standard of the USEPA phase Ⅱ.From the two cases of cancer risk assessment including Case Ⅰ Non-Swimmer and Case Ⅱ Swimmer,assessment of cancer risk of non-swimmers from exposure to THMs at the highest and the average concentrations was 4.43×10-5 and 2.19×10-5,respectively,which can be classified as acceptable risk according to the Standard of USEPA.Assessment of cancer risk of swimmers from exposure to THMs at the highest and the average concentrations was 1.47×10-3 and 7.99×10-4,respectively,which can be classified as unacceptable risk and needs to be improved.Risk of THMs exposure from swimming was 93.9%-94.2% of the total risk.Cancer risk of THMs concluded from various routes in descending order was:skin exposure while swimming,gastro-intestinal exposure from tap water intake,and skin exposure to tap water and gastro-intestinal exposure while swimming.Cancer risk from skin exposure while swimming was 94.18% of the total cancer risk.

  18. Poor-quality water in swimming pools associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjartabar, M

    2004-01-01

    There are many large and small public outdoor and indoor swimming pools in Tehran that hundreds of people use, especially on hot summer days. The bacteriological quality of the water of some of these pools was assayed over a period of about one year (2001-2002). To assess if these swimming pools were a health risk to users, eleven public swimming pools, in the east and northeast of the city, were examined, and the exposed people were monitored. Samples of swimming-pool waters were examined for colony counts, Escherichia coli and coliforms. In addition, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from nine (81.8%) of those pools. P. aeruginosa grew in seven (63.6%) of the swimming-pool water samples. In two (18.2%) other samples, in addition to P. aeruginosa, high rates of total bacterial count, total coliforms and faecal coliform counts were also found. At the same time, users of the swimming pools were asked to complete a questionnaire. Ear swabs were collected from 179 users with a history of ear problems during the previous two weeks. An adequate control group was chosen randomly from those who never used the investigated pools. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the ear swabs of 142 (79.3%) of the cases, as well as from 4% of the controls. Results were matched for age, sex, duration of time spent in the pools, place of occurrence and other useful information. Investigation of the contaminated swimming pools revealed that chlorination was often inadequate, especially when high numbers of people led to overuse of the pools. Although the results of this research showed that otitis externa was strongly associated with the swimming pools, due to P. aeruginosa, an extensive follow-up study is needed to determine the other possible health risks associated with public pools.

  19. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Zortea, R.; Piketty, A.;

    2013-01-01

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported ...

  20. Diatomite Type Filters for Swimming Pools. Standard No. 9, Revised October, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Pressure and vacuum diatomite type filters are covered in this standard. The filters herein described are intended to be designed and used specifically for swimming pool water filtration, both public and residential. Included are the basic components which are a necessary part of the diatomite type filter such as filter housing, element supports,…

  1. Centrifugal Pumps for Swimming Pools. National Sanitation Foundation Standard Number 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Committee for Swimming Pool Equipment Standards.

    The pumps discussed herein are intended to be used for recirculating water in swimming pools, both public and private. Included are the basic components which may be a part of a pump such as the housing, strainer, impeller, valves, and such other parts as are attached or a part of the pump as supplied by the manufacturer. This standard is intended…

  2. Swimming Pool Water Treatment Chemicals and/or Processes. Standard No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Chemicals or processes used or intended for use, in the treatment of swimming pool water are covered. Minimum public health limits or acceptability in regard to toxicity, biocidal effectiveness, and chemical behavior and analysis are presented. The appendices give guidelines to the scientific and statistically sound evaluations to determine the…

  3. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-09-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  4. "You Can Feel Them Looking at You": The Experiences of Adolescent Girls at Swimming Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kandy

    2000-01-01

    Explored constraints experienced by Australian high school girls when using public swimming pools, noting strategies they developed to negotiate these constraints. Data from focus groups and individual interviews indicated that embarrassment affected frequency and quality of participation. To reduce self-consciousness, some girls developed…

  5. An Investigation on Physicochemical and Microbial Water Quality of Swimming Pools in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dehvari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disrespect of health regulations and proper disinfection of water and swimming pools is effective in incidence of health problems and transfer of infectious diseases to swimmers. The aim of this research was to investigate water of swimming pools in Yazd city and compare the results with national standards. Methods: In this study, 11 active covered swimming pools of Yazd city were sampled as census. Parameters of temperature, pH, amount of free and Combined chlorine residual, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, the population of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fecal streptococci, and fecal coliforms were studied. Sampling has been conducted every two weaks for 3 months and samples were analyzed under standard procedures. Results: In this research, amount of pH in 84.73%, free residual chlorine in 44.18%, Combined residual chlorine in 72.45%, alkalinity in19.82%, turbidity in 86.36%, hardness in 57.18% and temperature in 13.73% Samples were desirable. The fecal streptococci bacteria was not shown in all the swimming pools and population of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fecal coliforms in 56.73%, 93.27%, 79.36% and 91.45% cases were desirable, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a direct relationship between Water turbidity and population of heterotraphic bacteria. Conclusion: According to the results, the parameters of heterotrophic bacteria population, also the alkalinity and temperature had the least compliant with the standards that shows the necessity for continuous monitoring of physical, chemical and microbial parameters and also control of filtration and disinfection of water condition of swimming pools.

  6. Bioanalytical and chemical evaluation of disinfection by-products in swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ruby Y L; Farré, Maria José; Stalter, Daniel; Tang, Janet Y M; Molendijk, Jeffrey; Escher, Beate I

    2014-08-01

    Pool water disinfection is vital to prevent microbial pathogens. However, potentially hazardous disinfection by-products (DBP) are formed from the reaction between disinfectants and organic/inorganic precursors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of DBPs in various swimming pool types in Brisbane, Australia, including outdoor, indoor and baby pools, and the dynamics after a complete water renewal. Chemical analysis of 36 regulated and commonly found DBPs and total adsorbable organic halogens as well as in vitro bioassays targeting cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity were used to evaluate swimming pool water quality. Dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid dominated in the pool water samples with higher levels (up to 2600 μg/L) than the health guideline values set by the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (100 μg/L). Chlorinated DBPs occurred at higher concentrations compared to tap water, while brominated DBPs decreased gradually with increasing pool water age. Biological effects were expressed as chloroacetic acid equivalent concentrations and compared to predicted effects from chemical analysis and biological characterisation of haloacetic acids. The quantified haloacetic acids explained 35-118% of the absorbable organic halogens but less than 4% of the observed non-specific toxicity (cytotoxicity), and less than 1% of the observed oxidative stress response and genotoxicity. While the DBP concentrations in Australian pools found in this study are not likely to cause any adverse health effect, they are higher than in other countries and could be reduced by better hygiene of pool users, such as thorough showering prior to entering the pool and avoiding urination during swimming.

  7. Prevalence of dental erosion in adolescent competitive swimmers exposed to gas-chlorinated swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowska-Radlińska, J; Łagocka, R; Kaczmarek, W; Górski, M; Nowicka, A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dental erosion among competitive swimmers of the local swimming club in Szczecin, Poland, who train in closely monitored gas-chlorinated swimming pool water. The population for this survey consisted of a group of junior competitive swimmers who had been training for an average of 7 years, a group of senior competitive swimmers who had been training for an average of 10 years, and a group of recreational swimmers. All subjects underwent a clinical dental examination and responded to a questionnaire regarding aspects of dental erosion. In pool water samples, the concentration of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sodium, and potassium ions and pH were determined. The degree of hydroxyapatite saturation was also calculated. Dental erosion was found in more than 26 % of the competitive swimmers and 10 % of the recreational swimmers. The lesions in competitive swimmers were on both the labial and palatal surfaces of the anterior teeth, whereas erosions in recreational swimmers developed exclusively on the palatal surfaces. Although the pH of the pool water was neutral, it was undersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. The factors that increase the risk of dental erosion include the duration of swimming and the amount of training. An increased risk of erosion may be related to undersaturation of pool water with hydroxyapatite components. To decrease the risk of erosion in competitive swimmers, the degree of dental hydroxyapatite saturation should be a controlled parameter in pool water.

  8. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kamilla M S; Zortea, Raissa; Piketty, Aurelia; Vega, Sergio Rodriguez; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-15

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min(-1) for chloroform to 0.523 min(-1) for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m(-3) d(-1) and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m(-3) d(-1), while 2.6 kWh m(-3) d(-1) was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m(-3) d(-1). It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes.

  9. Prevalence of Simkania negevensis in chlorinated water from spa swimming pools and domestic supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, M; Cremonini, E; Di Francesco, A; Dallolio, L; Biondi, R; Muthusamy, R; Leoni, E

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Simkania negevensis in the chlorinated water of spa swimming pools and domestic network systems. A total of 10 and 36 samples were collected from two domestic water supplies and four spa facilities, respectively. Simkania negevensis was isolated in Acanthamoeba castellanii monolayers and detected by Gimenez staining and immunofluorescence test. Simkania negevensis DNA, extracted from the positive samples, was confirmed by a nested PCR assay followed by sequencing. Simkania negevensis was detected in 41·3% of samples (domestic water: 50%; untreated spa supply water: 25%; chlorinated spa pool water: 42·9%) from all the examined water systems in successive samplings performed in 1 year. The presence of S. negevensis was not correlated with the counts of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unlike Legionella spp., which were never isolated from the swimming-pool water samples, S. negevensis was also detected in chlorinated spa water. This investigation shows that Simkania is widespread in natural and man-made aquatic environments, which may represent possible sources of infection: in the swimming pools, in particular, the aerosol generated by the water movement could increase the risk of inhalation of infected particles. This study represents the first evidence of the presence of S. negevensis in spa pool water. Sero-epidemiological surveys on spa users could help to clarify its transmission in this environment. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Volatile disinfection byproducts resulting from chlorination of uric acid: implications for swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lushi; E, Yue; Li, Jing; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2014-03-18

    Cyanogen chloride (CNCl) and trichloramine (NCl3) are important disinfection byproducts in chlorinated swimming pools. However, some unknowns exist regarding the precursors of their formation. In this study, uric acid is shown to be an efficient precursor to formation of CNCl and NCl3. The molar yields of CNCl and NCl3 were observed to be as high as 44% (pH = 6.0, chlorine/precursor molar ratio [Cl/P] = 6.4) and 108% (pH = 7.0, Cl/P = 30), respectively, both being strong functions of Cl/P, pH, and temperature. Analysis of swimming pool water samples, combined with the results of experiments involving chlorination of uric acid, and chlorination of body fluid analog mixtures, indicated that uric acid chlorination may account for a large fraction of CNCl formation in swimming pools. Moreover, given that uric acid introduction to pools is attributable to urination, a voluntary action for most swimmers, these findings indicate important benefits to pool water and air chemistry that could result from improved hygiene habits on the part of swimmers.

  11. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaun, Susan; Usman, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U3Si2Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system's performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm-3. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR's nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s-1 from the 4" pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  12. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipaun, Susan, E-mail: susan@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Industrial Technology Division, Blok 29T, Bangi 43200, Selangor (Malaysia); Usman, Shoaib, E-mail: usmans@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Nuclear Engineering, 222 Fulton Hall 301 W.14th St., Rolla 64509 MO (United States)

    2016-01-22

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system’s performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm{sup −3}. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR’s nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s{sup −1} from the 4” pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  13. Potential risks of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles released from sunscreens into outdoor swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Soo-kyung [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-ju [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaesang [Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghak, E-mail: seunglee@kist.re.kr [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles from sunscreen products can be released into public pools. • Nanoparticles and organic ingredients can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). • A negative impact of ROS should not be significant in swimming pool. - Abstract: The potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens being released into swimming water were evaluated by a series of laboratory experiments simulating the fate and transport of NPs in outdoor swimming pools. NPs released from sunscreen-applied skin were estimated using pig skins covered with five different commercial sunscreens containing TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, or both at various concentrations. Assuming that the swimming water treatment processes consisted of filtration, UV irradiation, heating, and chlorination, possible removal of the released NPs by each process was estimated. Generation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) by the NPs under sunlight and after UV photochemical treatment were measured, and the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration possibly present in the swimming pool was calculated based on some specific scenarios of operating an outdoor swimming pool. It was found that a significant amount of the NPs in sunscreens could be released into the swimming water, and accumulate during circulation through the treatment system. However, the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} possibly present in the swimming pool should be below the level at which an adverse effect to bathers is concerned.

  14. Gene expression changes in blood RNA after swimming in a chlorinated pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Lucas A; Font-Ribera, Laia; Bustamante, Mariona; Sumoy, Lauro; Grimalt, Joan O; Bonnin, Sarah; Aguilar, Maria; Mattlin, Heidi; Hummel, Manuela; Ferrer, Anna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming. Intensity of physical activity was measured as metabolic equivalents (METs). Gene expression in whole blood mRNA was evaluated using IlluminaHumanHT-12v3 Expression-BeadChip. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship between gene expression changes and THM exposure. Thirty-seven before-after pairs were analyzed. The median increase from baseline to after swimming were: 0.7 to 2.3 for MET, and 1.4 to 7.1μg/m(3) for exhaled total THM (sum of the four THM). Exhaled THM increased on average 0.94μg/m(3) per 1 MET. While 1643 probes were differentially expressed post-exposure. Of them, 189 were also associated with exhaled levels of individual/total THM or MET after False Discovery Rate. The observed associations with the exhaled THM were low to moderate (Log-fold change range: -0.17 to 0.15). In conclusion, we identified short-term gene expression changes associated with swimming in a pool that were minor in magnitude and their biological meaning was unspecific. The high collinearity between exhaled THM levels and intensity of physical activity precluded mutually adjusted models with both covariates. These exploratory results should be validated in future studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. New halogenated disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water and their permeability across skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Zhang, Xiangru; Zhai, Hongyan; Lo, Irene M C; Tipoe, George L; Yang, Mengting; Pan, Yang; Chen, Guanghao

    2012-07-01

    Chlorine is widely used for disinfecting public swimming pool water. The disinfectant chlorine, protecting swimmers from pathogenic infection in swimming, may be responsible for some adverse effects on swimmers' skin and health. In this study, numerous new halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in chlorinated pool water were detected with a powerful precursor ion scan method using electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, with or without preseparation with ultra performance liquid chromatography. These new pool DBPs were demonstrated to be mainly halo(nitro)phenols, resulting from chlorination of human body substances (such as urine) in the presence of bromide. Among these new DBPs, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2-bromophenol, 2,6-dibromo-4-nitrophenol, 2-bromo-6-chloro-4-nitrophenol, and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol were fully identified or confirmed. For 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2-bromophenol with pure standard compounds available, their permeability values across human skin were measured to be 0.031, 0.021, and 0.023 cm/h, respectively. The effects of chlorine on human skin were also investigated. The interaction of chlorine with epidermis was found to generate many new halogenated DBPs as well as common DBPs; the corneous layer was observed to become rough and even form larger pores after chlorine interaction. It is recommended that swimmers should avoid urinating in pools, and avoid prolonged swimming to reduce chlorine contact and prevent accelerated permeation of DBPs across skin.

  16. Effect of ozonation of swimming pool water on formation of volatile disinfection by-products - A laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation experiments were performed using unchlorinated tap water used for filling municipal swimming pools, actual pool water and pool water polluted by addition of fresh tap water and artificial body fluid to evaluate ozone kinetics and water quality effects on formation of volatile disinfection...

  17. Airway remodeling and inflammation in competitive swimmers training in indoor chlorinated swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Loubaki, Lionel; Joubert, Philippe; Turmel, Julie; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Chakir, Jamila; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Airway disorders are common in regular chlorinated swimming pool attendees, particularly competitive athletes, but the impact of intense swimming training on airway function and structure remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate airway inflammation and remodeling in elite swimmers. Twenty-three elite swimmers were tested during off-training season. All had exhaled nitric oxide measurement, methacholine test, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge, allergy skin prick tests, and bronchoscopy with bronchial biopsies. Clinical data and tissues from 10 age-matched mild-asthmatic and 10 healthy nonallergic subjects were used for comparison. Swimmers had increased airway mucosa eosinophil and mast cell counts than did controls (P swimming training in indoor chlorinated swimming pools is associated with airway changes similar to those seen in mild asthma, but with higher mucin expression. These changes were independent from airway hyperresponsiveness. The long-term physiological and clinical consequences of these changes remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Swimming Pools, Points indicating locations of public swimming pools in the City of Baltimore, MD, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, City of Baltimore.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is described...

  19. Swimming Pools, File name = RECREATION. Swimming pools are a portion of this dataset. http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'File...

  20. [Warts, swimming pools and atopy: a case control study conducted in a private dermatology practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penso-Assathiany, D; Flahault, A; Roujeau, J C

    1999-10-01

    Our purpose was to study two risk factors of warts, i.e., swimming pool frequentation and atopy. A case-control study was performed in four dermatologists' private offices. The cases were patients consulting for the first time for warts; the controls were patients consulting for the first time for acne. Univariate analysis performed in 153 questionnaires (including 86 cases and 67 controls) showed an association between warts with swimming pool frequentation one year before consulting and between warts and history of atopy. Multivariate analysis showed an association between warts and history of atopy (OR: 4.20; confidence interval at 95 p. 100 = (1.52-11.6). The link between warts and frequentation of swimming pool one year before is not significant (OR: 1.81; confidence interval at 95 p. 100 = (0.78-4.21)) but shows a tendency. This last point should be confirmed in further studies. Additionally, this study showed that this kind of clinical research can be carried out in dermatologist private practice.

  1. Material selection of safety-relevant components in indoor swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, M.; Richner, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2003-05-01

    Suspended ceilings in indoor swimming pools are safety-relevant components. As was demonstrated by the collapses of the ceiling of the Uster (CH) indoor swimming pool (1985) and again at Steenwijk (NL, 2001) greater attention has to be paid to selecting suitable materials and inspecting the state of such components. Our findings according to corrosion of metal fastening components of more than 150 indoor swimming pools in Switzerland are reported. The corrosion behaviour of stainless steels and galvanized steels are compared and discussed including newer results from the literature. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Deckenabhaengungen in Hallenbaedern sind sicherheitsrelevante Bauteile. Der Wahl des geeigneten Werkstoffs und der Zustandskontrolle dieser Bauteile muessen - wie die Ereignisse des Deckeneinsturzes im Hallenbad Uster (CH, 1985) und erneut in Steenwijk (NL, 2001) zeigten - eine hohe Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet werden. Untersuchungsresultate in korrosionschemischer Hinsicht von metallischen Befestigungselementen in ueber 150 Hallenbaedern in der Schweiz werden vorgestellt. Das Korrosionsverhalten der nichtrostenden Staehle und verzinkter Staehle wird verglichen und unter Beruecksichtigung neuer Resultate aus der Literatur diskutiert. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial-Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pools and Hot Tubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Lutz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21% were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate, aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen.

  3. Outbreaks of Short-Incubation Ocular and Respiratory Illness Following Exposure to Indoor Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anna B.; Kile, James C.; Otto, Charles; Kazerouni, Neely; Austin, Connie; Blount, Benjamin C.; Wong, Hong-Nei; Beach, Michael J.; Fry, Alicia M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Chlorination destroys pathogens in swimming pool water, but by-products of chlorination can cause human illness. We investigated outbreaks of ocular and respiratory symptoms associated with chlorinated indoor swimming pools at two hotels. Measurements We interviewed registered guests and companions who stayed at hotels X and Y within 2 days of outbreak onset. We performed bivariate and stratified analyses, calculated relative risks (RR), and conducted environmental investigations of indoor pool areas. Results Of 77 guests at hotel X, 47 (61%) completed questionnaires. Among persons exposed to the indoor pool area, 22 (71%) of 31 developed ocular symptoms [RR = 24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5–370], and 14 (45%) developed respiratory symptoms (RR = 6.8; 95% CI, 1.0–47) with a median duration of 10 hr (0.25–24 hr). We interviewed 30 (39%) of 77 registered persons and 59 unregistered companions at hotel Y. Among persons exposed to the indoor pool area, 41 (59%) of 69 developed ocular symptoms (RR = 24; 95% CI, 1.5–370), and 28 (41%) developed respiratory symptoms (RR = 17; 95% CI, 1.1–260) with a median duration of 2.5 hr (2 min–14 days). Four persons sought medical care. During the outbreak, the hotel X’s ventilation system malfunctioned. Appropriate water and air samples were not available for laboratory analysis. Conclusions and relevance to professional practice Indoor pool areas were associated with illness in these outbreaks. A large proportion of bathers were affected; symptoms were consistent with chloramine exposure and were sometimes severe. Improved staff training, pool maintenance, and pool area ventilation could prevent future outbreaks. PMID:17384776

  4. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF USING COMPLEX OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND SILVER FOR DISINFECTING SWIMMING POOL WATER AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nabizadeh ، N. Samadi ، Z. Sadeghpour ، M. Beikzadeh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the application of Nanosil containing hydrogen peroxide and silver was studied in disinfecting swimming pool water and it's Environment. The effect of the disinfectant on Candida albicans (ATCC No. 10231, Aspergillus niger (ATCCNo. 16404, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC No. 9027, Serratia marcescens (PTCC No. 1111, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC No. 10031 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC No. 29737 was evaluated. The main objective of this experiment was to determine the effective dose of Nanosil which could be used for disinfecting the environment of swimming pools and other surface area. Then, the effectiveness of Nanosil was studied in two private and one public swimming pools. Heterotrophic plate count, thermotolerant coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were monitored as the target microorganisms in disinfection practice According to the result of this study, it is recommended to apply the Nanosil with the concentration of ≥3% (30000 mg/L for contact time of 30 min or more for practical disinfection in swimming pools environment. The application of Nanosil in real conditions of two private and one public swimming pools indicated that the acceptable microbial quality is also achievable if the disinfectant residual concentration would be as high as 20 mg/L in swimming pool water.

  5. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Kamilla M.S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Zortea, Raissa [Department of Land, Environment and Geotechnology Engineering, Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy); Piketty, Aurelia [Institute of Chemistry, Industrial and Chemical Engineering and Technology (INP-ENCIACET), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (France); Vega, Sergio Rodriguez [Chemical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain); Andersen, Henrik Rasmus, E-mail: Henrik@ndersen.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min{sup −1} for chloroform to 0.523 min{sup −1} for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, while 2.6 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1} was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1}. It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes. - Highlights: ► UV irradiation is able to degrade all 12 investigated disinfection by-products. ► Bromine species are easier to remove than their chlorinated analogues. ► UV dose used for combined chlorine was comparable with doses required for DBP removal. ► Significant removal of some disinfection by-products in swimming pools is indicated.

  6. Titanium distribution in swimming pool water is dominated by dissolved species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Holbrook, R; Motabar, Donna; Quiñones, Oscar; Stanford, Benjamin; Vanderford, Brett; Moss, Donna

    2013-10-01

    The increased use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in consumer products such as sunscreen has raised concerns about their possible risk to human and environmental health. In this work, we report the occurrence, size fractionation and behavior of titanium (Ti) in a children's swimming pool. Size-fractionated samples were analyzed for Ti using ICP-MS. Total titanium concentrations ([Ti]) in the pool water ranged between 21 μg/L and 60 μg/L and increased throughout the 101-day sampling period while [Ti] in tap water remained relatively constant. The majority of [Ti] was found in the dissolved phase (pool water is minimal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Mapping Neglected Swimming Pools from Satellite Data for Urban Vector Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C. M.; Melton, F. S.; Reisen, W. K.

    2010-12-01

    Neglected swimming pools provide suitable breeding habit for mosquitoes, can contain thousands of mosquito larvae, and present both a significant nuisance and public health risk due to their inherent proximity to urban and suburban populations. The rapid increase and sustained rate of foreclosures in California associated with the recent recession presents a challenge for vector control districts seeking to identify, treat, and monitor neglected pools. Commercial high resolution satellite imagery offers some promise for mapping potential neglected pools, and for mapping pools for which routine maintenance has been reestablished. We present progress on unsupervised classification techniques for mapping both neglected pools and clean pools using high resolution commercial satellite data and discuss the potential uses and limitations of this data source in support of vector control efforts. An unsupervised classification scheme that utilizes image segmentation, band thresholds, and a change detection approach was implemented for sample regions in Coachella Valley, CA and the greater Los Angeles area. Comparison with field data collected by vector control personal was used to assess the accuracy of the estimates. The results suggest that the current system may provide some utility for early detection, or cost effective and time efficient annual monitoring, but additional work is required to address spectral and spatial limitations of current commercial satellite sensors for this purpose.

  8. Biologically active carbon filtration for haloacetic acid removal from swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao L; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-01-15

    A biologically activate carbon (BAC) filter was continuously operated on site for the treatment of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in an outdoor swimming pool at an average empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 5.8 min. Results showed that BAC filtration was a viable technology for direct removal of HAAs from the pool water with a nominal efficiency of 57.7% by the filter while the chlorine residuals were 1.71 ± 0.90 mg/L during the study. THMs and TOC were not removed and thus were not considered as indicators of the effectiveness of BAC filtration. Increased EBCT in the range of 4.5 and 6.4 min led to improved HAA removal performance, which could be best fit by a logarithmic regression model. BAC filtration also affected the HAA speciation by removing more dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) than trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), resulting in a lower ratio of DCAA/TCAA in the filtered effluent. However, the observation of an overall constant ratio could be attributable to a complex formation and degradation mechanism occurring in swimming pools.

  9. Removal of Cryptosporidium and polystyrene microspheres from swimming pool water with sand, cartridge, and precoat filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, James E; Walsh, Kimberly J; Fielding, Roy R; Arrowood, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium has caused the majority of waterborne disease outbreaks in treated recreational water venues in the USA for many years running. This research project evaluated some common US swimming pool filters for removing Cryptosporidium oocysts, 5-µm diameter polystyrene microspheres, and 1-µm diameter polystyrene microspheres. A 946 L hot tub with interchangeable sand, cartridge, and precoat filters was used at room temperature for this research. Simulated pool water for each experiment was created from Charlotte, NC (USA) tap water supplemented with alkalinity, hardness, chlorine, and a mixture of artificial sweat and urine. Precoat (i.e., diatomaceous earth and perlite) filters demonstrated pathogen removal efficiencies of 2.3 to 4.4 log (or 99.4-99.996%). However, sand and cartridge filters had average Cryptosporidium removals of 0.19 log (36%) or less. The combined low filter removal efficiencies of sand and cartridge filters along with the chlorine-resistant properties of Cryptosporidium oocysts could indicate a regulatory gap warranting further attention and having significant implications on the protection of public health in recreational water facilities. The 5-µm microspheres were a good surrogate for Cryptosporidium oocysts in this study and hold promise for use in future research projects, field trials, and/or product testing on swimming pool filters.

  10. Risk of infection associated with microbiological quality of public swimming pools in Bologna, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, E; Legnani, P; Guberti, E; Masotti, A

    1999-09-01

    Twelve public swimming pools in Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) were investigated for the microbiological quality of water and surfaces of the pool edges, showers and changing rooms. At the same time a cross-sectional study was carried out on the health of 238 users (bathers) compared with 238 controls who practised sports other than swimming. Data regarding duration and frequency of exposure, behaviour and recent medical history were gathered by means of a questionnaire. All participants also underwent a medical examination. Compliance of the pool water to the microbiological standards set by Italian regulations was generally good; compliance was total when free chlorine residual was within the recommended limits. However, when analysis was extended to the various surfaces, potentially pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were isolated. Eye burning and diarrhoea were the only declared symptoms and verrucas the only diagnosed disease showing statistically significant differences between bathers and controls. Verrucas tended to increase in proportion to exposure. Athlete's foot had a very high prevalence among both bathers (34 %) and controls (27.3%) and controls (27%). The environmental and epidemiological investigations both confirmed the risk of infection, mainly associated with the contamination of surfaces.

  11. Destruction of disinfection byproducts and their precursors in swimming pool water by combined UV treatment and ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Waqas Akram; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    Both UV treatment and ozonation are used to reduce different types of disinfection byproducts (DBP) in swimming pools. UV treatment is most common as it is particularly efficient in removing the repulsive chlorine like smelling chloramines (combined chlorine). UV treatment of a pool water increased...

  12. Photolysis of inorganic chloramines and efficiency of trichloramine abatement by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltermann, Fabian; Widler, Tobias; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Trichloramine, one of the three inorganic chloramines (mono-, di- and trichloramine), is a problematic disinfection by-product in recreational pool water since it causes skin and eye irritations as well as irritations of the respiratory tract. The most commonly used chloramine mitigation strategy in pool water is UV treatment. Experiments with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) confirmed that inorganic chloramines are effectively degraded by UV irradiation with low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps (apparent quantum yields (QY): NH2Cl = 0.50 (LP) and 0.31 (MP) mol einstein(-1), NHCl2: 1.06 (LP) and 0.85 (MP) mol einstein(-1)). Trichloramine showed the fastest depletion with a quantum yield slightly above 2 mol einstein(-1) in purified (LP and MP) and pool water (MP). This high quantum yield can partly be explained by reactions involving OH radicals (purified water) and the reaction of trichloramine with moieties formed during UV irradiation of pool water. The presence of free chlorine affects trichloramine degradation (QY: ∼1.5 mol einstein(-1)) since it scavenges OH radicals and competes with trichloramine for reactive species (e.g. organic amines). Measurements in a pool facility revealed that the installed UV reactors degraded trichloramine by 40-50% as expected from laboratory experiments. However, trichloramine reduction in the pools was less pronounced than in the UV reactors. Model calculations combining pool hydraulics with formation/abatement of trichloramine showed that there was a fast trichloramine formation in the pool from the residual chlorine and nitrogenous precursors. The main factors influencing trichloramine concentrations in pool water are the free chlorine concentration and the UV treatment in combination with the recirculation rate through the water treatment system.

  13. Optimal pH in chlorinated swimming pools - balancing formation of by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the optimal pH range for chlorinated swimming pools the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and trichloramine was investigated in the pH-range 6.5–7.5 in batch experiments. An artificial body fluid analogue was used to simulate bather load as the precursor for by......-products. The chlorine-to-precursor ratio used in the batch experiments influenced the amounts of by-products formed, but regardless of the ratio the same trends in the effect of pH were observed. Trihalomethane formation was reduced by decreasing pH but haloacetonitrile and trichloramine formation increased...

  14. Solar swimming pool heating plants self-constructed with ribbed pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfenning, R.

    The solar absorber suitable for self-construction consists of ribbed pipes which can be joined together to units of any size with the help of simple plug connections. By using especially developed ribbed pipes for absorbing the insolation an increased surface and, moreover, a greater stability can be achieved. The material used for the ribbed pipes is a special polypropylene which is UV stable and resistant against all chemicals occurring in swimming pool water. The same is valid for the rubber parts of the plug connections which are made of EPDM.

  15. Decommissioning of the pool reactor Thetis in Ghent, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortenbosch, Geert; Mommaert, Chantal [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Tierens, Hubert; Monsieurs, Myriam; Meierlaen, Isabelle; Strijckmans, Karel [Ghent Univ. (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The Thetis research pool reactor (with a nominal power of 150 kW) of the Ghent University was operational from 1967 till December 2003. The first phase of the decommissioning of the reactor, the removal of the spent fuel from the site, took place in 2010. The cumulative dose received was only 404 man . μSv. During the second phase, the transition period between the removal of the spent fuel in 2010 and the start of the decommissioning phase in March 2013, 3-monthly internal inspections and inspections by Bel V, were performed. The third and final decommissioning phase started on March 18, 2013. The total dose received between March 2013 and August 2013 was 1561 man . μSv. The declassification from a Class I installation to a Class II installation was possible by the end of 2015. The activated concrete in the reactor pool will remain under regulatory control until the activation levels are lower than the limits for free release.

  16. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba spp. from thermal swimming pools and spas in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Rosa Dos Santos, Sayonara Peixoto; Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2016-03-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed in soil and water. A few number of them are implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Species of Acanthamoeba can cause keratitis and brain infections. In this study, 72 water samples were taken from both hot tubs and thermal swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the water as well as perform the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates. The identification of the isolates was based on the cysts morphology and PCR amplification using genus-specific oligonucleotides. When the isolates were submitted to PCR reaction only 8 were confirmed as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba. The sequences analysis when compared to the sequences in the GenBank, showed genotype distribution in group T3 (12,5%), T5 (12,5%), T4 (25%) and T15 (50%). The results of this study confirmed the presence of potentially pathogenic isolates of free living amoebae in hot swimming pool and spas which can present risks to human health.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool Water: Evidences and Perspectives for a New Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic materials was also investigated. In 59.5% of the samples, microbial contamination exceeded the threshold values. P. aeruginosa was isolated in 50.8% of these samples. The presence of P. aeruginosa was not correlated with free or total chlorine amount (R2 < 0.1. All the isolates were moderate- to strong-forming biofilm (Optical Density O.D.570 range 0.7–1.2. To control biofilm formation and P. aeruginosa colonization, Quantum FreeBioEnergy© (QFBE, FreeBioEnergy, Brisighella, Italy, has been applied with encouraging preliminary results. It is a new, promising control strategy based on the change of an electromagnetic field which is responsible for the proliferation of some microorganisms involved in biofilm formation, such as P. aeruginosa.

  18. Adapting rail and road networks to weather extremes: case studies for southern Germany and Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Doll, Claus; Trinks, Christian; Sedlacek, Norbert; Pelikan, Verena; Comes, Tina; Schultmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of the current impacts of extreme weather conditions on transport systems reveals high costs in specific locations. Prominent examples for Europe are the economic consequences of the harsh winter periods 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and the floods in Austria, Eastern Europe, Germany and the United Kingdom in 2005 and 2007. Departing from the EC-funded project WEATHER, this paper delves into the subject of adaptation strategies by revisiting the project’s general findings on adaptati...

  19. What's in the pool? A comprehensive identification of disinfection by-products and assessment of mutagenicity of chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, S.D.; Demarini, D.M.; Kogevinas, M.; Fernandez, P.; Marco, E.; Lourencetti, C.; Balleste, C.; Heederik, D.; Meliefste, K.; McKague, A.B.; Marcos, R.; Font-Ribera, L.; Grimalt, J.O.; Villanueva, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in the water and related that to mutagenicity. OBJECTIVES: We performed a com

  20. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M S; Andersen, Henrik R

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  1. Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMaster Marianne E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a case-control study a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. In this paper, a neurogenic hypothesis is formulated to explain how toxins produced by chlorine in such pools may act deleteriously on the infant's immature central nervous system, comprising brain and spinal cord, to produce the deformity of AIS. Presentation of the hypothesis Through vulnerability of the developing central nervous system to circulating toxins, and because of delayed epigenetic effects, the trunk deformity of AIS does not become evident until adolescence. In mature healthy swimmers using such pools, the circulating neurotoxins detected are chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Cyanogen chloride and dichloroacetonitrile have also been detected. Testing the hypothesis In infants, the putative portals of entry to the blood could be dermal, oral, or respiratory; and entry of such circulating small molecules to the brain are via the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and circumventricular organs. Barrier mechanisms of the developing brain differ from those of adult brain and have been linked to brain development. During the first 6 months of life cerebrospinal fluid contains higher concentrations of specific proteins relative to plasma, attributed to mechanisms continued from fetal brain development rather than immaturity. Implications of the hypothesis The hypothesis can be tested. If confirmed, there is potential to prevent some children from developing AIS.

  2. Combined UV treatment and ozonation for the removal of by-product precursors in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Waqas Akram; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Both UV treatment and ozonation are used to reduce different types of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools. UV treatment is the most common approach, as it is particularly efficient at removing combined chlorine. However, the UV treatment of pool water increases chlorine reactivity...... and the formation of chloro-organic DBPs such as trihalomethanes. Based on the similar selective reactivity of ozone and chlorine, we hypothesised that the created reactivity to chlorine, as a result of the UV treatment of dissolved organic matter in swimming pool water, might also be expressed as increased...... reactivity to ozone. Moreover, ozonation might saturate the chlorine reactivity created by UV treatment and mitigate increased formation of a range of volatile DBPs. We found that UV treatment makes pool water highly reactive to ozone. The subsequent reactivity to chlorine decreases with increasing ozone...

  3. Should children be SCUBA diving?: Cerebral arterial gas embolism in a swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Valerie; Adkinson, Cheryl; Bowen, Mariya; Ortega, Henry

    2012-04-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is a well-known serious complication of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving. Most serious complications of SCUBA diving occur in adults because most of SCUBA divers are adults. However, young age is an independent risk factor for injury in SCUBA diving and shallow-water SCUBA diving is the riskiest environment for CAGE. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who developed CAGE while taking SCUBA diving lessons in a university swimming pool. This case illustrates the potential danger of SCUBA diving for children who lack understanding of the physics of diving as well as the often unappreciated risk of shallow-water SCUBA diving. Our intent is to educate providers of primary care to children, so that they may appropriately advise parents about SCUBA diving, and to educate providers of emergency care to children, so that they will recognize this uncommon but serious emergency condition.

  4. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.

