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Sample records for adapted swimming pool reactor austria

  1. Backfitting swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based on measurements in a critical assembly, and experiments to disclose fuel element surface temperatures in case of accidents like stopping of primary coolant flow during full power operation, have shown that the power of the swimming pool type research reactor FRG-2 (15 MW, operating since 1967) might be raised to 21 MW within the present rules of science and technology, without major alterations of the pool buildings and the cooling systems. A backfitting program is carried through to adjust the reactor control systems of FRG-2 and FRG-1 (5 MW, housed in the same reactor hall) to the present safety rules and recommendations, to ensure FRG-2 operation at 21 MW for the next decade. (author)

  2. Core neutronics of a swimming pool research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial cores of the 5 MW swimming pool research reactor of the Nuclear Research Centre, Tehran have been analyzed using the computer codes METHUSELAH and EQUIPOISE. The effective multiplication factor, critical mass, moderator temperature and void coefficients of the core have been calculated and compared with vendor's values. Calculated values agree reasonably well with the vendor's results. (author)

  3. Justify of implementation of a hot water layer system in swimming pool research reactor IEA-R1m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPEN/CNEN-SP has a swimming pool research reactor (IEA-R1m) in operation since 1957 at 2 MW. In 1998, after some modifications, its nominal power increased to 5 MW. Among these modifications some adaptations had to be accomplished in the radiological protection and operational procedure. The present work aim to study the need of implementation of a hot water layer in order to reduce the dose in the workers in the vicinity of the reactor swimming pool. Applying the principles of radioprotection optimization, it was concluded that the decision of the construction of one hot water layer system in the reactor swimming pool, is not necessary. (author)

  4. Remote maintenance considerations for swimming pool tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swimming Pool Tokamak Reactor (SPTR) is one of the candidate devices which are expected to demonstrate physical and engineering feasibility for fusion power reactors. In SPTR, water shield is adopted instead of solid shield structures. Among the advantages of SPTR are, from viewpoint of remote maintenance, small handling weight and high space availability between TF coils and a vacuum vessel. On the other hand, high dose rate during reactor repair and adverse effects on remote maintenance equipment by the shielding water might be the disadvantage of SPTR, where it is assumed that the shielding water is drained during reactor repair. Since the design of SPTR is still at the preliminary stage, for remote maintenance, much effort has been directed to clarification of design conditions such as environment and handling weight. As for the remote maintenance system concepts, studies have been focussed on those for a vacuum vessel and its internal structure (blanket, divertor and protection walls) expected to be repaired more frequently. The vacuum vessel assembly is divided into 21 sectors and number of TF coils is 14. A pair of TF coils are connected with each other by antitorque beams on the whole side surface. Vacuum vessel cassettes and associated blanket, divertor and protection walls are replaced through seven windows between TF coils pairs. Therefore each vacuum vessel cassette is required moving mechanisms in toroidal and radial directions. Options for slide mechanisms are wheels, balls, rollers and water bearings. Options for driving the cassette are self-driving by hydraulic motors and external driving by rack-pinion, wires or specific vehicles. As a result of studies, the moving mechanism with wheels and hydraulic motors has been selected for the reference design, and the system with water bearings and rack-pinion as an alternative. Furthermore typical concepts have been obtained for remote maintenance equipment such as wall-mounted manipulators, tools for

  5. An analysis of postulated accident for 49-2 Swimming Pool Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal hydrodynamic code RETRAN-02 is used for safety analysis of Swimming Pool Reactor. Accident of partial-loss of flow, loss of offsite electric power and unexpected reactivity insertion are analysed and discussed. These results will be helpful for operation safety of the reactor

  6. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin infection. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium marinum . ... A swimming pool granuloma occurs when water containing Mycobacterium marinum bacteria enters a break in the skin. Signs of ...

  7. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  8. Production and release of 14C from a swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual production rate of 14C in the Apsara swimming pool reactor works out to be about 2.94 mCi. The concentration distribution of 14C in different compartments viz. pool water, reactor hall air and ion-exchange resin ranged from 200 to 440 pCi/l, 0.09 to 0.38 pCi/l, an average concentration of 8.16 pCi/g respectively. The mean residence time of 14C in pool water is evaluated to be about 7 days taking into account various sinks. The study revealed atmospheric exchange at the air-water interface as the dominant process responsible for the loss of 14C from the pool water. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Determination of 16N and 19O activities in loop water of swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of activities for 16N and 19O nuclei in the loop water of swimming pool reactor at China Institute of Atomic Energy were carried out. In order to verify the experiment results, a calculation for same purpose was also performed. The results show their coincidence is well in uncertainty range. The evaluated recommendation data for 18O(n, γ)19O reaction cross sections are also given in the paper. (authors)

  10. Probabilistic analysis of some safety aspects of a swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic risk analysis of some safety aspects without the investigation of radioactivity release has been performed for the 10 MW (thermal) swimming-pool research reactor SAPHIR. Our presentation is focused on the 7 internal initiating events found to be relevant with respect to accident sequences that could result with core melt due to loss of coolant or overcriticality. The results are given by the core melt frequencies for the investigated accident sequences. It could be demonstrated by our investigation that the core melt hazard of the reactor is extremely low. (author)

  11. Effect of reactivity insertion rate on peak power and temperatures in swimming pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential to study the reactor behavior under different accidental conditions and take proper measures for its safe operation. We have studied the effect of reactivity insertion, with and without scram conditions, on peak power and temperatures of fuel, cladding and coolant in typical swimming pool type research reactor. The reactivity ranging from 1 $ to 2 $ and insertion times from 0.25 to 1 second have been considered. The computer code PARET has been used and results are presented in this article. (author)

  12. Conceptual design of swimming pool type tokamak power reactor (SPTR-P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary design study of a tokamak power reactor utilizing the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle based on a swimming pool type reactor (SPTR) concept is presented. Its primary aim is to investigate the characteristics of the swimming-pool concept in which water replaces much of the steel normally required for shielding. The major design features are: steady state operation, RF wave for plasma heating and current drive, solid tritium breeder material (Li2O), modified austenitic stainless steel as first wall and blanket structural material, pumped limiter for ash exhaust, unified assembling of blanket and vacuum vessel and pressurized water cooling. The huge and heavy solid shield structure protecting superconducting magnets which brings about great difficulties in repair and maintenance is eliminated by submerging the reactor in a water pool. The water plays a role of shielding. In addition the water shield concept reduces radioactive waste disposal and to ease radiation streaming shielding. Key design parameters are: net electric power of 1000 MW, fusion power of 3200 MW, neutron wall loading of 3.3 MW/m2, major radius of 6.9 m, plasma radius of 2.0 m, plasma elongation of 1.6, plasma current of 16 MA, total beta of 7 %, toroidal field on axis of 5.2 T. (author)

  13. Application of neutron noise analysis to a swimming pool research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a programme of establishing practical applications of neutron noise techniques to a swimming pool research reactor and deals with two different items: (1) The identification of local boiling caused e.g. by a partial blockage of the coolant flow in a fuel element. Local boiling can easily lead to a burn-out situation. The onset of boiling can be detected by neutron noise analysis and a boiling detection system is presently under development. (2) The measurement of the time evolution of the reactivity induced by xenon after reactor shut-down by an on-line reactivity meter based on neutron noise analysis. From the data, the prompt neutron decay constant at delayed critical, the equilibrium xenon reactivity worth, and an estimate of the average steady-state power flux in the core before reactor shut-down were obtained. (author)

  14. Radiation shielding considerations for the repair and maintenance of a swimming pool-type tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation shielding relevant to the repair and maintenance of a swimming pool-type tokamak reactor is considered. The dose rate during the reactor operation can be made low enough for personnel access into the reactor room if a 2m thick water layer is installed above the magnet cryostat. The dose rate 24 h after shutdown is such that the human access is allowed above the magnet cryostat. Sufficient water layer thickness is provided in the inboard space for the operation of automatic welder/cutter while retaining the magnet shielding capability. Some forced cooling is required for the decay heat removal in the first wall. The penetration shield thickness around the neutral beam injector port is estimated to be barely sufficient in terms of the magnet radiation damage. (orig.)

  15. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  16. Temperature coefficient of reactivity of a typical swimming pool type research reactor using low enriched uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature coefficients of reactivity of a swimming pool type material test research reactor have been calculated using standard computer codes. It is observed that the core reactivity loss due to increase in water temperature and void formation is sensitive to control rod position at criticality. The reactivity decreases more rapidly when the core volume is small. (author)

  17. Flow of kinetic parameters in a typical swimming pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations were performed to estimate the variation in kinetic parameters (delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron generation time) in different core configurations of a typical swimming pool type research reactor. Pakistan research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) was employed for this study. The effect due to burnup of the core was also studied. Calculations were performed with the help of computer codes WIMSD/4 and CITATION. Precursors yield was modified according to the neutron flux averaging only. This is the simple way to calculate the precursor yield for a particular core. The kinetic parameters are different for different core configurations. The βeff decreases with 1.33 x 10-6/% burnup whereas prompt neutron generation time increases with 6.42 x 10-8 s/% burnup. The results were compared with safety analysis report and with published values and were found in good agreement. This study provides the confidence to understand the change in the kinetic parameters of research reactors with core change and also with burnup of the core

  18. Reactor physics calculations and their experimental validation for conversion and upgrading of a typical swimming pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed neutronic analysis of a typical swimming pool type research reactor, Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), was carried out for conversion of its core from 93% highly enriched uranium to 20% low enriched uranium fuel with power upgrading from 5 to 10 MW. Standard computer codes WIMS-D/4 and CITATION were employed to calculate core excess reactivity, power defect, reactivity effect of xenon and samarium, reactivity worth of fuel element, worth of control rods, shutdown margin, reactivity feedback coefficients, neutron flux and power peaking factors. A series of low and high power tests were performed on the newly converted core to determine its performance. A comparison between the calculated and measured results is presented in this article. The agreement is generally good

  19. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers' Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  20. Parametric evaluation of mixed (low and high enriched) fuel core for a swimming pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to evaluate the performance of a swimming pool type research reactor core comprised of mixed (low and high enriched) uranium fuel. The study includes the calculations of core reactivity, worth of control rods and core criticality at the Beginning Of Life (BOL) of the core and for two operating conditions Cold Zero Power (CZP) and Hot Full Power (HFP). Further, to ensure safe and stable operation of the core from nuclear design point of view, average power densities in the fuel region, power peaking factors, axial power distribution in the hot channel and reactivity feed back coefficients have also been calculated. Two group fluxes have also been determined at different irradiation locations. All these calculations have been carried out employing reactor lattice code WIMS-D14 and reactor analysis code CITATION The calculated results show reasonably good agreement with the quoted operational data of the previous LEU cores. (Author)

  1. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at a pneumatic rabbit station of a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of multiple foil activation was used to measure the neutron energy spectrum, experimentally, at a rabbit station of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), which is a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor. The computer codes MSITER and SANDBP were used to adjust the spectrum. The pre-information required by the adjustment codes was obtained by modelling the core and its surroundings in three-dimensions by using the one dimensional transport theory code WIMS-D/4 and the multidimensional finite difference diffusion theory code CITATION. The input spectrum covariance information required by MSITER code was also calculated from the CITATION output. A comparison between calculated and adjusted spectra shows a good agreement

  2. Evaluation of LOCA in a swimming-pool type reactor using the 3D-AIRLOCA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3D-AIRLOCA code was used to calculate core temperature evolution curves in the wake of a full LOCA in a swimming pool type reactor, resulting in complete core exposure and dryout within about 1000 sec of the initiating event. The results show that fuel integrity loss thresholds (450 C for softening and 650 C for melting) are reached and exceeded over large fractions of the core at powr levels as low as 2 MW. At 4.5 MW, the softening threshold is reached even when the accident occurs up to 12 hours after reactor shutdown for continuous operation, and up to 2 hrs after shutdown for intermittent (6 hrs/day, 4 days a week) operation. The situation is even more severe in blockage cases, when the air flow through the core is blocked by residual water at the grid plate level. It is concluded that substantial fission product releases are quite likely in this class of accidents. (orig.)

  3. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  4. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  5. Maintenance operation by divers on a swimming-pool type reactor (Osiris, CEN Saclay). Technical and medical prevention: an example of multidisciplinary ergonomic step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance works in a swimming-pool reactor was performed by a team of divers. A multidisciplinary ergonomic study had previously defined the working procedure. The ergonomic approach is analysed. The divers' working techniques are described. After work, medical tests showed that previsions were verified and proved the methods as safe. This technique by divers' interventions should open new possibilities in nuclear industry

  6. Apparatus for irradiating in a magnetic field in a swimming pool type reactor, at high or low temperatures (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for irradiation in a swimming-pool with a magnetic field of 5000 oersteds is described. An aluminium coil with a very high current density is water cooled. A relatively great Volume can be used in the coil center, and two furnaces can be introduced, or a liquid nitrogen cryostat. (author)

  7. Irradiations in swimming-pool type reactors from room temperature up to 2000 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiations which have been, and are being carried out in the Melusine and Siloe reactors in connection with pure or applied research projects, are effected in widely varying conditions; amongst these, for example, the temperature may vary from -250 deg C to +2000 deg C The eight devices presented are designed for irradiations effected at temperatures of from room temperature up to 2000 deg C. 1. Irradiation device for irradiation at normal temperatures 2. The 'PEF' device 3. The 'CHOUCA' device, 150 to 900 deg C 4. The 'CYRANO' device for EL 4 conditions 5. 'HT' capsules, 800-1000 deg C 6. The 'HEBE' furnace 1400 deg C 7. The 'PEC' device, 1400 deg C 8. The 'HF' furnace 2000 deg C. (authors)

  8. Preliminary steps in partial decommissioning of a swimming pool type reactor Apsara: a health physics experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Apsara reactor after 50 years of extensive use in production of radio-isotopes, neutron radiography, neutron beam research, shielding experiments etc., is undergoing a partial decommissioning to facilitate refurbishment and up gradation to 2 MWth power using lower enriched Uranium fuel. Partial decommissioning involves defueling and removal of core components as a first step. Radiological safety in defueling is discussed in this paper. Defueling is carried out from top of pile where the radiation level was < 0.10 mR/h, under the strict stipulation that no fuel is to be lifted above water surface during transfer and hence no dose is consumed for this job. Collective dose consumed in the job was only in the SFSB area in Dhruva reactor and was 8.20 person mSv (59% of budgeted dose). This was possible by thorough mock up at Dhruva, SFSB for irradiated fuel handling, satisfying ALARA and refining the procedure. Also radiation mapping of core components, grid plate before and after removal of dry and wet guide tubes were carried out. It was observed that the top portion of grid plate showed a maximum radiation level which was 2-3 times that at bottom portion. The positions around the dry guide tubes G 1 and G 7 showed high radiation levels of 30 R/h. On removing them, the radiation levels reduced to 0.3 -0.5 R/h in all positions. This acted as an input for planning to cut and remove various core components, as also for segregation of high active/low active/inactive components from waste disposal point of view. For example the dry guide tubes G 1 and G 7 was cut and disposed as active waste with upper portion as Cat I and lower portion (was in core region) as Cat II radioactive waste

  9. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    of the strategies which can be used to achieve microbiological safe water with low levels of DBPs to ensure healthy environment for bathers. There are different approaches to achieve healthy environment in public swimming pools which in this thesis are divided into three strategies: alternatives to chlorination......, removal of precursors and DBPs, and inhibition of the DBP formation. None of the alternative disinfection agents which are used for private swimming pools are applicable for public swimming pools. Thus chlorine is the most likely future disinfectant in public swimming pools. The strategy with removal...... of precursors and DBPs includes several methods: pre-swim showering, filtration, ozonation, activated carbon, stripping, and UV treatment. In general, decreasing the load of precursors by requiring pre-swim showering would decrease the formation of DBPs. However, addition of precursors cannot be completely...

  10. Next tokamak design. Swimming pool type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to relieve the difficulties of repair and maintenance and to make the reactor size compact, a concept of swimming pool type reactor which is installed in a waterpool has been proposed. A design study of the concept as the Next Tokamak has been carried out with the following major parameters. The reactor has a double null poloidal divertor and blanket with tritium breeding ratio of >1.0, fusion power 420 MW, major radius 5.3 m, plasma radius 1.1 m, Bt on axis 5.2 T, plasma current 3.9 MA. The design study covers the reactor overall systems including reactor structure, reactor cooling system, repair and maintenance, reactor building, etc. As the result of this study the following conclusions were reached. The advantages over a conventional tokamak reactor are as follows: (1) The size of TF coil can be considerably reduced while retaining sufficient space for repair and maintenance because a solid shield is eliminated. (2) Since the distances between plasma and PF coils become small, the required capacity of electric power supply is reduced. (3) Technologies for the repair and maintenance are simplified and disassembling and reassembling of vacuum vessel can be done with realistic and credible remote handling technique. (4) The problem caused by radiation streaming can be considerably eased. (5) Radioactive waste disposal is reduced considerably because a solid shield is eliminated. (6) Because a vacuum vessel may be easily replaced in this concept, it will have a convenient flexibility for an experimental reactor. (7) Advantages of this concept can be also applied to a power reactor. Recently we started a new design of SPTR with slightly modified plasma parameters aiming for smaller-size reactor. In this paper the new design will be discussed briefly. (author)

  11. Airways disorders and the swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the possible detrimental effects of chlorine derivatives in indoor swimming pool environments. Indeed, a controversy has arisen regarding the possibility that chlorine commonly used worldwide as a disinfectant favors the development of asthma and allergic diseases. The effects of swimming in indoor chlorinated pools on the airways in recreational and elite swimmers are presented. Recent studies on the influence of swimming on airway inflammation and remodeling in competitive swimmers, and the phenotypic characteristics of asthma in this population are reviewed. Preventative measures that could potentially reduce the untoward effects of pool environment on airways of swimmers are discussed. PMID:23830132

  12. The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The study of chemistry involved in the maintenance of a swimming pool provides a lot of chemical education to the students, including the demonstration of the importance of pH in water chemistry. The various chemical aspects hidden in the maintenance of the pool are being described.

  13. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming. PMID:17869580

  14. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  15. [Infections transmitted in swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suzani, C; Hazeghi, P

    1976-01-01

    Public swimmingpools can be the source of infections due to micro-organism such as mycobacterium balnei, adeno and enteroviruses, the virus of plantar warts and molluscum contagiosum, the TRIC-Agent of swimmingpool-conjonctivitis and pathogenic fungi. The transmission of trichomonas vaginalis is considered unlikely-Water of pools, supposed to present satisfactory qualities by standard controls, was found to contain pathogenic staphylococci and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective preventive measures include the continuous recording of the redox-potential of the water, limiting the number of visitors to pool design specifications, better desinfection of sanitary installations, regular maintenance of technical equipment including frequent backwashing of filters and exclusion of visitors with communicable disease.

  16. Swimming Pools, Swimming pools, licensed - name, address, contact, volume, Published in 2006, Iowa Dept. of Public Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Swimming pools, licensed - name,...

  17. The Cinema of the Swimming Pool

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Christopher; Hirsch, Pam

    2014-01-01

    The swimming pool frequently appears in film not merely as a setting but as a dynamic site where social, political, cultural and aesthetic forces converge. What is it about this space that has so fascinated filmmakers and what kinds of cinematic investigations does it encourage? This collection features essays by an eclectic, international range of film researchers. Amongst the works analysed are classics such as The Cameraman (1928), The Philadelphia Story (1940) and La Piscine (1969); cult ...

  18. Alternative heating of a municipal swimming pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    1982-03-01

    Swimming pools require great amounts of energy at low temperature levels. Therefore the application of alternative heating systems is very suitable. Four different systems are taken into account: compression heat pump, absorption heat pump, motor driven heat pump with thermal recovery, and a combined system. A short thermodynamic analysis is carried out in order to evaluate operating savings. Initial cost estimates demonstrate the advantages of each proposed solution over the conventional system.

  19. Disinfection byproducts in swimming pool: occurrences, implications and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Alhooshani, Khalid; Karanfil, Tanju

    2014-04-15

    Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Many swimming pools apply chlorine or bromine based disinfectants to prevent microbial growth. The chlorinated swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than a typical drinking water distribution system. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water and air as a consequence of continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to those DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer, while such exposures can have elevated risks to human health. To date, over 70 peer-reviewed publications have reported various aspects of swimming pool, including types and quantities of DBPs, organic loads from bathers, factors affecting DBPs formation in swimming pool, human exposure and their potential risks. This paper aims to review the state of research on swimming pool including with the focus of DBPs in swimming pools, understand their types and variability, possible health effects and analyze the factors responsible for the formation of various DBPs in a swimming pool. The study identifies the current challenges and future research needs to minimize DBPs formation in a swimming pool and their consequent negative effects to bathers and trainers.

  20. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  1. Neutronics design of the next tokamak. (Swimming pool type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A swimming pool type tokamak reactor (SPTR) has been proposed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute as a candidate for the next generation tokamak reactor after the JT-60. The concept of the SPTR evolved from an incentive to relieve the difficulties of repair and maintenance procedures of a tokamak reactor. After about two years of the reactor design studies, several advantages of the SPTR over the conventional tokamak reactors such as the ease of penetration shielding, reduction in solid radwaste have been shown. On the other hand, some drawbacks and uncertainties of the SPTR have also been pointed out but so far no serious defect negating the concept has been found. This paper describes the neutronics aspect of the SPTR based mostly on the result of one dimensional calculations. At first, the radiation shielding capability of water is compared with those of other candidate materials used in the blanket and shield of fusion reactors. Based on the result of the comparison and other requirements such as tritium breeding, thermal mechanical design, repair and maintenance procedures, the material arrangements of the blanket and shield are determined. The result of the blanket neutronics calculations, the radiation shielding calculations for the superconducting magnets, shutdown dose calculations are given together with major penetration shielding considerations. (author)

  2. Swimming pool drownings and near-drownings among California preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, A A; Trent, R B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a significant but poorly understood public health problem, the authors compiled data on swimming pool drownings and near-drownings requiring hospitalization for California children ages 1 to 4. METHODS: Data from death certificates were used to analyze swimming pool drownings, and hospital discharge data were used to analyze near-drownings. RESULTS: Among California preschoolers in 1993, pool immersion incidents were the leading cause of injury death and the eighth lead...

  3. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m2/day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m2/day. • More than 500 Bq/m2/day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  4. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  5. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Font-Ribera, Laia

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks. PMID:23247135

  6. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  7. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Laia Font-Ribera

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemio...

  8. Device and process for recovery and disposal of radioactive wastes underwater in a swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device comprises a suction head and a filter fixed to a pole, for safe removing of loose parts (even brittle ones like nuclear fuel) in the core or on the bottom of the swimming pool during reactor shut down for maintenance

  9. Rotating and retractable lighting device for a swimming pool containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lighting device is retractable under the action of appliances working in the swimming pool or thanks to various impacts. Each arm is assembled pivoting around a vertical axis. Return means as spring allow to bring back in a balanced angular position the arm carrying a headlight in a determined angular position after the arm and the headlight having been spread from this position in an intentional or fortuitous way. Application to lighting devices for nuclear reactor swimming pools. (Author). 4 figs., 3 refs

  10. Inorganic Chemical Composition of Swimming Pools in Amman-Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bety Saqarat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring was carried out during summer 2011 in three types of swimming pools in Amman-Jordan. Thirty six water samples, collected from three users type of swimming pools (adults, family and infants, were examined for its major ionic composition (HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4=, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+ and PO4+4 in addition to its BOD and COD content. All of the examined samples from the swimming pools water were acceptable according to the local and WHO standards. The type and number of users as well as the maintenance of the swimming pool water influenced the water quality. The results showed that there was a noticeable increase in NO3, PO4 and Cl than other ions. All of the examined samples from the swimming pools water were acceptable according to the local and WHO standards and although the water of the infant’s users changed frequently, it showed the highest concentration of most of the parameters and Adults’ pool showed the lowest.

  11. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  12. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  13. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  14. Decontamination of outdoor school swimming pools in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake, many school swimming pools in Fukushima have suspended water discharge, due to concerns that pool water which contains radioactive fallout is discharged into a river or waterway for agricultural use. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted researches and examinations on the existing absorbent method and the flocculation method as ways for decontaminating pool water. By reviewing and improving these methods through decontamination demonstrations at eight pools in Fukushima, a practical decontamination method for outdoor pools has been established. This report summarizes the methods and results of the decontamination demonstrations carried out at the schools. Also, the surface density of fallout estimated at one of the pools is also presented and discussed in connection with the overall collection ratio of radiocesium at the pool. (author)

  15. Acanthamoeba species in Swimming Pools of Cairo, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Herrawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in swimming pools in Egypt using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Water samples were collected from 10 different swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar for the detection of Acanthamoeba isolates that were confirmed by PCR amplification using genus specific primers. The molecularly confirmed Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically identified to the species level.Members of genus Acanthamoeba were detected in 49.2% of the examined swimming-pool water samples. Morphologically, six Acanthamoeba species were isolated from the examined swimming pool water namely A. polyphaga, A.castellanii, A. rhysodes, A. mauritaniensis, A. royreba and A. triangularis. All the identified species of Acanthamoeba were molecularly confirmed to be related to the genus Acanthamoeba.The isolated species of Acanthamoeba could provoke variable degrees of infections to the swimmers. The culture method is cheaper and easier than PCR techniques that are faster for the detection of free-living amoebae.

  16. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-06-01

    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  17. Comprehensive Identification of Chemical DBPs from Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pools have been recently recognized as important routes of exposure to potentially harmful chemicals. Previous epidemiologic research has shown increased incidence of asthma and other respiratory effects for people who have significant indoor swimming pool exposures, an...

  18. Indoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory and dermal health in schoolchildren: HITEA Catalonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, L.; Villanueva, C.M.; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Kogevinas, M.; Zock, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health benefits of swimming in pools may outweigh adverse health outcomes in children, but evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce or inconclusive for different health outcomes. We evaluated the association between indoor swimming pool attendance during childhood and respiratory

  19. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. Methods: Respiratory health and pool attenda

  20. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Fuertes, E.; Krop, E.J.M.; Spithoven, J.; Tromp, P.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. METHODS Respiratory health and pool attendanc

  1. Analysis of SBO Accident and Natural Circulation of 49-2 Swimming Pool Reactor%49-2游泳池式反应堆全场断电事故与自然循环能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴园园; 刘天才; 孙微

    2012-01-01

    在全场断电事故下,采用RELAP5/MOD3.3程序对49-2游泳池式反应堆系统热工水力参数瞬态特性进行计算分析,验证反应堆利用自然循环和自身负反应性对事故的缓解能力,并简要讨论了堆芯通道和主泵惰转对事故后果及进程的影响.计算结果表明,在49-2反应堆发生全场断电事故且紧急停堆系统失效后,反应堆可依靠自身的负反应性使反应堆处于停堆状态,并能形成稳定的自然循环,导出堆芯余热,验证了49-2反应堆在全场断电超设计基准事故中是安全的.%The transient thermal hydraulic characteristics of 49-2 Swimming Pool Reactor (SPR) were analyzed by RELAP5/MOD3. 3 code to verify the capability of natural circulation and minus reactivity feedback for accident mitigation under the condition of station blackout (SBO). Then, the effects on accident consequence and sequence for core channels and primary pumps were briefly discussed. The calculation results show that the reactor can be shutdown by the effect of minus reactivity feedback, and the residual heat can be removed through the stable natural circulation. Therefore, it demonstrates that the 49-2 SPR is safe during the accident of SBO.

  2. ENERGY SAVING AT OPERATION OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ivin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy saving is a major problem in modern power engineering and various energy-consuming devices. They include outdoor swimming pools. In order to maintain them in working condition, especially in winter period, it takes significant amount of thermal energy. Task of heat loss substantial decrease in open swimming pools is considered in the article (on DNURT example. Methodology. The method of determining the mass and heat loss on the basis of criteria equations of heat and mass transfer theory is used. Findings. Calculations of the actual DNURT pool heat loss for different seasons, as for natural convection both for air forced motion above the free water surface are performed. It is shown that for the adiabatic evaporation conditions of water from the pool in winter during blow-off with wind the heat loss can be up to 2 kW/m2 on surface. To reduce these losses it is offered to cover water surface in a pool with a special material with low thermal conductivity on the basis of porous polyethylene during the time when the pool is not used for other purposes. It is shown that the implementation of these standards will reduce the actual heat loss, at least 5-6 times. Originality. The solution of important environmental and energy problem thanks to reducing heat losses by the pool in different times of a year and correspondingly lower emissions of power generating enterprises. Practical value. It is shown that the coating surface of the pool with poorly heat-conducting and easy to install coating will let, at a minimum, to reduce the actual heat loss on 5-6 times and reduce the emissions of power plants generating energy for pool heating.

  3. Study of Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nanbakhsh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are found in different environments with variable distribution patterns depending on various factors. The aim of this study was determination of fungal contaminants in public swimming pools in Uromia, Iran. The fungal contaminations of four indoor swimming pools were studied by using membrane filtration and swab sampling method. Samples were collected by a manual plastic pump, in a 200 ml sterilized bottle. All samples were collected within 2 hours and then transferred to the laboratory. A total of 384 samples including water and environmental surfaces were collected and tested for the presence of fungi in different seasons within one year. In addition to the above information, some physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, residual chlorine, pH, turbidity of water and the number of swimmers were studied. Findings indicated that, the average temperature, pH, residual chlorine and turbidity of water in the swimming pools within one year were: 29.9°C, 8.1, 0.6 ppm and 0.8 NTU respectively. The most common fungi recovered were as follows: Asepergillus Spp. 56.25%, Candida spp. 22.9%, Rhizopus spp. 4.16 %, other filamentous fungi 16.6% and other yeast species 2.8%. The fungi such as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Philophora and Trichophyton mentagrophytis were isolated from dressing room, bathing room and other places out of pools. According to these results and previous studies on pools, it has been indicated that contamination by fungi in the pools is not significant in water and environment. Presence of dermatophytic fungus from dressing room is probably due to human contact.

  4. Comparison of heat recovery systems in public indoor swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M. [Istituto di Ingeneria Gestionale, Universita di Padova (Italy); Longo, G.A. [Istituto di Fisica Tecnica, Universita di Padova (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    The heating of swimming pools can be expensive in terms of energy costs and energy-saving measures which are much more effective than the simple recovery of the exhausted air are recommended. A new open-cycle absorption system is presented here, operating by chemical dehumidification on the exhausted air. It allows important energy savings of the same order as the motor-driven heat pump systems, although its technology is in principle simpler and cheaper. (Author)

  5. Semi-Automatic Detection of Swimming Pools from Aerial High-Resolution Images and LIDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Rodríguez-Cuenca; Maria C. Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Bodies of water, particularly swimming pools, are land covers of high interest. Their maintenance involves energy costs that authorities must take into consideration. In addition, swimming pools are important water sources for firefighting. However, they also provide a habitat for mosquitoes to breed, potentially posing a serious health threat of mosquito-borne disease. This paper presents a novel semi-automatic method of detecting swimming pools in urban environments from aerial images and L...

  6. An Investigation on Physicochemical and Microbial Water Quality of Swimming Pools in Yazd

    OpenAIRE

    M Dehvari; M Amrollahi; V Dad; MH Ehrampoush; MT Ghaneian; B Jamshidi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Disrespect of health regulations and proper disinfection of water and swimming pools is effective in incidence of health problems and transfer of infectious diseases to swimmers. The aim of this research was to investigate water of swimming pools in Yazd city and compare the results with national standards. Methods: In this study, 11 active covered swimming pools of Yazd city were sampled as census. Parameters of temperature, pH, amount of free and Combined chlorine residual, tu...

  7. Blanket and vacuum vessel design of the next tokamak. (Swimming pool type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural design study of a reactor module for a swimming pool type reactor (SPTR) was conducted. Since pool water plays the role of radiation shielding in the SPTR, the module does not have a solid shield. It consists of tritium breeding blankets, divertor collector plates and a vacuum vessel. The object of this study is to show the reactor module design which has a simple structure and a sufficient tritium breeding ratio. A large coverage of the plasma chamber surface with tritium breeding blanket is essential in order to obtain a high tritium breeding ratio. A breeding blanket is also placed behind the divertor collector plate, i.e. in the upper and lower region, as well as in the outboard and inboard regions of the module. A concept in which the first wall is an integral part of the blanket is employed to minimize the thickness of structural and cooling material brazed in front of the breeding material (Li2O) and to enhance the tritium breeding capability. In order to simplify the module structure the vacuum vessel and breeding blanket is also integrated in the inboard region. One of the features inherent in the swimming pool type reactor is an additional external force on the vacuum vessel, namely hydraulic pressure. A detailed structural analysis of the vacuum vessel is performed. Divertor collector plates are assemblies of co-axial tubes. They minimize the electromagnetic force on the plate induced by the plasma disruption. A thermal and structural analysis and life time estimation of the first wall and divertor collector plates are performed. (author)

  8. Is there a need for state health department sanitary codes for public hydrotherapy and swimming pools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zura, R D; Gröschel, D H; Becker, D G; Hwang, J C; Edlich, R F

    1990-01-01

    The Board of Health of the Commonwealth of Virginia has an outdated sanitary code for its public hydrotherapy and swimming pools. The code is restricted to pools in hotels and other lodging places. The absence of modern regulations for public hydrotherapy and swimming pools has permitted serious deficiencies in pool maintenance, which are highlighted in this report. The most notable of these deficiencies was the presence of high levels of bacterial contamination that could predispose to infect in the water of one public hot tub. The results of this study indicate that the Virginia Board of Health sanitary code for pool water must be revised immediately and should include all public hydrotherapy and swimming pools. Other states and communities may want to assess their codes for swimming pools and hydrotherapy tubs to avoid deficiencies that could be detrimental to public health. PMID:2335553

  9. Quantification of continual anthropogenic pollutants released in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuten, M G A; Peters, M C F M; Daanen, H A M; de Kreuk, M K; Rietveld, L C; van Dijk, J C

    2014-04-15

    Disinfection in swimming pools is often performed by chlorination, However, anthropogenic pollutants from swimmers will react with chlorine and form disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs are unwanted from a health point of view, because some are irritating, while others might be carcinogenic. The reduction of anthropogenic pollutants will lead to a reduction in DBPs. This paper investigates the continual release of anthropogenic pollutants by means of controlled sweat experiments in a pool tank during laboratory time-series experiments (LTS experiments) and also during on-site experiments (OS experiments) in a swimming pool. The sweat released during the OS and LTS experiments was very similar. The sweat rate found was 0.1-0.2 L/m(2)/h at water temperatures below 29 °C and increased linearly with increasing water temperatures to 0.8 L/m(2)/h at 35 °C. The continual anthropogenic pollutant release (CAPR) not only consisted of sweat, particles (mainly skin fragments and hair) and micro-organisms, but also sebum (skin lipids) has to be considered. The release of most components can be explained by the composition of sweat. The average release during 30 min of exercise is 250 mg/bather non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC), 77.3 mg/bather total nitrogen (TN), 37.1 mg/bather urea and 10.1 mg/bather ammonium. The release of NPOC cannot be explained by the composition of sweat and is most probably a result of sebum release. The average release of other components was 1.31 × 10(9) # particles/bather (2-50 μm), 5.2 μg/bather intracellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) and 9.3 × 10(6) intact cell count/bather (iCC). The pool water temperature was the main parameter to restrain the CAPR. This study showed that a significant amount of the total anthropogenic pollutants release is due to unhygienic behaviour of bathers. PMID:24530546

  10. Bacteriological Assessment of Water Quality of Public Swimming Pools in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Pesewu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for life and in most parts of the world including Ghana it is used for various activities such as drinking, bathing and recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to assess the bacteriological quality of swimming pools’ water in the Accra Metropolis. Five swimming pools were selected randomly and a research team visited the pools to collect water samples and at the same time administer short questionnaires about the characteristics of the pools. The average number of swimmers, swimming bathing loads, average age group of pool users, methods of disinfection, type of chlorine used, recycling, and treatment of the water before and after use were investigated. During the visit, water samples were collected for total coliform, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus counts using the Membrane Filtration (MF method and cultured on chromogenic media. Most (60% of the selected swimming pools had a bathing load≤20 per day. The operators of the pools disinfect their pools’ water with chorine but majority (60% of the pool operators chlorinated their pools manually with powdered chlorine. The 20 water samples investigated show that 48% of swimming pools water was contaminated with S. aureus, 30.4% with Ps. aeruginosa , 20.9% with total coli form and 0.7% with E. coli. The E. coli count found in this study was very low indicating that the selected swimming pools were not feacally polluted at the time of sampling. It is recommended that future studies should use large sample sizes.

  11. Survey of bacterial contamination of environment of swimming pools in Yazd city, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections are readily transmitted as a result of bacterial contamination of swimming pools. Therefore, hygiene and preventing the contamination of swimming pools is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of bacterial contamination in indoor pools of Yazd in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, all indoor swimming pools of Yazd (12 pools were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2013, in terms of bacterial contamination. In order to determine contamination, a sterile cotton swab was used for sampling. On average, 45 samples were taken from different surfaces in each pool (shower, dressing room, sitting places in sauna, platforms and around the pool. In total, about 540 samples from all pools were tested for bacterial contamination. Results: The results show that from 540 samples, bacterial contamination was observed in about 93 samples (17.22%; and was seen more in showers, edges of the pool and jacuzzis, and the slippers used in swimming pools. The most important isolated bacteria types were E. coli, Actinobacteria, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of bacterial contamination on the surface of these places. It is recommended that health authorities should pay more attention to cleaning and disinfecting surfaces around the pool, showers, dressing rooms etc, to prevent infectious disease transfer as a result of contact with contaminated swimming pool surfaces.

  12. Semi-Automatic Detection of Swimming Pools from Aerial High-Resolution Images and LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Rodríguez-Cuenca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bodies of water, particularly swimming pools, are land covers of high interest. Their maintenance involves energy costs that authorities must take into consideration. In addition, swimming pools are important water sources for firefighting. However, they also provide a habitat for mosquitoes to breed, potentially posing a serious health threat of mosquito-borne disease. This paper presents a novel semi-automatic method of detecting swimming pools in urban environments from aerial images and LIDAR data. A new index for detecting swimming pools is presented (Normalized Difference Swimming Pools Index that is combined with three other decision indices using the Dempster–Shafer theory to determine the locations of swimming pools. The proposed method was tested in an urban area of the city of Alcalá de Henares in Madrid, Spain. The method detected all existing swimming pools in the studied area with an overall accuracy of 99.86%, similar to the results obtained by support vector machines (SVM supervised classification.

  13. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the thermal performance of a solar heated indoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings with indoor swimming pools have a large energy footprint. The source of major energy loss is the swimming pool hall where air humidity is increased by evaporation from the pool water surface. This increases energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the pool hall, fresh water supply loss and heat demand for pool water heating. In this paper, a mathematical model of the swimming pool was made to assess energy demands of an indoor swimming pool building. The mathematical model of the swimming pool is used with the created multi-zone building model in TRNSYS software to determine pool hall energy demand and pool losses. Energy loss for pool water and pool hall heating and ventilation are analyzed for different target pool water and air temperatures. The simulation showed that pool water heating accounts for around 22%, whereas heating and ventilation of the pool hall for around 60% of the total pool hall heat demand. With a change of preset controller air and water temperatures in simulations, evaporation loss was in the range 46-54% of the total pool losses. A solar thermal sanitary hot water system was modelled and simulated to analyze it's potential for energy savings of the presented demand side model. The simulation showed that up to 87% of water heating demands could be met by the solar thermal system, while avoiding stagnation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  14. Disinfection by-product formation of UV treated swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from 3 indoor swimming pool facilities were tested to evaluate UV-induced effects on swimming pool water chemistry. Concentration change of several DBPs was investigated in experiments including medium pressure UV treatment with and without chlorine and post-UV chlorination. Post...... could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation of DBPs...

  15. Water treatment in public swimming pools - reduction of energy consumption; Vandbehandling i svoemmebade - reduktion af energiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerich, H.; Radisch, N. (Ramboell, Koege (Denmark)); Olesen, Jens Christian (Gladsaxe Sportscenter, Gladsaxe (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements were made in five public swimming baths, and energy savings were achieved using new filters, pumps, water treatment control depending on bather load, etc. In a 50 metre pool, electricity consumption for water treatment decreased by 50%, and in a hot-water/paddling pool, electricity consumption decreased by 30-40% while still maintaining satisfactory water quality - even during periods of heavy bather load. In another swimming bath, ventilation electricity consumption was reduced by 15%. The results will e.g. be used to revise the Danish executive order on swimming pools and water quality to allow bather load-dependent water circulation. (ln)

  16. Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Font-Ribera, Laia; Liviac, Danae; Bustamante, Mariona; Espinoza, Felicidad; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Espinosa, Aina; Fernandez, Pilar; DeMarini, David M.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Grummt, Tamara; Marcos, Ricard

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been associated with cancer risk. A recent study (Villanueva et al. 2007; Am J Epidemiol 165:148–156) found an increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools relative to those not attending. Objectives We evaluated adults who swam in chlorinated pools to determine whether exposure to DBPs in pool water is associated with biomarkers of genotoxicity. Methods We collected blood, urine, and exhaled air samples from 49 nonsmoking adult volunteers before and after they swam for 40 min in an indoor chlorinated pool. We estimated associations between the concentrations of four trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath and changes in micronuclei (MN) and DNA damage (comet assay) in peripheral blood lymphocytes before and 1 hr after swimming; urine mutagenicity (Ames assay) before and 2 hr after swimming; and MN in exfoliated urothelial cells before and 2 weeks after swimming. We also estimated associations and interactions with polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair or to DBP metabolism. Results After swimming, the total concentration of the four THMs in exhaled breath was seven times higher than before swimming. The change in the frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes after swimming increased in association with higher exhaled concentrations of the brominated THMs (p = 0.03 for bromodichloromethane, p = 0.05 for chlorodibromomethane, p = 0.01 for bromoform) but not chloroform. Swimming was not associated with DNA damage detectable by the comet assay. Urine mutagenicity increased significantly after swimming, in association with the higher concentration of exhaled bromoform (p = 0.004). We found no significant associations with changes in micronucleated urothelial cells. Conclusions Our findings support potential genotoxic effects of exposure to DBPs from swimming pools. The positive health effects gained by swimming could be increased by reducing the potential health

  17. The Europeanisation of Austria: Misfit, Adaptation and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Falkner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the multiple dimensions of Austrias Europeanisation and the high degree of both misfit and conflict involved therein. Austrias path to EU membership was characterised by fundamental doubts due to the countrys status of neutrality, and by a basic reinterpretation of this concept. After accession, need for institutional adaptation to the EUs decision-making patterns was significant since major tenets of the Austrian political system are special. Furthermore, policy misfit between the domestic and the EU level was considerable in several fields, among them highly symbolic ones. Austrias EU-related diplomacy recently witnessed a major crisis with the other 14 member states sanctioning the new centre-right government in a controversial way. Against this background of strong and multi-dimensional misfit, Austrian performance in implementing EU law is still surprisingly good. By contrast, public appreciation of EU membership has declined even further, and a majority of Austrians oppose enlargement while the Freedom Party advocates a referendum on that issue. Therefore, the conclusions argue that improved communication processes and mutual learning across the multiple levels of the EU system are crucial.

  18. The Europeanisation of Austria: Misfit, Adaptation and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Falkner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the multiple dimensions of Austria’s Europeanisation and the high degree of both misfit and conflict involved therein. Austria’s path to EU membership was characterised by fundamental doubts due to the country’s status of neutrality, and by a basic reinterpretation of this concept. After accession, need for institutional adaptation to the EU’s decision-making patterns was significant since major tenets of the Austrian political system are special. Furthermore, policy misfit between the domestic and the EU level was considerable in several fields, among them highly symbolic ones. Austria’s EU-related diplomacy recently witnessed a major crisis with the other 14 member states ‘sanctioning’ the new centre-right government in a controversial way. Against this background of strong and multi-dimensional misfit, Austrian performance in implementing EU law is still surprisingly good. By contrast, public appreciation of EU membership has declined even further, and a majority of Austrians oppose enlargement while the Freedom Party advocates a referendum on that issue. Therefore, the conclusions argue that improved communication processes and mutual learning across the multiple levels of the EU system are crucial.

  19. [Swimming pool suction injury: etiology, profylaxis and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škach, J; Kašák, P; Šrám, J

    2015-01-01

    Swimming pool suction injuries are unique and rare with a substantive risk of fatal consequences. Little children under the age of 8 are the most frequent victims with serious injuries. Drownings of different seriousness are also a usual part of accidents. The case of a 19 year old man trapped in the gluteal area by a unsecured suction drainage hole illustrates the uniqueness of this problem in an interesting way. Prophylactic arrangements are well known but the problem is with their strict application. Fatal causes excluding drowning include hypovolemic shock from the sudden redistribution of intersticial fluid and blood and also the evisceration of the bowel and other abdominal organs. Localised often bizarre and large swellings and sufusions can be treated nonoperatively in the vast majority of cases. For the prevention of these injuries it is important to inform the public and increase their awareness to these injuries. It is also crucial for the correct management of these injuries a deeper awareness of this issue and a sharing of experiences and solutions with other experts.Key words: vacuum - accident - entrapment - compartment syndrome.

  20. Bacteriological quality of some swimming pools in Alexandria with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Ghada; Abbass, Aleya; Abaza, Amani; Hazzah, Walaa

    2016-07-01

    Swimming pools have been identified as posing some public health risks to users due to either bacterial or chemical contamination. As a result, maintaining good swimming pool water quality is an important issue in preventing health risks for bathers. This study aimed to evaluate the bacteriological quality of some swimming pools in Alexandria and to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in water samples. A total of 120 water samples from 10 swimming pools were collected. Bacteriological analysis included heterotrophic plate count (HPC) using pour plate method; enumeration of total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and S. aureus by membrane filtration technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on isolated S. aureus. Residual chlorine and pH were measured at swimming pools side. HPC was the least complying microbial parameter, followed by TC. S. aureus was recovered from 18 samples; 9 isolates were methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA), compared to E. coli that was detected in 7 samples. HPC and TC showed statistically significant correlations with all investigated parameters. In conclusion, the examined pools showed poor quality regarding all examined parameters collectively according to the Egyptian guidelines, which necessitates implementation of proper measures to ensure safer environment in swimming pools. PMID:27312255

  1. Titanium distribution in swimming pool water is dominated by dissolved species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in consumer products such as sunscreen has raised concerns about their possible risk to human and environmental health. In this work, we report the occurrence, size fractionation and behavior of titanium (Ti) in a children's swimming pool. Size-fractionated samples were analyzed for Ti using ICP-MS. Total titanium concentrations ([Ti]) in the pool water ranged between 21 μg/L and 60 μg/L and increased throughout the 101-day sampling period while [Ti] in tap water remained relatively constant. The majority of [Ti] was found in the dissolved phase (<1 kDa), with only a minor fraction of total [Ti] being considered either particulate or microparticulate. Simple models suggest that evaporation may account for the observed variation in [Ti], while sunscreen may be a relevant source of particulate and microparticule Ti. Compared to diet, incidental ingestion of nano-Ti from swimming pool water is minimal. -- Highlights: •Total titanium concentrations in unfiltered swimming pool water ranged between 21 and 60 μg/L. •Evaporation of the swimming pool water is suspected of causing a temporal increase in [Ti]. •The vast majority of Ti is found in the dissolved phase (<1 kD). •Swimming pools are not a significant Ti source for human exposure via ingestion. -- In children's swimming pool water, the majority of titanium is found in the dissolved phase

  2. Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools: state of the science and research recommendations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisel, C.P.; Richardson, S.D.; Nemery, B.; Aggazzotti, G.; Baraldi, E.; Blatchley, E.R.; Blount, B.C.; Carlsen, K.H.; Eggleston, P.A.; Frimmel, F.H.; Goodman, M.; Gordon, G.; Grinshpun, S.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Kogevinas, M.; LaKind, J.S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Piper, F.C.; Sattar, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have explored the potential for swimming pool disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are respiratory irritants, to cause asthma in young children. Here we describe the state of the science on methods for understanding children's exposure to DBPs and biologics at swimming p

  3. [Update of DIN 19.643--treatment and disinfection of swimming pool and bathing tub water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässelbarth, U

    1992-08-01

    German Standards Specification DIN 19,643 is at present under revision for health reasons and because of both negative and positive experiences gathered in practice. To enable adaptation of the standards specification to future developments, a Part I of the specification is being created comprising the demands to be made on the quality of the water and general demands on the construction and operation of swimming pools and tubs and basins in bath houses, e.g. in spas or municipal swimming pools. The subsequent parts of the new specification (Part 2 to Part n) concern the demands to be made on individual combinations of processes; these can be supplemented at any time in accordance with technical progress without requiring revision of the entire standards specification. Essential innovations are the reformulation of the required efficiency of disinfection, the introduction of the parameters Legionella pneumophila, trihalogen methane (THM) and the reduction of the limit value for chloramines. Technically speaking, the new features concern the automatic measurement of the auxiliary parameters of hygiene such as redox potential, pH value and free chlorine, automatic control of disinfectant additions, automatic filter rinsing with fluidization of the filter-bed to a prescribed minimum bed expansion, and the sight-glas at the filter container. The demands made on Jacuzzi and warm water spouted bed besins are integrated into the specification, thus obviating the need for German Standards Specification DIN 19,644. PMID:1392275

  4. Swimming pool attendance and risk of asthma and allergic symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, L; Kogevinas, M; Zock, J-P; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Heederik, D; Villanueva, C M

    2009-12-01

    Increased asthma risk has been associated with pool attendance in children but evidence is inconsistent and inconclusive. A survey was conducted of 3,223 9-12-yr-old children in Sabadell (Spain) to evaluate association between swimming pool attendance and prevalence of asthma and allergic conditions and symptoms. Parents completed a questionnaire on lifetime frequency of pool attendance and symptoms in the last 12 months (wheezing, asthma medication, rhinitis and allergic rhinitis), ever having asthma and eczema, and potential confounders. Indicators of indoor and outdoor swimming pool attendance early in life, cumulatively and currently were calculated. Swimming pool attendance before the age of 2 yrs was associated with slightly lower prevalence of current asthma (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.43-1.46), rhinitis (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68-1.08) and allergic rhinitis symptoms (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.96) compared to those who started attending swimming pools after 4 yrs of age. An increased prevalence of eczema was associated with duration of lifetime pool attendance (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.38-2.12 for >5 yrs versus 0 yrs). Swimming pool attendance in Spanish children was associated with slightly less upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms and with more eczema. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings and avoid potential reverse causation. PMID:19443529

  5. Indoor swimming pool attendance and respiratory and dermal health in schoolchildren: HITEA Catalonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Font-Ribera, L.; Villanueva, C M; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Kogevinas, M; Zock, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health benefits of swimming in pools may outweigh adverse health outcomes in children, but evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce or inconclusive for different health outcomes. We evaluated the association between indoor swimming pool attendance during childhood and respiratory and dermal conditions and symptoms in Catalan schoolchildren. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 2758 children aged 6–12 years from 18 primary schools in Barcelona province. Information on regular i...

  6. Swimming pool attendance is related to asthma among atopic school children: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Martin; Hedman, Linnéa; Nordberg, Gunnar; Forsberg, Bertil; Eriksson, Kåre; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: By-products of water disinfectants have been suggested to cause asthma, especially in atopic children. However, studies on indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma in children have presented conflicting results. The present study examined the relationship between indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma among sensitized and non-sensitized children aged 11-12 years. Methods: An extended ISAAC questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending fifth or sixth grade,...

  7. Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools: state of the science and research recommendations.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel, C P; Richardson, S.D.; Nemery, B.; Aggazzotti, G.; Baraldi, E.; Blatchley, E.R.; Blount, B.C.; Carlsen, K H; Eggleston, P. A.; Frimmel, F.H.; Goodman, M.; Gordon, G.; Grinshpun, S. A.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Kogevinas, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have explored the potential for swimming pool disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are respiratory irritants, to cause asthma in young children. Here we describe the state of the science on methods for understanding children's exposure to DBPs and biologics at swimming pools and associations with new-onset childhood asthma and recommend a research agenda to improve our understanding of this issue. DATA SOURCES: A workshop was held in Leuven, Belgium, 21-23 August ...

  8. Determinants of soil organic carbon pools in oak stands in northeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Hochbichler, Eduard; Yan, Shuai; Glatzel, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Recently deciduous forests in northeastern Austria received increased attention as potential sources of biomass for energetic utilisation. There are still substantial deficits in the knowledge on carbon pools, -sequestration and -dynamics at these forest sites. The aim of our study was therefore to identify the main determinants which control soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in differently managed Quercus petraea dominated stands. We used the chronosequence approach to test the influence of stand age and management on the SOC pool. Soil samples were systematically collected from 14 plots by means of a 70mm hand auger to a depth of max. 60cm and separated into five geometric horizons. Narrow O-layers and signs of active bioturbation on most sites suggest rapid carbon mineralisation. Carbon pools of the aboveground biomass, the O horizon as well as fine and coarse roots and decay were determined. Soils in our study are cambisols derived from fossil alluvial deposits and loess and calcic chernozems derived from loess. Total soil carbon was determined by means of dry combustion and subtraction of soil inorganic carbon (SIC, by means of the Scheibler-method) if present. Mean SOC contents ranged from 5.3 kg.m-2 to10.4 kg.m-2 in the entire study area. The highest contents were found in calcic chernozem sites (7.2-10.4 kg.m-2) followed by loamy cambisol (6.1-6.8 kg.m-2) and sandy cambisol sites (5.3-6.9 kg.m-2). Among three chronosequence sets, we found strong positive correlations with total nitrogen (Pearson correlation coefficients of +0.91 to +0.93, pcoppice with standards vs. high forest system) in deciduous forests in the northeastern lowlands of Austria has no decisive influence on soil carbon pools.

  9. Internal exposure by natural radiation and decontamination of swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This explanation concerns the scientific knowledge and finding of the title subjects for general public to understand their present radiation environment, id est (i.e.), at about 1 year after the Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant Accident (FDPPA). The first described is the world history of radiation exposure, where A-bomb explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Three Mile Island Power Plant Accident and Chernobyl Accident are told about their teachings and about internal nuclides at FDPPA: the author points out the natural high abundance of K-40 in contrast to the release of I-131, and Cs-137/-134 in the accident. The second is described about the effect of radiations on human cells, where characteristics, measurements, unit and their derived radionuclides of alpha, beta and gamma rays are explained together with their biological influences. Also explained are hydroxy-radical formation by alpha and beta rays in the internal exposure, and comparison of external photons, gamma and more risky ultraviolet rays. Third, the author mentions about man's natural functions to protect radiation hazard. Presented are an easy calculation and a comparison of K-40 and Cs-137 contents (weight and Bq) in the body and in the swimming pool with reference to Chernobyl standards. Internal exposure by natural radionuclides like K-40 and others, is also calculated, which is found equivalent to 0.29 mSv/y based on about 5,630 Bq/60 kg body weight. Finally, explained are the knowledge and practice of decontamination, where various adsorbents like zeolite (molecular sieve), ion exchanger, charcoal and natural zeolites (alumino-silicate) are compared and the last agent, clay easily and economically available, is recommended for decontamination. Clay material is said to adsorb 87% of Cs-137 at as low level as 750 mg/L and the author has an experience to use it successfully for decontamination of the pool. Importantly, the radioactivity of the resultant sludge should not exceed 8,000 Bq/kg. (T.T.)

  10. Microflora of nuclear research reactor pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The circulation of pool water through the nuclear reactor core produces a bactericidal effect on the microflora due to the influence of various kinds of radiation. The microbe contents return to their initial level in 2 to 4 months after the circulation has stopped. The microflora comprises mainly cocci in large numbers, G-positive rods and fungi, and lower amounts of G-negative rods as compared with the water with which the reactor pool was initially filled. Increased amounts are present of radiation-resistant forms exhibiting intense production of catalase and nuclease. Supposedly, the presence of these enzymes is in some way beneficial to the microbes in their survival in the high-radiation zones. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  11. Swimming pool attendance and risk of asthma and allergic symptoms in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Zock, J.P.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Heederik, D.; Villanueva, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Increased asthma risk has been associated with pool attendance in children but evidence is inconsistent and inconclusive. A survey was conducted of 3,223 9-12-yr-old children in Sabadell (Spain) to evaluate association between swimming pool attendance and prevalence of asthma and allergic conditions

  12. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Zortea, R.; Piketty, A.;

    2013-01-01

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported...... to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants...... in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m− 3 d− 1 and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m− 3 d− 1, while 2.6 kWh m− 3 d− 1 was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing...

  13. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME - ADAPTED SWIMMING -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chera-Ferrario B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport activities have a beneficial effect on the mind and body of any type of person. The benefits of sport are even more evident in children with Down Syndrome, who exhibit a general delay in neuro-motor structures. Our aim was to develop the psycho-motor skills in children with Down Syndrome through adapted swimming exercises. We believe that our involvement in adapted swimming for children with Down Syndrome may help develop certain aspects of psycho-motor abilities. The swimming took place with 6 Down Syndrome children from the Special Needs School in Targoviste, for a period of six months and the children being assisted by volunteer students from the Valahia University Department of Sport in Targoviste.The most important result was the children's delight in coming to the pool and taking part in the swimming lessons. Through the methods and exercises used and the devoted involvement of the volunteers, the children developed great levels of trust and courage and learned to swim using only aids. After performing motor skill tests on the children, we observed a general growth in the motor skills monitored.Continuation of the adapted swimming is very important in order to mobilize the skills obtained and continue development of psycho-motor abilities.

  14. Occurrence and health risk assessment of halogenated disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chen; Zhang, Beibei; Gong, Tingting; Xian, Qiming

    2016-02-01

    Swimming pool disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have become a concern in many countries all over the world. In this study, the concentrations of several categories of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKs) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), in 13 public indoor swimming pools in Nanjing, China were determined, the correlations between DBPs and water quality parameters as well as between different DBP categories were evaluated, and the health risks of the DBPs to human were examined. The results indicate that the DBP levels in the swimming pools in Nanjing were relatively high, with HAAs as the most dominant category, followed by THMs, HANs, HKs and TCNM sequentially. Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were the most dominant species among HAAs, THMs, HANs, and HKs, respectively. For all the different categories of DBPs, the concentrations in the pool disinfected with ozonation/chlorination were lower than those in the pool disinfected with chlorination. The DBP levels were generally not affected by the number of swimmers and the DBP levels on different dates were relatively stable. Besides, the chlorine residual seemed to be a critical concern in most of the swimming pools in this study. Moreover, there were some correlations between DBPs and water quality parameters as well as between different DBP categories. It is to be noted that the predicted cancer and health risks of the DBPs in these swimming pools were generally higher than the regulatory limits by USEPA, and thus DBPs in these swimming pools should be concerned.

  15. Laboratory studies on the effect of ozonation on THM formation in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram;

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from indoor swimming pool were ozonated at different pH values to evaluate the effect of pH on decomposition of ozone in swimming pool water. Furthermore, drinking and pool water were repeatedly ozonated followed by chlorination to evaluate THM formation. Decomposition of ozone...... was not affected by pH in the range relevant to swimming pools (pH 6.8 – 7.8) and a half-life time at 10-12 min was obtained. Repeating the ozonation, the decomposition of ozone increased at the second dose of ozone added (t½,2=8 min) and then decreased again at the third and fourth dose of ozone (t½,3=17 min; t...... chlorine for drinking water as lower TTHM formation occurred than in non-ozonated samples. For pool water, a higher TTHM formation was observed in ozonated than non-ozonated pool water. Thus, it was observed that ozone reacts markedly different in swimming pool water from the known pattern in drinking...

  16. Analytic Assessment of Microbial Water Quality in Public Swimming Pools of Tehran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beiki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Swimming is one of the most popular sport fields and entertainments that has considerable benefits for human health, but on the other hand microbial water contamination in swimming pools through transmission and spread of infectious diseases is a significant threat against public health. In this study, microbial water quality of all public swimming pools in Tehran were assessed and effective factors on microbial water quality were analyzed. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study with the analytical approach was performed in 2013. The whole public swimming pools in Tehran were inspected and water samples were taken for measurement of microbial indicators including thermotolerant coliforms, heterotrophic plate count (HPC, and physicochemical parameters affecting the microbial water quality including turbidity, free residual chlorine and pH and an integrated swimming pool microbial water quality index were used to describe the overall situation. Operational parameters with probable effects on microbial water quality were checked through inspection using a checklist. Results: The assessment of the swimming pool microbial water quality indicated that the compliance rates of thermotolerant coliforms and HPC were 91.4 and 84.5%, respectively. Compliance rates of free residual chlorine, turbidity, Ph, and temperature were also obtained to be 82.7, 45.5, 85.6, and 65.4% respectively. Based on the integrated swimming pool microbial water quality index, the proportions of swimming pools with excellent and good microbial water quality were 39.6 and 50.4% respectively and the others had not proper microbial water quality. The parameters of water free residual chlorine and turbidity, swimmer density, water recirculation period, dilution amount, cleaning, usage rates of shower and disinfection basin and operation of water treatment systems had significant effects on the microbial indicators (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study

  17. Study of the Pollution Condition of Swimming Pools in Sari City for the Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Swimming pools water if not disinfected properly can be one of the infection sources of different microorganisms such as staphylococcus. This study is to aware the authorities and users about the conditions existed in sheltered swimming pools in Sari and to believe the contamination of the water there, related to the existence of staphylococcus aureus. "nMaterials and Method: In this descriptive study 32 specimens collected randomly from 15 swimming pools in action during three months from 60 cm deep under specific conditions in sterile containers and taken to the laboratory of health college in 2 hrs and were analyzed for the contamination from staphylococcus aureus and some other parameters like temperature, pH, chlorine residual and opacity on the basis of microbiological and standard methods. "nResult: Results showed an average temperature of 27.08 degree Celsius, PH=7.6, average chlorine residual 1 mil/l and opacity average was 77 NTU % and the highest contamination from staphylococcus aureus (29.3 % in C and the lowest (10.19 % was observed in D swimming pool. Furthermore this analysis showed that in 90% of specimens there was a direct relationship between the ratio of chlorine residual, times of swimming, water temperature and the number of staphylococcus. "nConclusion: Swimming pools water if not disinfected properly can be one of the infection sources of different microorganisms such as staphylococcus. Some suggestions inorder to optimization of the swimming pools condition presented in this paper.

  18. Determination of Monochloroacetic Acid in Swimming Pool Water by Ion Chromatography-Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pythias B. Espino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analytical method involving ion chromatography with conductivity detection was developed and optimized for the determination of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water. The ion chromatographic method has a detection limit of 0.02 mg L-1 and linear range of 0.05 to 1.0 mg L-1 with correlation coeff icient of 0.9992. The method is reproducible with percent RSD of 0.052% (n=10. The recovery of monochloroacetic acid spiked in different water types (bottled, tap and swimming pool water ranged from 28 to 122%. In dilute solutions, chloride and bromide were simultaneously analyzed along with monochloroacetic acid using the optimized method. Chloride and bromide have detection limits of 0.01 to 0.05 mg L-1, respectively. The usefulness of the ion chromatographic method was demonstrated in the analysis of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water samples. In such highly-chlorinated samples, an Ag/H cartridge was used prior to the ion chromatographic determination so as to minimize the signal due to chloride ion. Monochloroacetic acid was detected in concentrations between 0.020 and 0.093 mg L-1 in three of the six swimming pool water samples studied. The presence of monochloroacetic acid in the swimming pool water samples suggests the possible occurrence of other disinfection by-products in these waters.

  19. Determination of Monochloroacetic Acid in Swimming Pool Water by Ion Chromatography-Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pythias B. Espino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analytical method involving ion chromatography with conductivity detection was developed and optimized for the determination of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water. The ion chromatographic method has a detection limit of 0.02 mg L-1 and linear range of 0.05 to 1.0 mg L-1 with correlation coeff icient of 0.9992. The method is reproducible with percent RSD of 0.052% (n=10. The recovery of monochloroacetic acid spiked in different water types (bottled, tap and swimming pool water ranged from 28 to 122%. In dilute solutions, chloride and bromide were simultaneously analyzed along with monochloroacetic acid using the optimized method. Chloride and bromide have detection limits of 0.01 to 0.05 mg L-1, respectively. The usefulness of the ion chromatographic method was demonstrated in the analysis of monochloroacetic acid in swimming pool water samples. In such highly-chlorinated samples, an Ag/H cartridge was used prior to the ion chromatographic determination so as to minimize the signal due to chloride ion. Monochloroacetic acid was detected in concentrations between 0.020 and 0.093 mg L-1 in three of the six swimming pool water samples studied. The presence of monochloroacetic acid in the swimming pool water samples suggests the possible occurrence of other disinfection by-products in these waters.

  20. Monitoring organic loading to swimming pools by fluorescence excitation–emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seredynska-Sobecka, Bozena; Stedmon, Colin; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence Excitation–Emission Matrix spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis was employed to monitor water quality and organic contamination in swimming pools. The fluorescence signal of the swimming pool organic matter was low but increased slightly through the day. The analysis...... revealed that the organic matter fluorescence was characterised by five different components, one of which was unique to swimming pool organic matter and one which was specific to organic contamination. The latter component had emission peaks at 420nm and was found to be a sensitive indicator of organic...... loading in swimming pool water. The fluorescence at 420nm gradually increased during opening hours and represented material accumulating through the day....

  1. A risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in swimming pools: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Scott A; van den Akker, Ben; Pomati, Francesco; Roser, David

    2012-06-01

    Despite routine monitoring and disinfection, treated swimming pools are frequently contaminated with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can represent a significant public health threat. This review was undertaken to identify the current understanding of risk factors associated with pool operation with respect to P. aeruginosa. The ecology and factors that promote growth of P. aeruginosa in the pool environment are complex and dynamic and so we applied a systematic risk assessment approach to integrate existing data, with the aim to improve pool management and safety. Sources of P. aeruginosa, types of infections, dose responses, routes of transmission, as well as the efficacy of current disinfectant treatments were reviewed. This review also highlights the critical knowledge gaps that are required for a more robust, quantitative risk assessment of P. aeruginosa. Quantitative risk management strategies have been successfully applied to drinking water systems and should similarly be amenable to developing a better understanding of the risk posed by P. aeruginosa in swimming pools.

  2. Infant swimming in chlorinated pools and the risks of bronchiolitis, asthma and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, C; Sardella, A; Marcucci, F; Bernard, A

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that swimming in chlorinated pools during infancy may increase the risks of lower respiratory tract infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of swimming in chlorinated pools on the risks of bronchiolitis and its late consequences. A total of 430 children (47% female; mean age 5.7 yrs) in 30 kindergartens were examined. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding the child's health history, swimming practice and potential confounders. Attendance at indoor or outdoor chlorinated pools ever before the age of 2 yrs was associated with an increased risk of bronchiolitis (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.08-2.68; p = 0.03), which was exposure-dependent for both types of pool (p-value for trend 20 h spent in chlorinated pools during infancy. Infant swimmers who developed bronchiolitis also showed higher risks of asthma and respiratory allergies later in childhood. Swimming pool attendance during infancy is associated with a higher risk of bronchiolitis, with ensuing increased risks of asthma and allergic sensitisation. PMID:20075053

  3. Optimal pH in chlorinated swimming pools - balancing formation of by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the optimal pH range for chlorinated swimming pools the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and trichloramine was investigated in the pH-range 6.5–7.5 in batch experiments. An artificial body fluid analogue was used to simulate bather load as the precursor for by.......7 or lower. An optimal pH range for by-products formation in swimming pools was identified at pH 7.0–7.2. In the wider pH range (pH 6.8–7.5) the effect on by-product formation was negligible. Swimming pools should never be maintained at lower pH than 6.8 since formation of both haloacetonitriles...

  4. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shaptala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The method for determination of heat and mass loses based on the theory of similarity criteria equations is used. Findings. The main types of heat and mass losses of outdoor pool were analyzed. The most significant types were allocated and mathematically described. Namely: by evaporation of water from the surface of the pool, by natural and forced convection, by radiation to the environment, heat consumption for water heating. Originality. The mathematical model of heat and mass exchange process of the outdoor swimming pool was developed, which allows calculating the basic heat and mass loses that occur during its exploitation. Practical value. The method of determining heat and mass loses of outdoor swimming pool as a software system was developed and implemented. It is based on the mathematical model proposed by the authors. This method can be used for the conceptual design of energy-efficient structures of outdoor pools, to assess their use of energy-intensive and selecting the optimum energy-saving measures. A further step in research in this area is the experimental validation of the method of calculation of heat losses in outdoor swimming pools with its use as an example the pool of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan. The outdoor pool, with water heating- up from the boiler room of the university, is operated year-round.

  5. Swimming pool, respiratory health, and childhood asthma: should we change our beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyan, Z S; Carraro, S; Piacentini, G; Baraldi, E

    2009-01-01

    Swimming is often recommended as a sport because of its several benefits to health. It is also recommended in asthmatic children as a sport with a lower potential for prompting exercise-induced asthma. However, there is growing interest in the potentially harmful effects of repeated respiratory tract exposure to chlorinated products and the problem of possible swimming-related health hazards is gaining importance at international level. It is already known that acute exposure to chlorine gas as in swimming pool accidents causes lung damage and also that elite swimmers may have increased airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity, probably as a result of repeated exposure to chlorine derivatives. Recently some studies have been conducted to investigate whether repeated exposure to chlorine by-products in recreational swimmers might also lead to lung damage. In addition, some studies have been lately published on the even more debated issue of the possible harmful effects of baby swimming on respiratory health. This article reviews and discusses data from the literature on the effects of chlorine derivatives in different categories of people routinely attending swimming pools. The need for longitudinal studies is emphasized to definitely clarify any role of chlorinated swimming pool attendance in the development of asthma in recreational swimmers. PMID:19061232

  6. Definition and quantification of initial anthropogenic pollutant release in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuten, M G A; Schets, F M; Schijven, J F; Verberk, J Q J C; van Dijk, J C

    2012-07-01

    Pollutants, brought into a swimming pool by bathers, will react with chlorine to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). Some of these DBPs are found to be respiratory and ocular irritant and might be associated with asthma, or might even be carcinogenic. As DBPs in swimming pools are formed from bather-shed-pollutants, a reduction of these pollutants will lead to a reduction of DBPs. Until now, however, the release of pollutants by bathers has not been studied in detail. The study described in this paper focuses on the release of these pollutants, further called anthropogenic pollutants. The objective was to define and quantify the initial anthropogenic pollutants, by using a standardised shower cabin and a standardised showering protocol in laboratory time-series experiments and on-site experiments in swimming pools. The time-series experiments resulted in a definition of the initial anthropogenic pollutant release: the amount of pollutants released from a person in a standardised shower cabin during the first 60 s of showering. The data from the time-series experiments were used to create a model of pollutant release. The model can be used to predict the initial anthropogenic pollutant release as well as the effects of showering. On-site experiments were performed at four different swimming pools, including one outdoor pool. Results of these on-site showering experiments correspond with the time-series and model outcomes. Anthropogenic pollutant release (both chemical and microbiological) in swimming pool water can be reduced by pre-swim showering, very likely resulting in decreased DBPs formation and chlorine demand. PMID:22560894

  7. Particles in swimming pool filters – Does pH determine the DBP formation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2012-01-01

    The formation was investigated for different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination of filter particles from swimming pools at different pH-values and the toxicity was estimated. Specifically, the formation of the DBP group trihalomethanes (THMs), which is regulated in many...... or initial free chlorine concentrations the particles were chlorinated at different pH-values in the relevant range for swimming pools. THM and HAA formations were reduced by decreasing pH while HAN formation increased with decreasing pH. Based on the organic content the relative DBP formation from...

  8. Occurrence and simulation of trihalomethanes in swimming pool water: A simple prediction method based on DOC and mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Saravia, Florencia; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THM) are the most typical disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in public swimming pool water. DBPs are produced when organic and inorganic matter in water reacts with chemical disinfectants. The irregular contribution of substances from pool visitors and long contact time with disinfectant make the forecast of THM in pool water a challenge. In this work occurrence of THM in a public indoor swimming pool was investigated and correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Daily sampling of pool water for 26 days showed a positive correlation between DOC and THM with a time delay of about two days, while THM and DOC didn't directly correlate with the number of visitors. Based on the results and mass-balance in the pool water, a simple simulation model for estimating THM concentration in indoor swimming pool water was proposed. Formation of THM from DOC, volatilization into air and elimination by pool water treatment were included in the simulation. Formation ratio of THM gained from laboratory analysis using native pool water and information from field study in an indoor swimming pool reduced the uncertainty of the simulation. The simulation was validated by measurements in the swimming pool for 50 days. The simulated results were in good compliance with measured results. This work provides a useful and simple method for predicting THM concentration and its accumulation trend for long term in indoor swimming pool water.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of water and air chemistry in an indoor chlorinated swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Afifi, Mehrnaz; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2015-01-01

    Although swimming is known to be beneficial in terms of cardiovascular health, as well as for some forms of rehabilitation, swimming is also known to present risks to human health, largely in the form of exposure to microbial pathogens and disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Relatively little information is available in the literature to characterize the seasonal dynamics of air and water chemistry in indoor chlorinated swimming pools. To address this issue, water samples were collected five days per week from an indoor chlorinated swimming pool facility at a high school during the academic year and once per week during summer over a fourteen-month period. The samples were analyzed for free and combined chlorine, urea, volatile DBPs, pH, temperature and total alkalinity. Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) was used to identify and measure the concentrations of eleven aqueous-phase volatile DBPs. Variability in the concentrations of these DBPs was observed. Factors that influenced variability included bather loading and mixing by swimmers. These compounds have the ability to adversely affect water and air quality and human health. A large fraction of the existing literature regarding swimming pool air quality has focused on trichloramine (NCl₃). For this work, gas-phase NCl₃ was analyzed by an air sparging-DPD/KI method. The results showed that gas-phase NCl₃ concentration is influenced by bather loading and liquid-phase NCl₃ concentration. Urea is the dominant organic-N compound in human urine and sweat, and is known to be an important precursor for producing NCl₃ in swimming pools. Results of daily measurements of urea indicated a link between bather load and urea concentration in the pool.

  10. Detection of free living amoebae, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, in swimming pools, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Init, I; Lau, Y L; Arin Fadzlun, A; Foead, A I; Neilson, R S; Nissapatorn, V

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the detection of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species in 14 swimming pools around Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sampling was carried out at 4 sites (the platforms (P), wall (W), 1 meter from the wall (1) and middle (2)) of each swimming pool. These free living amoebae (FLA) were detected under light and inverted microscopes after being cultured on the surface of non-nutrient agar lawned with Escherichia coli. Acanthamoeba species were detected in higher number of culture plates from all sampling sites of all the swimming pools. While Naegleria, were detected in fewer culture plates at 3 sampling sites (absent at site P) of 8 swimming pools. This suggested that the thick double-walled cysts of Acanthamoeba were more resistant, thus remaining viable in the dry-hot areas of the platforms and in chlorinated water of the swimming pools whereas Naegleria cysts, that are fragile and susceptible to desiccation, preferred watery or moist areas for growth and proliferation. The prevalence of both FLA was highest at site W (76.2%), followed by site 1 (64.7%), lowest at site 2 (19.4%), and could be detected at all 3 sampling levels (top, middle and bottom) of these 3 sites. The surface of site W might act as a bio-film that accumulated all kinds of microbes providing sufficient requirement for the FLA to develop and undergo many rounds of life cycles as well as moving from top to bottom in order to graze food. Other factors such as human activities, the circulating system which was fixed at all swimming pools, blowing wind which might carry the cysts from surroundings and the swimming flagellate stage of Naegleria could also contribute to the distribution of the FLA at these sampling sites. Both FLA showed highest growth (80.4%) at room temperature (25-28 ºC) and lesser (70.0%) at 37 ºC which might be due to the overgrowth of other microbes (E. coli, fungi, algae, etc). While at 44 ºC, only Acanthamoeba species could survive thus showing that

  11. Modeling Target Disinfection By-Product Dynamics in Indoor Swimming Pools

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Barnard S; Troy, Cary; Afifi, Mehrnaz; Weng, Shih-Chi; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorination is the primary disinfection method for swimming pools in the United States; however, chlorine also reacts with pollutants (e.g., sweat, urine and anthropogenic compounds) to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). Some DBPs are asthma causing (e.g. nitrogen-trichloride) and even carcinogens (e.g., trihalomethanes and nitrosamines). Consequently, exposure to DBPs poses health risks to patrons and staff in pool environments. Furthermore, volatilization of DBPs is enhanced by bather a...

  12. Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster Marianne E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In a case-control study a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). In this paper, a neurogenic hypothesis is formulated to explain how toxins produced by chlorine in such pools may act deleteriously on the infant's immature central nervous system, comprising brain and spinal cord, to produce the deformity of AIS. Presentation of the hy...

  13. Production of various disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jun, Myung-Jin; Lee, Man-Ho; Lee, Min-Hwan; Eom, Seog-Won; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the concentrations of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform), haloacetic acids (HAAs; dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid), haloacetonitriles (HANs; dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, and dibromoacetonitrile), and chloral hydrate (CH) were measured in 86 indoor swimming pools in Seoul, Korea, treated using different disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone and chlorine, and a technique that uses electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMOs). The correlations between DBPs and other environmental factors such as with total organic carbon (TOC), KMnO(4) consumption, free residual chlorine, pH, and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the pools were examined. The geometric mean concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pool waters were 183.1±2.5μg/L, 32.6±2.1μg/L, and 139.9±2.4μg/L in pools disinfected with chlorine, ozone/chlorine, and EGMO, respectively. The mean concentrations of total THMs (TTHMs), total HAAs (THAAs), total HANs (THANs), and CH differed significantly depending on the disinfection method used (Pdisinfection method. TOC showed a good correlation with the concentrations of DBPs in all swimming pools (chlorine; r=0.82, Pchlorine; r=0.52, Pdisinfected with chlorine and ozone/chlorine (chlorine; r=0.58; ozone/chlorine; r=0.60, P<0.01), whereas was negative correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs (r=-0.53, P<0.01) in the EGMO-treated pools.

  14. Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANYAKAPO Mallika; SOONTORNCHAI Sarisak; PAOPUREE Pongsri

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water and swimming pool water in the area of the Nakhon Path-om Municipality during the period April 2005-March 2006.The concentrations of total THMs,chloroform,bromodichloromethane,dibromochloromethane and bromoform in tap water were 12.70-41.74,6.72-29.19,1.12-11.75,0.63-3.55 and 0.08-3.40 μg/L,respectively,whereas those in swimming pool water were 26.15-65.09,9.50-36.97,8.90-18.01,5.19-22.78 and ND-6.56 μg/L,respectively.It implied that the concentration of THMs in swimming pool water was higher than those in tap water,particularly,brominated-THMs.Both tap water and swimming pool water contained concentrations of total THMs below the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO),European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) phase Ⅰ,but 1 out of 60 tap water samples and 60 out of 72 swimming pool water samples contained those over the Standard of the USEPA phase Ⅱ.From the two cases of cancer risk assessment including Case Ⅰ Non-Swimmer and Case Ⅱ Swimmer,assessment of cancer risk of non-swimmers from exposure to THMs at the highest and the average concentrations was 4.43×10-5 and 2.19×10-5,respectively,which can be classified as acceptable risk according to the Standard of USEPA.Assessment of cancer risk of swimmers from exposure to THMs at the highest and the average concentrations was 1.47×10-3 and 7.99×10-4,respectively,which can be classified as unacceptable risk and needs to be improved.Risk of THMs exposure from swimming was 93.9%-94.2% of the total risk.Cancer risk of THMs concluded from various routes in descending order was:skin exposure while swimming,gastro-intestinal exposure from tap water intake,and skin exposure to tap water and gastro-intestinal exposure while swimming.Cancer risk from skin exposure while swimming was 94.18% of the total cancer risk.

  15. Swimming Pool Water Treatment Chemicals and/or Processes. Standard No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Chemicals or processes used or intended for use, in the treatment of swimming pool water are covered. Minimum public health limits or acceptability in regard to toxicity, biocidal effectiveness, and chemical behavior and analysis are presented. The appendices give guidelines to the scientific and statistically sound evaluations to determine the…

  16. Centrifugal Pumps for Swimming Pools. National Sanitation Foundation Standard Number 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Committee for Swimming Pool Equipment Standards.

    The pumps discussed herein are intended to be used for recirculating water in swimming pools, both public and private. Included are the basic components which may be a part of a pump such as the housing, strainer, impeller, valves, and such other parts as are attached or a part of the pump as supplied by the manufacturer. This standard is intended…

  17. Childhood Asthma and Environmental Exposures at Swimming Pools: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have explored the potential for swimming pool disinfection byproducts (DBPs) which are respiratory irritants to cause asthma in young children. While these studies raise concerns, gaps still exist in our knowledge regarding the exact causal agents and mechanisms f...

  18. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-09-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  19. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence...

  20. Bioanalytical and chemical evaluation of disinfection by-products in swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ruby Y L; Farré, Maria José; Stalter, Daniel; Tang, Janet Y M; Molendijk, Jeffrey; Escher, Beate I

    2014-08-01

    Pool water disinfection is vital to prevent microbial pathogens. However, potentially hazardous disinfection by-products (DBP) are formed from the reaction between disinfectants and organic/inorganic precursors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of DBPs in various swimming pool types in Brisbane, Australia, including outdoor, indoor and baby pools, and the dynamics after a complete water renewal. Chemical analysis of 36 regulated and commonly found DBPs and total adsorbable organic halogens as well as in vitro bioassays targeting cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity were used to evaluate swimming pool water quality. Dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid dominated in the pool water samples with higher levels (up to 2600 μg/L) than the health guideline values set by the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (100 μg/L). Chlorinated DBPs occurred at higher concentrations compared to tap water, while brominated DBPs decreased gradually with increasing pool water age. Biological effects were expressed as chloroacetic acid equivalent concentrations and compared to predicted effects from chemical analysis and biological characterisation of haloacetic acids. The quantified haloacetic acids explained 35-118% of the absorbable organic halogens but less than 4% of the observed non-specific toxicity (cytotoxicity), and less than 1% of the observed oxidative stress response and genotoxicity. While the DBP concentrations in Australian pools found in this study are not likely to cause any adverse health effect, they are higher than in other countries and could be reduced by better hygiene of pool users, such as thorough showering prior to entering the pool and avoiding urination during swimming.

  1. Health effects of disinfection by-products in chlorinated swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Hautemanière, Alexis; Hartemann, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Increased attendance at swimming pools is correlated with higher input of organic and minerals pollutants introduced by swimmers in the swimming pool water. In most swimming pools, microbiological control is performed by disinfection with the addition of chlorine. Chlorine is now well-known to lead to the formation of many disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes and chloramines. The hypothesis of a link between the presence of eye and skin irritation syndromes in swimmers and contact with swimming pool water treated with chlorine was initially proposed by Mood (1953). During recent decades many epidemiological studies have described the importance of DBPs generated with natural or imported organic matter present in water. Many of these DBPs are suspected to be toxic or even carcinogenic. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acid families are the most studied but others DBPs, like chloral hydrate, haloacetonitriles, N-nitrosodimethylamine and the bromate ion, are emerging compounds of interest. Epidemiological data about the risk of cancer are still controversial. However, numerous publications highlight a toxic risk especially the risk of allergy and respiratory symptoms for babies and elite swimmers. The few publications dedicated to risk assessment do not suggest increased risk, other than for elite swimmers. These publications are likely to underestimate the risk associated with DBPs because of the lack of data in the literature precludes the calculation of risk associated with certain compounds or certain pathways. Thus for regulations, the need to take into account the risks associated with disinfection by-products is now important without forgetting the need of the control of microbiological hazards in swimming pools. PMID:21885333

  2. An Investigation on Physicochemical and Microbial Water Quality of Swimming Pools in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dehvari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disrespect of health regulations and proper disinfection of water and swimming pools is effective in incidence of health problems and transfer of infectious diseases to swimmers. The aim of this research was to investigate water of swimming pools in Yazd city and compare the results with national standards. Methods: In this study, 11 active covered swimming pools of Yazd city were sampled as census. Parameters of temperature, pH, amount of free and Combined chlorine residual, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, the population of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fecal streptococci, and fecal coliforms were studied. Sampling has been conducted every two weaks for 3 months and samples were analyzed under standard procedures. Results: In this research, amount of pH in 84.73%, free residual chlorine in 44.18%, Combined residual chlorine in 72.45%, alkalinity in19.82%, turbidity in 86.36%, hardness in 57.18% and temperature in 13.73% Samples were desirable. The fecal streptococci bacteria was not shown in all the swimming pools and population of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fecal coliforms in 56.73%, 93.27%, 79.36% and 91.45% cases were desirable, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a direct relationship between Water turbidity and population of heterotraphic bacteria. Conclusion: According to the results, the parameters of heterotrophic bacteria population, also the alkalinity and temperature had the least compliant with the standards that shows the necessity for continuous monitoring of physical, chemical and microbial parameters and also control of filtration and disinfection of water condition of swimming pools.

  3. What’s in the Pool? A Comprehensive Identification of Disinfection By-Products and Assessment of Mutagenicity of Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pool Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in pool water and related those DBPs to the mutagenicity of pool wate...

  4. THE ASSESSMENT OF THE PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE LİFEGUARD SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Gundogdu, Cemal

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the case of selection and education of the lifeguards at public pools is studied. For this purpose, the control list related to the lifeguard education and selection in total 80 swimming pools,olympic-semi olympic,open and closed, that are used for sportive purposes belonging to Youth and Sport General Directorship and Local adminstration," was filled by the natural observations and face to face contact technics. As a result, it is found that, the pools in Turkey are n...

  5. Volatile disinfection byproducts resulting from chlorination of uric acid: implications for swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lushi; E, Yue; Li, Jing; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2014-03-18

    Cyanogen chloride (CNCl) and trichloramine (NCl3) are important disinfection byproducts in chlorinated swimming pools. However, some unknowns exist regarding the precursors of their formation. In this study, uric acid is shown to be an efficient precursor to formation of CNCl and NCl3. The molar yields of CNCl and NCl3 were observed to be as high as 44% (pH = 6.0, chlorine/precursor molar ratio [Cl/P] = 6.4) and 108% (pH = 7.0, Cl/P = 30), respectively, both being strong functions of Cl/P, pH, and temperature. Analysis of swimming pool water samples, combined with the results of experiments involving chlorination of uric acid, and chlorination of body fluid analog mixtures, indicated that uric acid chlorination may account for a large fraction of CNCl formation in swimming pools. Moreover, given that uric acid introduction to pools is attributable to urination, a voluntary action for most swimmers, these findings indicate important benefits to pool water and air chemistry that could result from improved hygiene habits on the part of swimmers.

  6. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min−1 for chloroform to 0.523 min−1 for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m−3 d−1 and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m−3 d−1, while 2.6 kWh m−3 d−1 was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m−3 d−1. It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes. - Highlights: ► UV irradiation is able to degrade all 12 investigated disinfection by-products. ► Bromine species are easier to remove than their chlorinated analogues. ► UV dose used for combined chlorine was comparable with doses required for DBP removal. ► Significant removal of some disinfection by-products in swimming pools is indicated

  7. The role of risk management in decrease of lawsuits of swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Izadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study of risk management practices in decrease of lawsuits in public and private swimming pools in Tehran. The statistical population of the research included 310 managers of public and private swimming pools which 119 were selected as statistical samples by means of random sampling. The research method was descriptive and survey, and in measurement form. 2 questionnaires were used, on relating to demographic data and general information and the other to risk management practices and their validity was determined by alpha Cronbach method. The required information was collected by personal interviews during the time acting of managers in pools gathered and the data was analyzed by using person correlation coefficient. The result of this study indicated that: Significant relationship existed between incidents of accidents/injuries and lawsuits in swimming pools in Tehran. Significant relationship existed between risk management practice and accidents/injuries and lawsuits. Significant relationship existed between risk management practice and lawsuits and lawsuits.

  8. New halogenated disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water and their permeability across skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Zhang, Xiangru; Zhai, Hongyan; Lo, Irene M C; Tipoe, George L; Yang, Mengting; Pan, Yang; Chen, Guanghao

    2012-07-01

    Chlorine is widely used for disinfecting public swimming pool water. The disinfectant chlorine, protecting swimmers from pathogenic infection in swimming, may be responsible for some adverse effects on swimmers' skin and health. In this study, numerous new halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in chlorinated pool water were detected with a powerful precursor ion scan method using electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, with or without preseparation with ultra performance liquid chromatography. These new pool DBPs were demonstrated to be mainly halo(nitro)phenols, resulting from chlorination of human body substances (such as urine) in the presence of bromide. Among these new DBPs, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2-bromophenol, 2,6-dibromo-4-nitrophenol, 2-bromo-6-chloro-4-nitrophenol, and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol were fully identified or confirmed. For 2,4-dibromophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2-bromophenol with pure standard compounds available, their permeability values across human skin were measured to be 0.031, 0.021, and 0.023 cm/h, respectively. The effects of chlorine on human skin were also investigated. The interaction of chlorine with epidermis was found to generate many new halogenated DBPs as well as common DBPs; the corneous layer was observed to become rough and even form larger pores after chlorine interaction. It is recommended that swimmers should avoid urinating in pools, and avoid prolonged swimming to reduce chlorine contact and prevent accelerated permeation of DBPs across skin.