    2017-02-01

    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  5. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini [Water ApS, Farum Gydevej 64, 3520 Farum (Denmark); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S., E-mail: kmsh@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  6. Cervical spine injuries resulting from diving accidents in swimming pools: outcome of 34 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borius, Pierre-Yves; Gouader, Ismail; Bousquet, Philippe; Draper, Louisa; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Cervical spine injuries after diving into private swimming pools can lead to dramatic consequences. We reviewed 34 patients hospitalized in our center between 1996 and 2006. Data was collected from their initial admission and from follow-up appointments. The injuries were sustained by young men in 97% (mean age 27) and the majority happened during the summer (88%). Fractures were at C5-C7 in 70%. American Spinal Injury Association class (ASIA) on admission was A for 8 patients, B for 4, C for 4, D for 1, and E for 17. There were 23 surgical spine stabilizations. Final ASIA class was A for 6 patients, B for 1, C for 3, D for 5, and E for 18. The mean duration of hospitalization was 21.3 days in our neurosurgical center (mean overall cost: 36,000 Euros/patient) plus 10.6 months in rehabilitation center for the 15 patients admitted who had an ASIA class A to C. Mean overall direct cost for a patient with class A is almost 300,000 Euros, compared to around 10,000 Euros for patients with class D and E. In addition, a profound impact on personal and professional life was seen in many cases including 11 divorces and 7 job losses. Dangerous diving into swimming pools can result in spinal injuries with drastic consequences, including permanent physical disability and a profound impact on socio-professional status. Moreover, there are significant financial costs to society. Better prevention strategies should be implemented to reduce the impact of this public health problem.

  7. Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisation of the old indoor swimming pool Heidelberg; Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisierung des alten Hallenbads Heidelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jochen

    2010-07-01

    Since its closure before nearly 30 years due to safety aspects, the monument protected indoor swimming pool in Heidelberg (Federal Republic of Germany) dilapidated appreciably. Only after moving away of the local council from its demand of the wet use, an investor could be found.

  8. Impact of combining chlorine dioxide and chlorine on DBP formation in simulated indoor swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daekyun; Ates, Nuray; Kaplan Bekaroglu, Sehnaz Sule; Selbes, Meric; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the combined use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and chlorine (Cl2) on the speciation and kinetics of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in swimming pools using synthetic pool waters prepared with a body fluid analog (BFA) and/or fresh natural water. At 1:25 (mass ratio) of ClO2 to Cl2, there was no significant reduction in the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) for both BFA solution and natural water compared to the application of Cl2 alone. When the mass ratio of ClO2 to Cl2 increased to 1:1, substantial decreases in both THMs and HAAs were observed in the natural water, while there was almost no change of DBP formations in the BFA solution. Haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes levels in both water matrices remained similar. In the presence of bromide, the overall DBP formation increased in both BFA solution and natural water. For the DBP formation kinetics, after 72hr of contact time, very low formation of THMs and HAAs was observed for the use of ClO2 only. Compared to Cl2 control, however, applying the 1:1 mixture of ClO2/Cl2 reduced THMs by >60% and HAAs by >50%. Chlorite was maintained below 1.0mg/L, while the formation of chlorate significantly increased over the reaction time. Finally, in a bench-scale indoor pool experiment, applying ClO2 and Cl2 simultaneously produced less THMs compared to Cl2 control and kept chlorite at <0.4mg/L, while HAAs and chlorate accumulated over 4-week operation period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Occupational Exposure to Trichloramine and Trihalomethanes in Swedish Indoor Swimming Pools: Evaluation of Personal and Stationary Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Jessica; Graff, Pål; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Westberg, Håkan; Eriksson, Kåre; Löfstedt, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chlorination is a method commonly used to keep indoor swimming pool water free from pathogens. However, chlorination of swimming pools produces several potentially hazardous by-products as the chlorine reacts with nitrogen containing organic matter. Up till now, exposure assessments in indoor swimming pools have relied on stationary measurements at the poolside, used as a proxy for personal exposure. However, measurements at fixed locations are known to differ from personal exposure. Methods: Eight public swimming pool facilities in four Swedish cities were included in this survey. Personal and stationary sampling was performed during day or evening shift. Samplers were placed at different fixed positions around the pool facilities, at ~1.5 m above the floor level and 0–1 m from the poolside. In total, 52 personal and 110 stationary samples of trichloramine and 51 personal and 109 stationary samples of trihalomethanes, were collected. Results: The average concentration of trichloramine for personal sampling was 71 µg m−3, ranging from 1 to 240 µg m−3 and for stationary samples 179 µg m−3, ranging from 1 to 640 µg m−3. The air concentrations of chloroform were well below the occupational exposure limit (OEL). For the linear regression analysis and prediction of personal exposure to trichloramine from stationary sampling, only data from personal that spent >50% of their workday in the pool area were included. The linear regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient (r 2) of 0.693 and a significant regression coefficient β of 0.621; (95% CI = 0.329–0.912, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The trichloramine exposure levels determined in this study were well below the recommended air concentration level of 500 µg m−3; a WHO reference value based on stationary sampling. Our regression data suggest a relation between personal exposure and area sampling of 1:2, implying an OEL of 250 µg m−3 based on personal sampling. PMID:26155991

  10. Preliminary Requirement of Hot Pool Free Surface Level from PGSFR Reactor Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeonghoi; Joo, Hyeongkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sensitivity study on structural integrity evaluations are carried out to make a decision of a hot pool free surface location from the reactor head for a preliminary designed reactor enclosure system. To do this, the thermal stress evaluations for a reactor vessel are carried out for a steady state normal operating condition with detailed heat transfer analyses through the reactor enclosure system. From these results, the preliminary design requirement of a hot pool free surface location from the reactor head is established to be 2.0m. From the sensitivity studies on the structural integrity evaluations for a steady state condition, the preliminary distance from the hot pool free surface to the reactor head is determined to be 2.0m same as a conceptual design. More detailed structural analyses for a reactor enclosure system will be carried out as a PGSFR structural design goes forward in detail.

  11. Risks of new-onset allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after early age swimming in chlorinated pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Catherine; Sardella, Antonia; Bernard, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Irritant chlorination products in swimming pools can cause respiratory problems in swimmers but their possible implication in allergies development is still unclear. To assess prospectively whether early-life attendance at chlorinated pools increases the risks of IgE sensitization and of airways inflammation later during childhood. We conducted a two-year prospective study among 196 kindergarten children (mean age of 5.7 years, 54% of boys). We measured exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and aeroallergen-specific IgE in nasal mucosa. Parents completed a questionnaire about the child's health, chlorinated pool attendance and potential confounders. Ever swimming at indoor or outdoor chlorinated pools before the age of three years was associated with higher odds for new-onset IgE sensitization to house dust mite (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-7.55) and for new-onset increased eNO (>15 ppb; aOR, 4.54, 95% CI 1.48-13.9). For both outcomes, aORs increased dose-dependently with time spent in chlorinated pools with values reaching, respectively, 3.60 (95% CI 1.21-10.7) and 5.92 (95% CI 1.72-20.5) when the cumulative pool attendance exceeded 60 h These risks appeared independently of each other, of parental history of allergies and of pre-existing diseases, including eczema, which at baseline was more prevalent in early swimmers (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI 1.23-6.89). Such associations were not seen with IgE sensitization to pollen or cat allergens. Attendance at chlorinated swimming pools in early life is associated with higher risks of new-onset airways inflammation and IgE sensitization to house dust mite, independently of other risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. [Free-living amoebae in the Grenoble area swimming pool water. Influence of th "winter-summer" use and of the sterilising procedure (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillot, R; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1980-01-01

    An epidemiological study concerning the search for and identification of free-living amoebae has been carried out on swimming pool water in the Grenoble area. Eleven establishments were surveyed over a period of one year, by taking samples of water every month. The results obtained show that the positive nature of the samples and the nature of the isolated species are influenced by the two factors being studied: The rhythm of the "Summer-Winter" use of swimming pools and the nature of the sterilising procedure, chlorine, bromine and ozone. The current sterilising conditions of the swimming pool water are discussed.

  13. Prevalence of Ocular, Respiratory and Cutaneous Symptoms in Indoor Swimming Pool Workers and Exposure to Disinfection By-Products (DBPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmina Fantuzzi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory, ocular and cutaneous symptoms in subjects working at indoor swimming pools and to assess the relationship between frequency of declared symptoms and occupational exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs. Twenty indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 133 employees was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Subjects working at swimming pools claimed to frequently experience the following symptoms: cold (65.4%, sneezing (52.6%, red eyes (48.9% and itchy eyes (44.4%. Only 7.5% claimed to suffer from asthma. Red eyes, runny nose, voice loss and cold symptoms were declared more frequently by pool attendants (lifeguards and trainers when compared with employees working in other areas of the facility (office, cafe, etc.. Pool attendants experienced generally more verrucas, mycosis, eczema and rash than others workers; however, only the difference in the frequency of self-declared mycosis was statistically significant (p = 0.010. Exposure to DBPs was evaluated using both environmental and biological monitoring. Trihalomethanes (THMs, the main DBPs, were evaluated in alveolar air samples collected from subjects. Swimming pool workers experienced different THM exposure levels: lifeguards and trainers showed the highest mean values of THMs in alveolar air samples (28.5 ± 20.2 µg/m3, while subjects working in cafe areas (17.6 ± 12.1 µg/m3, offices (14.4 ± 12.0 µg/m3 and engine rooms (13.6 ± 4.4 µg/m3 showed lower exposure levels. Employees with THM alveolar air values higher than 21 µg/m3 (median value experienced higher risks for red eyes (OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.6–14.9, itchy eyes (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.5–8.0, dyspnea/asthma (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.0–27.2 and blocked nose (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.0–4.7 than subjects with less exposure. This study confirms

  14. Detection and quantification of human adenovirus genomes in Acanthamoeba isolated from swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO STAGGEMEIER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acanthamoeba is the most common free-living environmental amoeba, it may serve as an important vehicle for various microorganisms living in the same environment, such as viruses, being pathogenic to humans. This study aimed to detect and quantify human adenoviruses (HAdV in Acanthamoebas isolated from water samples collected from swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba were isolated from water samples, and isolates (n=16 were used to investigate the occurrence of HAdVs. HAdV detection was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. HAdVs were detected in 62.5% (10/16 of Acanthamoeba isolates, ranging from 3.24x103 to 5.14x105 DNA copies per milliliter of isolate. HAdV viral loads found in this study are not negligible, especially because HAdV infections are associated with several human diseases, including gastroenteritis, respiratory distress, and ocular diseases. These findings reinforce the concept that Acanthamoeba may act as a reservoir and promote HAdV transmission through water.

  15. Electromagnetic Interference from Swimming Pool Generator Current Causing Inappropriate ICD Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Samuel Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic interference (EMI includes any electromagnetic field signal that can be detected by device circuitry, with potentially serious consequences: incorrect sensing, pacing, device mode switching, and defibrillation. This is a unique case of extracardiac EMI by alternating current leakage from a submerged motor used to recycle chlorinated water, resulting in false rhythm detection and inappropriate ICD discharge. A 31-year-old female with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and Medtronic dual-chamber ICD placement presented after several inappropriate ICD shocks at the public swimming pool. Patient had never received prior shocks and device was appropriate at all regular follow-ups. Intracardiac electrograms revealed unique, high-frequency signals at exactly 120 msec suggestive of EMI from a strong external source of alternating current. Electrical artifact was incorrectly sensed as a ventricular arrhythmia which resulted in discharge. ICD parameters including sensing, pacing thresholds, and impedance were all normal suggesting against device malfunction. With device failure and intracardiac sources excluded, EMI was therefore strongly suspected. Avoidance of EMI source brought complete resolution with no further inappropriate shocks. After exclusion of intracardiac interference, device malfunction, and abnormal settings, extracardiac etiologies such as EMI must be thoughtfully considered and excluded. Elimination of inappropriate shocks is to “first, do no harm.”

  16. A cautionary note regarding drug and brain lesion studies that use swimming pool tasks: partial reinforcement impairs acquisition of place learning in a swimming pool but not on dry land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C L; Kolb, B; Whishaw, I Q

    2000-07-01

    Spatial tasks are used widely in neurobiological studies because it is thought that they provide an unbiased assessment of the integrity of neural structures that mediate spatial learning. For example, in the Morris swimming pool place task, animals are required to locate a hidden platform in a swimming pool in relation to environmental cues. Treatments that result in an animal's failure to find the platform are assumed to reflect defects in the function of neural systems involved in spatial learning. The present study demonstrates, however, that an animal's reinforcement history can contribute to its spatial performance. Animals were trained in the Morris place task with the platform present on 100, 75 or 50% of trials. Relative to the 100% group, the 75% group was impaired in place acquisition, and the 50% group failed to learn. Even placing the 50% group animals onto the platform at the completion of an unsuccessful trial failed to improve acquisition. Animals trained to search for food on an identical dry maze problem were not affected by similar reinforcement schedules. The present findings demonstrate that the Morris swimming pool place task does not provide an unbiased assessment of spatial learning: A treatment effect may be confounded with reinforcement history. The results are discussed in relation to widespread applications of the Morris place task to neurobiological problems.

  17. Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... going out on a boat, always wear a life jacket. (Again, the life jacket should be Coast Guard-approved.) Even if you ... are other water park safety tips: Wear a life jacket if you don't know how to swim ...

  18. Effect of selection of pH in swimming pool on formation of chlorination by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Mosbæk, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Chlorine is used as disinfection agent in public swimming pools, but also reacts with organic matter in the water forming chlorinat ed disinfection by-products. In order to evaluate the effect of choice of pHsetpoint in the pool we investigated the effect of chlorination of artificial body fluid ...... formation of haloacetonitriles and trihalomethans. Addition of bromide in the experiments resulted in a shift in the formation of DBP to more brominated DBPs which contributed to that the predicted genotoxicity of the water increased significantly regardless of the pH-level....

  19. Swimming Pools, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Salisbury Wicomico County Department of Planning, Zoning & Community Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. Data by this publisher are...

  20. Swimming Pools, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as 'Part of...

  1. Removal of haloacetic acids from swimming pool water by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linyan; She, Qianhong; Wan, Man Pun; Wang, Rong; Chang, Victor W-C; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies report high concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAs), a prevalent class of toxic disinfection by-products, in swimming pool water (SPW). We investigated the removal of 9 HAAs by four commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Under typical SPW conditions (pH 7.5 and 50 mM ionic strength), HAA rejections were >60% for NF270 with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) equal to 266 Da and equal or higher than 90% for XLE, NF90 and SB50 with MWCOs of 96, 118 and 152 Da, respectively, as a result of the combined effects of size exclusion and charge repulsion. We further included 7 neutral hydrophilic surrogates as molecular probes to resolve the rejection mechanisms. In the absence of strong electrostatic interaction (e.g., pH 3.5), the rejection data of HAAs and surrogates by various membranes fall onto an identical size-exclusion (SE) curve when plotted against the relative-size parameter, i.e., the ratio of molecular radius over membrane pore radius. The independence of this SE curve on molecular structures and membrane properties reveals that the relative-size parameter is a more fundamental SE descriptor compared to molecular weight. An effective molecular size with the Stokes radius accounting for size exclusion and the Debye length accounting for electrostatic interaction was further used to evaluate the rejection. The current study provides valuable insights on the rejection of trace contaminants by RO/NF membranes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. An Architectural Self - Criticism: The Accessibility Analysis of Berlika Park Swimming Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Demirkan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban designers and architects have to clearly understand the physical features and needs of the people they are designing for. In the designing process fields such as   anthropometry, biomechanics, ergonomics, biology and physics require scientific verification to architects. But it can easily be forgotten that there are physically-challenged persons. All users experience any place by using their ability to move and perceive. If designers don’t take into account the special circumstances in the design process for physically-challenged persons, the accessibility of the place becomes impossible. At the same time a sustainable and an accessible place is truly a sign of urban rights being recognized. In this context, human rights are not only important for disciplines such as law, sociology, psychology and political sciences but also they must be important for design disciplines such as architecture, urban and interior design. This research based on the rights to exercise for physically-challenged persons aims to analyze the accessibility of the place. I was a member of the design team and today an active user of the facility-Berlika Park Swimming Pool-chosen for this study. Photographs were taken of different areas of the facility not compliant with TSE standards -TS9111 - TS 12576. Within this context, the structure was examined in terms of mobility constraints under the titles of accessible route, the arrangement of immediate surroundings of the building, arrangement of the entrance of the building, arrangement of the accessibility inside the building, signs, elevators, and fire emergency alert systems. The problematic areas of the building were identified and analyzed. This research aims to make the building more accessible place and a new modification project is being planned. But it is necessary to examine the building or the environment during its design process and solve the problems without the need of renovation project. The design

  3. Wastewater treatment in a compact intensified wetland system at the Badboot: a floating swimming pool in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oirschot, D; Wallace, S; Van Deun, R

    2015-09-01

    The Badboot (Dutch for swimming pool boat) is a floating swimming pool located in the city center of Antwerp in Belgium. The overall design consists of a recycled ferry boat that serves as a restaurant and next to that a newly built ship that harbours an Olympic size swimming pool, sun decks, locker rooms with showers, and a party space. A major design goal of the project was to make the ship as environmentally friendly as possible. To avoid discharge of contaminated waste water in the Antwerp docks, the ship includes onsite treatment of wastewater in a compact constructed wetland. The treatment wetland system was designed to treat wastewater from visitor locker rooms, showers, toilets, two bars, and the wastewater from the restaurant kitchen. Due to the limited space on board the ship, only 188 m(2) could be allocated to a wetland treatment system. As a result, part of the design included intensification of the wetland treatment process through the use of Forced Bed Aeration, which injects small quantities of air in a very uniform grid pattern throughout the wetland with a mechanical air compressor. The system was monitored between August 2012 and March 2013 (with additional sampling in the autumn of 2014). Flows and loads to the wetland were highly variable, but removal efficiency was extremely high; 99.5 % for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 88.6 % for total nitrogen and 97.2 % for ammonia. The treatment performance was assessed using a first-order, tanks-in-series model (the P-k-C* model) and found to be roughly equivalent to similar intensified wetlands operating in Germany. However, treatment performance was substantially better than data reported on passive wetlands, likely as a result of intensification. Even with mechanically assisted aeration, the total oxygen delivered to the treatment wetlands was insufficient to support conventional nitrification and denitrification, so it is likely that alternate nitrogen removal pathways, such as anammox, are

  4. Chemical Safety Alert: Safe Storage and Handling of Swimming Pool Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of pool water treatment and maintenance chemicals (e.g., chlorine), and the protective measures pool owners should take to prevent fires, toxic vapor releases, and injuries. Triggered by improper wetting, mixing, or self-reactivity over time.

  5. Criticality safety calculations of the Soreq research reactor storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caner, M.; Hirshfeld, H.; Nagler, A.; Silverman, I.; Bettan, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Levine, S.H. [Penn State University, University Park 16802 (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The IRR-l spent fuel is to be relocated in a storage pool. The present paper describes the actual facility and summarizes the Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations. The fuel elements are to be placed inside cadmium boxes to reduce their reactivity. The fuel element is 7.6 cm by 8.0 cm in the horizontal plane. The cadmium box is effectively 9.7 cm by 9.7 cm, providing significant water between the cadmium and the fuel element. The present calculations show that the spent fuel storage pool is criticality safe even for fresh fuel elements. (author)

  6. ‘Right now, Sophie *swims in the pool?!’: Brain potentials of grammatical aspect processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique eFlecken

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether brain potentials of grammatical aspect processing resemble semantic or morpho-syntactic processing, or whether they instead are characterized by an entirely distinct pattern in the same individuals. We studied aspect from the perspective of agreement between the temporal information in the context (temporal adverbials, e.g., Right now and a morpho-syntactic marker of grammatical aspect (e.g., progressive is swimming. Participants read questions providing a temporal context that was progressive (What is Sophie doing in the pool right now? or habitual (What does Sophie do in the pool every Monday?. Following a lead-in sentence context such as Right now, Sophie…, we measured ERPs time-locked to verb phrases in four different conditions, e.g., (a is swimming (control; (b *is cooking (semantic violation; (c *are swimming (morpho-syntactic violation; or (d?swims (aspect mismatch; …in the pool. The collected ERPs show typical N400 and P600 effects for semantics and morpho-syntax, while aspect processing elicited an Early Negativity (250-350 ms. The aspect-related Negativity was short-lived and had a central scalp distribution with an anterior onset. This differentiates it not only from the semantic N400 effect, but also from the typical (LAN (Left Anterior Negativity, that is frequently reported for various types of agreement processing. Moreover, aspect processing was not accompanied by a clear P600 modulation.We argue that the specific context for each item in this experiment provided a trigger for agreement checking with temporal information encoded on the verb, i.e., morphological aspect marking. The aspect-related Negativity obtained for aspect agreement mismatches reflects a violated expectation concerning verbal inflection (in the example above, the expected verb phrase was Sophie is X-ing rather than Sophie X-s in condition d. The absence of an additional P600 for aspect processing suggests that the mismatch did not

  7. Effects of medium-pressure UV lamps radiation on water quality in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassan, Delphine; Mercier, Béatrice; Castex, Françoise; Rambaud, André

    2006-03-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the impact of medium-pressure UV lamps radiation on water quality in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool. An indoor swimming pool was equipped with two medium-pressure UV lamps. We collected eight samples of water daily over a four-weeks period and measured total and free chlorine, pH, water temperature, bacteriological parameters, total organic carbon and trihalomethanes. During the first week, which served as control, medium-pressure UV lamps were turned off. During the next three weeks, medium-pressure UV lamps were kept on 24 h per day. The third week, we reduced the level of the injected chlorine into water, and the last week we also reduced the water renewal volume by 27%. Our results showed that bacteriological parameters remained within allowable french limits. When medium-pressure UV lamps were kept on, total, free and active chlorine levels were significantly increased (P<0.001), whereas combined chlorine level were significantly decreased (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). The levels of chloroform and bromodichloromethane were significantly increased when medium-pressure UV lamps were kept on (P<0.001), whereas chlorodibromomethane and bromoform levels significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The additional formation of chloroform and bromodichloromethane may be explained by the increase in active chlorine and by radicalizing mechanisms initiated by UV radiation.

  8. Modelling and mapping climate change adaptability in the historic tourism region of the Salzkammergut in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stefan; Lang, Stefan; Pernkopf, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Climate change adaptability of a region due to climate change (CC) is of growing concern due to its irreversible character and the multitude of factors supporting or hampering the capability to adapt. Research on climate change adaptation, in its complex character and its global (in terms of both societal and environmental implications), involves several schools according to [Miller et al. 2010]: (1) the 'vulnerability' community with its two to three main pillars (exposure, adaptive capacity, sensitivity) following the actor-oriented IPCC approach [IPCC 2007], investigating the degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change; and (2) the 'resilience' community emerging from the (eco-)systems approach with its dual function [Folke 2006] of absorbing disturbance and self-renewal/-organisation. The concept of 'transformability' seems to be the appropriate overarching one to accommodate either notion. Here we treat climate change (CC) adaptability/transformability as a latent phenomenon to be operationalized by decomposition [Weinberg 1975]. After this we re-compose a meta-indicator based on a scale-specific spatial set of regions characterised by uniform response to the phenomenon under concern. In [Lang et al. 2014] we showed how gridded fine-scale data being integrated and regionalised can support ambitious policy interventions in the so-called geon approach. Spatializing a multi-dimensional indicator set using scale-specific regionalisation shall aim for a policy-driven 'unitisation' of the intervention space. We focus our study on a tourism region called Salzkammergut, situated in inner Austria and historically grown. Nowadays intersecting three federal states without an explicit administrative body, this region can be considered 'latent' itself. The region, a historic tourism area since the Austrian Empire has received its recognition since the early 19th century. Then being confined to an area around the

  9. Concentrations of disinfection by-products in swimming pool following modifications of the water treatment process: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel; Catto, Cyril; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Simard, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    The formation and concentration of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in pool water and the ambient air vary according to the type of water treatment process used. This exploratory study was aimed at investigating the short-term impact of modifications of the water treatment process on traditional DBP levels (e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs), chloramines) and emerging DBPs (e.g., Halonitromethanes, Haloketones, NDMA) in swimming pool water and/or air. A sampling program was carried to understand the impact of the following changes made successively to the standard water treatment process: activation of ultraviolet (UV) photoreactor, halt of air stripping with continuation of air extraction from the buffer tank, halt of air stripping and suppression of air extraction from the buffer tank, suppression of the polyaluminium silicate sulfate (PASS) coagulant. UV caused a high increase of Halonitromethanes (8.4 fold), Haloketones (2.1 fold), and THMs in the water (1.7 fold) and, of THMs in the air (1.6 fold) and contributed to reducing the level of chloramines in the air (1.6 fold) and NDMA in the water (2.1 fold). The results highlight the positive impact of air stripping in reducing volatile contaminants. The PASS did not change the presence of DBPs, except for the THMs, which decrease slightly with the use of this coagulant. This study shows that modifications affecting the water treatment process can rapidly produce important and variable impacts on DBP levels in water and air and suggests that implementation of any water treatment process to reduce DBP levels should take into account the specific context of each swimming pool. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Radiological performance of hot water layer system in open pool type reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abdelhady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculated dose rate carried out by using MicroShield code to show the importance of hot water layer system (HWL in 22 MW open pool type reactor from the radiation protection safety point of view. The paper presents the dose rate profiles over the pool surface in normal and abnormal operations of HWL system. The results show that, in case of losing the hot water layer effect, the radiation dose rate profiles over the pool surface will increase from values lower than the worker permissible dose limits to values very higher than the permissible dose limits.

  11. Study on the Adaptability of Etheriifcation Feedstock to Reactor Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Junyi; Yuan Qing; Wang Lei; Huang Tao

    2016-01-01

    A reactive C5 oleifns and methanol etheriifcation kinetic model based on E-R mechanism was established and three different types of reactors including the adiabatic ifxed-bed liquid reactor, the external loop reactor and the mixed-phase reactor were constructed by Aspen Plus. The adaptability of reactive C5 oleifns to these reactors was studied and simulated using various gasoline fractions with different oleifns content. After the theoretical model was validated by the experimental data of the etheriifcation of three C5 light cut fractions from different gasoline sources in different reactors, the simulated isoamylene conversion with reactive C5 olefin contents increasing from 10% to 60% was studied in the three different types of reactors for etheriifcation with methanol, respectively. Test results show that there is an obvious adaptability of the feedstock composition to the reactor type to achieve a high conversion.

  12. Microbiological quality of swimming-pool waters in the province of Badajoz (Spain); Calidad microbiologica de las aguas de piscina en la provinca de Badajoz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba Doblas, A. M.; Ambel Carracedo, M. P.; Cobos Rodriguez, J. G.

    2006-07-01

    The object of the actual work is to evaluate the microbiological quality of swimming pool waters in the province of Badajoz, 79 samples in 33 cities, according to criteria required by the Decreto 54/2002 of the Comunidad Autonoma of Extremadura. the work describes the possible origins of the pollution in the swimming-pool waters and the risks. The parameters analyzed were Termotolerant Coliforms, Faecal streptococci, S. aureus, P. aerogenes, Sulphate reducing bacteria and Salmonella spp. Results show that 62% of these fulfil microbiological quality criteria. the presence of Sulphate reducing bacteria was found in 24% of the samples, and P. aerogenes was detected in 16% of them. (Author) 20 refs.

  13. Solar thermal activation study of the Land of Hessen. Study on solar options for municipal swimming pools, gymnasia and sports centers in Hessen. Solarthermische Aktivierungsstudie Hessen. Studie zur solaren Eignung von kommunalen Freibaedern sowie Turn- und Sporthallen in Hessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This study is to give communities and districts in the Land of Hessen a decision aid on whether solar service water or pool water heating would be an economically efficient alternative in numerical swimming pools or sports centers. (orig.)

  14. ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  15. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, S R

    1991-08-01

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Adaptation of the pituitary-adrenal axis to daily repeated forced swim exposure in rats is dependent on the temperature of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Comparison of exposure to certain predominantly emotional stressors reveals a qualitatively similar neuroendocrine response profile as well as a reduction of physiological responses after daily repeated exposure (adaptation). However, particular physical components of the stressor may interfere with adaptation. As defective adaptation to stress can enhance the probability to develop pathologies, we studied in adult male rats (n = 10/group) swimming behavior (struggling, immobility and mild swim) and physiological responses (ACTH, corticosterone and rectal temperature) to daily repeated exposure to forced swim (20 min, 13 d) at 25 or 36 °C (swim25 or swim36). Rats were repeatedly blood-sampled by tail-nick and hormones measured by radioimmunoassay. Some differences were observed between the two swim temperature groups after the first exposure to forced swim: (a) active behaviors were greater in swim25 than swim36 groups; (b) swim25 but not swim36 caused hypothermia; and (c) swim36 elicited the same ACTH response as swim25, but plasma corticosterone concentration was lower for swim36 at 30 min post-swim. After daily repeated exposure, adaptation in ACTH secretion was observed with swim36 already on day 4, whereas with swim25 adaptation was not observed until day 13 and was of lower magnitude. Nevertheless, after repeated exposure to swim25 a partial protection from hypothermia was observed and the two swim conditions resulted in progressive reduction of active behaviors. Thus, daily repeated swim at 25 °C impairs adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as compared to swim at 36 °C, supporting the hypothesis that certain physical components of predominantly emotional stressors can interfere with the process of adaptation.

  17. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Mário J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i present two testing points; (ii on swimming physiology; (iii using adult elite swimmers; (iv no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7, endocrine secretion (n=11, muscle biochemistry (n=7, cardiovascular response (n=8 and the energetic profile (n=14. The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93. It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience.

  18. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário J; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Vilas-Boas, J Paulo; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2015-12-22

    The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i) present two testing points; (ii) on swimming physiology; (iii) using adult elite swimmers; (iv) no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7), endocrine secretion (n=11), muscle biochemistry (n=7), cardiovascular response (n=8) and the energetic profile (n=14). The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93). It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems) is limited and may depend on the athletes' training background and experience.

  19. Evaluation of the Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray MPN Test for the Rapid Enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool and Spa Pool Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartory, David P; Brewer, Megan; Beswick, Agnieszka; Steggles, Darron

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the performance of a new most probable number test (Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray) for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from swimming pool and spa pool waters by comparing it to the international and national membrane filtration-based culture methods for P. aeruginosa: ISO 16266:2006 and UK The Microbiology of Drinking Water-Part 8 (MoDW Part 8) which both use Pseudomonas CN agar. The comparison was based on the calculation of mean relative differences between the two methods conducted according to ISO 17994:2014. Using both routine pool water samples (149 from 8 laboratories) and artificially contaminated samples (309 from 7 laboratories), paired counts from each sample and enumeration method were analysed. For routine samples, there were insufficient data for a conclusive assessment, but the data do indicate at least equivalent performance of Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray to the reference methods. For the artificially contaminated samples, the data also did not result in a statistically conclusive assessment but did indicate potentially better performance of Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray. Combining the data from the routine samples and artificially contaminated samples resulted in an ISO 17994 outcome that the two methods were not statistically significantly different. Thus, the Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray method is an acceptable alternative to ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8. The Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray method has the advantage in that it does not require confirmation testing, and of providing confirmed counts within 24-28 h incubation compared to 40-48 h or longer for the ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8 methods.

  20. 3-dimensional thermohydraulic analysis of KALIMER reactor pool during unprotected accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn Do Hee

    2003-01-01

    During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coastdown. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHXs, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHXs and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, two-dimensional hot pool thermohydraulic model named HP2D has been developed. In this report code-to-code comparison analysis between HP2D and COMMIX-1AR/P has been performed in the case of steady-state and UTOP.

  1. Shaped by the environment--adaptation in plants: meeting report based on the presentations at the FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants' 2009 (Vienna, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Maria F

    2009-09-01

    As sessile organisms that are unable to escape from inhospitable environments, plants are at the mercy of the elements. Nonetheless, plants have managed to adapt, evolve and survive in some of the harshest conditions on earth. The FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants', held at the Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Vienna, Austria from 19 to 21 March 2009, provided a forum (including 18 invited talks, 8 selected short talks and 69 posters) for about 100 plant biologists from 32 countries, working in the diverse fields of genetics, epigenetics, stress signalling, and growth and development, to come together and discuss adaptation potential in plants at all its levels.

  2. Integrated impact assessment of climate change, land use, and adaptation policies on water quality in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautvetter, Helen; Schoenhart, Martin; Parajaka, Juraj; Schmid, Erwin; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time and adds considerable stress to the human society and environment. A change in climate will not only shift general weather patterns, but might also increase the recurrence of extreme weather events such as drought and heavy rainfall. These changes in climatic conditions will affect the quality and quantity of water resources both directly as well as indirectly through autonomous adaptation by farmers (e.g. cultivar choices, fertilization intensity or soil management). This will influence the compliance with the good ecological and chemical status according to the EU Water Framework Directive. We present results from an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to tackle those direct and indirect impacts and analyze policy options for planned adaptation in agricultural land use and sustainable management of land and water resources until 2040. The IIMF is the result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among economists, agronomists, and hydrologists. It consists of the bio-physical process model EPIC, the regional land use optimization model PASMA[grid], the quantitative precipitation/runoff TUWmodel and the surface water emission model MONERIS. Scenarios have been developed and parameterized in collaboration with stakeholders in order to facilitate multi-actor knowledge transfer. The set of climate change scenarios until 2040 includes three scenarios with equal temperature changes but varying precipitation patterns. They are combined with potential socio-economic and policy development. The latter include water protection measures on fertilization management, soil management, or crop rotation choices. We will presented the development of interfaces among the research, the definition of scenarios and major scenario results for Austria. We will focus on nutrient emissions to surface waters, which are the major link between the different models. The results, available at watershed level indicate the

  3. Immobility in the forced swim test is adaptive and does not reflect depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendijk, Marc L; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2015-12-01

    The forced swim test is based on the progressive immobility a rodent displays when immersed in a beaker filled with water from where no escape is possible. While the test was originally designed to identify the antidepressant potential of drugs, over the past decade a rapidly growing number of publications (more than 2000) portray this immobility response anthropomorphically as a measure for depression and despair. This is incorrect. The response to the forced swim stressor should be considered for what it shows: a switch from active to passive behavior in the face of an acute stressor, aligned to cognitive functions underlying behavioral adaptation and survival.

  4. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems.

  5. From Source Water to Tap Water to Spa and Swimming Pool Water: Effects of Disinfectanta and Precursors and Implications for Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction The current study investigated the effect of different disinfection treatments on the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed in finished drinking water vs. tap water vs. swimming pool water vs. spa waters. To this end, samples across the complete water pathway (untr...

  6. The Recreational Water Cycle: From Source Water to Tap Water to Spa and Swimming Pool Water: Effects of Disinfectants and Precursors and Implications for Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study investigates the effect of different disinfection treatments on the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed in finished drinking water vs. tap water vs. swimming pool water vs. spa waters. To this end, complete water pathway samples (untreated source waters ->fi...

  7. The risk of contracting infectious diseases in public swimming pools: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia Barna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of pathogenic microorganisms presenting risk of infection in pool based artificial recreational water venues is extracted from the available scientific literature. The microorganisms are grouped both according to their way of spread and their survival and growth strategies and their characteristics relevant for the pool and spa based recreation are discussed. In order to put the proposed risks on a solid basis, among others a ten year excerpt of the waterborne disease statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC is used throughout the article.

  8. Primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis in an indoor heat-exchange swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursons, R T; Brown, T J; Keys, E A; Gordon, E H; Leng, R H; Havill, J H; Hyne, B E

    1979-10-24

    The case history, identification and isolation of the aetiological agent of a case of primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis (PAM) contracted in an indoor heat-exchange pool are presented. The isolated strain (MsM) is compared with known strains of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Naegleria.

  9. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  10. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Velusamy; P Chellapandi; S C Chetal; Baldev Raj

    2010-04-01

    Thermal hydraulics plays an important role in the design of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor components, where thermal loads are dominant. Detailed thermal hydraulic investigations of reactor components considering multi-physics heat transfer are essential for choosing optimum designs among the various possibilities. Pool hydraulics is multi-dimensional in nature and simple one-dimensional treatment for the same is often inadequate. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) plays a critical role in the design of pool type reactors and becomes an increasingly popular tool, thanks to the advancements in computing technology. In this paper, thermal hydraulic characteristics of a fast breeder reactor, design limits and challenging thermal hydraulic investigations carried out towards successful design of Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) that is under construction, are highlighted. Special attention is paid to phenomena like thermal stratification, thermal stripping, gas entrainment, inter-wrapper flow in decay heat removal and multiphysics cellular convection. The issues in these phenomena and the design solutions to address them satisfactorily are elaborated. Experiments performed for special phenomena, which are not amenable for CFD treatment and experiments carried out for validation of the computer codes have also been described.

  11. Pulmonary adaptations to swim and inspiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Stager, Joel M; Chatham, Ken; Lindley, Martin R; Ionescu, Alina A

    2008-08-01

    Because the anomalous respiratory characteristics of competitive swimmers have been suggested to be due to inspiratory muscle work, the respiratory muscle and pulmonary function of 30 competitively trained swimmers was assessed at the beginning and end of an intensive 12-week swim training (ST) program. Swimmers (n = 10) combined ST with either inspiratory muscle training (IMT) set at 80% sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP) with progressively increased work-rest ratios until task failure for 3-days per week (ST + IMT) or ST with sham-IMT (ST + SHAM-IMT, n = 10), or acted as controls (ST only, ST, n = 10). Measures of respiratory and pulmonary function were assessed at the beginning and end of the 12 week study period. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in respiratory and pulmonary function between groups (ST + IMT, ST + SHAM-IMT and ST) at baseline and at the end of the 12 week study period. However, within all groups significant increases (P inspiratory and expiratory pressure, inspiratory power output, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory and inspiratory volume in 1-s, total lung capacity and diffusion capacity of the lung. This study has demonstrated that there are no appreciable differences in terms of respiratory changes between elite swimmers undergoing a competitive ST program and those undergoing respiratory muscle training using the flow-resistive IMT device employed in the present study; as yet, the causal mechanisms involved are undefined.

  12. Dynamic real-time monitoring of chloroform in an indoor swimming pool air using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-J; Duh, J-M; Shie, R-H; Weng, J-H; Hsu, H-T

    2016-06-01

    This study used open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy to continuously assess the variation in chloroform concentrations in the air of an indoor swimming pool. Variables affecting the concentrations of chloroform in air were also monitored. The results showed that chloroform concentrations in air varied significantly during the time of operation of the swimming pool and that there were two peaks in chloroform concentration during the time of operation of the pool. The highest concentration was at 17:30, which is coincident with the time with the highest number of swimmers in the pool in a day. The swimmer load was one of the most important factors influencing the chloroform concentration in the air. When the number of swimmers surpassed 40, the concentrations of chloroform were on average 4.4 times higher than the concentration measured without swimmers in the pool. According to the results of this study, we suggest that those who swim regularly should avoid times with highest number of swimmers, in order to decrease the risk of exposure to high concentrations of chloroform. It is also recommended that an automatic mechanical ventilation system is installed to increase the ventilation rate during times of high swimmer load.

  13. Adapting Dynamic Mathematical Models to a Pilot Anaerobic Digestion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haugen, R. Bakke, and B. Lie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model has been adapted to a pilot anaerobic reactor fed diarymanure. Both steady-state data from online sensors and laboratory analysis anddynamic operational data from online sensors are used in the model adaptation.The model is based on material balances, and comprises four state variables,namely biodegradable volatile solids, volatile fatty acids, acid generatingmicrobes (acidogens, and methane generating microbes (methanogens. The modelcan predict the methane gas flow produced in the reactor. The model may beused for optimal reactor design and operation, state-estimation and control.Also, a dynamic model for the reactor temperature based on energy balance ofthe liquid in the reactor is adapted. This model may be used for optimizationand control when energy and economy are taken into account.

  14. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could...... that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant effect on DBP formation was observed due to photoinducible radical forming molecules NO3 - (potentially present in high concentrations in pool water...

  15. The Effect of an Adapted Swimming Program on the Performance of an Individual with Kyphosis-Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios, Voutsas; Dimitrios, Kokaridas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to examine the effect of an adapted swimming program in terms of improving the performance and behaviour of an individual with kyphosis-scoliosis, with the use of an individualised education approach. The sample consisted of an adult woman with kyphosis-scoliosis. The pre-swimming phase included a…

  16. An insight of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation by alternative disinfectants for swimming pool disinfection under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linyan; Schmalz, Christina; Zhou, Jin; Zwiener, Christian; Chang, Victor W-C; Ge, Liya; Wan, Man Pun

    2016-09-15

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most commonly used disinfectant in pool treatment system. Outdoor pools usually suffer from the strong sunlight irradiation which degrades the free chlorine rapidly. In addition, more pools start to adopt the recirculation of swimming pool water, which intensifies the disinfection by-product (DBP) accumulation issue. Given these potential drawbacks of using NaClO in the tropical environment, two alternative organic-based disinfectants, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3) and bromochlorodimethylhydantoin (BCDMH, C5H6BrClN2O2), were investigated and compared to NaClO in terms of their self-degradation and the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), under simulated tropical climate conditions. The result reveals that halogen stabilizer, TCCA, had the advantages of slower free chlorine degradation and lower DBP concentration compared to NaClO, which makes it a good alternative disinfectant. BCDMH was not recommended mainly due to the highly reactive disinfecting ingredient, hypobromous acid (HBrO), which fails to sustain the continuous disinfection requirement. Total disinfectant dosage was the main factor that affects residual chlorine/bromine and THM/HAA formation regardless of different disinfectant dosing methods, e.g. shock dosing (one-time spiking) in the beginning, and continuous dosing during the whole experimental period. Two-stage second-order-kinetic-based models demonstrate a good correlation between the measured and predicted data for chlorine decay (R(2) ≥ 0.95), THM (R(2) ≥ 0.99) and HAA (R(2) ≥ 0.83) formation. Higher temperature was found to enhance the DBP formation due to the temperature dependence of reaction rates. Thus, temperature control of pools, especially for those preferring higher temperatures (e.g. hydrotherapy and spa), should take both bather comfort and DBP formation potential into consideration. It is also observed that chlorine competition

  17. Planning and periodization in swimming: An example of a macrocycle for an adapted swimming group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Querido

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The planning of the training process in is commonly recognized as a fundamental aspect for the correct and harmonious development of the capacities and to improve sports results. The aim of this paper was to present an example of a macrocyle of training in a group of adapted swimmers. The group includes 5 swimmers, being 4 male and 1 female: three swimmers with Down syndrome, one swimmer with intellectual disability and one swimmer with autism. The macrocycle of training was subdivided in 23 weeks: 15 belonging to the General Preparation Period, 4 to the Specific Preparation Period, 2 to the Competitive Period, culminating with the Winter National Championships, and 2 to the Transition Period trying. At the Winter National Championships, the most important competition of this macrocycle, these swimmers obtained 7 national titles, 4 national vice-champions titles and 2 third places. These results gave the swimmers an important incentive to keep up the good work.

  18. Planning and periodization in swimming: An example of a macrocycle for an adapted swimming group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Querido

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The planning of the training process in is commonly recognized as a fundamental aspect for the correct and harmonious development of the capacities and to improve sports results. The aim of this paper was to present an example of a macrocyle of training in a group of adapted swimmers. The group includes 5 swimmers, being 4 male and 1 female: three swimmers with Down syndrome, one swimmer with intellectual disability and one swimmer with autism. The macrocycle of training was subdivided in 23 weeks: 15 belonging to the General Preparation Period, 4 to the Specific Preparation Period, 2 to the Competitive Period, culminating with the Winter National Championships, and 2 to the Transition Period trying. At the Winter National Championships, the most important competition of this macrocycle, these swimmers obtained 7 national titles, 4 national vice-champions titles and 2 third places. These results gave the swimmers an important incentive to keep up the good work.

  19. Adaptive Nodal Transport Methods for Reactor Transient Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Downar; E. Lewis

    2005-08-31

    Develop methods for adaptively treating the angular, spatial, and time dependence of the neutron flux in reactor transient analysis. These methods were demonstrated in the DOE transport nodal code VARIANT and the US NRC spatial kinetics code, PARCS.

  20. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  1. System for reducing heat losses from indoor swimming pools by use of automatic covers. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This final report is an account of the principal activities of Lof Energy Systems, Inc. in a two-year project funded by the Energy Related Inventions Program (ERIP) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary objective has been the development of a fully practical and economical system for saving energy in indoor swimming pools by use of motorized covers. The goal is wide-spread use of a fully developed product, in institutional swimming pools. Four major tasks, depicted in the accompanying Performance Schedule, have been completed, and one other has been initiated and its completion committed. Principal accomplishments have been the selection and improvement of cover materials and designs, lengthening and strengthening of reels and improvements in motorized components and their control, design and installation of pool covers in full scale demonstration and evaluation of fully developed commercial system, preparation and dissemination of manuals and reports, finalization of arrangements for Underwriters Laboratory certification of products, and final report preparation and submission. Of greatest significance has been the successful demonstration of the fully developed system and the verification and reporting by an energy consultant of the large savings resulting from pool cover use. Probably the best evidence of success of the DOE-ERIP project in advancing this invention to a commercial stage is its acceptance for sale by the Lincoln Equipment Company, a national distributor of swimming pool supplies and equipment. A copy of the relevant page in the Lincoln catalog is included in this report as Annex A. Representatives of that company now offer Tof motorized pool cover systems to their pool owner customers. In addition to the plans for securing UL certification the company expects to continue making design improvements that can increase system reliability, durability, and cost-effectiveness.

  2. Resource pooling for frameless network architecture with adaptive resource allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XiaoDong; WANG Da; TAO XiaoFeng; SVENSSON Tommy

    2013-01-01

    The system capacity for future mobile communication needs to be increased to fulfill the emerging requirements of mobile services and innumerable applications. The cellular topology has for long been regarded as the most promising way to provide the required increase in capacity. However with the emerging densification of cell deployments, the traditional cellular structure limits the efficiency of the resource, and the coordination between different types of base stations is more complicated and entails heavy cost. Consequently, this study proposes frameless network architecture (FNA) to release the cell boundaries, enabling the topology needed to implement the FNA resource allocation strategy. This strategy is based on resource pooling incorporating a new resource dimension-antenna/antenna array. Within this architecture, an adaptive resource allocation method based on genetic algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution for the multi-dimensional resource allocation problem. Maximum throughput and proportional fair resource allocation criteria are considered. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture and resource allocation method can achieve performance gains for both criteria with a relatively low complexity compared to existing schemes.

  3. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  4. Fuel Burnup and Fuel Pool Shielding Analysis for Bushehr Nuclear Reactor VVER-1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Kamal; Ayobian, Navid

    Bushehr Nuclear power plant (BNPP) is currently under construction. The VVER-1000 reactor will be loaded with 126 tons of about 4% enriched fuel having 3-years life cycle. The spent fuel (SF) will be transferred into the spent fuel pool (SPF), where it stays for 8 years before being transferred to Russia. The SPF plays a crucial role during 8 years when the SP resides in there. This paper investigates the shielding of this structure as it is designed to shield the SF radiation. In this study, the SF isotope inventory, for different cycles and with different burnups, was calculated using WIMS/4D transport code. Using MCNP4C nuclear code, the intensity of γ rays was obtained in different layers of SFP shields. These layers include the water above fuel assemblies (FA) in pool, concrete wall of the pool and water laid above transferring fuels. Results show that γ rays leakage from the shield in the mentioned layers are in agreement with the plant's PSAR data. Finally we analyzed an accident were the water height above the FA in the pool drops to 47 cm. In this case it was observed that exposure dose above pool, 10 and 30 days from the accident, are still high and in the levels of 1000 and 758 R/hr.

  5. [Investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory illness due to exposure to chlorine gas in a public swimming pool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro Nievas, Diego; Acuña Castillo, Rafael; Hernández Jerez, Antonio; Robles Montes, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to investigate a chemical accident that occurred in a swimming-pool in the summer of 2005. The aim was to describe the environmental factors involved in the accident, to assess the effect of chlorine gas on the respiratory system, and to perform a clinical and spirometric follow-up. The following interventions were carried out: environmental inspection, epidemiologic survey (including sociodemographic variables), location at the time of the accident, perception of an abnormal smell, and clinical and spirometric outcomes to assess respiratory function. Sixty-five cases and 48 controls were identified and interviewed. The accident was produced by accidental admixture of hydrochloric acid with sodium hypochlorite resulting in chlorine gas release. The main clinical symptoms were dyspnea and cough. The risk of becoming ill was 10-fold higher in children with a previous lung disease and was 4-fold higher when the distance from the chlorine source was less than 40 m. All cases recovered completely, except one who had a history of asthma.

  6. "Saving lives": Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from "lagging behind" in 2008 into "Europe's frontrunner" by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made "good enough" over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential.

  7. Optimal item pool design for computerized adaptive tests with polytomous items using GPCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computerized adaptive testing (CAT is a testing procedure with advantages in improving measurement precision and increasing test efficiency. An item pool with optimal characteristics is the foundation for a CAT program to achieve those desirable psychometric features. This study proposed a method to design an optimal item pool for tests with polytomous items using the generalized partial credit model (G-PCM. It extended a method for approximating optimality with polytomous items being described succinctly for the purpose of pool design. Optimal item pools were generated using CAT simulations with and without practical constraints of content balancing and item exposure control. The performances of the item pools were evaluated against an operational item pool. The results indicated that the item pools designed with stratification based on discrimination parameters performed well with an efficient use of the less discriminative items within the target accuracy levels. The implications for developing item pools are also discussed.

  8. Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

  9. Detectability prediction for a thermoacoustic sensor in the breazeale nuclear reactor pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hrisko, Joshua [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garrett, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory experiments have suggested that thermoacoustic engines can be in- corporated within nuclear fuel rods. Such engines would radiate sounds that could be used to measure and acoustically-telemeter information about the op- eration of the nuclear reactor (e.g., coolant temperature or uxes of neutrons or other energetic particles) or the physical condition of the nuclear fuel itself (e.g., changes in temperature, evolved gases) that are encoded as the frequency and/or amplitude of the radiated sound [IEEE Measurement and Instrumen- tation 16(3), 18-25 (2013)]. For such acoustic information to be detectable, it is important to characterize the vibroacoustical environments within reactors. Measurements will be presented of the background noise spectra (with and with- out coolant pumps) and reverberation times within the 70,000 gallon pool that cools and shields the fuel in the 1 MW research reactor on Penn State's campus using two hydrophones, a piezoelectric projector, and an accelerometer. Sev- eral signal-processing techniques will be demonstrated to enhance the measured results. Background vibrational measurement were also taken at the 250 MW Advanced Test Reactor, located at the Idaho National Laboratory, using ac- celerometers mounted outside the reactor's pressure vessel and on plumbing will also be presented. The detectability predictions made in the thesis were validated in September 2015 using a nuclear ssion-heated thermoacoustic sensor that was placed in the core of the Breazeale Nuclear Reactor on Penn State's campus. Some features of the thermoacoustic device used in that experiment will also be revealed. [Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Inspection of state of spent fuel elements stored in RA reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S.Yu.; Sokolov, A.V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has recently been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. Based on the results of this inspection, a procedure will be proposed for transferring spent fuel to a more reliable storage facility. (author)

  11. Review of fuel assembly and pool thermal hydraulics for fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu; Gopala, Vinay R.; Jayaraju, Santhosh; Shams, Afaque; Komen, Ed

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Literature review of fuel assembly and pool thermal hydraulics for fast reactors. • Experiments and state-of-the-art simulations. • For wire wrapped fuel assemblies RANS for complete fuel assembly is state-of-the-art, LES serves reference. • For pool thermal hydraulics, typically 5 to 20 million computational volumes are used in RANS simulations. • Gas entrainment analyses are extremely demanding as in addition they request multiphase modelling. -- Abstract: Liquid metal cooled reactors are envisaged to play an important role in the future of nuclear energy production because of their possible efficient use of uranium and the possibility to reduce the volume and lifetime of nuclear waste. Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of such reactors. Two important challenges for the design of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs) are fuel assembly and pool thermal hydraulics. The heart of every nuclear reactor is the core, where the nuclear chain reaction takes place. Heat is produced in the nuclear fuel and transported to the coolant. LMFR core designs consist of many fuel assemblies which in turn consist of a large number of fuel rods. Wire wraps are commonly envisaged as spacer design in LMFR fuel assemblies. For the design and safety analyses of such reactors, simulations of the heat transport within the core are essential. The flow exiting the core is made up of the outlets of many different fuel assemblies. The liquid metal in these assemblies may be heated up to different temperatures. This leads to temperature fluctuations on various above core structures. As these temperature fluctuations may lead to thermal fatigue damage of the structures, an accurate characterization of the liquid metal flow field in the above core region is very important. This paper will provide an overview of state-of-the-art evaluations of fuel assembly and pool thermal hydraulics for LMFRs. It will show the tight interaction

  12. Postobstructive pulmonary edema in a 40-year-old man after suffocation by a swimming pool cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Ann H; Slish, John H; Lisenbee, Nathaniel P; Allen, Brandon R

    2013-11-01

    Postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) is a form of sudden onset, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that can occur after the relief of an upper airway obstruction. Since POPE is an uncommon diagnosis made in the emergency department (ED), this case is presented to increase emergency physicians' awareness of the etiology, pathophysiology, and management of this type of edema. This is a case of bilateral POPE in a 40-year-old man with no history of cardiac or pulmonary disease who experienced near suffocation due to the vacuum effect of a swimming pool cover. On presentation to the ED, the patient's symptoms included bilateral pleuritic pain over the anterior chest, shortness of breath, and inspiratory cough. He was tachycardic and tachypneic, with an oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Pertinent physical examination findings included shallow breathing and right-sided rhonchi. The initial arterial blood gas on room air demonstrated a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 304 mm Hg. Cardiac enzymes and the electrocardiogram result were normal. The patient's chest radiograph was interpreted as having marked bilateral pulmonary edema. The patient was admitted to the Medicine Intensive Care Unit and placed on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The patient was clinically asymptomatic and was discharged after 72 h. Emergency physicians should consider the diagnosis of POPE in a symptomatic patient if there is evidence of pulmonary edema immediately after a history of hanging, suffocation, strangulation, choking, naloxone administration, or other forms of upper airway obstruction. Rapid initiation of NIPPV with or without diuretics, steroids, or fluid restriction can lead to symptom resolution within 24 to 48 h. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Coping with the Forced Swim Stressor: Towards Understanding an Adaptive Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. de Kloet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the forced swim test (FST rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive “coping” was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000 stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR and glucocorticoid receptors (GR in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent’s behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation.

  14. Consideration of climate change impacts and adaptation in EIA practice — Perspectives of actors in Austria and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiricka, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.jiricka@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Sciences, Institute for Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Formayer, Herbert; Schmidt, Anna [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Sciences, Institute for Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Völler, Sonja; Leitner, Markus [Environment Agency Austria, Environmental Impact Assessment and Climate Change, Spittelauer Lände 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Fischer, Thomas B. [Environmental Assessment and Management, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, 74 Bedford Street South, Liverpool L69 7ZQ (United Kingdom); Wachter, Thomas F. [Büro für Umweltplanung Dr. Wachter, Wiesnerring 2c, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Current political discussions and developments indicate the importance and urgency of incorporating climate change considerations into EIA processes. The recent revision of the EU Directive 2014/52/EU on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires changes in the EIA practice of the EU member states. This paper investigates the extent to which the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can contribute to an early consideration of climate change consequences in planning processes. In particular the roles of different actors in order to incorporate climate change impacts and adaptation into project planning subject to EIA at the appropriate levels are a core topic. Semi-structured expert interviews were carried out with representatives of the main infrastructure companies and institutions responsible in these sectors in Austria, which have to carry out EIA regularly. In a second step expert interviews were conducted with EIA assessors and EIA authorities in Austria and Germany, in order to examine the extent to which climate-based changes are already considered in EIA processes. This paper aims to discuss the different perspectives in the current EIA practice with regard to integrating climate change impacts as well as barriers and solutions identified by the groups of actors involved, namely project developers, environmental competent authorities and consultants (EIA assessors/practitioners). The interviews show that different groups of actors consider the topic to different degrees. Downscaling of climate change scenarios is in this context both, a critical issue with regards to availability of data and costs. Furthermore, assistance for the interpretation of relevant impacts, to be deducted from climate change scenarios, on the specific environmental issues in the area is needed. The main barriers identified by the EIA experts therefore include a lack of data as well as general uncertainty as to how far climate change should be considered in the process without

  15. Thermal hydraulics in the hot pool of Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmakumar, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India)], E-mail: gpk@igcar.gov.in; Pandey, G.K.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India)

    2009-06-15

    Sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of 40 MWt/13 MWe capacity is in operation at Kalpakkam, near Chennai. Presently it is operating with a core of 10.5 MWt. Knowledge of temperatures and flow pattern in the hot pool of FBTR is essential to assess the thermal stresses in the hot pool. While theoretical analysis of the hot pool has been conducted by a three-dimensional code to access the temperature profile, it involves tuning due to complex geometry, thermal stresses and vibration. With this in view, an experimental model was fabricated in 1/4 scale using acrylic material and tests were conducted in water. Initially hydraulic studies were conducted with ambient water maintaining Froude number similarity. After that thermal studies were conducted using hot and cold water maintaining Richardson similitude. In both cases Euler similarity was also maintained. Studies were conducted simulating both low and full power operating conditions. This paper discusses the model simulation, similarity criteria, the various thermal hydraulic studies that were carried out, the results obtained and the comparison with the prototype measurements.

  16. The full spectrum of climate change adaptation: testing an analytical framework in Tyrolean mountain agriculture (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneis, Heidelinde; Penker, Marianne; Höferl, Karl-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our scientific view on climate change adaptation (CCA) is unsatisfying in many ways: It is often dominated by a modernistic perspective of planned pro-active adaptation, with a selective focus on measures directly responding to climate change impacts and thus it is far from real-life conditions of those who are actually affected by climate change. Farmers have to simultaneously adapt to multiple changes. Therefore, also empirical climate change adaptation research needs a more integrative perspective on real-life climate change adaptations. This also has to consider "hidden" adaptations, which are not explicitly and directly motivated by CCA but actually contribute to the sector's adaptability to climate change. The aim of the present study is to develop and test an analytic framework that contributes to a broader understanding of CCA and to bridge the gap between scientific expertise and practical action. The framework distinguishes three types of CCA according to their climate related motivations: explicit adaptations, multi-purpose adaptations, and hidden adaptations. Although agriculture is among the sectors that are most affected by climate change, results from the case study of Tyrolean mountain agriculture show that climate change is ranked behind other more pressing "real-life-challenges" such as changing agricultural policies or market conditions. We identified numerous hidden adaptations which make a valuable contribution when dealing with climate change impacts. We conclude that these hidden adaptations have not only to be considered to get an integrative und more realistic view on CCA; they also provide a great opportunity for linking adaptation strategies to farmers' realities.

  17. SPARC fast reactor design : Design of two passively safe metal-fuelled sodium-cooled pool-type small modular fast reactors with Autonomous Reactivity Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this master thesis a small modular sodium-cooled metal-fuelled pool-type fast reactor design, called SPARC - Safe and Passive with Autonomous Reactivity control, has been designed. The long term reactivity changes in the SPARC are managed by implementation of the the Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) system, which is the novelty of the design. The overall design is mainly based on the Integral Fast Reactor project (IFR), which experimentally demonstrated the passive safety characteristic...

  18. E-SCAPE: A scale facility for liquid-metal, pool-type reactor thermal hydraulic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tichelen, Katrien, E-mail: kvtichel@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mirelli, Fabio, E-mail: fmirelli@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Greco, Matteo, E-mail: mgreco@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Viviani, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgiaviviani@gmail.com [University of Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The E-SCAPE facility is a thermal hydraulic scale model of the MYRRHA fast reactor. • The focus is on mixing and stratification in liquid-metal pool-type reactors. • Forced convection, natural convection and the transition are investigated. • Extensive instrumentation allows validation of computational models. • System thermal hydraulic and CFD models have been used for facility design. - Abstract: MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a flexible fast-spectrum research reactor under design at SCK·CEN. MYRRHA is a pool-type reactor with lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) as primary coolant. The proper understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the reactor pool is an important issue in the design and licensing of the MYRRHA system and liquid-metal cooled reactors by extension. Model experiments are necessary for understanding the physics, for validating experimental tools and to qualify the design for the licensing. The E-SCAPE (European SCAled Pool Experiment) facility at SCK·CEN is a thermal hydraulic 1/6-scale model of the MYRRHA reactor, with an electrical core simulator, cooled by LBE. It provides experimental feedback to the designers on the forced and natural circulation flow patterns. Moreover, it enables to validate the computational methods for their use with LBE. The paper will elaborate on the design of the E-SCAPE facility and its main parameters. Also the experimental matrix and the pre-test analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and system thermal hydraulics codes will be described.

  19. Removals of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and cryptosporidium-sized polystyrene microspheres from swimming pool water by diatomaceous earth filtration and perlite-sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Amburgey, James E; Hill, Vincent R; Murphy, Jennifer L; Schneeberger, Chandra L; Arrowood, Michael J; Yuan, Tao

    2017-06-01

    Removal of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from swimming pools was investigated using diatomaceous earth (DE) precoat filtration and perlite-sand filtration. In pilot-scale experiments, microsphere removals of up to 2 log were obtained with 0.7 kg·DE/m(2) at a filtration rate of 5 m/h. A slightly higher microsphere removal (2.3 log) was obtained for these DE-precoated filters when the filtration rate was 3.6 m/h. Additionally, pilot-scale perlite-sand filters achieved greater than 2 log removal when at least 0.37 kg/m(2) of perlite was used compared to 0.1-0.4 log removal without perlite both at a surface loading rate of 37 m/h. Full-scale testing achieved 2.7 log of microspheres and oocysts removal when 0.7 kg·DE/m(2) was used at 3.6 m/h. Removals were significantly decreased by a 15-minute interruption of the flow (without any mechanical agitation) to the DE filter in pilot-scale studies, which was not observed in full-scale filters. Microsphere removals were 2.7 log by perlite-sand filtration in a full-scale swimming pool filter operated at 34 m/h with 0.5 kg/m(2) of perlite. The results demonstrate that either a DE precoat filter or a perlite-sand filter can improve the efficiency of removal of microspheres and oocysts from swimming pools over a standard sand filter under the conditions studied.

  20. Efficient heating of a swimming pool. High-efficiency boiler and solar system at Blaubeuren; Effiziente Freibad-Beheizung. Brennwert-Solartechnik in Blaubeuren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trobisch, Jens [Bosch Thermotechnik GmbH, Wernau (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The ''Blautopf'' karst spring near Blaubeuren is a wonder of nature and widely known even across the borders of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Few visitors, however, are aware that just a few steps away, there is another tourist attraction, i.e. the town's new outdoor swimming pool. In May 2008, a modern gas-fuelled high-efficiency boiler combined with a solar system was installed to heat the shower water for about 60,000 visitors per year. Optimised control ensures energy savings of up to 75 percent. The first season was highly successful. (orig.)

  1. Declassification of radioactive water from a pool type reactor after nuclear facility dismantling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, J. M.; Sancho, M.; García-Fayos, B.; Verdú, G.; Serrano, C.; Ruiz-Martínez, J. T.

    2017-09-01

    This work is aimed to the treatment of the radioactive water from a dismantled nuclear facility with an experimental pool type reactor. The main objective of the treatment is to declassify the maximum volume of water and thus decrease the volume of radioactive liquid waste to be managed. In a preliminary stage, simulation of treatment by the combination of reverse osmosis (RO) and evaporation have been performed. Predicted results showed that the combination of membrane and evaporation technologies would result in a volume reduction factor higher than 600. The estimated time to complete the treatment was around 650 h (25-30 days). For different economical and organizational reasons which are explained in this paper, the final treatment of the real waste had to be reduced and only evaporation was applied. The volume reduction factor achieved in the real treatment was around 170, and the time spent for treatment was 194 days.

  2. Effect of medium-pressure UV-lamp treatment on disinfection by-products in chlorinated seawater swimming pool waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Waqas Akram; Manasfi, Tarek; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht

    2017-01-01

    Several brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in chlorinated seawater pools, due to the high concentration of bromide in seawater. UV irradiation is increasingly employed in freshwater pools, because UV treatment photodegrades harmful chloramines. However, in freshwater pools it h...

  3. Feasibility analysis of the Primary Loop of Pool-Type Natural Circulating Nuclear Reactor Dedicated to Seawater Desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woonho; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the feasibility of natural circulation was evaluated for the reference plant AHR400 (Advanced Heating Reactor 400MWth). AHR400 is a pool-type desalination-dedicated nuclear reactor. As a consequence, AHR400 has low operating pressure and temperature which provides large safety margin. Removal of the reactor coolant pump from the AHR400 will enforce integrity of the reactor vessel and passive safety feature. Therefore, the study also tried to find out optimized primary loop design to achieve total natural circulation of the coolant. Natural circulation capacity of the primary loop of the desalination dedicated nuclear reactor AHR400 was evaluated. It was concluded that to remove RCP from the AHR400 and operates the reactor only by natural circulation of the coolant is impossible. Decreased core power as half make removal of RCP possible with 15m central height difference between the core and IHXs. Furthermore, validation and modification of pressure loss coefficients by small-scaled natural circulation experiment at a pool-type reactor would provide more accurate results.

  4. Science-policy interface in transformative adaptive flood risk management - decision-making in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Thomas; Attems, Marie-Sophie; Rauter, Magdalena; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this paper aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this paper focussed on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. This paper used the Formative Scenario Analysis (FSA) as a method to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a system and its potential future development, based on qualitatively assessed impact factors and rated quantitative relations between these factors, such as impact and consistency analysis. The purpose of this approach was to develop scenarios, where participations develop their own strategies how to implement a transformative adaptation strategy in flood risk management. In particular, the interaction between researcher, the public and policy makers was analysed. Challenges and limitations were assessed, such as benefits on costs of adaptation measures, for the implementation of visions to

  5. Identification of Mycobacterium marinum 65 kD heat shock protein gene by polymerase chain reaction restriction analysis from lesions of swimming pool granuloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) had been reported to cause cutaneous infections which are difficult to interpret due to the variability of the clinical manifestations. Among NTM infections, Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum) are mostly seen to cause skin infection. It is therefore important to establish a rapid approach for detection and identification of M. marinum from lesions of patients with suspected M. marinum infections. Methods Specimens were obtained from 5 patients with swimming pool granuloma. DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR products were digested with Hae III and BstE II, then analysed by pattern restriction analysis to detect heat shock protein (hsp) 65 kD gene. Results The 65 kD hsp gene was found in all specimens from patients with swimming pool granuloma. PCR restriction analysis (PRA) identified all 5 samples to be M. marinum infections, and the result was consistent with that of routine bacteriological identification. The lesions subsided or markedly improved upon treatment. Conclusions PRA is a sensitive, specific and rapid method in identification of mycobacteria. Application of this method will be helpful for early diagnosis of mycobacterial skin infections.

  6. Adaptive Controller Design for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prabhu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Continues Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR is an important issue in chemical process and a wide range of research in the area of chemical engineering. Temperature Control of CSTR has been an issue in the chemical control engineering since it has highly non-linear complex equations. This study presents problem of temperature control of CSTR with the adaptive Controller. The Simulation is done in MATLAB and result shows that adaptive controller is an efficient controller for temperature control of CSTR than PID controller.

  7. The radionuclides of primary coolant in HANARO and the recent activities performed to reduce the radioactivity or reactor pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [HANARO Research Reactor Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    In HANARO reactor, there have been activities to identify the principal radionuclides and to quantify them under the normal operation. The purposes of such activities were to establish the measure by which we can reduce the radioactivity of the reactor pool water and detect, in early stage, the abnormal symptoms due to the leakage of radioactive materials from the irradiation sample or the damage of the nuclear fuel, etc. The typical radionuclides produced by the activation of reactor coolant are N{sup 16} and Ar{sup 41}. The radionuclides produced by the activation of the core structural material consist of Na{sup 24}, Mn{sup 56}, and W{sup 187}. Of the various radionuclides, governing the radiation level at the pool surface are Na{sup 24}, Ar{sup 41}, Mn{sup 58}, and W{sup 187}. By establishing the hot water layer system on the pool surface, we expected that the radionuclides such as Ar{sup 41} and Mn{sup 56} whose half-life are relatively short could be removed to a certain extent. Since the content of radioactivity of Na{sup 24} occupies about 60% of the total radioactivity, we assumed that the total radiation level would be greatly reduced if we could decrease the radiation level of Na{sup 24}. However the actual radiation level has not been reduced as much as we expected. Therefore, some experiments have been carried out to find the actual causes afterwards. What we learned through the experiments are that any disturbance in reactor pool water layer causes increase of the pool surface radiation level and even if we maintain the hot water layer well, reactor shutdown will be very much likely to happen once the hot water layer is disturbed. (author)

  8. Post shut-down decay heat removal from nuclear reactor core by natural convection loops in sodium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamani, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Sundararajan, T., E-mail: tsundar@iitm.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Prasad, B.V.S.S.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Parthasarathy, U.; Velusamy, K. [Nuclear Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Transient simulations are performed for a worst case scenario of station black-out. • Inter-wrapper flow between various sub-assemblies reduces peak core temperature. • Various natural convection paths limits fuel clad temperatures below critical level. - Abstract: The 500 MWe Indian pool type Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) has a passive core cooling system, known as the Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System (SGDHRS) which aids to remove decay heat after shut down phase. Immediately after reactor shut down the fission products in the core continue to generate heat due to beta decay which exponentially decreases with time. In the event of a complete station blackout, the coolant pump system may not be available and the safety grade decay heat removal system transports the decay heat from the core and dissipates it safely to the atmosphere. Apart from SGDHRS, various natural convection loops in the sodium pool carry the heat away from the core and deposit it temporarily in the sodium pool. The buoyancy driven flow through the small inter-wrapper gaps (known as inter-wrapper flow) between fuel subassemblies plays an important role in carrying the decay heat from the sub-assemblies to the hot sodium pool, immediately after reactor shut down. This paper presents the transient prediction of flow and temperature evolution in the reactor subassemblies and the sodium pool, coupled with the safety grade decay heat removal system. It is shown that with a properly sized decay heat exchanger based on liquid sodium and air chimney stacks, the post shutdown decay heat can be safely dissipated to atmospheric air passively.

  9. The application of computational fluid dynamics and small-scale physical models to assess the effects of operational practices on the risk to public health within large indoor swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lowell; Chew, John; Woodley, Iain; Colbourne, Jeni; Pond, Katherine

    2015-12-01

    Swimming pools provide an excellent facility for exercise and leisure but are also prone to contamination from microbial pathogens. The study modelled a 50-m × 20-m swimming pool using both a small-scale physical model and computational fluid dynamics to investigate how water and pathogens move around a pool in order to identify potential risk spots. Our study revealed a number of lessons for pool operators, designers and policy-makers: disinfection reaches the majority of a full-scale pool in approximately 16 minutes operating at the maximum permissible inlet velocity of 0.5 m/s. This suggests that where a pool is designed to have 15 paired inlets it is capable of distributing disinfectant throughout the water body within an acceptable time frame. However, the study also showed that the exchange rate of water is not uniform across the pool tank and that there is potential for areas of the pool tank to retain contaminated water for significant periods of time. 'Dead spots' exist at either end of the pool where pathogens could remain. This is particularly significant if there is a faecal release into the pool by bathers infected with Cryptosporidium parvum, increasing the potential for waterborne disease transmission.

  10. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-09-30

    There were approximately 926 m(3) of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (90)Sr, U, and α-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb β-emitters, α-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously eliminate particles and adsorb ionic radionuclides from water.

  11. Optimal Item Pool Design for a Highly Constrained Computerized Adaptive Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Item pool quality has been regarded as one important factor to help realize enhanced measurement quality for the computerized adaptive test (CAT) (e.g., Flaugher, 2000; Jensema, 1977; McBride & Wise, 1976; Reckase, 1976; 2003; van der Linden, Ariel, & Veldkamp, 2006; Veldkamp & van der Linden, 2000; Xing & Hambleton, 2004). However, studies are…

  12. Optimal stratification of item pools in α-stratified computerized adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Hua-Hua; Linden, van der Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    A method based on 0-1 linear programming (LP) is presented to stratify an item pool optimally for use in α-stratified adaptive testing. Because the 0-1 LP model belongs to the subclass of models with a network flow structure, efficient solutions are possible. The method is applied to a previous item

  13. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  14. Spectacular energy technology: Panorama-Sauna Holzweiler. KfW funds indoor swimming pools as 'process heat'; Energetisch spektakulaer: Panorama-Sauna Holzweiler. KfW foerdert Schwimmbaeder als 'Prozesswaerme'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, Rolf

    2008-11-15

    The ''Panorama-Sauna'' at Grafschaft is a big indoor swimming pool and Sauna centre in a rural region not far from Cologne and Koblenz. The charm of this spectacular solar project is in its minimalism. Conventional solar thermal power systems, in contrast, tend to be complex and prone to failure. (orig.)

  15. Treadmill running and swimming imposes distinct cardiovascular physiological adaptations in the rat: focus on serotonergic and sympathetic nervous systems modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, S; Piloto, N; Reis, F; Teixeira-de-Lemos, E; Garrido, A P; Dias, A; Lourenço, M; Palmeiro, A; Ferrer-Antunes, C; Teixeira, F

    2008-12-01

    Physical exercise may improve the metabolic and haemodynamic responses, but the beneficial effects seem to depend on intensity, duration and muscular mass recruitment, which may vary between different types of protocols. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of two distinct moderate/long-term aerobic training protocols in the normal Wistar rat, the treadmill running and the swimming, on several important parameters related to cardiovascular (CV) physiological adaptations, namely: lipid profile, haemorheological measures, lipid peroxidation, peripheral serotonergic system (SS) modulation and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. In both groups under training an HDL-c increment versus the sedentary control was demonstrated. There was a noticeable increase in ADP-induced platelet aggregation in the exercised rats, together with higher PDW and MPV values. The RBC patterns were altered in both groups under training; in the swimming one, however, significantly higher RBC and HCT and lower MCH and MCHC values were found, suggesting renovation of the RBCs. Plasma and platelet SS measures were generally higher in both groups under training, being noticeably relevant the 5-HT and 5-HIAA increment in the treadmill. In opposition, concerning the plasma and platelet NE and E concentrations, the rise was remarkably higher in the rats under a swimming protocol. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, despite the similar beneficial effects on lipid profile, different aerobic exercise protocols may produce distinct CV physiological adaptations. Therefore, treadmill running was more influent than swimming concerning peripheral SS modulation while swimming was more important on SNS activation, thus recommending a judicious choice of the protocol to be tested in works which make use of rat models of exercise to study physiological or pathophysiological conditions.