  9. What’s in the Pool? A Comprehensive Identification of Disinfection By-Products and Assessment of Mutagenicity of Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pool Water

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, S.D.; Demarini, D.M.; Kogevinas, M; Fernandez, P.; Marco, E.; Lourencetti, C.; Balleste, C.; Heederik, D; Meliefste, K.; McKague, A.B.; Marcos, R.; Font-Ribera, L.; J.O. Grimalt; Villanueva, C M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in the water and related that to mutagenicity. OBJECTIVES: We performed a comprehensive identification of DBPs and disinfectant species in waters from public swimming pools in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, that disinfect with either chlorine or bromine, and we determined the...

  10. Swimming Pools, File name = RECREATION. Swimming pools are a portion of this dataset. http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'File...

  11. Swimming Pools, Points indicating locations of public swimming pools in the City of Baltimore, MD, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, City of Baltimore.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is described...

  12. Efficiency of heat pump ventilation and water heating system in an indoor swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Безродний, Михайло Костянтинович; Кутра, Дмитро Сергійович; Морощук, Олександр Олександрович

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic efficiency of the heat pump ventilation and water heating system of indoor swimming pool with partial exhaust air recirculation and heat pump bypass is analyzed in the paper. The purpose of the work is to determine the system efficiency depending on the change of fresh supply air temperature, ventilation system intensity and heat pump bypassing factor. As a result of implementing the developed mathematical model using the method of successive approximations, dependences of t...

  13. Pulmonary Epithelial Integrity in Children: Relationship to Ambient Ozone Exposure and Swimming Pool Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerkvist, Birgitta Json; Bernard, Alfred; Blomberg, Anders; Bergstrom, Erik; Forsberg, Bertil; Holmstrom, Karin; Karp, Kjell; Lundstrom, Nils-Goran; Segerstedt, Bo; Svensson, Mona; Nordberg, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Airway irritants such as ozone are known to impair lung function and induce airway inflammation. Clara cell protein (CC16) is a small anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells. CC16 in serum has been proposed as a noninvasive and sensitive marker of lung epithelial injury. In this study, we used lung function and serum CC16 concentration to examine the pulmonary responses to ambient O3 exposure and swimming pool attendance. The measurements were made on 57 ...

  14. Outbreaks of Short-Incubation Ocular and Respiratory Illness Following Exposure to Indoor Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anna B.; Kile, James C.; Otto, Charles; Kazerouni, Neely; Austin, Connie; Blount, Benjamin C.; Wong, Hong-Nei; Beach, Michael J.; Fry, Alicia M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Chlorination destroys pathogens in swimming pool water, but by-products of chlorination can cause human illness. We investigated outbreaks of ocular and respiratory symptoms associated with chlorinated indoor swimming pools at two hotels. Measurements We interviewed registered guests and companions who stayed at hotels X and Y within 2 days of outbreak onset. We performed bivariate and stratified analyses, calculated relative risks (RR), and conducted environmental investigations of indoor pool areas. Results Of 77 guests at hotel X, 47 (61%) completed questionnaires. Among persons exposed to the indoor pool area, 22 (71%) of 31 developed ocular symptoms [RR = 24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5–370], and 14 (45%) developed respiratory symptoms (RR = 6.8; 95% CI, 1.0–47) with a median duration of 10 hr (0.25–24 hr). We interviewed 30 (39%) of 77 registered persons and 59 unregistered companions at hotel Y. Among persons exposed to the indoor pool area, 41 (59%) of 69 developed ocular symptoms (RR = 24; 95% CI, 1.5–370), and 28 (41%) developed respiratory symptoms (RR = 17; 95% CI, 1.1–260) with a median duration of 2.5 hr (2 min–14 days). Four persons sought medical care. During the outbreak, the hotel X’s ventilation system malfunctioned. Appropriate water and air samples were not available for laboratory analysis. Conclusions and relevance to professional practice Indoor pool areas were associated with illness in these outbreaks. A large proportion of bathers were affected; symptoms were consistent with chloramine exposure and were sometimes severe. Improved staff training, pool maintenance, and pool area ventilation could prevent future outbreaks. PMID:17384776

  15. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: Applications to swimming pool and bath environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m-3 in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m-3 in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  16. Prevalence and Antimicrobial-Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pools and Hot Tubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Lutz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21% were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate, aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen.

  17. Rapid Assay for In Situ Identification of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci Recovered by Membrane Filtration from Swimming Pool Water

    OpenAIRE

    Klapes, N. Arlene; Vesley, Donald

    1986-01-01

    A rapid, in situ thermonuclease test that identifies colonies of Staphylococcus aureus among staphylococci isolated from swimming pool water by membrane filtration recovery on various selective and differential media is described.

  18. Prevalence of Ocular, Respiratory and Cutaneous Symptoms in Indoor Swimming Pool Workers and Exposure to Disinfection By-Products (DBPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmina Fantuzzi; Elena Righi; Guerrino Predieri; Pierluigi Giacobazzi; Katia Mastroianni; Gabriella Aggazzotti

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory, ocular and cutaneous symptoms in subjects working at indoor swimming pools and to assess the relationship between frequency of declared symptoms and occupational exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs). Twenty indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 133 employees was collected using a self-adminis...

  19. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF USING COMPLEX OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND SILVER FOR DISINFECTING SWIMMING POOL WATER AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nabizadeh ، N. Samadi ، Z. Sadeghpour ، M. Beikzadeh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the application of Nanosil containing hydrogen peroxide and silver was studied in disinfecting swimming pool water and it's Environment. The effect of the disinfectant on Candida albicans (ATCC No. 10231, Aspergillus niger (ATCCNo. 16404, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC No. 9027, Serratia marcescens (PTCC No. 1111, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC No. 10031 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC No. 29737 was evaluated. The main objective of this experiment was to determine the effective dose of Nanosil which could be used for disinfecting the environment of swimming pools and other surface area. Then, the effectiveness of Nanosil was studied in two private and one public swimming pools. Heterotrophic plate count, thermotolerant coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were monitored as the target microorganisms in disinfection practice According to the result of this study, it is recommended to apply the Nanosil with the concentration of ≥3% (30000 mg/L for contact time of 30 min or more for practical disinfection in swimming pools environment. The application of Nanosil in real conditions of two private and one public swimming pools indicated that the acceptable microbial quality is also achievable if the disinfectant residual concentration would be as high as 20 mg/L in swimming pool water.

  20. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Kamilla M.S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Zortea, Raissa [Department of Land, Environment and Geotechnology Engineering, Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy); Piketty, Aurelia [Institute of Chemistry, Industrial and Chemical Engineering and Technology (INP-ENCIACET), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (France); Vega, Sergio Rodriguez [Chemical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain); Andersen, Henrik Rasmus, E-mail: Henrik@ndersen.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min{sup −1} for chloroform to 0.523 min{sup −1} for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, while 2.6 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1} was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1}. It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes. - Highlights: ► UV irradiation is able to degrade all 12 investigated disinfection by-products. ► Bromine species are easier to remove than their chlorinated analogues. ► UV dose used for combined chlorine was comparable with doses required for DBP removal. ► Significant removal of some disinfection by-products in swimming pools is indicated.

  1. Effect of selection of pH in swimming pool on formation of chlorination by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    Chlorine is used as disinfection agent in public swimming pools, but also reacts with organic matter in the water forming chlorinat ed disinfection by-products. In order to evaluate the effect of choice of pHsetpoint in the pool we investigated the effect of chlorination of artificial body fluid...

  2. Biologically active carbon filtration for haloacetic acid removal from swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao L; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-01-15

    A biologically activate carbon (BAC) filter was continuously operated on site for the treatment of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in an outdoor swimming pool at an average empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 5.8 min. Results showed that BAC filtration was a viable technology for direct removal of HAAs from the pool water with a nominal efficiency of 57.7% by the filter while the chlorine residuals were 1.71 ± 0.90 mg/L during the study. THMs and TOC were not removed and thus were not considered as indicators of the effectiveness of BAC filtration. Increased EBCT in the range of 4.5 and 6.4 min led to improved HAA removal performance, which could be best fit by a logarithmic regression model. BAC filtration also affected the HAA speciation by removing more dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) than trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), resulting in a lower ratio of DCAA/TCAA in the filtered effluent. However, the observation of an overall constant ratio could be attributable to a complex formation and degradation mechanism occurring in swimming pools.

  3. Photolysis of inorganic chloramines and efficiency of trichloramine abatement by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltermann, Fabian; Widler, Tobias; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Trichloramine, one of the three inorganic chloramines (mono-, di- and trichloramine), is a problematic disinfection by-product in recreational pool water since it causes skin and eye irritations as well as irritations of the respiratory tract. The most commonly used chloramine mitigation strategy in pool water is UV treatment. Experiments with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) confirmed that inorganic chloramines are effectively degraded by UV irradiation with low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps (apparent quantum yields (QY): NH2Cl = 0.50 (LP) and 0.31 (MP) mol einstein(-1), NHCl2: 1.06 (LP) and 0.85 (MP) mol einstein(-1)). Trichloramine showed the fastest depletion with a quantum yield slightly above 2 mol einstein(-1) in purified (LP and MP) and pool water (MP). This high quantum yield can partly be explained by reactions involving OH radicals (purified water) and the reaction of trichloramine with moieties formed during UV irradiation of pool water. The presence of free chlorine affects trichloramine degradation (QY: ∼1.5 mol einstein(-1)) since it scavenges OH radicals and competes with trichloramine for reactive species (e.g. organic amines). Measurements in a pool facility revealed that the installed UV reactors degraded trichloramine by 40-50% as expected from laboratory experiments. However, trichloramine reduction in the pools was less pronounced than in the UV reactors. Model calculations combining pool hydraulics with formation/abatement of trichloramine showed that there was a fast trichloramine formation in the pool from the residual chlorine and nitrogenous precursors. The main factors influencing trichloramine concentrations in pool water are the free chlorine concentration and the UV treatment in combination with the recirculation rate through the water treatment system.

  4. Temporal change of radiocesium level in the school swimming pools in Kawamata after Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous amount of radioactive nuclides were released into the environment due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In order to understand the behavior of these radioactive nuclides, we have investigated radiocesium level in the school swimming pools in Kawamata away about 40 km from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Water samples were collected on April 30, July 27, and November 9, 2011. These samples were absorbed to ion exchange resin and measured with a Ge semiconductor detector at ICRR, the University of Tokyo for 134Cs(2.06 y) and 137Cs(30.07 y). Change of ratio and concentration of these radiocesium few months after the accident were examined. We also examined the changes of ratio and concentration before and after the replacement of the pools water. The result of the measurements will be reported with review of relevant literatures. (author)

  5. German students in Austria: A psychometric pilot study on developing a modified version of the Sociocultural Adaptation Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Walter; Salem, Ingrid; Menschik-Bendele, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    In previous studies, the Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS) has been employed in studying migrants’ and sojourners’ adaptation to geographically and linguistically distant cultures. In the present study, the SCAS has been modified according to the needs of German students of psychology in Austria. In line with social identity theory and previous empirical evidence, despite the two countries’ vicinity, considerable ethnic tension and adaptation problems of Germans in Austria were expected. ...

  6. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipaun, Susan, E-mail: susan@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Industrial Technology Division, Blok 29T, Bangi 43200, Selangor (Malaysia); Usman, Shoaib, E-mail: usmans@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Nuclear Engineering, 222 Fulton Hall 301 W.14th St., Rolla 64509 MO (United States)

    2016-01-22

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system’s performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm{sup −3}. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR’s nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s{sup −1} from the 4” pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  7. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaun, Susan; Usman, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U3Si2Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system's performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm-3. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR's nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s-1 from the 4" pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  8. Analytical simulation of boiling water reactor pressure suppression pool swell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a loss-of-coolant accident, the pressure suppression pool of a boiling water reactor swells as a steam/air mixture is expelled from the drywell into the pool and large gas bubbles are formed beneath the surface. Many tests have been performed to quantify pool swell loads, but analytical methods have been limited in their ability to provide accurate loading estimates. With advancement of numerical methods, it is now feasible to numerically simulate the pool swell process. A finite difference solution algorithm is used to solve the transient imcompressible equations for the liquid flow field. Boundary conditions at the fluid-gas interface are determined using a simplified gas flow model. The program is used to simulate several pool swell tests: comparison of the simulation with test data shows good agreement

  9. Analytical simulation of boiling water reactor pressure suppression pool swell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    In a loss-of-coolant accident, the pressure suppression pool of a boiling water reactor swells as a steam/air mixture is expelled from the drywell into the pool and large gas bubbles are formed beneath the surface. Many tests have been performed to quantify pool swell loads, but analytical methods have been limited in their ability to provide accurate loading estimates. With advancement of numerical methods, it is now feasible to numerically simulate the pool swell process. A finite difference solution algorithm is used to solve the transient imcompressible equations for the liquid flow field. Boundary conditions at the fluid-gas interface are determined using a simplified gas flow model. The program is used to simulate several pool swell tests: comparison of the simulation with test data shows good agreement.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool Water: Evidences and Perspectives for a New Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic materials was also investigated. In 59.5% of the samples, microbial contamination exceeded the threshold values. P. aeruginosa was isolated in 50.8% of these samples. The presence of P. aeruginosa was not correlated with free or total chlorine amount (R2 < 0.1. All the isolates were moderate- to strong-forming biofilm (Optical Density O.D.570 range 0.7–1.2. To control biofilm formation and P. aeruginosa colonization, Quantum FreeBioEnergy© (QFBE, FreeBioEnergy, Brisighella, Italy, has been applied with encouraging preliminary results. It is a new, promising control strategy based on the change of an electromagnetic field which is responsible for the proliferation of some microorganisms involved in biofilm formation, such as P. aeruginosa.

  11. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba spp. from thermal swimming pools and spas in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Rosa Dos Santos, Sayonara Peixoto; Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2016-03-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed in soil and water. A few number of them are implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Species of Acanthamoeba can cause keratitis and brain infections. In this study, 72 water samples were taken from both hot tubs and thermal swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the water as well as perform the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates. The identification of the isolates was based on the cysts morphology and PCR amplification using genus-specific oligonucleotides. When the isolates were submitted to PCR reaction only 8 were confirmed as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba. The sequences analysis when compared to the sequences in the GenBank, showed genotype distribution in group T3 (12,5%), T5 (12,5%), T4 (25%) and T15 (50%). The results of this study confirmed the presence of potentially pathogenic isolates of free living amoebae in hot swimming pool and spas which can present risks to human health.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool Water: Evidences and Perspectives for a New Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Marco; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Gallè, Francesca; Gesuele, Renato; Valeriani, Federica; Liguori, Renato; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Liguori, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated in swimming pool settings. Nine recreational and rehabilitative swimming pools were monitored according to the local legislation. The presence of P. aeruginosa was correlated to chlorine concentration. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm on plastic materials was also investigated. In 59.5% of the samples, microbial contamination exceeded the threshold values. P. aeruginosa was isolated in 50.8% of these samples. The presence of P. aeruginosa was not correlated with free or total chlorine amount (R² < 0.1). All the isolates were moderate- to strong-forming biofilm (Optical Density O.D.570 range 0.7-1.2). To control biofilm formation and P. aeruginosa colonization, Quantum FreeBioEnergy© (QFBE, FreeBioEnergy, Brisighella, Italy), has been applied with encouraging preliminary results. It is a new, promising control strategy based on the change of an electromagnetic field which is responsible for the proliferation of some microorganisms involved in biofilm formation, such as P. aeruginosa. PMID:27649225

  13. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and UV filters in swimming pools and spas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekowati, Yuli; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Ferrero, Giuliana; Valle-Sistac, Jennifer; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvía; Barceló, Damià; Petrovic, Mira; Villagrasa, Marta; Kennedy, Maria D; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of 32 pharmaceuticals and 14 UV filters in swimming pools and spas was studied. Fifty-one water samples were collected from 17 pools located in sport centres and hotels in Catalonia, Spain. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmaceuticals atenolol, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide, metronidazole, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and phenazone were measured in water samples at concentrations higher than their limit of quantification (LOQ). The highest concentration of any individual pharmaceutical was measured for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (904 ng/L). The most frequently detected pharmaceutical was carbamazepine, as it was observed in more than half of all the water samples measured (53 %, 27/51). The UV filters at concentrations higher than LOQ in water samples were BP1, BP2, BP3, BP8, THB, 4DHB, 4MBC, OD-PABA, 1HBT, MeBT and DMeBT. The highest concentration of UV filter observed was 4MBC (69.3 ng/L) while the most frequent UV filters in the samples were 1HBT (59 %, 30/51). The results also showed that pharmaceuticals and UV filters were most frequently found in spas. Finally, from a water treatment technology perspective, the lowest occurrence of pharmaceuticals was in the pools applying sand filters followed by disinfection by sodium hypochlorite, while the lowest occurrence of UV filters was in the pools applying coagulation, sand filtration, UV and salt electrolysis. PMID:27068900

  14. What's in The Pool? A Comprehensive Identification Of Disinfection By-Products and Assessment of Mutagenicity of Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pool Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in the water and related that to mutagenicity. We performed a compreh...

  15. What's in the pool? A comprehensive identification of disinfection by-products and assessment of mutagenicity of chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, S.D.; Demarini, D.M.; Kogevinas, M.; Fernandez, P.; Marco, E.; Lourencetti, C.; Balleste, C.; Heederik, D.; Meliefste, K.; McKague, A.B.; Marcos, R.; Font-Ribera, L.; Grimalt, J.O.; Villanueva, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in the water and related that to mutagenicity. OBJECTIVES: We performed a com

  16. Autonomic adaptation after traditional and reverse swimming training periodizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Fernandes, R J; Arroyo-Toledo, J J; Figueiredo, P; González-Ravé, J M; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the autonomic response of trained swimmers to traditional and reverse training periodization models. Seventeen swimmers were divided in two groups, performing a traditional periodization (TPG) or a reverse periodization (RPG) during a period of 10 weeks. Heart rate variability and 50 m swimming performance were analyzed before and after the training programs. After training, the TPG decreased the values of the high frequency band (HF), the number of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals longer than 50 ms (NN50) and the percentage of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals more than 50 ms (pNN50), and the RPG increased the values of HF and square root of the mean of the sum of the squared differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals (RMSSD). None of the groups improved significantly their performance in the 50-m test. The autonomic response of swimmers was different depending on the periodization performed, with the reverse periodization model leading to higher autonomic adaption. Complementary, the data suggests that autonomic adaptations were not critical for the 50-m swimming performance. PMID:25804392

  17. Comparison of swimming pools alternative passive and active heating systems based on renewable energy sources in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines different passive and active heating systems for swimming pools. The passive systems introduced in this article are: * The swimming pools' enclosure. * The placement of floating insulating covers on the pools' surfaces whenever they are not used. The examined active systems in this article are: * A biomass heater. * A biomass heater and solar collectors combi-system. * Vertical geothermal heat exchangers (GHE) co-operating with geothermal heat pumps (GHP). The methodology employed for the introduced systems' evaluation is the arithmetic computational simulation of the swimming pools' annual heating, using annual time series of averaged hourly values for the available solar radiation and the calculated pools' thermal power demand (heating loads). The dimensioning of the active systems aims at the maximisation of the heating production from R.E.S. (renewable energy sources). and the optimisation of the corresponding investments' economic indexes. The examined systems are evaluated technically and economically versus fundamental criteria. It is proved that significant reduction of the heating loads is achieved with the introduced passive systems. The reduced swimming pools' heating loads can be successfully covered by the proposed R.E.S. active systems. The fossil fuels consumption is eliminated. The corresponding investments' payback periods can be lower than 5 years. - Highlights: • The passive solar systems reduce the swimming pools heating loads more than 90%. • The examined active heating system exhibit payback periods lower than 3.5 years. • The energy saving is maximised with a biomass heater – solar collectors system. • Single biomass heaters exhibits the shortest payback period. • GHE–GHP can be used in cases of low solar radiation and lack of biomass fuels

  18. Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMaster Marianne E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a case-control study a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. In this paper, a neurogenic hypothesis is formulated to explain how toxins produced by chlorine in such pools may act deleteriously on the infant's immature central nervous system, comprising brain and spinal cord, to produce the deformity of AIS. Presentation of the hypothesis Through vulnerability of the developing central nervous system to circulating toxins, and because of delayed epigenetic effects, the trunk deformity of AIS does not become evident until adolescence. In mature healthy swimmers using such pools, the circulating neurotoxins detected are chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Cyanogen chloride and dichloroacetonitrile have also been detected. Testing the hypothesis In infants, the putative portals of entry to the blood could be dermal, oral, or respiratory; and entry of such circulating small molecules to the brain are via the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and circumventricular organs. Barrier mechanisms of the developing brain differ from those of adult brain and have been linked to brain development. During the first 6 months of life cerebrospinal fluid contains higher concentrations of specific proteins relative to plasma, attributed to mechanisms continued from fetal brain development rather than immaturity. Implications of the hypothesis The hypothesis can be tested. If confirmed, there is potential to prevent some children from developing AIS.

  19. Characterization of a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain isolated from an abandoned swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Karine M; Hartwig, Daiane D; Seixas, Fabiana K; McBride, Alan J A; Monte, Leonardo G; Recuero, Ana Lúcia C; Brod, Claudiomar S; Hartleben, Cláudia P; Amaral, Marta; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the etiological agents of leptospirosis, an important disease of both humans and animals. In urban settings, L. interrogans serovars are the predominant cause of disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel Leptospira isolate recovered from an abandoned swimming pool. Molecular characterization through sequencing of the rpoB gene revealed 100% identity with L. interrogans and variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis resulted in a banding pattern identical to L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, serovar Copenhageni or Icterohaemorrhagiae. The virulence of the strain was determined in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) was calculated to be two leptospires in female hamsters and a histopathological examination of infected animals found typical lesions associated with severe leptospirosis, including renal epithelium degeneration, hepatic karyomegaly, liver-plate disarray and lymphocyte infiltration. This highly virulent strain is now available for use in further studies, especially evaluation of vaccine candidates.

  20. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini [Water ApS, Farum Gydevej 64, 3520 Farum (Denmark); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S., E-mail: kmsh@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  1. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  2. Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisation of the old indoor swimming pool Heidelberg; Sleeping Beauty. Revitalisierung des alten Hallenbads Heidelberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jochen

    2010-07-01

    Since its closure before nearly 30 years due to safety aspects, the monument protected indoor swimming pool in Heidelberg (Federal Republic of Germany) dilapidated appreciably. Only after moving away of the local council from its demand of the wet use, an investor could be found.

  3. Effect of ozonation of swimming pool water on formation of volatile disinfection by-products - A laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram;

    2016-01-01

    byproducts during subsequent chlorination. The ozone reaction was observed to behave according to first order kinetics. For tap water half-life was 4 min whilst polluted and unpolluted pool water exhibited half-life of 8 and 11 min, respectively. When ozonation dosage was repeated half-life of ozone......Ozonation experiments were performed using unchlorinated tap water used for filling municipal swimming pools, actual pool water and pool water polluted by addition of fresh tap water and artificial body fluid to evaluate ozone kinetics and water quality effects on formation of volatile disinfection...... was approximated 17-19 min in all samples. Subsequent chlorination revealed ozone removed reactivity of dissolved organic carbon toward chlorine for tap and polluted pool water, decreasing formation rate of trihalomethanes (TTHM). In pool water higher rates of TTHM formation was observed after the initial ozone...

  4. Conceptual design of a pool type molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewed interest in molten salt coolant technology is backed by the 50 years history of molten salt nuclear technology development, mainly in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In Indian context MSBR is found to be one of the options for sustainable nuclear energy generation, especially in the third stage of the nuclear programme. The system can be operated at high temperature which makes high efficiency power conversion and efficient hydrogen generation through thermo-chemical reactions possible. At present development is in progress in BARC on two molten salt reactor concepts, one is pool type and the other is loop type. Here the design of pool type concept with 850MWe power is described. The core is designed to operate in the fast spectrum region so the conversion of 233U breeding is possible from thorium. Preliminary thermal hydraulic analysis is carried out with LiF-ThF4-UF4 as the primary fuel and coolant. The blanket material is also a molten salt, LiF-ThF4. Reactor physics calculations are also carried out for the feasibility studies of the core design of the reactor. FLiNaK is used as the secondary coolant for the calculations. Both forced circulation and natural circulation options are evaluated. (author)

  5. Prevalence of Ocular, Respiratory and Cutaneous Symptoms in Indoor Swimming Pool Workers and Exposure to Disinfection By-Products (DBPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmina Fantuzzi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory, ocular and cutaneous symptoms in subjects working at indoor swimming pools and to assess the relationship between frequency of declared symptoms and occupational exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs. Twenty indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 133 employees was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Subjects working at swimming pools claimed to frequently experience the following symptoms: cold (65.4%, sneezing (52.6%, red eyes (48.9% and itchy eyes (44.4%. Only 7.5% claimed to suffer from asthma. Red eyes, runny nose, voice loss and cold symptoms were declared more frequently by pool attendants (lifeguards and trainers when compared with employees working in other areas of the facility (office, cafe, etc.. Pool attendants experienced generally more verrucas, mycosis, eczema and rash than others workers; however, only the difference in the frequency of self-declared mycosis was statistically significant (p = 0.010. Exposure to DBPs was evaluated using both environmental and biological monitoring. Trihalomethanes (THMs, the main DBPs, were evaluated in alveolar air samples collected from subjects. Swimming pool workers experienced different THM exposure levels: lifeguards and trainers showed the highest mean values of THMs in alveolar air samples (28.5 ± 20.2 µg/m3, while subjects working in cafe areas (17.6 ± 12.1 µg/m3, offices (14.4 ± 12.0 µg/m3 and engine rooms (13.6 ± 4.4 µg/m3 showed lower exposure levels. Employees with THM alveolar air values higher than 21 µg/m3 (median value experienced higher risks for red eyes (OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.6–14.9, itchy eyes (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.5–8.0, dyspnea/asthma (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.0–27.2 and blocked nose (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.0–4.7 than subjects with less exposure. This study confirms

  6. Prevalence of ocular, respiratory and cutaneous symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers and exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; Righi, Elena; Predieri, Guerrino; Giacobazzi, Pierluigi; Mastroianni, Katia; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory, ocular and cutaneous symptoms in subjects working at indoor swimming pools and to assess the relationship between frequency of declared symptoms and occupational exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs). Twenty indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 133 employees was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Subjects working at swimming pools claimed to frequently experience the following symptoms: cold (65.4%), sneezing (52.6%), red eyes (48.9%) and itchy eyes (44.4%). Only 7.5% claimed to suffer from asthma. Red eyes, runny nose, voice loss and cold symptoms were declared more frequently by pool attendants (lifeguards and trainers) when compared with employees working in other areas of the facility (office, cafe, etc.). Pool attendants experienced generally more verrucas, mycosis, eczema and rash than others workers; however, only the difference in the frequency of self-declared mycosis was statistically significant (p = 0.010). Exposure to DBPs was evaluated using both environmental and biological monitoring. Trihalomethanes (THMs), the main DBPs, were evaluated in alveolar air samples collected from subjects. Swimming pool workers experienced different THM exposure levels: lifeguards and trainers showed the highest mean values of THMs in alveolar air samples (28.5 +/- 20.2 microg/m(3)), while subjects working in cafe areas (17.6 +/- 12.1 microg/m(3)), offices (14.4 +/- 12.0 microg/m(3)) and engine rooms (13.6 +/- 4.4 microg/m(3)) showed lower exposure levels. Employees with THM alveolar air values higher than 21 microg/m(3) (median value) experienced higher risks for red eyes (OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.6-14.9), itchy eyes (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.5-8.0), dyspnea/asthma (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.0-27.2) and blocked nose (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.0-4.7) than subjects with less exposure

  7. Detection and quantification of human adenovirus genomes in Acanthamoeba isolated from swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Arantes, Thalita; Caumo, Karin S; Rott, Marilise B; Spilki, Fernando R

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is the most common free-living environmental amoeba, it may serve as an important vehicle for various microorganisms living in the same environment, such as viruses, being pathogenic to humans. This study aimed to detect and quantify human adenoviruses (HAdV) in Acanthamoebas isolated from water samples collected from swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba were isolated from water samples, and isolates (n=16) were used to investigate the occurrence of HAdVs. HAdV detection was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). HAdVs were detected in 62.5% (10/16) of Acanthamoeba isolates, ranging from 3.24x103 to 5.14x105 DNA copies per milliliter of isolate. HAdV viral loads found in this study are not negligible, especially because HAdV infections are associated with several human diseases, including gastroenteritis, respiratory distress, and ocular diseases. These findings reinforce the concept that Acanthamoeba may act as a reservoir and promote HAdV transmission through water. PMID:27142544

  8. Detection and quantification of human adenovirus genomes in Acanthamoeba isolated from swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO STAGGEMEIER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acanthamoeba is the most common free-living environmental amoeba, it may serve as an important vehicle for various microorganisms living in the same environment, such as viruses, being pathogenic to humans. This study aimed to detect and quantify human adenoviruses (HAdV in Acanthamoebas isolated from water samples collected from swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba were isolated from water samples, and isolates (n=16 were used to investigate the occurrence of HAdVs. HAdV detection was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. HAdVs were detected in 62.5% (10/16 of Acanthamoeba isolates, ranging from 3.24x103 to 5.14x105 DNA copies per milliliter of isolate. HAdV viral loads found in this study are not negligible, especially because HAdV infections are associated with several human diseases, including gastroenteritis, respiratory distress, and ocular diseases. These findings reinforce the concept that Acanthamoeba may act as a reservoir and promote HAdV transmission through water.

  9. Characterization of a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain isolated from an abandoned swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M. Forster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the etiological agents of leptospirosis, an important disease of both humans and animals. In urban settings, L. interrogans serovars are the predominant cause of disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel Leptospira isolate recovered from an abandoned swimming pool. Molecular characterization through sequencing of the rpoB gene revealed 100% identity with L. interrogans and variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR analysis resulted in a banding pattern identical to L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, serovar Copenhageni or Icterohaemorrhagiae. The virulence of the strain was determined in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis. The lethal dose 50% (LD50 was calculated to be two leptospires in female hamsters and a histopathological examination of infected animals found typical lesions associated with severe leptospirosis, including renal epithelium degeneration, hepatic karyomegaly, liver-plate disarray and lymphocyte infiltration. This highly virulent strain is now available for use in further studies, especially evaluation of vaccine candidates.

  10. Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gallè

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated with users’ health-related behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to collect data from two different target groups of swimming users: 184 adults and 184 children/adolescents. The association between specific variables and patterns of behaviors and knowledge was assessed through multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Although more than 80% of both groups declared they knew the regulations, compliance with healthy behaviors was often unsatisfactory, especially in adolescents and youth. In the children/adolescents group, healthy behaviors significantly increased with the frequency of attendance per week. In both groups, compliance increased with educational level (of parents for children/adolescents, while no positive association was observed between viewing the regulations and adopting appropriate behaviors. In the adult group, a higher knowledge/awareness of health risks was related to decreased odds of at least one unhealthy behavior. Conclusions: Guaranteeing the public display of regulations in swimming facilities is not sufficient to promote and change health-related behaviors. Much more attention should be given to educational interventions aimed to increase knowledge of health risks and the awareness that bathers are directly responsible for their own well-being.

  11. Airborne trichloramine (NCl(3)) levels and self-reported health symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers: dose-response relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; Righi, Elena; Predieri, Guerrino; Giacobazzi, Pierluigi; Petra, Berchotd; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pool is a risk factor for irritative ocular and respiratory symptoms and bronchial asthma is well known in literature, although epidemiological evidence is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between airborne trichloramine (NCl(3)) levels and irritative symptoms in swimming pool employees in order to obtain detailed data regarding dose-response relationships and to identify the airborne NCl(3) exposure level, if any, without health effects. A total of 20 indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 128 employees was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Exposure to airborne NCl(3) was evaluated in indoor swimming pools by a modified DPD/KI method. The results of the study evidenced a mean value of airborne NCl(3) of 0.65±0.20 mg/m(3) (ranging from 0.20 to 1.02 mg/m(3)). Both ocular and upper respiratory symptoms, in particular red eyes, runny nose, voice loss and cold symptoms, were declared more frequently by lifeguards and trainers when compared with employees working in other areas of the facility (office, cafe, and so on). Pool attendants exposed to airborne NCl(3) levels of >0.5 mg/m(3) experienced higher risks for runny nose (OR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.22-6.93) red eyes (OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.46-6.82), voice loss (OR: 3.56; 95% CI: 1.60-7.95) and itchy eyes (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.04-4.78) than other employees. Moreover, red eyes, itchy eyes, runny nose and voice loss are related to airborne NCl(3) levels, with strong dose-response relationships. In conclusion, this study shows that lifeguards and trainers experience ocular and respiratory irritative symptoms more frequently than employees not exposed. Irritative symptoms become significant starting from airborne NCl(3) levels of >0.5 mg/m(3), confirming that the WHO-recommended value can be considered protective in

  12. Swimming training induces liver mitochondrial adaptations to oxidative stress in rats submitted to repeated exhaustive swimming bouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico D Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although acute exhaustive exercise is known to increase liver reactive oxygen species (ROS production and aerobic training has shown to improve the antioxidant status in the liver, little is known about mitochondria adaptations to aerobic training. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the aerobic training on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in liver mitochondria both after training and in response to three repeated exhaustive swimming bouts. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into training (n = 14 and control (n = 14 groups. Training group performed a 6-week swimming training protocol. Subsets of training (n = 7 and control (n = 7 rats performed 3 repeated exhaustive swimming bouts with 72 h rest in between. Oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and mitochondria functionality were assessed. RESULTS: Trained group showed increased reduced glutathione (GSH content and reduced/oxidized (GSH/GSSG ratio, higher superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity, and decreased lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria. Aerobic training protected against exhaustive swimming ROS production herein characterized by decreased oxidative stress markers, higher antioxidant defenses, and increases in methyl-tetrazolium reduction and membrane potential. Trained group also presented higher time to exhaustion compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training induced positive adaptations in liver mitochondria of rats. Increased antioxidant defense after training coped well with exercise-produced ROS and liver mitochondria were less affected by exhaustive exercise. Therefore, liver mitochondria also adapt to exercise-induced ROS and may play an important role in exercise performance.

  13. Swimming Pools, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Salisbury Wicomico County Department of Planning, Zoning & Community Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. Data by this publisher are...

  14. Swimming Pools, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Swimming Pools dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as 'Part of...

  15. Diarrhea and Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pool What to Do if You Have Diarrhea Diarrhea and Swimming Diarrhea and swimming don’t mix! ... small amount of pool water to become infected. Diarrhea and Spreading Illness at the Pool Infectious diarrhea ...

  16. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Eight Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eighth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Past Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 15 to 18 April 1975. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMPBR’s and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  17. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  18. Observation of fallout deposition in an outdoor swimming pool 50 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), outdoor school swimming pools at Fukushima were decontaminated to curb the redistribution of radioactivity into downstream farmlands. In the process, the radioactivity concentrations of the pool water and sediment substances (residue) were measured to estimate the deposition density of the fallout. At a pool situated 50 km away from the NPP, the average concentrations of radiocesium (134+137Cs) for the water and residue were quantified as 170 Bq L−1 and 3.6 × 105 Bq kg−1, respectively. Taking account of the radioactivity concentrations and of the water balance in and around the pool, the deposition density of radiocesium, as of August 2011, was precisely determined to be 0.32 ± 0.03 MBq m−2 (k = 1). The density corroborated the previous results obtained by other methods, i.e., airborne surveys, in-situ Ge surveys and soil samplings at neighboring locations. Other than radiocesium, the only gamma-emitting nuclide detected was 110mAg, with a concentration of 560 Bq kg−1 in the residue. The radioactivity concentrations of 89Sr, 90Sr, 238Pu and 239+240Pu in the water were all less than the minimum detectable activities – 2, 0.1, 0.002 and 0.002 Bq L−1, respectively. - Highlights: • Deposition density of radiocesium was estimated at a swimming pool in Fukushima. • The density was determined with a small standard uncertainty of approximately 10%. • Water balance was simulated for estimating radioactivity budget in the pool. • Detected gamma-emitting nuclide was 110mAg other than radiocesium. • Radiocesium was much dominant compared with 89Sr, 90Sr, 110mAg, 238Pu and 239+240Pu

  19. Adapting the reactors Melusine and Siloe to the needs of basic research on exit beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows how CENG swimming pools can be adapted to meet developing needs of basic research on exit beams. The experimental facilities offered are: two radial channels on Siloe and three radial and two tangential channels on Melusine. The use of various channels is outlined and modifications made to the channels described. Improvements involved the socks, protective shielding systems and collimator plugs and at Melusine, the installation of a heavy water tank. Some future trends are outlined

  20. Simulation of power excursions - Osiris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the experimental work accomplished in the U.S.A. on Borax 1 and SPERT 1 and the accident of SL 1, the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' started a research program about the safety of its own swimming Pool reactors, with regard to power excursions. The first research work led to the design of programmed explosive charges, adapted to the simulation of a power excursion. This report describes the application of these methods to the investigation of Osiris safety. (author)

  1. Dynamic simulation and thermo-economic analysis of a PhotoVoltaic/Thermal collector heating system for an indoor–outdoor swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A PV/T heating system for indoor–outdoor swimming pools is proposed. • A comparison among some thermal pool models available in literature is carried out. • Dynamic simulations of the thermal behavior of the swimming-pools are performed. • PV/T thermal energy is used to heat the swimming pool and for DHW production. • Energy and economic parametric analyses of the proposed system are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of an innovative renewable energy plant serving an existing indoor/outdoor swimming pool located in Naples. The proposed solar hybrid system is designed in order to balance the remarkable energy demand of the swimming pool facility and to ensure suitable comfort conditions for swimmers. With the aim to accomplish such goals, the dynamic thermal behavior of the swimming pool was analyzed as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the indoor space and on the meteorological conditions of the pool site. In order to properly design and size the proposed renewable energy system, different thermal pool loss formulations for the calculation of the swimming pool thermal balance, in indoor and outdoor regimes, are adopted. The solar hybrid system consists of a water cooled photovoltaic/thermal collectors plant (PV/T), designed to meet a part of the facility demands of electricity and heat. Electricity is completely utilized by the facility, while the produced thermal energy is primarily used to meet the pool thermal demand and secondarily for sanitary hot water scopes. In order to carry out dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses, the system performance is designed and dynamically simulated in TRNSYS environment. The developed simulation model enables the calculation of both the indoor and outdoor swimming pool thermal losses and the overall energy and economic system performance. Such results are obtained as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the environment, of the occupants and the

  2. UV filters interaction in the chlorinated swimming pool, a new challenge for urbanization, a need for community scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifan, Hamidreza; Klein, David; Morse, Audra N

    2016-07-01

    Sunscreen products and some personal care products contain the Ultraviolet (UV) chemical filters, which are entering the surface water. Public concerns about secondary effects of these compounds are growing because of the contamination of the aquatic environment that may reach to potentially toxic concentration levels. This article highlights the reaction of certain UV filters with hypochlorite disinfectant in the presence of sunlight. Due to urbanization and industrialization, use of outdoor plastic swimming pools is increasing. The relatively smaller volume of these pools compared to larger pools may increase the concentration of the UV filters in the pool and their potential interactions with materials of human origin (urine, sweat, cosmetics, skin cells, and hair) to the levels of toxicity concerns for children through the creation of disinfection by products (DBP). Based on our analysis, the minimum concentration levels of 2.85, 1.9, 1.78 and 0.95g/L, respectively, for EHMC, OC, 4-MBC and BP3 UV filters in children pools are predicted. Therefore, this article calls for an urgent investigation of potential toxic effects of the UV filters, the creation of DBPs and their subsequent impacts on human health. PMID:27088731

  3. ‘Right now, Sophie *swims in the pool?!’: Brain potentials of grammatical aspect processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique eFlecken

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether brain potentials of grammatical aspect processing resemble semantic or morpho-syntactic processing, or whether they instead are characterized by an entirely distinct pattern in the same individuals. We studied aspect from the perspective of agreement between the temporal information in the context (temporal adverbials, e.g., Right now and a morpho-syntactic marker of grammatical aspect (e.g., progressive is swimming. Participants read questions providing a temporal context that was progressive (What is Sophie doing in the pool right now? or habitual (What does Sophie do in the pool every Monday?. Following a lead-in sentence context such as Right now, Sophie…, we measured ERPs time-locked to verb phrases in four different conditions, e.g., (a is swimming (control; (b *is cooking (semantic violation; (c *are swimming (morpho-syntactic violation; or (d?swims (aspect mismatch; …in the pool. The collected ERPs show typical N400 and P600 effects for semantics and morpho-syntax, while aspect processing elicited an Early Negativity (250-350 ms. The aspect-related Negativity was short-lived and had a central scalp distribution with an anterior onset. This differentiates it not only from the semantic N400 effect, but also from the typical (LAN (Left Anterior Negativity, that is frequently reported for various types of agreement processing. Moreover, aspect processing was not accompanied by a clear P600 modulation.We argue that the specific context for each item in this experiment provided a trigger for agreement checking with temporal information encoded on the verb, i.e., morphological aspect marking. The aspect-related Negativity obtained for aspect agreement mismatches reflects a violated expectation concerning verbal inflection (in the example above, the expected verb phrase was Sophie is X-ing rather than Sophie X-s in condition d. The absence of an additional P600 for aspect processing suggests that the mismatch did not

  4. A comparative survey of non-adaptive pooling designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balding, D.J. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Bruno, W.J.; Torney, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Pooling (or {open_quotes}group testing{close_quotes}) designs for screening clone libraries for rare {open_quotes}positives{close_quotes} are described and compared. We focus on non-adaptive designs in which, in order both to facilitate automation and to minimize the total number of pools required in multiple screenings, all the pools are specified in advance of the experiments. The designs considered include deterministic designs, such as set-packing designs, the widely-used {open_quotes}row and column{close_quotes} designs and the more general {open_quotes}transversal{close_quotes} designs, as well as random designs such as {open_quotes}random incidence{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}random k-set{close_quotes} designs. A range of possible performance measures is considered, including the expected numbers of unresolved positive and negative clones, and the probability of a one-pass solution. We describe a flexible strategy in which the experimenter chooses a compromise between the random k-set and the set-packing designs. In general, the latter have superior performance while the former are nearly as efficient and are easier to construct. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Microbiological quality of swimming-pool waters in the province of Badajoz (Spain); Calidad microbiologica de las aguas de piscina en la provinca de Badajoz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba Doblas, A. M.; Ambel Carracedo, M. P.; Cobos Rodriguez, J. G.

    2006-07-01

    The object of the actual work is to evaluate the microbiological quality of swimming pool waters in the province of Badajoz, 79 samples in 33 cities, according to criteria required by the Decreto 54/2002 of the Comunidad Autonoma of Extremadura. the work describes the possible origins of the pollution in the swimming-pool waters and the risks. The parameters analyzed were Termotolerant Coliforms, Faecal streptococci, S. aureus, P. aerogenes, Sulphate reducing bacteria and Salmonella spp. Results show that 62% of these fulfil microbiological quality criteria. the presence of Sulphate reducing bacteria was found in 24% of the samples, and P. aerogenes was detected in 16% of them. (Author) 20 refs.

  6. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário J.; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Vilas-Boas, J. Paulo; Barbosa, Tiago M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i) present two testing points; (ii) on swimming physiology; (iii) using adult elite swimmers; (iv) no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7), endocrine secretion (n=11), muscle biochemistry (n=7), cardiovascular response (n=8) and the energetic profile (n=14). The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93). It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems) is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience. PMID:26839618

  7. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Mário J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i present two testing points; (ii on swimming physiology; (iii using adult elite swimmers; (iv no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7, endocrine secretion (n=11, muscle biochemistry (n=7, cardiovascular response (n=8 and the energetic profile (n=14. The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93. It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience.

  8. Adaptation of the pituitary-adrenal axis to daily repeated forced swim exposure in rats is dependent on the temperature of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Comparison of exposure to certain predominantly emotional stressors reveals a qualitatively similar neuroendocrine response profile as well as a reduction of physiological responses after daily repeated exposure (adaptation). However, particular physical components of the stressor may interfere with adaptation. As defective adaptation to stress can enhance the probability to develop pathologies, we studied in adult male rats (n = 10/group) swimming behavior (struggling, immobility and mild swim) and physiological responses (ACTH, corticosterone and rectal temperature) to daily repeated exposure to forced swim (20 min, 13 d) at 25 or 36 °C (swim25 or swim36). Rats were repeatedly blood-sampled by tail-nick and hormones measured by radioimmunoassay. Some differences were observed between the two swim temperature groups after the first exposure to forced swim: (a) active behaviors were greater in swim25 than swim36 groups; (b) swim25 but not swim36 caused hypothermia; and (c) swim36 elicited the same ACTH response as swim25, but plasma corticosterone concentration was lower for swim36 at 30 min post-swim. After daily repeated exposure, adaptation in ACTH secretion was observed with swim36 already on day 4, whereas with swim25 adaptation was not observed until day 13 and was of lower magnitude. Nevertheless, after repeated exposure to swim25 a partial protection from hypothermia was observed and the two swim conditions resulted in progressive reduction of active behaviors. Thus, daily repeated swim at 25 °C impairs adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as compared to swim at 36 °C, supporting the hypothesis that certain physical components of predominantly emotional stressors can interfere with the process of adaptation.