  16. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – Is less THM better?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Antoniou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs...

  17. Progressive Increase in Disinfection Byproducts and Mutagenicity from Sourceto Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Implications for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on the mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples f...

  18. Effect of ozonation of swimming pool water on formation of volatile disinfection by-products - A laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram;

    2016-01-01

    byproducts during subsequent chlorination. The ozone reaction was observed to behave according to first order kinetics. For tap water half-life was 4 min whilst polluted and unpolluted pool water exhibited half-life of 8 and 11 min, respectively. When ozonation dosage was repeated half-life of ozone...

  19. Trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas en cuatro zonas de España participantes en el proyecto INMA Trihalomethanes in swimming pool water in four areas of Spain participating in the INMA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Font-Ribera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La natación es uno de los deportes más practicados en España, por personas de todas las edades y condiciones físicas. También es una vía de exposición a subproductos de la desinfección, compuestos potencialmente tóxicos. Su concentración en el agua de las piscinas no está legislada y es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la concentración de trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas de los municipios de cuatro cohortes del estudio INMA. Métodos: En julio de 2009 se analizaron los trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas (n=27 de Asturias, Granada, Valencia y Sabadell. Resultados: La concentración media de trihalometanos totales fue de 42,7µg/l (desviación estándar [DE]=19,1 en las piscinas interiores y de 151,2µg/l (DE=80,7 en las exteriores, predominando siempre el cloroformo. Granada tuvo los valores más bajos. Conclusión: La concentración de trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas presenta una gran variabilidad. Las piscinas exteriores tienen valores más altos, superando mayoritariamente los límites legales establecidos para el agua de consumo.Objective: Swimming is one of the most widely practiced sports in Spain among people of all ages and physical conditions. This activity is also a source of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP, which are potentially toxic. The DBP concentration in swimming pool water is not regulated and is poorly known. The aim of this study was to describe trihalomethane concentrations in swimming pool water in the municipalities of four cohorts of the INMA project. Methods: In July 2009, trihalomethanes were analyzed in water from 27 swimming pools in Asturias, Granada, Valencia and Sabadell. Results: The mean total trihalomethane concentration was 42.7µg/L (standard deviation [SD]=19.1 in indoor pools and 151.2µg/L (SD=80.7 in outdoor pools. In all pools, the most abundant trihalomethane was always chloroform. The lowest levels were found in Granada. Conclusion

  20. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – Is less THM better?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Antoniou, Maria; Mosbæk, Hans; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl3), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free ...

  1. The noncondensable gas effects on loss-of-coolant accident steam condensation loads in boiling water reactor pressure suppression pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Namatame, K.; Shiba, M.; Takeshita, I.

    1983-11-01

    The noncondensable gas effects on the loss-ofcoolant-accident-induced steam condensation loads in the boiling water reactor pressure suppression pool have been investigated with regard to experimental data obtained from a large-scale multivent test program. Previous studies have noted that the presence of the noncondensable gas (air), which initially fills the containment drywell space, stabilizes the direct-contact condensation in the pressure suppression pool and hampers onset of the chugging phenomenon, which induces most significant steam condensation load onto the pool boundary. This was found to be true for the tests with relatively small-break diameters, where the maximum steam mass fluxes in the vent pipe were lower than the upper threshold value for the onset of chugging. However, in the tests with the maximum vent steam mass fluxes moderately higher than the chugging upper threshold value, early depletion of the noncondensable gas tended to result in significant stabilization of steam condensation accompanied by an excursion of temperature of pool water surrounding the vent pipe outlets, which led to a delayed onset of chugging. Due to this combined influence of the noncondensable gas and nonuniform pool temperature, and due to dependence of magnitude of chugging load on the vent steam mass flux, the peak magnitude of the steam condensation load appearing in a blowdown can be very sensitive to the initial and break conditions.

  2. Adaptive variations of undulatory behaviors in larval lamprey: comparison of swimming and burrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggett, K C; Gupta, V; McClellan, A D

    1998-03-01

    In larval lamprey, movements and muscle activity during swimming and burrowing behaviors were compared. Burrowing consisted of two components: an initial component in which the head was driven into the burrowing medium; and a final component in which the animal pulled the rest of its body into the burrowing medium. The initial component of burrowing was characterized by large undulatory movements and rhythmic muscle burst activity that were similar in form to those during fast swimming, but more intense. During the initial component of burrrowing, burst durations, burst amplitudes, and burst proportions of motor activity were larger than those during swimming, while cycle time was slightly shorter than during swimming. Intersegmental phase lags and right-left phase values were similar for swimming and initial burrowing. The final component of burrowing was characterized by sharp, long-duration flexures on one side of the body, sometimes followed by similar flexures on the other side. Each flexure was produced by long-duration, large-amplitude muscle burst activity on the same side of the body or several shorter sequential bursts with slightly smaller amplitudes. During the final component of burrowing, burst durations and burst amplitudes of motor activity were much larger than those during swimming or during the initial component of burrowing. It is suggested that the motor patterns for swimming and the initial component of burrowing are produced by a common spinal locomotor network. The final component of burrowing may use some of the same neurons in the spinal locomotor networks, but the networks are probably configured differently than the situation during swimming.

  3. An Assessment of Fission Product Scrubbing in Sodium Pools Following a Core Damage Event in a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, M.; Farmer, M.; Grabaskas, D.

    2017-06-26

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated that mechanistic source term (MST) calculations are expected to be required as part of the advanced reactor licensing process. A recent study by Argonne National Laboratory has concluded that fission product scrubbing in sodium pools is an important aspect of an MST calculation for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). To model the phenomena associated with sodium pool scrubbing, a computational tool, developed as part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program, was utilized in an MST trial calculation. This tool was developed by applying classical theories of aerosol scrubbing to the decontamination of gases produced as a result of postulated fuel pin failures during an SFR accident scenario. The model currently considers aerosol capture by Brownian diffusion, inertial deposition, and gravitational sedimentation. The effects of sodium vapour condensation on aerosol scrubbing are also treated. This paper provides details of the individual scrubbing mechanisms utilized in the IFR code as well as results from a trial mechanistic source term assessment led by Argonne National Laboratory in 2016.

  4. 2001-2012年张家港市游泳池水水质监测分析%Analysis and monitoring on water quality of swimming pools in Zhangjiagang City from 2011-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹莉莉; 陈祝军

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解张家港市游泳池水水质的卫生状况,旨在预防疾病传播,规范游泳场所卫生管理.方法 依据国家有关卫生规范、卫生标准和检验方法,对游泳池水进行采样检验.结果 2011-2012年共采集游泳池池水95批次(211份水样),全部合格的有58批次,合格率为61.0%.样品不合格项目主要是尿素和游离性余氯.结论 张家港市游泳池水水质的卫生状况较差,需加强对经营管理者的业务技能培训,加强公共卫生知识的宣传教育,同时加强监督检测工作.%[Objective]To investigate the sanitary condition of water quality of swimming pools in Zhangjiagang City, prevent the disease transmission, and standardize the health management in swimming places. [Methods]The swimming pool water was sampled and detected according to the related national hygiene specification, hygiene standard and detection method. [Results]A total of 95 batches (211 water samples) were collected from swimming pools during 2011-2012, and 58 batches were qualified. The unqualified indexes mainly included urea and free residual chlorine. [ Conclusion] The sanitary condition of swimming pool water in Zhangjiagang City is not satisfactory. It needs to reinforce the skill training among managers, strengthen the education of public health knowledge, and improve the inspection and detection.

  5. Irradiation Scheme Design of 14C Production on 49-2 Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xing-min; XU; Zhi-long; ZHANG; Ya-dong

    2012-01-01

    <正>14C is a radioisotope of carbon, it is widely used in pharmacy, medical treatment, agriculture, reconnoiter and archaeology. 49-2 research reactor is a swimming pool style reactor which has operated for more than 40 years. The application of 49-2 reactor includes the radio nuclides production. Therefore, the technical scheme on 14C irradiation in 49-2 reactor should be prepared elaborately.

  6. Experimental evaluation of a heat pump for the water-supply heating of a public swimming pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Chávez, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the thermodynamic behavior of heat pumps (HP) which supply the energy needed in the public pool at the Aquatic Center of Azcapotzalco was performed. There are 18 installed HP’s but only those needed to provide the energy required are alternately activated. The evaluation was conducted during May and June of 2015. We selected one of the HP to implement temperature and pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor. The measurements were made every day at three times, 6:30, 13:00 and 18:00 hours. In a period of 24 hours, 1 000 L evaporated, there was no variation registered overnight, since the pool was covered with plastic to avoid loss of the fluid. The heat pump provided 150 kW to maintain the water temperature at the right level of operation, namely 28 °C. The coefficients of performance (COP) of the HP were 6.39 at 6:30, 7.42 at 13:00 and 7:32 at 18:00 hrs., values which are very close to the one provided by the manufacturer.

  7. 2012年夏季北京市西城区游泳池水卫生状况分析%Analysis on sanitary conditions of swimming pool water in Xicheng District of Beijing in the summer of 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓雪; 李若岚; 李博洋; 程亚杰; 张振伟; 王巍

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过了解2012年夏季北京市西城区游泳池水质卫生状况,为进一步提高游泳池水质提供依据.方法 2012年5--9月对辖区内学校附属、酒店附属、经营类3种不同类型的游泳馆进行监测,每家游泳馆每月采集水样2件,每月监测1次,连续5个月,监测项目包括pH值、浑浊度、尿素、细菌总数、大肠菌群和游离性余氯6项指标.结果 2012年夏季西城区游泳池水共监测水样140件,游泳池水质总体合格率较低,为50.00%.余氯指标合格率仅为55.71%,影响总体合格率.pH值、浑浊度、大肠菌群合格率为100%,尿素、细菌总数的合格率分别为85.71%,95.00%.学校附属、酒店附属、经营类3种不同类型场所的游泳池水合格率不同,经过卡方检验,差异有统计学意义(x2=28.289,P<0.01).学校附属游泳池水质状况最好,经营性类型的游泳池水合格率最低.结论 该区游泳场馆应建立正确净化、消毒程序,及时补充新水,加强监督管理和游泳场馆管理人员培训,保障游泳池水质.%[Objective]To understand the water quality of swimming pools in Xicheng District of Beijing in the summer of 2012, provide scientific evidence for improving water quality of swimming pools. [ Methods ] Three different types of swimming places, which included school affiliated, hotel affiliated and business swimming pools, were monitored from May to September 2012. 2 samples were collected from every swimming place every month, and were monthly monitored for 5 months. The test items included pH value, turbidity, urea, total bacterial count, Coliform group count and free residual chlorine. [Results] A total of 140 water samples were tested in the summer of 2012, and the total qualified rate was low (50.00% ). The qualified rate of residual chlorine was only 55.71% , which affected the total qualified rate. The qualified rates of pH value, turbidity and Coliform group count were 100% , while the

  8. Hygienic evaluation on the construction project of an artificial swimming pool in Shenzhen City%深圳市某人工游泳场所建设项目卫生学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严燕; 钟红霞; 谢敏灵; 姜立民

    2013-01-01

    目的 对深圳市某人工游泳场所进行建设项目卫生学评价,为卫生行政部门卫生许可审核提供技术依据.方法 依照卫生学评价通则对游泳场所进行卫生学调查、卫生工程分析,并检测游泳池水水质卫生指标.结果 该新建人工游泳场所建设项目的选址、总平面布局、功能分区、建筑物卫生学、卫生设施及消毒措施、卫生管理措施等基本符合有关卫生标准.5份游泳池水各7个检测项目的检测结果均合格,合格率为100%.结论 通过建设项目卫生学评价,较好地预防和控制了该人工游泳场所可能存在的健康危害因素.应大力推广公共场所建设项目卫生学评价工作.%[Objective]To cany out the hygienic evaluation of the construction project of an artificial swimming pool in Shenzhen City, provide the technical evidences for hygiene supervision. [Methods] According to the general rule of hygienic evaluation, the hygienic investigation and sanitary engineering analysis were conducted in swimming pool, and the health indexes of swimming pool water were tested. [Results]The site selection, overall layout, sectorization, structural hygiene, sanitary facilities and disinfection measures, as well as health management measures of the construction project of new artificial swimming pool met the requirements of the national laws and regulations. Among 5 samples of swimming pool water, all of 7 indexes accorded with national standards, and the qualified rates were 100%. [ Conclusion ] The possible health risk factors in this artificial swimming pool have been effectively prevented and controlled by the hygiene evaluation, so it is recommended that hygienic evaluation of the construction project should be popularized energetically.

  9. Proposed Advanced Reactor Adaptation of the Standard Review Plan NUREG-0800 Chapter 4 (Reactor) for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors and Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holbrook, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Moe, Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report proposes adaptation of the previous regulatory gap analysis in Chapter 4 (Reactor) of NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR [Light Water Reactor] Edition. The proposed adaptation would result in a Chapter 4 review plan applicable to certain advanced reactors. This report addresses two technologies: the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (mHTGR). SRP Chapter 4, which addresses reactor components, was selected for adaptation because of the possible significant differences in advanced non-light water reactor (non-LWR) technologies compared with the current LWR-based description in Chapter 4. SFR and mHTGR technologies were chosen for this gap analysis because of their diverse designs and the availability of significant historical design detail.

  10. Trade-offs, geography, and limits to thermal adaptation in a tide pool copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Morgan W; Grosberg, Richard K; Sanford, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Antagonistic correlations among traits may slow the rate of adaptation to a changing environment. The tide pool copepod Tigriopus californicus is locally adapted to temperature, but within populations, the response to selection for increased heat tolerance plateaus rapidly, suggesting either limited variation within populations or costs of increased tolerance. To measure possible costs of thermal tolerance, we selected for increased upper lethal limits for 10 generations in 22 lines of T. californicus from six populations. Then, for each line, we measured six fitness-related traits. Selected lines showed an overall increase in male and female body sizes, fecundity, and starvation resistance, suggesting a small benefit from (rather than costs of) increased tolerance. The effect of selection on correlated traits also varied significantly by population for five traits, indicating that the genetic basis for the selection response differed among populations. Our results suggest that adaptation was limited by the presence of variation within isolated populations rather than by costs of increased tolerance.

  11. Scaled Facility Design Approach for Pool-Type Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Small Modular Reactor Utilizing Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sangrok; Shin, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In low carbon era, nuclear energy is the most prominent energy source of electricity. For steady ecofriendly nuclear energy supply, Generation IV reactors which are future nuclear reactor require safety, sustainability, economics and non-proliferation as four criteria. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of these reactor type and Generation IV international forum (GIF) adapted three reference LFR systems which are a small and movable systems with long life without refueling, intermediate size and huge electricity generation system for power grid. NUTRECK (Nuclear Transmutation Energy Center of Korea) has been designed reactor called URANUS (Ubiquitous, Rugged, Accident-forgiving, Non-proliferating, and Ultra-lasting Sustainer) which is small modular reactor and using lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. To prove natural circulation capability of URANUS and analyze design based accidents, scaling mock-up experiment facility will be constructed. In this paper, simple specifications of URANUS will be presented. Then based on this feature, scaling law and scaled facility design results are presented. To validate safety feature and thermodynamics characteristic of URANUS, scaled mockup facility of URANUS is designed based on the scaling law. This mockup adapts two area scale factors, core and lower parts of mock-up are scaled for 3D flow experiment. Upper parts are scaled different size to reduce electricity power and LBE tonnage. This hybrid scaling method could distort some thermal-hydraulic parameters, however, key parameters for experiment will be matched for up-scaling. Detailed design of mock-up will be determined through iteration for design optimization.

  12. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  13. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water--is less THM better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kamilla M S; Willach, Sarah; Antoniou, Maria G; Mosbæk, Hans; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik R

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl(3)), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free chlorine was kept constant in the tested pH range. THM formation was reduced by decreasing pH but HAN, and NCl(3) formation increased at decreasing pH whereas the formation of HAAs remained constant. Under our experimental conditions, the formation of NCl(3) (suspected asthma inducing compound) at pH = 6.0 was an order of magnitude higher than at pH = 7.5. Furthermore, the effect of the presence of bromide on DBP formation was investigated and found to follow the same pH dependency as without bromide present, with the overall DBP formation increasing, except for HAAs. Estimation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the chlorinated human exudates showed that among the quantified DBP groups, HAN formation were responsible for the majority of the toxicity from the measured DBPs in both absence and presence of bromide.

  14. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi

    2014-11-01

    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  15. Feynman-alpha technique for measurement of detector dead time using a 30 kW tank-in-pool research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Akaho, E H K; Intsiful, J D K; Maakuu, B T; Nyarko, B J B

    2002-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis was carried out for Ghana Research Reactor-1 GHARR-1, a tank-in-pool type reactor using the Feynman-alpha technique (variance-to-mean method). Measurements made at different detector positions and under subcritical conditions showed that the technique could not be used to determine the prompt decay constant for the reactor which is Be reflected with photo-neutron background. However, for very low dwell times the technique was used to measure the dead time of the detector which compares favourably with the value obtained using the alpha-conventional method.

  16. Toward a conceptual understanding of acute cultural adaptation: A preliminary examination of ACA in female swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Haapanen, Saara; Mosek, Shwiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a novel approach to researching adaptation in transnational athletes. The first part introduces a conceptualisation of acute cultural adaptation (ACA), which extends the current literature in sport psychology by offering original insights into mechanisms underpinning adaptive...

  17. An Innovative Passive Residual Heat Removal System of an Open-Pool Type Research Reactor with Pump Flywheel and Gravity Core Cooling Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon-Yeong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an open-pool type research reactor, the primary cooling system can be designed to have a downward flow inside the core during normal operation because of the plate type fuel geometry. There is a flow inversion inside the core from the downward flow by the inertia force of the primary coolant to the upward flow by the natural circulation when the pump is turned off. To delay the flow inversion time, an innovative passive system with pump flywheel and GCCT is developed to remove the residual heat. Before the primary cooling pump starts up, the water level of the GCCT is the same as that of the reactor pool. During the primary cooling pump operation, the water in the GCCT is moved into the reactor pool because of the pump suction head. After the pump stops, the potential head generates a downward flow inside the core by moving the water from the reactor pool to the GCCT and removes the residual heat. When the water levels of the two pools are the same again, the core flow has an inversion of the flow direction, and natural circulation is developed through the flap valves.

  18. Effects of Short-Interval and Long-Interval Swimming Protocols on Performance, Aerobic Adaptations, and Technical Parameters: A Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Zafeiridis, Andreas S; Toubekis, Argyris G; Tsalis, George A; Pelarigo, Jailton G; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spiridon

    2016-10-01

    Dalamitros, AA, Zafeiridis, AS, Toubekis, AG, Tsalis, GA, Pelarigo, JG, Manou, V, and Kellis, S. Effects of short-interval and long-interval swimming protocols on performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters: A training study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2871-2879, 2016-This study compared 2-interval swimming training programs of different work interval durations, matched for total distance and exercise intensity, on swimming performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters. Twenty-four former swimmers were equally divided to short-interval training group (INT50, 12-16 × 50 m with 15 seconds rest), long-interval training group (INT100, 6-8 × 100 m with 30 seconds rest), and a control group (CON). The 2 experimental groups followed the specified swimming training program for 8 weeks. Before and after training, swimming performance, technical parameters, and indices of aerobic adaptations were assessed. ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 improved swimming performance in 100 and 400-m tests and the maximal aerobic speed (p ≤ 0.05); the performance in the 50-m swim did not change. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values were higher compared with pretraining values in both training groups (p ≤ 0.05), whereas peak aerobic power output increased only in INT100 (p ≤ 0.05). The 1-minute heart rate and blood lactate recovery values decreased after training in both groups (p training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05); no changes were observed in stroke rate after training. Comparisons between groups on posttraining mean values, after adjusting for pretraining values, revealed no significant differences between ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 for all variables; however, all measures were improved vs. the respective values in the CON (p training.

  19. Concept of a BNCT line with in-pool fission converter at MARIA reactor in Swierk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Krzysztof; Golnik, Natalia; Osko, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    BNCT facility in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk is under construction at the horizontal channel H2 of the research reactor MARIA. Measurements of the neutron energy spectrum performed at the front of the H2 experimental channel, have shown that flux of epithermal neutrons (above 10 keV) at the BNCT irradiation port was below 109 n cm-2 s-1 i.e. it was too low to be directly used for the BNCT treatment. Therefore, a fission converter will be placed between the reactor core and the periphery of the graphite reflector of MARIA reactor. The uranium converter will be powered by the densely packed EK-10 fuel elements with 10% enrichment. Preliminary calculations have shown that the total neutron flux in the converter will be about 1013 n cm-2 s-1 and flux of epithermal neutrons at the entrance to the filter/moderator of the beam will be about 2·1013 n cm-2 s-1.

  20. Neutron activation analysis at the Livermore pool-type reactor for the environmental research program. [Identification of trace element contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Heft, R.E.; Garvis, D.

    1976-07-02

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is a technique of trace analysis using measurements of radioactivity induced in the sample by exposure to a source of neutrons. The induced activity is measured by the emitted gamma radiation. Each gamma emitter can then be identified by the energy of the photopeaks produced as the nuclide decays and by the half-life of the neutron-induced activity. A complex computer program GAMANAL has been used to accomplish the major tasks of nuclide identification and quantification. The nuclide data output from GAMANAL is processed by a second computer code NADAC, which develops elemental abundance data from disintegration rates observed. The methods are those employed at the Livermore Pool-Type Reactor in support of the environmental research trace element analysis program. Among the procedures described and discussed are sample preparation, irradiation, analysis, and application of the technique.

  1. Changes and Historical Background of Competitive Swimming in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    野尻, 奈央子

    2008-01-01

    A changes and the historical background of the competitive swimming in Japan were examined in this paper. Beginning of the Meiji era, swim places appeared, and swimming races started. The competitive swimming progressed rapidly after transmitting the pool in 1907. The swimming changes in relation to the social environment and has evolved. Recently, the number of participant of ""Masters"" and ""Opening Water Swimming"" increases. On the other hand, the competitive swimming of young swimmers p...

  2. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chun-Ping, E-mail: chunping@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deal with a practical radioactive contamination in Taiwan Research Reactor spent fuel pool water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify the properties of radioactive contaminants and performance test for water treatment materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radioactive solids were primary attributed by ruptured spent fuels, spent resins, and metal debris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radioactive ions were major composed by uranium and fission products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diatomite-based ceramic depth filter can simultaneously removal radioactive solids and ions. - Abstract: There were approximately 926 m{sup 3} of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, U, and {alpha}-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of <0.9 {mu}m filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb {beta}-emitters, {alpha}-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously

  3. Investigation on water sanitary condition of swimming pools in Shijiazhuang in the Summer of 2011%2011年夏季石家庄市游泳池水质卫生状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤格; 白萍; 郭占景

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解石家庄市游泳池水质卫生状况和游泳场所的卫生管理情况,为防止传播疾病、保障游泳者的身体健康提供依据.方法 根据《石家庄市2011年公共场所卫生重点监督检查方案》及《公共场所卫生管理条例实施细则》,2011年石家庄市疾病预防控制中心与市卫生监督局共同对市区内所辖游泳池进行了监督采样,石家庄市负责对水样进行化验.结果 游离性余氯、尿素、细菌总数、大肠菌群、pH值、浑浊度的合格率依次为52.0%、81.2%、85.7%、94.1%、97.6%、100.0%;室内与室外游泳池合格率分别为41.5%和28.3%;专业型、生活小区型和附属型游泳池合格率分别为48.7%、27.1%和20.2%.结论 应进一步加强对石家庄市游泳池的监督和管理,确保广大游泳爱好者有安全卫生的游泳环境.%Objective To understand the water sanitary condition of swimming pools and health management of swimming pools in Shijiazhuang City, and provide basis for preventing disease transmission and protecting the health of swimmers. Method According to Key Supervision and Inspection Program for Public Places Health in Shijiazhuang City in 2011 and Implementation Rules of Regulations on Health Administration of Public Places, Shijiazhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Health Supervision Bureau took samples from each swimming pool together, and Shijiazhuang CDC was responsible for laboratory testing of the samples. Results The qualified rates of free residual chlorine, urea, total bacteria, coliform bacteria, pH value and turbidity were 52. 0% , 81. 2% , 85. 7% , 94. 1% , 97.6% and 100. 0% , respectively. The qualified rates of indoor and outdoor swimming pools were 41. 5% and 28. 3% , respectively; and the qualified rates of professional, residental and subsidiary swimming pools were 48.1% , 27. 1% and 20. 2% , respectively. Conclusion We should further strengthen the supervision and

  4. Constraints on adaptive evolution: the functional trade-off between reproduction and fast-start swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalambor, Cameron K; Reznick, David N; Walker, Jeffrey A

    2004-07-01

    The empirical study of natural selection reveals that adaptations often involve trade-offs between competing functions. Because natural selection acts on whole organisms rather than isolated traits, adaptive evolution may be constrained by the interaction between traits that are functionally integrated. Yet, few attempts have been made to characterize how and when such constraints are manifested or whether they limit the adaptive divergence of populations. Here we examine the consequences of adaptive life-history evolution on locomotor performance in the live-bearing guppy. In response to increased predation from piscivorous fish, Trinidadian guppies evolve an increased allocation of resources toward reproduction. These populations are also under strong selection for rapid fast-start swimming performance to evade predators. Because embryo development increases a female's wet mass as she approaches parturition, an increased investment in reproductive allocation should impede fast-start performance. We find evidence for adaptive but constrained evolution of fast-start swimming performance in laboratory trials conducted on second-generation lab-reared fish. Female guppies from high-predation localities attain a faster acceleration and velocity and travel a greater distance during fast-start swimming trials. However, velocity and distance traveled decline more rapidly over the course of pregnancy in these same females, thus reducing the magnitude of divergence in swimming performance between high- and low-predation populations. This functional trade-off between reproduction and swimming performance reveals how different aspects of the phenotype are integrated and highlights the complexity of adaptation at the whole-organism level.

  5. The Swimming Pool (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chen Xi was born in 1968 in Chongqing City, Sichuan Province. In 1991, she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree from the Oil Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Her paintings are soaked through with her mixed emotions towards urban life. The city, the concentrated mirror of human civilization, drives the human race further and further away from mother nature Molded ever more strictly by the socialization process, human beings live more and more like commodities. The ever-shrink-

  6. [Swimming-induced asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjellbirkeland, L; Gulsvik, A; Walløe, A

    1995-06-30

    Swimming is said to have low asthmogeneity especially when compared with other physical activities. Four young athletes who participated in heavy swimming exercise are reported as having symptoms of exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Three of them started to develop the symptoms after several years of training and had no former history of asthma. In the fourth, the asthma was diagnosed in childhood but the EIA-symptoms here exacerbated by swimming. All four experienced more symptoms when the air in the swimming pool was warm, or when there was a strong smell of chlorine. Two of the athletes reported having no symptoms when they swam in outdoor pools and had only minor symptoms, or none at all, when they did other formes of physical exercise, including running. In all four their swimming performance was hampered by their respiratory symptoms. Two of the swimmers improved when they inhaled steroids and adrenerg-beta 2 agonists, and continued their swimming carrier. The cases suggest that an irritant may provoke asthma symptoms in susceptible swimmers. Volatile compounds from chlorination of the pools are suspected as possible irritant agents.

  7. CPAFFC Delegation In Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Austrian-Chinese Legal Association, the CPAFFC Delegation led by its vice president Liu Zhiming visited Austria from November 21 to 28, 2005. The delegation consisted of personages of the legal circles from Hunan, Qinghai, Jilin, Jiangxi, Beijing and Tianjin. In Austria, the delegation participated in the First Austria-China Legal Symposium, met with important political figures including Barbara Prammer, second president of the National Council of Austria, and

  8. Swimming and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Jason M; Khanna, Neel; Chesler, Roseann; Salciccioli, Louis

    2013-09-20

    Exercise training is accepted to be beneficial in lowering morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiac disease. Swimming is a popular recreational activity, gaining recognition as an effective option in maintaining and improving cardiovascular fitness. Swimming is a unique form of exercise, differing from land-based exercises such as running in many aspects including medium, position, breathing pattern, and the muscle groups used. Water immersion places compressive forces on the body with resulting physiologic effects. We reviewed the physiologic effects and cardiovascular responses to swimming, the cardiac adaptations to swim training, swimming as a cardiac disease risk factor modifier, and the effects of swimming in those with cardiac disease conditions such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and the long-QT syndrome.

  9. Water Quality Evaluation of Swimming Pools Based on Back Propagation Neural Network%应用反向传播(BP)神经网络模型综合评价游泳场所水质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽红; 王小川; 陈仁杰

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To build a water quality evaluation model based on back propagation (BP) neural network for better water hygiene management of the swimming pools in Shanghai.[Methods] Based on the exports' proposed standards of water quality grading for swimming pools,random samples were selected.A BP neural network was adopted for training and modeling.The established model was then applied to rapid evaluation of water quality grade of swimming pools in Changning District,Shanghai.[Results] With the help of BP neural network,the prediction accuracy of the water quality evaluation model was up to 95.2% for the training data.Among the water samples from swimming pools in Changning District in 2009,no severe water.pollution was found and more than half (54.44%) of the water samples were at general grade.There were more lightly polluted samples from the community clubs than from the sports institutes and the star-rated hotels.The quality of samples taken from sports institutes was higher than those from the star-rated hotels and the community clubs.[Conclusion] The accuracy of the BP neural network model is high for water quality evaluation.Except for the water sampled from the community clubs' swimming pools,the quality of water in swimming pools of Shanghai Changning District is at a general acceptable level.%[目的]应用反向传播(back-propagation,BP)神经网络模型,构建游泳场所水质综合评价模型,为加强游泳场所水质的卫生管理和保障游泳者的身体健康提供相关依据. [方法]运用专家评价的游泳场所水质分级标准并根据随机数产生样本,使用BP神经网络进行训练与建模.将建立好的BP神经网络模型用于上海市长宁区游泳场所快速水质等级判断. [结果]构建的基于BP神经网络的游泳场所水质综合评价模型对训练数据的预测准确率达到95.2%.2009年上海市长宁区游泳场所水样中,无重度污染水样.水质一般的

  10. Qualification Structure, Over- and Underqualification of the Foreign Born in Austria and the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Peter; Nowotny, Klaus; Bock-Schappelwein, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This project focuses on comparing the qualification structure of migrants residing in Austria as well as their over- and underqualification rates to other EU countries. The skill structure of foreign born residing in Austria has improved slightly in the last years. Austria is, however, characterised by a high share of medium skilled migrants and a low share of highly skilled migrants. In addition among the pool of migrants in the EU from a given country, Austria generally selects the less qua...

  11. The solar heating system of the sport centre 'Guillamo Swimming Pool' in Sierre, Switzerland; Installation solaire thermique. Complexe sportif de la piscine de Guillamo - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the refurbishment and the extension of the sport centre 'Guillamo Swimming Pool' in Sierre, Switzerland. The original building built in 1978 included three swimming pools (two indoor and one small outdoor). In 2005 a three-room fitness centre, a wellness centre and a bar were added to the compound and the old building and technical installations refurbished. At the same time a 591 m{sup 2} solar collector array was added. Unglazed selective solar absorbers were mounted on the 5{sup o} tilted flat roof. They insure at the same time the water tightness of the roof, a feature that lead to a significant cost reduction of the project. Before 2005 the natural gas consumption of the centre was 1.3 to 1.7 GWh/year. After the construction work the consumption was about 1.6 GWh, including a contribution of 0.06 GWh from the solar collectors. This last figure is disappointing. The reasons for this are mainly attributed by the authors to a very poor integration of the solar collectors into the conventional heat generation and distribution system, which do not enable the solar collectors to deliver the heat quantity they should. Changes should be made on the hydraulics of the whole system and on the control algorithms and settings.

  12. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  13. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  14. Adaptive fuzzy control of neutron power of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; Control difuso adaptable de la potencia neutronica del reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas R, E.

    2014-07-01

    The design and implementation of an identification and control scheme of the TRIGA Mark III research nuclear reactor of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) of Mexico is presented in this thesis work. The identification of the reactor dynamics is carried out using fuzzy logic based systems, in which a learning process permits the adjustment of the membership function parameters by means of techniques based on neural networks and bio-inspired algorithms. The resulting identification system is a useful tool that allows the emulation of the reactor power behavior when different types of insertions of reactivity are applied into the core. The identification of the power can also be used for the tuning of the parameters of a control system. On the other hand, the regulation of the reactor power is carried out by means of an adaptive and stable fuzzy control scheme. The control law is derived using the input-output linearization technique, which permits the introduction of a desired power profile for the plant to follow asymptotically. This characteristic is suitable for managing the ascent of power from an initial level n{sub o} up to a predetermined final level n{sub f}. During the increase of power, a constraint related to the rate of change in power is considered by the control scheme, thus minimizing the occurrence of a safety reactor shutdown due to a low reactor period value. Furthermore, the theory of stability in the sense of Lyapunov is used to obtain a supervisory control law which maintains the power error within a tolerance region, thus guaranteeing the stability of the power of the closed loop system. (Author)

  15. Adaptive control using a hybrid-neural model: application to a polymerisation reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of a hybrid-neural model for predictive control of a plug flow polymerisation reactor. The hybrid-neural model (HNM is based on fundamental conservation laws associated with a neural network (NN used to model the uncertain parameters. By simulations, the performance of this approach was studied for a peroxide-initiated styrene tubular reactor. The HNM was synthesised for a CSTR reactor with a radial basis function neural net (RBFN used to estimate the reaction rates recursively. The adaptive HNM was incorporated in two model predictive control strategies, a direct synthesis scheme and an optimum steady state scheme. Tests for servo and regulator control showed excellent behaviour following different setpoint variations, and rejecting perturbations. The good generalisation and training capacities of hybrid models, associated with the simplicity and robustness characteristics of the MPC formulations, make an attractive combination for the control of a polymerisation reactor.

  16. Motivation and drives in bottom-up developments in natural hazards management: multiple-use of adaptation strategies in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    Losses from extreme hydrological events, such as recently experienced in Europe have focused the attention of policymakers as well as researchers on vulnerability to natural hazards. In parallel, the context of changing flood risks under climate and societal change is driving transformation in the role of the state in responsibility sharing and individual responsibilities for risk management and precaution. The new policy agenda enhances the responsibilities of local authorities and private citizens in hazard management and reduces the role of central governments. Within the objective is to place added responsibility on local organisations and citizens to determine locally-based strategies for risk reduction. A major challenge of modelling adaptation is to represent the complexity of coupled human-environmental systems and particularly the feedback loops between environmental dynamics and human decision-making processes on different scales. This paper focuses on bottom-up initiatives to flood risk management which are, by definition, different from the mainstream. These initiatives are clearly influenced (positively or negatively) by a number of factors, where the combination of these interdependences can create specific conditions that alter the opportunity for effective governance arrangements in a local scheme approach. In total, this study identified six general drivers which encourage the implementation of flood storages, such as direct relation to recent major flood frequency and history, the initiative of individual stakeholders (promoters), political pressures from outside (e.g. business companies, private households) and a strong solidarity attitude of municipalities and the stakeholders involved. Although partnership approach may be seen as an 'optimal' solution for flood risk management, in practice there are many limitations and barriers in establishing these collaborations and making them effective (especially in the long term) with the consequences

  17. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  18. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E.-Part I; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Ahnert, C.; Naudin, A. E.; Martinez Fanegas, R.; Minguez, E.; Rovira, A.

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics (both statics and kinetics), of the 10 MWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E, is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking, carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry.

  20. Progressive Increase in Disinfection Byproducts and Mutagenicity from Source to Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Impact of Human Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Eric J; DeMarini, David M; Ravuri, Sridevi A; Liberatore, Hannah K; Cuthbertson, Amy A; Thompson-Klemish, Alexis; Byer, Jonathan D; Schmid, Judith E; Afifi, Mehrnaz Z; Blatchley, Ernest R; Richardson, Susan D

    2016-07-01

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples from seven sites, we report the first integrated mutagenicity and comprehensive analytical chemistry of spas treated with chlorine, bromine, or ozone, along with pools treated with these same disinfectants. Gas chromatography (GC) with high-resolution mass spectrometry, membrane-introduction mass spectrometry, and GC-electron capture detection were used to comprehensively identify and quantify DBPs and other contaminants. Mutagenicity was assessed by the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. More than 100 DBPs were identified, including a new class of DBPs, bromoimidazoles. Organic extracts of brominated pool/spa waters were 1.8× more mutagenic than chlorinated ones; spa waters were 1.7× more mutagenic than pools. Pool and spa samples were 2.4 and 4.1× more mutagenic, respectively, than corresponding tap waters. The concentration of the sum of 21 DBPs measured quantitatively increased from finished to tap to pool to spa; and mutagenic potency increased from finished/tap to pools to spas. Mutagenic potencies of samples from a chlorinated site correlated best with brominated haloacetic acid concentrations (Br-HAAs) (r = 0.98) and nitrogen-containing DBPs (N-DBPs) (r = 0.97) and the least with Br-trihalomethanes (r = 0.29) and Br-N-DBPs (r = 0.04). The mutagenic potencies of samples from a brominated site correlated best (r = 0.82) with the concentrations of the nine HAAs, Br-HAAs, and Br-DBPs. Human use increased significantly the DBP concentrations and mutagenic potencies for most pools and spas. These data provide evidence that human precursors can increase mutagenic potencies of pools and spas and that this increase is associated with increased DBP concentrations.

  1. Geothermal energy in Austria. Pt. 2. Operating experience of a geothermal district heating system in Waltersdorf i. Oststeiermark. Geothermale Energie in Oesterreich. T. 2. Betriebserfahrungen mit geothermaler Fernheizung in Waltersdorf i. Oststeiermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnek, R.

    1982-01-01

    The Waltersdorf geothermal power plant is the first of its kind in Austria. While describing its technical equipment the paper abstracted discusses the performance in service of heat exchangers and points out experiences gained in supplying heat to a school, a kindergarden, an open air swimming pool and a private house. Heat supply problems were solved by simple improvements. Heat exchanger deposits, although expected, could be avoided by means of the series connection of pumps controlling and changing the flow inside the heat exchanger so as to scour the deposits. (BR).

  2. Thermal limits validation of gamma thermometer power adaption in CFE Laguna Verde 2 reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G.; Banfield, J. [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas LLC, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmingtonm, North Carolina (United States); Avila N, A., E-mail: Gabriel.Cuevas-Vivas@ge.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This paper presents the status of GEH work on Gamma Thermometer (GT) validation using the signals of the instruments installed in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. The long-standing technical collaboration between Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas LLC (GNF) and GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC (GEH) is moving forward with solid steps to a final implementation of GTs in a nuclear reactor core. Each GT is integrated into a slightly modified Local Power Range Monitor (LPRM) assembly. Six instrumentation strings are equipped with two gamma field detectors for a total of twenty-four bundles whose calculated powers are adapted to the instrumentation readings in addition to their use as calibration instruments for LPRMs. Since November 2007, the six GT instrumentation strings have been operable with almost no degradation by the strong neutron and gamma fluxes in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. In this paper, the thermal limits, Critical Power Ratio (CPR) and maximum Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR), of bundles directly monitored by either Traverse In-core Probes (TIPs) or GTs are used to establish validation results that confirm the viability of TIP system replacement with automatic fixed in-core probes (AFIPs, GTs, in a Boiling Water Reactor. The new GNF steady-state reactor core simulator AETNA02 is used to obtain power and exposure distribution. Using this code with an updated methodology for GT power adaption, a reduced value of the GT interpolation uncertainty is obtained that is fed into the LHGR calculation. This new method achieves margin recovery for the adapted thermal limits for use in the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) or any other BWR in the future that employs a GT based AFIP system for local power measurements. (Author)

  3. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  4. Gifted Education in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyringer, Sieglinde

    2013-01-01

    In Austria, gifted education and the education of highly gifted and talented children have been receiving an increasing public awareness and social acceptance over the past decade. The article highlights the existing ideas of giftedness in Austria, and it presents several initiatives having triggered and influenced this positive development. The…

  5. Nonlinear Adaptive Dynamic Output-Feedback Power-Level Control of Nuclear Heating Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high safety performance of small nuclear reactors, there is a promising future for small reactors. Nuclear heating reactor (NHR is a small reactor that has many advanced safety features such as the integrated arrangement, natural circulation at any power levels, self-pressurization, hydraulic control rod driving, and passive residual heating removing and can be applied to the fields of district heating, seawater desalination, and electricity production. Since the NHR dynamics has strong nonlinearity and uncertainty, it is meaningful to develop the nonlinear adaptive power-level control technique. From the idea of physically based control design method, a novel nonlinear adaptive power-level control is given for the NHR in this paper. It is theoretically proved that this newly built controller does not only provide globally asymptotic closed-loop stability but is also adaptive to the system uncertainty. Numerical simulation results show the feasibility of this controller and the relationship between the performance and controller parameters.

  6. Activities for extending the lifetime of MINT research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokhari, Adnan; Kassim, Mohammad Suhaimi [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    MINT TRIGA Reactor is a 1-MW swimming pool nuclear reactor commissioned in June 1982. Since then, it has been used for research, isotope production, neutron activation, neutron radiography and manpower training. The total operating time till the end on September 1997 is 16968 hours with cumulative total energy release of 11188 MW-hours. After more than fifteen years of successful operation, some deterioration in components and associated systems has been observed. This paper describes some of the activities carried out to increase the lifetime and to reduce the shutdown time of the reactor. (author)

  7. Contaminación del aire interior y del agua de baño en piscinas cubiertas de Guipúzcoa Indoor air and bathing water pollution in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Santa Marina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los niveles de contaminantes presentes en las piscinas cubiertas de Guipúzcoa, tanto en el agua de baño como en el aire, y estudiar la relación entre estos contaminantes y otras variables relacionadas con los sistemas de ventilación y el uso de las instalaciones. Métodos: De las 35 piscinas cubiertas registradas en Guipúzcoa se estudiaron las 20 más utilizadas por nadadores. Cada instalación se muestreó 2 días no consecutivos y se midieron los niveles de cloro libre y combinado y trihalometanos en el agua, así como los de cloro total y cloroformo en el aire. Como indicador de la renovación del aire se midió el dióxido de carbono (CO2. Resultados: El nivel medio de cloro en el aire fue de 0,4mg/m³ y el de cloroformo de 22µg/m³. Los valores de cloro libre y combinado de todas las piscinas se mantuvieron dentro de los valores reglamentarios. El nivel medio de cloroformo del agua de baño fue de 13,7µg/l. El valor del cloroformo del aire puede predecirse razonablemente (R²=0,85, y las variables predictoras son el cloroformo del agua, el CO2 y el número de bañistas del día. Conclusiones: Los niveles de contaminantes en el agua y en el aire de las piscinas de Guipúzcoa son inferiores a los descritos en otros estudios. Sin embargo, utilizando la concentración de 0,5mg/m³ de cloro total en aire, propuesta como valor de referencia para la protección de los nadadores con actividad intensa, un 20% de las instalaciones superarían dicho valor.Objective: To describe levels of pollutants found in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Basque Country, Spain, both in the bathing water and in the air, and to study the association between these pollutants and other variables related to ventilation systems and the use of installations. Methods: Of the 35 indoor swimming pools registered in Guipúzcoa, the 20 most frequently used by swimmers were studied. Each installation was sampled on two nonconsecutive days. Free and

  8. Fluid flow and heat transfer investigation of pebble bed reactors using mesh-adaptive LES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Lathouwers, Danny, E-mail: d.lathouwers@tudelft.nl

    2013-11-15

    The very high temperature reactor is one of the designs currently being considered for nuclear power generation. One its variants is the pebble bed reactor in which the coolant passes through complex geometries (pores) at high Reynolds numbers. A computational fluid dynamics model with anisotropic mesh adaptivity is used to investigate coolant flow and heat transfer in such reactors. A novel method for implicitly incorporating solid boundaries based on multi-fluid flow modelling is adopted. The resulting model is able to resolve and simulate flow and heat transfer in randomly packed beds, regardless of the actual geometry, starting off with arbitrarily coarse meshes. The model is initially evaluated using an orderly stacked square channel of channel-height-to-particle diameter ratio of unity for a range of Reynolds numbers. The model is then applied to the face-centred cubical geometry. coolant flow and heat transfer patterns are investigated.

  9. A model for the analysis of loss of decay heat removal during loss of coolant accident in MTR pool type research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousbia-salah, Anis [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleari e della Produzione, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: b.salah@ing.unipi.it; Meftah, Brahim [Division Reacteur - Centre de Recherche Nucleaire Draria (CRND), BP 43 Sebala DRARIA - Algiers (Algeria); Hamidouche, Tewfik [Laboratoire des Analyses de Surete, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399, 16000 Algiers (Algeria)]. E-mail: thamidouche@comena-dz.org; Si-Ahmed, El Khider [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Polyhpasiques, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d' Alger, Algiers (Algeria)

    2006-03-15

    During a loss of coolant accident leading to total emptying of the reactor pool, the decay heat could be removed through air natural convection. However, under partial pool emptying the core is partially submerged and the coolant circulation inside the fuel element could no more be possible. Under such conditions, a core overheat takes place, and the thermal energy is essentially diffused from the core to its periphery by combined thermal radiation and conduction. In order to predict fuel element temperature evolution under such conditions a mathematical model is performed. The model is based on a 3D geometry and takes into account a variety of core configurations including fuel elements (standard and control), reflector elements and grid plates. The homogeneous flow model is used and the fluid conservation equations are solved using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Preliminary tests of the developed model were made by considering a series of hypothetical accidents. In the current framework a loss of decay heat removal accidents in the IAEA benchmark open pool MTR-type research reactor is considered. It is shown that in the case of a low core immersion height no water boiling is observed and the fuel surface temperature rise remains below the melting point of the aluminium cladding.

  10. Progressive Increase in Disinfection By-products and Mutagenicity from Source to Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Impact of Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples from ...

  11. ADAPTATION OF CRACK GROWTH DETECTION TECHNIQUES TO US MATERIAL TEST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; Sebastien P. Teysseyre; Kurt L. Davis; Gordon Kohse; Yakov Ostrovsky; David M. Carpenter; Joy L. Rempe

    2015-04-01

    A key component in evaluating the ability of Light Water Reactors to operate beyond 60 years is characterizing the degradation of materials exposed to radiation and various water chemistries. Of particular concern is the response of reactor materials to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). Some test reactors outside the United States, such as the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), have developed techniques to measure crack growth propagation during irradiation. The basic approach is to use a custom-designed compact loading mechanism to stress the specimen during irradiation, while the crack in the specimen is monitored in-situ using the Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. In 2012 the US Department of Energy commissioned the Idaho National Laboratory and the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (MIT NRL) to take the basic concepts developed at the HBWR and adapt them to a test rig capable of conducting in-pile IASCC tests in US Material Test Reactors. The first two and half years of the project consisted of designing and testing the loader mechanism, testing individual components of the in-pile rig and electronic support equipment, and autoclave testing of the rig design prior to insertion in the MIT Reactor. The load was applied to the specimen by means of a scissor like mechanism, actuated by a miniature metal bellows driven by pneumatic pressure and sized to fit within the small in-core irradiation volume. In addition to the loader design, technical challenges included developing robust connections to the specimen for the applied current and voltage measurements, appropriate ceramic insulating materials that can endure the LWR environment, dealing with the high electromagnetic noise environment of a reactor core at full power, and accommodating material property changes in the specimen, due primarily to fast neutron damage, which change the specimen resistance without additional crack growth. The project culminated with an in

  12. Undulatory fish swimming : from muscles to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is employed by many fish for routine swimming and extended sprints. In this biomechanical review, we address two questions: (i) how the fish's axial muscles power swimming; and (ii) how the fish's body and fins generate thrust. Fish have adapted the morphology of their axial musc

  13. Undulatory fish swimming : from muscles to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is employed by many fish for routine swimming and extended sprints. In this biomechanical review, we address two questions: (i) how the fish's axial muscles power swimming; and (ii) how the fish's body and fins generate thrust. Fish have adapted the morphology of their axial

  14. Investigation of the thermal performance of a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon as a passive cooling system for a nuclear reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuma, Mukhsinun Hadi; Putra, Nandy; Imawan, Ficky Augusta [Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Universitas Indonesia, Kampus (Indonesia); Antariksawan, Anhar Riza [Centre for Nuclear Reactor Safety and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong (Indonesia)

    2017-04-15

    The decay heat that is produced by nuclear reactor spent fuel must be cooled in a spent fuel storage pool. A wickless heat pipe or a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is used to remove this decay heat. The objective of this research is to investigate the thermal performance of a prototype model for a large-scale vertical TPCT as a passive cooling system for a nuclear research reactor spent fuel storage pool. An experimental investigation and numerical simulation using RELAP5/MOD 3.2 were used to investigate the TPCT thermal performance. The effects of the initial pressure, filling ratio, and heat load were analyzed. Demineralized water was used as the TPCT working fluid. The cooled water was circulated in the water jacket as a cooling system. The experimental results show that the best thermal performance was obtained at a thermal resistance of 0.22°C/W, the lowest initial pressure, a filling ratio of 60%, and a high evaporator heat load. The simulation model that was experimentally validated showed a pattern and trend line similar to those of the experiment and can be used to predict the heat transfer phenomena of TPCT with varying inputs.

  15. 游泳水上训练计划计算机管理软件的设计与实现%Design and realization of software wizard for swimming pool training plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白慕炜; 沈宇鹏; 张晓琳

    2012-01-01

    科学有效的游泳水上训练计划地制定和实施对提高游泳训练水平至关重要。目前,国内教练员训练计划制定和管理大都处于纸笔和word文档层次。本研究以ACCESS2003作为底层数据库,采用DELPH17.0编程,研制开发了游泳水上训练计划计算机管理软件。该软件具有辅助教练员完成训练计划制定、训练负荷统计、训练数据计算等多种功能,可帮助教练员制定、修改、查询及打印训练计划,可按年度、周期等自定义时间统计训练负荷。软件的开发弥补了国内还没有同类软件的不足,具有原创性价值,能帮助教练员在制定训练计划前掌握训练负荷信息,并在训练计划实施后,通过软件对训练负荷的统计有效的对训练计划进行评估和改进,从而提高游泳训练科学化和信息化管理水平。%The establishment and implementation of an effective and scientific training plan is of much importance for raising swimming training level. Most coaches in China establish and manage athletes training plan with traditional written documents. By taking ACCESS 2003 as database, this study adopted DELPHI 7.0 program to develop a software wizard for swimming pool training, with which the coaches could formulate, change, search and print training plans, as well as calculate training load at a user - defined term. Also, the software made up for the lack of such software in China. With the software, the coaches could learn about the training load before formulating a plan and evaluate and improve the plan after load calculation, so as to improve the management of swimming training scientifically.

  16. Piscina cubierta, en Viena, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünberger, Friedrich

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available This project includes the following: The main building contains the basement, a laundry, the heating and air conditioning installations. The ground floor has men's dressing rooms and showers. The first floor has ladies dressing rooms and individual bathrooms. On the 2nd and 3rd floors there are sauna facilities for men and women and also ladies and gentlemen's hairdressing saloons. The top level is utilized for sunbathing. The intermediate building has two swimming pools, one for learners, and the other for children. Finally the covered swimming pool itself has a full sized pool and a diving structure, 5 m in height. The most outstanding features of this sporting facility are the structures of the buildings, which are made with prestressed concrete.El conjunto construido comprende: El edificio principal, que alberga en el sótano: una lavandería, los cuartos para la calefacción y aire acondicionado; en la planta baja: los vestuarios para hombres, con sus duchas correspondientes; en la 1.ª planta: los vestuarios y duchas para mujeres y los servicios de «baños» individuales; en las plantas 2.ª y 3.ª: «saunas» para mujeres y para hombres, y una peluquería masculina y otra femenina. El nivel superior es utilizado para tomar «baños de sol». El pabellón intermedio contiene las piscinas: para los que aprenden a nadar, y de niños. Finalmente, el edificio de la «Piscina cubierta» propiamente dicha aloja: una piscina reglamentaria y su correspondiente torre de saltos de 5 m de altura. Lo más destacable de este complejo son las estructuras de los edificios y de la piscina, realizadas con hormigón pretensado.

  17. Psychometric evaluation of the EORTC computerized adaptive test (CAT) fatigue item pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Giesinger, Johannes M; Holzner, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment. To obtain a more precise and flexible measure of fatigue, the EORTC Quality of Life Group has developed a computerized adaptive test (CAT) measure of fatigue. This is part of an ongoing project developing a CAT v...

  18. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C.R.; Heß, J

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  19. Biogerontology in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi-Semrad, Ursula; Grillari, Johannes; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Pietschmann, Peter

    2011-02-01

    In Austria significant progress in the field of biogerontology has been achieved in the past years. Biogerontological research is performed in academic and extramural institutions. The Institute for Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Science at Innsbruck is the largest institution dealing with biogerontology in Austria. Moreover, gerontologic research is performed at the Universities of Salzburg and Graz, the Medical Universities of Vienna, Innsbruck and Graz, the University of Veterinary Medicine (Vienna) and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (Vienna). This article describes the work of selected research groups involved in biogerontology in a geographic arrangement.

  20. The comparison of immobility time in experimental rat swimming models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, Caroline Morini; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2006-09-27

    Rat swimming models have been used in studies about stress and depression. However, there is no consensus about interpreting immobility (helplessness or adaptation) in the literature. In the present study, immobility time, glucose and glycogen mobilization, corticosterone and the effect of desipramine and diazepam were investigated in two different models: swimming stress and the forced swimming test. Immobility time was lower in swimming stress than in the forced swimming test. Both swimming models increased corticosterone levels in comparison with control animal levels. Moreover, swimming stress induced higher corticosterone levels than the forced swimming test did [F(2,14)=59.52; pswimming stressswimming testswimming stress in comparison with the forced swimming test and control. The immobility time was recorded and measured in another group treated with desipramine and diazepam in two protocols: a single session of forced swimming test or swimming stress and two sessions (pre- and retest) of forced swimming model or swimming stress. Desipramine decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in both the single [F(2,25)=20.63; pswimming session, without changes in the swimming stress model. Diazepam increased the immobility time in the swimming stress but not in the forced swimming test during the single [F(2,26)=11.24; p=0.0003] and retest sessions [F(2,38)=4.17; p=0.02]. It was concluded that swimming stress and the forced swimming test induced different behavior, hormonal and metabolic responses and represented different situations to the animal.

  1. Nonlinear versus Ordinary Adaptive Control of Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtesek, Jiri; Dostal, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Unfortunately, the major group of the systems in industry has nonlinear behavior and control of such processes with conventional control approaches with fixed parameters causes problems and suboptimal or unstable control results. An adaptive control is one way to how we can cope with nonlinearity of the system. This contribution compares classic adaptive control and its modification with Wiener system. This configuration divides nonlinear controller into the dynamic linear part and the static nonlinear part. The dynamic linear part is constructed with the use of polynomial synthesis together with the pole-placement method and the spectral factorization. The static nonlinear part uses static analysis of the controlled plant for introducing the mathematical nonlinear description of the relation between the controlled output and the change of the control input. Proposed controller is tested by the simulations on the mathematical model of the continuous stirred-tank reactor with cooling in the jacket as a typical nonlinear system. PMID:26346878

  2. Immersion and invariance adaptive control of a class of continuous stirred tank reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaiyan HONG; Xiangbin LIU; Hongye SU

    2015-01-01

    An immersion and invariance (I&I) manifold based adaptive control algorithm is presented for a class of continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to realize performance-oriented control in this paper. The nonlinear contraction method is combined into the control law design to render the closed-loop CSTR system globally asymptotically stable, firstly. Then, the I&I method is used to form the adaptation law such that the off-the-manifold coordinate (the parameter estimation error) converges to zero using P-monotone property enforced by selecting tuning function in manifold. As a result, the state of the closed-loop CSTR converges to its desired value asymptotically. The simulation is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm.

  3. Application of passive energy conservation technique to a constant temperature indoor swimming pool%被动节能在某室内恒温游泳池中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨炯; 屈国伦; 胡婧; 林心关; 王飞; 刘后根; 常先问

    2012-01-01

    Introduces the natural ventilation system into the swimming pool design and determines the air inlet and outlet scheme based on CFD simulation results. Gives the logic decision conditions of natural ventilation operation, natural ventilation plus mechanical ventilation operation and air conditioning operation. Calculates the annual ventilation operation hours using the meteorological parameters of a typical year in Guangzhou and analyses the energy saving effect of ventilation operation by annual energy consumption simulation.%在该恒温游泳池设计中引入了自然通风系统,结合CFD模拟结果确定了进排风方案.给出了自然通风、自然通风与机械通风联合运行和空调运行的逻辑判-定条件.采用广州市典型气象年的气象资科计算了全年通风运行时间,并通过全年能耗模拟分析了其节能效益.

  4. Vortices revealed: Swimming faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Josje; van de Water, Willem; Kunnen, Rudie; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2016-11-01

    Understanding and optimizing the propulsion in human swimming requires insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. Experiments and simulations addressing the hydrodynamics of swimming have been conducted in studies before, including the visualization of the flow using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main objective in this study is to develop a system to visualize the flow around a swimmer in practice inspired by this technique. The setup is placed in a regular swimming pool. The use of tracer particles and lasers to illuminate the particles is not allowed. Therefore, we choose to work with air bubbles with a diameter of 4 mm, illuminated by ambient light. Homogeneous bubble curtains are produced by tubes implemented in the bottom of the pool. The bubble motion is captured by six cameras placed in underwater casings. A first test with the setup has been conducted by pulling a cylinder through the bubbles and performing a PIV analysis. The vorticity plots of the resulting data show the expected vortex street behind the cylinder. The shedding frequency of the vortices resembles the expected frequency. Thus, it is possible to identify and follow the coherent structures. We will discuss these results and the first flow measurements around swimmers.

  5. A Neural-Network-Based Nonlinear Adaptive State-Observer for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been some severe nuclear accidents such as Three Mile Island (USA, Chernobyl (Ukraine and Fukushima (Japan, nuclear fission energy is still a source of clean energy that can substitute for fossil fuels in a centralized way and in a great amount with commercial availability and economic competitiveness. Since the pressurized water reactor (PWR is the most widely used nuclear fission reactor, its safe, stable and efficient operation is meaningful to the current rebirth of the nuclear fission energy industry. Power-level regulation is an important technique which can deeply affect the operation stability and efficiency of PWRs. Compared with the classical power-level controllers, the advanced power-level regulators could strengthen both the closed-loop stability and control performance by feeding back the internal state-variables. However, not all of the internal state variables of a PWR can be obtained directly by measurements. To implement advanced PWR power-level control law, it is necessary to develop a state-observer to reconstruct the unmeasurable state-variables. Since a PWR is naturally a complex nonlinear system with parameters varying with power-level, fuel burnup, xenon isotope production, control rod worth and etc., it is meaningful to design a nonlinear observer for the PWR with adaptability to system uncertainties. Due to this and the strong learning capability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP neural network, an MLP-based nonlinear adaptive observer is given for PWRs. Based upon Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved theoretically that this newly-built observer can provide bounded and convergent state-observation. This observer is then applied to the state-observation of a special PWR, i.e., the nuclear heating reactor (NHR, and numerical simulation results not only verify its feasibility but also give the relationship between the observation performance and observer parameters.

  6. Fuel shuffling optimization for the Delft research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geemert, R. van; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Gibcus, H.P.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands); Quist, A.J. [Delft Univ., Fac. of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    A fuel shuffling optimization procedure is proposed for the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor (HOR) in Delft, the Netherlands, a 2 MWth swimming-pool type research reactor. In order to cope with the fluctuatory behaviour of objective functions in loading pattern optimization, the proposed cyclic permutation optimization procedure features a gradual transition from global to local search behaviour via the introduction of stochastic tests for the number of fuel assemblies involved in a cyclic permutation. The possible objectives and the safety and operation constraints, as well as the optimization procedure, are discussed, followed by some optimization results for the HOR. (author)

  7. Wiehl multi-purpose hall and outdoor swimming pool - energy conservation and solar energy utilization. Final report. Pt. G. The icerink floow. Rationelle Energieverwendung und Nutzung von Sonnenergie im Freibad und in der Mehrzweckhalle Wiehl. Abschlussbericht. T. G. Eispisten-Untergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasin, K.; Dreisbach, K.; Fruehauf, H.J.; Bouillon, H.; Jensch, K.; Jensch, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Wiehl recreation center consists of an outdoor swimming pool and a multi-purpose hall which most of the time is used as an icerink. The waste heat coming from refrigerators producing the ice is utilized for water, space, air and pool heating purposes. The floor is susceptible to icing and consequential damage on account of a 9 to 12 months skating season. Biennial experimental tests assessed the thermal behavior of differently insulated floors with or without floor heating systems. Combined with floor heating systems, polystyrene-covered 30 cm pebble layers supporting and draining the floor were found to be the most efficient solution. (BWI).

  8. [Treatment of haemophilia in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabinger, Ingrid; Heistinger, Max; Muntean, Wolfgang; Reitter-Pfoertner, Sylvia-Elisabeth; Rosenlechner, Sabine; Schindl, Thomas; Schuster, Gerhard; Streif, Werner; Thom, Katharina; Male, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    This guideline which is endorsed by the Austrian Society of Haemophilia, the Austrian Society of Paediatrics, and the Austrian Society of Haematology & Medical Oncology is intended to give a clear and practical guidance for diagnosing and treating haemophilia in Austria. In the treatment of haemophilia there are few controlled interventional trials, and recommendations usually have a rather low level of evidence.The main basis for this paper are the new international guidelines by the World Federation of Hemophilia, published in 2013. These were adapted according to the local situation and experience.Covered topics are diagnostics, control visits, pharmacological treatment options, prophylaxis and treatment in children and adults, possible problems arising in haemophilia carriers and special aspects like home therapy, options for venous catheters, management of various traumas, bleedings and interventions, including dental procedures, and last not least inhibitors and their treatment.

  9. 用于池式快堆系统分析的钠池三维模型开发%Development of Three-Dimensional Sodium Pool Model for System Analysis of Pool-Type Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋丹婷; 陆道纲; 张盼

    2012-01-01

    由于池式快堆钠池内的热工水力学特性对反应堆的安全运行有重要影响,本文采用基于交错网格的SIMPLE算法开发直角坐标系和柱坐标系下钠池三维计算软件.应用CFX软件进行验证之后,完成了三维流场分析程序与系统分析软件SAC-CFR的耦合,并用耦合后的程序分析日本文殊快堆45%功率稳态运行工况上腔室内的流场分布,初步验证了堆芯上腔三维化的SAC-CFR用于系统分析的有效性,为进一步开发事故模型、非能动余热排出系统模型做准备.%As the thermal-hydraulic characteristic in sodium pool is crucial for safety operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), a three-dimensional sodium pool thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on SIMPLE algorithm on stagger grid under Cartesian coordinates and cylindrical coordinates. After the validation with CFX, coupling between the analysis code and SAC-CFR was completed) and then the coupled code was applied to the flow field analysis in upper plenum of Monju Plant at 45% thermal power steady-state operation condition, which preliminary shows the effectiveness of the system analysis with coupled code and makes preparations for further development of accident analysis model and passive residual heat removal system.

  10. The Effective Convectivity Model for Simulation and Analysis of Melt Pool Heat Transfer in a Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Lower Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Chi Thanh

    2009-09-15

    Severe accidents in a Light Water Reactor (LWR) have been a subject of intense research for the last three decades. The research in this area aims to reach understanding of the inherent physical phenomena and reduce the uncertainties in their quantification, with the ultimate goal of developing models that can be applied to safety analysis of nuclear reactors, and to evaluation of the proposed accident management schemes for mitigating the consequences of severe accidents. In a hypothetical severe accident there is likelihood that the core materials will be relocated to the lower plenum and form a decay-heated debris bed (debris cake) or a melt pool. Interactions of core debris or melt with the reactor structures depend to a large extent on the debris bed or melt pool thermal hydraulics. In case of inadequate cooling, the excessive heat would drive the structures' overheating and ablation, and hence govern the vessel failure mode and timing. In turn, threats to containment integrity associated with potential ex-vessel steam explosions and ex-vessel debris uncoolability depend on the composition, superheat, and amount of molten corium available for discharge upon the vessel failure. That is why predictions of transient melt pool heat transfer in the reactor lower head, subsequent vessel failure modes and melt characteristics upon the discharge are of paramount importance for plant safety assessment. The main purpose of the present study is to develop a method for reliable prediction of melt pool thermal hydraulics, namely to establish a computational platform for cost-effective, sufficiently-accurate numerical simulations and analyses of core Melt-Structure-Water Interactions in the LWR lower head during a postulated severe core-melting accident. To achieve the goal, an approach to efficient use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been proposed to guide and support the development of models suitable for accident analysis. The CFD method, on the one hand

  11. Geothermal energy in Austria. Pt. 1. Eastern Styria 1: Waltersdorf i. O. Geothermale Energie in Oesterreich. T. 1. Oststeiermark 1: Waltersdorf i. O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetl, J.

    1981-01-01

    Waltersdorf is situated in one of three regions in Austria that are potentially suited for the utilization of geothermal energy. In 1975 test borings were carried through, which were resumed in 1978. The project for the boring installation and a supply network was designed in 1980. Eight months later the first completion stage - a heating system serving the primary school, infant school, the swimming-pool and a private house - was finalized. The thermal water is extracted via an underground pump for a rated production of 43 m/sup 3//h. The aggressiveness of the water imposes the separation of the thermal water from the heating water circuit. All objects served are indirectly, via a converter, connected to the thermal district heating system. The cost of the installation, without boring, ran to 8 million Austrian shillings; annual operation cost is estimated at 100,000 shillings. (BR).

  12. 300#堆燃料组件运行历史数据库%Database of Operation History for Fuel Elements in Swimming Pool Research Reactor 300

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜; 蒋砚伟

    2006-01-01

    为了配合ORIGEN2计算原始数据准备,采用Microsoft Access建立300#堆运行历史数据库.简化后只用一个表记录反应堆的运行历史.每盒燃料组件的表单只记录其经历的装载历史,最多不超过20条.表单之间用字段"装载ID"联接.对统计和录入中可能出现的两类错误,各建立一个查询,用于自动检索错误.对每盒燃料组件,建立查询,根据组件装载历史表单从总反应堆运行历史表单中采集数据,并将数据以文件文件形式输出,用编制的运行历史数据处理程序,将数据转换为0RIGEN2计算需要的运行历史输入数据.

  13. Swimming Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Corinna C.; Krüger, Carsten; Herminghaus, Stephan; Bahr, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Swimming droplets are artificial microswimmers based on liquid droplets that show self-propelled motion when immersed in a second liquid. These systems are of tremendous interest as experimental models for the study of collective dynamics far from thermal equilibrium. For biological systems, such as bacterial colonies, plankton, or fish swarms, swimming droplets can provide a vital link between simulations and real life. We review the experimental systems and discuss the mechanisms of self-propulsion. Most systems are based on surfactant-stabilized droplets, the surfactant layer of which is modified in a way that leads to a steady Marangoni stress resulting in an autonomous motion of the droplet. The modification of the surfactant layer is caused either by the advection of a chemical reactant or by a solubilization process. Some types of swimming droplets possess a very simple design and long active periods, rendering them promising model systems for future studies of collective behavior.

  14. Proposal of novel method of continuous monitoring of possible fuel failure of a pool-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K. [Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science; Hayashi, S.A.; Matsura, T. [Rikkyo University, Nagasaka, Yokosuka (Japan). Institute for Atomic Energy

    1997-10-01

    During the course of studies on fuel failure detection, we have found that the bubbling of a gas such as nitrogen into a reactor coolant water effectively purges the dissolved fission rare gases ({sup 89}Kr, T{sub 1/2}=3.15 min, and {sup 138}Xe, T{sub 1/2}=14.08 min) and that the respective daughter nuclides ({sup 89}Rb, T{sub 1/2}=15.15 min and {sup 138}Cs, T{sub 1/2}=33.41 min) are detected in the washing water of the collected gas mixture. The detected activity depends on the time of standing between sampling and washing of the gas, and the dependence agreed well with the theoretical prediction from the consecutive radioactive decay for both pairs ({sup 89}Kr-{sup 89}Rb, and {sup 138}Xe-{sup 138}Cs). Based on these findings, we have recently constructed a semi-continuous fuel monitoring system, which consists of an automatic and intermittent gas sampler (1 litre bottles) and a bottle conveying unit. After standing for a definite time, bottled gas is shaken with a small amount of water, and the activity of the water is measured. This system operates satisfactorily, but the whole system involves several sophisticated steps so that is rather costly. Quite recently we have got an idea of a simpler, more economical, fully automated continuous system. The system consists in principle only of a large cylinder with packing materials just as in a fractional distiller. On the top of the cylinder there are an inlet of washing water and an outlet of the gas, and at the bottom there are an inlet of the collected gas from the coolant and an outlet of the washing water. The whole system can be operated fully automatically and continuously, with continuous feeding of bubbling gas into the reactor coolant. This has not yet been experimentally tested at present, and in this presentation, information about the setup parameters such as the flow rate of the bubbling gas, the volume of the cylinder and vacant space, the flow rate of the washing water, etc. are reported

  15. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  16. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each

  17. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Mosbæk, Hans

    2013-01-01

    I Danmark er offentlige svømmebade en vigtig mulighed for rekreative aktiviteter og fysisk træning samt et redskab for genoptræning. Tilsætning af klor anvendes altid til at kontrollere vand¬kvaliteten og hindre spredning af infektioner mellem badende. Klor oxiderer vandforureningen fra de badende, hvilket holder bassinvandet rent, men der dannes klorerede desinfektions¬biprodukter. Der er identificeret mere end 100 klorbiprodukter i svømme¬bads¬vand, hvor nogle har vist sig at være genotoksi...

  18. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  19. Puente en Melk, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1974-05-01

    Full Text Available This interesting bridge across the Danube links the central forest zone with the highway Ceste and contributes greatly to facilitate the intense traffic of this region. It has a total length of 818 m, distributed in nine spans: the two central ones over the river are 190 m each with box girders. A great many problems have bean solved successfully regarding the various foundations, slender beams, processes of concreting, the temperature of concrete, and the most adequate design and realisation all of which makes this work one of the most important ones that have been constructed in Austria during recent years.Este interesante puente sobre el Danubio enlaza la zona boscosa central con la autopista Oeste y contribuye grandemente a aligerar el denso tráfico de esta zona. Tiene una longitud total de 818 m, distribuidos en nueve tramos; los dos centrales, sobre el río, alcanzan los 190 m cada uno, con vigas de cajón. Se han resuelto acertadamente numerosos problemas, relacionados con las variadas cimentaciones adoptadas, esbeltez de canto en las vigas, procesos de hormigonado, temperatura del hormigón y el cálculo y ejecución más adecuados; todo lo cual hace de esta obra una de las más importantes que se han realizado en Austria durante los últimos años.

  20. The Good, the Bad, and the Volatile - Can We Have Both Healthy Pools and Healthy People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the popularity of swimming for recreation and sport, it is remarkable that we are only in the early stages of understanding swimming pool chemistry, human exposure(s), and potential health risks. This is partly due to the complexity of swimming pool water chemistry, which i...

  1. Is swimming during pregnancy a safe exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Kogevinas, Manolis; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise in pregnancy is recommended in many countries, and swimming is considered by many to be an ideal activity for pregnant women. Disinfection by-products in swimming pool water may, however, be associated with adverse effects on various reproductive outcomes. We examined...... the association between swimming in pregnancy and preterm and postterm birth, fetal growth measures, small-for-gestational-age, and congenital malformations. METHODS: We used self-reported exercise data (swimming, bicycling, or no exercise) that were prospectively collected twice during pregnancy for 74......,486 singleton pregnancies. Recruitment to The Danish National Birth Cohort took place 1996-2002. Using Cox, linear and logistic regression analyses, depending on the outcome, we compared swimmers with physically inactive pregnant women; to separate a possible swimming effect from an effect of exercise...

  2. Evaluation of the aptitude for the service of the pool of the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico; Evaluacion de la aptitud para el servicio de la piscina del reactor TRIGA Mark III del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino C, J.; Gachuz M, M.; Diaz S, A.; Arganis J, C.; Gonzalez R, C.; Nava G, T.; Medina R, M.J. [Departamento de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales del ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This work describes the evaluation of the structural integrity of the pool of the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico, which was realized in July 2001, as an element to determine those actions for preventive and corrective maintenance which owner must do it for a safety and efficient operation of the component in the next years. (Author)

  3. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  4. Coccomyxa actinabiotis sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a new green microalga living in the spent fuel cooling pool of a nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau, Corinne; Farhi, Emmanuel; Compagnon, Estelle; de Gouvion Saint Cyr, Diane; van Lis, Robert; Falconet, Denis; Kuntz, Marcel; Atteia, Ariane; Couté, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Life can thrive in extreme environments where inhospitable conditions prevail. Organisms which resist, for example, acidity, pressure, low or high temperature, have been found in harsh environments. Most of them are bacteria and archaea. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is considered to be a champion among all living organisms, surviving extreme ionizing radiation levels. We have discovered a new extremophile eukaryotic organism that possesses a resistance to ionizing radiations similar to that of D. radiodurans. This microorganism, an autotrophic freshwater green microalga, lives in a peculiar environment, namely the cooling pool of a nuclear reactor containing spent nuclear fuels, where it is continuously submitted to nutritive, metallic, and radiative stress. We investigated its morphology and its ultrastructure by light, fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as its biochemical properties. Its resistance to UV and gamma radiation was assessed. When submitted to different dose rates of the order of some tens of mGy · h(-1) to several thousands of Gy · h(-1) , the microalga revealed to be able to survive intense gamma-rays irradiation, up to 2,000 times the dose lethal to human. The nuclear genome region spanning the genes for small subunit ribosomal RNA-Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) 1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA (beginning) was sequenced (4,065 bp). The phylogenetic position of the microalga was inferred from the 18S rRNA gene. All the revealed characteristics make the alga a new species of the genus Coccomyxa in the class Trebouxiophyceae, which we name Coccomyxa actinabiotis sp. nov.