  9. Wastewater treatment in a compact intensified wetland system at the Badboot: a floating swimming pool in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oirschot, D; Wallace, S; Van Deun, R

    2015-09-01

    The Badboot (Dutch for swimming pool boat) is a floating swimming pool located in the city center of Antwerp in Belgium. The overall design consists of a recycled ferry boat that serves as a restaurant and next to that a newly built ship that harbours an Olympic size swimming pool, sun decks, locker rooms with showers, and a party space. A major design goal of the project was to make the ship as environmentally friendly as possible. To avoid discharge of contaminated waste water in the Antwerp docks, the ship includes onsite treatment of wastewater in a compact constructed wetland. The treatment wetland system was designed to treat wastewater from visitor locker rooms, showers, toilets, two bars, and the wastewater from the restaurant kitchen. Due to the limited space on board the ship, only 188 m(2) could be allocated to a wetland treatment system. As a result, part of the design included intensification of the wetland treatment process through the use of Forced Bed Aeration, which injects small quantities of air in a very uniform grid pattern throughout the wetland with a mechanical air compressor. The system was monitored between August 2012 and March 2013 (with additional sampling in the autumn of 2014). Flows and loads to the wetland were highly variable, but removal efficiency was extremely high; 99.5 % for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 88.6 % for total nitrogen and 97.2 % for ammonia. The treatment performance was assessed using a first-order, tanks-in-series model (the P-k-C* model) and found to be roughly equivalent to similar intensified wetlands operating in Germany. However, treatment performance was substantially better than data reported on passive wetlands, likely as a result of intensification. Even with mechanically assisted aeration, the total oxygen delivered to the treatment wetlands was insufficient to support conventional nitrification and denitrification, so it is likely that alternate nitrogen removal pathways, such as anammox, are

  10. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk). Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) consisted of repeated episodes o...

  11. Immobility in the forced swim test is adaptive and does not reflect depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendijk, Marc L; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2015-12-01

    The forced swim test is based on the progressive immobility a rodent displays when immersed in a beaker filled with water from where no escape is possible. While the test was originally designed to identify the antidepressant potential of drugs, over the past decade a rapidly growing number of publications (more than 2000) portray this immobility response anthropomorphically as a measure for depression and despair. This is incorrect. The response to the forced swim stressor should be considered for what it shows: a switch from active to passive behavior in the face of an acute stressor, aligned to cognitive functions underlying behavioral adaptation and survival.

  12. Evaluation of the Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray MPN Test for the Rapid Enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pool and Spa Pool Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartory, David P; Brewer, Megan; Beswick, Agnieszka; Steggles, Darron

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the performance of a new most probable number test (Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray) for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from swimming pool and spa pool waters by comparing it to the international and national membrane filtration-based culture methods for P. aeruginosa: ISO 16266:2006 and UK The Microbiology of Drinking Water-Part 8 (MoDW Part 8) which both use Pseudomonas CN agar. The comparison was based on the calculation of mean relative differences between the two methods conducted according to ISO 17994:2014. Using both routine pool water samples (149 from 8 laboratories) and artificially contaminated samples (309 from 7 laboratories), paired counts from each sample and enumeration method were analysed. For routine samples, there were insufficient data for a conclusive assessment, but the data do indicate at least equivalent performance of Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray to the reference methods. For the artificially contaminated samples, the data also did not result in a statistically conclusive assessment but did indicate potentially better performance of Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray. Combining the data from the routine samples and artificially contaminated samples resulted in an ISO 17994 outcome that the two methods were not statistically significantly different. Thus, the Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray method is an acceptable alternative to ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8. The Pseudalert/Quanti-Tray method has the advantage in that it does not require confirmation testing, and of providing confirmed counts within 24-28 h incubation compared to 40-48 h or longer for the ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8 methods.

  13. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  14. Density-dependent adaptive resistance allows swimming bacteria to colonize an antibiotic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Felix J H; Hubert, Bert; Dekker, Cees; Keymer, Juan E

    2016-01-01

    During antibiotic treatment, antibiotic concentration gradients develop. Little is know regarding the effects of antibiotic gradients on populations of nonresistant bacteria. Using a microfluidic device, we show that high-density motile Escherichia coli populations composed of nonresistant bacteria can, unexpectedly, colonize environments where a lethal concentration of the antibiotic kanamycin is present. Colonizing bacteria establish an adaptively resistant population, which remains viable for over 24 h while exposed to the antibiotic. Quantitative analysis of multiple colonization events shows that collectively swimming bacteria need to exceed a critical population density in order to successfully colonize the antibiotic landscape. After colonization, bacteria are not dormant but show both growth and swimming motility under antibiotic stress. Our results highlight the importance of motility and population density in facilitating adaptive resistance, and indicate that adaptive resistance may be a first step to the emergence of genetically encoded resistance in landscapes of antibiotic gradients.

  15. TRIGA-III research reactor pool inspection using an underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, T. K.; Lee, J. R.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, B. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    For the inspection of radioactivity at the nuclear reactor and spent fuel storage pool, an underwater vehicle system has been developed. This underwater vehicle is navigated freely by five thruster which are controlled by developed control system and has a faculty of radiation detection at the inner wall and special point in pool using the radiation detector which is attached to the bottom of the vehicle. In this paper, the developed underwater vehicle and its components are described in detail. Also, the field test result in TRIGA-III research reactor pool is described.

  16. Quality control of pool water from IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the pool water monitoring program of the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP in normal operation. The considered period was previous to the systems upgrade and modernization for the new reactor operation condition: a power of 5 MW and operation time of 100 hours weekly. (author)

  17. The Effect of an Adapted Swimming Program on the Performance of an Individual with Kyphosis-Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios, Voutsas; Dimitrios, Kokaridas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to examine the effect of an adapted swimming program in terms of improving the performance and behaviour of an individual with kyphosis-scoliosis, with the use of an individualised education approach. The sample consisted of an adult woman with kyphosis-scoliosis. The pre-swimming phase included a…

  18. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  19. Dynamic real-time monitoring of chloroform in an indoor swimming pool air using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-J; Duh, J-M; Shie, R-H; Weng, J-H; Hsu, H-T

    2016-06-01

    This study used open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy to continuously assess the variation in chloroform concentrations in the air of an indoor swimming pool. Variables affecting the concentrations of chloroform in air were also monitored. The results showed that chloroform concentrations in air varied significantly during the time of operation of the swimming pool and that there were two peaks in chloroform concentration during the time of operation of the pool. The highest concentration was at 17:30, which is coincident with the time with the highest number of swimmers in the pool in a day. The swimmer load was one of the most important factors influencing the chloroform concentration in the air. When the number of swimmers surpassed 40, the concentrations of chloroform were on average 4.4 times higher than the concentration measured without swimmers in the pool. According to the results of this study, we suggest that those who swim regularly should avoid times with highest number of swimmers, in order to decrease the risk of exposure to high concentrations of chloroform. It is also recommended that an automatic mechanical ventilation system is installed to increase the ventilation rate during times of high swimmer load.

  20. An insight of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation by alternative disinfectants for swimming pool disinfection under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linyan; Schmalz, Christina; Zhou, Jin; Zwiener, Christian; Chang, Victor W-C; Ge, Liya; Wan, Man Pun

    2016-09-15

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most commonly used disinfectant in pool treatment system. Outdoor pools usually suffer from the strong sunlight irradiation which degrades the free chlorine rapidly. In addition, more pools start to adopt the recirculation of swimming pool water, which intensifies the disinfection by-product (DBP) accumulation issue. Given these potential drawbacks of using NaClO in the tropical environment, two alternative organic-based disinfectants, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3) and bromochlorodimethylhydantoin (BCDMH, C5H6BrClN2O2), were investigated and compared to NaClO in terms of their self-degradation and the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), under simulated tropical climate conditions. The result reveals that halogen stabilizer, TCCA, had the advantages of slower free chlorine degradation and lower DBP concentration compared to NaClO, which makes it a good alternative disinfectant. BCDMH was not recommended mainly due to the highly reactive disinfecting ingredient, hypobromous acid (HBrO), which fails to sustain the continuous disinfection requirement. Total disinfectant dosage was the main factor that affects residual chlorine/bromine and THM/HAA formation regardless of different disinfectant dosing methods, e.g. shock dosing (one-time spiking) in the beginning, and continuous dosing during the whole experimental period. Two-stage second-order-kinetic-based models demonstrate a good correlation between the measured and predicted data for chlorine decay (R(2) ≥ 0.95), THM (R(2) ≥ 0.99) and HAA (R(2) ≥ 0.83) formation. Higher temperature was found to enhance the DBP formation due to the temperature dependence of reaction rates. Thus, temperature control of pools, especially for those preferring higher temperatures (e.g. hydrotherapy and spa), should take both bather comfort and DBP formation potential into consideration. It is also observed that chlorine competition

  1. Resource pooling for frameless network architecture with adaptive resource allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XiaoDong; WANG Da; TAO XiaoFeng; SVENSSON Tommy

    2013-01-01

    The system capacity for future mobile communication needs to be increased to fulfill the emerging requirements of mobile services and innumerable applications. The cellular topology has for long been regarded as the most promising way to provide the required increase in capacity. However with the emerging densification of cell deployments, the traditional cellular structure limits the efficiency of the resource, and the coordination between different types of base stations is more complicated and entails heavy cost. Consequently, this study proposes frameless network architecture (FNA) to release the cell boundaries, enabling the topology needed to implement the FNA resource allocation strategy. This strategy is based on resource pooling incorporating a new resource dimension-antenna/antenna array. Within this architecture, an adaptive resource allocation method based on genetic algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution for the multi-dimensional resource allocation problem. Maximum throughput and proportional fair resource allocation criteria are considered. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture and resource allocation method can achieve performance gains for both criteria with a relatively low complexity compared to existing schemes.

  2. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  3. Criticality safety calculations of the Soreq research reactor storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caner, M.; Hirshfeld, H.; Nagler, A.; Silverman, I.; Bettan, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Levine, S.H. [Penn State University, University Park 16802 (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The IRR-l spent fuel is to be relocated in a storage pool. The present paper describes the actual facility and summarizes the Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations. The fuel elements are to be placed inside cadmium boxes to reduce their reactivity. The fuel element is 7.6 cm by 8.0 cm in the horizontal plane. The cadmium box is effectively 9.7 cm by 9.7 cm, providing significant water between the cadmium and the fuel element. The present calculations show that the spent fuel storage pool is criticality safe even for fresh fuel elements. (author)

  4. Technical outline of a high temperature pool reactor with inherent passive safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many reactor designers world wide have successfully established technologies for very small reactors (less than 10 MWTH), and technologies for large power reactors (greater than 1000 MWTH), but have not developed small reactors (between 10 MWTH and 1000 MWth) which are safe, economic, and capable of meeting user technical, economic, and safety requirements. This is largely because the very small reactor technologies and the power reactor technologies are not amiable to safe and economic upsizing/downsizing. This paper postulates that new technologies, or novel combinations of existing technologies are necessary to the design of safe and economic small reactors. The paper then suggest a set of requirements that must be satisfied by a small reactor design, and defines a pool reactor that utilizes lead coolant and TRISO fuel which has the potential for meeting these requirements. This reactor, named LEADIR-PS, (an acronym for LEAD-cooled Integral Reactor, Passively Safe) incorporates the inherent safety features of the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MWGR), while avoiding the cost of reactor and steam generator pressure vessels, and the safety concerns regarding pressure vessel rupture. This paper includes the description of a standard 200MW thermal reactor module based on this concept, called LEADIR-PS 200. (author)

  5. Development, Implementation and Experimental Validations of Activation Products Models for Water Pool Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some parameters were obtained both calculations and experiments in order to determined the source of the meaning activation products in water pool reactors. In this case, the study was done in RA-6 reactor (Centro Atomico Bariloche - Argentina).In normal operation, neutron flux on core activates aluminium plates.The activity on coolant water came from its impurities activation and meanly from some quantity of aluminium that, once activated, leave the cladding and is transported by water cooling system.This quantity depends of the 'recoil range' of each activation reaction.The 'staying time' on pool (the time that nuclides are circulating on the reactor pool) is another characteristic parameter of the system.Stationary state activity of some nuclides depends of this time.Also, several theoretical models of activation on coolant water system are showed, and their experimental validations

  6. Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant, Italy: Decontamination and Rearranging of Reactor Canal and Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garigliano nuclear power plant was a 506 MW(th), first generation, dual cycle BWR. It started operation in 1964 and finally shut down in 1978, following the discovery of serious damage to a secondary steam generator. This section describes decontamination activities carried out in 1991–1993 in preparation for safe enclosure of Garigliano reactor building.1 Activities were carried out after completion of spent fuel transport off-site (1985–1987). A schematic of the spent fuel pool and adjacent areas is provided. Decontamination activities included the following: (a) Agitation and resuspension of pool sediments using water jets and water filtration. (b) Lowering of water level and parallel decontamination of pool walls with high pressure water jets of approximately 700 kg/cm2. (c) Removal, decontamination and interim storage on gangways of equipment located on the pool south-east wall. (d) Removal, decontamination and storage of the fuel transport container platform. (e) Removal of four fuel racks to their pool wall bearings, decontamination and transfer to the fresh fuel room. (f) Decontamination of the vessel head platform, removal from the reactor canal, brushing and coating to allow preservation and fixing of loose contamination. Eventually, this component was placed back in the reactor canal. (g) Construction in the reactor canal of an interim structure supporting fuel racks. At the completion of the work, this structure was dismounted, decontaminated and removed. (h) Removal of fuel racks (five at a time) to their pool wall bearings, decontamination and interim storage in the reactor canal. (i) Gradual lowering of the pool water level to some 50 cm from the pool floor and parallel decontamination of fixed structures and walls. (j) Discovery by visual inspection and radiological checks, of activated components on the floor of the pool. Retrieval of all this material, segmentation as needed, temporary storage in containers and later transfer to the high

  7. TRIGA reactor spent fuel pool under severe earthquake conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental criticality safety analysis of a pool type storage for TRIGA spent fuel at 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is presented. Previous results (Ravnik, M, Glumac, B., 1996) have shown that subcriticality is not guaranteed for some postulated accidents. To mitigate this deficiency, a study was made about replacing a certain number of fuel elements in the rack with absorber rods (Glumac, B., Ravnik, M., Logar, M., 1997) to lower the supercriticality probability, when the pitch is decreased to contact (as a consequence of a severe earthquake) in a square arrangement. The criticality analysis for the hexagonal contact pitch is presented in this paper, following the same scenario as outlined above. The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4B with ENDF-B/VI library and detailed three dimensional geometry was used. First, the analysis about the influence of the number of triangular fuel piles on the bottom that could appear, if the fuel rack, made of three segments, disintegrates, is presented. Next, the number of uniformly mixed absorber rods in the lattice needed to sustain the subcriticality of the storage for hexagonal contact pitch is studied. Because of supercriticality possibility due to random mixing of the absorber rods in the case of lattice compaction, a probabilistic study was made in order to sample the probability density functions for random lattice loadings of the absorber rods. The results show that reasonably low probabilities for supercriticality can be achieved even when fresh 12 wt.% standard TRIGA fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool. (orig.)

  8. "Saving lives": Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from "lagging behind" in 2008 into "Europe's frontrunner" by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made "good enough" over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential.

  9. Storage of water reactor spent fuel in water pools. Survey of world experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following discharge from a nuclear reactor, spent fuel has to be stored in water pools at the reactor site to allow for radioactive decay and cooling. After this initial storage period, the future treatment of spent fuel depends on the fuel cycle concept chosen. Spent fuel can either be treated by chemical processing or conditioning for final disposal at the relevant fuel cycle facilities, or be held in interim storage - at the reactor site or at a central storage facility. Recent forecasts predict that, by the year 2000, more than 150,000 tonnes of heavy metal from spent LWR fuel will have been accumulated. Because of postponed commitments regarding spent fuel treatment, a significant amount of spent fuel will still be held in storage at that time. Although very positive experience with wet storage has been gained over the past 40 years, making wet storage a proven technology, it appears desirable to summarize all available data for the benefit of designers, storage pool operators, licensing agenices and the general public. Such data will be essential for assessing the viability of extended water pool storage of spent nuclear fuel. In 1979, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD jointly issued a questionnaire dealing with all aspects of water pool storage. This report summarizes the information received from storage pool operators

  10. Quantitative analysis of gamma ray emitting radionuclide in reactor pool water of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myong Seop; Kim, Hee Gon; Ahn, Guk Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The species and concentrations of the radionuclide in the primary coolant of HANARO were analyzed by using the gamma ray spectroscopy. The full energy peak efficiency for the volume source was calibrated as function of the photon energy for an HRGs detector. The primary coolant of HANARO was picked at the primary coolant purification system, and the water at the upper part of the reactor pool was taken at about 20cm under the pool surface. In the primary coolant, the concentrations of Na-24, Mg-27 and Al-28 were much higher than those of other nuclide, and they were in 1{approx}6x10'6'Bq/liter. Their origins were radiative reactions of aluminium used as the structure material and cladding of the nuclear fuel. The concentrations of Xe-138 and Xe-133 were relatively higher than those of other fission fragments. The source of the fission fragments in the coolant was the surface contamination of the nuclear fuel by uranium. Ar-41, Ce-141, Na-24 and Xe-133 were detected in the water at the upper part of the reactor pool. Na-24 was the main source of the pool top radiation level, and Xe-133 and Ar-41 were the main gaseous radionuclide released through the reactor pool surface.

  11. Quantitative analysis of gamma-ray emitting radionuclide in reactor pool water of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Kim, Hee-Gon; Ahn, Guk-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The species and concentrations of the radionuclide in the primary coolant of HANARO were analyzed by using the gamma-ray spectroscopy. The full-energy peak efficiency for the volume source was calibrated as a function of the photon energy for an HPGe detector. The primary coolant of HANARO was picked at the primary coolant purification system, and the water at the upper part of the reactor pool was taken at about 20 cm under the pool surface. In the primary coolant, the concentrations of Na-24, Mg-27 and Al-28 were much higher than those of other nuclide, and they were in 1-6 x 10{sup 6} Bq/liter. Their origins were radiative reactions of aluminium used as the structure material and cladding of the nuclear fuel. The concentrations of Xe-138 and Xe-133 were relatively higher than those of other fission fragments. The source of the fission fragments in the coolant was the surface contamination of the nuclear fuel by uranium. Ar-41, Ce-141, Na-24 and Xe-133 were detected in the water at the upper part of the reactor pool. Na-24 was the main source of the pool top radiation level, and Xe-133 and Ar-41 were the main gaseous radionuclide released through the reactor pool surface.

  12. Assembling a computerized adaptive testing item pool as a set of linear tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.; Ariel, Adelaide; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Test-item writing efforts typically results in item pools with an undesirable correlational structure between the content attributes of the items and their statistical information. If such pools are used in computerized adaptive testing (CAT), the algorithm may be forced to select items with less th

  13. 3-dimensional thermohydraulic analysis of KALIMER reactor pool during unprotected accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn Do Hee

    2003-01-01

    During a normal reactor scram, the heat generation is reduced almost instantaneously while the coolant flow rate follows the pump coastdown. This mismatch between power and flow results in a situation where the core flow entering the hot pool is at a lower temperature than the temperature of the bulk pool sodium. This temperature difference leads to thermal stratification. Thermal stratification can occur in the hot pool region if the entering coolant is colder than the existing hot pool coolant and the flow momentum is not large enough to overcome the negative buoyancy force. Since the fluid of hot pool enters IHXs, the temperature distribution of hot pool can alter the overall system response. Hence, it is necessary to predict the pool coolant temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy to determine the inlet temperature conditions for the IHXs and its contribution to the net buoyancy head. Therefore, two-dimensional hot pool thermohydraulic model named HP2D has been developed. In this report code-to-code comparison analysis between HP2D and COMMIX-1AR/P has been performed in the case of steady-state and UTOP.

  14. 上海市游泳场所安全管理的现状及对策%Safety Management Status of the Swimming Pools in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟

    2014-01-01

    以上海市拥有经营游泳项目行政许可的游泳场所为研究对象,采用问卷调查等方法,调查游泳场所数量、分布、人口与场所比例、类型、活动人数等基本情况;分析游泳场所管理结构和现状;调查游泳场所安全保障状况,结果显示当前各中心城区之间和郊区之间的每万人拥有游泳场所数量相比较存在着较大差距,分布不均衡;大型水上娱乐游泳场所较少;救生员将近缺少3成左右;救生员的休息环境有3成左右感觉较差,救生员有上岗排班制度,但有5成救生员没有执行交接岗制度等问题,并据此提出对策建议。%Taking the Shanghai swimming pools that have the administrative license as the subjects and by the method of questionnaire, the author made a survey of the basic information of the pools, such as the number, location, proportion of the population to pools, category, number of the swimmers, etc. The management structure and status of the swimming pools were analyzed and the security measures of the pools were investigated. The result shows that the locations of the swimming pools are unbalanced. There is a great gap between the number of the swimming pools per ten thousand people in the urban areas and that in the suburbs. The number of the large-scale water amusement park is not enough. Another 30 percent of the lifeguards are needed. And about 30 percent of the lifeguards have a bad feeling toward the lounges for rest. There is a job scheduling system for the lifeguards, but half of the lifeguards do not follow the work-handover system. Suggestions are put forward.

  15. TRIGA reactor spent fuel pool under severe earthquake conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logar, M. [Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia). Fac. of Elec. Eng.; Glumac, B.; Maucec, M. [`Jozef Stefan` Institute, Jamova 39, POB 100, 1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1998-07-01

    Supplemental criticality safety analysis of a pool type storage for TRIGA spent fuel at `Jozef Stefan` Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is presented. Previous results (Ravnik, M, Glumac, B., 1996) have shown that subcriticality is not guaranteed for some postulated accidents. To mitigate this deficiency, a study was made about replacing a certain number of fuel elements in the rack with absorber rods (Glumac, B., Ravnik, M., Logar, M., 1997) to lower the supercriticality probability, when the pitch is decreased to contact (as a consequence of a severe earthquake) in a square arrangement. The criticality analysis for the hexagonal contact pitch is presented in this paper, following the same scenario as outlined above. The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4B with ENDF-B/VI library and detailed three dimensional geometry was used. First, the analysis about the influence of the number of triangular fuel piles on the bottom that could appear, if the fuel rack, made of three segments, disintegrates, is presented. Next, the number of uniformly mixed absorber rods in the lattice needed to sustain the subcriticality of the storage for hexagonal contact pitch is studied. Because of supercriticality possibility due to random mixing of the absorber rods in the case of lattice compaction, a probabilistic study was made in order to sample the probability density functions for random lattice loadings of the absorber rods. The results show that reasonably low probabilities for supercriticality can be achieved even when fresh 12 wt.% standard TRIGA fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool. (orig.) 7 refs.

  16. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or ''generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  17. CFD aided analysis of a scaled down model of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors are commonly built inside deep pools that provide radiological and thermal protection and easy access to its core. Reactors with thermal power in the order of MW usually use an auxiliary thermal-hydraulic circuit at the top of its pool to create a purified hot water layer (HWL). Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the flow configuration in the pool and HWL is paramount to insure radiological protection. A useful tool for these analyses is the application of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). To obtain satisfactory results using CFD it is necessary the verification and validation of the CFD numerical model. Verification is divided in code and solution verifications. In the first one establishes the correctness of the CFD code implementation and in the former estimates the numerical accuracy of a particular calculation. Validation is performed through comparison of numerical and experimental results. This paper presents a dimensional analysis of the RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) pool to determine a scaled down experimental installation able to aid in the HWL numerical investigation. Two CFD models were created one with the same dimensions and boundary conditions of the reactor prototype and the other with 1/10 proportion size and boundary conditions set to achieve the same inertial and buoyant forces proportions represented by Froude Number between the two models. Results comparing the HWL thickness show consistence between the prototype and the scaled down model behavior. (author)

  18. CFD aided analysis of a scaled down model of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Fernando L.A.; Lima, Claubia P.B.; Costa, Antonella L.; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: ando.schweizer@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Santos, Andre A.C.; Costa, Antonio C.L., E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: aclc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN/-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Research reactors are commonly built inside deep pools that provide radiological and thermal protection and easy access to its core. Reactors with thermal power in the order of MW usually use an auxiliary thermal-hydraulic circuit at the top of its pool to create a purified hot water layer (HWL). Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the flow configuration in the pool and HWL is paramount to insure radiological protection. A useful tool for these analyses is the application of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). To obtain satisfactory results using CFD it is necessary the verification and validation of the CFD numerical model. Verification is divided in code and solution verifications. In the first one establishes the correctness of the CFD code implementation and in the former estimates the numerical accuracy of a particular calculation. Validation is performed through comparison of numerical and experimental results. This paper presents a dimensional analysis of the RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) pool to determine a scaled down experimental installation able to aid in the HWL numerical investigation. Two CFD models were created one with the same dimensions and boundary conditions of the reactor prototype and the other with 1/10 proportion size and boundary conditions set to achieve the same inertial and buoyant forces proportions represented by Froude Number between the two models. Results comparing the HWL thickness show consistence between the prototype and the scaled down model behavior. (author)

  19. Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

  20. Study on the Adaptability of Etheriifcation Feedstock to Reactor Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Junyi; Yuan Qing; Wang Lei; Huang Tao

    2016-01-01

    A reactive C5 oleifns and methanol etheriifcation kinetic model based on E-R mechanism was established and three different types of reactors including the adiabatic ifxed-bed liquid reactor, the external loop reactor and the mixed-phase reactor were constructed by Aspen Plus. The adaptability of reactive C5 oleifns to these reactors was studied and simulated using various gasoline fractions with different oleifns content. After the theoretical model was validated by the experimental data of the etheriifcation of three C5 light cut fractions from different gasoline sources in different reactors, the simulated isoamylene conversion with reactive C5 olefin contents increasing from 10% to 60% was studied in the three different types of reactors for etheriifcation with methanol, respectively. Test results show that there is an obvious adaptability of the feedstock composition to the reactor type to achieve a high conversion.

  1. Design of neutron radiography facility in pool for the reactor RA-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA-10 project consists in the design and construction of a multipurpose reactor for multiple applications, including radioisotopes production, material testing and an in pool facility for neutron imaging. Neutron imaging is a powerful tool for studies of materials and offer several advantages among other attenuation-based techniques. In this study mechanical and neutronic requirements for the RA-10 in pool neutron imaging facility are described. The MCNP neutronic model and the mechanical design satisfying these requirements in a first engineering stage are described. (author)

  2. Experimental study of prompt neutron decay constant α for 300# pool reactor under mixed core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental study of prompt neutron decay constant α for 300# pool reactor under mixed core was carried out through a suit of reactor power spectral density measurement system. The two channel continuous current signals of neutron in the reactor were acquired by ionization chamber DL129 which was symmetrically putted in reactor core. The power spectral density, for two channel signals, was computed using the application program of data acquirement and data process analysis. Finally, by using the non-linear least squares method, the prompt neutron decay constant α was fitted. By comparison, the experimental results well accord to the theory calculation within the error range. The deviation can meet the actual need of project. (authors)

  3. Adaptive nonlinear control for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linearization by feedback of states is based on the idea of transform the nonlinear dynamic equation of a system in a linear form. This linear behavior can be achieve well in a complete way (input state) or in partial way (input output). This can be applied to systems of single or multiple inputs, and can be used to solve problems of stabilization and tracking of references trajectories. Comparing this method with conventional ones, linearization by feedback of states is exact in certain region of the space of state, instead of linear approximations of the equations in a certain point of the operation. In the presence of parametric uncertainties in the model of the system, the introduction of adaptive schemes provide a type toughness to the control system by nonlinear feedback, which gives as result the eventual cancellation of the nonlinear terms in the dynamic relationship between the output and the input of the auxiliary control. In the same way, it has been presented the design of a nonlinearizing control for the non lineal model of a TRIGA Mark III type reactor, with the aim of tracking a predetermined power profile. The asymptotic tracking of such profile is, at the present moment, in the stage of verification by computerized simulation the relative easiness in the design of auxiliary variable of control, as well as the decoupling action of the output variable, make very attractive the utilization of the method herein presented. (Author)

  4. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Velusamy; P Chellapandi; S C Chetal; Baldev Raj

    2010-04-01

    Thermal hydraulics plays an important role in the design of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor components, where thermal loads are dominant. Detailed thermal hydraulic investigations of reactor components considering multi-physics heat transfer are essential for choosing optimum designs among the various possibilities. Pool hydraulics is multi-dimensional in nature and simple one-dimensional treatment for the same is often inadequate. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) plays a critical role in the design of pool type reactors and becomes an increasingly popular tool, thanks to the advancements in computing technology. In this paper, thermal hydraulic characteristics of a fast breeder reactor, design limits and challenging thermal hydraulic investigations carried out towards successful design of Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) that is under construction, are highlighted. Special attention is paid to phenomena like thermal stratification, thermal stripping, gas entrainment, inter-wrapper flow in decay heat removal and multiphysics cellular convection. The issues in these phenomena and the design solutions to address them satisfactorily are elaborated. Experiments performed for special phenomena, which are not amenable for CFD treatment and experiments carried out for validation of the computer codes have also been described.

  5. Engineering, safety, and economic evaluations of ASPIRE [Advanced Safe Pool Immersed REactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preconceptual design of a tokamak fusion reactor concept called ASPIRE (Advanced Safe Pool Immersed REactor) has been developed. This concept provides many of the attractive features that are needed to enhance the capability of fusion to become the power generation technology for the 21st century. Specifically, these features are: inherent safety, low pressure, environmental compatibility, moderate unit size, high availability, high thermal efficiency, simplicity, low radioactive inventory, Class C radioactive waste disposal, and low cost of electricity. We have based ASPIRE on a second stability tokamak. However, the concept is equally applicable to a first stability tokamak or to most other magnetic fusion systems

  6. Eddy current testing of PWR fuel pencils in the pool of the Osiris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive testing bench is described. It is devoted to examination of high residual power fuel pencils without stress on the cladding nor interference with cooling. Guiding by fluid bearings decrease the background noise. Scanning speed is limited only by safety criteria and data acquisition configuration. Simultaneous control of various parameters is possible. Associated to an irradiation loop, loaded and unloaded in a reactor swinning pool, this bench can follow fuel pencil degradation after each irradiation cycle

  7. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems.

  8. Adapting Dynamic Mathematical Models to a Pilot Anaerobic Digestion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haugen, R. Bakke, and B. Lie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model has been adapted to a pilot anaerobic reactor fed diarymanure. Both steady-state data from online sensors and laboratory analysis anddynamic operational data from online sensors are used in the model adaptation.The model is based on material balances, and comprises four state variables,namely biodegradable volatile solids, volatile fatty acids, acid generatingmicrobes (acidogens, and methane generating microbes (methanogens. The modelcan predict the methane gas flow produced in the reactor. The model may beused for optimal reactor design and operation, state-estimation and control.Also, a dynamic model for the reactor temperature based on energy balance ofthe liquid in the reactor is adapted. This model may be used for optimizationand control when energy and economy are taken into account.

  9. Fuel Burnup and Fuel Pool Shielding Analysis for Bushehr Nuclear Reactor VVER-1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Kamal; Ayobian, Navid

    Bushehr Nuclear power plant (BNPP) is currently under construction. The VVER-1000 reactor will be loaded with 126 tons of about 4% enriched fuel having 3-years life cycle. The spent fuel (SF) will be transferred into the spent fuel pool (SPF), where it stays for 8 years before being transferred to Russia. The SPF plays a crucial role during 8 years when the SP resides in there. This paper investigates the shielding of this structure as it is designed to shield the SF radiation. In this study, the SF isotope inventory, for different cycles and with different burnups, was calculated using WIMS/4D transport code. Using MCNP4C nuclear code, the intensity of γ rays was obtained in different layers of SFP shields. These layers include the water above fuel assemblies (FA) in pool, concrete wall of the pool and water laid above transferring fuels. Results show that γ rays leakage from the shield in the mentioned layers are in agreement with the plant's PSAR data. Finally we analyzed an accident were the water height above the FA in the pool drops to 47 cm. In this case it was observed that exposure dose above pool, 10 and 30 days from the accident, are still high and in the levels of 1000 and 758 R/hr.

  10. Equipment and methods for examinations of fuel rods in the MIR reactor storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of tests of fuel rods and structural materials of water-cooled power reactors is performed in the loop facilities (LFs) of the MIR reactor. Depending on the objectives and tasks of different experiments, the performance of periodical interim examinations of irradiated items is required. However, as a result of some circumstances, it is not always possible to conduct them in hot cells. In this context, JSC 'SSC RIAR' has developed the equipment for interim examinations of fuel rods and design components of the experimental fuel assemblies (EFAs) in the MIR reactor storage pool (SP). Besides, this equipment can be used for cleaning of the examined items from surface deposits prior to the measurements. The paper describes the main characteristics and capabilities of the developed equipment, methodical aspects of the performed interim examinations, as well as some experimental results obtained using this equipment. In future, its upgrade is planned. (author)

  11. Heating ventilation design of the small-scale swimming pool%某小型游泳馆的供暖通风设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2016-01-01

    针对北方地区游泳馆冬季闷热和宜结露的设计问题,从室内设计参数选择、散湿量计算、供暖通风系统的选择及气流组织设计等方面,提出了游泳馆的优化设计方案,在满足室内温、湿度要求的基础上,达到了经济、节能运行的目的.%In light of swimming pool design problems in northern region including stuffy and condensation, starting from aspects of indoor design parameter selection, moisture computation, heating and ventilation system selection and air flow organization design, on the basis of meeting in-door temperature and humidity demands, the paper puts forward the optimal swimming pool design scheme, and finally achieves the goal of eco-nomic and energy-saving operation.

  12. Statistical evaluation of potential damage to the Al(OH)3 layer on nTiO2 particles in the presence of swimming pool and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized TiO2 particles (nTiO2) are usually coated with an Al(OH)3 layer when used in sunscreen to shield against the harmful effects of free radicals that are generated when these particles are exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, it is vital to insure the structural stability of these particles in the environment where the protective layer may be damaged and adverse health and environmental effects can occur. This study utilized X-ray analysis (SEM–EDS) to provide a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of the chemical and physical characteristics of Al(OH)3-coated original and damaged nTiO2 particles (used in sunscreen lotion formulations) in the presence of both swimming pool and seawater. Also, by utilizing statistical tools, a distribution of Al/Ti (%) on the particle surface was determined and evaluated. It was found that 45 min of treatment with swimming pool and seawater significantly induced the redistribution of Al/Ti (%), which changed the surface characteristics of particles and, therefore, may have induced undesired photo-activity and the consequent formation of free radicals.

  13. Identification of Mycobacterium marinum 65 kD heat shock protein gene by polymerase chain reaction restriction analysis from lesions of swimming pool granuloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) had been reported to cause cutaneous infections which are difficult to interpret due to the variability of the clinical manifestations. Among NTM infections, Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum) are mostly seen to cause skin infection. It is therefore important to establish a rapid approach for detection and identification of M. marinum from lesions of patients with suspected M. marinum infections. Methods Specimens were obtained from 5 patients with swimming pool granuloma. DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR products were digested with Hae III and BstE II, then analysed by pattern restriction analysis to detect heat shock protein (hsp) 65 kD gene. Results The 65 kD hsp gene was found in all specimens from patients with swimming pool granuloma. PCR restriction analysis (PRA) identified all 5 samples to be M. marinum infections, and the result was consistent with that of routine bacteriological identification. The lesions subsided or markedly improved upon treatment. Conclusions PRA is a sensitive, specific and rapid method in identification of mycobacteria. Application of this method will be helpful for early diagnosis of mycobacterial skin infections.

  14. Science-policy interface in transformative adaptive flood risk management - decision-making in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Thomas; Attems, Marie-Sophie; Rauter, Magdalena; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this paper aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this paper focussed on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. This paper used the Formative Scenario Analysis (FSA) as a method to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a system and its potential future development, based on qualitatively assessed impact factors and rated quantitative relations between these factors, such as impact and consistency analysis. The purpose of this approach was to develop scenarios, where participations develop their own strategies how to implement a transformative adaptation strategy in flood risk management. In particular, the interaction between researcher, the public and policy makers was analysed. Challenges and limitations were assessed, such as benefits on costs of adaptation measures, for the implementation of visions to

  15. Optimal Item Pool Design for a Highly Constrained Computerized Adaptive Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Item pool quality has been regarded as one important factor to help realize enhanced measurement quality for the computerized adaptive test (CAT) (e.g., Flaugher, 2000; Jensema, 1977; McBride & Wise, 1976; Reckase, 1976; 2003; van der Linden, Ariel, & Veldkamp, 2006; Veldkamp & van der Linden, 2000; Xing & Hambleton, 2004). However, studies are…

  16. Numerical simulation of sodium pool fires in liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Liquid Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), the leakage of sodium can result in sodium fires. Due to sodium's high chemical reactivity in contact with air and water, sodium fires will lead to an immediate increase of the air temperature and pressure in the containment. This will harm the integrity of the containment. In order to estimate and foresee the sequence of this accident, or to prevent the accident and alleviate the influence of the accident, it is necessary to develop programs to analyze such sodium fire accidents. Based on the work of predecessors, flame sheet model is produced and used to analyze sodium pool fire accidents. Combustion model and heat transfer model are included and expatiated. And the comparison between the analytical and experimental results shows the program is creditable and reasonable. This program is more realistic to simulate the sodium pool fire accidents and can be used for nuclear safety judgement. (authors)

  17. Online failed fuel identification using delayed neutron detector signals in pool type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In todays world, nuclear reactors are at the forefront of modern day innovation and reactor designs are increasingly incorporating cutting edge technology. It is of utmost importance to detect failure or defects in any part of a nuclear reactor for healthy operation of reactor as well as the safety aspects of the environment. Despite careful fabrication and manufacturing of fuel pins, there is a chance of clad failure. After fuel pin clad rupture takes place, it allows fission products to enter in to sodium pool. There are some potential consequences due to this such as Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) of coolant and primary component contamination. At present, the failed fuel detection techniques such as cover gas monitoring (alarming the operator), delayed neutron detection (DND-automatic trip) and standalone failed fuel localization module (FFLM) are exercised in various reactors. The first technique is a quantitative measurement of increase in the cover gas activity background whereas DND system causes automatic trip on detecting certain level of activity during clad wet rupture. FFLM is subsequently used to identify the failed fuel subassembly. The later although accurate, but mainly suffers from downtime and reduction in power during identification process. The proposed scheme, reported in this paper, reduces the operation of FFLM by predicting the faulty sector and therefore reducing reactor down time and thermal shocks. The neutron evolution pattern gets modulated because fission products are the delay neutron precursors. When they travel along with coolant to Intermediate heat Exchangers, experienced three effects i.e. delay; decay and dilution which make the neutron pulse frequency vary depending on the location of failed fuel sub assembly. This paper discusses the method that is followed to study the frequency domain properties, so that it is possible to detect exact fuel subassembly failure online, before the reactor automatically trips. (author)

  18. Local heat transfer from the corium melt pool to the boiling water reactor pressure vessel wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study considers in-vessel accident progression after core melt relocation to the lower head of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and formation of a melt pool containing a forest of Control Rod Guide Tubes (CRGTs) cooled by purging flows. Descending streams of melt that flow along cooled surfaces of CRGT, and impinge on the bottom surface of the vessel wall can significantly increase local heat transfer. The area of enhanced heat transfer enlarges with decreasing of the melt Prandtl (Pr) number, while the peaking value of the heat transfer coefficient is a non-monotone function of Pr number. The melt Pr number depends on the melt composition (fractions of metallic and oxidic melt components) and thus is inherently uncertain parameter of the core melting and relocation scenarios. The effect of Pr number in the range of 1.02 - 0.03 on the local and integral thermal loads on the vessel wall is examined using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Heat transfer models obtained on the base of CFD simulations are implemented in the Phase-change Effective Convectivity Model (PECM) for simulation of reactor-scale accident progression heat transfer in real 3D geometry of the BWR lower plenum. We found that the influence of the low Pr number on the thermal loads in a big melt pool becomes more significant at later time, than rapid acceleration of the creep in the vessel wall. This result suggests that global vessel failure is insensitive to the melt composition in the considered 0.7 m deep melt pool configuration. However, it is not clear yet if the low Pr number effect has an influence on vessel failure mode in the other possible melt pool configurations. (author)

  19. Inspection of state of spent fuel elements stored in RA reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S.Yu.; Sokolov, A.V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has recently been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. Based on the results of this inspection, a procedure will be proposed for transferring spent fuel to a more reliable storage facility. (author)

  20. Decay heat removal in pool type fast reactor using passive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, U. [Thermal Hydraulics Section, Nuclear and Safety Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sundararajan, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT-Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Balaji, C., E-mail: balaji@iitm.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT-Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Velusamy, K.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C. [Thermal Hydraulics Section, Nuclear and Safety Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis of decay heat system in a fast reactor model predictions compared with experimental results from PHENIX. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations confirm adequacy of natural convection in decay heat removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inter-wrapper flow found to reduce peak temperatures by 50 K in the blanket zone. - Abstract: Post shutdown decay heat removal in a fast reactor is one of the most important safety functions which must be accomplished with a very high reliability. To achieve high reliability, the fast breeder reactor design has emphasized on passive or near passive decay heat removal systems utilizing the natural convection in the heat removal path. A typical passive decay heat removal system used in recent designs of fast breeder reactors consists of a sodium to sodium heat exchanger and sodium to air heat exchanger which together remove heat directly from the hot pool to the final heat sink, which is air. Since these are safety systems, it is necessary to confirm the design with detailed numerical analysis. The numerical studies include pool hydraulics, natural convection phenomena in closed loops, flow through narrow gaps between SA, multi-scale modeling, etc. Toward understanding the evolution of thermal hydraulic parameters during natural convection decay heat removal, a three-dimensional CFD model for the primary system coupled with an appropriate one-dimensional model for the secondary system is proposed. The model has been validated against the results of natural convection test conducted in PHENIX reactor. Adopting the model for the Indian PFBR, six different decay heat removal cases have been studied which bring out the effect of safety grade decay heat removal system (SGDHRS) capacity, secondary sodium inventory and inter-wrapper flow heat transfer on the subassembly outlet temperatures that are important for safety evaluation of the reactor. From the

  1. Decay heat removal in pool type fast reactor using passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis of decay heat system in a fast reactor model predictions compared with experimental results from PHENIX. ► Calculations confirm adequacy of natural convection in decay heat removal. ► Inter-wrapper flow found to reduce peak temperatures by 50 K in the blanket zone. - Abstract: Post shutdown decay heat removal in a fast reactor is one of the most important safety functions which must be accomplished with a very high reliability. To achieve high reliability, the fast breeder reactor design has emphasized on passive or near passive decay heat removal systems utilizing the natural convection in the heat removal path. A typical passive decay heat removal system used in recent designs of fast breeder reactors consists of a sodium to sodium heat exchanger and sodium to air heat exchanger which together remove heat directly from the hot pool to the final heat sink, which is air. Since these are safety systems, it is necessary to confirm the design with detailed numerical analysis. The numerical studies include pool hydraulics, natural convection phenomena in closed loops, flow through narrow gaps between SA, multi-scale modeling, etc. Toward understanding the evolution of thermal hydraulic parameters during natural convection decay heat removal, a three-dimensional CFD model for the primary system coupled with an appropriate one-dimensional model for the secondary system is proposed. The model has been validated against the results of natural convection test conducted in PHENIX reactor. Adopting the model for the Indian PFBR, six different decay heat removal cases have been studied which bring out the effect of safety grade decay heat removal system (SGDHRS) capacity, secondary sodium inventory and inter-wrapper flow heat transfer on the subassembly outlet temperatures that are important for safety evaluation of the reactor. From the results, it is concluded that the delay in initiation of SGDHRS, replacement

  2. Criticality calculations for a spent fuel storage pool for a BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the methodology for the calculation of the constant of effective multiplication for the arrangement of spent fuel assemblies in the pool of a BWR type reactor is shown. Calculations were done for the pool of spent fuel specified in FSAR and for the assemblies that is thought a conservative composition of high enrichment and without Gadolinium, giving credit to the stainless steel boxes of the frames that keep the assemblies. To carry out this simulation, RECORD and MIXQUIC codes were used. With record code, macroscopic cross sections, two energy groups, for the characteristics of the thought assemblies were obtained. Cross sections, as well as the dimensions of the frames that keep the fuel assemblies were used as input data for MIXQUIC code. With this code, criticality calculations in two dimensions were done, supposing that there is not leak of neutrons along the axial of the main line. Additional calculations, supposing changes in the temperature, distance among fuel assemblies and the thickness of the stainless steel box of the frame were done. The obtained results, including the effect in tolerances due to temperature, weight and thickness, show that the arrangement in the pool, when frames are fully charged, is subcritical by less than 5% in δK. (Author)

  3. Thermal hydraulics in the hot pool of Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of 40 MWt/13 MWe capacity is in operation at Kalpakkam, near Chennai. Presently it is operating with a core of 10.5 MWt. Knowledge of temperatures and flow pattern in the hot pool of FBTR is essential to assess the thermal stresses in the hot pool. While theoretical analysis of the hot pool has been conducted by a three-dimensional code to access the temperature profile, it involves tuning due to complex geometry, thermal stresses and vibration. With this in view, an experimental model was fabricated in 1/4 scale using acrylic material and tests were conducted in water. Initially hydraulic studies were conducted with ambient water maintaining Froude number similarity. After that thermal studies were conducted using hot and cold water maintaining Richardson similitude. In both cases Euler similarity was also maintained. Studies were conducted simulating both low and full power operating conditions. This paper discusses the model simulation, similarity criteria, the various thermal hydraulic studies that were carried out, the results obtained and the comparison with the prototype measurements.