  5. Protocol of actuation before occurrence of 'molluscum contagiosum' for use in public swimming pools Protocolo de actuación ante la aparición de casos de molusco contagioso en piscinas de uso público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Bautista Cotorruelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to develop a protocol for the disinfection of episodes of Molluscum contagiosum and establish an objective indicator. Molluscum contagiosum is a virus of Poxviridae Family. This virus produces a common infection in children that occurs when they come into direct contact with a lesion or with contaminated objects. In November 2008 is received at the Servicio de Sanidad Ambiental (Dirección General de Salud Pública, Consejería de Sanidad y Consumo, Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de Murcia a telephone call from the Epidemiology Service, which reported the existence of about 12-15 cases of children affected by Molluscum contagiosum. In addition, they indicated us that the suspicions fell on the Municipal Pool Cover Alhama de Murcia. Immediately we contacted the responsible staff and we send them a protocol developed with information from several sources. The analysis of articles used for water activities showed absence of Molluscum contagiosum. We selected "absence of molds and yeasts” as indicator. All this coincided with the disappearance of the cases. Months later, in March 2009 we detected new cases of children affected in another pool in the town of Alcantarilla. Due to the success of the methodology used in the earlier incident we performed the same actions and we obtained the same results. The protocol developed by this Service is effective to avoid the occurrence of more cases. We propose the “absence of molds and yeasts” as an indicator to evaluate the presence of Molluscum contagiosum. Coinciding with the update of the rules of public swimming pools in our Region we have introduced an article that indicates that the objects used for water activities must be disinfected after each use.El objetivo principal fue elaborar un protocolo de actuación para el caso de episodios de infección de molusco contagioso y un indicador objetivo, que nos permita hacer un seguimiento. El virus del molusco contagioso

  6. Saturated Adaptive Output-Feedback Power-Level Control for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs are those nuclear fission reactors with electrical output powers of less than 300 MWe. Due to its inherent safety features, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR has been seen as one of the best candidates for building SMR-based nuclear plants with high safety-level and economical competitive power. Power-level control is crucial in providing grid-appropriation for all types of SMRs. Usually, there exists nonlinearity, parameter uncertainty and control input saturation in the SMR-based plant dynamics. Motivated by this, a novel saturated adaptive output-feedback power-level control of the MHTGR is proposed in this paper. This newly-built control law has the virtues of having relatively neat form, of being strong adaptive to parameter uncertainty and of being able to compensate control input saturation, which are given by constructing Lyapunov functions based upon the shifted-ectropies of neutron kinetics and reactor thermal-hydraulics, giving an online tuning algorithm for the controller parameters and proposing a control input saturation compensator respectively. It is proved theoretically that input-to-state stability (ISS can be guaranteed for the corresponding closed-loop system. In order to verify the theoretical results, this new control strategy is then applied to the large-range power maneuvering control for the MHTGR of the HTR-PM plant. Numerical simulation results show not only the relationship between regulating performance and control input saturation bound but also the feasibility of applying this saturated adaptive control law practically.

  7. Efeitos de oito semanas de treinamento de natação no limiar anaeróbio determinado na piscina e no ergômetro de braço Effect of eight weeks of swimming training on the anaerobic threshold determined in the swimming pool and by arm ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Caputo

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do treinamento de natação na intensidade do limiar anaeróbio (LAn, determinado na piscina e no ergômetro de braço, verificando se este pode ser utilizado para avaliar os efeitos do treinamento em nadadores. Participaram do estudo sete nadadores de ambos os sexos, com nível de performance regional, que foram submetidos aos seguintes testes, antes e após oito semanas de treinamento: 1 dois tiros de 400m, um a 85% e outro a 95% do máximo, com coleta de 25mil de sangue do lóbulo da orelha no 1º, 3º e 5º minuto após cada tiro, para posterior análise do lactato sanguíneo (YSI 1500; 2 teste contínuo progressivo realizado no ergômetro de braço (UBE 2462 Cybex, com carga inicial de 33,3W e incrementos de 16,6W a cada três minutos até a exaustão voluntária, com coleta de sangue ao final de cada estágio. Um grupo controle de indivíduos não ativos (n = 9, que se manteve sedentário, realizou somente o procedimento 2 no mesmo intervalo de tempo. O LAn na natação (NLAn e no ergômetro de braço (BLAn foi encontrado através de interpolação linear, considerando uma concentração fixa de lactato de 4mM e 3,5mM, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram diferença significante para o grupo treinado, entre o pré (130,4 ± 20,4W e o pós-teste (137,7 ± 17,9W para o BLAn. Porém, não foi encontrada diferença significante para o NLAn (1,09 ± 0,1m.s-1 e 1,13 ± 0,1m.s-1, p = 0,06. No grupo controle não foi encontrada diferença para o BLAn entre o pré (93,2 ± 11,5W e o pós-teste (87,7 ± 7,2W. Pode-se concluir através desses dados que a determinação do LAn no ergômetro de braço é útil para detectar adaptações na capacidade aeróbia de nadadores com nível de performance regional.The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of swimming training on the intensity corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (AnT determined in the swimming pool and by arm ergometer, and

  8. Computer codes used during upgrading activities at MINT TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Adnan Bokhari; Mohd. Idris Taib [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Kajang (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    MINT TRIGA Reactor is a 1-MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor commissioned in 1982. In 1993, a project was initiated to upgrade the thermal power to 2 MW. The IAEA assistance was sought to assist the various activities relevant to an upgrading exercise. For neutronics calculations, the IAEA has provided expert assistance to introduce the WIMS code, TRIGAP, and EXTERMINATOR2. For thermal-hydraulics calculations, PARET and RELAP5 were introduced. Shielding codes include ANISN and MERCURE. However, in the middle of 1997, MINT has decided to change the scope of the project to safety upgrading of the MINT Reactor. This paper describes some of the activities carried out during the upgrading process. (author)

  9. Adaptation of Crack Growth Detection Techniques to US Material Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; Sebastien P. Teysseyre; Kurt L. Davis; Joy L. Rempe; Gordon Kohse; Yakov Ostrovsky; David M. Carpenter

    2014-04-01

    A key component in evaluating the ability of Light Water Reactors to operate beyond 60 years is characterizing the degradation of materials exposed to radiation and various water chemistries. Of particular concern is the response of reactor materials to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). Some materials testing reactors (MTRs) outside the U.S., such as the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), have deployed a technique to measure crack growth propagation during irradiation. This technique incorporates a compact loading mechanism to stress the specimen during irradiation. A crack in the specimen is monitored using the Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. A project is underway to develop and demonstrate the performance of a similar type of test rig for use in U.S. MTRs. The first year of this three year project was devoted to designing, analyzing, fabricating, and bench top testing a mechanism capable of applying a controlled stress to specimens while they are irradiated in a pressurized water loop (simulating PWR reactor conditions). During the second year, the mechanism will be tested in autoclaves containing high pressure, high temperature water with representative water chemistries. In addition, necessary documentation and safety reviews for testing in a reactor environment will be completed. In the third year, the assembly will be tested in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) and Post Irradiation Examinations (PIE) will be performed.

  10. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  11. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Tayfun KIR; Zakir COBANOÐLU

    2004-01-01

    Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000): 103-104

  12. A Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成兵; 邓新华

    2004-01-01

    Last Sunday, there was a swimming competition in our school. It had been a short time since I learned how to swim. Mr. Zhang, our PE teacher, said I had a gift in swimming and that competing in the game would help build up my confidence and courage. With his encouragement,I signed up for the swimming race.

  13. Is swimming during pregnancy a safe exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Mette; Kogevinas, Manolis; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2010-03-01

    Exercise in pregnancy is recommended in many countries, and swimming is considered by many to be an ideal activity for pregnant women. Disinfection by-products in swimming pool water may, however, be associated with adverse effects on various reproductive outcomes. We examined the association between swimming in pregnancy and preterm and postterm birth, fetal growth measures, small-for-gestational-age, and congenital malformations. We used self-reported exercise data (swimming, bicycling, or no exercise) that were prospectively collected twice during pregnancy for 74,486 singleton pregnancies. Recruitment to The Danish National Birth Cohort took place 1996-2002. Using Cox, linear and logistic regression analyses, depending on the outcome, we compared swimmers with physically inactive pregnant women; to separate a possible swimming effect from an effect of exercise, bicyclists were included as an additional comparison group. Risk estimates were similar for swimmers and bicyclists, including those who swam throughout pregnancy and those who swam more than 1.5 hours per week. Compared with nonexercisers, women who swam in early/mid-pregnancy had a slightly reduced risk of giving birth preterm (hazard ratio = 0.80 [95% confidence interval = 0.72-0.88]) or giving birth to a child with congenital malformations (odds ratio = 0.89 [0.80-0.98]). These data do not indicate that swimming in pool water is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes.

  14. No gender difference in peak performance in ultra-endurance swimming performance - analysis of the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' from 1996 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Evelyn; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Christoph, Alexander Rüst; Knechtle, Patrizia; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-10-31

    The aims of the study were to [1] investigate the performance trends at the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' in Switzerland from 1996 to 2010; and [2] determine the gender difference in peak performance in ultraendurance swimming. In total, 113 male and 53 female swimmers competed in this indoor ultraendurance event while swimming in a heated pool. The number of male participants significantly increased (r² = 0.36, P = 0.04) over time while the participation of females remained unchanged (r² = 0.12, P = 0.26). In the age group swimming performances (P swim performances remained unchanged across the years. Females are able to achieve a similar swim performance in an indoor ultra-endurance swim event of ~40 km. Further studies are needed to investigate whether females are able to achieve similar or even better performances than males in openwater ultra-swimming events such as 'Channel Swimming'.

  15. EFFECTS OF THREE FEEDBACK CONDITIONS ON AEROBIC SWIM SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez Soriano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to develop an underwater chronometer capable to provide feedback while the athlete is swimming, as well as being a control tool for the coach, and (b to analyse its feedback effect on swim pace control compared with feedback provided by the coach and with no feedback, in 25 m and 50 m swimming pools. 30 male swimmers of national level volunteer to participate. Each swimmer swam 3 x 200 m at aerobic speed (AS and 3 x 200 m just under the anaerobic threshold speed (AnS, each swam repetition with a different feedback condition: chronometer, coach and without feedback. Results (a validate the chronometer system developed and (b show that swimmers pace control is affected by the type of feedback provided, the swim speed elected and the size of the swimming pool

  16. A Single-Unit Design Structure and Gender Differences in the Swimming World Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkar, Svetlana; Issurin, Vladimir B.; Verbitsky, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs) can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012). For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286) showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences. PMID:25414754

  17. A Single-Unit Design Structure and Gender Differences in the Swimming World Championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Svetlana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012. For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286 showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences

  18. SWIMMING CLASSES IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bielec

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of modern physical education is not only to develop motor abilities of the students, but most of all prevent them from epidemic youth diseases such as obesity or postural defects. Positive attitudes to swimming as a long-life physical activity, instilled in adolescence should be beneficial in adult life. The group of 130 boys and 116 girls of 7th grade junior high school (mean age 14.6 was asked in the survey to present their opinion of obligatory swimming lessons at school. Students of both sexes claimed that they liked swimming classes because they could improve their swimming skills (59% of answers and because of health-related character of water exercises (38%. 33% of students regarded swimming lessons as boring and monotonous, and 25% of them complained about poor pool conditions like chlorine smell, crowded lanes, too low temperature. Majority of the surveyed students saw practical role of swimming in saving others life.

  19. Ciliary-propelling mechanism, effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming speed, and adaptive significance of ‘jumping’ in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2009-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles, not only for water pumping in many active filter-feeding organisms, but also for the swimming activity of ciliates and other aquatic organisms that use cilia for propulsion. The present study concerns the effect of temperature-dependent viscosity of the amb...

  20. Swimming Safely (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    Almost 4,000 people die from drowning each year in the U.S. You can also get sick at the pool. This podcast discusses swimming pool safety tips.  Created: 5/22/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  1. Simulation of power excursions - Osiris reactor; Simulation des excursions de puissance - pile Osiris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascouet, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Following the experimental work accomplished in the U.S.A. on Borax 1 and SPERT 1 and the accident of SL 1, the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' started a research program about the safety of its own swimming Pool reactors, with regard to power excursions. The first research work led to the design of programmed explosive charges, adapted to the simulation of a power excursion. This report describes the application of these methods to the investigation of Osiris safety. (author) [French] A la suite des essais effectues aux U.S.A. sur BORAX 1 et SPERT 1 et de l'accident survenu a SL 1, le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique a lance un programme d'etudes sur la surete de ses reacteurs piscines vis-a-vis des excursions de puissance. Les premieres etudes ont abouti A la mise au point de charges programmees capables de simuler une excursion de puissance. On trouvera dans le present rapport l'application de ces methodes a l'etude de la surete d'OSIRIS. (auteur)

  2. ARC Code TI: Swim

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Swim is a software information service for the grid built on top of Pour, which is an information service framework developed at NASA. Swim provides true software...

  3. Laryngoscopy during swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil S; Swanton, Laura L; van van Someren, Ken

    2017-01-01

    that precipitates their symptoms. This report provides the first description of the feasibility of performing continuous laryngoscopy during exercise in a swimming environment. The report describes the methodology and safety of the use of continuous laryngoscopy while swimming. Laryngoscope, 2017....

  4. 2012 Swimming Season Factsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  5. First report of Rickettsia raoultii in field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg G; Hodžić, Adnan; Weiler, Martin; Vaux, Alexander G C; Rudolf, Ivo; Sixl, Wolfdieter; Medlock, Jolyon M; Versteirt, Veerle; Hubálek, Zdenek

    2016-07-01

    In a set of pooled field collected Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, Rickettsia raoultii, the causative agent of Tick-borne lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy, was found for the first time in Austria. The coordinates of the positive locations for tick and pathogen abundance are given and shown in a map.

  6. Modeling of breaststroke swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmanov, S. P.; Chernous'ko, F. L.

    2014-02-01

    A mechanical system that models swimming using a pair of two-chain extremities is considered. The motion of the system under study is similar to swimming of a frog and some other animals, in which lower extremities play the main role. This type of motion is characteristic of competitive breaststroke swimming.

  7. Use of the Riccatti Equation On-Line for Adaptively Controlling a CSTR Chemical Reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, J B; Mohd Noor, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    An idealised nonlinear model of an isothermal continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) is analysed and simulated for optimal control based on the continuous on-line recomputation of a Riccati Controller as proposed by Banks (1). The controller and resulting behaviour are derived analytically and confirmed to be optimal by derivation also via Dynamic Programming. For comparison purposes, the behaviour of the same model under linear proportional control (with feedforward compensation)is derived a...

  8. Development of Pool-type Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor System Analysis Code%池式钠冷快堆系统分析程序开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋; 张东辉; 胡文军

    2016-01-01

    针对池式钠冷快堆的特点,在对快堆系统的水力模型、热工模型和中子动力学模型进行详细分类和建模的基础上,利用 FORTRAN95语言开发了可用于池式钠冷快堆事故分析的系统分析程序(FASYS程序)。以中国实验快堆为计算对象对FASYS程序模型进行了初步验证,所获得的结果和试验值与其他系统程序计算值符合良好,证明了所开发的系统分析程序的正确性。%According to the characteristics of pool‐type sodium‐cooled fast reactor ,and with the fast reactor hydraulic model , thermal model and neutron kinetics model thoroughly classified and developed ,a fast reactor system analysis code (FASYS code) was developed by FORTRAN95 language for pool‐type sodium‐cooled fast reactor acci‐dent analysis .Transient conditions in CEFR were calculated with FASYS code and the results were used for code validation .The calculation results are consistent with the test data and other fast reactor system analysis code results , and the correctness of the FASYS code is proved .

  9. INFLUENCE OF SWIMMING TIME IN SOME PHASES ON FINAL RESULT IN 50M DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Dimitrić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to analyse swimming results from more aspects. One of the common analysis is how swimming time in some, standardised sectors affects on final result. During swimming in 50m swimming disciplines in short course pools (25meters, lenght of the pool is divided in followed sectors: surface breakpoint positions & times after start, start time 15m, split time 20m, surface breakpoint positions & times after turn, split time 35m, split time 35m, split time 35m and final time. Confirming, affects of swimming time in some sectors on final result, it is possible to find difference bettwen good and bad swimmers. This analyse was managed on swimming results from European short course swimming championships - Szczecin 2011, Poland.

  10. A grid-based virtual reactor: Parallel performance and adaptive load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, V.V.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of porting parallel distributed applications from static homogeneous cluster environments to dynamic heterogeneous Grid resources. We introduce a generic technique for adaptive load balancing of parallel applications on heterogeneous resources and evaluate it using a case

  11. SAFETY AND MANAGEMENT OF SWIMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study,it was investigated the situation related to the safety and management of swimming pools belongs to municipality This study was planned to determine the present situation related to the safety and management of open,half-olympic and closed swimming pools which are especially used for sports activities,to find out the deficiencies in practise and to overcome these.Our study included totally 80 open,closed,olympic, half-olympic public swimming pools(the pools that belongs to municipality,private administration and university,the colleges connected to the ministry of education, Military schools and police college.In our research,search,natural observation and meeting methods were used.In accordance with this aim the checklist questions,which were prepared for health and safety controls in swimming pools, were tested on the people by face-to-face meeting method. While the statistical evaluation of the available results were being done,frequency and percentage dispersion obtained from checklist was found.It was found that the 52 % of the training and lifeguard choise of the pools in Turkey,64 % of the emergency action equipment,71 % of the signs and signboards for the safety of the pool,75 % of the pool edge and its surroundings are not suitable for the standards and that these threaten the swimmers health importantly.Consequently,we are in the opinion that the pool staff should receive the periodical training about the first aid and using emergency situation equipment.And it is necessary that the Ministry Responsible for sports,Ministry of Interior,Ministry of Health,Ministry of Tourism be cooperate with water sports federations and the related civil society organizationsKey Words: .

  12. Fluid flow and heat transfer investigation of pebble bed reactors using mesh adaptive large-eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlidis, D.; Lathouwers, D. [Delft Univ. of Tech., Section Physics of Nuclear Reactors, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model with anisotropic mesh adaptivity is used to investigate coolant flow and heat transfer in pebble bed reactors. A novel method for implicitly incorporating solid boundaries based on multi-fluid flow modelling is adopted. The resulting model is able to resolve and simulate flow and heat transfer in randomly packed beds, regardless of the actual geometry, starting off with arbitrarily coarse meshes. The model is initially evaluated using an orderly stacked square channel of channel-height-to-particle diameter ratio of unity for a range of Reynolds numbers. The model is then applied to the face-centred cubical geometry. Coolant flow and heat transfer patterns are investigated. (author)

  13. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste. A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level originating from Austria was treated in the period between 1976 and 2002. Presently, there exists no final repository for radwaste in Austria. A study is under way to identify the structure for a long term storage facility.

  14. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  15. Adapting computational optimization concepts from aeronautics to nuclear fusion reactor design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baelmans M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Even on the most powerful supercomputers available today, computational nuclear fusion reactor divertor design is extremely CPU demanding, not least due to the large number of design variables and the hybrid micro-macro character of the flows. Therefore, automated design methods based on optimization can greatly assist current reactor design studies. Over the past decades, “adjoint methods” for shape optimization have proven their virtue in the field of aerodynamics. Applications include drag reduction for wing and wing-body configurations. Here we demonstrate that also for divertor design, these optimization methods have a large potential. Specifically, we apply the continuous adjoint method to the optimization of the divertor geometry in a 2D poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak device (as, e.g., JET and ITER, using a simplified model for the plasma edge. The design objective is to spread the target material heat load as much as possible by controlling the shape of the divertor, while maintaining the full helium ash removal capabilities of the vacuum pumping system.

  16. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression.

  17. Flood Loss Model for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punčochář, P.; Podlaha, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new flood model for Austria quantifying fluvial flood losses based on probabilistic event set developed by Impact Forecasting (Aon Benfield's model development centre) was released in June 2011. It was successfully validated with two serious past flood events - August 2002 and August 2005. The model is based on 10 meters cell size digital terrain model with 1cm vertical step and uses daily mean flows from 548 gauge stations of series of average length ~ 60 years. The even set is based on monthly maxima flows correlation, generating 12 stochastic events per year and allows to calculate annual and occurrence exceedance probability loss estimates. The model contains flood extents for more than 24,000 km of modelled river network compatible with HORA project (HOchwasserRisikoflächen Austria) for design flows ranging from 2 to 10,000 years. Model is primarily constructed to work with postal level resolution insurance data reducing positional uncertainty by weighting over more than 2.5 millions address points from Austria Post's ACGeo database. Countrywide flood protections were provided by the Austrian Ministry of Environment. The model was successfully tested with property portfolios of 8 global and local insurance companies and was also successfully validated with August 2002 and August 2005 past events evaluating their return period on the probabilistic simulation basis.

  18. Ilves urges closer ties while in Austria / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ametlik visiit Austria Vabariiki 22.11.2010 - 24.11.2010. Eesti riigipea pidas kõne Austria Majanduskojas Eesti-Austria majandusfoorumil, kohtus Alam-Austria Liidumaa parlamendi presidendi Hanz Penz'i ning Austria presidendi Heinz Fischeriga. Presidentide kohtumisel räägiti EL-i laienemispoliitikast, energiajulgeoleku probleemidest, Euroopa naabruspoliitikast ja idapartnerlusest

  19. Ilves urges closer ties while in Austria / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ametlik visiit Austria Vabariiki 22.11.2010 - 24.11.2010. Eesti riigipea pidas kõne Austria Majanduskojas Eesti-Austria majandusfoorumil, kohtus Alam-Austria Liidumaa parlamendi presidendi Hanz Penz'i ning Austria presidendi Heinz Fischeriga. Presidentide kohtumisel räägiti EL-i laienemispoliitikast, energiajulgeoleku probleemidest, Euroopa naabruspoliitikast ja idapartnerlusest

  20. Experience Gained during the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsa, Sergio; Sanchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    At present, due to the overall adaptation to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), a new concept regarding the teaching methodology was thought to be essential for engineering subjects. In this paper we describe our experience teaching the altered content of the courses on two classical subjects; Chemical Reactors (Chemical Engineering) and…

  1. Experience Gained during the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsa, Sergio; Sanchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    At present, due to the overall adaptation to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), a new concept regarding the teaching methodology was thought to be essential for engineering subjects. In this paper we describe our experience teaching the altered content of the courses on two classical subjects; Chemical Reactors (Chemical Engineering) and…

  2. Going with the flow or swimming against the tide: should children with central venous catheters swim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica; Dalton, Meghan K; Duggan, Christopher; Lam, Shirley; Iglesias, Julie; Jaksic, Tom; Gura, Kathleen M

    2014-02-01

    Children who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) have central venous catheters (CVCs) in place to allow the safe and effective infusion of life-sustaining fluids and nutrition. Many consider recreational swimming to be a common part of childhood, but for some, the risk may outweigh the benefit. Children with CVCs may be at increased risk of exit site, tunnel, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) if these catheters are immersed in water. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature regarding the risk of infection for patients with CVCs who swim and determine if there is consensus among home PN (HPN) programs on this controversial issue. A total 45 articles were reviewed and 16 pediatric HPN programs were surveyed regarding swimming and CVCs. Due to the limited data available, a firm recommendation cannot be made. Recreational water associated outbreaks are well documented in the general public, as is the presence of human pathogens even in chlorinated swimming pools. As a medical team, practitioners can provide information and education regarding the potential risk, but ultimately the decision lies with the parents. If the parents decide swimming is worth the risk, they are encouraged to use products designed for this use and to change their child's dressing immediately after swimming. Due to our experience with a fatal event immediately after swimming, we continue to strongly discourage patients with CVCs from swimming. Further large and well-designed studies regarding the risk of swimming with a CVC are needed to make a strong, evidence-based recommendation.

  3. Experimental investigation of heat transfer during severe accident of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor with simulated decay heat generation in molten pool inside calandria vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Sumit Vishnu, E-mail: svprasad@barc.gov.in; Nayak, Arun Kumar, E-mail: arunths@barc.gov.in

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Scaled test facility simulating the calandria vessel and calandria vault water of PHWR with simulated decay heat was built. • Experiments conducted with simulant material at about 1200 °C. • Experimental result shows that melt coolability and growth rate of crust thickness are affected by presence of decay heat. • No gap was observed between the crust and vessel on opening. • Result shows that vessel integrity is intact with presence of water inside water tank in both cases. - Abstract: The present study focuses on experimental investigation in a scaled facility of an Indian PHWR to investigate the coolability of molten corium with simulated decay heat in the simulated calandria vessel. Molten borosilicate glass was used as the simulant due to its comparable heat transfer characteristics similar to prototypic material. About 60 kg of the molten material was poured into the test section at about 1200 °C. Decay heat in the melt pool was simulated using four high watt heaters cartridges, each having 9.2 kW. The temperature distributions inside the molten pool, across the vessel wall thickness and vault water were measured. Experimental results obtained are compared with the results obtained previously for no decay heat case. The results indicated that presence of decay heat seriously affects the coolability behaviour and formation of crust in the melt pool. The location and magnitude of maximum heat flux and surface temperature of the vessel also are affected in the presence of decay heat.

  4. Effect of different salinity adaptation on the performance and microbial community in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Park, Hee-Deung; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Zhang, Fushuang; Chen, Chen; Li, Xiangkun; Zhao, Dan; Zhao, Fangbo

    2016-09-01

    The performance and microbial community profiles in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating saline wastewater were studied over 300days from 0wt% to 3.0wt% salinity. The experimental results indicated that the activated sludge had high sensitivity to salinity variations in terms of pollutants removal and sedimentation. At 2.0wt% salinity, the system retained a good performance, and 95% removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), NH4(+)-N and total phosphorus (TP) could be achieved. Operation before addition salinity revealed the optimal performance and the most microbial diversity indicated by 16S rRNA gene clone library. Sequence analyses illustrated that Candidate_division_TM7 (TM7) was predominant at 2.0 wt% salinity; however, Actinobacteria was more abundant at 3.0wt% salinity.

  5. A grid-based virtual reactor: Parallel performance and adaptive load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkhov, V.V.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of porting parallel distributed applications from static homogeneous cluster environments to dynamic heterogeneous Grid resources. We introduce a generic technique for adaptive load balancing of parallel applications on heterogeneous resources and evaluate it using a case stud

  6. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  7. Effect of the starting and turning performances on the subsequent swimming parameters of elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Santiago; Roig, Andreu

    2017-03-01

    In the present research, we examined the effect of the starting and turning performances on the subsequent swimming parameters by (1) comparing the starting and turning velocities with the swimming parameters on the emersion and mid-pool segments and (2) by relating the individual behaviour of swimmers during the start and turns with subsequent behaviour on each swimming lap. One hundred and twelve 100 m performances on the FINA 2013 World Swimming Championships were analysed by an image-processing system (InThePool 2.0®). At the point of the start emersion, the swimming parameters of the 100-m elite swimmers were substantially greater than the mid-pool parameters, except on the breaststroke races. On the other hand, no diminution in the swimming parameters was observed between the turn emersion and the mid-pool swimming, except on the butterfly and backstroke male races. Changes on the surface swimming kinematics were not generally related to the starting or turning parameters, although male swimmers who develop faster starts seem to achieve faster velocities at emersion. Race analysts should be aware of a transfer of momentum when swimmers emerge from underwater with implications on the subsequent swimming kinematics, especially for male swimmers who employ underwater undulatory techniques.

  8. Venereal Diseases in Germany and Austria,

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUSTRIA, *GERMANY(EAST AND WEST), *VENEREAL DISEASES, SENSITIVITY, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), MEDICAL RESEARCH, SERODIAGNOSIS, CHEMOTHERAPY, ANTIBIOTICS, PENICILLINS, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM .

  9. Safe operation and maintenance of research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsorn, S. [Reactor Operation Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-10-01

    The first Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1) was established in 1961 at the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), Bangkok. The reactor was light water moderated and cooled, using HEU plate-type with U{sub 3}O{sub 8}- Al fuel meat and swimming pool type. The reactor went first critical on October 27, 1962 and had been licensed to operate at 1 MW (thermal). On June 30, 1975 the reactor was shutdown for modification and the core and control system was disassemble and replaced by that of TRIGA Mark III type while the pool cooling system, irradiation facilities and other were kept. Thus the name TRR-1/M1' has been designed due to this modification the fuel has been changed from HEU plate type to Uranium Zirconium Hydride (UZrH) Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) which include 4 Fuel Follower Control Rods and 1 Air Follower Control Rod. The TRR-1/M1 went critical on November 7, 1977 and the purpose of the operation are training, isotope production and research. Nowadays the TRR-1/M1 has been operated with core loading No.12 which released power of 1,056 MWD. (as of October 1998). The TRR-1/M1 has been operated at the power of 1.2 MW, three days a week with 34 hours per week, Shut-down on Monday for weekly maintenance and Tuesday for special experiment. The everage energy released is about 40.8 MW-hour per week. Every year, the TRR-1/M1 is shut-down about 2 months between February to March for yearly maintenance. (author)

  10. Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2014-08-08

    The bottom of the Red Sea harbors over 25 deep hypersaline anoxic basins that are geochemically distinct and characterized by vertical gradients of extreme physicochemical conditions. Because of strong changes in density, particulate and microbial debris get entrapped in the brine-seawater interface (BSI), resulting in increased dissolved organic carbon, reduced dissolved oxygen toward the brines and enhanced microbial activities in the BSI. These features coupled with the deep-sea prevalence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global ocean make the BSI a suitable environment for studying the osmotic adaptations and ecology of these important players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Using phylogenomic-based approaches, we show that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats (with up to 18.2% salinity) is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent. The composite genome of this novel Nitrosopumilus-like subpopulation (RSA3) co-assembled from multiple single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from one such BSI habitat further revealed that it shares ∼54% of its predicted genomic inventory with sequenced Nitrosopumilus species. RSA3 also carries several, albeit variable gene sets that further illuminate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic plasticity of this genus. Specifically, it encodes for a putative proline-glutamate \\'switch\\' with a potential role in osmotolerance and indirect impact on carbon and energy flows. Metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses against the composite RSA3 genome, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and SAGs of mesopelagic thaumarchaea also reiterate the divergence of the BSI genotypes from other AOA.

  11. Applied physiology of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  12. Swimming Orientation for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    Techniques which are designed to dispel fears and promote confident learning are offered to preschool swimming instructors. Safety, class organization, water games, and class activities are discussed. (IAH)

  13. The Effect of Pregnant Rat Swimming on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Levels of Neonatal Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajizade A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine environment and fetal period can profoundly affect health of the neonat. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α is a transcription factor that regulates cellular stress responses and its activity is essential in both embryogenesis and postnatal life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal swimming on rat Pups' HIF-1α levels as a key regulator of oxygen in lungs.Methods: Sixteen female Wistar rats weighing 180- 200 grams were acclimated to a new environment consisting of equal light-darkness cycle and ad lib access to chow and adapted to the stress caused by water for two weeks. The rats were divided into two swimming and control groups. Swimming training began on the first day of pregnancy in a pool and continued for 3 weeks (1 h/day, 5 days/wk. Pups' lungs were removed two days after birth and their HIF-1α concentration was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Statistical analysis of the data was done using independent t-test. A p-value smaller than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Swimming lead to a significant (P<0.001 increase in the Pups' lung HIF-1α levels compared with the control group. Although 3-wk period of swimming training, showed no significant increase in weight and also lung weight of newborns. Thus it can be concluded that swimming endurance training in pregnancy, can be considered as appropriate alternative in order to embryos development. Conclusion: Our research suggests that HIF-1α level is an essential element for the development of the lungs of embryos. Moreover, further studies on the lung HIF-1α levels at post-natal period with different modes of exercise will provide more clear insight into the mechanisms of the findings resulting from this study.

  14. The Pool with the Movable Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A major diagnostic, therapeutic, educational, and training center for the handicapped has under construction a swimming pool with a floor that will rise to deck level to enable handicapped persons to roll their wheel chairs on and then float free as the floor is lowered. (Author/MLF)

  15. Fresh water swimming as a risk factor for otitis externa: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, G L; Shapiro, E D

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted in which the amount and sites (fresh-water lakes and rivers, chlorinated pools, or the ocean) of recent swimming by 105 patients with otitis externa were compared with that of 239 controls. Swimming during the week prior to the visit was strongly associated with otitis externa. When the 80 cases and 127 controls with a history of recent swimming were compared, otitis externa was positively associated with the amount of swimming during the preceding week. Otitis externa was also positively associated with swimming in fresh water compared with ocean or pool swimming with the magnitude of this association being more pronounced at higher levels of exposure.

  16. Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose of...

  17. Maternal forced swimming reduces cell proliferation in the postnatal dentate gyrus of mouse offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Ronaldo C Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mot...

  18. 多孔介质方法在池式快堆系统分析软件SAC-CFR三维钠池计算模型中的应用%Application of Porous Medium Method on Three-Dimensional Sodium Pool Model for Pool-Type Fast Reactor System Analysis Code SAC-CFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋丹婷; 陆道纲; 任丽霞; 刘一哲

    2012-01-01

    为准确分析池式快堆热钠池内的热工水力学特性,在已开发出的用于池式快堆系统分析的钠池三维计算模型的基础上,应用多孔介质方法建立钠池内中间热交换器、主泵、事故热交换器及屏蔽柱模型,完成了含有多孔介质模型和复杂几何边界的钠池三维计算模型开发.将该模型嵌入池式快堆系统分析软件SAC-CFR后,分析了中国实验快堆在稳态运行和紧急停堆工况下钠池内的流场分布,初步证明了所采用的多孔介质模型的合理性,为下一步非能动余热排出系统模型的开发做准备.%To simulate the fluid dynamic and thermal characteristics in sodium pool accurately , newly three-dimensional hot pool analysis model with porous medium model and complex geometry was developed after incorporating the porous model of penetration components into three-dimensional model developed already for system analysis of pool-type fast reactor. Penetration components include intermediate heat exchanger, primary pump, decay heat exchanger, and radial shielding. After coupling with the system analysis code SAC-CFR, the newly coupled code was applied to analyze the flow field in hot pool under steady-state operation condition and after scram. The agreement between the computational flow field and the geometry of hot pool shows the effectiveness of porous medium model, which makes preparations for further development of passive residual heat removal system.

  19. Austria tõlkepreemia Mati Sirklile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Austria valitsuse 2002. a. tõlkepreemia saab Mati Sirkel Franz Kafka "Hiina müüri ehitamisel" tõlkimise eest, arvesse võeti ka tõlkeid "Loomingu" Austria kirjanduse erinumbris; Vt. sama ka Postimees, 5. veebr., lk.19

  20. Creatine supplementation and swim performance: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Melissa J; Graham, Kenneth; Rooney, Kieron B

    2006-03-01

    Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle. Key PointsCreatine supplementation does not improve single sprint

  1. Teaching Swimming Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Jean G.

    A step-by-step sequential plan is offered for developing a successful competitive swimming season, including how to teach swimming strokes and organize practices. Various strokes are analyzed, and coaching check points are offered along with practice drills, helpful hints on proper body positioning, arm strokes, kicking patterns, breathing…

  2. 冷应激游泳和冷适应游泳对大鼠心肌和脑组织ATP酶、钙离子及自由基代谢的影响%Effects of Cold Stress Swimming and Cold Adaptation Swimming on the ATP Activity, Content of Ca2+ and Free Radical Metabolism in Myocardium and Brain of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一璇; 吕国枫; 刘彦娜; 刘克敏; 刘丽红; 阎平

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨冷应激游泳和冷适应游泳对大鼠心肌和脑自由基代谢、ATP酶活性和钙离子含量的影响.方法:30只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分成3组,每组10只.对照组不运动.冷应激游泳组前5周不运动,第6周末进行3天适应性游泳,每天1次,水温30℃,时间15 min.第7周在8℃水温中游泳1次,时间8 min,运动后即刻处死.冷适应游泳组适应性游泳3天,每天1次,水温30℃,时间15 min.之后进入正式训练:每天1次,起始水温30℃,时间40 min,从第2天起每天水温下降2℃,时间缩短3 min,每周训练6天,持续2周;从第3周起水温和时间保持在10℃、5 min,持续4周;第7周在8℃水温中游泳1次,时间8 min,运动后即刻处死.取材检测心肌和脑组织MDA含量、SOD活性、Na+-K+-ATP酶、Ca2+-ATP酶活性和Ca2+含量.各组大鼠每周称重1次.结果:冷适应游泳组大鼠体重较对照组和冷应激组显著降低.冷应激游泳组大鼠心肌和脑组织MDA含量较对照组显著升高,SOD、Na+-K+-ATP酶和Ca2+-ATP酶活性显著下降,心肌组织Ca2+含量升高,脑组织Ca2+含量显著升高.冷适应游泳组大鼠心肌和脑组织MDA含量较冷应激游泳组显著下降,SOD、Na+-K+-ATP 酶和Ca2+-ATP酶活性显著升高,心肌、脑组织Ca2+含量下降.结论:冷适应游泳有减重效果,能明显降低心肌和脑组织脂质过氧化损伤,提高其抗氧化系统能力,改善ATP酶活性,维持心肌和脑的正常钙含量.%Objective To study the role of cold stress swimming and cold adaptation swimming,and to provide the scientific basis for winter swimming enthusiasts. Methods Thirty male SD rats were randomly and equally divided into three groups:sedentary control group (C),cold stress swimming group (CS),and cold stress adaptation swimming group (CA). The rats in group CS swam once a day in the . 30℃ water for 15 min by the end of 6th week of experiment, and in 8℃ water for 8 min in the following week,and then they were

  3. La autopista de Viena Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available The elevated stretch of the motorway crossing the city of Vienna in a North-South direction is the largest bridge in Austria. The bridge consists of a central span, the corresponding access ramps at the ends and a junction with a district highway having six separate roadways. The design and construction of the bridge was based on the principle of using the maximum amount of prefabricated parts in order to, on the one hand, achieve a higher constructive rationalization, and on the other, minimize erection time. Owing to its being inside the city, the bridge has been fitted with adequate lighting and runoff water disposal systems.