  4. Air conditionin design and the application of energy saving on Swimming pool%会所游泳池空调设计及节能应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆继东

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis of air conditionin design and the application of energy saving on Swimming pool .Emphasizes the importance of thermodynamic calculation.Using enthalpy humidity chart to prove the necessary of luxiliary heating.And put forward using the method of the recovery heat.%通过对会所游泳池空调设计及节能应用分析,强调了热湿计算在游泳池空调设计中的重要性,运用焓湿图分析了辅助加热在泳池专用空调系统中的必要性。并对泳池专用空调所回收热量提出更合理的运用方法。

  5. Spectacular energy technology: Panorama-Sauna Holzweiler. KfW funds indoor swimming pools as 'process heat'; Energetisch spektakulaer: Panorama-Sauna Holzweiler. KfW foerdert Schwimmbaeder als 'Prozesswaerme'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, Rolf

    2008-11-15

    The ''Panorama-Sauna'' at Grafschaft is a big indoor swimming pool and Sauna centre in a rural region not far from Cologne and Koblenz. The charm of this spectacular solar project is in its minimalism. Conventional solar thermal power systems, in contrast, tend to be complex and prone to failure. (orig.)

  6. Adaptive Controller Design for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, K; V. Murali Bhaskaran

    2014-01-01

    Continues Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is an important issue in chemical process and a wide range of research in the area of chemical engineering. Temperature Control of CSTR has been an issue in the chemical control engineering since it has highly non-linear complex equations. This study presents problem of temperature control of CSTR with the adaptive Controller. The Simulation is done in MATLAB and result shows that adaptive controller is an efficient controller for temperature control of C...

  7. Lung hyperpermeability and asthma prevalence in schoolchildren: unexpected associations with the attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Alfred; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Michel, O; Higuet, S; de Burbure, Claire; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Hermans, Cédric; Dumont, Xavier; Doyle, I

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study whether exposure to nitrogen trichloride in indoor chlorinated pools may affect the respiratory epithelium of children and increase the risk of some lung diseases such as asthma. METHODS: In 226 healthy children, serum surfactant associated proteins A and B (SP-A and SP-B), 16 kDa Clara cell protein (CC16), and IgE were measured. Lung specific proteins were measured in the serum of 16 children and 13 adults before and after exposure to NCl(3) in an indoor chlorinated pool. Rela...

  8. COMMIX-1C code estimation for the pool dynamics of Istanbul Technical University TRIGA MARK-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the COMMIX-1C code is used to investigate the pool dynamics of Istanbul Technical University (ITU)TRIGA MARK-II reactor by simulating the velocity, pressure and temperature distributions in the reactor pool as a function of core design parameters and pool configuration. COMMIX-1C is multi-purpose, three-dimensional. transient, single-phase, thermal-hydraulics computer code. For the mass, momentum and energy equations, it uses a porous-medium formulation, a finite-volume algorithm, a flow modulated skew-upwind discretization scheme to reduce numerical diffusion and k-ε two-equation turbulence model. Its implementation for the particular system requires geometric and physical modelling decisions. ITU TRIGA MARK-II reactor pool is considered partly as continuum and partly as porous medium. All the major pool components are explicitly modelled in the simulation. Shape of the pool structure and computational cells are accounted for using the concept of directional surface permeability, volume porosity, distributed resistance, and distributed heat source or sink. The results are compared to the results of the computer codes TRISTAN, TRIGATH and TRIGATH-R

  9. Trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas en cuatro zonas de España participantes en el proyecto INMA Trihalomethanes in swimming pool water in four areas of Spain participating in the INMA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Font-Ribera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La natación es uno de los deportes más practicados en España, por personas de todas las edades y condiciones físicas. También es una vía de exposición a subproductos de la desinfección, compuestos potencialmente tóxicos. Su concentración en el agua de las piscinas no está legislada y es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la concentración de trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas de los municipios de cuatro cohortes del estudio INMA. Métodos: En julio de 2009 se analizaron los trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas (n=27 de Asturias, Granada, Valencia y Sabadell. Resultados: La concentración media de trihalometanos totales fue de 42,7µg/l (desviación estándar [DE]=19,1 en las piscinas interiores y de 151,2µg/l (DE=80,7 en las exteriores, predominando siempre el cloroformo. Granada tuvo los valores más bajos. Conclusión: La concentración de trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas presenta una gran variabilidad. Las piscinas exteriores tienen valores más altos, superando mayoritariamente los límites legales establecidos para el agua de consumo.Objective: Swimming is one of the most widely practiced sports in Spain among people of all ages and physical conditions. This activity is also a source of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP, which are potentially toxic. The DBP concentration in swimming pool water is not regulated and is poorly known. The aim of this study was to describe trihalomethane concentrations in swimming pool water in the municipalities of four cohorts of the INMA project. Methods: In July 2009, trihalomethanes were analyzed in water from 27 swimming pools in Asturias, Granada, Valencia and Sabadell. Results: The mean total trihalomethane concentration was 42.7µg/L (standard deviation [SD]=19.1 in indoor pools and 151.2µg/L (SD=80.7 in outdoor pools. In all pools, the most abundant trihalomethane was always chloroform. The lowest levels were found in Granada. Conclusion

  10. E-SCAPE: A scale facility for liquid-metal, pool-type reactor thermal hydraulic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tichelen, Katrien, E-mail: kvtichel@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mirelli, Fabio, E-mail: fmirelli@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Greco, Matteo, E-mail: mgreco@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Viviani, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgiaviviani@gmail.com [University of Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The E-SCAPE facility is a thermal hydraulic scale model of the MYRRHA fast reactor. • The focus is on mixing and stratification in liquid-metal pool-type reactors. • Forced convection, natural convection and the transition are investigated. • Extensive instrumentation allows validation of computational models. • System thermal hydraulic and CFD models have been used for facility design. - Abstract: MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a flexible fast-spectrum research reactor under design at SCK·CEN. MYRRHA is a pool-type reactor with lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) as primary coolant. The proper understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the reactor pool is an important issue in the design and licensing of the MYRRHA system and liquid-metal cooled reactors by extension. Model experiments are necessary for understanding the physics, for validating experimental tools and to qualify the design for the licensing. The E-SCAPE (European SCAled Pool Experiment) facility at SCK·CEN is a thermal hydraulic 1/6-scale model of the MYRRHA reactor, with an electrical core simulator, cooled by LBE. It provides experimental feedback to the designers on the forced and natural circulation flow patterns. Moreover, it enables to validate the computational methods for their use with LBE. The paper will elaborate on the design of the E-SCAPE facility and its main parameters. Also the experimental matrix and the pre-test analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and system thermal hydraulics codes will be described.

  11. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – Is less THM better?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Antoniou, Maria; Mosbæk, Hans; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl3), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free ...

  12. Transient analysis of dissolution of a reactor bottom head into a melt pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of the bottom head of a heavy-water reactor into a pool of molten fuel under severe accident conditions is investigated using a distributed-parameter model. The main objectives are to determine the rate of dissolution-front propagation and to estimate the extent to which the bottom head is thinned owing to dissolution. The model consists mainly of partitioning the bottom head into a number of rings and analyzing the transient dissolution of each ring with a localized lumped-parameter model. For each of the rings, the dissolution is modeled using a mass transfer coefficient, the temperature distribution is considered to be one dimensional and quasisteady and the heat flux across the melt-bottom head interface is modeled using a heat transfer coefficient. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficients is considered to be quasi-steady and is based on the heat transfer calculation results obtained using the ACCORD code. The model thus takes into account both the variation of heat fluxes over the melt pool-bottom head interface and the variations of interface mass transfer with time and with position along the interface. The basic equations and their solution method for the distributed-parameter model are described. Comparisons of calculation results with those obtained previously using the overall lumped-parameter model are presented

  13. Evaluation of pool swell velocity during large break loss of coolant accident in boiling water reactor Mark III containment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Jin, E-mail: jinyan10@gmail.co [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, M/L-30, NC 28402 (United States); Bolger, Francis [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, M/L-30, NC 28402 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In boiling water reactor (BWR) design, safety scenarios such as main steam line break need to be evaluated. After the main steam line break, the steam will fill the upper dry well of the containment. It will then enter the vertical vent and eventually flow into the suppression pool via horizontal vents. The steam will create large bubbles in the suppression pool and cause the pool to swell. The impact of the pool swell on the equipment inside the pool and containment structure needed to be evaluated for licensing. GE has conducted a series of one-third scale three-vent air tests in supporting the horizontal vent pressure suppression system used in Mark III containment design for General Electric BWR plants. During the test, the air-water interface locations were tracked by conductivity probes. The pressure was measured at many locations inside the test rig as well. The purpose of the test was to provide a basis for the pool swell load definition for the Mark III containment. In this paper, a transient three-dimensional CFD model to simulate the one-third scale Mark III suppression pool swell process is illustrated. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used to explicitly track the interface between the water liquid and the air. The CFD results such as flow velocity, pressure, interface locations are compared to the data from the test. Through comparisons, a technical approach to numerically model the pool swell phenomenon is established and benchmarked.

  14. Evaluation of pool swell velocity during large break loss of coolant accident in boiling water reactor Mark III containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In boiling water reactor (BWR) design, safety scenarios such as main steam line break need to be evaluated. After the main steam line break, the steam will fill the upper dry well of the containment. It will then enter the vertical vent and eventually flow into the suppression pool via horizontal vents. The steam will create large bubbles in the suppression pool and cause the pool to swell. The impact of the pool swell on the equipment inside the pool and containment structure needed to be evaluated for licensing. GE has conducted a series of one-third scale three-vent air tests in supporting the horizontal vent pressure suppression system used in Mark III containment design for General Electric BWR plants. During the test, the air-water interface locations were tracked by conductivity probes. The pressure was measured at many locations inside the test rig as well. The purpose of the test was to provide a basis for the pool swell load definition for the Mark III containment. In this paper, a transient three-dimensional CFD model to simulate the one-third scale Mark III suppression pool swell process is illustrated. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used to explicitly track the interface between the water liquid and the air. The CFD results such as flow velocity, pressure, interface locations are compared to the data from the test. Through comparisons, a technical approach to numerically model the pool swell phenomenon is established and benchmarked.

  15. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors. Eighteenth annual meeting, Vienna, Austria, 16-19 April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eighteenth Annual Meeting on the Status of National Programmes in Member States of the IAEA on Fast Breeder Reactors had been held in April 1985. The representatives of the Member States and international organizations reported status and activities in the field of fast breeder reactors development and operation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 12 presentations of the meeting

  16. The radionuclides of primary coolant in HANARO and the recent activities performed to reduce the radioactivity or reactor pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [HANARO Research Reactor Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    In HANARO reactor, there have been activities to identify the principal radionuclides and to quantify them under the normal operation. The purposes of such activities were to establish the measure by which we can reduce the radioactivity of the reactor pool water and detect, in early stage, the abnormal symptoms due to the leakage of radioactive materials from the irradiation sample or the damage of the nuclear fuel, etc. The typical radionuclides produced by the activation of reactor coolant are N{sup 16} and Ar{sup 41}. The radionuclides produced by the activation of the core structural material consist of Na{sup 24}, Mn{sup 56}, and W{sup 187}. Of the various radionuclides, governing the radiation level at the pool surface are Na{sup 24}, Ar{sup 41}, Mn{sup 58}, and W{sup 187}. By establishing the hot water layer system on the pool surface, we expected that the radionuclides such as Ar{sup 41} and Mn{sup 56} whose half-life are relatively short could be removed to a certain extent. Since the content of radioactivity of Na{sup 24} occupies about 60% of the total radioactivity, we assumed that the total radiation level would be greatly reduced if we could decrease the radiation level of Na{sup 24}. However the actual radiation level has not been reduced as much as we expected. Therefore, some experiments have been carried out to find the actual causes afterwards. What we learned through the experiments are that any disturbance in reactor pool water layer causes increase of the pool surface radiation level and even if we maintain the hot water layer well, reactor shutdown will be very much likely to happen once the hot water layer is disturbed. (author)

  17. Adaptive Controller Design for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prabhu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Continues Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR is an important issue in chemical process and a wide range of research in the area of chemical engineering. Temperature Control of CSTR has been an issue in the chemical control engineering since it has highly non-linear complex equations. This study presents problem of temperature control of CSTR with the adaptive Controller. The Simulation is done in MATLAB and result shows that adaptive controller is an efficient controller for temperature control of CSTR than PID controller.

  18. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water – Is less THM better?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Antoniou, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs......), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl3), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free chlorine was kept constant in the tested pH range. THM formation was reduced by decreasing pH but HAN, and NCl3...... formation was investigated and found to follow the same pH dependency as without bromide present, with the overall DBP formation increasing, except for HAAs. Estimation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the chlorinated human exudates showed that among the quantified DBP groups, HAN formation were...

  19. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water--is less THM better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kamilla M S; Willach, Sarah; Antoniou, Maria G; Mosbæk, Hans; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik R

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl(3)), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free chlorine was kept constant in the tested pH range. THM formation was reduced by decreasing pH but HAN, and NCl(3) formation increased at decreasing pH whereas the formation of HAAs remained constant. Under our experimental conditions, the formation of NCl(3) (suspected asthma inducing compound) at pH = 6.0 was an order of magnitude higher than at pH = 7.5. Furthermore, the effect of the presence of bromide on DBP formation was investigated and found to follow the same pH dependency as without bromide present, with the overall DBP formation increasing, except for HAAs. Estimation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the chlorinated human exudates showed that among the quantified DBP groups, HAN formation were responsible for the majority of the toxicity from the measured DBPs in both absence and presence of bromide. PMID:23026126

  20. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water--is less THM better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kamilla M S; Willach, Sarah; Antoniou, Maria G; Mosbæk, Hans; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik R

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the formation and predicted toxicity of different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from human exudates in relation to chlorination of pool water at different pH values. Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl(3)), resulting from the chlorination of body fluid analog, were investigated at 6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0. Either the initial concentration of active chorine or free chlorine was kept constant in the tested pH range. THM formation was reduced by decreasing pH but HAN, and NCl(3) formation increased at decreasing pH whereas the formation of HAAs remained constant. Under our experimental conditions, the formation of NCl(3) (suspected asthma inducing compound) at pH = 6.0 was an order of magnitude higher than at pH = 7.5. Furthermore, the effect of the presence of bromide on DBP formation was investigated and found to follow the same pH dependency as without bromide present, with the overall DBP formation increasing, except for HAAs. Estimation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the chlorinated human exudates showed that among the quantified DBP groups, HAN formation were responsible for the majority of the toxicity from the measured DBPs in both absence and presence of bromide.

  1. Toward a conceptual understanding of acute cultural adaptation: A preliminary examination of ACA in female swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Haapanen, Saara; Mosek, Shwiko;

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a novel approach to researching adaptation in transnational athletes. The first part introduces a conceptualisation of acute cultural adaptation (ACA), which extends the current literature in sport psychology by offering original insights into mechanisms underpinning adaptive...

  2. Ageing Management and Preventice Measures for Reactor Pool Liners, Beam Tubes and Spent Fuel Storage Tank at the Dalat Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, Nguyen Nhi; Dien, Nguyen Minh; Su, Trang Cao [Nuclear Research Institute, Henoi (Viet Nam)

    2013-07-01

    The 500-kw Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) was reconstructed from the original 250-kW TRIGA Mark II as named of VN-001. In the framework of the reconstruction project during the 1982-1984 period, some structures of the TRIGA reactor constructed in the early sixties, such as the aluminum tank, graphite reflector, thermal column, four horizontal beam tubes, etc. have been remained. It means, such components are more than 50 years old and are facing with ageing issues. The structural materials of the pool liner and other components of TRIGA were made of aluminum alloy 6061 and aluminum cladding fuel assemblies. Some other parts, such as reactor core, irradiation rotary rack around the core, vertical irradiation facilities, etc. were replaced by the former Soviet Union's design with structural materials of aluminum alloy CAV-1. The reactor core has been loaded with HEU VVR-M2 fuel assemblies of 36% enrichment alloy CAV-1. The reactor core has been loaded with HEU VVR-M2 fuel assemblies of U-Al alloy 36% and of UO{sub 2} 19.75% enrichment used aluminum as fuel cladding. For ageing management and preventive measures of corrosion, an underwater high-resolution video camera system had been designed for visual inspections. A home-made cleaning system was also designed for cleaning the pool and other components. Water chemistry of the reactor pool and spent fuel storage was monitored regularly. In September-November 2011, all four horizontal channels were cleaned inside and visual inspection was done using special camera system. It was the first time from 1963 such activity could be done. Based on results obtained we could convince that inside all horizontal channels are in good condition and leakage could not be occurred. All 106 HEU spent fuel assemblies stored in the spent fuel pool in good condition. The visual inspection was done using under water camera too. The results obtained show that the surface of all HEU SFA is good and leakage was not occurred. The

  3. Reduced scale simulations of boiling water reactor pool swell: some limitations to the scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several potential sources of misscaling in reduced scale experimental tests have been systematically investigated. Increases in the enthalpy in-flux during pool swell increase resultant uploads; slight boundary flexibility due to small air bubbles attached to the pool walls or true fluid structure interaction can increase peak pool boundary loads; the presence of water vapor in the wetwell airspace can either increase or decrease pool swell uploads, depending on the vapor fraction initially present. 14 refs

  4. Three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction dynamics of a pool-reactor in-tank component. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The safety evaluation of reactor-components often involves the analysis of various types of fluid/structural components interacting in three-dimensional space. For example, in the design of a pool-type reactor several vital in-tank components such as the primary pumps and the intermediate heat exchangers are contained within the primary tank. Typically, these components are suspended from the deck structure and largely submersed in the sodium pool. Because of this positioning these components are vulnerable to structural damage due to pressure wave propagation in the tank during a CDA. In order to assess the structural integrity of these components it is necessary to perform a dynamic analysis in three-dimensional space which accounts for the fluid-structure coupling. A model is developed which has many of the salient features of this fluid-structural component system.

  5. Weekly self-scheduling, forward contracting, and pool involvement for an electricity producer: an adaptive robust optimization approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo M. Lima; Novais, Augusto Q.; Conejo, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    his paper addresses the optimization under uncertainty of the self-scheduling, forward contracting, and pool involvement of an electricity producer operating a mixed power generation station, which combines thermal, hydro and wind sources, and uses a two stage adaptive robust optimization approach. In this problem the wind power production and the electricity pool price are considered to be uncertain, and are described by uncertainty convex sets. To solve this problem, two variants of a const...

  6. Computational simulation of the natural circulation occurring in an experimental test section of a pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work presents a computational simulation of the natural circulation phenomenon developing in an experimental test section of a pool type research reactor. The test section has been designed using a reduced scale in height 1:4.7 in relation to a pool type 30 MW research reactor prototype. It comprises a cylindrical vessel, which is opened to atmosphere, and representing the reactor pool; a natural circulation pipe, a lower plenum, and a heater containing electrical resistors in rectangular plate format, which represents the fuel elements, with a chimney positioned on the top of the resistor assembly. In the computational simulation, it was used a commercial CFD software, without any turbulence model. Besides, in the presence of the natural circulation, a laminar flow has been assumed and the equations of the mass conservation, momentum and energy were solved by the finite element method. In addition, the results of the simulation are presented in terms of velocities and temperatures differences, respectively: at inlet and outlet of the heater and of the natural circulation pipe. (author)

  7. A new impulse in the development of nuclear pool-type reactors for underground heating plant: Designing, running background and possible perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the concept of energy supply with using ultimately safe pool-type integral nuclear reactors. Safety and reliability of these reactors has already been demonstrated to the public by the long-term operation of this type various research reactors. The reactor and power plant design features, new approach to the nuclear safety, the nuclear upgrading of existing energy system in a small Russian town are considered in the paper

  8. The Swimming Pool (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chen Xi was born in 1968 in Chongqing City, Sichuan Province. In 1991, she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree from the Oil Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Her paintings are soaked through with her mixed emotions towards urban life. The city, the concentrated mirror of human civilization, drives the human race further and further away from mother nature Molded ever more strictly by the socialization process, human beings live more and more like commodities. The ever-shrink-

  9. Swimming and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Jason M; Khanna, Neel; Chesler, Roseann; Salciccioli, Louis

    2013-09-20

    Exercise training is accepted to be beneficial in lowering morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiac disease. Swimming is a popular recreational activity, gaining recognition as an effective option in maintaining and improving cardiovascular fitness. Swimming is a unique form of exercise, differing from land-based exercises such as running in many aspects including medium, position, breathing pattern, and the muscle groups used. Water immersion places compressive forces on the body with resulting physiologic effects. We reviewed the physiologic effects and cardiovascular responses to swimming, the cardiac adaptations to swim training, swimming as a cardiac disease risk factor modifier, and the effects of swimming in those with cardiac disease conditions such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and the long-QT syndrome.

  10. Neutronic temperature determination in irradiation facilities of the RP-0 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RP-10 a swimming pool MTR type research reactor that attained power of 10 MW. The neutron temperature has been measurement in four different positions of the reactor at 300Kw of power, for this purpose was used the direct method, proposed for De Corte et al. The results were presented and discussed. (authors)

  11. Irradiation Scheme Design of 14C Production on 49-2 Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xing-min; XU; Zhi-long; ZHANG; Ya-dong

    2012-01-01

    <正>14C is a radioisotope of carbon, it is widely used in pharmacy, medical treatment, agriculture, reconnoiter and archaeology. 49-2 research reactor is a swimming pool style reactor which has operated for more than 40 years. The application of 49-2 reactor includes the radio nuclides production. Therefore, the technical scheme on 14C irradiation in 49-2 reactor should be prepared elaborately.

  12. CPAFFC Delegation In Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Austrian-Chinese Legal Association, the CPAFFC Delegation led by its vice president Liu Zhiming visited Austria from November 21 to 28, 2005. The delegation consisted of personages of the legal circles from Hunan, Qinghai, Jilin, Jiangxi, Beijing and Tianjin. In Austria, the delegation participated in the First Austria-China Legal Symposium, met with important political figures including Barbara Prammer, second president of the National Council of Austria, and

  13. The solar heating system of the sport centre 'Guillamo Swimming Pool' in Sierre, Switzerland; Installation solaire thermique. Complexe sportif de la piscine de Guillamo - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the refurbishment and the extension of the sport centre 'Guillamo Swimming Pool' in Sierre, Switzerland. The original building built in 1978 included three swimming pools (two indoor and one small outdoor). In 2005 a three-room fitness centre, a wellness centre and a bar were added to the compound and the old building and technical installations refurbished. At the same time a 591 m{sup 2} solar collector array was added. Unglazed selective solar absorbers were mounted on the 5{sup o} tilted flat roof. They insure at the same time the water tightness of the roof, a feature that lead to a significant cost reduction of the project. Before 2005 the natural gas consumption of the centre was 1.3 to 1.7 GWh/year. After the construction work the consumption was about 1.6 GWh, including a contribution of 0.06 GWh from the solar collectors. This last figure is disappointing. The reasons for this are mainly attributed by the authors to a very poor integration of the solar collectors into the conventional heat generation and distribution system, which do not enable the solar collectors to deliver the heat quantity they should. Changes should be made on the hydraulics of the whole system and on the control algorithms and settings.

  14. Welding of stainless steel pool of pressurized water reactor nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of stainless steel lining of million kilowatt grade pressurized water reactor nuclear power station is a new technology. The author introduces its welding method, parameter verification measure and key factors of construction quality control and so on

  15. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  16. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  17. Scaled Facility Design Approach for Pool-Type Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Small Modular Reactor Utilizing Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sangrok; Shin, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In low carbon era, nuclear energy is the most prominent energy source of electricity. For steady ecofriendly nuclear energy supply, Generation IV reactors which are future nuclear reactor require safety, sustainability, economics and non-proliferation as four criteria. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of these reactor type and Generation IV international forum (GIF) adapted three reference LFR systems which are a small and movable systems with long life without refueling, intermediate size and huge electricity generation system for power grid. NUTRECK (Nuclear Transmutation Energy Center of Korea) has been designed reactor called URANUS (Ubiquitous, Rugged, Accident-forgiving, Non-proliferating, and Ultra-lasting Sustainer) which is small modular reactor and using lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. To prove natural circulation capability of URANUS and analyze design based accidents, scaling mock-up experiment facility will be constructed. In this paper, simple specifications of URANUS will be presented. Then based on this feature, scaling law and scaled facility design results are presented. To validate safety feature and thermodynamics characteristic of URANUS, scaled mockup facility of URANUS is designed based on the scaling law. This mockup adapts two area scale factors, core and lower parts of mock-up are scaled for 3D flow experiment. Upper parts are scaled different size to reduce electricity power and LBE tonnage. This hybrid scaling method could distort some thermal-hydraulic parameters, however, key parameters for experiment will be matched for up-scaling. Detailed design of mock-up will be determined through iteration for design optimization.

  18. Feynman-alpha technique for measurement of detector dead time using a 30 kW tank-in-pool research reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Akaho, E H K; Intsiful, J D K; Maakuu, B T; Nyarko, B J B

    2002-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis was carried out for Ghana Research Reactor-1 GHARR-1, a tank-in-pool type reactor using the Feynman-alpha technique (variance-to-mean method). Measurements made at different detector positions and under subcritical conditions showed that the technique could not be used to determine the prompt decay constant for the reactor which is Be reflected with photo-neutron background. However, for very low dwell times the technique was used to measure the dead time of the detector which compares favourably with the value obtained using the alpha-conventional method.

  19. A CFD based approach for thermal hydraulic design of main vessel cooling system of pool type fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study thermal hydraulic design of main vessel cooling system of fast reactors. ► A CFD based approach is proposed for determination of coolant flow rate. ► Effect of cooling system ovality on temperature asymmetry is quantified. ► Suitable flow distribution device is identified to achieve acceptable flow field. ► To compare efficacy of various devices, a flow mal-distribution index is defined. - Abstract: A computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) based approach is proposed for the thermal hydraulic design of the main vessel cooling system for pool type sodium cooled reactors. Usage of the proposed method is demonstrated by applying it to a future Indian commercial fast breeder reactor. Towards quantifying the amount of sodium flow rate for the main vessel cooling system, two-dimensional CFD investigations have been performed. The conjugate conduction–convection models adopted for this purpose are validated against sodium experiments available in literature. The required flow fraction has been determined to be 2.6% of core flow, which is 175.6 kg/s at full power conditions. The heat loss from the hot pool to the cold pool through the main vessel cooling system is estimated to be 10.6 MW at full power and 3.7 MW at 20% power conditions. By detailed three-dimensional CFD studies, the effect of ovality in the main vessel cooling annuli due to manufacturing tolerances has been assessed and the associated circumferential temperature difference in the main vessel is determined to be 14 °C, which is less than the permissible upper limit of 30 °C. The uniformity of sodium flow in the cooling annulus has been investigated by a three-dimensional hydraulic analysis with a view to identify a suitable passive device that can render a uniform velocity distribution. To compare the effectiveness of various devices, a flow mal-distribution index is defined. Detailed parametric studies have been carried out to identify an appropriate porous jet breaker

  20. An Innovative Passive Residual Heat Removal System of an Open-Pool Type Research Reactor with Pump Flywheel and Gravity Core Cooling Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon-Yeong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an open-pool type research reactor, the primary cooling system can be designed to have a downward flow inside the core during normal operation because of the plate type fuel geometry. There is a flow inversion inside the core from the downward flow by the inertia force of the primary coolant to the upward flow by the natural circulation when the pump is turned off. To delay the flow inversion time, an innovative passive system with pump flywheel and GCCT is developed to remove the residual heat. Before the primary cooling pump starts up, the water level of the GCCT is the same as that of the reactor pool. During the primary cooling pump operation, the water in the GCCT is moved into the reactor pool because of the pump suction head. After the pump stops, the potential head generates a downward flow inside the core by moving the water from the reactor pool to the GCCT and removes the residual heat. When the water levels of the two pools are the same again, the core flow has an inversion of the flow direction, and natural circulation is developed through the flap valves.

  1. Motivation and drives in bottom-up developments in natural hazards management: multiple-use of adaptation strategies in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    Losses from extreme hydrological events, such as recently experienced in Europe have focused the attention of policymakers as well as researchers on vulnerability to natural hazards. In parallel, the context of changing flood risks under climate and societal change is driving transformation in the role of the state in responsibility sharing and individual responsibilities for risk management and precaution. The new policy agenda enhances the responsibilities of local authorities and private citizens in hazard management and reduces the role of central governments. Within the objective is to place added responsibility on local organisations and citizens to determine locally-based strategies for risk reduction. A major challenge of modelling adaptation is to represent the complexity of coupled human-environmental systems and particularly the feedback loops between environmental dynamics and human decision-making processes on different scales. This paper focuses on bottom-up initiatives to flood risk management which are, by definition, different from the mainstream. These initiatives are clearly influenced (positively or negatively) by a number of factors, where the combination of these interdependences can create specific conditions that alter the opportunity for effective governance arrangements in a local scheme approach. In total, this study identified six general drivers which encourage the implementation of flood storages, such as direct relation to recent major flood frequency and history, the initiative of individual stakeholders (promoters), political pressures from outside (e.g. business companies, private households) and a strong solidarity attitude of municipalities and the stakeholders involved. Although partnership approach may be seen as an 'optimal' solution for flood risk management, in practice there are many limitations and barriers in establishing these collaborations and making them effective (especially in the long term) with the consequences

  2. Progressive Increase in Disinfection Byproducts and Mutagenicity from Source to Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Impact of Human Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Eric J; DeMarini, David M; Ravuri, Sridevi A; Liberatore, Hannah K; Cuthbertson, Amy A; Thompson-Klemish, Alexis; Byer, Jonathan D; Schmid, Judith E; Afifi, Mehrnaz Z; Blatchley, Ernest R; Richardson, Susan D

    2016-07-01

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples from seven sites, we report the first integrated mutagenicity and comprehensive analytical chemistry of spas treated with chlorine, bromine, or ozone, along with pools treated with these same disinfectants. Gas chromatography (GC) with high-resolution mass spectrometry, membrane-introduction mass spectrometry, and GC-electron capture detection were used to comprehensively identify and quantify DBPs and other contaminants. Mutagenicity was assessed by the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. More than 100 DBPs were identified, including a new class of DBPs, bromoimidazoles. Organic extracts of brominated pool/spa waters were 1.8× more mutagenic than chlorinated ones; spa waters were 1.7× more mutagenic than pools. Pool and spa samples were 2.4 and 4.1× more mutagenic, respectively, than corresponding tap waters. The concentration of the sum of 21 DBPs measured quantitatively increased from finished to tap to pool to spa; and mutagenic potency increased from finished/tap to pools to spas. Mutagenic potencies of samples from a chlorinated site correlated best with brominated haloacetic acid concentrations (Br-HAAs) (r = 0.98) and nitrogen-containing DBPs (N-DBPs) (r = 0.97) and the least with Br-trihalomethanes (r = 0.29) and Br-N-DBPs (r = 0.04). The mutagenic potencies of samples from a brominated site correlated best (r = 0.82) with the concentrations of the nine HAAs, Br-HAAs, and Br-DBPs. Human use increased significantly the DBP concentrations and mutagenic potencies for most pools and spas. These data provide evidence that human precursors can increase mutagenic potencies of pools and spas and that this increase is associated with increased DBP concentrations. PMID:27124361

  3. Progressive Increase in Disinfection Byproducts and Mutagenicity from Source to Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Impact of Human Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Eric J; DeMarini, David M; Ravuri, Sridevi A; Liberatore, Hannah K; Cuthbertson, Amy A; Thompson-Klemish, Alexis; Byer, Jonathan D; Schmid, Judith E; Afifi, Mehrnaz Z; Blatchley, Ernest R; Richardson, Susan D

    2016-07-01

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples from seven sites, we report the first integrated mutagenicity and comprehensive analytical chemistry of spas treated with chlorine, bromine, or ozone, along with pools treated with these same disinfectants. Gas chromatography (GC) with high-resolution mass spectrometry, membrane-introduction mass spectrometry, and GC-electron capture detection were used to comprehensively identify and quantify DBPs and other contaminants. Mutagenicity was assessed by the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. More than 100 DBPs were identified, including a new class of DBPs, bromoimidazoles. Organic extracts of brominated pool/spa waters were 1.8× more mutagenic than chlorinated ones; spa waters were 1.7× more mutagenic than pools. Pool and spa samples were 2.4 and 4.1× more mutagenic, respectively, than corresponding tap waters. The concentration of the sum of 21 DBPs measured quantitatively increased from finished to tap to pool to spa; and mutagenic potency increased from finished/tap to pools to spas. Mutagenic potencies of samples from a chlorinated site correlated best with brominated haloacetic acid concentrations (Br-HAAs) (r = 0.98) and nitrogen-containing DBPs (N-DBPs) (r = 0.97) and the least with Br-trihalomethanes (r = 0.29) and Br-N-DBPs (r = 0.04). The mutagenic potencies of samples from a brominated site correlated best (r = 0.82) with the concentrations of the nine HAAs, Br-HAAs, and Br-DBPs. Human use increased significantly the DBP concentrations and mutagenic potencies for most pools and spas. These data provide evidence that human precursors can increase mutagenic potencies of pools and spas and that this increase is associated with increased DBP concentrations.

  4. Optimisation of the flow path in a conceptual pool type reactor under natural circulation with lead coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution investigates the effects of a bypass flow blocking bottom plate and the influence of the heat transfer between the hot and cold leg in a small pool type reactor cooled through natural convection with lead coolant. The computations are carried out using 3D computational fluid dynamics, where small-detail parts, such as the core and heat exchangers are modeled using a porous media approach. The introduction of full conjugate heat transfer shows that the heat transfer between the hot and cold leg can deteriorate flow in the cold leg and lead to recirculation zones. These zones become even more pronounced with the introduction of a bottom plate, which on the other hand also increases the flow through the core and lowers the maximum temperature in the core by approximately 150 K. Based on the results, redesign suggestions for the bottom plate and the internal wall are made. (author)

  5. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  6. Criticality safety assessment of a TRIGA reactor spent fuel pool under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview paper on the criticality safety analysis of a pool type storage for a TRIGA spent fuel at the ''Jozef Stefan'' Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is presented. It was shown in that subcriticality is not guaranteed for some postulated accidents (an earthquake with subsequent fuel rack disintegration resulting in contact fuel pitch). To mitigate this deficiency, a study was made about replacing a certain number of fuel elements in the rack with absorber rods in order to lower the probability for supercriticality to acceptable level. (author)

  7. Current Status of Activation Analysis Using Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation analysis may be considered to be one of the most practical applications in the utilization of research reactor. One of the obvious advantages of this method is its high sensitivity for many elements. Using the average research reactor, it is feasible to determine the content of element in various matrices, to an order of as low as 0,001 microgram. Although the detection, sensitivities of other analytical methods also have been improved very much in recent years by using newly developed instruments, these methods can rival the activation analysis in sensitivity for only a certain limited number of elements. Thus, at present, the technique of activation analysis seems to offer the highest sensitivity for the greatest number of elements

  8. Concept of a BNCT line with in-pool fission converter at MARIA reactor in Swierk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Krzysztof; Golnik, Natalia; Osko, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    BNCT facility in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk is under construction at the horizontal channel H2 of the research reactor MARIA. Measurements of the neutron energy spectrum performed at the front of the H2 experimental channel, have shown that flux of epithermal neutrons (above 10 keV) at the BNCT irradiation port was below 109 n cm-2 s-1 i.e. it was too low to be directly used for the BNCT treatment. Therefore, a fission converter will be placed between the reactor core and the periphery of the graphite reflector of MARIA reactor. The uranium converter will be powered by the densely packed EK-10 fuel elements with 10% enrichment. Preliminary calculations have shown that the total neutron flux in the converter will be about 1013 n cm-2 s-1 and flux of epithermal neutrons at the entrance to the filter/moderator of the beam will be about 2·1013 n cm-2 s-1.

  9. Some aspects of criticality safety of TRIGA reactor spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additional criticality safety analysis of a pool type storage for TRIGA spent fuel at ''Jozef Stefan'' Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is presented. Previous results have shown that subcriticality is not guaranteed for some postulated accidents. To mitigate this deficiency, a study was made about replacing a certain number of fuel elements in the rack with absorber rods. For this purpose Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4A with ENDF-B/V library and detailed three dimensional fuel rack model was used. A short study of different absorber rods design is presented. At first the analysis was done about the number of uniformly mixed absorber rods in the lattice needed to sustain the subcriticality of the storage when pitch is decreased from rack design pitch of 8cm to contact, assuming that the absorber rods remain in their proper positions. Because of supercriticality possibility due to random mixing of the absorber rods during lattice compaction, a probabilistic study was made, sampling the probability density functions for random lattice loadings of the absorber rods. The results show reasonably low probabilities for supercriticality even for fresh 12 wt% enriched standard TRIGA fuel stored in the spent fuel pool. (orig.)

  10. Contaminación del aire interior y del agua de baño en piscinas cubiertas de Guipúzcoa Indoor air and bathing water pollution in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Santa Marina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los niveles de contaminantes presentes en las piscinas cubiertas de Guipúzcoa, tanto en el agua de baño como en el aire, y estudiar la relación entre estos contaminantes y otras variables relacionadas con los sistemas de ventilación y el uso de las instalaciones. Métodos: De las 35 piscinas cubiertas registradas en Guipúzcoa se estudiaron las 20 más utilizadas por nadadores. Cada instalación se muestreó 2 días no consecutivos y se midieron los niveles de cloro libre y combinado y trihalometanos en el agua, así como los de cloro total y cloroformo en el aire. Como indicador de la renovación del aire se midió el dióxido de carbono (CO2. Resultados: El nivel medio de cloro en el aire fue de 0,4mg/m³ y el de cloroformo de 22µg/m³. Los valores de cloro libre y combinado de todas las piscinas se mantuvieron dentro de los valores reglamentarios. El nivel medio de cloroformo del agua de baño fue de 13,7µg/l. El valor del cloroformo del aire puede predecirse razonablemente (R²=0,85, y las variables predictoras son el cloroformo del agua, el CO2 y el número de bañistas del día. Conclusiones: Los niveles de contaminantes en el agua y en el aire de las piscinas de Guipúzcoa son inferiores a los descritos en otros estudios. Sin embargo, utilizando la concentración de 0,5mg/m³ de cloro total en aire, propuesta como valor de referencia para la protección de los nadadores con actividad intensa, un 20% de las instalaciones superarían dicho valor.Objective: To describe levels of pollutants found in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Basque Country, Spain, both in the bathing water and in the air, and to study the association between these pollutants and other variables related to ventilation systems and the use of installations. Methods: Of the 35 indoor swimming pools registered in Guipúzcoa, the 20 most frequently used by swimmers were studied. Each installation was sampled on two nonconsecutive days. Free and

  11. N-16 power monitoring system of the RP-10 pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary results of monitoring of power of the RP-10 nuclear reactor by measuring the activity of gamma radiation 16N content in the coolant are presented. A detector NaI(Tl) placed in a window that communicates the decay tank and the pump room of the primary cooling circuit was used. Measurements were performed for different levels of power, from 0,5 to 10 MW. Results show a linear behavior between the power of operation and the activity of 16N. (orig.)

  12. Fukushima - calculation of the reactor core inventory and storage pools Dai-ichi 1 to Dai-ichi 4, an estimation of a source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventory of the reactor core and spent fuel storage pool of the reactors at Dai-ichi 1 to Dai-ichi 4 was determined to need a realistic estimate of the source (released into the atmosphere environment) and modelling of radiological impact of the events in Fukushima NPP. Calculations of inventories were carried out by the methodology that is used in systems to support emergency response and crisis management anymore. Calculations were made based on a model that respects knowledge of real fuels and fuel cycles for individual reactors Dai-ichi. Necessary input data for training the model and calculate inventories are obtained from the IAEA PRIS database.

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the Worcester Polytechnic Institute open-pool training reactor, Docket No. 50-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) for a renewal of Operating License R-61 to continue to operate the WPI 10-kW open-pool training reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Worcester Polytechnic Institute and is located on the WPI campus in Worcester, Worcester County, Massachusetts. The staff concludes that the reactor facility can continue to be operated by WPI without endangering the health and safety of the public

  14. Significance of coast down time on safety and availability of a pool type fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Plant dynamics studies for quantifying the benefits of flow coast down time. • Establishment of minimum flow coast down time required for safety. • Assessment of influence of flow coast down on enhancing plant availability. • Synthesis of thermo mechanical benefits of flow coast down time on component design. - Abstract: Plant dynamic investigation towards establishing the influence of flow coast down time of primary and secondary sodium systems on safety and availability of plant has been carried out based on one dimensional analysis. From safety considerations, a minimum flow coast down time for primary sodium circuit is essential to be provided to limit the consequences of loss of flow event within allowable limits. Apart from safety benefits, large primary coast down time also improves plant availability by the elimination of reactor SCRAM during short term power failure events. Threshold values of SCRAM parameters also need optimization. By suitably selecting the threshold values for SCRAM parameters, significant reduction in the inertia of pumping systems can be derived to obtain desirable results on plant availability. With the optimization of threshold values and primary flow coast down behaviour equivalent to a halving time of 8 s, there is a possibility to eliminate reactor SCRAM during short term power failure events extending up to 0.75 s duration. Benefits of secondary flow halving on reducing transient thermal loading on components have also been investigated and mixed effects have been observed

  15. Design of a decay tank for a pool type research reactor with a CFD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual primary cooling system (PCS) was designed for adequate cooling of the core of a research reactor. The primary coolant after passing through the reactor core contains many kinds of radio-nuclides. A decay tank provides a delayed transit time to ensure that the N-16 activity decreases enough before the coolant leaves the decay tank's shielding room. The size of the decay tank should be enlarged to provide sufficient transit time. However, there was a limitation: to minimize the tank size, it should be designed with an internal baffle, which affects the pressure loss in the system and net positive suction head (NPSH) of the PCS pump. Therefore, the decay tank should be optimized for size and the internal baffle. A vertical type decay tank was chosen to optimize the geometrical arrangement of PCS and the vertical internal baffle was installed to minimize the number of internal structures. The preliminary geometry of the tank and the internal baffle were determined to satisfy the required delayed transit time by calculating the maximum velocity and the flow path length of the circular and the annular sections of the tank. The commercially available CFD model, FLUENT, which solves the Navier-Stokes and turbulent models, was used to specifically design the decay tank with the preliminarily calculated geometry and the related flow rate. Several turbulence models, standard k-ε model, renormalization group (RNG) model, and realizable k-ε model, were conducted to isolate the root cause of these differences. By comparing the results of the velocity profile and the characteristics of each model, a detailed design study was simulated using the realizable k-ε model. A user-defined scalar equation was solved to estimate the delayed transit time. The size and the internal baffle that satisfy the required transit time were determined based on the CFD results. (author)

  16. Gifted Education in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyringer, Sieglinde

    2013-01-01

    In Austria, gifted education and the education of highly gifted and talented children have been receiving an increasing public awareness and social acceptance over the past decade. The article highlights the existing ideas of giftedness in Austria, and it presents several initiatives having triggered and influenced this positive development. The…

  17. Energy utilized intelligently. Energy-cooperation between an industrial plant and open-air swimming pool; Energie intelligent genutzt. Energie-Kooperation zwischen Industriebetrieb und Freizeitbad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergjan, B. [agn Paul Niederberghaus und Partner GmbH, Ibbenbueren (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The open-air bassin AquaMagis at Plettenberg uses the waste heat of the near-by situated Aluminium rolling manufacturing Novelis, which had to be cooled expensively in former times. So operating cost for heating the pool are saved in a five number account, carbon dioxide emissions reduced to about 30 % and the extensive waste heat cooling nearly avoided. (GL)

  18. Halliwickov koncept učenja plavanja in ocenjevanje plavalnih veščin: The Halliwick concept of teaching of swimming and assessment of swimming skills: The Halliwick concept of teaching of swimming and assessment of swimming skills:

    OpenAIRE

    Groleger, Katja; Vidmar, Gaj; Vrečar, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The Halliwick concept of teaching of swimming is a comprehensive programme of adaptation to water, learning to breathe, moving in water and swimming, aimed mainly at persons with movement and/or learning disabilities of different age. Assessment of swimming ability is an integral part of the Halliwick concept. The system of Halliwick badges is used, which has recently been supplemented by the Swimming With Independent Measurement (SWIM). There is no data on sensitivity of the SWIM test in the...

  19. Water evaporation in used indoor swimming pools. Pt. 3/3. A graphical representation; Wasserverdunstung benutzter Becken im Hallenbad. T. 3/3. Eine Modellvorstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasin, K.

    2008-06-15

    The final part of the paper herein, integrates the dissipation of wave energy via the overflow spillway system with the pool users and undulation-field wave-superimposition to a significant value, the subsidence coefficient. For the calculation of said coefficient, a regression approach is envisaged. A method for direct determination of the water changeover coefficient is of supplementation to said approach, whereby said method can be held valid as a model for technical measurement analyses. (orig.)

  20. Development of Power Controller System based on Model Reference Adaptive Control for a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)-type TRIGA Mark II was installed in the year 1982. The Power Controller System (PCS) or Automated Power Controller System (APCS) is very important for reactor operation and safety reasons. It is a function of controlled reactivity and reactor power. The existing power controller system is under development and due to slow response, low accuracy and low stability on reactor power control affecting the reactor safety. The nuclear reactor is a nonlinear system in nature, and it is power increases continuously with time. The reactor parameters vary as a function of power, fuel burnup and control rod worth. The output power value given by the power control system is not exactly as real value of reactor power. Therefore, controller system design is very important, an adaptive controller seems to be inevitable. The method chooses is a linear controller by using feedback linearization, for example Model Reference Adaptive Control. The developed APCS for RTP will be design by using Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). The structured of RTP model to produce the dynamic behaviour of RTP on entire operating power range from 0 to 1MWatt. The dynamic behavior of RTP model is produced by coupling of neutronic and thermal-hydraulics. It will be developed by using software MATLAB/Simulink and hardware module card to handle analog input signal. A new algorithm for APCS is developed to control the movement of control rods with uniformity and orderly for RTP. Before APCS test to real plant, simulation results shall be obtained from RTP model on reactor power, reactivity, period, control rod positions, fuel and coolant temperatures. Those data are comparable with the real data for validation. After completing the RTP model, APCS will be tested to real plant on power control system performance by using real signal from RTP including fail-safe operation, system reliable, fast response, stability and accuracy. The new algorithm shall be a satisfied

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the EORTC computerized adaptive test (CAT) fatigue item pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Giesinger, Johannes M; Holzner, Bernhard;

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment. To obtain a more precise and flexible measure of fatigue, the EORTC Quality of Life Group has developed a computerized adaptive test (CAT) measure of fatigue. This is part of an ongoing project developing a CAT v...

  2. Contributions of research Reactors in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, after defining a research reactor, its basic constituents, types of reactors, their distribution in the world, some typical examples of their uses are given. Particular emphasis in placed on the contribution of PARR-I (Pakistan Research Reactor-I), the 5 MW Swimming Pool Research reactor which first became critical at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) in Dec. 1965 and attained its full power in June 1966. This is still the major research facility at PINSTECH for research and development. (author)

  3. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry.

  4. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry. PMID:26612557

  5. Adaptive fuzzy control of neutron power of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; Control difuso adaptable de la potencia neutronica del reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas R, E.

    2014-07-01

    The design and implementation of an identification and control scheme of the TRIGA Mark III research nuclear reactor of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) of Mexico is presented in this thesis work. The identification of the reactor dynamics is carried out using fuzzy logic based systems, in which a learning process permits the adjustment of the membership function parameters by means of techniques based on neural networks and bio-inspired algorithms. The resulting identification system is a useful tool that allows the emulation of the reactor power behavior when different types of insertions of reactivity are applied into the core. The identification of the power can also be used for the tuning of the parameters of a control system. On the other hand, the regulation of the reactor power is carried out by means of an adaptive and stable fuzzy control scheme. The control law is derived using the input-output linearization technique, which permits the introduction of a desired power profile for the plant to follow asymptotically. This characteristic is suitable for managing the ascent of power from an initial level n{sub o} up to a predetermined final level n{sub f}. During the increase of power, a constraint related to the rate of change in power is considered by the control scheme, thus minimizing the occurrence of a safety reactor shutdown due to a low reactor period value. Furthermore, the theory of stability in the sense of Lyapunov is used to obtain a supervisory control law which maintains the power error within a tolerance region, thus guaranteeing the stability of the power of the closed loop system. (Author)

  6. The comparison of immobility time in experimental rat swimming models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, Caroline Morini; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2006-09-27

    Rat swimming models have been used in studies about stress and depression. However, there is no consensus about interpreting immobility (helplessness or adaptation) in the literature. In the present study, immobility time, glucose and glycogen mobilization, corticosterone and the effect of desipramine and diazepam were investigated in two different models: swimming stress and the forced swimming test. Immobility time was lower in swimming stress than in the forced swimming test. Both swimming models increased corticosterone levels in comparison with control animal levels. Moreover, swimming stress induced higher corticosterone levels than the forced swimming test did [F(2,14)=59.52; pswimming stressswimming testswimming stress in comparison with the forced swimming test and control. The immobility time was recorded and measured in another group treated with desipramine and diazepam in two protocols: a single session of forced swimming test or swimming stress and two sessions (pre- and retest) of forced swimming model or swimming stress. Desipramine decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in both the single [F(2,25)=20.63; pswimming session, without changes in the swimming stress model. Diazepam increased the immobility time in the swimming stress but not in the forced swimming test during the single [F(2,26)=11.24; p=0.0003] and retest sessions [F(2,38)=4.17; p=0.02]. It was concluded that swimming stress and the forced swimming test induced different behavior, hormonal and metabolic responses and represented different situations to the animal.

  7. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E.-Part I; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Ahnert, C.; Naudin, A. E.; Martinez Fanegas, R.; Minguez, E.; Rovira, A.

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics (both statics and kinetics), of the 10 MWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E, is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking, carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  9. Adaptive control using a hybrid-neural model: application to a polymerisation reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of a hybrid-neural model for predictive control of a plug flow polymerisation reactor. The hybrid-neural model (HNM is based on fundamental conservation laws associated with a neural network (NN used to model the uncertain parameters. By simulations, the performance of this approach was studied for a peroxide-initiated styrene tubular reactor. The HNM was synthesised for a CSTR reactor with a radial basis function neural net (RBFN used to estimate the reaction rates recursively. The adaptive HNM was incorporated in two model predictive control strategies, a direct synthesis scheme and an optimum steady state scheme. Tests for servo and regulator control showed excellent behaviour following different setpoint variations, and rejecting perturbations. The good generalisation and training capacities of hybrid models, associated with the simplicity and robustness characteristics of the MPC formulations, make an attractive combination for the control of a polymerisation reactor.

  10. Application of passive energy conservation technique to a constant temperature indoor swimming pool%被动节能在某室内恒温游泳池中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨炯; 屈国伦; 胡婧; 林心关; 王飞; 刘后根; 常先问

    2012-01-01

    Introduces the natural ventilation system into the swimming pool design and determines the air inlet and outlet scheme based on CFD simulation results. Gives the logic decision conditions of natural ventilation operation, natural ventilation plus mechanical ventilation operation and air conditioning operation. Calculates the annual ventilation operation hours using the meteorological parameters of a typical year in Guangzhou and analyses the energy saving effect of ventilation operation by annual energy consumption simulation.%在该恒温游泳池设计中引入了自然通风系统,结合CFD模拟结果确定了进排风方案.给出了自然通风、自然通风与机械通风联合运行和空调运行的逻辑判-定条件.采用广州市典型气象年的气象资科计算了全年通风运行时间,并通过全年能耗模拟分析了其节能效益.

  11. Piscina cubierta, en Viena, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünberger, Friedrich

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available This project includes the following: The main building contains the basement, a laundry, the heating and air conditioning installations. The ground floor has men's dressing rooms and showers. The first floor has ladies dressing rooms and individual bathrooms. On the 2nd and 3rd floors there are sauna facilities for men and women and also ladies and gentlemen's hairdressing saloons. The top level is utilized for sunbathing. The intermediate building has two swimming pools, one for learners, and the other for children. Finally the covered swimming pool itself has a full sized pool and a diving structure, 5 m in height. The most outstanding features of this sporting facility are the structures of the buildings, which are made with prestressed concrete.El conjunto construido comprende: El edificio principal, que alberga en el sótano: una lavandería, los cuartos para la calefacción y aire acondicionado; en la planta baja: los vestuarios para hombres, con sus duchas correspondientes; en la 1.ª planta: los vestuarios y duchas para mujeres y los servicios de «baños» individuales; en las plantas 2.ª y 3.ª: «saunas» para mujeres y para hombres, y una peluquería masculina y otra femenina. El nivel superior es utilizado para tomar «baños de sol». El pabellón intermedio contiene las piscinas: para los que aprenden a nadar, y de niños. Finalmente, el edificio de la «Piscina cubierta» propiamente dicha aloja: una piscina reglamentaria y su correspondiente torre de saltos de 5 m de altura. Lo más destacable de este complejo son las estructuras de los edificios y de la piscina, realizadas con hormigón pretensado.

  12. Review of IAEA specialists' meeting on irradiation embrittlement, thermal annealing and surveillance of reactor vessels, Vienna, Austria, 26-28 February 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic theme of the meeting was the exposition of knowledge which will permit the evaluation or projection of the reactor pressure vessel condition after neutron irradiation so as to assure vessel integrity for the reactor's economic life. This applies to both current and future light water reactor (LWR) systems. With this basis, the participants, organizers, authors, and discussors freely provided the latest available information as well as ideas for added research and development to meet the theme goal. Papers from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States covered various topics within the framework of studies on irradiation embrittlement, surveillance, and thermal annealing to correct radiation damage. The collective result in the long run would be to provide the basic data on which to base criteria for assurance of LWR vessel integrity

  13. Retrieval of Brain Tumors by Adaptive Spatial Pooling and Fisher Vector Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Yang, Wei; Huang, Meiyan; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Yujia; Yang, Ru; Zhao, Jie; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques have currently gained increasing popularity in the medical field because they can use numerous and valuable archived images to support clinical decisions. In this paper, we concentrate on developing a CBIR system for retrieving brain tumors in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI images. Specifically, when the user roughly outlines the tumor region of a query image, brain tumor images in the database of the same pathological type are expected to be returned. We propose a novel feature extraction framework to improve the retrieval performance. The proposed framework consists of three steps. First, we augment the tumor region and use the augmented tumor region as the region of interest to incorporate informative contextual information. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into subregions by an adaptive spatial division method based on intensity orders; within each subregion, we extract raw image patches as local features. Third, we apply the Fisher kernel framework to aggregate the local features of each subregion into a respective single vector representation and concatenate these per-subregion vector representations to obtain an image-level signature. After feature extraction, a closed-form metric learning algorithm is applied to measure the similarity between the query image and database images. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large dataset of 3604 images with three types of brain tumors, namely, meningiomas, gliomas, and pituitary tumors. The mean average precision can reach 94.68%. Experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed algorithm against some related state-of-the-art methods on the same dataset. PMID:27273091

  14. Experimental study for research and development of a super fast reactor. (2) Oscillatory condensation of high temperature vapor directly discharged into sub-cooled liquid pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of pressure oscillation and the observation of condensation behavior of a vapor discharge into sub-cooled liquid cool has been carried out to obtain a basic data for the evaluation of safety of the LOCA in the supercritical pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor). In the experiment, HCFC 123 is used as the test fluid. HCFC 123 is easy for handling due to its low critical pressure and temperature, and therefore, the experimental conditions can be set easily to make systematic data. The vapor at high temperature is discharged into the sub-cooled liquid pool through a submerged single pipe vertically fixed. The oscillatory condensation is observed. The condensation oscillation produces pressure oscillation in the liquid pool. The condensing interface area becomes small as the increase of the degree of sub-cooling. The pressure frequency has a period of millisecond order and the frequency and amplitude of the pressure oscillation increase with increasing the degree of sub-cooling and mass flux of the vapor, like the results of some conventional water vapor injection tests. In the present study, it is also consistently discussed the influence of the vapor temperature, mass flux, mass flow rate, back pressure of the liquid pool, pipe diameter and the degree of sub-cooling on the pressure amplitude and condensation behavior. (author)

  15. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs

  16. Irish Literature in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Gerda

    After a brief description of some historical and cultural interchanges between Ireland and Austria, the paper examines Irish fiction that has been translated into German and Irish plays that have been performed in Vienna over the past 25 years. The paper also describes German translations of Irish children's fiction, including classics like…

  17. Organic Agriculture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C. R.; Darnhofer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Organic farming has a long history in Austria, not least due to the fact that Rudolf Steiner, the founder of the bio-dynamic farming movement, was an Austrian. Currently approximately 10% of Austrian farms are certified organic, the highest percentage in the EU.

  18. Gene characteristics and serotype of adenovirus strains in an outbreak through a municipal swimming pool%经游泳池水传播的腺病毒毒株血清型及基因特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娟; 田会方; 徐保红; 赵冬; 潘琢; 蒋瑞平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the gene characteristics and serotype of adenovirus strains in an outbreak through a municipal swimming pool. Methods The serotype of sixteen adenovirus positive samples detected by using respiratory virus multiple PCR joint inspection kit were tested with tvpe specific primers of adenovirus type 3, 7 and 21. And the completely hexon genes and fiber genes of three adenovirus positive specimens were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and completely sequence determination was conducted. Results All the sixteen adenovirus positive samples were human adenovirus type 7. The three adenovirus serotype 7 isolates had the same hexon gene and fiber gene sequence, the nucleic acid homology was 100%. Compared with the adenovirus serotype 7 outbreak in Shaanxi province, China, which associated with a severe lower respiratory tracted disease in infants 7the three adenovirus positive samples and Shaanxi adenovirus strain shared the same sequence,and no significant genetic variations were found. Conclusion The viral pathogen related to the adenovirus in the outbreak through municipal swimming pool is the type 7. Sequences of the hexon gene and fiber gene are similar to the adenovirus serotype 7 strain in the outbreak in Shaanxi province, none variation is found.%目的 研究经游泳池水传播的腺病毒毒株血清型及基因特征.方法 对采用呼吸道病毒多重PCR法检测阳性的16份咽试子样品进行了腺病毒3型、7型及21型的特异性PCR检测,并对其中3份标本进行了腺病毒六联体(hexon)基因和纤毛(fiber)基因的全序列测定,将测定结果与Genbank数据库公开的核酸序列进行同源性比对,绘制进化树.结果 16份腺病毒阳性样品均为腺病毒7型;3份样品间hexon基因和ber基因核酸序列完全一致,同源性为100%;同时,该3份标本的hexon基因和ber基因核酸序列与引起我国陕西省婴儿严重急性下呼吸道感染暴发的腺病毒毒株的核酸序

  19. Activities for extending the lifetime of MINT research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokhari, Adnan; Kassim, Mohammad Suhaimi [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    MINT TRIGA Reactor is a 1-MW swimming pool nuclear reactor commissioned in June 1982. Since then, it has been used for research, isotope production, neutron activation, neutron radiography and manpower training. The total operating time till the end on September 1997 is 16968 hours with cumulative total energy release of 11188 MW-hours. After more than fifteen years of successful operation, some deterioration in components and associated systems has been observed. This paper describes some of the activities carried out to increase the lifetime and to reduce the shutdown time of the reactor. (author)

  20. [Treatment of haemophilia in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabinger, Ingrid; Heistinger, Max; Muntean, Wolfgang; Reitter-Pfoertner, Sylvia-Elisabeth; Rosenlechner, Sabine; Schindl, Thomas; Schuster, Gerhard; Streif, Werner; Thom, Katharina; Male, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    This guideline which is endorsed by the Austrian Society of Haemophilia, the Austrian Society of Paediatrics, and the Austrian Society of Haematology & Medical Oncology is intended to give a clear and practical guidance for diagnosing and treating haemophilia in Austria. In the treatment of haemophilia there are few controlled interventional trials, and recommendations usually have a rather low level of evidence.The main basis for this paper are the new international guidelines by the World Federation of Hemophilia, published in 2013. These were adapted according to the local situation and experience.Covered topics are diagnostics, control visits, pharmacological treatment options, prophylaxis and treatment in children and adults, possible problems arising in haemophilia carriers and special aspects like home therapy, options for venous catheters, management of various traumas, bleedings and interventions, including dental procedures, and last not least inhibitors and their treatment.

  1. Swimming Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Corinna C.; Krüger, Carsten; Herminghaus, Stephan; Bahr, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Swimming droplets are artificial microswimmers based on liquid droplets that show self-propelled motion when immersed in a second liquid. These systems are of tremendous interest as experimental models for the study of collective dynamics far from thermal equilibrium. For biological systems, such as bacterial colonies, plankton, or fish swarms, swimming droplets can provide a vital link between simulations and real life. We review the experimental systems and discuss the mechanisms of self-propulsion. Most systems are based on surfactant-stabilized droplets, the surfactant layer of which is modified in a way that leads to a steady Marangoni stress resulting in an autonomous motion of the droplet. The modification of the surfactant layer is caused either by the advection of a chemical reactant or by a solubilization process. Some types of swimming droplets possess a very simple design and long active periods, rendering them promising model systems for future studies of collective behavior.

  2. Nondestructive testing of PWR type fuel rods by eddy currents and metrology in the OSIRIS reactor pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Saclay Reactor Department has developed a nondestructive test bench, now installed above channel 1 of the OSIRIS reactor. As part of investigations into the dynamics of PWR fuel degradation, a number of fuel rods underwent metrological and eddy current inspection, after irradiation

  3. ADAPTATION OF CRACK GROWTH DETECTION TECHNIQUES TO US MATERIAL TEST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; Sebastien P. Teysseyre; Kurt L. Davis; Gordon Kohse; Yakov Ostrovsky; David M. Carpenter; Joy L. Rempe

    2015-04-01

    A key component in evaluating the ability of Light Water Reactors to operate beyond 60 years is characterizing the degradation of materials exposed to radiation and various water chemistries. Of particular concern is the response of reactor materials to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). Some test reactors outside the United States, such as the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), have developed techniques to measure crack growth propagation during irradiation. The basic approach is to use a custom-designed compact loading mechanism to stress the specimen during irradiation, while the crack in the specimen is monitored in-situ using the Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. In 2012 the US Department of Energy commissioned the Idaho National Laboratory and the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (MIT NRL) to take the basic concepts developed at the HBWR and adapt them to a test rig capable of conducting in-pile IASCC tests in US Material Test Reactors. The first two and half years of the project consisted of designing and testing the loader mechanism, testing individual components of the in-pile rig and electronic support equipment, and autoclave testing of the rig design prior to insertion in the MIT Reactor. The load was applied to the specimen by means of a scissor like mechanism, actuated by a miniature metal bellows driven by pneumatic pressure and sized to fit within the small in-core irradiation volume. In addition to the loader design, technical challenges included developing robust connections to the specimen for the applied current and voltage measurements, appropriate ceramic insulating materials that can endure the LWR environment, dealing with the high electromagnetic noise environment of a reactor core at full power, and accommodating material property changes in the specimen, due primarily to fast neutron damage, which change the specimen resistance without additional crack growth. The project culminated with an in

  4. Physics in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue gives the results of an investigation on research institutes in Austria in the field of physics, including nuclear physics, which was performed by the Austrian Physical Society. The main part is on university institutes, but also other research institutes are listed. For each institute the name of the head, number of researchers, a short description of the scientific work and an overview of national and international cooperation is given. Various registers and indexes are attached. (A.N.)

  5. Restructuring in SMEs: Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Mandl, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Austria.

  6. Adaptive fuzzy control of neutron power of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and implementation of an identification and control scheme of the TRIGA Mark III research nuclear reactor of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) of Mexico is presented in this thesis work. The identification of the reactor dynamics is carried out using fuzzy logic based systems, in which a learning process permits the adjustment of the membership function parameters by means of techniques based on neural networks and bio-inspired algorithms. The resulting identification system is a useful tool that allows the emulation of the reactor power behavior when different types of insertions of reactivity are applied into the core. The identification of the power can also be used for the tuning of the parameters of a control system. On the other hand, the regulation of the reactor power is carried out by means of an adaptive and stable fuzzy control scheme. The control law is derived using the input-output linearization technique, which permits the introduction of a desired power profile for the plant to follow asymptotically. This characteristic is suitable for managing the ascent of power from an initial level no up to a predetermined final level nf. During the increase of power, a constraint related to the rate of change in power is considered by the control scheme, thus minimizing the occurrence of a safety reactor shutdown due to a low reactor period value. Furthermore, the theory of stability in the sense of Lyapunov is used to obtain a supervisory control law which maintains the power error within a tolerance region, thus guaranteeing the stability of the power of the closed loop system. (Author)

  7. Is swimming during pregnancy a safe exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Kogevinas, Manolis; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise in pregnancy is recommended in many countries, and swimming is considered by many to be an ideal activity for pregnant women. Disinfection by-products in swimming pool water may, however, be associated with adverse effects on various reproductive outcomes. We examined...... the association between swimming in pregnancy and preterm and postterm birth, fetal growth measures, small-for-gestational-age, and congenital malformations. METHODS: We used self-reported exercise data (swimming, bicycling, or no exercise) that were prospectively collected twice during pregnancy for 74......,486 singleton pregnancies. Recruitment to The Danish National Birth Cohort took place 1996-2002. Using Cox, linear and logistic regression analyses, depending on the outcome, we compared swimmers with physically inactive pregnant women; to separate a possible swimming effect from an effect of exercise...

  8. 用于池式快堆系统分析的钠池三维模型开发%Development of Three-Dimensional Sodium Pool Model for System Analysis of Pool-Type Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋丹婷; 陆道纲; 张盼

    2012-01-01

    由于池式快堆钠池内的热工水力学特性对反应堆的安全运行有重要影响,本文采用基于交错网格的SIMPLE算法开发直角坐标系和柱坐标系下钠池三维计算软件.应用CFX软件进行验证之后,完成了三维流场分析程序与系统分析软件SAC-CFR的耦合,并用耦合后的程序分析日本文殊快堆45%功率稳态运行工况上腔室内的流场分布,初步验证了堆芯上腔三维化的SAC-CFR用于系统分析的有效性,为进一步开发事故模型、非能动余热排出系统模型做准备.%As the thermal-hydraulic characteristic in sodium pool is crucial for safety operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), a three-dimensional sodium pool thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on SIMPLE algorithm on stagger grid under Cartesian coordinates and cylindrical coordinates. After the validation with CFX, coupling between the analysis code and SAC-CFR was completed) and then the coupled code was applied to the flow field analysis in upper plenum of Monju Plant at 45% thermal power steady-state operation condition, which preliminary shows the effectiveness of the system analysis with coupled code and makes preparations for further development of accident analysis model and passive residual heat removal system.

  9. Immersion and invariance adaptive control of a class of continuous stirred tank reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaiyan HONG; Xiangbin LIU; Hongye SU

    2015-01-01

    An immersion and invariance (I&I) manifold based adaptive control algorithm is presented for a class of continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to realize performance-oriented control in this paper. The nonlinear contraction method is combined into the control law design to render the closed-loop CSTR system globally asymptotically stable, firstly. Then, the I&I method is used to form the adaptation law such that the off-the-manifold coordinate (the parameter estimation error) converges to zero using P-monotone property enforced by selecting tuning function in manifold. As a result, the state of the closed-loop CSTR converges to its desired value asymptotically. The simulation is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm.

  10. 300#堆燃料组件运行历史数据库%Database of Operation History for Fuel Elements in Swimming Pool Research Reactor 300

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜; 蒋砚伟

    2006-01-01

    为了配合ORIGEN2计算原始数据准备,采用Microsoft Access建立300#堆运行历史数据库.简化后只用一个表记录反应堆的运行历史.每盒燃料组件的表单只记录其经历的装载历史,最多不超过20条.表单之间用字段"装载ID"联接.对统计和录入中可能出现的两类错误,各建立一个查询,用于自动检索错误.对每盒燃料组件,建立查询,根据组件装载历史表单从总反应堆运行历史表单中采集数据,并将数据以文件文件形式输出,用编制的运行历史数据处理程序,将数据转换为0RIGEN2计算需要的运行历史输入数据.

  11. Intercomparison of the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux transport methods for a LWR pool-reactor benchmark problem in X-Y geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work is to compare and discuss the three of the most advanced two dimensional transport methods, the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux method, incorporated into the transport codes TWODANT, TWOTRAN-NODAL, MULTIMEDIUM and SURCU. For intercomparison the eigenvalue and the neutron flux distribution are calculated using these codes in the LWR pool reactor benchmark problem. Additionally the results are compared with some results obtained by French collision probability transport codes MARSYAS and TRIDENT. Because the transport solution of this benchmark problem is close to its diffusion solution some results obtained by the finite element diffusion code FINELM and the finite difference diffusion code DIFF-2D are included

  12. Base isolation technique for tokamak type fusion reactor using adaptive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper relating to the isolation device of heavy structure such as nuclear fusion reactor, a control rule for reducing the response acceleration and relative displacement simultaneously was formulated, and the aseismic performance was improved by employing the adaptive control method of changing the damping factors of the system adaptively every moment. The control rule was studied by computer simulation, and the aseismic effect was evaluated in an experiment employing a scale model. As a results, the following conclusions were obtained. (1) By employing the control rule presented in this paper, both absolute acceleration and relative displacement can be reduced simultaneously without making the system unstable. (2) By introducing this control rule in a scale model assuming the Tokamak type fusion reactor, the response acceleration can be suppressed down to 78 % and also the relative displacement to 79 % as compared with the conventional aseismic method. (3) The sensitivities of absolute acceleration and relative displacement with respect to the control gain are not equal. However, by employing the relative weighting factor between the absolute acceleration and relative displacement, it is possible to increase the control capability for any kind of objective structures and appliances. (author)

  13. One-dimensional thermohydraulic model of the nucleus and lower and upper pool regions of the reactor RMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer codes used in construction of nuclear reactors projects, specifically with regard to the thermo-hydraulics concepts part of your core, whose main goal reproduce actual operating conditions in order to predict quantitatively the limiting conditions of operation so that the safety limit is not exceeded. Computational methods for studies of fluid flow are developed around the world, including Brazil. With the evolution of computers application of numerical methods greatly reduced response time results, and tends to further decrease the extent that the computers and processors develop, making it feasible to use programming accident simulations of heat transfer reactors. The software developed in this paper presents a method for analyzing the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) after its shutdown. The software solves the conservations equations applied to the core and also the lower and upper regions of the RMB. The thermo-hydraulics characteristics studied are: the temperatures of the core, cladding and refrigerant, the mass flow and the heat transfer. The numerical resolution was performed using the Matlab language and the outputs are presented in graphs and tables forms. (author)

  14. A Neural-Network-Based Nonlinear Adaptive State-Observer for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been some severe nuclear accidents such as Three Mile Island (USA, Chernobyl (Ukraine and Fukushima (Japan, nuclear fission energy is still a source of clean energy that can substitute for fossil fuels in a centralized way and in a great amount with commercial availability and economic competitiveness. Since the pressurized water reactor (PWR is the most widely used nuclear fission reactor, its safe, stable and efficient operation is meaningful to the current rebirth of the nuclear fission energy industry. Power-level regulation is an important technique which can deeply affect the operation stability and efficiency of PWRs. Compared with the classical power-level controllers, the advanced power-level regulators could strengthen both the closed-loop stability and control performance by feeding back the internal state-variables. However, not all of the internal state variables of a PWR can be obtained directly by measurements. To implement advanced PWR power-level control law, it is necessary to develop a state-observer to reconstruct the unmeasurable state-variables. Since a PWR is naturally a complex nonlinear system with parameters varying with power-level, fuel burnup, xenon isotope production, control rod worth and etc., it is meaningful to design a nonlinear observer for the PWR with adaptability to system uncertainties. Due to this and the strong learning capability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP neural network, an MLP-based nonlinear adaptive observer is given for PWRs. Based upon Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved theoretically that this newly-built observer can provide bounded and convergent state-observation. This observer is then applied to the state-observation of a special PWR, i.e., the nuclear heating reactor (NHR, and numerical simulation results not only verify its feasibility but also give the relationship between the observation performance and observer parameters.

  15. Puente en Melk, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1974-05-01

    Full Text Available This interesting bridge across the Danube links the central forest zone with the highway Ceste and contributes greatly to facilitate the intense traffic of this region. It has a total length of 818 m, distributed in nine spans: the two central ones over the river are 190 m each with box girders. A great many problems have bean solved successfully regarding the various foundations, slender beams, processes of concreting, the temperature of concrete, and the most adequate design and realisation all of which makes this work one of the most important ones that have been constructed in Austria during recent years.Este interesante puente sobre el Danubio enlaza la zona boscosa central con la autopista Oeste y contribuye grandemente a aligerar el denso tráfico de esta zona. Tiene una longitud total de 818 m, distribuidos en nueve tramos; los dos centrales, sobre el río, alcanzan los 190 m cada uno, con vigas de cajón. Se han resuelto acertadamente numerosos problemas, relacionados con las variadas cimentaciones adoptadas, esbeltez de canto en las vigas, procesos de hormigonado, temperatura del hormigón y el cálculo y ejecución más adecuados; todo lo cual hace de esta obra una de las más importantes que se han realizado en Austria durante los últimos años.

  16. Manageable reactor pressure vessel surveillance programme - Flexible and adaptable to innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surveillance programme (SP) calls upon to predict ahead reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials characteristics conservatively to guarantee RPV structural integrity without any compromise. General vice of existing SPs is an impossibility of SP changing and development during reactor operation (30, 60 and even more years). Up to day, approach based on initial hard nomenclature of surveillance specimens installed in capsules. Therefore, practically it is impossible to change anything in SP during RPV service life. Anachronistic principle of ahead of time, for some decades of years in advance fabrication and installation into reactor vessel the sets of surveillance specimens (SS) without taking into account quantitative and qualitative changes of norms; state of the present-day science, testing methods and technique contradict to request of RPV operational monitoring technologies innovative development during long-term light water reactor (LWR) operation. We propose to improve LWR SPs by means of passage from existing 'hard' SPs to 'flexible' manageable SPs (MSP) that would give the possibility of SP adaptation to requirements of time and to strengthen technical and scientific potential of investigators and researchers in the future. So, we believe that it makes no sense to leave present-day level of knowledge and technology in frozen state to the next generation of researchers. Thus for new LWRs with a service life of 60 and more years we propose to pass from the SSs of routine nomenclature to MSP i.e. sets of archive materials coupons placed in non-hermetic containers and cooled directly by running water. It gives a perspective in case of need to put into practice an innovative MSP taking into account the state-of-the-art safety standards, technical progress, present day level of science and technology. (author)

  17. Protocol of actuation before occurrence of 'molluscum contagiosum' for use in public swimming pools Protocolo de actuación ante la aparición de casos de molusco contagioso en piscinas de uso público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Bautista Cotorruelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to develop a protocol for the disinfection of episodes of Molluscum contagiosum and establish an objective indicator. Molluscum contagiosum is a virus of Poxviridae Family. This virus produces a common infection in children that occurs when they come into direct contact with a lesion or with contaminated objects. In November 2008 is received at the Servicio de Sanidad Ambiental (Dirección General de Salud Pública, Consejería de Sanidad y Consumo, Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de Murcia a telephone call from the Epidemiology Service, which reported the existence of about 12-15 cases of children affected by Molluscum contagiosum. In addition, they indicated us that the suspicions fell on the Municipal Pool Cover Alhama de Murcia. Immediately we contacted the responsible staff and we send them a protocol developed with information from several sources. The analysis of articles used for water activities showed absence of Molluscum contagiosum. We selected "absence of molds and yeasts” as indicator. All this coincided with the disappearance of the cases. Months later, in March 2009 we detected new cases of children affected in another pool in the town of Alcantarilla. Due to the success of the methodology used in the earlier incident we performed the same actions and we obtained the same results. The protocol developed by this Service is effective to avoid the occurrence of more cases. We propose the “absence of molds and yeasts” as an indicator to evaluate the presence of Molluscum contagiosum. Coinciding with the update of the rules of public swimming pools in our Region we have introduced an article that indicates that the objects used for water activities must be disinfected after each use.El objetivo principal fue elaborar un protocolo de actuación para el caso de episodios de infección de molusco contagioso y un indicador objetivo, que nos permita hacer un seguimiento. El virus del molusco contagioso

  18. Effect of coupon orientation on corrosion behavior of aluminium alloy coupons in the spent fuel storage section of the IEA-R1 research reactor pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objectives of the IAEA sponsored Regional Technical Co-operation Project for Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru) are to provide the basic conditions to define a regional strategy for managing spent fuel and to provide solutions, taking into consideration the economic and technological realities of the countries involved. In particular, to determine the basic conditions for managing research reactor (RR) spent fuel during operation and interim storage as well as final disposal, and to establish forms of regional cooperation for spent fuel characterization, safety, regulation and public communication. This project is divided into 4 subprojects: (1) spent fuel characterization; (2) safety and regulation; (3) options for spent fuel storage and disposal; (4) public information and communication. Corrosion monitoring and surveillance is one of the activities of the subproject 'spent fuel characterization'. The dominant fuel type used in the Latin American (LA) RRs is plate-type (MTR), LEU, oxide fuel (U3O8-Al) clad in Al, followed by TRIGA-type (U-Zr-H) rods. Almost all the spent fuels from LA RRs are stored in storage racks within the reactor pool, in decay pools or in away-from-reactor wet basins. Two of the countries participating in the Regional Project (Argentina and Brazil) were (and continue to be) participants of the IAEA sponsored coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Corrosion of research reactor Al-clad spent fuel in water'. The corrosion surveillance activities of the Regional Project are based on this CRP. The main objective of this activity is to evaluate the effect of LA spent fuel basin parameters on the corrosion behaviour of RR fuel cladding. This evaluation consists of exposing racks containing Al alloy and stainless steel coupons at the different spent fuel basins. Al alloy coupons fabricated under conditions similar to those used to prepare fuel plates have been used. The surface conditions of the Al coupons

  19. Fuel shuffling optimization for the Delft research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geemert, R. van; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Gibcus, H.P.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands); Quist, A.J. [Delft Univ., Fac. of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    A fuel shuffling optimization procedure is proposed for the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor (HOR) in Delft, the Netherlands, a 2 MWth swimming-pool type research reactor. In order to cope with the fluctuatory behaviour of objective functions in loading pattern optimization, the proposed cyclic permutation optimization procedure features a gradual transition from global to local search behaviour via the introduction of stochastic tests for the number of fuel assemblies involved in a cyclic permutation. The possible objectives and the safety and operation constraints, as well as the optimization procedure, are discussed, followed by some optimization results for the HOR. (author)

  20. The Effective Convectivity Model for Simulation and Analysis of Melt Pool Heat Transfer in a Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Lower Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Chi Thanh

    2009-09-15

    Severe accidents in a Light Water Reactor (LWR) have been a subject of intense research for the last three decades. The research in this area aims to reach understanding of the inherent physical phenomena and reduce the uncertainties in their quantification, with the ultimate goal of developing models that can be applied to safety analysis of nuclear reactors, and to evaluation of the proposed accident management schemes for mitigating the consequences of severe accidents. In a hypothetical severe accident there is likelihood that the core materials will be relocated to the lower plenum and form a decay-heated debris bed (debris cake) or a melt pool. Interactions of core debris or melt with the reactor structures depend to a large extent on the debris bed or melt pool thermal hydraulics. In case of inadequate cooling, the excessive heat would drive the structures' overheating and ablation, and hence govern the vessel failure mode and timing. In turn, threats to containment integrity associated with potential ex-vessel steam explosions and ex-vessel debris uncoolability depend on the composition, superheat, and amount of molten corium available for discharge upon the vessel failure. That is why predictions of transient melt pool heat transfer in the reactor lower head, subsequent vessel failure modes and melt characteristics upon the discharge are of paramount importance for plant safety assessment. The main purpose of the present study is to develop a method for reliable prediction of melt pool thermal hydraulics, namely to establish a computational platform for cost-effective, sufficiently-accurate numerical simulations and analyses of core Melt-Structure-Water Interactions in the LWR lower head during a postulated severe core-melting accident. To achieve the goal, an approach to efficient use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been proposed to guide and support the development of models suitable for accident analysis. The CFD method, on the one hand

  1. Utilization Status and Development Layout of Research Reactors in Tsinghua University, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University (INET), as the largest education institute of nuclear science in P.R. China, operates three research reactors. How to broaden the utilization of our RRs is the challenge we have to face. In this article, current utilization status of the swimming pool reactor will be introduced. The feasibility of developing the RRs into training center and the advantages of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTR-10) for nuclear hydrogen production will be put forward. (author)

  2. No gender difference in peak performance in ultra-endurance swimming performance - analysis of the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' from 1996 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Evelyn; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Christoph, Alexander Rüst; Knechtle, Patrizia; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-10-31

    The aims of the study were to [1] investigate the performance trends at the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' in Switzerland from 1996 to 2010; and [2] determine the gender difference in peak performance in ultraendurance swimming. In total, 113 male and 53 female swimmers competed in this indoor ultraendurance event while swimming in a heated pool. The number of male participants significantly increased (r² = 0.36, P = 0.04) over time while the participation of females remained unchanged (r² = 0.12, P = 0.26). In the age group swimming performances (P swim performances remained unchanged across the years. Females are able to achieve a similar swim performance in an indoor ultra-endurance swim event of ~40 km. Further studies are needed to investigate whether females are able to achieve similar or even better performances than males in openwater ultra-swimming events such as 'Channel Swimming'.

  3. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  4. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Tayfun KIR; Zakir COBANOÐLU

    2004-01-01

    Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000): 103-104

  5. A Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成兵; 邓新华

    2004-01-01

    Last Sunday, there was a swimming competition in our school. It had been a short time since I learned how to swim. Mr. Zhang, our PE teacher, said I had a gift in swimming and that competing in the game would help build up my confidence and courage. With his encouragement,I signed up for the swimming race.

  6. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each

  7. EFFECTS OF THREE FEEDBACK CONDITIONS ON AEROBIC SWIM SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez Soriano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to develop an underwater chronometer capable to provide feedback while the athlete is swimming, as well as being a control tool for the coach, and (b to analyse its feedback effect on swim pace control compared with feedback provided by the coach and with no feedback, in 25 m and 50 m swimming pools. 30 male swimmers of national level volunteer to participate. Each swimmer swam 3 x 200 m at aerobic speed (AS and 3 x 200 m just under the anaerobic threshold speed (AnS, each swam repetition with a different feedback condition: chronometer, coach and without feedback. Results (a validate the chronometer system developed and (b show that swimmers pace control is affected by the type of feedback provided, the swim speed elected and the size of the swimming pool

  8. HTR research and development in Austria. 1982-1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to Austria's participation in the OECD Dragon project, a considerable amount of R and D work has been performed and is still going on in several selected areas related to high-temperature gas cooled reactors. These areas are: High temperature reactor fuels; High temperature structural materials; High temperature helium test rig prestressed concrete pressure vessels

  9. Electromechanical drive for a reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is related to control systems of nuclear researche swimming pool-type reactors. The presented electromechanical drive for a nuclear reactor control system consists of an electromagnetic grip of control element with magnet power supply cable, drum and flexible element, e.g., wire rope. Two branches of the rope which are separated from the electromagnet to the core and the drum form the closed loop. To decrease the dimensions of the drive, the magnet power supply cable serves as a loop flexible element which goes from the electromagnet to the core. For a particular reactor the drive, made according to the invention is 100 mm shorter and 20 mm narrower as compared with the known one, and that is rather significant in cases when a drive is to be installed directly on a control system channel

  10. Ciliary-propelling mechanism, effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming speed, and adaptive significance of ‘jumping’ in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2009-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles, not only for water pumping in many active filter-feeding organisms, but also for the swimming activity of ciliates and other aquatic organisms that use cilia for propulsion. The present study concerns the effect of temperature-dependent viscosity of the amb...

  11. A Single-Unit Design Structure and Gender Differences in the Swimming World Championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Svetlana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012. For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286 showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences

  12. Sex-specific genetic differences in endurance swimming of Trinidadian guppies

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Swanne; Chen, Yun Yi; Yamashita, Karalynn; Bejar, Christopher; Wilshire, Adam; Cheung, Vinson

    2015-01-01

    Swim performance is considered a main fitness-determining trait in many aquatic organisms. Swimming is generally the only way most aquatic prey can escape predation, and swimming capacity is directly linked to food capture, habitat shifts, and reproduction. Therefore, evolutionary studies of swim performance are important to understand adaptation to aquatic environments. Most studies, however, concentrate on the importance of burst-swim responses to predators, and little is ...

  13. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  14. Swimming Safely (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    Almost 4,000 people die from drowning each year in the U.S. You can also get sick at the pool. This podcast discusses swimming pool safety tips.  Created: 5/22/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  15. SWIMMING CLASSES IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bielec

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of modern physical education is not only to develop motor abilities of the students, but most of all prevent them from epidemic youth diseases such as obesity or postural defects. Positive attitudes to swimming as a long-life physical activity, instilled in adolescence should be beneficial in adult life. The group of 130 boys and 116 girls of 7th grade junior high school (mean age 14.6 was asked in the survey to present their opinion of obligatory swimming lessons at school. Students of both sexes claimed that they liked swimming classes because they could improve their swimming skills (59% of answers and because of health-related character of water exercises (38%. 33% of students regarded swimming lessons as boring and monotonous, and 25% of them complained about poor pool conditions like chlorine smell, crowded lanes, too low temperature. Majority of the surveyed students saw practical role of swimming in saving others life.

  16. Thread Pool Size Adaptive Adjusting Algorithm Based on Segmentation%基于分段的线程池尺寸自适应调整算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭东; 韩江洪; 刘征宇; 解新胜

    2011-01-01

    提出一种基于分段的线程池尺寸自适应调整算法.该算法将用户请求量分为上升段、平衡段和下降段3段,根据当前用户请求数、线程数自适应调整线程池尺寸,从而满足用户需求.实验结果表明,相比基于平均数的调整算法,该算法能更好地处理并发的用户请求,响应时间更短.%This paper presents a thread pool size adaptive adjusting algorithm based on segmentation. User request quantity is divided into rising balancing and dropping section. This algorithm changes the size of the thread pool based on present request and thread in order to meet need of user requirement. Experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively process multiple concurrent requests, its response time is shorter compared with adjusting algorithm based average value.

  17. ARC Code TI: Swim

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Swim is a software information service for the grid built on top of Pour, which is an information service framework developed at NASA. Swim provides true software...

  18. HEALTHY AND SAFETY SWIMMING

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman CEYLAN

    2005-01-01

    Swimming is a sport which has own rules, styles, and fields, however, is one of the most performed avocation as amateur and a joke especially at summer months. Although one of the most beneficial sports, swimming can cause a number of several health problems such as infectious diseases, allergic events, or traumas, if it is not done at adequate conditions and eligible style. In this paper, the factors such as preparing to swimming, health and safety features of swimming areas, important healt...

  19. Performance diagnosis in swimming

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Vilas-Boas; Fernandes, R.J.; Barbosa, Tiago M; Keskinen, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy expenditure as a function of swimming velocity is one of the major topics of interest in swimming science. Understanding the mechanisms behind swimming performance and training need new scientific approaches, while most of the existing knowledge on the bioenergetics of the four swimming strokes has already a number of years. The purpose of this presentation is to synthesize the most recent contributions of our research group in the domain of the bioenergetic evaluation of the swi...

  20. Optimization of reactor network design problem using Jumping Gene Adaptation of Differential Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarathi, Ashish M.; Purohit, S.; Srikanth, B.

    2015-06-01

    Detailed working principle of jumping gene adaptation of differential evolution (DE-JGa) is presented. The performance of the DE-JGa algorithm is compared with the performance of differential evolution (DE) and modified DE (MDE) by applying these algorithms on industrial problems. In this study Reactor network design (RND) problem is solved using DE, MDE, and DE-JGa algorithms: These industrial processes are highly nonlinear and complex with reference to optimal operating conditions with many equality and inequality constraints. Extensive computational comparisons have been made for all the chemical engineering problems considered. The results obtained in the present study show that DE-JGa algorithm outperforms the other algorithms (DE and MDE). Several comparisons are made among the algorithms with regard to the number of function evaluations (NFE)/CPU- time required to find the global optimum. The standard deviation and the variance values obtained using DE-JGa, DE and MDE algorithms also show that the DE-JGa algorithm gives consistent set of results for the majority of the test problems and the industrial real world problems.