    El tramo volado de la autopista, que cruza Viena de norte a sur, constituye el puente más grande de toda Austria. Dicho puente consta de un tramo central, las correspondientes rampas de acceso en los extremos, y un nudo de enlace con la carretera comarcal compuesto por seis calzadas distintas. En su diseño y realización se procuró utilizar el mayor número posible de elementos prefabricados para, por una parte, permitir una construcción más racionalizada y, por otra, minimizar los tiempos de ejecución. Se ha dotado a toda la obra, por estar dentro de la ciudad, de unos adecuados sistemas de iluminación y evacuación de las aguas superficiales.

  4. Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leixnering, Stephan; Schikowitz, Andrea; Meyer, Renate E.

    2016-01-01

    orientation and increased networking and mediating activities between diverse actors and interests, we find hybrid forms of governance and executives’ role identities. For instance, shifting value priorities, such as emphasis of the relevance of results in general, go along with reluctant behaviour...

  5. Biological Significance of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: VIVID Photocycle Governs the Dynamic VIVID-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-adaptation and Response to Changes in Light Intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Dasgupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability of the adduct state (light state, that is, altering the photocycle length. We have examined the biological significance of VVD photocycle length to photoadaptation and report that a double substitution mutant (vvdI74VI85V, previously shown to have a very fast light to dark state reversion in vitro, shows significantly reduced interaction with the White Collar Complex (WCC resulting in a substantial photoadaptation defect. This reduced interaction impacts photoreceptor transcription factor WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1 protein stability when N. crassa is exposed to light: The fast-reverting mutant VVD is unable to form a dynamic VVD-WCC pool of the size required for photoadaptation as assayed both by attenuation of gene expression and the ability to respond to increasing light intensity. Additionally, transcription of the clock gene frequency (frq is sensitive to changing light intensity in a wild-type strain but not in the fast photo-reversion mutant indicating that the establishment of this dynamic VVD-WCC pool is essential in general photobiology and circadian biology. Thus, VVD photocycle length appears sculpted to establish a VVD-WCC reservoir of sufficient size to sustain photoadaptation while maintaining sensitivity to changing light intensity. The great diversity

  6. Espacio Pool

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Espacio Pool es un grupo abierto de usuarios vinculados a la Facultad de Bellas Artes UCM que actúa sobre los márgenes que la circundan. Toma su nombre de los estanques vacíos ubicados en los jardines de la cafetería, y elige el término anglosajón por sus connotaciones relativas a lo participativo y autogestionado. Su objetivo es habitar los espacios de “vacuidad” para que sean efectivos y permutadores. Espacio Pool organiza la celebración de encuentros a partir de la construcción de disposit...

  7. Swimming and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2002-11-01

    Swimmers can be exposed to high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of chlorination disinfection. There are no published studies on the relation between swimming and birth weight. We explored this relation in a large birth cohort, the Avon (England) Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), in 1991-1992. Information on the amount of swimming per week during the first 18-20 weeks of pregnancy was available for 11,462 pregnant women. Fifty-nine percent never swam, 31% swam up to 1 hour per week, and 10% swam for longer. We used linear regression to explore the relation between birth weight and the amount of swimming, with adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, parity, maternal education level, ethnicity, housing tenure, drug use, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found little effect of the amount of swimming on birth weight. More highly educated women were more likely to swim compared with less educated women, whereas smokers were less likely to swim compared with nonsmokers. There appears to be no relation between the duration of swimming and birth weight.

  8. Measurement of the Residual Stresses and Investigation of Their Effects on a Hardfaced Grid Plate due to Thermal Cycling in a Pool Type Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balaguru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR, grid plate is a critical component which is made of 316 L(N SS. It is supported on core support structure. The grid plate supports the core subassemblies and maintains their verticality. Most of the components of SFR are made of 316 L(N/304 L(N SS and they are in contact with the liquid-metal sodium which acts as a coolant. The peak operating temperature in SFR is 550°C. However, the self-welding starts at 500°C. To avoid self-welding and galling, hardfacing of the grid plate has become necessary. Nickel based cobalt-free colmonoy 5 has been identified as the hardfacing material due to its lower dose rate by Plasma Transferred Arc Welding (PTAW. This paper is concerned with the measurement and investigations of the effects of the residual stress generated due to thermal cycling on a scale-down physical model of the grid plate. Finite element analysis of the hardfaced grid plate model is performed for obtaining residual stresses using elastoplastic analysis and hence the results are validated. The effects of the residual stresses due to thermal cycling on the hardfaced grid plate model are studied.

  9. Technology of Anodization of Aluminum Pool Shell for Nuclear Reactor in Oxalic Acid Solution%草酸溶液中铝池壳的阳极氧化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白新德; 白光美; 郭金梁; 陈鹤鸣; 马春来; 彭德全; 董铎; 钟大辛; 陆金法; 郭宝华; 周昕

    2004-01-01

    A lot of experiments about the anodization of A0 pure aluminum in oxalic acid solution were carried out. The technology parameters were decided, including the anode current density, the oxidization time and the temperature of the electrolyte solution. During the anode oxidization of the pool shell, some special key technologies were solved, including the oxidization technology of large equipment, the technology of the treatment with layer by layer and sealing with thin plastic films, the selection of the power, the circular cooling of the electrolyte solution, etc. Treating the whole pool shell with such measures, the abilities of the corrosion-proof and protection were greatly improved. The nuclear reactor has run for 37 years (from 1964 to 2001), by now the oxidization film on the surface of the pool shell is still bright. It can confirm that treating of the whole pool shell is successful and necessary, which can provide the help and reference for building the same model nuclear reactors.%清华大学核能研究院屏蔽实验反应堆池壳用A0纯铝制成,并于1964年对池壳进行了全部阳极氧化处理.至2001年,反应堆运行了37年,池壳表面仍然有一层发亮的氧化膜,与国内外同类型的未经阳极氧化处理的反应堆相比较,说明氧化膜极好地保护了池壳.该反应堆池壳容积大于50 m3.表面积达100 m2,把这样大的铝制设备在完全安装完毕后进行全部表面阳极氧化处理,在处理工艺上是很困难的.本文阐明了解决这些问题的方法.对A0纯铝在草酸中的阳极氧化做了许多实验,获得了A0纯铝在3%(w/%)草酸中的阳极氧化的基本规律,并确定了最终的工艺参数.包括氧化电流密度,氧化时间和电解液的温度.在铝池壳的阳极氧化过程中解决了许多关键的工艺:如大型工件阳极氧化工艺、氧化机制、性能;分层处理与薄膜密封技术;电源的选择;电解液的循环冷却;氧化膜的质量检测等.

  10. Radon mapping strategies in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Friedmann, H

    2015-11-01

    According to current European and international recommendations (e.g. by IAEA, WHO and European Union), countries shall identify high radon areas. In Austria, this task was initiated already in the early 1990s, which yielded the first Austrian Radon Potential Map. This map is still in use, updated with recent indoor radon data in 2012. The map is based on radon gas measurements in randomly selected dwellings, normalised to a standard situation. To meet the current (legal) requirements, uncertainties in the existing Austrian radon map should be reduced. A new indoor radon survey with a different sampling strategy was started, and possible mapping methods are studied and tested. In this paper, the methodology for the existing map as well as the planned strategies to improve this map is discussed.

  11. Development of System Analysis Code for Pool-Type Fast Reactor Under Transient Operation%池式快堆系统瞬态分析软件开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆道纲; 隋丹婷

    2012-01-01

    为实现快堆系统分析软件国产化,在已开发的适用于稳态计算的池式快堆系统分析软件SAC-CFR的基础上,进一步开发了系统各部件的瞬态模型、控制系统和保护系统模型、瞬态工况热工水力学的求解逻辑,完成瞬态计算功能的开发.通过对日本文殊快堆45%功率汽机跳闸工况进行建模分析,验证了SAC-CFR用于系统瞬态分析的有效性,为进一步开发非能动余热排出系统分析模型打下了基础.%Aiming at developing system analysis code independently, the system analysis code for pool-type fast reactor in China (SAC-CFR) under transient operation was developed with further development of component transient model, plant control and protection system model, calculation logic for system transient thermal-hydraulic analysis based on the former SAC-CFR version applicable to steady state analysis. The transient started from turbine trip test at 45 % thermal output in the Monju Plant was analyzed with the developed SAC-CFR. A good agreement between the calculated results and the test data was obtained. SAC-CFR is now ready to incorporate passive residual heat removal model for China Experimental Fast Reactor.

  12. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Wagner

    Full Text Available In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32, Linz (n = 63 and Graz (n = 15 by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (n = 77, by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin gene (n = 110, and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR (n = 110 to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB, a fimbrial adhesin (fimD, tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA, and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS. Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517. The major part of the samples (93% displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed.

  13. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Birgit; Melzer, Helen; Freymüller, Georg; Stumvoll, Sabine; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Repa, Andreas; Mooi, Frits R; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Mittermayer, Helmut; Kessler, Harald H; Stanek, Gerold; Steinborn, Ralf; Duchêne, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32), Linz (n = 63) and Graz (n = 15) by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis) (n = 77), by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin) gene (n = 110), and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR) (n = 110) to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB), a fimbrial adhesin (fimD), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA), and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS). Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517). The major part of the samples (93%) displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed.

  14. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2012-01-31

    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  15. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  16. Independent Swimming for Children with Severe Physical Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.; McGill, Christine D.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are described for teaching severely physically disabled persons to swim. Approaches begin with a discussion of water adjustment progression and proceed through achieving breath control, mobility, developing movement in a supine position, and developing recovery. The conclusion addresses such final steps toward independence as pool entry…

  17. Safe Swimming (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-01

    Most outbreaks linked to pools and water playgrounds are caused by Cryptosporidium. This podcast discusses ways to keep you healthy and safe while swimming.  Created: 6/1/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/1/2017.

  18. Nutrition for swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Boyd, Kevin T; Burke, Louise M; Koivisto, Anu

    2014-08-01

    Swimming is a sport that requires considerable training commitment to reach individual performance goals. Nutrition requirements are specific to the macrocycle, microcycle, and individual session. Swimmers should ensure suitable energy availability to support training while maintaining long term health. Carbohydrate intake, both over the day and in relation to a workout, should be manipulated (3-10 g/kg of body mass/day) according to the fuel demands of training and the varying importance of undertaking these sessions with high carbohydrate availability. Swimmers should aim to consume 0.3 g of high-biological-value protein per kilogram of body mass immediately after key sessions and at regular intervals throughout the day to promote tissue adaptation. A mixed diet consisting of a variety of nutrient-dense food choices should be sufficient to meet the micronutrient requirements of most swimmers. Specific dietary supplements may prove beneficial to swimmers in unique situations, but should be tried only with the support of trained professionals. All swimmers, particularly adolescent and youth swimmers, are encouraged to focus on a well-planned diet to maximize training performance, which ensures sufficient energy availability especially during periods of growth and development. Swimmers are encouraged to avoid rapid weight fluctuations; rather, optimal body composition should be achieved over longer periods by modest dietary modifications that improve their food choices. During periods of reduced energy expenditure (taper, injury, off season) swimmers are encouraged to match energy intake to requirement. Swimmers undertaking demanding competition programs should ensure suitable recovery practices are used to maintain adequate glycogen stores over the entirety of the competition period.

  19. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...

  20. Safety Barrier Guidelines for Home Pools [and] How To Plan for the Unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    Each year, hundreds of young children die and thousands come close to death due to submersion in residential swimming pools. The United States Consumer Products Safety Commission studied data on drownings and child behavior, as well as information on pool and pool barrier construction, and concluded that the best way to reduce child drownings in…

  1. Parental Education in Austria : Elternbildung in Styria

    OpenAIRE

    蘆田, 智絵

    2012-01-01

    Parental support is important for both parents and children. In order to develop parental competences, the mere experience of parenthood is insufficient. Nowadays, to ensure a healthy family atmosphere and a successful upbringing of children, further measurements are necessary. The purpose of this research is to investigate how parental education in Austria, especially in the case of Steiermark (Styria) is conducted. Elternbildung (Parental education) in Austria is, by definition, the edu...

  2. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  3. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  4. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  5. Calculating the accumulative neutron fluence rate of Al alloy on upper link chest of Swimming Pool Research Reactor-300%300#研究堆寿期内上联箱铝材中子注量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琦杰; 刘耀光; 杨万奎; 张松宝; 石炳元; 杨锐

    2015-01-01

    材料在辐照过程中所受的中子注量是辐照性能研究中的一个重要参数.上联箱铝材作为300#研究堆关键结构材料,经历了从反应堆首次临界到退役的全过程,极具材料辐照效应研究价值.为获取整个反应堆运行寿期内的上联箱中子注量水平,须克服堆芯装载变化频繁与堆芯不断扩大装载两大关键难点,故提出了堆芯归并等效计算方法.通过该方法的成功应用,得到了300#研究堆寿期内上联箱铝材的中子注量,并进行了误差分析.

  6. Fast neutron spectrum in the reflector of swimming pool reactor behind metallics slabs; Spectre des neutrons rapides dans le reflecteur d'une pile a eau legere derriere des ecrans metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The large perturbations of fast neutron spectrum were measured behind lead, aluminium and iron slabs in the Siloette reflector at the CENG. The neutron slowing down is chiefly depending of the inelastic reaction. The reaction cross section increases with energy; a spectrum softening is deduced. This is verified. We tried to determine the spectrum shape by calculation to fit the measurements. Calculations were firstly made in unidimensional geometry by the NIOBE transport equation resolution code and by the SANE Monte-Carlo code. The results does not agree with the experimental determined values. Finally a semi-empirical method for studying a tridimensional geometry was chosen. We have obtained calculation results in a perfect agreement with measurements. The method is described. (author) [French] Les experiences realisees dans le reflecteur de la pile a eau legere SILOETTE du CENG avec des ecrans de plomb, d'aluminium et de fer, nous ont permis de caracteriser les deformations importantes du spectre des neutrons rapides par ces materiaux. Nous avons verifie que la loi de ralentissement preponderante est la reaction de diffusion inelastique dont la section efficace croit avec l'energie, ce qui entraine un amollissement du spectre. Nous avons cherche a determiner par le calcul la trace des spectres de neutrons rapides correspondant aux points de mesure. Les premiers calculs effectues en geometrie unidimensionnelle a l'aide d'un code de resolution de l'equation du transport (NIOBE) et d'un code de Monte-Carlo (SANE) nous ont donne des resultats imparfaits. On a alors choisi une methode de calcul approche capable d'etudier une geometrie tridimensionnelle. Cette methode nous a donne des resultats de calcul qui s'approchaient a quelques pour cent des resultats experimentaux. La methode est decrite. (auteur)

  7. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION AND SWIM PERFORMANCE: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Hopwood

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle

  8. Chernobyl - 30 years thereafter. Experiences and lessons learned in Austria; 30 Jahre nach Tschernobyl. Erfahrungen und Lehren in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, Franz Josef [BEV - Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria). Referat fuer ionisierende Strahlung und Radioaktivitaet; Hajek, Michael [Oesterreichischer Verband fuer Strahlenschutz, Wien (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Steger, Ferdinand; Hefner, Alfred

    2016-05-01

    During the severe reactor accident in Chernobyl in 1986 large amounts of radioactive materials have been released to the environment. Unfavorable atmospheric circulation conditions have transported about 2%of the released radioactive matter to Austria. The contribution describes the measures and actions for dose reduction performed in Austria. The measured cs-137 distribution is illustrated (in some areas more the 100 Bq/m2 were deposited). Experiences considering the measurements in consequence of the contamination are discussed and improvements of the emergency planning are summarized.

  9. A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY ON BACKWARD SWIMMING HYDRODYNAMICS IN THE EEL ANGUILLA ANGUILLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-rong; TONG Bin-gang; MA Hui-yang; LIU Hao

    2005-01-01

    Eels can perform both forward and backward undulatory swimming but few studies are seen on how eels propel themselves backward. A computational study on the unsteady hydrodynamics of the backward swimming in the eel anguilla anguilla is carried out and presented. A two-dimensional geometric model of the European eel body in its middle horizontal section is appropriately approximated by a NACA0005 airfoil. Kinematic data of the backward and forward swimming eel used in the computational modeling are based on the experimental results of the European eel. Present study provided the different flow field characteristics of three typical cases in the backward swimming, and confirmed the guess of Wu: When the eel swims steadily, the vortex centers extensive comparison between the backward and forward swimming further reveals that the controllable parameters, such as frequency, amplitude and wavelength of the traveling wave, have a similar influence on the propulsion performance as in forward swimming. But it is shown that the backward swimming does not be a "reversed" forward swimming one. The backward swimming does show significant discrepancy in the propulsion performance: utilization of a constant-amplitude wave profile enables larger force generation for maneuverability but with much lower propulsive efficiency instead of the linear-increasing amplitude wave profile in the forward swimming. The actual swimming modes eels choose is the best choice associated with their propulsive requirement, as well as their physiological and ecological adaptation.

  10. Use of chiral cell shape to ensure highly directional swimming in trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard John

    2017-01-01

    Swimming cells typically move along a helical path or undergo longitudinal rotation as they swim, arising from chiral asymmetry in hydrodynamic drag or propulsion bending the swimming path into a helix. Helical paths are beneficial for some forms of chemotaxis, but why asymmetric shape is so prevalent when a symmetric shape would also allow highly directional swimming is unclear. Here, I analyse the swimming of the insect life cycle stages of two human parasites; Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana. This showed quantitatively how chirality in T. brucei cell shape confers highly directional swimming. High speed videomicrographs showed that T. brucei, L. mexicana and a T. brucei RNAi morphology mutant have a range of shape asymmetries, from wild-type T. brucei (highly chiral) to L. mexicana (near-axial symmetry). The chiral cells underwent longitudinal rotation while swimming, with more rapid longitudinal rotation correlating with swimming path directionality. Simulation indicated hydrodynamic drag on the chiral cell shape caused rotation, and the predicted geometry of the resulting swimming path matched the directionality of the observed swimming paths. This simulation of swimming path geometry showed that highly chiral cell shape is a robust mechanism through which microscale swimmers can achieve highly directional swimming at low Reynolds number. It is insensitive to random variation in shape or propulsion (biological noise). Highly symmetric cell shape can give highly directional swimming but is at risk of giving futile circular swimming paths in the presence of biological noise. This suggests the chiral T. brucei cell shape (associated with the lateral attachment of the flagellum) may be an adaptation associated with the bloodstream-inhabiting lifestyle of this parasite for robust highly directional swimming. It also provides a plausible general explanation for why swimming cells tend to have strong asymmetries in cell shape or propulsion.

  11. Status and some safety philosophies of the China advanced research reactor CARR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzheng Yuan [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China). Reactor Engineering Research and Design Dept.

    2001-07-01

    The existing two research reactors, HWRR (heavy water research reactor) and SPR (swimming pool reactor), have been operated by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) since, respectively, 1958 and 1964, and are both in extending service and facing the aging problem. It is expected that they will be out of service successively in the beginning decade of the 21{sup st} century. A new, high performance and multipurpose research reactor called China advanced research reactor (CARR) will replace these two reactors. This new reactor adopts the concept of inverse neutron trap compact core structure with light water as coolant and heavy water as the outer reflector. Its design goal is as follows: under the nuclear power of 60MW, the maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux in peripheral D{sub 2}O reflector not less than 8 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. s while in central experimental channel, if the central cell to be replaced by an experimental channel, the corresponding value not less than 1 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}. s. The main applications for this research reactor will cover RI production, neutron scattering experiments, NAA and its applications, neutron photography, NTD for monocrystaline silicon and applications on reactor engineering technology. By the end of 1999, the preliminary design of CARR was completed, then the draft of preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) was submitted to the relevant authority at the end of 2000 for being reviewed. Now, the CARR project has entered the detail design phase and safety reviewing procedure for obtaining the construction permit from the relevant licensing authority. This paper will only briefly introduce some aspects of safety philosophy of CARR design and PSAR. (orig.)

  12. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Available! Q&A with Missy Franklin: Olympic Gold Medalist and Healthy Swimming Champion New Report on ... enter your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button What's this? Healthy Swimming Swimmers Health Benefits of ...

  13. 2008 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  14. 2007 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  15. 2006 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  16. 2009 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  17. 2010 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  18. Bioinspired swimming simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michel; Iollo, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to simulate the flow past bioinspired swimmers starting from pictures of an actual fish. The overall approach requires i) a skeleton graph generation to get a level-set function from pictures; ii) optimal transportation to obtain the velocity on the body surface; iii) flow simulations realized with a Cartesian method based on penalization. This technique can be used to automate modeling swimming motion from data collected by biologists. We illustrate this paradigm by simulating the swimming of a mackerel fish.

  19. Simulations of optimized anguilliform swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Stefan; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-12-01

    The hydrodynamics of anguilliform swimming motions was investigated using three-dimensional simulations of the fluid flow past a self-propelled body. The motion of the body is not specified a priori, but is instead obtained through an evolutionary algorithm used to optimize the swimming efficiency and the burst swimming speed. The results of the present simulations support the hypothesis that anguilliform swimmers modify their kinematics according to different objectives and provide a quantitative analysis of the swimming motion and the forces experienced by the body. The kinematics of burst swimming is characterized by the large amplitude of the tail undulations while the anterior part of the body remains straight. In contrast, during efficient swimming behavior significant lateral undulation occurs along the entire length of the body. In turn, during burst swimming, the majority of the thrust is generated at the tail, whereas in the efficient swimming mode, in addition to the tail, the middle of the body contributes significantly to the thrust. The burst swimming velocity is 42% higher and the propulsive efficiency is 15% lower than the respective values during efficient swimming. The wake, for both swimming modes, consists largely of a double row of vortex rings with an axis aligned with the swimming direction. The vortex rings are responsible for producing lateral jets of fluid, which has been documented in prior experimental studies. We note that the primary wake vortices are qualitatively similar in both swimming modes except that the wake vortex rings are stronger and relatively more elongated in the fast swimming mode. The present results provide quantitative information of three-dimensional fluid-body interactions that may complement related experimental studies. In addition they enable a detailed quantitative analysis, which may be difficult to obtain experimentally, of the different swimming modes linking the kinematics of the motion with the forces

  20. Analysis by the Monte Carlo method of doses around the pool of storage of the control rods irradiated in a BWR reactor; Analisis mediante el metodo de Monte Carlo de las dosis alrededor de la piscina de almacenamiento de las barras de control irradiadas en un reactror BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.

    2011-07-01

    The control rods of a boiling water reactor (BWR) are subject to a neutron flux and thus become activated during their stay in the reactor core. Activation occurs especially in the stainless steel components and impurities. The activity generated results in a dose around the bar, while it le unimportant in the reactor, but to be taken into account when removed f ron it. The bars drawn are stored on hangers placed in the storage pools of spent fuel f ron the plant. Each hanger 12 accommodates control rods and are arranged so that at least three meters of water abode the heads of the control rods. The dose received by potentially exposed workers who are in the vicinity of the storage must be calculated to ensure adequate protection of the came. This dose can be decreased significantly by changing the arrangement of the bars on hangers.

  1. Achieving compliance with pool fencing legislation in New Zealand: how much progress has been made in 10 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Pauline; Chalmers, David; Cousins, Kimberley

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess current levels of enforcement and compliance with the Fencing of Swimming Pools Act 1987, and to determine if enforcement activity and compliance has changed since 1997. A postal questionnaire was sent to all of 73 territorial authorities in New Zealand. Main outcome measures include number and rates of swimming pools (per 1000 dwellings and per 1000 population); mean number of building consents and code compliance certificates issued for pools per territorial authority; mean number of pool inspections made per territorial authority; and the proportion of pools complying with the requirements of the Act. There was around a 9% increase in the prevalence of domestic swimming pools in New Zealand, from 46 pools/1000 dwellings in 1997 to 50 pools/1000 dwellings in 2006 was observed. There has been a 65% increase in the proportion of pools reported as complying with the Act. The proportion of authorities reporting a programme of re-inspection for domestic swimming pools increased from 28% in 1997 to 63% in 2006. There has also been an increase in the proportion of domestic swimming pools recorded as complying with the Act. Finally, a considerable improvement in the enforcement and monitoring activities of territorial authorities in New Zealand was found.

  2. The evolution of doses in the IEA-R1 reactor environment and tendencies based on the current results; Evolucao das doses no ambiente do Reator IEA-R1 e tendencias com base nos resultados atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Eduardo Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    The IPEN / CNEN-SP have a Nuclear Research Reactor-NRR named IEA-R1, in operation from 1957. It is an open swimming pool reactor using light water as shielding, moderator and as cooling, the volume of this pool is 273m{sup 3}.Until 1995 the reactor operated daily at a power of 2,0 MW. From June of that year, after a few safety modifications the reactor began operating in continuous way from Monday to Wednesday without shutdown totalizing 64 hours per week and the power was increased to 4,5MW also. Because of these changes, continuous operation and increased power, workers' doses would tend to increase. In the past several studies were conducted seeking ways to reduce the workers' doses. A study was made on the possibility to introduce a shielding at the top of the reactor core with a hot water layer. Studies have shown that a major limitation for operating a reactor at high power comes from the gamma radiation emitted by the sodium-24. Other elements such as magnesium-27, aluminum-28, Argon-51, contribute considerably to the water activity of the pool. The introduction of a hot water layer on the swimming pool would form a layer of surface, stable and free of radioactive elements with a 1.5m to 2m thickness creates a shielding to radiation from radioactive elements dissolved in water. Optimization studies proved that the installation of the hot layer was not necessary for the regime and the current power reactor operation, because other procedures adopted were more effective. From this decision the Radiological Protection Reactor Team, set up a dose assessment program to ensure them remained in low values based on principles established in national and international standards. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the individual doses of OEI (Occupationally Exposed Individual), which will be checked increasing doses resulting from recent changes in reactor operation regime and suggested viable safety and protection options, in the first instance to

  3. Accumulation of swimming bacteria near an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jay; Li, Guanglai

    2012-11-01

    Microbes inhabit planet earth over billions of years and have adapted to diverse physical environment of water, soil, and particularly at or near interfaces. We focused our attention on the locomotion of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at the interface of water/solid or water/air. We measured the distribution of a forward swimming strain of C. crescentus near a surface using a three-dimensional tracking technique based on dark field microscopy and found that the swimming bacteria accumulate heavily within a micrometer from the surface. We attribute this accumulation to frequent collisions of the swimming cells with the surface, causing them to align parallel to the surface as they continually move forward. The extent of accumulation at the steady state is accounted for by balancing alignment caused by these collisions with rotational Brownian motion of the micrometer-sized bacteria. We performed a simulation based on this model, which reproduced the measured results. Additional simulations demonstrate the dependence of accumulation on swimming speed and cell size, showing that longer and faster cells accumulate more near a surface than shorter and slower ones do. The overarching goal of our study is to describe interfacial microbial behavior through detailed analysis of their motion. We acknowledge support by NSF PHY 1058375.

  4. Keila Tervisekeskus. Ujula = Keila Health Club. Swimming Pool / Ain Padrik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padrik, Ain, 1947-

    2001-01-01

    Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo Künnapu & Padrik. Arhitektid Ain Padrik ja Kristi Alamaa, sisearhitekt Sirje Männik. Konstruktsioonid: Jaan Laks, A-Grupp. Ujulas on võistlus- ja lastebassein, suvel on avatud välibassein. 5 ill.: I korruse plaan, ristlõige, vaated

  5. Keila Tervisekeskus. Ujula = Keila Health Club. Swimming Pool / Ain Padrik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padrik, Ain, 1947-

    2001-01-01

    Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo Künnapu & Padrik. Arhitektid Ain Padrik ja Kristi Alamaa, sisearhitekt Sirje Männik. Konstruktsioonid: Jaan Laks, A-Grupp. Ujulas on võistlus- ja lastebassein, suvel on avatud välibassein. 5 ill.: I korruse plaan, ristlõige, vaated

  6. Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lice, MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ), and pin worm are unlikely to be spread through the use ... boils) that may be: Mistaken for spider bites Red, swollen, painful, warm to the touch, and have ...

  7. Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool; Determinacion de la rapidez de exposion en el nivel 49.90 del edificio del reactor por la disminucion en el nivel de agua de la alberca de combustible gastado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C., E-mail: zoedelfin@gmail.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Km 44.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91476 Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)

  8. Investigación de un brote respiratorio agudo por exposición a cloro gas en una piscina pública Investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory illness due to exposure to chlorine gas in a public swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles para investigar el accidente químico ocurrido en una piscina pública en el verano de 2005 y describir los factores ambientales responsables, analizar el efecto del cloro gas y valorar la evolución clínica y funcional del aparato respiratorio. Las intervenciones fueron las siguientes: inspecciones ambientales, encuesta epidemiológica (variables sociodemográficas, ubicación en el momento del accidente, olor percibido y seguimiento clínico y espirométrico de la función respiratoria. Se encuestaron 65 casos y 48 controles. El suceso se produjo al mezclar accidentalmente ácido clorhídrico e hipoclorito sódico, lo que generó cloro gas. Los síntomas predominantes fueron tos y disnea. El riesgo de enfermar en niños era 10 veces mayor si tenían una enfermedad respiratoria previa y 4 veces superior si estaban a una distancia inferior a 40 m del lugar del accidente. Todos los casos evolucionaron hacia la curación, excepto uno que tenía antecedentes asmáticos.A case-control study was designed to investigate a chemical accident that occurred in a swimming-pool in the summer of 2005. The aim was to describe the environmental factors involved in the accident, to assess the effect of chlorine gas on the respiratory system, and to perform a clinical and spirometric follow-up. The following interventions were carried out: environmental inspection, epidemiologic survey (including sociodemographic variables, location at the time of the accident, perception of an abnormal smell, and clinical and spirometric outcomes to assess respiratory function. Sixty-five cases and 48 controls were identified and interviewed. The accident was produced by accidental admixture of hydrochloric acid with sodium hypochlorite resulting in chlorine gas release. The main clinical symptoms were dyspnea and cough. The risk of becoming ill was 10-fold higher in children with a previous lung disease and was 4-fold higher when

  9. The use and evolution of the CEA research reactors; Utilisation et evolution des reacteurs de recherche du C.E.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossillon, F.; Chauvez, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors successively examine the different research reactors in use in the French C.E.A. Nuclear Centres. They trace briefly their histories, describing how they have been used up to the present, and how they have been adapted to changes in programme by means of certain modifications. They also describe the reasons which have led to the elaboration of the project for the new reactor Osiris. Zoe, the oldest reactor in the CEA, has been in service in the Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses since 1948. It is used mainly for measurements of absorption cross-sections in graphite, and for various short irradiations which do not require high fluxes. The reactor EL 2, in service since 1952, was used for the first studies on gas cooling. It has also been widely used for the production of radioisotopes and for a large number of experiments in the fields of physics, metallurgy and physical chemistry. The ageing of certain elements of the reactor has led to the decision to close it down in the near future The reactor EL 3 has been widely used for experiments in physics and in the investigation of fuels. The possibilities of the reactor in fast neutron irradiations will be considerably improved by the adoption of a new type of core (the 'snow crystal' structure). Triton-I, a 2 MW swimming-pool reactor, is used for the most part for fast neutron and gamma irradiations. The modifications being carried out on it at present should result in an increase in the power of the reactor up to 4 or 5 MW. In a neighbouring compartment is housed Triton-II which is of the same general structure, as Triton-I, but whose maximum power is 100 kW. Triton-II is used solely for studies on shielding. Melusine, a 2 MW swimming-pool reactor, has been in use in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble since 1959. It has supported a very high programme concerned mainly with solid state physics, fundamental research into refractory fissile materials and special graphites, and the study of

  10. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  11. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  12. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, B.; Melzer, H.; Freymuller, G.; Stumvoll, S.; Rendi-Wagner, P.; Paulke-Korinek, M.; Repa, A.; Mooi, F.R.; Kollaritsch, H.; Mittermayer, H.; Kessler, H.H.; Stanek, G.; Steinborn, R.; Duchene, M.; Wiedermann, U.

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunit

  13. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  14. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  15. Early Childhood Intervention and Inclusion in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretis, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…

  16. Oligoarthritis caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Ladstatter, Stefan; Schotta, Anna M; Reiter, Michael; Pomberger, Gerhard; Stanek, Gerold

    2015-06-01

    A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions.

  17. CPAFFC Agricultural Delegation Visits Germany and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Germany-China Friendship Association-Stuttgart (GCFA-Stuttgart) and the Austrian-Chinese Friendship Association (ACFA),a delegation for studying agriculture composed of members from localities organized and sent by the CPAFFC paid a visit to Germany and Austria from June 11 to 23. The delegation visited farms and

  18. Body movement distribution with respect to swimmer's glide position in human underwater undulatory swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-12-01

    Human swimmers use undulatory motions similar to fish locomotion to attain high speeds. The human body is a non-smooth multi-body linkage system with restricted flexibility and is not primarily adapted to motion in the water. Due to anatomical limitations, the human swimmer is forced to deviate from the symmetric fish-like motion and to adjust his motion to his limited abilities. The goal of this paper is to investigates the movement of ten swimmers during human underwater undulatory in a still water pool and to find out to what extent the human swimmer approaches an ideal undulatory wave which is symmetric with respect to the extended gliding position. Therefore, it is necessary to (i) to ascertain the magnitude of the normalized dorsal, ventral and total amplitudes of the undulatory movements, (ii) to examine the distribution and symmetry/asymmetry of the dorsal, ventral and total amplitudes along the length of the swimming body, and (iii) to compare the differences in amplitude distribution and other indicators between different skill levels. The amplitude distribution of the dorsal and ventral deflection along the body (related to the swimmer's stretched position) is highly asymmetric. Skilled swimmers swim with a more linear body wave and use a smaller range of envelop than less skilled swimmers. The durations of the up and down kicks show only minor differences. The down kick is slightly faster than the up kick. Although the down kick is more powerful than the up kick, the hip marker shows almost the same average swimming speed in both half-cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stirring by swimming bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jeanluc@math.wisc.ed [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 480 Lincoln Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Institute for Mathematics and Applications, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, 207 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Childress, Stephen [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2010-07-26

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  20. Mixing by Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P; Pesci, Adriana I; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate the microscale mixing enhancement of passive tracer particles in suspensions of swimming microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These biflagellated, single-celled eukaryotes (10 micron diameter) swim with a "breaststroke" pulling motion of their flagella at speeds of about 100 microns/s and exhibit heterogeneous trajectory shapes. Fluorescent tracer particles (2 micron diameter) allowed us to quantify the enhanced mixing caused by the swimmers, which is relevant to suspension feeding and biogenic mixing. Without swimmers present, tracer particles diffuse slowly due solely to Brownian motion. As the swimmer concentration is increased, the probability density functions (PDFs) of tracer displacements develop strong exponential tails, and the Gaussian core broadens. High-speed imaging (500 Hz) of tracer-swimmer interactions demonstrates the importance of flagellar beating in creating oscillatory flows that exceed Brownian motion out to about 5 cell radii from the swimm...

  1. EDUCATIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TURKEY AND AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati DEMİR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Turkey (Ottoman Empire and Austria started nearly 500 years ago. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the educational relationship began to concentrate. After 1850, Austrian scientists and teachers have made valuable services at educational institutions for Ottoman Empire. When archival documents had evaluated, it was understood that some of Ottoman citizens had completed their education at Austrian schools. As far as we know, Austrian teachers and clergy in Ottoman lands established fifteen schools especially in the 20th beginning of the century. The most well-established educational institutions of the Austrian School has been preparing to celebrate 130th anniversary in 2012. Other schools closed over time is understood. Austria and Turkey signed "Friendship Treaty" on 10 December 1923 in Ankara. This treaty is important in terms of the first treaty of the Republic of Turkey after Lausanne. Dozens of Austrian scientists and teachers from the first year of the Republic, came to Turkey, and have made services in various educational institutions. This development is too important for Republic of Turkey. Paul Wittek a scientist studied on Turkish language, history and culture, and other scientists specializing in the fields of architecture, such as Clemens Holzmeister makes this development more important for us. Since 1964, labor migration began to Austria from Turkey. The number of Turks in Austria, close to 220.000 due to migration of workers today. Recently, about 30.000 Turkish children living abroad has received their education with so many difficulties. Turkish children studying in Austria has been waiting an agreement between two countries for solutions.

  2. Woman Swims Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Figge pressed her toes into the Caribbean sand, excited and exhausted as she touched land this week for the first time in almost a month. Reaching a beach in Trinidad, she became the first woman on record to s,Mm across the Atlantic Ocean-a dream she'd had since the early 1960s, when a stormy trans-Atlantic flight got her thinking she could wear a life vest and swim the rest of the way if needed.

  3. Going for a Swim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Savannah

    2016-01-01

    Is anything more refreshing than going for a nice, long swim? The math scenarios presented in this article will take the reader back to hot summer days and remind the reader what a cool dip in the water feels like. Solving these problems is enjoyable and encourages the solver to think of the many ways that math is all around--even in the middle of…

  4. Pool Rules: A Survival Guide for Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    In most sports and physical activities rules are present to facilitate participation, outlining courtesy during play as well as establishing guidelines for keeping any competition fair. In contrast, rules for appropriate behavior in swimming pools serve a much more important purpose--that of ensuring health and safety for all participants.…

  5. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  6. Determination of the solids retainment effectiveness of disposable swim diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Richard P; Patch, Steven C; Berkowitz, Jacob F; Johnson, Holly D

    2004-06-01

    In light of recent and increasing incidences of pathogenic E. coli outbreaks at public bathing facilities attributable to non-toilet-trained infants and toddlers, many such facilities are restricting water contact for this age group. A number of manufacturers are now offering disposable "swim diapers," which claim to effectively retain fecal material under typical pool play conditions. The study reported here examined the solids retention effectiveness of three major brands of swim diapers as well as of conventional disposable diapers, under simulated water play conditions. Swim diapers of all three brands exhibited an approximately equal fine-solids retention capability of about 98 to 99 percent over 30 minutes of water immersion activity. Conventional disposable diapers invariably fell down or came apart during the experiments, resulting in very limited solids retention. This study indicates that commercially available swim diapers represent a vast improvement in reducing the potential for fecal material release in public pool facilities, but that some release will still generally occur with these products.

  7. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  8. Influence of mobile games on the process of teaching of students that can not swim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelnykov G.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considered direction in teaching of students to swimming in terms 25 meter pool. 30 students took part in an experiment. The place of mobile games in the process of teaching of novices is certain. Information of results of testing of level of physical preparedness of students is presented. Positive influence of mobile games on the process of mastering of skills of swimming and co-operations on water is marked. Forms and methods of mastering of skills and conduct in water are offered. The motive mode and forms of organization of educational process of not able to swim students is recommended.

  9. Modeling evaporation from spent nuclear fuel storage pools: A diffusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Bruce Robert

    Accurate prediction of evaporative losses from light water reactor nuclear power plant (NPP) spent fuel storage pools (SFPs) is important for activities ranging from sizing of water makeup systems during NPP design to predicting the time available to supply emergency makeup water following severe accidents. Existing correlations for predicting evaporation from water surfaces are only optimized for conditions typical of swimming pools. This new approach modeling evaporation as a diffusion process has yielded an evaporation rate model that provided a better fit of published high temperature evaporation data and measurements from two SFPs than other published evaporation correlations. Insights from treating evaporation as a diffusion process include correcting for the effects of air flow and solutes on evaporation rate. An accurate modeling of the effects of air flow on evaporation rate is required to explain the observed temperature data from the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 SFP during the 2011 loss of cooling event; the diffusion model of evaporation provides a significantly better fit to this data than existing evaporation models.

  10. Examining self-training procedures in leisure swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Potdevin, Francois; Normani, Clement; Pelayo, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    general health benefits whereas people aged from 20 to 30 appears to be concerned about a global health benefits and a body shape effects.Excepted middle age people, recreational swimmers have low control quality of their session even if they have a good skill level. This suggests to improve health strategy education and swimming pool environment.

  11. Injury patterns in Division I collegiate swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Brian R; Ebinger, Alexander E; Lawler, Michael P; Britton, Carla L

    2009-10-01

    of injuries in freshman collegiate swimmers were found. Particular attention should be given to swimmers making the transition into collegiate level swimming. These data also suggest that injury surveillance and potential prevention strategies should focus on the shoulder for in-pool activities and the axial spine for cross-training activities.

  12. Neutron flux parameters for k{sub 0}-NAA method at the Malaysian nuclear agency research reactor after core reconfiguration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavar, A.R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Sarmani, S. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Wood, A.K. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor 43000 (Malaysia); Fadzil, S.M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Masood, Z. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor 43000 (Malaysia); Khoo, K.S., E-mail: khoo@ukm.m [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor, commissioned in 1982, is a TRIGA Mark II swimming pool type reactor. When the core configuration changed in June 2009, it became essential to re-determine such neutron flux parameters as thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), epithermal neutron flux shape factor ({alpha}), thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th}) and epithermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub epi}) in the irradiation positions of MNA research reactor in order to guarantee accuracy in the application of k{sub 0}-neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-NAA).The f and {alpha} were determined using the bare bi-isotopic monitor and bare triple monitor methods, respectively; Au and Zr monitors were utilized in present study. The results for four irradiation positions are presented and discussed in the present work. The calculated values of f and {alpha} ranged from 33.49 to 47.33 and -0.07 to -0.14, respectively. The {phi}{sub th} and the {phi}{sub epi} were measured as 2.03 x 10{sup 12} (cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and 6.05 x 10{sup 10} (cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) respectively. These results were compared to those of previous studies at this reactor as well as to those of reactors in other countries. The results indicate a good conformity with other findings.

  13. Adaptation of a High Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer to the Measurement of Water Temperature in a Nuclear Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaz, G.; Calzavara, Y.; Le Clézio, E.; Despaux, G.

    Most high flux reactors possess for research purposes fuel elements composed of plates. Their relative distance is a crucial parameter, particularly concerning the irradiation history. For the High Flux Reactor (RHF) of the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL), the measurement of this distance with a microscopic resolution becomes extremely challenging. To address this issue, a specific ultrasonic transducer, presented in a first paper, has been designed and manufactured to be inserted into the 1.8 mm width channel existing between curved fuel plates. It was set on a blade yielding a total device thickness of 1 mm. To achieve the expected resolution, the system is excited with frequencies up to 70 MHz and integrated into a set of high frequency acquisition instruments. Thanks to a specific signal processing, this device allows the distance measurement through the evaluation of the ultrasonic wave time of fight. One of the crucial points is then the evaluation of the local water temperature inside the water channel. To obtain a precise estimation of this parameter, the ultrasonic sensor is used as a thermometer thanks to the analysis of the spectral components of the acoustic signal propagating inside the sensor multilayered structure. The feasibility of distance measurement was proved during the December 2013 experiment in the RHF fuel element of the ILL. Some of the results will be presented as well as some experimental constraints identified to improve the accuracy of the measurement in future works.

  14. Design and construction of an irradiation apparatus with controlled atmosphere and temperature for radiation damage evaluation of nuclear materials in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucki, Georgi; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Castanheira, Myrthes; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Damy, Margaret de Almeida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: glucki@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    A material irradiation apparatus CIMAT (Capsula de Irradiacao de Materiais) with controlled temperature and atmosphere is described. The device was specifically designed to perform experiments inside the core of the IEA-R1 swimming pool reactor and allows fast neutron (E=1 MeV) irradiations of multiple miniature metallic samples at temperature between 100 deg C and 500 deg C, in Argon or Helium atmosphere to inhibit corrosion. The aim of CIMAT is to make a comparative assessment of Radiation Embrittlement (RE) on the AS 508 cl.3 steel, of different origins (ELETROMETAL-Brazil and VITCOVICE-Chekia) used in Pressure Vessels (PV) of PWR, for fluence of 10 exp 19 nvt at 300 C, by means of mechanical post irradiation evaluation. Previous characterization of non-irradiated samples of these materials is presented. In situ electrical and magnetic measurements, at high temperatures, are foreseen to be made with this apparatus. Extensive temperature stability and leak-tightness tests performed in the reactor swimming pool have proven the CIMAT to be intrinsically safe and operational. (author)

  15. The reactor Cabri; La pile cabri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J.; Millot, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    It has become necessary to construct in France a reactor which would permit the investigation of the conditions of functioning of future installations, the choice, the testing and the development of safety devices to be adopted. A water reactor of a type corresponding to the latest CEA constructions in the field of laboratory or university reactors was decided upon: it appeared important to be able to evaluate the risks entailed and to study the possibilities of increasing the power, always demanded by the users; on the other hand, it is particularly interesting to clarify the phenomena of power oscillation and the risks of burn out. The work programme for CABRI will be associated with the work carried out on the American Sperts of the same type, during its construction, very useful contacts were made with the American specialists who designed the se reactors. A brief description of the reactor is given in the communication as well as the work programme for the first years with respect to the objectives up to now envisaged. Rough description of the reactor. CABRI is an open core swimming-pool reactor without any lateral protection, housed in a reinforced building with controlled leakage, in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache. It lies alone in the middle of an area whose radius is 300 meters long. Control and measurements equipment stand out on the edge of that zone. It consumes MTR fuel elements. The control-safety rods are propelled by compressed air. The maximum flow rate of cooling circuit is 1500 m{sup 3}/h. Transient measurements are recorded in a RW330 unit. Aims and work programme. CABRI is meant for: - studies on the safety of water reactors - for the definition of the safety margins under working conditions: research of maximum power at which a swimming-pool reactor may operate with respect to a cooling accident, of local boiling effect on the nuclear behaviour of the reactor, performances of the control and safety instruments under

  16. [Public health education in Austria. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.

  17. MRSA in Austria--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krziwanek, K; Luger, C; Sammer, B; Stumvoll, S; Stammler, M; Sagel, U; Witte, W; Mittermayer, H

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of predominant and sporadic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in large regions of Austria, and to compare the results with those from other European countries. In total, 1439 MRSA isolates, collected routinely between January 1996 and June 2006 from five Austrian federal provinces, were investigated. The isolates were confirmed as MRSA using mecA/femA multiplex PCR assays. Genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which are characteristic of community-acquired MRSA, were also detected by PCR. Subtyping was performed using SmaI macrorestriction digestion of genomic DNA, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and cluster analysis. Isolates that could not be assigned to clusters were further analysed by spa typing and/or multilocus sequence typing. The predominant clones detected in Austria were ST228 (southern German epidemic clone), ST5 (Rhine-Hessen MRSA), the ST8 Austrian clone and CC8/ST8. Whereas the frequencies of lineages corresponding to ST247, ST45 and ST22 remained comparably low, an increase in the frequency of lineages corresponding to ST5 and to ST228 was recorded. Overall, 20 different MRSA types and 321 subtypes were recognised according to PFGE analysis. The prevalence of different strains varied considerably in the different Austrian regions. When compared to other European countries, the situation in Austria was most similar to that found in Germany.

  18. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, N M; Lamb, D R; Nelson, T E

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if oral creatine (CR) ingestion, compared to a placebo (PL), would enable swimmers to maintain a higher swimming velocity across repeated interval sets over 2 weeks of supplementation. Fourteen female and 18 male university swimmers consumed a PL during a 2-week baseline period. Using a randomized, double-blind design, during the next 2 weeks subjects consumed either CR or PL. Swimming velocity was assessed twice weekly during 6 X 50-m swims and once weekly during 10 X 25-yd swims. There was no effect of CR on the 10 X 25-yd interval sets for men and women and no effect on the 6 X 50-m interval sets for women. In contrast, for men, CR significantly improved mean overall swimming velocity in the 6 X 50-m interval after 2 weeks of supplementation, whereas PL had no effect. Although ineffective in women, CR supplementation apparently enables men to maintain a faster mean overall swimming velocity during repeated swims each lasting about 30 s; however, CR was not effective for men in repeated swims each lasting about 10 - 15 s.

  19. Edificio en terraza - Viena (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörle, E.

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available This building is located on the side of a hill, at Modling, hence the curious stepped up arrangement of the design, to adapt itself to the nature of the site. There are 30 dwellings whose useful areas vary between 80 and 150 m2, and additionally 5 apartments of 50 to 85 m2. Each has its own terrace and artificial garden, also parking space. The general style is sober, both inside and in its external aspect.El conjunto está situado en la ladera de un monte cuajado de flores amarillas, en Modling, adoptando esta curiosa forma escalonada en función de la fisonomía del solar elegido. Hay un total de treinta viviendas con superficies útiles de 80 a 150 m2; cinco apartamentos de 50 a 75 m2 útiles, cada uno, con su correspondiente terraza ajardinada, garaje y aparcamiento, además de otros edificios similares, todos ellos tratados con gran dignidad interior y exterior.

  20. Swimming Microrobot Optical Nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Tianlong; Rozen, Isaac; Zhao, Jason; Bahari, Babak; Kante, Boubacar; Wang, Joseph

    2016-10-12

    Optical imaging plays a fundamental role in science and technology but is limited by the ability of lenses to resolve small features below the fundamental diffraction limit. A variety of nanophotonic devices, such as metamaterial superlenses and hyperlenses, as well as microsphere lenses, have been proposed recently for subdiffraction imaging. The implementation of these micro/nanostructured lenses as practical and efficient imaging approaches requires locomotive capabilities to probe specific sites and scan large areas. However, directed motion of nanoscale objects in liquids must overcome low Reynolds number viscous flow and Brownian fluctuations, which impede stable and controllable scanning. Here we introduce a new imaging method, named swimming microrobot optical nanoscopy, based on untethered chemically powered microrobots as autonomous probes for subdiffraction optical scanning and imaging. The microrobots are made of high-refractive-index microsphere lenses and powered by local catalytic reactions to swim and scan over the sample surface. Autonomous motion and magnetic guidance of microrobots enable large-area, parallel and nondestructive scanning with subdiffraction resolution, as illustrated using soft biological samples such as neuron axons, protein microtubulin, and DNA nanotubes. Incorporating such imaging capacities in emerging nanorobotics technology represents a major step toward ubiquitous nanoscopy and smart nanorobots for spectroscopy and imaging.

  1. Ageing implementation and refurbishment development at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor: a 15 years experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio N.; Ricci Filho, Walter; Carvalho, Marcos R. de; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Marra Neto, Adolfo, E-mail: ahiru@ipen.b, E-mail: wricci@ipen.b, E-mail: carvalho@ipen.b, E-mail: jrretta@ipen.b, E-mail: amneto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) is a nuclear research center established into the Secretary of Science and Technology from the government of the state of Sao Paulo, and administered both technically and financially by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), a federal government organization under the Ministry of Science and Technology. The institute is located inside the campus of the University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo city, Brazil. One of major nuclear facilities at IPEN is the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. It is the unique Brazilian research reactor with substantial power level suitable for application with research in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, as well as radioisotope production for medical and other applications. Designed and built by Babcok-Wilcox, in accordance with technical specifications established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, and financed by the US Atoms for Peace Program, it is a swimming pool type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water and uses graphite and beryllium as reflector elements. The first criticality was achieved on September 16, 1957 and the reactor is currently operating at 4.0 MW on a 64h per week cycle. Since 1996, an IEA-R1 reactor ageing study was established at the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) related with general deterioration of components belonging to some operational systems, as cooling towers from secondary cooling system, piping and pumps, sample irradiation devices, radiation monitoring system, fuel elements, rod drive mechanisms, nuclear and process instrumentation and safety operational system. Although basic structures are almost the same as the original design, several improvements and modifications in components, systems and structures had been made along reactor life. This work aims to show the development of the ageing program in the IEA-R1 reactor and the upgrading (modernization) that was carried out, concerning several equipment and system in the

  2. The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training

    OpenAIRE

    Břízová, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    THESIS ANNOTATION Title: The Impact of Baby Swimming on Introductory and Elementary Swimming Training Aim: To assess the impact of 'baby swimming' on the successfulness in introductory and partly in elementary swimming training, and to find out whether also other circumstances (for example the length of attendance at 'baby swimming') have some influence on introductory swimming training. Methods: We used a questionnaire method for the parents of children who had attended 'baby swimming' and f...

  3. Nutrition considerations for open-water swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Koivisto, Anu; Gerrard, David; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5-25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5-88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1-6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/ hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition.

  4. Josef Steindl’s Life and Work in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald Walterskirchen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Josef Steindl’s impact on economic policy in Austria concentrated on three areas: Keynesian thinking, educational policy and technology policy. After returning to Vienna in 1950 Steindl advanced Keynesian and Kaleckian thinking in Austria and thus influenced a whole generation of economists. He pushed for an educational policy in Austria and emphasised the role of engineers, technicians and skilled workers in long-term economic growth. Closely related to this was his plea for a technology policy. As an industrial latecomer, Austria was able to import technologies for a long time; but once the country had caught up, it needed to stimulate innovation with a conscious technology policy.

  5. The Effects of Swimming Goggles on Swimming Performances

    OpenAIRE

    "荒井, 康夫; "アライ, ヤスオ"; YASUO", "ARAI

    1982-01-01

    "Children in swimming tend to have some fear on water due to the factors such as obstruction of breathing, blocking of vision, and changes in body equilibrium affected by buoyance. It is said that about a 5-month period is needed in order to overcome the fear in kindergarten kids during swimming instruction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of swimming goggles as a teaching aid in order to avoid the fear due to blocking vision. Ten children, 4 boys and 6 girls, i...

  6. Warm-up and performance in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marinho, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up before physical activity is commonly accepted to be fundamental, and any priming practices are usually thought to optimize performance. However, specifically in swimming, studies on the effects of warm-up are scarce, which may be due to the swimming pool environment, which has a high temperature and humidity, and to the complexity of warm-up procedures. The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the different studies on how warming up affects swimming performance, and to develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of warm-up before competition. Most of the main proposed effects of warm-up, such as elevated core and muscular temperatures, increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscle cells and higher efficiency of muscle contractions, support the hypothesis that warm-up enhances performance. However, while many researchers have reported improvements in performance after warm-up, others have found no benefits to warm-up. This lack of consensus emphasizes the need to evaluate the real effects of warm-up and optimize its design. Little is known about the effectiveness of warm-up in competitive swimming, and the variety of warm-up methods and swimming events studied makes it difficult to compare the published conclusions about the role of warm-up in swimming. Recent findings have shown that warm-up has a positive effect on the swimmer's performance, especially for distances greater than 200 m. We recommend that swimmers warm-up for a relatively moderate distance (between 1,000 and 1,500 m) with a proper intensity (a brief approach to race pace velocity) and recovery time sufficient to prevent the early onset of fatigue and to allow the restoration of energy reserves (8-20 min).

  7. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools...

  8. Stirring by swimming bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. Using the distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents induced by the swimmers, we derive a form for the moments of the concentration of a passive scalar, which exhibits spatial intermittency.

  9. A review of the effect of swim training and nutrition on bone mineral density in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present paper reviews the physiological adaptation to swim training and dietary supplementation relating to bone mineral density (BMD) in female swimmers. Swim training still seems to have conflicting effects on bone health maintenance in athletes. [Methods] This review article focuses on swim training combined with dietary supplementation with respect to BMD in female athletes. [Results] Upon review of previous studies, it became obvious that the majority of studies did not col...

  10. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis of snow trends in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Roland; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the spatiotemporal analysis of Austrian snow observations. A set of consistent and reliable long-term time series of snow depth on a daily scale from selected meteorological sites across Austria is used. The time series were collected by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the Hydrographical Central Bureau of Austria (HZB). The data cover a time period from the late nineteenth century until today. In the first part of the study spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal snow depth observations were investigated by the method of principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of variability have been used for a regionalisation, identifying regions with similar conditions during the base period 1961 to 2010. The results show a clear separation of four major regions including various sub-regions. However, the regionalisation was limited due to sparse data coverage. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical test had been used to assess the significance of trends in snow indices, e.g. snow depth, maximum snow depth, snow cover duration, at monthly and seasonal time scales. In order to remove the influence of the lag-1 serial correlation from the snow data, the trend-free pre-whitening approach was applied. In the monthly and seasonal time series during the period 1961-2010, negative trends in snow indices were significant at the 95% confidence level primarily at stations in the Western and Southern part of Austria. In addition, the correlation between snow observations and gridded HISTALP winter temperature and precipitation fields was investigated. The analysis has shown an increased temperature and decreased precipitation during the 1990s, yielding a pronounced reduction in snow depth and duration. As a matter of fact, the results indicate major shifts of the snow depth and snow cover duration around the 1970s and especially the 1990s, which are predominantly responsible for trends.

  12. Centro escolar federal en Bludenz/Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehrer, Manfred

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Este centro escolar, considerado como uno de los más interesantes de Austria, se compone de cuatro cuerpos en los que se distribuyen, respectivamente, las escuelas, el gimnasio, la vivienda del conserje y el local de transformadores. En su construcción hay que destacar su adecuada flexibilidad, que permite dar cabida a las distintas funciones que en él se desarrollan, y la correcta adaptación del gran volumen edificado a las especiales características urbanas y arquitectónicas del ámbito circundante.

  13. Real-time Shakemap implementation in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Papi Isaba, Maria; Horn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes. They are automatically generated within a few minutes after occurrence of an earthquake. We tested and included the USGS ShakeMap 4.0 (experimental code) based on python in the Antelope real-time system with local modified GMPE and Site Effects based on the conditions in Austria. The ShakeMaps are provided in terms of Intensity, PGA, PGV and PSA. Future presentation of ShakeMap contour lines and Ground Motion Parameter with interactive maps and data exchange over Web-Services are shown.

  14. eHealth Terminology Management in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seerainer, Carina; Sabutsch, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to establishing and operating a nationwide personal health record (PHR), effective and efficient terminology management including the development, administration, maintenance and publishing of terminologies is a precondition for semantic interoperability. In the Austrian national patient health record "ELGA" all relevant terminologies are provided and distributed by means of a CTS2-conformant terminology server. In the following article, issues and lessons learned from terminology management in a large-scale eHealth project are presented. Experience has proved the necessity of a national authority for medical terminology management in Austria.

  15. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  16. Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Aerobic Response during Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pinna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of beetroot juice supplementation (BJS have been tested during cycling, walking, and running. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether BJS can also improve performance in swimmers. Fourteen moderately trained male master swimmers were recruited and underwent two incremental swimming tests randomly assigned in a pool during which workload, oxygen uptake (VO2, carbon dioxide production (VCO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE, and aerobic energy cost (AEC of swimming were measured. One was a control swimming test (CSW and the other a swimming test after six days of BJS (0.5l/day organic beetroot juice containing about 5.5 mmol of NO3−. Results show that workload at anaerobic threshold was significantly increased by BJS as compared to the CSW test (6.3 ± 1 and 6.7 ± 1.1 kg during the CSW and the BJS test respectively. Moreover, AEC was significantly reduced during the BJS test (1.9 ± 0.5 during the SW test vs. 1.7 ± 0.3 kcal·kg−1·h−1 during the BJS test. The other variables lacked a statistically significant effect with BJS. The present investigation provides evidence that BJS positively affects performance of swimmers as it reduces the AEC and increases the workload at anaerobic threshold.

  17. Extreme swimming: The oceanic migrations of anguillids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David; Aarestrup, Kim; Jellyman, Don;

    2013-01-01

    Anguillids evolved between 20 and 40 million years ago and, as catadromous fish, migrate between marine and freshwater environments. The migration occurs only twice in the lifetime of most eels: when they migrate as larvae to coastal and river habitats, and again as adult, when they return...... to their natal habitat to spawn. In temperate species, the migrations are extreme, requiring larvae and adults to swim thousands of km before reaching their destination, but the migrations of tropical species (hundreds of km) are still remarkable in comparison with many other fish species. To achieve...... these migratory feats, eel larvae and adults are uniquely adapted to oceanic environments. We describe and discuss these adaptations, and identify the challenges and opportunities ahead for aquaculture and eel conservation...

  18. Design of an Adaptive PID Neural Controller for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulood A. Dagher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A particle swarm optimization algorithm and neural network like self-tuning PID controller for CSTR system is presented. The scheme of the discrete-time PID control structure is based on neural network and tuned the parameters of the PID controller by using a particle swarm optimization PSO technique as a simple and fast training algorithm. The proposed method has advantage that it is not necessary to use a combined structure of identification and decision because it used PSO. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive PID neural control algorithm in terms of minimum tracking error and smoothness control signal obtained for non-linear dynamical CSTR system.

  19. Poole High Street study

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2007-01-01

    A presentation given to key decision makers within Poole to improve the retail offer in Poole High Street and leverage the benefit of improved town planning and the introduction of quality retail companies.

  20. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  1. Fluid dynamics: Swimming across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Johannes; Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2014-10-01

    The myriad creatures that inhabit the waters of our planet all swim using different mechanisms. Now, a simple relation links key physical observables of underwater locomotion, on scales ranging from millimetres to tens of metres.

  2. Swim pressure of active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  3. Amoeboid swimming in a channel

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, W -F; Thiébaud, M; Rafaï, S; Peyla, P; Lai, M -C; Misbah, C

    2016-01-01

    Several micro-organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or spermatozoa, use flagellum or cilium activity to swim in a fluid. Many other organisms use rather ample shape deformation, described as amoeboid, to propel themselves, either crawling on a substrate or swimming. Many eukaryotic cells were believed to require an underlying substratum to migrate (crawl) by using ample membrane deformation (like blebbing). There is now an increasing evidence that a large variety of cells (including those of the immune system) can migrate without the assistance of focal adhesion, and can perform swimming as efficiently as crawling. This paper deals with a detailed analysis of amoeboid swimming in a confined fluid, by modeling the swimmer as an inextensible membrane deploying local active forces. The swimmer exhibits a rich behavior: it can settle into a straight trajectory in the channel, or can navigate from one wall to the other, depending on confinement. Furthermore, the nature of the swimmer is found to be affected by the c...

  4. Enterprises of China and Austria to Find More Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Austria is a technological powerhouse which owns multiple world leading technologies. Furthermore, it is located in the center of the Europe, so Chinese companies which enter Austrian market can easily tap the market in other European countries."Mr. Dr. Heinz Fischer, President of Austria spoke at the Sino-Austrian Economic Forum on January 20.

  5. 77 FR 43857 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 12, 2012 (77 FR 34997). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Austria and China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized Tariff...

  6. Chinese Ancient Coins Academic Exchange Delegation Visits France and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>To further strengthen nongovernmental cultural exchanges,a Chinese delegation visited France and Austria from September 23 to 30for academic exchange on ancient coin.They had fruitful exchanges with coin experts of the two countries at the invitation of the France-China Culture and Art Exchange Centre and the Austria-China Friendship Association for Culture and Art Exchange.

  7. Socioeconomic environment, availability of sports facilities, and jogging, swimming and gym use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Cruz; Regidor, Enrique; Martínez, David; Elisa Calle, M; Domínguez, Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of the availability of sports facilities and socioeconomic environment with jogging, swimming and gym use in Spain. The indicators of availability of sports facilities were the number of swimming pools and the number of gyms per 10,000 population. The indicators of socioeconomic environment were average provincial income and provincial unemployment rate. The number of sports facilities was not related with either swimming or gym use and the indicators of socioeconomic environment were not associated with swimming in either sex, or with gym use in men. The findings of this study do not support the hypotheses proposed in previous investigations to explain the consistent relation between socioeconomic environment and lack of physical activity.

  8. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  9. The science of pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.

    1995-10-01

    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  10. PVL-positive MRSA in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krziwanek, K; Luger, C; Sammer, B; Stumvoll, S; Stammler, M; Metz-Gercek, S; Mittermayer, H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present, for the first time, an overview of the existing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in Austria and to compare the situation with that found in other countries. Between 2001 and 2006 we analysed 1150 MRSA isolates - from infections as well as from colonisation - for the presence of PVL genes. The most common multilocus sequence types of the 94 PVL-positive MRSA strains were ST8, ST152, ST30, ST80, and ST5; the ST22, and ST777 sequences were also detected. During 2005 and 2006, 3.7-7.7% of the isolates were PVL-positive. The age distribution of the patients revealed that nosocomial MRSA mainly occurs in elderly people, whereas PVL-positive MRSA mainly appears in younger people. We observed a relatively high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. Several MRSA clones containing the PVL genes are spreading throughout Austria, including two strains not yet widespread in Western Europe.

  11. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  12. Maternal forced swimming reduces cell proliferation in the postnatal dentate gyrus of mouse offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wasinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring’s neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring.

  13. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R; Arakaki, Aline M; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring.

  14. Influence of pre-school swimming on level of swimming abilities of early schol age children

    OpenAIRE

    Velová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on children swimming from their birth to early school age. The pivotal part of the paper is the comparison of swimming abilities between primary school children who have passed pre-school swimming training and those who have had no training at all. Theoretical framework of the paper is then focused on general swimming theory, characteristics of children's evolutionary stages within the context of swimming and definition of basic swimming skills.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF SWIMMING TRAINING (DEFINED IN RELATION TO ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD ON THE INCREASE OF SWIM SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 32 fourth grade students of some Belgrade highs schools, who had the physical education classes carried out at the city’s swimming pools, an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of the two different programmes of swimming training in different intensity zones, defi ned relative to the anaerobic threshold. The examinees were divided into two groups out of 15 i.e. 17 participants who were not (according to statistics signifi cantly different in terms of average time and heart frequency during the 400 m swimming test and heart frequency and time measured after 50 m in the moment of reaching the anaerobic threshold. The fi rst training model consisted of swimming at the intensity level within the zone below anaerobic threshold, while the second model involved occasional swimming at a higher intensity sometimes surpassing the anaerobic threshold. The experimentalprogramme with both sub-groups lasted 8 weeks with 3 training sessions per week, 2 ‘of which we’re identical for both experimental groups, with the third one differing regarding the swimming intensity, this in the fi rst group being still in the zone below, and in the second group occasionally in the zone above the anaerobic threshold. The amount of training and the duration were the same in both programmes. The aim of the research , was to evaluate and to compare the effects of the two training models, using as the basic criteria possible changes of average time and heart frequency during the 400 m swimming test and heart frequency and time measured after 50 m in the moment of reaching the anaerobic thereshold. On the basis of the statistical analysis of the obtained data, it is possible to conclude that in both experimental groups there were statistically signifi cant changes of average values concerning all the physiological variables. Although the difference in effi ciency of applied experimental programmes is not defi ned, we can claim that both of experimental

  16. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  17. [Levers in Primary Health Care - Identifying Strategic Success Factors for Improved Primary Care in Upper Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, J; Rebhandl, E; Reckwitz, N; Hockl, W

    2016-12-01

    Current and projected general practitioner (GP) and primary care in Austria shows structural and process inadequacies in the quality as well as assurance of healthcare supply. The aim is therefore to develop solution- and patient-oriented measures that take patient-related requirements and medical perspectives into account. Using an effect matrix, subjective expert and user priorities were ascertained, cause and effect relationships were examined, and an expanded circle of success for the optimization of GP and primary care in Upper Austria was developed. Through this, the relevant levers for target-oriented development and optimization of the complex system of GP and primary care in Upper Austria were identified; these are training to become general practitioners, entrepreneurs as well as management and coordination. It is necessary to further adapt the identified levers conceptually and operationally in a targeted approach. This is to be achieved by means of the primary health care (PHC) concept as well as management tools and information and communication technologies (ICT) associated with it. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Swimming training for asthma in children and adolescents aged 18 years and under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Sean; Foong, Yi Chao; Le, Hong Cecilia T; Noor, Danial; Wood-Baker, Richard; Walters, Julia A E

    2013-04-30

    Asthma is the most common chronic medical condition in children and a common reason for hospitalisation. Observational studies have suggested that swimming, in particular, is an ideal form of physical activity to improve fitness and decrease the burden of disease in asthma. To determine the effectiveness and safety of swimming training as an intervention for asthma in children and adolescents aged 18 years and under. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialised Register of trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE , EMBASE, CINAHL, in November 2011, and repeated the search of CENTRAL in July 2012. We also handsearched ongoing Clinical Trials Registers. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of children and adolescents comparing swimming training with usual care, a non-physical activity, or physical activity other than swimming. We used standard methods specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of Interventions. Two review authors used a standard template to independently assess trials for inclusion and extract data on study characteristics, risk of bias elements and outcomes. We contacted trial authors to request data if not published fully. When required, we calculated correlation coefficients from studies with full outcome data to impute standard deviation of changes from baseline. Eight studies involving 262 participants were included in the review. Participants had stable asthma, with severity ranging from mild to severe. All studies were randomised trials, three studies had high withdrawal rates. Participants were between five to 18 years of age, and in seven studies swimming training varied from 30 to 90 minutes, two to three times a week, over six to 12 weeks. The programme in one study gave 30 minutes training six times per week. The comparison was usual care in seven studies and golf in one study. Chlorination status of swimming pool was unknown for four studies. Two studies used non-chlorinated pools, one study used an

  19. Risk-adapted single or fractionated stereotactic high-precision radiotherapy in a pooled series of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. High local control and low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, Jan Patrick [MediClin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Meyer, Almuth [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Endocrinology, Erfurt (Germany); Pintea, Bogdan [University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Gerlach, Ruediger [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Neurosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Surber, Gunnar; Hamm, Klaus [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Radiosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Lammering, Guido [MediClin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University of Duesseldorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate a prospectively initiated two-center protocol of risk-adapted single-fraction (SRS) or fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with nonsecretory pituitary adenomas (NSA). A total of 73 NSA patients (39 men/34 women) with a median age of 62 years were prospectively included in a treatment protocol of SRS [planning target volume (PTV) < 4 ccm, > 2 mm to optic pathways = low risk] or SRT (PTV ≥ 4 ccm, ≤ 2 mm to optic pathways = high risk) in two Novalis registered centers. Mean tumor volume was 7.02 ccm (range 0.58-57.29 ccm). Based on the protocol guidelines, 5 patients were treated with SRS and 68 patients with SRT. Median follow-up (FU) reached 5 years with 5-year overall survival (OS) of 90.4 % (CI 80.2-95 %) and 5-year local control and progression-free survival rates of 100 % (CI 93.3-100 %) and 90.4 % (CI 80.2-95 %), respectively. A post-SRS/SRT new visual disorder occurred in 2 patients (2.7 %), a new oculomotor nerve palsy in one pre-irradiated patient, in 3 patients (4.1 %) a pre-existing visual disorder improved. New complete hypopituitarism occurred in 4 patients (13.8 %) and in 3 patients (25 %) with pre-existing partial hypopituitarism. Pituitary function in 26 % of patients retained normal. Patients with tumor shrinkage (65.75 %) had a significantly longer FU (p = 0.0093). Multivariate analysis confirmed correlation of new hypopituitarism with duration of FU (p = 0.008) and correlation of new hypopituitarism and tumor volume (p = 0.023). No significant influence factors for occurrence of visual disorders were found. Our SRS/SRT protocol proved to be safe and successful in terms of tumor control and protection of the visual system, especially for large tumors located close to optic pathways. (orig.) [German] Evaluation eines prospektiv angelegten Behandlungsprotokolls einer risikoadaptierten Radiochirurgie (SRS) oder stereotaktischen Radiotherapie (SRT) von Patienten mit hormoninaktiven Hypophysenadenomen

  20. Treatment of acromegaly patients with risk-adapted single or fractionated stereotactic high-precision radiotherapy. High local control and low toxicity in a pooled series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, Jan Patrick [Mediclin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Kinfe, Thomas; Pintea, Bogdan [University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Meyer, Almuth [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Endocrinology, Erfurt (Germany); Gerlach, Ruediger [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Neurosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Surber, Gunnar; Hamm, Klaus [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Radiosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Lammering, Guido [Mediclin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University of Duesseldorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2015-01-10

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate a prospectively initiated two-center protocol of risk-adapted stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with acromegaly. In total 35 patients (16 men/19 women, mean age 54 years) were prospectively included in a treatment protocol of SRS [planning target volume (PTV) < 4 ccm, > 2 mm to optic pathways = low risk] or SRT (PTV ≥ 4 ccm, ≤ 2 mm to optic pathways = high risk). The mean tumor volume was 3.71 ccm (range: 0.11-22.10 ccm). Based on the protocol guidelines, 21 patients were treated with SRS and 12 patients with SRT, 2 patients received both consecutively. The median follow-up (FU) reached 8 years with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 87.3 % [confidence interval (CI): 70.8-95.6 %] and 5-year local control rate of 97.1 % (CI: 83.4-99.8 %). Almost 80 % (28/35) presented tumor shrinkage during FU. Endocrinological cure was achieved in 23 % and IGF-1 normalization with reduced medication was achieved in 40 % of all patients. An endocrinological response was generally achieved within the first 3 years, but endocrinological cure can require more than 8 years. A new adrenocorticotropic hypopituitarism occurred in 13 patients (46.4 %). A new visual field disorder and a new oculomotor palsy occurred in 1 patient, respectively. Patients with occurrence of visual/neurological impairments had a longer FU (p = 0.049). Our SRS/SRT protocol proved to be safe and successful in terms of tumor control and protection of the visual system. The timing and rate of endocrine improvements are difficult to predict. One has to accept an unavoidable rate of additional adrenocorticotropic hypopituitarism in the long term. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung dieser Arbeit ist die Evaluation eines prospektiv angelegten Behandlungsprotokolls einer risikoadaptierten stereotaktischen Radiochirurgie (SRS) oder stereotaktischen Radiotherapie (SRT) von Patienten mit Akromegalie aus 2 Zentren. Insgesamt 35 Patienten (16