  1. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  2. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  3. Finding the best swimming sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Tom; Morozov, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Many microorganisms propel through fluid environments by undulating their bodies or long thin organelles (flagella). The particular waveform of the undulations can often be changed by the organism to adapt to particular environmental conditions. It has been proposed in the literature that this adaptation is driven by the desire to optimise the swimming efficiency. However, it remains an open question as to whether this is indeed the optimised quantity for microorganisms. We study propulsion in Newtonian fluids at zero inertia for a model organism, the so-called Taylor waving sheet. We develop a numerical method that allows us to calculate flow fields for sheets of arbitrary waverforms in the bulk and next to a wall. We perform optimisations of various quantities that can potentially be optimised by a swimming microorganisms (efficiency, speed, etc.) and present the optimal waveforms. We also present a simple analytical model that yields similar results. We conclude that various optimal waveforms are very similar, both in the bulk and next to a boundary, and one cannot claim that optimising the swimming efficiency is the strategy adopted by undulating microorganisms. SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, UK.

  4. Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2014-08-08

    The bottom of the Red Sea harbors over 25 deep hypersaline anoxic basins that are geochemically distinct and characterized by vertical gradients of extreme physicochemical conditions. Because of strong changes in density, particulate and microbial debris get entrapped in the brine-seawater interface (BSI), resulting in increased dissolved organic carbon, reduced dissolved oxygen toward the brines and enhanced microbial activities in the BSI. These features coupled with the deep-sea prevalence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global ocean make the BSI a suitable environment for studying the osmotic adaptations and ecology of these important players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Using phylogenomic-based approaches, we show that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats (with up to 18.2% salinity) is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent. The composite genome of this novel Nitrosopumilus-like subpopulation (RSA3) co-assembled from multiple single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from one such BSI habitat further revealed that it shares ∼54% of its predicted genomic inventory with sequenced Nitrosopumilus species. RSA3 also carries several, albeit variable gene sets that further illuminate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic plasticity of this genus. Specifically, it encodes for a putative proline-glutamate \\'switch\\' with a potential role in osmotolerance and indirect impact on carbon and energy flows. Metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses against the composite RSA3 genome, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and SAGs of mesopelagic thaumarchaea also reiterate the divergence of the BSI genotypes from other AOA.

  5. Going with the flow or swimming against the tide: should children with central venous catheters swim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica; Dalton, Meghan K; Duggan, Christopher; Lam, Shirley; Iglesias, Julie; Jaksic, Tom; Gura, Kathleen M

    2014-02-01

    Children who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) have central venous catheters (CVCs) in place to allow the safe and effective infusion of life-sustaining fluids and nutrition. Many consider recreational swimming to be a common part of childhood, but for some, the risk may outweigh the benefit. Children with CVCs may be at increased risk of exit site, tunnel, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) if these catheters are immersed in water. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature regarding the risk of infection for patients with CVCs who swim and determine if there is consensus among home PN (HPN) programs on this controversial issue. A total 45 articles were reviewed and 16 pediatric HPN programs were surveyed regarding swimming and CVCs. Due to the limited data available, a firm recommendation cannot be made. Recreational water associated outbreaks are well documented in the general public, as is the presence of human pathogens even in chlorinated swimming pools. As a medical team, practitioners can provide information and education regarding the potential risk, but ultimately the decision lies with the parents. If the parents decide swimming is worth the risk, they are encouraged to use products designed for this use and to change their child's dressing immediately after swimming. Due to our experience with a fatal event immediately after swimming, we continue to strongly discourage patients with CVCs from swimming. Further large and well-designed studies regarding the risk of swimming with a CVC are needed to make a strong, evidence-based recommendation.

  6. Saturated Adaptive Output-Feedback Power-Level Control for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs are those nuclear fission reactors with electrical output powers of less than 300 MWe. Due to its inherent safety features, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR has been seen as one of the best candidates for building SMR-based nuclear plants with high safety-level and economical competitive power. Power-level control is crucial in providing grid-appropriation for all types of SMRs. Usually, there exists nonlinearity, parameter uncertainty and control input saturation in the SMR-based plant dynamics. Motivated by this, a novel saturated adaptive output-feedback power-level control of the MHTGR is proposed in this paper. This newly-built control law has the virtues of having relatively neat form, of being strong adaptive to parameter uncertainty and of being able to compensate control input saturation, which are given by constructing Lyapunov functions based upon the shifted-ectropies of neutron kinetics and reactor thermal-hydraulics, giving an online tuning algorithm for the controller parameters and proposing a control input saturation compensator respectively. It is proved theoretically that input-to-state stability (ISS can be guaranteed for the corresponding closed-loop system. In order to verify the theoretical results, this new control strategy is then applied to the large-range power maneuvering control for the MHTGR of the HTR-PM plant. Numerical simulation results show not only the relationship between regulating performance and control input saturation bound but also the feasibility of applying this saturated adaptive control law practically.

  7. Survey of Different Types of Communication in Swimming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate verbal and non-verbal behaviour of teachers and pupils in elementary swimming education and their impact on pupils' achievements. Material and methods: A total of 77 swimming lessons were videorecorded and coded with the modified Cheffers' Adaptation of Flanders Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS); 46 PE teachers, swimming…

  8. The Effect of Pregnant Rat Swimming on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Levels of Neonatal Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajizade A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine environment and fetal period can profoundly affect health of the neonat. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α is a transcription factor that regulates cellular stress responses and its activity is essential in both embryogenesis and postnatal life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal swimming on rat Pups' HIF-1α levels as a key regulator of oxygen in lungs.Methods: Sixteen female Wistar rats weighing 180- 200 grams were acclimated to a new environment consisting of equal light-darkness cycle and ad lib access to chow and adapted to the stress caused by water for two weeks. The rats were divided into two swimming and control groups. Swimming training began on the first day of pregnancy in a pool and continued for 3 weeks (1 h/day, 5 days/wk. Pups' lungs were removed two days after birth and their HIF-1α concentration was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Statistical analysis of the data was done using independent t-test. A p-value smaller than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Swimming lead to a significant (P<0.001 increase in the Pups' lung HIF-1α levels compared with the control group. Although 3-wk period of swimming training, showed no significant increase in weight and also lung weight of newborns. Thus it can be concluded that swimming endurance training in pregnancy, can be considered as appropriate alternative in order to embryos development. Conclusion: Our research suggests that HIF-1α level is an essential element for the development of the lungs of embryos. Moreover, further studies on the lung HIF-1α levels at post-natal period with different modes of exercise will provide more clear insight into the mechanisms of the findings resulting from this study.

  9. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  10. Swimming hall water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Valtonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to see how ultraviolet light-treatment can improve water disinfection at Pori central swimming hall. The swimming hall has already an option for ultraviolet disinfection system, but there hasn’t been any immediate need for it to be utilized in combination with more conventional water treatment methods. Nevertheless, growing visitor numbers are already straining the swimming hall’s water treatment systems and some improvement was h...

  11. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste. A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level originating from Austria was treated in the period between 1976 and 2002. Presently, there exists no final repository for radwaste in Austria. A study is under way to identify the structure for a long term storage facility.

  12. Swimming Orientation for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    Techniques which are designed to dispel fears and promote confident learning are offered to preschool swimming instructors. Safety, class organization, water games, and class activities are discussed. (IAH)

  13. Real Estate Inheritance in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Pirmin Fessler; Peter Mooslechner; Martin Schürz

    2010-01-01

    As real estate inheritances are an important component of Austrian households’ assets, they are relevant for monetary policymaking and for the maintenance of financial stability. 20% of Austrian households have inherited real estate wealth, with some 2% of all households accounting for around 40% of the overall volume of real estate inheritances in Austria. In aggregate, real estate inheritances constitute up to 23% of households’ total real estate wealth. Households which have inherited diff...

  14. Computer codes used during upgrading activities at MINT TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Adnan Bokhari; Mohd. Idris Taib [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Kajang (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    MINT TRIGA Reactor is a 1-MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor commissioned in 1982. In 1993, a project was initiated to upgrade the thermal power to 2 MW. The IAEA assistance was sought to assist the various activities relevant to an upgrading exercise. For neutronics calculations, the IAEA has provided expert assistance to introduce the WIMS code, TRIGAP, and EXTERMINATOR2. For thermal-hydraulics calculations, PARET and RELAP5 were introduced. Shielding codes include ANISN and MERCURE. However, in the middle of 1997, MINT has decided to change the scope of the project to safety upgrading of the MINT Reactor. This paper describes some of the activities carried out during the upgrading process. (author)

  15. Renewable energy in Lower Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2004 was very successful for renewable energy in Lower Austria and more biomass district heating plants, biomass power plants, biogas plants and windmills were built then the years before. Renewable energy has become an important factor in energy supply. About 7% of electricity in Lower Austria is produced by wind, biomass and biogas. Investments of about 185 million Euro were effected by supports and are also important for the economy. There are 240 biomass district heating plants with 282 MW thermal output in operation. The fuel need of 1,4 million cubic meters wood and 15.000 tons straw per year safeguards jobs in rural areas. After the decision of the Ecological Electricity Act 2002 a biogas campaign started in Lower Austria. Biogas plants for renewable resources and agricultural products are supported by subsidies and regulated prices for renewable electricity which is fed into the national grid. There was also a considerable increase of windmills in the year 2004 and today 197 plants with 251 MW output are in operation. (author)

  16. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression. PMID:26650060

  17. Flood Loss Model for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punčochář, P.; Podlaha, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new flood model for Austria quantifying fluvial flood losses based on probabilistic event set developed by Impact Forecasting (Aon Benfield's model development centre) was released in June 2011. It was successfully validated with two serious past flood events - August 2002 and August 2005. The model is based on 10 meters cell size digital terrain model with 1cm vertical step and uses daily mean flows from 548 gauge stations of series of average length ~ 60 years. The even set is based on monthly maxima flows correlation, generating 12 stochastic events per year and allows to calculate annual and occurrence exceedance probability loss estimates. The model contains flood extents for more than 24,000 km of modelled river network compatible with HORA project (HOchwasserRisikoflächen Austria) for design flows ranging from 2 to 10,000 years. Model is primarily constructed to work with postal level resolution insurance data reducing positional uncertainty by weighting over more than 2.5 millions address points from Austria Post's ACGeo database. Countrywide flood protections were provided by the Austrian Ministry of Environment. The model was successfully tested with property portfolios of 8 global and local insurance companies and was also successfully validated with August 2002 and August 2005 past events evaluating their return period on the probabilistic simulation basis.

  18. Swimming type inspection device and system thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a swimming type inspection device which can be reduced in the size, easily accessible to each portion of a reactor, and increase the degree of freedom of swimming and visual range, and facilitate visual inspection. The swimming type inspection device comprises two photographing devices, a device which can obtain propelling force by rotation of impellers, two second propelling devices having impellers disposed in perpendicular to the rotating axis of the impellers of the first propelling device, a control device for controlling control signals of first and second propelling devices and driving devices therefor and control image signals of the photographing devices, and transmission section for wireless transmitting of the control signals and the image signals. (N.H.)

  19. Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose...

  20. Ilves urges closer ties while in Austria / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ametlik visiit Austria Vabariiki 22.11.2010 - 24.11.2010. Eesti riigipea pidas kõne Austria Majanduskojas Eesti-Austria majandusfoorumil, kohtus Alam-Austria Liidumaa parlamendi presidendi Hanz Penz'i ning Austria presidendi Heinz Fischeriga. Presidentide kohtumisel räägiti EL-i laienemispoliitikast, energiajulgeoleku probleemidest, Euroopa naabruspoliitikast ja idapartnerlusest

  1. Biological Significance of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: VIVID Photocycle Governs the Dynamic VIVID-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-adaptation and Response to Changes in Light Intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Dasgupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability of the adduct state (light state, that is, altering the photocycle length. We have examined the biological significance of VVD photocycle length to photoadaptation and report that a double substitution mutant (vvdI74VI85V, previously shown to have a very fast light to dark state reversion in vitro, shows significantly reduced interaction with the White Collar Complex (WCC resulting in a substantial photoadaptation defect. This reduced interaction impacts photoreceptor transcription factor WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1 protein stability when N. crassa is exposed to light: The fast-reverting mutant VVD is unable to form a dynamic VVD-WCC pool of the size required for photoadaptation as assayed both by attenuation of gene expression and the ability to respond to increasing light intensity. Additionally, transcription of the clock gene frequency (frq is sensitive to changing light intensity in a wild-type strain but not in the fast photo-reversion mutant indicating that the establishment of this dynamic VVD-WCC pool is essential in general photobiology and circadian biology. Thus, VVD photocycle length appears sculpted to establish a VVD-WCC reservoir of sufficient size to sustain photoadaptation while maintaining sensitivity to changing light intensity. The great diversity

  2. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  3. The Effect of Concurrent Visual Feedback on Controlling Swimming Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Developing the ability to control the speed of swimming is an important part of swimming training. Maintaining a defined constant speed makes it possible for the athlete to swim economically at a low physiological cost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent visual feedback transmitted by the Leader device on the control of swimming speed in a single exercise test. Material and methods. The study involved a group of expert swimmers (n = 20. Prior to the experiment, the race time for the 100 m distance was determined for each of the participants. In the experiment, the participants swam the distance of 100 m without feedback and with visual feedback. In both variants, the task of the participants was to swim the test distance in a time as close as possible to the time designated prior to the experiment. In the first version of the experiment (without feedback, the participants swam the test distance without receiving real-time feedback on their swimming speed. In the second version (with visual feedback, the participants followed a beam of light moving across the bottom of the swimming pool, generated by the Leader device. Results. During swimming with visual feedback, the 100 m race time was significantly closer to the time designated. The difference between the pre-determined time and the time obtained was significantly statistically lower during swimming with visual feedback (p = 0.00002. Conclusions. Concurrently transmitting visual feedback to athletes improves their control of swimming speed. The Leader device has proven useful in controlling swimming speed.

  4. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of the Swim-Start: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vantorre, Didier Chollet, Ludovic Seifert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer’s chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert, inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement, and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique. Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii the time in transition (i

  6. Austria: The INIS Austria Centre 1970-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article spotlights Austrian people and institutions that have influenced the fortunes of INIS and the INIS Centre in Austria. The work of two Austrians had a lasting influence on INIS. The first person, Ms Elisabeth Ruckenbauer, was Head of the INIS Bibliographic Control Unit at the start of INIS. She was responsible for the development and implementation of the INIS bibliographic description rules (INIS Reference Series IAEA-INIS-01 and -02). The second person having a lasting influence on INIS was Mr Alexander Nevyjel. He was Austrian INIS Liaison Officer from 1983 –2002, and Head of the INIS Subject Control Unit until 2011. During his second term of office, he developed, together with the Swiss company Convera, the Computer Assisted Indexing Software (CAI). The aim of the project was to optimize indexing. The implementation of CAI in 2004 resulted in an increase of input to the INIS database; from around 60 000 records per year to over 100 000 records per year. We are proud that Mr Nevyjel is still an active member of the INIS Austria Center and that he continues to offer his experience and expertise. The Austrian INIS Centre has resided at two scientific institutions: Seibersdorf and the Austrian Central Library for Physics and Chemistry Library, each having a specific relationship with the IAEA and INIS

  7. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  8. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2012-01-31

    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  9. Pooling Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ While the 1997 Asian financial crisis gave birth to the Chiang Mai Initiative,a foreign currency reserve pool to address short-term liquidity difficulties in the region,the 2008global financial crisis promoted Asian political leaders,bankers and scholars to seek closer regional financial cooperation based on the initiative's framework.

  10. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  11. Steam jet direct condensation in a water suppression pool

    OpenAIRE

    Aramayo Hernández, Clara Inés

    2013-01-01

    Direct contact condensation (DCC) of a steam jet discharged into a subcooled water pool is an efficient way to condensate a large quantities of water at high pressure and temperature without introducing any complex device. This phenomenon is used in many nuclear engineering fields, such as pressure suppression pool in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), condensing pool in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and suppression tank in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER...

  12. La autopista de Viena Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available The elevated stretch of the motorway crossing the city of Vienna in a North-South direction is the largest bridge in Austria. The bridge consists of a central span, the corresponding access ramps at the ends and a junction with a district highway having six separate roadways. The design and construction of the bridge was based on the principle of using the maximum amount of prefabricated parts in order to, on the one hand, achieve a higher constructive rationalization, and on the other, minimize erection time. Owing to its being inside the city, the bridge has been fitted with adequate lighting and runoff water disposal systems.

    El tramo volado de la autopista, que cruza Viena de norte a sur, constituye el puente más grande de toda Austria. Dicho puente consta de un tramo central, las correspondientes rampas de acceso en los extremos, y un nudo de enlace con la carretera comarcal compuesto por seis calzadas distintas. En su diseño y realización se procuró utilizar el mayor número posible de elementos prefabricados para, por una parte, permitir una construcción más racionalizada y, por otra, minimizar los tiempos de ejecución. Se ha dotado a toda la obra, por estar dentro de la ciudad, de unos adecuados sistemas de iluminación y evacuación de las aguas superficiales.

  13. Mining in Austria in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral production of Austria, in 1992 - as far as under the supervision of the Austrian Mine Inspectorate, run up to about 50 million t of solid minerals, 1.2 million t of oil and 1.4 billion m3 of natural gas. 88% of the solid minerals comprised industrial minerals, 4% metals, 4% salt and 4% coal. The solid minerals were produced by 352 open pits and 15 underground mines. 3 of the operations worked both on surface and underground and one mine is a well field operation. In total around 8000 people were employed in the field of mining and mineral processing. The minerals produced represent a value of about 15 billion Austrian Schillings (about 1.25 billion US $), the major part being the industrial minerals sector with a share of 7 billion Austrian Schillings and oil and gas with around 4 billion Austrian Schillings. The industrial minerals sector does not play only in Austrian an important role, but contributes also remarkably to the world production. This comprises mainly magnesite, talc, kaolin and graphite where Austria produces more than 1% of the world production. Summarizing, it can be said that the future of the Austrian mining sector is quite prosperous, perhaps better than in some other traditional mining countries in Europe, where the change from the coal and base metals sector towards the industrial sector has not come so far. (orig.)

  14. Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leixnering, Stephan; Schikowitz, Andrea; Meyer, Renate E.

    2016-01-01

    The Austrian COCOPS findings confirm the ongoing relevance of the traditional legalistic public sector norms and values. However, this traditional administrative culture is today supplemented with managerialistic and network-oriented ideas and orientations. Combining a focus on results with proce...

  15. Development of Pool-type Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor System Analysis Code%池式钠冷快堆系统分析程序开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋; 张东辉; 胡文军

    2016-01-01

    针对池式钠冷快堆的特点,在对快堆系统的水力模型、热工模型和中子动力学模型进行详细分类和建模的基础上,利用 FORTRAN95语言开发了可用于池式钠冷快堆事故分析的系统分析程序(FASYS程序)。以中国实验快堆为计算对象对FASYS程序模型进行了初步验证,所获得的结果和试验值与其他系统程序计算值符合良好,证明了所开发的系统分析程序的正确性。%According to the characteristics of pool‐type sodium‐cooled fast reactor ,and with the fast reactor hydraulic model , thermal model and neutron kinetics model thoroughly classified and developed ,a fast reactor system analysis code (FASYS code) was developed by FORTRAN95 language for pool‐type sodium‐cooled fast reactor acci‐dent analysis .Transient conditions in CEFR were calculated with FASYS code and the results were used for code validation .The calculation results are consistent with the test data and other fast reactor system analysis code results , and the correctness of the FASYS code is proved .

  16. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  17. Experimental study of void behavior in a suppression pool of a boiling water reactor during the blowdown period of a loss of coolant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassame, Somboon

    The possible failure of an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) train due to a large amount of entrained gas in the ECCS pump suction piping in a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is one of the potential engineering problems faced in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) power plant. To analyze potential gas intrusion into the ECCS pump suction piping, the study of void behavior in the Suppression Pool (SP) during the LOCA is necessary. The void fraction distribution and void penetration are considered as the key parameters in the problem analysis. Two sets of experiments, namely, steady-state tests and transient tests were conducted using the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR application (PUMA-E) to study void behavior in the SP during the blowdown. The design of the test apparatus used is based on the scaling analysis from a prototypical BWR containment (MARK-I) with consideration of the downcomer size, the SP water level, and the downcomer water submergence depth. Several instruments were installed to obtain the required experimental data, such as inlet gas volumetric flow, void fraction, pressure, and temperature. For the steady-state tests, the air was injected through a downcomer pipe in the SP in order to simulate the physical phenomena in the SP during the initial blowdown of LOCA. Thirty tests were performed with two different downcomer sizes (0.076 and 0.102 m), various air volumetric flow rates or flux (0.003 to 0.153 m3/s or 0.5 to 24.7 m/s), initial downcomer void conditions (fully filled with water, partially void, and completely void) and air velocity ramp rates (one to two seconds). Two phases of the experiment were observed, namely, the initial phase and the quasi-steady phase. The initial phase produced the maximum void penetration depth; and the quasi-steady phase showed less void penetration with oscillation in the void penetration. The air volumetric flow rate was found to have a minor effect on the void fraction

  18. Utilization of plastic detector for pool water radioactivity control of IEA-R1 reactor. Examination of fuel element irradiation behaviour fabricated at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the examination of fuel element irradiation behavior that were fabricated at IPEN/CNEN/SP Metalurgical Departament, it was provided a detection system for pool water radioactivity measurements. This system uses a plastic scintillator detector produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP Health Physics Department, with dimensions and shape apropriated for such work. The detection system shows a sensibility of 4.125x10-2 dps/cm3 and 20% of efficiency for 131 I radiations. (author)

  19. Fluid flow and heat transfer investigation of pebble bed reactors using mesh adaptive large-eddy simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational fluid dynamics model with anisotropic mesh adaptivity is used to investigate coolant flow and heat transfer in pebble bed reactors. A novel method for implicitly incorporating solid boundaries based on multi-fluid flow modelling is adopted. The resulting model is able to resolve and simulate flow and heat transfer in randomly packed beds, regardless of the actual geometry, starting off with arbitrarily coarse meshes. The model is initially evaluated using an orderly stacked square channel of channel-height-to-particle diameter ratio of unity for a range of Reynolds numbers. The model is then applied to the face-centred cubical geometry. Coolant flow and heat transfer patterns are investigated. (author)

  20. Pool Size Adaptive Adjusting Algorithm Based on Average Time%基于平均时间的线程池尺寸自适应调整算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智泉; 刘正熙

    2013-01-01

      为了实现自适应调整线程池尺寸,提高并发程序处理的运行速度、改善效率和降低系统的资源开销,提出了一种基于任务平均处理时间的线程池尺寸自适应调整算法。首先研究线程池的一些特征数据以及用户请求的任务时间周期,提出了任务平均处理时间的概念。然后研究了不同任务类型下,任务平均处理时间与线程池的尺寸的相关性,提出了一种自适应调整算法。实验结果表明,该算法能够自适应调整线程池尺寸到适当区域,有效地提高应用程序的整体性能。%To realize adaptive adjusting the thread pool size,improve the operation speed of concurrent processing program,efficiency and reduce the system resource spending,a thread pool size adaptive adjusting algorithm based on task average time is presented. Firstly,some characteristics of the thread pool and the task time period of users request are studied,then the concept of task average processing time is put forward. After that,the correlation between the task average processing time and thread pool size under the different types of tasks is analyzed. A kind of adaptive adjustment algorithm is put forward. The experimental results show that the algorithm can adaptively adjust thread pool size to the appropriate area,effectively improving the overall performance of application program.

  1. Radon mapping strategies in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Friedmann, H

    2015-11-01

    According to current European and international recommendations (e.g. by IAEA, WHO and European Union), countries shall identify high radon areas. In Austria, this task was initiated already in the early 1990s, which yielded the first Austrian Radon Potential Map. This map is still in use, updated with recent indoor radon data in 2012. The map is based on radon gas measurements in randomly selected dwellings, normalised to a standard situation. To meet the current (legal) requirements, uncertainties in the existing Austrian radon map should be reduced. A new indoor radon survey with a different sampling strategy was started, and possible mapping methods are studied and tested. In this paper, the methodology for the existing map as well as the planned strategies to improve this map is discussed.

  2. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Birgit; Melzer, Helen; Freymüller, Georg; Stumvoll, Sabine; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Repa, Andreas; Mooi, Frits R; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Mittermayer, Helmut; Kessler, Harald H; Stanek, Gerold; Steinborn, Ralf; Duchêne, Michael; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32), Linz (n = 63) and Graz (n = 15) by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis) (n = 77), by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin) gene (n = 110), and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR) (n = 110) to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB), a fimbrial adhesin (fimD), tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA), and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS). Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517). The major part of the samples (93%) displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed.

  3. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Wagner

    Full Text Available In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd immunity and vaccine coverage. Waning immunity in the host and/or adaptation of the bacterium to the immunised hosts could contribute to the observed re-emergence of pertussis. In this study we therefore addressed the genetic variability in B. pertussis strains from several Austrian cities. Between the years 2002 and 2008, 110 samples were collected from Vienna (n = 32, Linz (n = 63 and Graz (n = 15 by nasopharyngeal swabs. DNA was extracted from the swabs, and bacterial sequence polymorphisms were examined by MLVA (multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (n = 77, by PCR amplification and conventional Sanger sequencing of the polymorphic regions of the prn (pertactin gene (n = 110, and by amplification refractory mutation system quantitative PCR (ARMS-qPCR (n = 110 to directly address polymorphisms in the genes encoding two pertussis toxin subunits (ptxA and ptxB, a fimbrial adhesin (fimD, tracheal colonisation factor (tcfA, and the virulence sensor protein (bvgS. Finally, the ptxP promoter region was screened by ARMS-qPCR for the presence of the ptxP3 allele, which has been associated with elevated production of pertussis toxin. The MLVA analysis revealed the highest level of polymorphisms with an absence of MLVA Type 29, which is found outside Austria. Only Prn subtypes Prn1/7, Prn2 and Prn3 were found with a predominance of the non-vaccine type Prn2. The analysis of the ptxA, ptxB, fimD, tcfA and bvgS polymorphisms showed a genotype mixed between the vaccine strain Tohama I and a clinical isolate from 2006 (L517. The major part of the samples (93% displayed the ptxP3 allele. The consequences for the vaccination strategy are discussed.

  4. Adapting computational optimization concepts from aeronautics to nuclear fusion reactor design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baelmans M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Even on the most powerful supercomputers available today, computational nuclear fusion reactor divertor design is extremely CPU demanding, not least due to the large number of design variables and the hybrid micro-macro character of the flows. Therefore, automated design methods based on optimization can greatly assist current reactor design studies. Over the past decades, “adjoint methods” for shape optimization have proven their virtue in the field of aerodynamics. Applications include drag reduction for wing and wing-body configurations. Here we demonstrate that also for divertor design, these optimization methods have a large potential. Specifically, we apply the continuous adjoint method to the optimization of the divertor geometry in a 2D poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak device (as, e.g., JET and ITER, using a simplified model for the plasma edge. The design objective is to spread the target material heat load as much as possible by controlling the shape of the divertor, while maintaining the full helium ash removal capabilities of the vacuum pumping system.

  5. Respiratory Function and Changes in Lung Epithelium Biomarkers after a Short-Training Intervention in Chlorinated vs. Ozone Indoor Pools

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Fernández-Luna; Leonor Gallardo; María Plaza-Carmona; Jorge García-Unanue; Javier Sánchez-Sánchez; José Luis Felipe; Pablo Burillo; Ignacio Ara

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Swimming in indoor pools treated with combined chemical treatments (e.g. ozone) may reduce direct exposure to disinfection byproducts and thus have less negative effects on respiratory function compared to chlorinated pools. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of a short-term training intervention on respiratory function and lung epithelial damage in adults exercising in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods (chlorine vs. ozone with br...

  6. 多孔介质方法在池式快堆系统分析软件SAC-CFR三维钠池计算模型中的应用%Application of Porous Medium Method on Three-Dimensional Sodium Pool Model for Pool-Type Fast Reactor System Analysis Code SAC-CFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋丹婷; 陆道纲; 任丽霞; 刘一哲

    2012-01-01

    为准确分析池式快堆热钠池内的热工水力学特性,在已开发出的用于池式快堆系统分析的钠池三维计算模型的基础上,应用多孔介质方法建立钠池内中间热交换器、主泵、事故热交换器及屏蔽柱模型,完成了含有多孔介质模型和复杂几何边界的钠池三维计算模型开发.将该模型嵌入池式快堆系统分析软件SAC-CFR后,分析了中国实验快堆在稳态运行和紧急停堆工况下钠池内的流场分布,初步证明了所采用的多孔介质模型的合理性,为下一步非能动余热排出系统模型的开发做准备.%To simulate the fluid dynamic and thermal characteristics in sodium pool accurately , newly three-dimensional hot pool analysis model with porous medium model and complex geometry was developed after incorporating the porous model of penetration components into three-dimensional model developed already for system analysis of pool-type fast reactor. Penetration components include intermediate heat exchanger, primary pump, decay heat exchanger, and radial shielding. After coupling with the system analysis code SAC-CFR, the newly coupled code was applied to analyze the flow field in hot pool under steady-state operation condition and after scram. The agreement between the computational flow field and the geometry of hot pool shows the effectiveness of porous medium model, which makes preparations for further development of passive residual heat removal system.

  7. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION AND SWIM PERFORMANCE: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Hopwood

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle

  8. Solving point reactor kinetic equations by time step-size adaptable numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the analysis of effects of time step-size on numerical solutions, this paper showed the necessity of step-size adaptation. Based on the relationship between error and step-size, two-step adaptation methods for solving initial value problems (IVPs) were introduced. They are Two-Step Method and Embedded Runge-Kutta Method. PRKEs were solved by implicit Euler method with step-sizes optimized by using Two-Step Method. It was observed that the control error has important influence on the step-size and the accuracy of solutions. With suitable control errors, the solutions of PRKEs computed by the above mentioned method are accurate reasonably. The accuracy and usage of MATLAB built-in ODE solvers ode23 and ode45, both of which adopt Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, were also studied and discussed. (authors)

  9. Fast flux measurements by means of threshold detectors on the reactor 'Melusine'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using existing data on the (n,p) and (n,α) threshold reactions we have carried out fast flux measurements on the swimming pool type reactor 'Melusine'. Four common elements: P, S, Mg, Al were chosen because from the point of view of fast spectrum analysis they represent a fairly good energy range from 2.4 MeV to 8 MeV. The fission flux value found in the central element at a power of 1 MW is 1.4 x 1013 n/cm2/s ± 0.14. (author)

  10. Experience Gained during the Adaptation of Classical ChE Subjects to the Bologna Plan in Europe: The Case of Chemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsa, Sergio; Sanchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    At present, due to the overall adaptation to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), a new concept regarding the teaching methodology was thought to be essential for engineering subjects. In this paper we describe our experience teaching the altered content of the courses on two classical subjects; Chemical Reactors (Chemical Engineering) and…

  11. Adaptation of a robot and tools for dismantling of a gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the progress on a research programme to develop the techniques and design necessary to facilitate the use of commercially available industrial manipulator systems and cutting tools in nuclear environments, particularly that envisaged whilst decommissioning a gas-cooled reactor. The technology for the type of control and the machines to perform it already exist in the form of industrial-type robots. Development of the techniques for using these machines in a more operator-sensitive environment, together with the requirements of decontamination and radiation tolerance will enable them to be used in place of expensive purpose-built machines at a considerable cost saving. From this work it was possible to highlight the viability and associated costs of modifying a standard manipulator for use in decommissioning operations

  12. Adaptation of fuel code for light water reactor with austenitic steel rod cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (POLI/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco

    2015-07-01

    Light water reactors were used with steel as nuclear fuel cladding from 1960 to 1980. The high performance proved that the use of low-carbon alloys could substitute the current zirconium alloys. Stainless steel is an alternative that can be used as cladding. The zirconium alloys replaced the steel. However, significant experiences in-pile occurred, in commercial units such as Haddam Neck, Indian Point, and Yankee experiences. Stainless Steel Types 347 and 348 can be used as cladding. An advantage of using Stainless Steel was evident in Fukushima when a large number of hydrogens was produced at high temperatures. The steel cladding does not eliminate the problem of accumulating free hydrogen, which can lead to a risk of explosion. In a boiling water reactor, environments easily exist for the attack of intergranular corrosion. The Stainless Steel alloys, Types 321, 347, and 348, are stabilized against attack by the addition of titanium, niobium, or tantalum. The steel Type 348 is composed of niobium, tantalum, and cobalt. Titanium preserves type 321, and niobium additions stabilize type 347. In recent years, research has increased on studying the effects of irradiation by fast neutrons. The impact of radiation includes changes in flow rate limits, deformation, and ductility. The irradiation can convert crystalline lattices into an amorphous structure. New proposals are emerging that suggest using a silicon carbide-based fuel rod cladding or iron-chromium-aluminum alloys. These materials can substitute the classic zirconium alloys. Once the steel Type 348 was chosen, the thermal and mechanical properties were coded in a library of functions. The fuel performance codes contain all features. A comparative analysis of the steel and zirconium alloys was made. The results demonstrate that the austenitic steel alloys are the viable candidates for substituting the zirconium alloys. (author)

  13. A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY ON BACKWARD SWIMMING HYDRODYNAMICS IN THE EEL ANGUILLA ANGUILLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-rong; TONG Bin-gang; MA Hui-yang; LIU Hao

    2005-01-01

    Eels can perform both forward and backward undulatory swimming but few studies are seen on how eels propel themselves backward. A computational study on the unsteady hydrodynamics of the backward swimming in the eel anguilla anguilla is carried out and presented. A two-dimensional geometric model of the European eel body in its middle horizontal section is appropriately approximated by a NACA0005 airfoil. Kinematic data of the backward and forward swimming eel used in the computational modeling are based on the experimental results of the European eel. Present study provided the different flow field characteristics of three typical cases in the backward swimming, and confirmed the guess of Wu: When the eel swims steadily, the vortex centers extensive comparison between the backward and forward swimming further reveals that the controllable parameters, such as frequency, amplitude and wavelength of the traveling wave, have a similar influence on the propulsion performance as in forward swimming. But it is shown that the backward swimming does not be a "reversed" forward swimming one. The backward swimming does show significant discrepancy in the propulsion performance: utilization of a constant-amplitude wave profile enables larger force generation for maneuverability but with much lower propulsive efficiency instead of the linear-increasing amplitude wave profile in the forward swimming. The actual swimming modes eels choose is the best choice associated with their propulsive requirement, as well as their physiological and ecological adaptation.

  14. Can two spheres swim?

    CERN Document Server

    Klotsa, Daphne; Hill, Richard J A; Bowley, Roger M; Swift, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We describe experiments and simulations demonstrating the propulsion of a neutrally-buoyant swimmer that consists of a pair of spheres attached by a spring, placed in a vibrating fluid. The vibration of the fluid induces relative motion of the spheres which, for sufficiently large amplitudes, can lead to motion of the center of mass of the two spheres. We find that the swimming speed obtained from both experiment and simulation agree and collapse onto a single curve if plotted as a function of the streaming Reynolds number, suggesting that the propulsion is related to streaming flows. There appears to be a critical onset value of the streaming Reynolds number for swimming to occur. The mechanism for swimming is traced to a jet of fluid generated by the relative motion of the spheres.

  15. Bioinspired swimming simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michel; Iollo, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to simulate the flow past bioinspired swimmers starting from pictures of an actual fish. The overall approach requires i) a skeleton graph generation to get a level-set function from pictures; ii) optimal transportation to obtain the velocity on the body surface; iii) flow simulations realized with a Cartesian method based on penalization. This technique can be used to automate modeling swimming motion from data collected by biologists. We illustrate this paradigm by simulating the swimming of a mackerel fish.

  16. Swimming Performance Assessment in Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Keith B Tierney

    2011-01-01

    Swimming performance tests of fish have been integral to studies of muscle energetics, swimming mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac physiology, disease, pollution, hypoxia and temperature. This paper describes a flexible protocol to assess fish swimming performance using equipment in which water velocity can be controlled. The protocol involves one to several stepped increases in flow speed that are intended to cause fish to fatigue. Step speeds and their duration can be set to capture swimming ...

  17. Accumulation of swimming bacteria near an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jay; Li, Guanglai

    2012-11-01

    Microbes inhabit planet earth over billions of years and have adapted to diverse physical environment of water, soil, and particularly at or near interfaces. We focused our attention on the locomotion of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at the interface of water/solid or water/air. We measured the distribution of a forward swimming strain of C. crescentus near a surface using a three-dimensional tracking technique based on dark field microscopy and found that the swimming bacteria accumulate heavily within a micrometer from the surface. We attribute this accumulation to frequent collisions of the swimming cells with the surface, causing them to align parallel to the surface as they continually move forward. The extent of accumulation at the steady state is accounted for by balancing alignment caused by these collisions with rotational Brownian motion of the micrometer-sized bacteria. We performed a simulation based on this model, which reproduced the measured results. Additional simulations demonstrate the dependence of accumulation on swimming speed and cell size, showing that longer and faster cells accumulate more near a surface than shorter and slower ones do. The overarching goal of our study is to describe interfacial microbial behavior through detailed analysis of their motion. We acknowledge support by NSF PHY 1058375.

  18. Keila Tervisekeskus. Ujula = Keila Health Club. Swimming Pool / Ain Padrik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padrik, Ain, 1947-

    2001-01-01

    Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo Künnapu & Padrik. Arhitektid Ain Padrik ja Kristi Alamaa, sisearhitekt Sirje Männik. Konstruktsioonid: Jaan Laks, A-Grupp. Ujulas on võistlus- ja lastebassein, suvel on avatud välibassein. 5 ill.: I korruse plaan, ristlõige, vaated

  19. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. Component failure data base of TRIGA reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation provides failure data such as first criticality, component type description (reactor component, population, cumulative calendar time, cumulative operating time, demands, failure mode, failures, failure rate, failure probability) and specific information on each type of component of TRIGA Mark-II reactors in Austria, Bangladesh, Germany, Finland, Indonesia, Italy, Indonesia, Slovenia and Romania. (nevyjel)

  1. Safe operation and maintenance of research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsorn, S. [Reactor Operation Division, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-10-01

    The first Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1) was established in 1961 at the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), Bangkok. The reactor was light water moderated and cooled, using HEU plate-type with U{sub 3}O{sub 8}- Al fuel meat and swimming pool type. The reactor went first critical on October 27, 1962 and had been licensed to operate at 1 MW (thermal). On June 30, 1975 the reactor was shutdown for modification and the core and control system was disassemble and replaced by that of TRIGA Mark III type while the pool cooling system, irradiation facilities and other were kept. Thus the name TRR-1/M1' has been designed due to this modification the fuel has been changed from HEU plate type to Uranium Zirconium Hydride (UZrH) Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) which include 4 Fuel Follower Control Rods and 1 Air Follower Control Rod. The TRR-1/M1 went critical on November 7, 1977 and the purpose of the operation are training, isotope production and research. Nowadays the TRR-1/M1 has been operated with core loading No.12 which released power of 1,056 MWD. (as of October 1998). The TRR-1/M1 has been operated at the power of 1.2 MW, three days a week with 34 hours per week, Shut-down on Monday for weekly maintenance and Tuesday for special experiment. The everage energy released is about 40.8 MW-hour per week. Every year, the TRR-1/M1 is shut-down about 2 months between February to March for yearly maintenance. (author)

  2. Investigación de un brote respiratorio agudo por exposición a cloro gas en una piscina pública Investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory illness due to exposure to chlorine gas in a public swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles para investigar el accidente químico ocurrido en una piscina pública en el verano de 2005 y describir los factores ambientales responsables, analizar el efecto del cloro gas y valorar la evolución clínica y funcional del aparato respiratorio. Las intervenciones fueron las siguientes: inspecciones ambientales, encuesta epidemiológica (variables sociodemográficas, ubicación en el momento del accidente, olor percibido y seguimiento clínico y espirométrico de la función respiratoria. Se encuestaron 65 casos y 48 controles. El suceso se produjo al mezclar accidentalmente ácido clorhídrico e hipoclorito sódico, lo que generó cloro gas. Los síntomas predominantes fueron tos y disnea. El riesgo de enfermar en niños era 10 veces mayor si tenían una enfermedad respiratoria previa y 4 veces superior si estaban a una distancia inferior a 40 m del lugar del accidente. Todos los casos evolucionaron hacia la curación, excepto uno que tenía antecedentes asmáticos.A case-control study was designed to investigate a chemical accident that occurred in a swimming-pool in the summer of 2005. The aim was to describe the environmental factors involved in the accident, to assess the effect of chlorine gas on the respiratory system, and to perform a clinical and spirometric follow-up. The following interventions were carried out: environmental inspection, epidemiologic survey (including sociodemographic variables, location at the time of the accident, perception of an abnormal smell, and clinical and spirometric outcomes to assess respiratory function. Sixty-five cases and 48 controls were identified and interviewed. The accident was produced by accidental admixture of hydrochloric acid with sodium hypochlorite resulting in chlorine gas release. The main clinical symptoms were dyspnea and cough. The risk of becoming ill was 10-fold higher in children with a previous lung disease and was 4-fold higher when

  3. Second messenger-mediated adjustment of bacterial swimming velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Alex; Kaiser, Matthias; Li, Hui; Spangler, Christian; Kasper, Christoph Alexander; Ackermann, Martin; Kaever, Volkhard; Sourjik, Victor; Roth, Volker; Jenal, Urs

    2010-04-01

    Bacteria swim by means of rotating flagella that are powered by ion influx through membrane-spanning motor complexes. Escherichia coli and related species harness a chemosensory and signal transduction machinery that governs the direction of flagellar rotation and allows them to navigate in chemical gradients. Here, we show that Escherichia coli can also fine-tune its swimming speed with the help of a molecular brake (YcgR) that, upon binding of the nucleotide second messenger cyclic di-GMP, interacts with the motor protein MotA to curb flagellar motor output. Swimming velocity is controlled by the synergistic action of at least five signaling proteins that adjust the cellular concentration of cyclic di-GMP. Activation of this network and the resulting deceleration coincide with nutrient depletion and might represent an adaptation to starvation. These experiments demonstrate that bacteria can modulate flagellar motor output and thus swimming velocity in response to environmental cues. PMID:20303158

  4. Use of natural gas for swimming facilities: Energy savings and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last twenty years, natural gas consumption has greatly increased in the civil sector and this trend will be confirmed in the next decade which will have a considerable increase in the domestic Italian distribution and in national supply networks. Swimming centres, particularly those equipped with covered swimming-pools and therefore characterized by continuous operation during the year, have significant energy consumption, with the same volume, compared with other civil users. This is due not only to the particular operating characteristics of the swimming pool but, in most cases, to the little attention payed to running costs and thus to energy savings. Natural gas, as a versatile fuel of good quality, can offer a valid contribution to the limitation of the energy consumption of swimming centres, as well as, to the abatement of air pollution, in particular, if it is employed together with new technologies such as the cogeneration and gas fuelled heat pumps

  5. Measurement of the Residual Stresses and Investigation of Their Effects on a Hardfaced Grid Plate due to Thermal Cycling in a Pool Type Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balaguru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR, grid plate is a critical component which is made of 316 L(N SS. It is supported on core support structure. The grid plate supports the core subassemblies and maintains their verticality. Most of the components of SFR are made of 316 L(N/304 L(N SS and they are in contact with the liquid-metal sodium which acts as a coolant. The peak operating temperature in SFR is 550°C. However, the self-welding starts at 500°C. To avoid self-welding and galling, hardfacing of the grid plate has become necessary. Nickel based cobalt-free colmonoy 5 has been identified as the hardfacing material due to its lower dose rate by Plasma Transferred Arc Welding (PTAW. This paper is concerned with the measurement and investigations of the effects of the residual stress generated due to thermal cycling on a scale-down physical model of the grid plate. Finite element analysis of the hardfaced grid plate model is performed for obtaining residual stresses using elastoplastic analysis and hence the results are validated. The effects of the residual stresses due to thermal cycling on the hardfaced grid plate model are studied.

  6. Pool Rules: A Survival Guide for Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    In most sports and physical activities rules are present to facilitate participation, outlining courtesy during play as well as establishing guidelines for keeping any competition fair. In contrast, rules for appropriate behavior in swimming pools serve a much more important purpose--that of ensuring health and safety for all participants.…

  7. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  8. Lung function in volunteers before and after exposure to trichloramine in indoor pool environments and asthma in a cohort of pool workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.; Lundström, Nils-Göran; Forsberg, Bertil; Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika; Lagerkvist, Birgitta J-son; Nilsson, Johan; Svensson, Mona; Blomberg, Anders; Nilsson, Leif; Bernard, Alfred; Dumont, Xavier; Bertilsson, Helen; Eriksson, Kåre

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to trichloramine (NCl(3)) in indoor swimming-pool environments is known to cause mucous membrane irritation, but if it gives rise to changes in lung function or asthma in adults is not known. (1) We determined lung function in volunteers before and after exposure to indoor pool environments. (2) We studied the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in a cohort of pool workers. DESIGN/METHODS/PARTICIPANTS: (1) We studied two groups of volunteers, 37 previously non-e...

  9. Chernobyl - 30 years thereafter. Experiences and lessons learned in Austria; 30 Jahre nach Tschernobyl. Erfahrungen und Lehren in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, Franz Josef [BEV - Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria). Referat fuer ionisierende Strahlung und Radioaktivitaet; Hajek, Michael [Oesterreichischer Verband fuer Strahlenschutz, Wien (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Steger, Ferdinand; Hefner, Alfred

    2016-05-01

    During the severe reactor accident in Chernobyl in 1986 large amounts of radioactive materials have been released to the environment. Unfavorable atmospheric circulation conditions have transported about 2%of the released radioactive matter to Austria. The contribution describes the measures and actions for dose reduction performed in Austria. The measured cs-137 distribution is illustrated (in some areas more the 100 Bq/m2 were deposited). Experiences considering the measurements in consequence of the contamination are discussed and improvements of the emergency planning are summarized.

  10. Accident Analysis of Station Blackout of Pool-Type Research Reactor during High Power Operation%池式研究堆高功率全厂断电事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洪文; 刘汉刚; 钱达志; 徐显启

    2012-01-01

    针对全厂断电事故的主要事件序列,采用RETRAN-02程序对某池式研究堆全厂断电事故的进程和关键热工参数进行分析,论证该反应堆对全厂断电事故的承受能力.分析表明,在发生全厂断电事故后,该反应堆能依靠主泵惰转、可靠电源供电的余热排除系统和自然对流方式导出堆芯的剩余发热,防止核安全事故的发生;由可靠电源供电的辅助冷却是缓解该事故的有效措施,其供电能力不小于1h.%Based on the main event sequence, RETRAN-02 code is used to analyze the power supply station blackout accident and key thermal parameters of a pool-type research reactor and demonstrate the enduring capability of the accident. The result proves that the decay heat of the reactor could be removed through the idler wheel rotating, residual heat removal system supported by reliability power, and the natural circulation, which will prevent the nuclear safety accidents. The accessorial cooling supported by reliability power is an effective measure to relieve the accident, and the power can last for an hour at least.

  11. Stirring by swimming bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  12. Mixing by Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P; Pesci, Adriana I; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate the microscale mixing enhancement of passive tracer particles in suspensions of swimming microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These biflagellated, single-celled eukaryotes (10 micron diameter) swim with a "breaststroke" pulling motion of their flagella at speeds of about 100 microns/s and exhibit heterogeneous trajectory shapes. Fluorescent tracer particles (2 micron diameter) allowed us to quantify the enhanced mixing caused by the swimmers, which is relevant to suspension feeding and biogenic mixing. Without swimmers present, tracer particles diffuse slowly due solely to Brownian motion. As the swimmer concentration is increased, the probability density functions (PDFs) of tracer displacements develop strong exponential tails, and the Gaussian core broadens. High-speed imaging (500 Hz) of tracer-swimmer interactions demonstrates the importance of flagellar beating in creating oscillatory flows that exceed Brownian motion out to about 5 cell radii from the swimm...

  13. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders;

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  14. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-12-15

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism's size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the temperature-dependent physical properties of water (e.g. viscosity) in determining swimming speed is poorly understood. Here we propose a semi-mechanistic model to describe how biological rates, size and the physics of the environment contribute to the temperature dependency of microbial swimming speed. Data on the swimming speed and size of a predatory protist and its protist prey were collected and used to test our model. Data were collected by manipulating both the temperature and the viscosity (independently of temperature) of the organism's environment. Protists were either cultured in their test environment (for several generations) or rapidly exposed to their test environment to assess their ability to adapt or acclimate to treatments. Both biological rates and the physics of the environment were predicted to and observed to contribute to the swimming speed of protists. Body size was not temperature dependent, and protists expressed some ability to acclimate to changes in either temperature or viscosity. Overall, using our parameter estimates and novel model, we are able to suggest that 30 to 40% (depending on species) of the response in swimming speed associated with a reduction in temperature from 20 to 5°C is due to viscosity. Because encounter rates between protist predators and their prey are determined by swimming speed, temperature- and viscosity-dependent swimming speeds are likely to result in temperature- and viscosity-dependent trophic interactions. PMID:21113003

  15. Going for a Swim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Savannah

    2016-01-01

    Is anything more refreshing than going for a nice, long swim? The math scenarios presented in this article will take the reader back to hot summer days and remind the reader what a cool dip in the water feels like. Solving these problems is enjoyable and encourages the solver to think of the many ways that math is all around--even in the middle of…

  16. Woman Swims Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Figge pressed her toes into the Caribbean sand, excited and exhausted as she touched land this week for the first time in almost a month. Reaching a beach in Trinidad, she became the first woman on record to s,Mm across the Atlantic Ocean-a dream she'd had since the early 1960s, when a stormy trans-Atlantic flight got her thinking she could wear a life vest and swim the rest of the way if needed.

  17. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, C P

    1996-01-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. PMID:8856962

  18. Radon in Austria: metrology and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of radon mitigation and precaution standards needs continuously scientific attendance and research networking on international level. Otherwise the radon issue could degrade easily to a simplified techno-economical exercise without sustainable results in public health. In this paper the radon investigations in Austria which have been carried out in the last 20 years and the applied methods and derived standards for mitigation and precaution at home and workplaces are discussed. Future strategies, scientific and social necessities to solve the radon problem are outlined comprehensively. Strategies future research in Austria are discussed in consideration of the medium-term perspective of the European radiation protection. (orig.)

  19. Water droplets also swim!

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Marjolein; Izri, Ziane; Michelin, Sébastien; Dauchot, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Recently there has been a surge of interest in producing artificial swimmers. One possible path is to produce self-propelling droplets in a liquid phase. The self-propulsion often relies on complex mechanisms at the droplet interface, involving chemical reactions and the adsorption-desorption kinetics of the surfactant. Here, we report the spontaneous swimming of droplets in a very simple system: water droplets immersed in an oil-surfactant medium. The swimmers consist of pure water, with no additional chemical species inside: water droplets also swim! The swimming is very robust: the droplets are able to transport cargo such as large colloids, salt crystals, and even cells. In this talk we discuss the origin of the spontaneous motion. Water from the droplet is solubilized by the reverse micellar solution, creating a concentration gradient of swollen reverse micelles around each droplet. By generalizing a recently proposed instability mechanism, we explain how spontaneous motion emerges in this system at sufficiently large Péclet number. Our water droplets in an oil-surfactant medium constitute the first experimental realization of spontaneous motion of isotropic particles driven by this instability mechanism.

  20. Influence of mobile games on the process of teaching of students that can not swim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelnykov G.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considered direction in teaching of students to swimming in terms 25 meter pool. 30 students took part in an experiment. The place of mobile games in the process of teaching of novices is certain. Information of results of testing of level of physical preparedness of students is presented. Positive influence of mobile games on the process of mastering of skills of swimming and co-operations on water is marked. Forms and methods of mastering of skills and conduct in water are offered. The motive mode and forms of organization of educational process of not able to swim students is recommended.

  1. Current status of operation and utilization of the Dalat research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW swimming pool type reactor using the Soviet WWR-SM fuel assembly with 36% enrichment of U-235. It was upgraded from the USA 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor. The first criticality of the renovated reactor was in November 1983 and its regular operation at nominal power of 500 kW has been since March 1984. The DNRR is operated mainly in continuous runs of 100 hrs, once every 4 weeks, for radioisotope production, neutron activation analyses and research purposes. The remaining time between two continuous runs is devoted to maintenance activities and also to short run for physics experiments and training purpose. From the first start-up to the end of December 2002, it totaled about 24,700 hrs of operation and the total energy released was 490 MWd. After 10 years of operation with the core of 89-fuel assembly configuration, in April 1994, the first refueling work was done and the 100-fuel assembly configuration was set-up. The second fuel reloading was executed in March 2002. At present time, the working configuration of the reactor core consists of 104 fuel assemblies. This fuel reloading will ensure efficient exploitation of the reactor for about 3 years with 1200-1300 hrs per year at nominal power. The current status of operation and utilization and some activities related to the reactor core management of the DNRR are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  3. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  4. Shape optimization of the caudal fin of the three-dimensional self-propelled swimming fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, ZhiQiang; Wu, ChuiJie

    2013-02-01

    Shape optimization of the caudal fin of the three-dimensional self-propelled swimming fish, to increase the swimming efficiency and the swimming speed and control the motion direction more easily, is investigated by combining optimization algorithms, unsteady computational fluid dynamics and dynamic control in this study. The 3D computational fluid dynamics package contains the immersed boundary method, volume of fluid method, the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method and the control strategy of fish swimming. Through shape optimizations of various swimming speeds, the results show that the optimal caudal fins of different swimming modes are not exactly the same shape. However, the optimal fish of high swimming speed, whose caudal fin shape is similar to the crescent, also have higher efficiency and better maneuverability than the other optimal bionic fish at low and moderate swimming speeds. Finally, the mechanisms of vorticity creation of different optimal bionic fish are studied by using boundary vorticity-flux theory, and three-dimensional wake structures of self-propelled swimming of these fish are comparatively analyzed. The study of vortex dynamics reveals the nature of efficient swimming of the 3D bionic fish with the lunate caudal fin.

  5. Radical prostatectomies in Austria, 1997–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatzl Georg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of PSA testing in Austria led to a steep increase of the incidence of prostate cancer. We want to present the course of the number of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer in Austria since 1997, and set these numbers in relation to the total of radical prostatectomies (with resection of lymph nodes in the same time period. All numbers were retrieved from health statistics of Statistics Austria. The report period of cancer cases and of RPE comprises the years 1997–2004. All calculations were performed for totals as well as for 5-year age groups (40–89 years of age. Findings The number of prostate cancer cases rose from 1997 to 2004 by 35%, while the number of RPE rose by 94% in the same time period. The proportion of RPE in relation to new cases rose from 41% in 1997 to 59% in 2004. Conclusion A slight decrease of prostate cancer mortality can already be observed in Austria, but the question of over-treatment still awaits analysis.

  6. CPAFFC Agricultural Delegation Visits Germany and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Germany-China Friendship Association-Stuttgart (GCFA-Stuttgart) and the Austrian-Chinese Friendship Association (ACFA),a delegation for studying agriculture composed of members from localities organized and sent by the CPAFFC paid a visit to Germany and Austria from June 11 to 23. The delegation visited farms and

  7. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  8. Early Childhood Intervention and Inclusion in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretis, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…

  9. Oligoarthritis caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Ladstatter, Stefan; Schotta, Anna M; Reiter, Michael; Pomberger, Gerhard; Stanek, Gerold

    2015-06-01

    A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions.

  10. The New Member States: Austria, Finland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetschy, Janine; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Difficult Metamorphosis of the Social 'Models' of the Nordic Countries" (Goetschy); "Swedish Training System" (Ottersten); "Features of Vocational Education in Finland" (Kyro); "Boom in Apprenticeship Training in Finland" (Vartiainen); "Vocational Training in Austria" (Riemer); "Reforms in the Vocational Education and Training Systems of…

  11. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  12. EDUCATIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TURKEY AND AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati DEMİR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Turkey (Ottoman Empire and Austria started nearly 500 years ago. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the educational relationship began to concentrate. After 1850, Austrian scientists and teachers have made valuable services at educational institutions for Ottoman Empire. When archival documents had evaluated, it was understood that some of Ottoman citizens had completed their education at Austrian schools. As far as we know, Austrian teachers and clergy in Ottoman lands established fifteen schools especially in the 20th beginning of the century. The most well-established educational institutions of the Austrian School has been preparing to celebrate 130th anniversary in 2012. Other schools closed over time is understood. Austria and Turkey signed "Friendship Treaty" on 10 December 1923 in Ankara. This treaty is important in terms of the first treaty of the Republic of Turkey after Lausanne. Dozens of Austrian scientists and teachers from the first year of the Republic, came to Turkey, and have made services in various educational institutions. This development is too important for Republic of Turkey. Paul Wittek a scientist studied on Turkish language, history and culture, and other scientists specializing in the fields of architecture, such as Clemens Holzmeister makes this development more important for us. Since 1964, labor migration began to Austria from Turkey. The number of Turks in Austria, close to 220.000 due to migration of workers today. Recently, about 30.000 Turkish children living abroad has received their education with so many difficulties. Turkish children studying in Austria has been waiting an agreement between two countries for solutions.

  13. Comparison of Pool/Loop Configurations in the JAEA feasibility study 1999-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FR configuration comparison in the JAEA feasibility study (FS) from 1996 to 2006 has been summarized. A brief description of a FS pool concept and material mass comparison between FS pool and loop concepts have been provided. A shot review of pool designs has also been provided showing the FS pool concept has the most compact reactor vessel diameter. (author)

  14. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor container has a suppression chamber partitioned by concrete side walls, a reactor pedestal and a diaphragm floor. A plurality of partitioning walls are disposed in circumferential direction each at an interval inside the suppression chamber, so that independent chambers in a state being divided into plurality are formed inside the suppression chamber. The partition walls are formed from the bottom portion of the suppression chamber up to the diaphragm floor to isolate pool water in a divided state. Operation platforms are formed above the suppression chamber and connected to an access port. Upon conducting maintenance, inspection or repairing, a pump is disposed in the independent chamber to transfer pool water therein to one or a plurality of other independent chambers to make it vacant. (I.N.)

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent shocks exerted on a vent head due to pool-swell caused within a pressure suppression chamber (disposed in a torus configuration around the dry well) upon loss of coolant accident in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The following relationship is established between the volume V (m3) of a dry well and the ruptured opening area A (m2) at the boundary expected upon loss of coolant accident: V >= 30340 (m) x A Then, the volume of the dry well is made larger than the ruptured open area, that is, the steam flow rate of leaking coolants upon loss of coolant accident to decrease the pressure rise in the dry well at the initial state where loss of coolant accident is resulted. Accordingly, the pressure of non-compressive gases jetted out from the lower end of the downcomer to the pool water is decreased to suppress the pool-swell. (Ikeda, J.)

  16. Application of nanofiltration for pool water treatment: Assessing reduction potential of disinfection by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Disinfection of water is mandatory for swimming pools. Most of them use Chlorine or its derivates for that purpose. When entering the pool bathers bring substances such as sweat, hairs and cosmetics that react with disinfectants and form disinfection by-products (DBPs) which are known to be harmful for human health. In order to avoid the formation of these undesirable products new technologies for pool water treatment must be developed or alternatively a control system of the DBPs in the p...

  17. Determination of local boiling in light water reactors by correlation of the neutron noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author)

  18. Study on air carry-under by water jet plunging into water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When liquid flows down into a liquid pool as a jet flow or a film flow on a wall, it sometimes accompanies gas into the pool. If the penetrated gas drifts up and leaves from the pool surface, the phenomenon is harmless. However, when the pool is highly agitated or strong flow exists from the pool, the mingled gas in liquid is carried out from the pool. The mixed gas in the coolant may reach the reactor core such as the light water reactor or the fast bleeder reactor. It severely affects the reactivity. Thus, the carry-under of gas into the water pool by the liquid down-flow is important issue for nuclear reactors. In the present study, air carry-under into the water pool is examined in visually approach. (author)

  19. Modeling evaporation from spent nuclear fuel storage pools: A diffusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Bruce Robert

    Accurate prediction of evaporative losses from light water reactor nuclear power plant (NPP) spent fuel storage pools (SFPs) is important for activities ranging from sizing of water makeup systems during NPP design to predicting the time available to supply emergency makeup water following severe accidents. Existing correlations for predicting evaporation from water surfaces are only optimized for conditions typical of swimming pools. This new approach modeling evaporation as a diffusion process has yielded an evaporation rate model that provided a better fit of published high temperature evaporation data and measurements from two SFPs than other published evaporation correlations. Insights from treating evaporation as a diffusion process include correcting for the effects of air flow and solutes on evaporation rate. An accurate modeling of the effects of air flow on evaporation rate is required to explain the observed temperature data from the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 SFP during the 2011 loss of cooling event; the diffusion model of evaporation provides a significantly better fit to this data than existing evaporation models.

  20. Optimality Principles of Undulatory Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Bale, Rahul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2015-11-01

    A number of dimensionless quantities derived from a fish's kinematic and morphological parameters have been used to describe the hydrodynamics of swimming. In particular, body/caudal fin swimmers have been found to swim within a relatively narrow range of these quantities in nature, e.g., Strouhal number or the optimal specific wavelength. It has been hypothesized or shown that these constraints arise due to maximization of swimming speed, efficiency, or cost of transport in certain domains of this large dimensionless parameter space. Using fully resolved simulations of undulatory patterns, we investigate the existence of various optimality principles in fish swimming. Using scaling arguments, we relate various dimensionless parameters to each other. Based on these findings, we make design recommendations on how kinematic parameters for a swimming robot or vehicle should be chosen. This work is supported by NSF Grants CBET-0828749, CMMI-0941674, CBET-1066575 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1324585.

  1. Effect of different salt adaptation strategies on the microbial diversity, activity, and settling of nitrifying sludge in sequencing batch reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassin, J.P.; Kleerebezem, R.; Muyzer, G.; Rosado, A.S.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Dezotti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of salinity on the activity of nitrifying bacteria, floc characteristics, and microbial community structure accessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis techniques was investigated. Two sequencing batch reactors (SRB1

  2. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  3. The importance of hydropower in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the importance of hydropower-based power generation in Austria as a clean and emission-free source of electricity. The contribution made to total electricity generation is examined and figures are quoted. Hydropower is provided from both storage dams and run-of-river power stations such as those on the river Danube. The use of the various types of hydropower in connection with their economic optimisation, for example for the supply of valuable peak power, is discussed. The promotion of hydropower within the scope of European climate-protection efforts is examined. Projects concerning the augmentation of hydropower capacities are discussed and three exemplary projects are briefly described. Finally, the situation in Austria is compared with that to be found in neighbouring Switzerland.

  4. Occupational radiation exposure in Austria in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Radiation Protection at the Research Center Seibersdorf operates since over three years an automatic TLD-personnel monitoring service comprising some 13000 radiation workers all over Austria who are generally monitored during monthly periods according to radiation legislation. All dose readings obtained by the system are stored on computer in a central dose register. Electronic data handling techniques can easily be used to obtain statistical information on radiation exposure for different user branches. The following data include distribution of monthly dose values for different branches, average monthly dose readings and occupational exposure of different groups of age. Due to the very large number of individual dose readings a statistically significant view of the occupational radiation exposure in Austria during 1979 can be obtained. (author)

  5. On burst-and-coast swimming performance in fish-like locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burst-and-coast swimming performance in fish-like locomotion is studied via two-dimensional numerical simulation. The numerical method used is the collocated finite-volume adaptive Cartesian cut-cell method developed previously. The NACA00xx airfoil shape is used as an equilibrium fish-body form. Swimming in a burst-and-coast style is computed assuming that the burst phase is composed of a single tail-beat. Swimming efficiency is evaluated in terms of the mass-specific cost of transport instead of the Froude efficiency. The effects of the Reynolds number (based on the body length and burst time), duty cycle and fineness ratio (the body length over the largest thickness) on swimming performance (momentum capacity and the mass-specific cost of transport) are studied quantitatively. The results lead to a conclusion consistent with previous findings that a larval fish seldom swims in a burst-and-coast style. Given mass and swimming speed, a fish needs the least cost if it swims in a burst-and-coast style with a fineness ratio of 8.33. This energetically optimal fineness ratio is larger than that derived from the simple hydromechanical model proposed in literature. The calculated amount of energy saving in burst-and-coast swimming is comparable with the real-fish estimation in the literature. Finally, the predicted wake-vortex structures of both continuous and burst-and-coast swimming are biologically relevant.

  6. Full case study report: Biohof Achleitner - Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Furtschegger, Christoph; Schermer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Biohof Achleitner is located in the fertile Eferding basin along the Danube in Upper Austria. The business has grown significantly in the last 15 to 20 years and is a good example of the growth potential of organic farming through diversification into several business branches and cooperation with other farms. In 1986 Mr. Achleitner and his wife took over the 20 hectare vegetable farm from his parents. In 1990 they converted fully to organic farming. Today, apart from their own agricultural p...

  7. Austria's Potential for Trade in Services

    OpenAIRE

    V. Brandicourt; Schwellnus, C.; Woerz, Julia

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the potential for trade in services in a 2-step approach using a gravity model for a sample of bilateral service trade flows in individual service categories between 65 countries over the period 2000 to 2005. In particular, we focus on the Austrian economy's potential for untapped trade in services which appears to be substantial. While Austria's travel services are reaching their potential, there is still ample room for exports of commercial services. Our analysis further points ...

  8. Analysis by the Monte Carlo method of doses around the pool of storage of the control rods irradiated in a BWR reactor; Analisis mediante el metodo de Monte Carlo de las dosis alrededor de la piscina de almacenamiento de las barras de control irradiadas en un reactror BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.

    2011-07-01

    The control rods of a boiling water reactor (BWR) are subject to a neutron flux and thus become activated during their stay in the reactor core. Activation occurs especially in the stainless steel components and impurities. The activity generated results in a dose around the bar, while it le unimportant in the reactor, but to be taken into account when removed f ron it. The bars drawn are stored on hangers placed in the storage pools of spent fuel f ron the plant. Each hanger 12 accommodates control rods and are arranged so that at least three meters of water abode the heads of the control rods. The dose received by potentially exposed workers who are in the vicinity of the storage must be calculated to ensure adequate protection of the came. This dose can be decreased significantly by changing the arrangement of the bars on hangers.

  9. Optimally swimming Stokesian robots

    CERN Document Server

    Alouges, François; Heltai, Luca; Lefebvre, Aline; Merlet, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    We study self propelled stokesian robots composed of assemblies of balls, in dimensions 2 and 3, and prove that they are able to control their position and orientation. This is a result of controllability, and its proof relies on applying Chow's theorem in an analytic framework, similarly to what has been done in [3] for an axisymmetric system swimming along the axis of symmetry. However, we simplify drastically the analyticity result given in [3] and apply it to a situation where more complex swimmers move either in a plane or in three-dimensional space, hence experiencing also rotations. We then focus our attention on energetically optimal strokes, which we are able to compute numerically. Some examples of computed optimal strokes are discussed in detail.

  10. Edificio en terraza - Viena (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörle, E.

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available This building is located on the side of a hill, at Modling, hence the curious stepped up arrangement of the design, to adapt itself to the nature of the site. There are 30 dwellings whose useful areas vary between 80 and 150 m2, and additionally 5 apartments of 50 to 85 m2. Each has its own terrace and artificial garden, also parking space. The general style is sober, both inside and in its external aspect.El conjunto está situado en la ladera de un monte cuajado de flores amarillas, en Modling, adoptando esta curiosa forma escalonada en función de la fisonomía del solar elegido. Hay un total de treinta viviendas con superficies útiles de 80 a 150 m2; cinco apartamentos de 50 a 75 m2 útiles, cada uno, con su correspondiente terraza ajardinada, garaje y aparcamiento, además de otros edificios similares, todos ellos tratados con gran dignidad interior y exterior.

  11. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  12. Treatment of acromegaly patients with risk-adapted single or fractionated stereotactic high-precision radiotherapy. High local control and low toxicity in a pooled series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate a prospectively initiated two-center protocol of risk-adapted stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with acromegaly. In total 35 patients (16 men/19 women, mean age 54 years) were prospectively included in a treatment protocol of SRS [planning target volume (PTV) < 4 ccm, > 2 mm to optic pathways = low risk] or SRT (PTV ≥ 4 ccm, ≤ 2 mm to optic pathways = high risk). The mean tumor volume was 3.71 ccm (range: 0.11-22.10 ccm). Based on the protocol guidelines, 21 patients were treated with SRS and 12 patients with SRT, 2 patients received both consecutively. The median follow-up (FU) reached 8 years with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 87.3 % [confidence interval (CI): 70.8-95.6 %] and 5-year local control rate of 97.1 % (CI: 83.4-99.8 %). Almost 80 % (28/35) presented tumor shrinkage during FU. Endocrinological cure was achieved in 23 % and IGF-1 normalization with reduced medication was achieved in 40 % of all patients. An endocrinological response was generally achieved within the first 3 years, but endocrinological cure can require more than 8 years. A new adrenocorticotropic hypopituitarism occurred in 13 patients (46.4 %). A new visual field disorder and a new oculomotor palsy occurred in 1 patient, respectively. Patients with occurrence of visual/neurological impairments had a longer FU (p = 0.049). Our SRS/SRT protocol proved to be safe and successful in terms of tumor control and protection of the visual system. The timing and rate of endocrine improvements are difficult to predict. One has to accept an unavoidable rate of additional adrenocorticotropic hypopituitarism in the long term. (orig.)

  13. Radiation protection education and training and training for the authorized physician in Austria; Strahlenschutzausbildungen und Ausbildung zum Ermaechtigten Arzt in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwirth, Stefan [Seibersdorf Laboratories (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    Austria has a long tradition with respect to radiation protection education and training. Task forces of the Austrian army are trained since 1963 with respect radiation protection. In 1970 training courses for authorized radiation protection experts in industry, medicine and research reactor were established.

  14. Significant problems of swimming in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Kachurovs'kyy D.O.

    2009-01-01

    The variants of decision of problems of swimming are considered in the article. Are presented prognoses of possible results. Complex approach is offered in the decision of the marked problems. Directions are rotined forming for the citizens of vitally important skill of swimming. The variants of decision of problem of teaching swimming of rural population and increase of amount of gettings busy are offered swimming. Traditions of domestic rest are considered in swimming complexes. The ways of...

  15. Topological swimming in a quantum sea

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.; Gutkin, B.; Oaknin, D. H.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a quantum theory of swimming for swimmers that are small relative to the coherence length of the medium. The quantum swimming equation is derived from known results on quantum pumps. For a one-dimensional Fermi gas at zero temperature we find that swimming is topological: The distance covered in one swimming stroke is quantized in half integer multiples of the Fermi wave length. Moreover, one can swim without dissipation.

  16. Theory of swimming filaments in viscoelastic media

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Henry C.; Powers, Thomas R.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the swimming of sperm in the non-Newtonian fluids of the female mammalian reproductive tract, we examine the swimming of filaments in the nonlinear viscoelastic Upper Convected Maxwell model. We obtain the swimming velocity and hydrodynamic force exerted on an infinitely long cylinder with prescribed beating pattern. We use these results to examine the swimming of a simplified sliding-filament model for a sperm flagellum. Viscoelasticity tends to decrease swimming speed, and chan...

  17. The science of pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.

    1995-10-01

    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  18. Risk-adapted single or fractionated stereotactic high-precision radiotherapy in a pooled series of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. High local control and low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, Jan Patrick [MediClin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Meyer, Almuth [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Endocrinology, Erfurt (Germany); Pintea, Bogdan [University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Gerlach, Ruediger [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Neurosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Surber, Gunnar; Hamm, Klaus [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Radiosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Lammering, Guido [MediClin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University of Duesseldorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate a prospectively initiated two-center protocol of risk-adapted single-fraction (SRS) or fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with nonsecretory pituitary adenomas (NSA). A total of 73 NSA patients (39 men/34 women) with a median age of 62 years were prospectively included in a treatment protocol of SRS [planning target volume (PTV) < 4 ccm, > 2 mm to optic pathways = low risk] or SRT (PTV ≥ 4 ccm, ≤ 2 mm to optic pathways = high risk) in two Novalis registered centers. Mean tumor volume was 7.02 ccm (range 0.58-57.29 ccm). Based on the protocol guidelines, 5 patients were treated with SRS and 68 patients with SRT. Median follow-up (FU) reached 5 years with 5-year overall survival (OS) of 90.4 % (CI 80.2-95 %) and 5-year local control and progression-free survival rates of 100 % (CI 93.3-100 %) and 90.4 % (CI 80.2-95 %), respectively. A post-SRS/SRT new visual disorder occurred in 2 patients (2.7 %), a new oculomotor nerve palsy in one pre-irradiated patient, in 3 patients (4.1 %) a pre-existing visual disorder improved. New complete hypopituitarism occurred in 4 patients (13.8 %) and in 3 patients (25 %) with pre-existing partial hypopituitarism. Pituitary function in 26 % of patients retained normal. Patients with tumor shrinkage (65.75 %) had a significantly longer FU (p = 0.0093). Multivariate analysis confirmed correlation of new hypopituitarism with duration of FU (p = 0.008) and correlation of new hypopituitarism and tumor volume (p = 0.023). No significant influence factors for occurrence of visual disorders were found. Our SRS/SRT protocol proved to be safe and successful in terms of tumor control and protection of the visual system, especially for large tumors located close to optic pathways. (orig.) [German] Evaluation eines prospektiv angelegten Behandlungsprotokolls einer risikoadaptierten Radiochirurgie (SRS) oder stereotaktischen Radiotherapie (SRT) von Patienten mit hormoninaktiven Hypophysenadenomen

  19. Treatment of acromegaly patients with risk-adapted single or fractionated stereotactic high-precision radiotherapy. High local control and low toxicity in a pooled series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, Jan Patrick [Mediclin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Kinfe, Thomas; Pintea, Bogdan [University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Meyer, Almuth [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Endocrinology, Erfurt (Germany); Gerlach, Ruediger [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Neurosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Surber, Gunnar; Hamm, Klaus [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Radiosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Lammering, Guido [Mediclin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University of Duesseldorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2015-01-10

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate a prospectively initiated two-center protocol of risk-adapted stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with acromegaly. In total 35 patients (16 men/19 women, mean age 54 years) were prospectively included in a treatment protocol of SRS [planning target volume (PTV) < 4 ccm, > 2 mm to optic pathways = low risk] or SRT (PTV ≥ 4 ccm, ≤ 2 mm to optic pathways = high risk). The mean tumor volume was 3.71 ccm (range: 0.11-22.10 ccm). Based on the protocol guidelines, 21 patients were treated with SRS and 12 patients with SRT, 2 patients received both consecutively. The median follow-up (FU) reached 8 years with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 87.3 % [confidence interval (CI): 70.8-95.6 %] and 5-year local control rate of 97.1 % (CI: 83.4-99.8 %). Almost 80 % (28/35) presented tumor shrinkage during FU. Endocrinological cure was achieved in 23 % and IGF-1 normalization with reduced medication was achieved in 40 % of all patients. An endocrinological response was generally achieved within the first 3 years, but endocrinological cure can require more than 8 years. A new adrenocorticotropic hypopituitarism occurred in 13 patients (46.4 %). A new visual field disorder and a new oculomotor palsy occurred in 1 patient, respectively. Patients with occurrence of visual/neurological impairments had a longer FU (p = 0.049). Our SRS/SRT protocol proved to be safe and successful in terms of tumor control and protection of the visual system. The timing and rate of endocrine improvements are difficult to predict. One has to accept an unavoidable rate of additional adrenocorticotropic hypopituitarism in the long term. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung dieser Arbeit ist die Evaluation eines prospektiv angelegten Behandlungsprotokolls einer risikoadaptierten stereotaktischen Radiochirurgie (SRS) oder stereotaktischen Radiotherapie (SRT) von Patienten mit Akromegalie aus 2 Zentren. Insgesamt 35 Patienten (16

  20. Safe partial decommissioning of APSARA reactor: a radiological safety experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsara, India's first nuclear research reactor, operated at 400 KW for 53 y, is a swimming pool type reactor with enriched uranium fuel and demineralised water in pool acting as coolant, moderator, reflector and shielding. The average neutron flux available in the core was around 1012 neutrons/cm2/sec. It was shut down for partial decommissioning and to build a modified Apsara reactor. The proposal of decommissioning was prepared by a Task Force, approved by various Safety Committees with an estimate of dose budget. The shipment in specially fabricated flask and on the spot guidance resulted in reduction of dose consumption in fuel transfer. All jobs were planned, discussed, reviewed and approved in ALARA committee which resulted in completing different jobs in lower person-mSv than estimated values. The characterisation of components showed the major contributing radioisotopes were 60Co, 137Cs and 65Zn with traces of activity due to 54Mn, 59Fe and 124Sb. The collective TLD dose consumed for the entire work was 21.69 person-mSv (DRD dose =23.50 person-mSv) which was 15% compared to estimated dose budget 160 person-mSv. Dose budget was estimated as per maintenance jobs carried out in year 1985. However radiation levels were less during current partial decommissioning operation. The proper planning of work with radiological safety coverage and ALARA discussion could reduce the collective dose consumption by a large factor compared to estimated dose. The characterization of in core components is highly useful from active waste disposal point of view and in prediction and minimization of active components, in modified Apsara reactor

  1. Amoeboid swimming in a channel

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, W -F; Thiébaud, M; Rafaï, S; Peyla, P; Lai, M -C; Misbah, C

    2016-01-01

    Several micro-organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or spermatozoa, use flagellum or cilium activity to swim in a fluid. Many other organisms use rather ample shape deformation, described as amoeboid, to propel themselves, either crawling on a substrate or swimming. Many eukaryotic cells were believed to require an underlying substratum to migrate (crawl) by using ample membrane deformation (like blebbing). There is now an increasing evidence that a large variety of cells (including those of the immune system) can migrate without the assistance of focal adhesion, and can perform swimming as efficiently as crawling. This paper deals with a detailed analysis of amoeboid swimming in a confined fluid, by modeling the swimmer as an inextensible membrane deploying local active forces. The swimmer exhibits a rich behavior: it can settle into a straight trajectory in the channel, or can navigate from one wall to the other, depending on confinement. Furthermore, the nature of the swimmer is found to be affected by the c...

  2. Swim pressure of active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  3. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  4. Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool; Determinacion de la rapidez de exposion en el nivel 49.90 del edificio del reactor por la disminucion en el nivel de agua de la alberca de combustible gastado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C., E-mail: zoedelfin@gmail.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Km 44.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91476 Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)

  5. Numerical simulation of non-steady state neutron kinetics of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Julia; Boeck, Helmuth

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for numerical simulations of non-steady states of the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna, Austria. The primary focus of this work has been the development of an algorithm which provides time series of integral neutron flux after reactivity changes introduced by perturbations without the usage of thermal-hydraulic / neutronic numerical code systems for the TRIGA reactor in Vienna, Austria. The algorithm presented takes into account both external reactivity changes...

  6. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  7. Status and some safety philosophies of the China advanced research reactor CARR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzheng Yuan [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China). Reactor Engineering Research and Design Dept.

    2001-07-01

    The existing two research reactors, HWRR (heavy water research reactor) and SPR (swimming pool reactor), have been operated by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) since, respectively, 1958 and 1964, and are both in extending service and facing the aging problem. It is expected that they will be out of service successively in the beginning decade of the 21{sup st} century. A new, high performance and multipurpose research reactor called China advanced research reactor (CARR) will replace these two reactors. This new reactor adopts the concept of inverse neutron trap compact core structure with light water as coolant and heavy water as the outer reflector. Its design goal is as follows: under the nuclear power of 60MW, the maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux in peripheral D{sub 2}O reflector not less than 8 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. s while in central experimental channel, if the central cell to be replaced by an experimental channel, the corresponding value not less than 1 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}. s. The main applications for this research reactor will cover RI production, neutron scattering experiments, NAA and its applications, neutron photography, NTD for monocrystaline silicon and applications on reactor engineering technology. By the end of 1999, the preliminary design of CARR was completed, then the draft of preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) was submitted to the relevant authority at the end of 2000 for being reviewed. Now, the CARR project has entered the detail design phase and safety reviewing procedure for obtaining the construction permit from the relevant licensing authority. This paper will only briefly introduce some aspects of safety philosophy of CARR design and PSAR. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  9. Products and Services of Research Reactor ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) owns a new material testing research reactor (MTR) called ETRR-2. This reactor was commissioned in 1997 and is a swimming pool type using plate type Fuel elements with 20% enrichment. It is cooled and moderated by light water and uses beryllium as a reflector. Its maximum thermal power is 22 MW, with maximum thermal neutron flux of 2.7×l014 cm-2s-1 and can be operated up to one cycle, around 18 days, for the high fluence necessary for applying long irradiations for peaceful utilization and a wide range of applications. The reactor is a multipurpose utilization, containing different facilities for applying neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production (e.g., Ir-131, Co-60, P-32, Mo-99, etc.), neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of silicon ingots of 12.5 cm diameter and 30 cm in length, neutron radiography education for university students, research for scientists, and training for new operators. (author)

  10. Centro escolar federal en Bludenz/Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehrer, Manfred

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Este centro escolar, considerado como uno de los más interesantes de Austria, se compone de cuatro cuerpos en los que se distribuyen, respectivamente, las escuelas, el gimnasio, la vivienda del conserje y el local de transformadores. En su construcción hay que destacar su adecuada flexibilidad, que permite dar cabida a las distintas funciones que en él se desarrollan, y la correcta adaptación del gran volumen edificado a las especiales características urbanas y arquitectónicas del ámbito circundante.

  11. eHealth Terminology Management in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seerainer, Carina; Sabutsch, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to establishing and operating a nationwide personal health record (PHR), effective and efficient terminology management including the development, administration, maintenance and publishing of terminologies is a precondition for semantic interoperability. In the Austrian national patient health record "ELGA" all relevant terminologies are provided and distributed by means of a CTS2-conformant terminology server. In the following article, issues and lessons learned from terminology management in a large-scale eHealth project are presented. Experience has proved the necessity of a national authority for medical terminology management in Austria. PMID:27577418

  12. The use and evolution of the CEA research reactors; Utilisation et evolution des reacteurs de recherche du C.E.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossillon, F.; Chauvez, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors successively examine the different research reactors in use in the French C.E.A. Nuclear Centres. They trace briefly their histories, describing how they have been used up to the present, and how they have been adapted to changes in programme by means of certain modifications. They also describe the reasons which have led to the elaboration of the project for the new reactor Osiris. Zoe, the oldest reactor in the CEA, has been in service in the Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses since 1948. It is used mainly for measurements of absorption cross-sections in graphite, and for various short irradiations which do not require high fluxes. The reactor EL 2, in service since 1952, was used for the first studies on gas cooling. It has also been widely used for the production of radioisotopes and for a large number of experiments in the fields of physics, metallurgy and physical chemistry. The ageing of certain elements of the reactor has led to the decision to close it down in the near future The reactor EL 3 has been widely used for experiments in physics and in the investigation of fuels. The possibilities of the reactor in fast neutron irradiations will be considerably improved by the adoption of a new type of core (the 'snow crystal' structure). Triton-I, a 2 MW swimming-pool reactor, is used for the most part for fast neutron and gamma irradiations. The modifications being carried out on it at present should result in an increase in the power of the reactor up to 4 or 5 MW. In a neighbouring compartment is housed Triton-II which is of the same general structure, as Triton-I, but whose maximum power is 100 kW. Triton-II is used solely for studies on shielding. Melusine, a 2 MW swimming-pool reactor, has been in use in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble since 1959. It has supported a very high programme concerned mainly with solid state physics, fundamental research into refractory fissile materials and special graphites, and the study of

  13. Attendance at chlorinated indoor pools and risk of asthma in adult recreational swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marcello; Schenk, Kai; Mantovani, William; Papadopoulou, Christina; Posenato, Chiara; Ferrari, Pietro; Poli, Albino; Tardivo, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    To study a potential correlation between attendance at chlorinated indoor pools and the onset of asthma in adult leisure swimmers. 1136 adult swimmers attending indoor pools in the city of Verona completed a modified ECRHS questionnaire. The cumulative time spent in the pools was calculated on the basis of the mean frequency and duration of weekly swim activity for every year of attendance. The median value (320 h) was used to divide participants into 2 groups. Other questions concerned the family history of allergies, the medical diagnosis and the onset of asthma. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the study group was compared with that of a general population sample. New-onset asthma, first identified at least 12 months after the start of regular pool attendance, was more prevalent among swimmers characterized by a higher cumulative pool attendance (23/514, 4.5%) than in swimmers who were attending indoor pools less frequently (2/508, 0.4%; ratio 11.1, 95% CI 2.6-47.4). The statistical analysis revealed an independent association between the cumulative lifetime hours spent in indoor swimming pools and new onset asthma (relative risk 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07). Respiratory symptoms were less frequent in the study population versus a general population sample (prevalence ratio 0.26-0.68). Attendance at chlorinated indoor pools may constitute a risk factor for developing asthma in leisure adult swimmers. Future research and efforts should aim at improving disinfection techniques, hygiene and ventilation in indoor swimming pools in order to provide an unobjectionable ambient for salubrious swim activities. PMID:21257346

  14. Spent fuel situation at the ASTRA Seibersdorf and the TRIGA Vienna research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades Austria operated three research reactors, the 10 MW ASTRA reactor at Seibersdorf, the 250 kW TRIGA reactor at the Atomic Institut Vienna and the 1 kW Argonaut reactor at the Technical University in Graz. Since the shut down on July 31st, 1999 and decommissioning of the ASTRA reactor and the shut down of the ARGONAUT reactor Graz on July 31, 2004 only the TRIGA reactor remains operational. The MTR fuel elements of the ASTRA reactor have been shipped in spring 2001 to Savannah River and the fuel plates from the ARGONAUT reactor Graz in December 2005 under the DOE fuel return programme. (author)

  15. 77 FR 43857 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 12, 2012 (77 FR 34997). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Austria and China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized Tariff...

  16. Enterprises of China and Austria to Find More Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Austria is a technological powerhouse which owns multiple world leading technologies. Furthermore, it is located in the center of the Europe, so Chinese companies which enter Austrian market can easily tap the market in other European countries."Mr. Dr. Heinz Fischer, President of Austria spoke at the Sino-Austrian Economic Forum on January 20.

  17. Chinese Ancient Coins Academic Exchange Delegation Visits France and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>To further strengthen nongovernmental cultural exchanges,a Chinese delegation visited France and Austria from September 23 to 30for academic exchange on ancient coin.They had fruitful exchanges with coin experts of the two countries at the invitation of the France-China Culture and Art Exchange Centre and the Austria-China Friendship Association for Culture and Art Exchange.

  18. Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the Republic of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters, dated 8 January 1999 and 27 January 1999 respectively, between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Austria and the IAEA, constituting a supplementary agreement t o the Agreement between the Republic of Austria and the IAEA regarding the Headquarters of the IAEA. The aforementioned Agreement entered into force on 8 February 1999

  19. Statistics about torrents in Lower Austria, status from May 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried Lepuschitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data presents analyzed data exports of Austrian torrent and avalanche cadaster (TAC in May 2015. The TAC is developed by Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control. Data are viewed from different aspects and combinations geographically in the area of Lower Austria, a province of Austria.

  20. Validity of ratings of perceived exertion as an index of exercise intensity in swimming training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, T; Ueda, T

    1992-05-01

    The validity of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), proposed by Borg (1962), as an index of exercise intensity in swimming training was discussed based on the following four experiments. Experiment I: VO2 and heart rate (HR) were measured and RPE was asked in ten female and seven male physical education students with different levels of swimming skill performing submaximal and maximal work in tethered swimming. The increases in HR and RPE with increase in %VO2max were fitted well by straight lines with high correlation coefficients of r = 0.957-0.999 and r = 0.893-0.988, respectively. RPE was increased in a linear fashion with increase in HR except for a few subjects. The correlation coefficients for linear regression for individuals were 0.862-0.987. Experiment II: Swimming velocity and HR were measured in four groups with different levels of swimming skill. The breast stroke in a 50-m pool for 5 min at three RPE ratings, i.e., very light (RPE 9), somewhat hard (RPE 13) and very hard (RPE 17) was requested of these groups. In good skilled well trained college swimmers, %HRmax was fairly higher than the RPE at the RPE 9 and RPE 13 levels but coincided with the RPE at the RPE 17 level. In skilled trained physical education students, the HR increased with a corresponding increase in RPE. But in the group with low or lower levels of swimming skill, the HR kept about the same values in spite of the increase in RPE. Experiment III: Two male and six female low skilled physical education students took the swimming training in the swimming pool for 2.0-2.5 hours a day, 6 days a week, for 2 weeks. The students also received the swimming training in the sea which lasted for 2 hours each in the morning and in the afternoon for 6 days. The same RPE test, as mentioned in Experiment II, was done before, during and after swimming training. Mean swimming velocity during and after training was slightly higher than that before training at the RPE 9 and RPE 13 levels, and was much